WorldWideScience

Sample records for 31cl deduced levels

  1. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas i

  2. One-Proton Halo in 31Cl with Relativistic Mean-Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡翔舟; 沈文庆; 任中洲; 蒋维洲; 方德清; 张虎勇; 钟晨; 魏义彬; 郭威; 马余刚; 朱志远

    2002-01-01

    We investigate proton-rich isotopes s1,32Cl using the nonlinear relativistic mean-field model. It is shown that this model can reproduce the properties of these nuclei well. A long tail appears in the calculated proton density distribution of 31 Cl. The results of relativistic density-dependent Hartree theory show a similar trend of tail density distribution. It is strongly suggested that there is a proton halo in 31Cl and it is indicated that there may be a proton skin in 32 Cl. The relation between the proton halo in 31Cl and the new proton magic number is discussed.

  3. Mass of astrophysically relevant $^{31}$Cl and the breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kankainen, A; Eronen, T; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Koponen, J; Moore, I D; Nesterenko, D; Reinikainen, J; Rinta-Antila, S; Voss, A; Äystö, J

    2015-01-01

    The mass of $^{31}$Cl has been measured with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer at the Ion-Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility. The determined mass-excess value, -7034.7(34) keV, is 15 times more precise than in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012. The quadratic form of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the T=3/2 quartet at A=31 fails ($\\chi^2_n$=11.6) and a non-zero cubic term, d=-3.49(44) keV, is obtained when the new mass value is adopted. $^{31}$Cl has been found to be less proton-bound with a proton separation energy of $S_p$=265(4) keV. Energies for the excited states in $^{31}$Cl and the photodisintegration rate on $^{31}$Cl have been determined with significantly improved precision using the new $S_p$ value. The improved photodisintegration rate helps to constrain astrophysical conditions where $^{30}$S can act as a waiting point in the rapid proton capture process in type I x-ray bursts.

  4. Excited states in {sup 31}S studied via beta decay of {sup 31}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kopecky, S.; Moore, I.; Nieminen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Wang, Y.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Fox, S.P.; Jenkins, D.G. [University of York, Department of Physics, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Fynbo, H.O.U. [University of Aarhus, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus (Denmark); Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The beta decay of {sup 31}Cl has been studied with a silicon detector array and a HPGe detector at the IGISOL facility. Previously controversial proton peaks have been confirmed to belong to {sup 31}Cl and a new proton group with an energy of 762(14) keV has been found. Proton captures to this state at 6921(15) keV in {sup 31}S can have an effect on the reaction rate of {sup 30}P(p,{gamma}) in ONe novae. Gamma rays of 1249.1(14) keV and 2234.5(8) keV corresponding to the de-excitations of the first two excited states in {sup 31}S have been measured. No beta-delayed protons from the IAS have been observed. (orig.)

  5. 31Cl beta decay and the 30P31S reaction rate in nova nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; NSCL e12028 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The 30P31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, identifying the origin of presolar nova grains, and calibrating proposed nova thermometers. Unfortunately, this rate is essentially experimentally unconstrained because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonances are not known, due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using a 31Cl beam produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, we have populated several 31S states for study via beta decay and devised a new decay scheme which includes updated beta feedings and gamma branchings as well as multiple states previously unobserved in 31Cl beta decay. Results of this study, including the unambiguous identification due to isospin mixing of a new l = 0 , Jπ = 3 /2+ 31S resonance directly in the middle of the Gamow Window, will be presented, and significance to the evaluation of the 30P31S reaction rate will be discussed. Work supported by U.S. Natl. Sci. Foundation (Grants No. PHY-1102511, PHY-1404442, PHY-1419765, and PHY-1431052); U.S. Dept. of Energy, Natl. Nucl. Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0000979); Nat. Sci. and Eng. Research Council of Canada.

  6. Constructing Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing route for achieving enhanced photocatalytic activity and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Su, Yiguo; Zhao, Qihang; Du, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiliang

    2016-06-01

    This work reports on the construction of a Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the phase transformation from BiOCl to Bi24O31Cl10 could be realized during the thermal annealing process. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) binding energy shifts, Raman spectra and Fouier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the formation of the Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction. The obtained Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl photocatalyst showed excellent conversion efficiency and selectivity toward photocatalytic conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The radical scavengers and electron spin resonance (ESR) results suggested that the photogenerated holes were the dominant reactive species responsible for the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and superoxide radicals were not involved in the photocatalytic process. The in-situ generation of Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction may own superior interfacial contact than the two-step synthesized heterojunctions, which promotes the transfer of photogenerated charge carriers and is favorable for excellent photocatalytic activities.

  7. Electron spectra deduced from solar hard X-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottet, G.; Vilmer, N.

    1984-01-01

    Information regarding the acceleration of electrons in solar flares may be deduced from the hard X-ray emission they produce through bremsstrahlung. From these observations, the electron energy spectra and temporal evolution as well as some characteristics of the ambient medium can be deduced through models. Here, a model of hard X-ray emission is briefly presented and some of the results are discussed in the light of hard X-ray observations and acceleration processes. 18 references.

  8. Deducing Reaction Mechanism: A Guide for Students, Researchers, and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Simon J.; Pitman, Catherine L.; Miller, Alexander J. M.

    2016-01-01

    An introductory guide to deducing the mechanism of chemical reactions is presented. Following a typical workflow for probing reaction mechanism, the guide introduces a wide range of kinetic and mechanistic tools. In addition to serving as a broad introduction to mechanistic analysis for students and researchers, the guide has also been used by…

  9. Applying generalized non deducibility on compositions (GNDC) approach in dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, Stefania; Lenzini, Gabriele; Martinelli, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework where dependable systems can be uniformly modeled and dependable properties analyzed within the Generalized Non Deducibility on Compositions (GNDC), a scheme that has been profitably used in definition and analysis of security properties. Precisely, our framework requ

  10. On the heat impulse method for deducing sap flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Gribben

    1999-01-01

    Speed of sap flow in plants and trees is of interest to botanists and environmentalists because of its connection with the rate of utilisation of nutrients in the soil. An established method uses the transport of heat where an impulsive heat source is introduced along a radial line by a probe in the trunk sapwood. The temperature is monitored, upstream and downstream, and, by solving the heat flow equation in the moving fluid, the sap velocity may be deduced indirectly under so...

  11. A new evolutionary theory deduced mathematically from entropy amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new evolutionary theory which is able to unite the present evolutionary debates is deduced mathematically from the principle of entropy amplification.It suggests that the extensive evolution is driven by the amplification of entropy,or microscopic diversity,and the biological evolution is driven by the amplification of biodiversity.Forming high hierarchies is the most important way for the amplification and brings out spontaneously three kinds of selection.This theory has some positive cultural meanings.

  12. Photon strength function deduced from photon scattering and neutron capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dipole strength function of 78Se and 196Pt are investigated by two different experimental methods, capture of cold neutrons in 77Se and 195Pt and photon scattering experiments on 78Se and 196Pt. Considering the different ways of excitation, the strength function deduced from the results are expected to agree. The report shows the status of the data analysis and presents first preliminary results.

  13. Development of Deduced Protein Database Using Variable Bit Binary Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parvathavarthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of biological data is semi-structured and stored in any one the following file formats such as flat, XML and relational files. These databases must be integrated with the structured data available in relational or object-oriented databases. The sequence matching process is difficult in such file format, because string comparison takes more computation cost and time. To reduce the memory storage size of amino acid sequence in protein database, a novel probability-based variable bit length encoding technique has been introduced. The number of mapping of triplet CODON for every amino acid evaluates the probability value. Then, a binary tree has been constructed to assign unique bits of binary codes to each amino acid. This derived unique bit pattern of amino acid replaces the existing fixed byte representation. The proof of reduced protein database space has been discussed and it is found to be reduced between 42.86 to 87.17%. To validate our method, we have collected few amino acid sequences of major organisms like Sheep, Lambda phage and etc from NCBI and represented them using proposed method. The comparison shows that of minimum and maximum reduction in storage space are 43.30% and 72.86% respectively. In future the biological data can further be reduced by applying lossless compression on this deduced data.

  14. Deducing high-altitude precipitation from glacier mass balance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Rianne H.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Wanders, Niko

    2016-04-01

    The spatial distribution of precipitation in mountainous terrain is generally not well known due to underrepresentation of gauge observations at higher elevations. Precipitation tends to increase with elevation, but since observations are mainly performed in the valleys, the vertical precipitation gradient cannot be deduced from these measurements. Furthermore, the spatial resolution of gridded meteorological data is often too coarse to resolve individual mountain chains. Still, a reliable estimate of high-elevation precipitation is required for many hydrological applications. We present a method to determine the vertical precipitation gradient in mountainous terrain, making use of glacier mass balance observations. These measurements have the advantage that they provide a basin-wide precipitation estimate at high elevations. The precipitation gradient is adjusted until the solid precipitation over the glacier area combined with the calculated melt gives the measured annual glacier mass balance. Results for the glacierized regions in Central Europe and Scandinavia reveal spatially coherent patterns, with predominantly positive precipitation gradients ranging from -4 to +28 % (100 m)‑1. In some regions, precipitation amounts at high elevations are up to four times as large as in the valleys. A comparison of the modelled winter precipitation with observed snow accumulation on glaciers shows a good agreement. Precipitation measured at the few high-altitude meteorological stations is generally lower than our estimate, which may result from precipitation undercatch. Our findings will improve the precipitation forcing for glacier modelling and hydrological studies in mountainous terrain.

  15. Deducing the three gauge interactions from the three Reidemeister moves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give one of the first known arguments for the origin of the three observed gauge groups. The argument is based on modelling nature at Planck scales as a collection of featureless strands that fluctuate in three dimensions. This approach models vacuum as untangled strands and particles as tangles of strands. Modelling vacuum as untangled strands implies the field equations of general relativity, when applying an argument from 1995 to the thermodynamics of strands. Modelling fermions as tangles of two or more strands allows to define wave functions as time-averages of strand crossings; using an argument from 1980, this allows to deduce the Dirac equation. When modelling fermions as tangled strands, gauge interactions appear naturally as deformation of tangle cores. The three possible types of observable core deformations are given by the three Reidemeister moves. They naturally lead to a U(1), a broken and parity-violating SU(2) and a SU(3) gauge group. The model is unique, is unmodifiable, is consistent with all known data, and makes numerous testable predictions, including the absence of other interactions, of grand unification and of higher dimensions. A method for calculating coupling constants seems to appear naturally.

  16. Hydrodynamic properties of gamma-ray bursts outflows deduced from thermal component

    CERN Document Server

    Pe'er, Asaf; O'Mahony, Shane; Margutti, Raffaella; Ryde, Felix; Larsson, Josefin; Lazzatti, Davide; Livio, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of a significant thermal emission component that was identified in 47 GRBs observed by different instruments. Within the framework of the "fireball" model, we deduce the values of the Lorentz factor Gamma, and the acceleration radius, r_0, for these bursts. We find that all the values of Gamma in our sample are in the range 10^2 = 310. We find a very weak dependence of Gamma on the acceleration radius r_0, Gamma ~ r_0^alpha with alpha = -0.10 +- 0.09 at sigma = 2.1 confidence level. The values of r_0 span a wide range, 10^7 ~10^{8.5} cm. This is higher than the gravitational radius of a 10 M_sun black hole by a factor ~100. We argue that this result provides indirect evidence for jet propagation inside a massive star, and suggests the existence of recollimation shocks that take place close to this radius.

  17. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    CERN Document Server

    Papuga, J; Kreim, K; Barbieri, C; Blaum, K; De Rydt, M; Duguet, T; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Rajabali, M M; Sanchez, R; Smirnova, N; Soma, V; Yordanov, D T

    2014-01-01

    $\\textbf{Background:}$ Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Purpose:}$ Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Method:}$ High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Results:}$ From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and $\\textit{ab initio}$ framework is al...

  18. Hysteresis Loop for a No-loaded, Delta-connected Transformer Model Deduced from Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrodi, Yves; Kamei, Kenji; Kohyama, Haruhiko; Ito, Hiroki

    At a transformer's steady-state condition, whereby a transformer and its load are constantly supplied by a sinusoidal source, the current-flux pair within the transformer core and its windings will cycle along a hysteresis loop. This nonlinear current-flux characteristic becomes important while at transformer gets reenergized. A remaining residual flux and the fact that a transformer is typically used up to its saturation level can lead to high-amplitude magnetizing inrush currents and associated voltage disturbances. These disturbances can be reduced by controlled transformer switching. In order to pre-evaluate the effect of a specific controlled transformer energization, pre-simulations can be applied. In that case the hysteresis loop and its saturation characteristic will become the most important model parameter. If the corresponding manufacturer specifications are not available a standard hysteresis loops can be used, but might come up with an inaccurate simulation result. Therefore, this paper analyses the measured 3-phase currents from two delta-connected power transformers by “Fourier Series” in order to deduce a single-phase hysteresis loop, which can be implemented into a typical 3-phase transformer model. Additionally, the saturation behavior of a power-transformer will be estimated and a comparison of ATP/EMTP simulations will conclude this paper.

  19. Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James G Brasseur; Mark A Nicosia; Anupam Pal; Larr S Miller

    2007-01-01

    We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest.However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology.

  20. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references

  1. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, M.; Ogawa, T.; Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H.W.; Hausman, B.A.

    1988-04-01

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references.

  2. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  3. New Route to Deducing Integration Formulas by Virtue of the IWOP Technique*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; LI Hong-Qi; XU Xing-Lei

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new route to deducing integration formulas, i.e., using the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we derive some new integration formulas, which seems concise. As a by-product,some new operator identities also appear.

  4. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  5. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M;

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250-555 p...

  6. A Deduced Feynman Rule for Calculating Retarded and Advanced Green function in Closed Time Path Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Enke(Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, 430079, Wuhan, China)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the closed time path formalism, a new Feynman rule for directly calculating the retarded and advanced Green functions is deduced. This Feynman rule is used to calculate the two-point self-energy and three-point vertex correction in $\\phi^3$ theory. The generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem for three-point nonlinear response function is verified.

  7. Deduced soft-rotator model Hamiltonian parameters and collective properties of medium-to-heavy even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft-rotator model Hamiltonian parameters were deduced for 63 even-even medium and heavy nuclei in a mass range 56 ≤ A ≤ 238. We obtained those values by the combination of the low-lying level structure and the coupled-channels proton scattering analyses. It was found that the values of the effective quadrupole and octupole deformations obtained were consistent with those derived from experimental data. Besides, the equilibrium ground-state quadrupole deformation parameters were also in reasonable accord with the theoretical mass-models results for deformed heavy nuclei. In this report, we present a complete set of the Hamiltonian parameters for each nucleus. The obtained values of the parameters often varied with the constituent neutron and/or proton numbers anomalously. On the other hand, some clear systematic trends were seen among the major Hamiltonian parameters. (author)

  8. MAGNETIC ANOMALY LINEATION AND FRACTURE ZONE IN ENDERBY BASIN DEDUCED FROM GEOMAGNETIC ANOMALY FIELD VECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    ノギ, ヨシフミ; セアマ, ノブカズ; イセザキ, ノブヒロ; フクダ, ヨウイチ; Yoshifumi, NOGI; Nobukazu, SEAMA; Nobuhiro, ISEZAKI; Yoichi, FUKUDA

    1995-01-01

    The formation of magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zones in Enderby Basin (10°E-80°E), Southern Indian Ocean, are vital to understanding process of the Gondwana breakup. Vector anomalies of the geomagnetic field were obtained during the 30th, 31st, 32nd, and 33rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions. The strikes of the magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zones were deduced from vector geomagnetic anomaly field data as well as seasurface and satellite gravity anomalies. We surmi...

  9. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  10. Intrinsic neutrino properties: As deduced from cosmology, astrophysics, accelerator and non-accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I review the intrinsic properties of neutrinos as deduced from cosmological, astrophysical, and laboratory experiments. Bounds on magnetic moments and theoretical models which yield large moments but small masses are briefly discussed. The MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is reviewed in light of the existing data from the 37Cl and Kamiokande II experiments. The combined data disfavor the adiabatic solution and tend to support either the large angle solution or the nonadiabatic one. In the former case the 71Ga signal will be suppressed by the same factor as for 37Cl, and in the latter case the suppression factor could be as large as 10 or more. 41 refs

  11. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, M., E-mail: aikawa@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ebata, S.; Imai, S. [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the {sup nat}Cu({sup 12}C,X){sup 24}Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the {sup 137}Cs + {sup 12}C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement.

  12. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  13. Atmospheric phenomena deduced from radiosonde and GPS occultation measurements for various application related studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C J Johny; S K Sarkar; D Punyasesudu

    2009-02-01

    The tropopause height and tropopause temperature are sensitive to temperature changes in troposphere and stratosphere. These are the measures of global climatic variability. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, refractivity and water vapour are always needed for communication, navigation and atmospheric modeling studies. The tropopause characteristics over the Indian region have been studied using radio occultation measurements (CHAMP) on the basis of cold point criterion. Tropopause height shows large variation in the latitude range ∼30° –40°N during winter. Tropopause temperature less than −82°C, assumed to facilitate troposphere to stratosphere air transport, is observed at a number of tropical Indian locations and no seasonal pattern is observed in its occurrence. The bias in temperature and refractivity deduced from radiosonde and radio occultation measurements is also presented.

  14. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Imai, Shotaro

    2014-01-01

    The thick-target yield (TTY) of long-lived fission products (LLFP) is an essential quantity and represents basic data for transmutation. In order to evaluate TTY on radioactive targets including LLFP, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. We demonstrate the method to deduce the TTY from inverse kinematics derived from the theoretical definition. This method is highly applicable in reactions at the energy per nucleon \\epsilon > 20 MeV/A as practically confirmed by the simulation of the SRIM2008 code. In this paper, we apply the method to the natCu(12C,X)24Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the 137Cs + 12C reaction to reduce 137Cs and to suggest a TTY measurement of the 137Cs induced reaction on a thick 12C target.

  15. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  16. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jacosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission for the first time make regular particle and field measurements down to ~150 km altitude. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) instrument provides 3-D measurements of the electron energy and angular distributions. This study presents the pitch angle-resolved shape parameters that can separate photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, therefore used to deduce the Martian magnetic topology. The three-dimensional view of the magnetic topology is manifested for the first time. The northern hemisphere is found to be dominated by the crustal closed field lines, instead of draped interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF), on the dayside and more day-night connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. This study can also single out open field lines attached to the dayside ionosphere, which provide possible passage for ion outflow. Magnetic topology governs energetic electrons' movement, thus necessary to understand nightside ionosphere, and aurora.

  17. Primary structure of the 5 S subunit of transcarboxylase as deduced from the genomic DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, C G; Kumar, G K; Shenoy, B C; Haase, F C; Phillips, N F; Park, V M; Magner, W J; Hejlik, D P; Wood, H G; Samols, D

    1993-09-13

    Transcarboxylase from Propionibacterium shermanii is a complex biotin-containing enzyme composed of 30 polypeptides of three different types. It is composed of six dimeric outer subunits associated with a central cylindrical hexameric subunit through 12 biotinyl subunits; three outer subunits on each face of the central hexamer. Each outer dimer is termed a 5 S subunit which associates with two biotinyl subunits. The enzyme catalyzes a two-step reaction in which methylmalonyl-CoA and pyruvate form propionyl-CoA and oxalacetate, the 5 S subunit specifically catalyzing one of these reactions. We report here the cloning, sequencing and expression of the monomer of the 5 S subunit. The gene was identified by matching amino acid sequences derived from isolated authentic 5 S peptides with the deduced sequence of an open reading frame present on a cloned P. shermanii genomic fragment known to contain the gene encoding the 1.3 S biotinyl subunit. The cloned 5 S gene encodes a protein of 519 amino acids, M(r) 57,793. The deduced sequence shows regions of extensive homology with that of pyruvate carboxylase and oxalacetate decarboxylase, two enzymes which catalyze the same or reverse reaction. A fragment was subcloned into pUC19 in an orientation such that the 5 S open reading frame could be expressed from the lac promoter of the vector. Crude extracts prepared from these cells contained an immunoreactive band on Western blots which co-migrated with authentic 5 S and were fully active in catalyzing the 5 S partial reaction. We conclude that we have cloned, sequenced and expressed the monomer of the 5 S subunit and that the expressed product is catalytically active. PMID:8365490

  18. PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein mediates the interaction with NifA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Ran; CUI Yanhua; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    NifA in Azospirillum brasilense plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of nitrogenase in response to ammonia and oxygen available. Recently,our laboratory has identified four clones, whose gene prodcuts interact with NifA, from A. brasilense Sp7genomic libraries by using the yeast two-hybrid system with NifA as bait. We are interested in clone S35,one of the four clones, because it contains a PAS-domain coding region. The entire open reading frame (ORF) for the PAS domain-containing protein was isolated and designated as org35 here. org35gene is 2211-bp long and encodes a protein of 736aa with a predicted molecular weight of about 78.4 kD.The predicted amino acid sequence of org35 has similarity to some two-component sensor kinase/response regulator hybrids of bacteria. Structural analyses showed that Org35 comprises at least three discrete conserved domains: the N-terminal PAS, the central histidine protein kinase (HPK) and the C-terminal response regulator (RR). The PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein was found to interact directly with NifA, but the central HPK and the C-terminal RR domains of Org35 were not. These results indicated that interaction between NifA and Org35 was mediated by PAS domain.

  19. Angular Momentum Exchange Between Light and Material Media Deduced from the Doppler Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves carry energy as well as linear and angular momenta. When a light pulse is reflected from, transmitted through, or absorbed by a material medium, energy and momentum (both linear and angular) are generally exchanged, while the total amount of each entity remains intact. The extent of such exchanges between light and matter can be deduced, among other methods, with the aid of the Doppler shift phenomenon. The main focus of the present paper is on the transfer of angular momentum from a monochromatic light pulse to spinning objects such as a mirror, an absorptive dielectric, or a birefringent plate. The fact that individual photons of frequency omega carry energy in the amount of h_bar*omega, where h_bar is Planck's reduced constant, enables one to relate the Doppler shift to the amount of energy exchanged. Under certain circumstances, the knowledge of exchanged energy leads directly to a determination of the momentum transferred from the photon to the material body, or vice versa.

  20. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  1. Rates of intra- and intermolecular electron transfers in hydrogenase deduced from steady-state activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementin, Sébastien; Burlat, Bénédicte; Fourmond, Vincent; Leroux, Fanny; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Abou Hamdan, Abbas; Léger, Christophe; Rousset, Marc; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Electrons are transferred over long distances along chains of FeS clusters in hydrogenases, mitochondrial complexes, and many other respiratory enzymes. It is usually presumed that electron transfer is fast in these systems, despite the fact that there has been no direct measurement of rates of FeS-to-FeS electron transfer in any respiratory enzyme. In this context, we propose and apply to NiFe hydrogenase an original strategy that consists of quantitatively interpreting the variations of steady-state activity that result from changing the nature of the FeS clusters which connect the active site to the redox partner, and/or the nature of the redox partner. Rates of intra- and intermolecular electron transfer are deduced from such large data sets. The mutation-induced variations of electron transfer rates cannot be explained by changes in intercenter distances and reduction potentials. This establishes that FeS-to-FeS rate constants are extremely sensitive to the nature and coordination of the centers. PMID:21615141

  2. The Seismic risk perception in Italy deduced by a statistical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Pessina, Vera; Peruzza, Laura; Cerbara, Loredana; Crescimbene, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 EGU Assembly we presented the results of a web a survey on the perception of seismic risk in Italy. The data were derived from over 8,500 questionnaires coming from all Italian regions. Our questionnaire was built by using the semantic differential method (Osgood et al. 1957) with a seven points Likert scale. The questionnaire is inspired the main theoretical approaches of risk perception (psychometric paradigm, cultural theory, etc.) .The results were promising and seem to clearly indicate an underestimation of seismic risk by the italian population. Based on these promising results, the DPC has funded our research for the second year. In 2015 EGU Assembly we present the results of a new survey deduced by an italian statistical sample. The importance of statistical significance at national scale was also suggested by ISTAT (Italian Statistic Institute), considering the study as of national interest, accepted the "project on the perception of seismic risk" as a pilot study inside the National Statistical System (SISTAN), encouraging our RU to proceed in this direction. The survey was conducted by a company specialised in population surveys using the CATI method (computer assisted telephone interview). Preliminary results will be discussed. The statistical support was provided by the research partner CNR-IRPPS. This research is funded by Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC).

  3. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC4, LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC4 is as different from rodent LDHC4 (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA4 (76% homology) and porcine LDHB4 (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC4 and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC4 reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC4 sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine

  4. Optimizing Network Routing by Deducing a QoS Metric Using Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali.A.Sakr,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The routing within networks, must satisfy the QoS metrics. In traditional data networks, routing is concerned on connectivity or cost. Routing protocols usually characterize the network with one or more metric(s. However, in order to support a wide range of QoS requirements, routing protocols need to have a more complex model. Thenetwork is characterized with multiple metrics such as bandwidth, delay, jitters, loss rate, authentication, security,…etc. This complex model necessitates a long time to proceed. The Rough Set Theory (RST is applied to reduce these metrics successfully and decide the most effective ones. In this paper, RST is applied to reduce the online metrics that are reported by Routing Information Protocols (RIP. The paper represents information about network elements (links, or nodes to obtain the Quality of Service (QoS core [1]. ROSETTA software is applied to deduce a QoS metric as a substitution for all routing metrics. This metric is used to select the optimal routes. The results confirm that the proposed metric is adequately suit for selecting the proper routes.

  5. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  6. Radiation pressure on a submerged absorptive partial reflector deduced from the Doppler shift

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-01-01

    When a light pulse is reflected from a mirror, energy and momentum are exchanged between the electromagnetic field and the material medium. The resulting change in the energy of the reflected photons is directly related to their Doppler shift arising from the change in the state of motion of the mirror. Similarly, the Doppler shift of photons that enter an absorber is intimately tied to the kinetic energy and momentum acquired by the absorber in its interaction with the incident light. The argument from the Doppler shift yields expressions for the exchanged energy and momentum that are identical with those obtained from Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz law of force, despite the fact that the physical bases of the two methods are fundamentally different. Here we apply the Doppler shift argument to a submerged partial reflector (one that absorbs a fraction of the incident light), deducing in the process the magnitude of the photon momentum within the submerging medium. We also discuss the case of the submerg...

  7. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Deleplanque, M A; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S; Ai, H; Beausang, C; Cridder, B

    2005-12-29

    The authors have deduced the cross section for {sup 237}U(n,f) over an equivalent neutron energy range from 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions: {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). Scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} and 131{sup o}.

  8. Utilization of metabonomics to identify serum biomarkers in murine H22 hepatocarcinoma and deduce antitumor mechanism of Rhizoma Paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Yang, He; Fan, Wei; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-25

    Murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model is so popular to be used for the preclinical anticancer candidate's evaluation. However, the metabolic biomarkers of this model were not identified. Meanwhile, Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) as natural products have been found to show strong antitumor activity, while its anti-cancer mechanism is not clear. To search for potential metabolite biomarkers of this model, serum metabonomics approach was applied to detect the variation of metabolite biomarkers and the related metabolism genes and signaling pathway were used to deduce the antitumor mechanisms of RPS. As a result, ten serum metabolites were identified in twenty-four mice including healthy mice, non-treated cancer mice, RPS-treated cancer mice and RPS-treated healthy mice. RPS significantly decreased tumor weight correlates to down-regulating lactate, acetate, N-acetyl amino acid and glutamine signals (p p53 and PTEN, and suppressed FASN to inhibit lipogenesis. What's more, RPS repressed Myc and GLS expression and decreased glutamine level. The regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and HIF-1α/Myc/Ras networks also participated in these metabolic changes. Taken together, RPS suppressed ATP product made the tumor growth slow, which indicated a good anti-cancer effect and new angle for understanding the mechanism of RPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the utility of (1)H NMR metabolic profiles taken together with tumor weight and viscera index was a promising screening tool for evaluating the antitumor effect of candidates. In addition, RPS was a potent anticancer agent through inhibiting cancer cellular metabolism to suppress proliferation in hepatoma H22 tumor murine, which promoted the application of RPS in the future. PMID:27369806

  9. Zonal currents in the F region deduced from Swarm constellation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühr, Hermann; Kervalishvili, Guram; Rauberg, Jan; Stolle, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Swarm constellation has been used to estimate zonal currents in the topside F region ionosphere at about 500 km. Near-simultaneous magnetic field measurements from two altitudes but the same meridian are used for the current density calculations. We consider the period 15 February to 23 June 2014 for deriving a full 24 h local time coverage of the latitudinal distribution over ±50° in magnetic latitude. Intervals with close orbital phasing at the two heights are considered, which repeat every 6 days. From such days seven successive orbits are used where the epochs of equator crossings differ by less than 2 min. Deduced current densities are predominantly eastward (about 20 nA/m2) on the dayside and westward (about 10 nA/m2) on the nightside. A number of different drivers contribute to the observed total current. We identified the gravity-driven eastward current as the most prominent at low latitudes. Eastward currents in the Northern Hemisphere are clearly stronger than in the south. This is attributed to the proximity of our study period to June solstice, when the solar radiation is stronger in the north. In addition, interhemispheric winds from the Northern (summer) to the Southern (winter) Hemisphere contribute. They cause eastward currents in the north and westward in the south. We find a relatively large variability of the zonal currents both in space and time. The standard deviation is at least twice as large as the mean value of current density. This large variability is suggested to be related to gravity wave forcing from below.

  10. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 104 to 4 x 105 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s27s 2S/sub 1/2/ and 6s26s 2P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194Tl. A large isomer shift in 193Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2- isomer than in the 1/2+ ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2- band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2- strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  11. ARCHITECTURE OF PEROXISOMAL ALCOHOL OXIDASE CRYSTALS FROM THE METHYLOTROPHIC YEAST HANSENULA-POLYMORPHA AS DEDUCED BY ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VONCK, J; VANBRUGGEN, EFJ

    1992-01-01

    The architecture of alcohol oxidase crystalloids occurring in vivo in the peroxisomes of methylotrophic yeasts was deduced from electron micrographs of similar crystals of the Hansenula polymorpha enzyme grown in vitro. Three characteristic views of the crystal are observed, as well as single layers

  12. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  13. Using the Sub-Game Perfect Nash Equilibrium to Deduce the Effect of Government Subsidy on Consumption Rates and Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Magdi Amer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments are interested in inducing positive habits and behaviors in its citizens and discouraging ones that are harmful to the individual or to the society. Taxation and legislation are usually used to discourage negative behaviors. Subsidy seems the politically correct way to encourage positive behaviors. In this paper, the Subgame Perfect Nash Equilibrium is used to deduce the effect of the government subsidy on the user consumption, prices and producer and distributor profits.

  14. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  15. On the moment of inertia in deformed Ba-Xe nuclei as deduced from gamma-gamma energy correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-rays following reactions induced by bombarding targets of 114,116,118,120,122Sn with 118 MeV 12C ions were investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional coincidence arrangement. Experimental energy-correlation spectra were extracted from the original coincidence matrices. The energy-correlation spectra exhibit the features expected for rotational nuclei and were used to deduce information on the moment of inertia Isup((2)) = ΔI/Δω. The gross properties of the behaviour of Isup((2)) in the Ba-Xe region are discussed together with their interpretation within the cranked shell model (CSM). (orig.)

  16. A type of new conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in a holonomic system with unilateral constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yue-Lin; Sun Xian-Ting; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Zhang Mei-Ling; Jia Li-Qun

    2012-01-01

    A type of new conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in a holonomic system with unilateral constraints is investigated.Nielsen equations and differential equations of motion for the holonomic mechanical system with unilateral constraints are established.The definition and the criterion of Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in the holonomic systems with unilateral constraints under the infinitesimal transformations of Lie group are also given.The expressions of the structural equation and a type of new conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in the holonomic system with unilateral constraints are obtained.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  17. Oscillatory electron phonon coupling in Pb/Si(111) deduced by temperature-dependent quantum well states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Feng; Jia Jin-Feng; Han Tie-Zhu; Tang Zhe; Shen Quan-Tong; Guo Yang; Xue Qi-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Photoemission study of atomically flat Pb films with a thickness from 15 to 24 monolayers (ML) have been performed within a temperature range 75-270K. Well-defined quantum well states (QWSs) are observed, which exhibit interesting temperature-dependent behaviours. The peak position of the QWSs shifts towards higher binding energy with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the peak width broadens linearly due to enhanced electron-phonon coupling strength (λ). An oscillatory λ with a period of 2ML is deduced. Preliminary analysis shows that the oscillation can be explained in terms of the interface induced phase variations, and is thus a manifestation of the quantum size effects.

  18. Origins of short gamma-ray bursts deduced from offsets in their host galaxies revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Cui; Shigehiro Nagataki; Junichi Aoi; Ren-Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in their host galaxies provides us with an opportunity to investigate their origins.Based on the currently observed distribution of short GRBs relative to their host galaxies,we obtain the fraction of the component that traces the mergers of binary compact objects and the one that traces star formation rate (such as massive stars) in early- and late-type host galaxies.From the analysis of projected offset distribution and only based on population synthesis and massive star models,we find that the fraction of massive stars is 0.37+0.42-0.37 with an error at the lσ level for a sample with 22 short GRBs in the literature.From these results,it is hard to accept that the origin of short GRBs with observed statistics is well described by current models using only the offset distribution.The uncertainties in observational localizations of short GRBs also strongly affect the resulting fraction.

  19. Evaluating woody material transport and deposition in alpine rivers and deducing risk mitigation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, B.; Zischg, A.; Hübl, J.; Largiader, A.

    2009-04-01

    The impact levels of recent flashflood events in Switzerland and Western Austria in 2005 have significantly been accentuated by a considerable amount of transported woody material. As a consequence, either protection measures or bridges suffered considerable damage. Furthermore, cross-sectional obstructions due to woody material entrapment caused unexpected floodplain inundations resulting in severe damage to elements at risk. Until now, these woody material transport phenomena are neither sufficiently taken into account nor systematically considered, leading to a decrease in prediction accuracy during the procedure of hazard mapping. To close this gap, a procedure is proposed that (1) allows for the estimation of woody material recruitment from wood covered bankslopes and floodplains within the perimeter of the considered extreme flood event; and (2) permits the analysis of, the disposition for woody material entrainment and transport to selected critical configurations along the channel. The proposed procedure had been implemented into an ArcGIS-environment and provided indications for potential accentuation of flood hazards due to the transport of woody material. Results from a case study suggested the general applicability of the concept. The computational results can be used to devise effective risk mitigation strategies that comprise: (1) selective woody material volume reduction within the source areas, (2) thinning measures to increase the elasticity of the forest structure, (3) preventive interception of transported woody material and (4) redesign of the critical configurations.

  20. Properties of post-shock solar wind deduced from geomagnetic indices responses after sudden impulses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shock plays a key role in causing the global dynamic changes of the geospace environment. For the perspective of Solar-Terrestrial relationship, it will be of great importance to estimate the properties of post-shock solar wind simply and accurately. Motivated by this, we performed a statistical analysis of IP shocks during 1998-2008, focusing on the significantly different responses of two well-used geomagnetic indices (SYMH and AL) to the passive of two types of IP shocks. For the IP shocks with northward IMF (91 cases), the SYMH index keeps on the high level after the sudden impulses (SI) for a long time. Meanwhile, the change of AL index is relative small, with an mean value of only -29 nT. However, for the IP shocks with southward IMF (92 cases), the SYMH index suddenly decreases at a certain rate after SI, and the change of AL index is much significant, of -316 nT. Furthermore, the change rate of SYMH index after SI is found to be linearly correlated with the post-shock reconnection ...

  1. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-11-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1, Q_1, and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2. We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  2. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-06-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1 , Q_1 , and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2 . We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  3. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced.

  4. Low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance in Mo98 and Mo100 deduced from photon-scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Kosev, K.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.; Bečvář, F.; Krtička, M.

    2008-06-01

    Dipole-strength distributions in the nuclides Mo98 and Mo100 up to the neutron-separation energies have been studied in photon-scattering experiments at the bremsstrahlung facility of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. To determine the dipole-strength distributions up to the neutron-emission thresholds, statistical methods were developed for the analysis of the measured spectra. The measured spectra of scattered photons were corrected for detector response and atomic background by simulations using the code GEANT3. Simulations of γ-ray cascades were performed to correct the intensities of the transitions to the ground state for feeding from higher-lying levels and to determine their branching ratios. The photoabsorption cross sections obtained for Mo98 and Mo100 from the present (γ,γ') experiments are combined with (γ,n) data from literature, resulting in a photoabsorption cross section covering the range from 4 to about 15 MeV of interest for network calculations in nuclear astrophysics. Novel information about the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance and its energy dependence is derived. The photoabsorption cross sections deduced from the present photon-scattering experiments are compared with existing data from neutron capture and He3-induced reactions.

  5. Use of activity measurements in the plume from Chernobyl to deduce fuel state before, during and after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work performed at Berkely Nuclear Laboratories both prior to the meeting in Vienna at which USSR gave full details of the Chernobyl accident and after that meeting is recorded. Plume data from Western Europe were used to deduce the likely damage to the fuel and its previous irradiation history. The note concludes that the source to the environment consisted of an initial dispersion of fuel particulate followed by a prolonged release at a lower rate, the total release being some 3% of the core inventory of fuel. Early and late in the release period it was enhanced in volatile species. Damage to the fuel was thus due both to mechanical disruption and to high temperatures. During the early dispersive event high temperatures (probably approaching fuel melting) were reached in some of the core, though the proportion of the fuel affected may have been small. (UK)

  6. On the $\\lambda$ energy dependence deduced from BEC of $\\pi\\pi$ pairs produced in $pp$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, G

    2016-01-01

    The $\\sqrt{s_{pp}}$ behavior of the chaoticity parameter $\\lambda$, derived from Bose - Einstein Correlations (BEC) of pion-pairs produced in $pp$ collisions, is investigated. Considered are the one and three dimensions (1D, 3D) of the BEC analyzed in terms of a Gaussian and/or Exponential distributions. A marked difference is observed between the $\\lambda$ dependence on energy in the 1D and the 3D analyzes. The experimental data are examined in terms of the relation between the pion cluster of sources and the BEC dimension R which in turn are deduced from the charged outgoing particle multiplicity. While in this approach the general decrease with energy of the 1D $\\lambda$ is accounted for it fails to represent the few 3D $\\lambda$ data which are seen to remain constant with energy above $\\sim$200 GeV.

  7. Problems of impurities deducing from multicomponent media at thermal heating, ionization and rotation of plasma in crossed fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of multicomponent mixtures separation at thermal heating, ionization and plasma rotation in relation to the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is shown. At thermal heating it is possible to allocate up to 75% of impurities of fission products (FP), after which the SNF contains oxides of zirconium, niobium and lanthanides. At the stage of ionization it is impossible to deduce the lanthanide oxides, but it is possible to remove partially the oxides of zirconium and niobium. Further removal of impurities will occur in rotated plasma. Under certain conditions heavy ions will get to lateral surface of vacuum chamber, and the light ones will move along the magnetic field lines and precipitate on the collector. The molecular plasma has energy cost to excitation of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, dissociation. As simulation media it is advisable to use non-radioactive isotopes of spent nuclear fuel oxides

  8. Structural and functional characterization of hBD-1(Ser35), a peptide deduced from a DEFB1 polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circo, Raffaella; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Gennaro, Renato; Amoroso, Antonio; Zanetti, Margherita

    2002-04-26

    beta-Defensins are mammalian antimicrobial peptides that share a unique disulfide-bonding motif of six conserved cysteines. An intragenic polymorphism of the DEFB1 gene that changes a highly conserved Cys to Ser in the peptide coding region has recently been described. The deduced peptide cannot form three disulfide bonds, as one of the cysteines is unpaired. We have determined the cysteine connectivities of a corresponding synthetic hBD-1(Ser35) peptide, investigated the structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, and assayed the in vitro antimicrobial activity. Despite a different arrangement of the disulfides, hBD-1(Ser35) proved as active as hBD-1 against the microorganisms tested. This activity likely depends on the ability of hBD-1(Ser35) to adopt an amphipathic conformation in hydrophobic environment, similar to the wild type peptide, as suggested by CD spectroscopy. PMID:12054642

  9. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  11. Geomechanical log deduced from porosity and mineralogical content; Diagraphie geomecanique deduite de la porosite et de la composition mineralogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, E.; Vincke, O.; Longuemare, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    The 'geomechanical log' research project aims at estimating rock mechanical properties from a set of models, whose input data can be deduced from drilling logs and measurements on core samples (if these are available). The key point is to focus on defining relatively general and easy to handle models. In this paper, we propose various analytical models allowing one to estimate poroelastic and failure properties of limestones and sandstones directly from their porosity and, in the specific case of sandstone poroelastic characteristics, their mineralogical content. The properties obtained are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The second step of the project will be to actually infer the input data for the models (here porosity and mineral content) from drilling logs and to compare the results obtained to tests on core samples. A geomechanical log could then be automatically created from standard logs and help to optimize drilling. We also intend to test the same approaches on rock plastic properties and shale behavior. (authors)

  12. Deducing the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K. B.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.

    2013-10-01

    The short half-lives associated with certain minor actinide nuclei that are relevant to stockpile stewardship pursuits and the development of next-generation nuclear reactors make direct neutron measurements very challenging. In certain cases, a stable beam and target ``surrogate reaction'' can be used in lieu of the neutron-induced reaction, and the (n,f) cross section can then be deduced indirectly. Agreement between surrogate and direct measurements for (n,f) cross sections in actinide nuclei is usually within 10%. The present work reports on the measurement of the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via 239Pu(p,tf) and 239Pu(p,df) surrogate reactions, respectively. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Facility using a 28.5 MeV proton beam to bombard 239Pu and 235U targets. Outgoing light ions were detected in coincidence with fission fragments using the STAR-LiTe detector array. Results of the analysis will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05ER41379 (Richmond), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-FG52-09NA29467 (TAMU).

  13. Compressive stress field in the crust deduced from shear-wave anisotropy: an example in capital area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; WU Jing

    2008-01-01

    The rocks in the crust are pervaded by stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks, and the complex fault tectonics and stress control the configuration of the microcracks, however shear-wave splitting could indicate this kind of characteristics. In this paper, Capital Area Seismograph Network (CASN), the widest scope and highest density of regional seismograph network presently in China, is adopted to deduce the principal compressive stress field distribution pattern from polarizations of fast shear-waves, based on shear-wave splitting analysis. The principal compressive stress in capital area of China is at NE85.7°±41.0° in this study. Compared with the results of principal compressive stress field in North China obtained from other methods, the results in this study are reliable in the principal com-pressive stress field distribution in capital area. The results show that it is an effective way, although it is the first time to directly obtain crustal stress field from seismic anisotropy. It is effectively applied to the zones with dense seismograph stations.

  14. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8

  15. Neutron spectrum and yield of the Hiroshima A-bomb deduced from radionuclide measurements at one location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Kato, K; Korschinek, G; Morinaga, H; Nolte, E

    1995-07-01

    In this paper measurements of the radionuclides of 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu in samples from Hiroshima, which were exposed to neutrons of the A-bomb explosion, are interpreted. In order to calculate the neutron spectrum at the sample site, neutron transport calculations using Monte Carlo techniques were carried out. Activation profiles in a granite mock-up irradiated with reactor neutrons could be reproduced by this method using DS86 input parameters. The calculated neutron spectrum at the sample site for non-thermal neutrons is identical to that obtained in DS86, but contains some 50% more thermal neutrons. The influence of parameters like soil composition, source terms and air humidity on the activation of these radioisotopes is discussed. The granite-covered earth at the sample site, for example, hardens the spectrum in comparison with DS86 values. Even when using a fission spectrum pointing downward and neglecting air humidity one cannot explain our 36Cl measurements. If the effective thermal neutron fluences, that have a similar ratio of resonance integral to thermal neutron capture cross sections obtained from 36Cl, 41Ca and 152Eu, are averaged, a bomb yield of about 16 kt is deduced in agreement with a bomb yield of (15 +/- 3) kt estimated in DS86.

  16. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

    2002-01-01

    an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

  17. Modelling Al-4wt.%Cu as-cast structure using equiaxed morphological parameters deduced from in-situ synchrotron X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadein, M.; Wu, M.; Reinhart, G.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-03-01

    The as-cast structure of laboratory scale Al-4wt.%Cu was numerically calculated using assumed morphological parameters. Two parameters are identified: The shape factor which correlates the growth velocity of dendrite envelope to that of the tip; and the sphericity of the equiaxed envelope or the circularity of the columnar trunk envelope which is required to calculate the averaged species diffusion flux across the envelope. In the present work, the real-time radiographs of equiaxed solidification experiment carried out on Al-4wt.%Cu at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility are used to track the development of crystal envelope with time. The growth rate of the equivalent circular envelope was correlated to dendrite tip growth velocity to deduce the shape factor. The sphericity of dendrite envelope is estimated over the time. The average of the deduced morphological parameters is applied to the model to predict the as-cast structure. The results were compared to those obtained by using morphological parameters from literature. The predicted phase quantities, columnar-to- equiaxed transition, and macrosegregation exhibited significant dependence on those parameters. The predicted macrosegregation using the experimentally deduced parameters fits better to the measurements.

  18. Effect of the glacial rebound on elevation changes deduced from the ice core records in Greenland ice sheet

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    It is important to investigate the behavior of the Greenland ice sheet in Quaternary for elucidating the future sea-level rise due to glacial melting. In order to reconstruct the elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet throughout the Holocene, δ18O data obtained from ice cores were recently used (Vinther et al., 2009). Vinther et al. (2009) also indicated that the Greenland ice sheet elevation changes inferred from ice core records show a significantly greater elevation reduction than th...

  19. Concentrations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in the free upper troposphere and lower stratosphere deduced from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 infrared solar occultation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the volume mixing ratio profiles of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, deduced from the spectroscopic analysis of IR solar absorption spectra obtained in the occultation mode with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during its mission aboard Spacelab 3. A comparison of the ATMOS measurements for both northern and southern latitudes with previous field investigations at low midlatitudes shows a relatively good agreement. Southern Hemisphere volume mixing ratio profiles for both molecules were obtained for the first time, as were the profiles for the Northern Hemisphere covering the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere simultaneously.

  20. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-26

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event-the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids-as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  1. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Kawamura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  2. Tomographic analysis of data from the JET neutron profile monitor to deduce the 2-D spatial and temporal evolution of neutron emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements from the JET neutron profile monitor are analyzed tomographically to deduce the two-dimensional spatial distribution of neutron emissivity and its temporal evolution. The most dramatic change in the emissivity profile is produced by a sawtooth crash. The profiles before and after a sawtooth crash are determined and changes in their characteristics, such as width and amplitude, are compared to those deduced from other diagnostics, including soft X-rays, electron density interferometers and electron cyclotron emission. The drop in the central neutron emissivity can be much larger than that obtained from the integrated global neutron emission, and hollow emissivity profiles are produced. The observed inversion radius is the same on neutron, soft X-ray, and electron temperature profiles. This hollow profile can be understood by observations of the soft X-ray emissivity on the fastest time-scale. A major theme of this paper is that much more information and understanding can be gained if several diagnostics are used together, with their different resolutions, time-scales and physical properties measured. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  3. Nanocrystalline tin oxide: Possible origin of its weak ferromagnetism deduced from nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Lian, Yadong; Gu, Min; Yu, Ji; Tang, Tong B.; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Weiyi

    2016-09-01

    Nanocrystalline tin oxide was fabricated, with molar ratio O/Sn determined as 1.40, 1.55, 1.79, 1.92 and 1.96 from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They displayed weak ferromagnetism, the sample with O/Sn = 1.55 showing the maximum saturation magnetization reaching almost 8 ×10-3 emu /g at room temperature. 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance allowed the deduction, based on four resolved resonance peaks, that their Sn ions had four possible coordination numbers, namely 3, 4, 5 and 6. The relative fraction of 4-coordinated cations was the one found to bear positive linear correlation with saturation magnetization of the sample. It is surmised that magnetism in tin oxide results mainly from 4-coordination Sn ions, of valance about +3, as estimated from the binding energies of their 3d photoelectron emission levels.

  4. Ionospheric Response to the Total Solar Eclipse of 22 July 2009 as Deduced from VLBI and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Shu, F. C.; Zheng, W. M.; Kondo, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Sekido, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over China at latitudes of about 30 N on the morning of 22 July 2009, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of the sun on the earth's upper ionosphere. GPS observations from Shanghai GPS Local Network and VLBI observations from stations Shanghai, Urumqi, and Kashima were used to observe the response of TEC to the total solar eclipse. From the GPS data reduction, the sudden decrease of TEC at the time of the eclipse, amounting to 2.8 TECU, and gradual increase of TEC after the eclipse were found by analyzing the diurnal variations. More distinctly, the variations of TEC were studied along individual satellite passes. The delay in reaching the minimum level of TEC with the maximum phase of eclipse was 5-10 min. Besides, we also compared the ionospheric activity derived from different VLBI stations with the GPS results and found a strong correlation between them.

  5. Land Deformation at the Thessaloniki - Giannitsa Plain (Greece) Deduced from 20- years Radar Observations using Persistent Scatterers Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svigkas, N.; Papoutsis, I.; Loupasakis, K.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Kontoes, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the detected deformation and interpret the results in the light of ground-truth hydrological data, for the Thessaloniki-Giannitsa plain, the largest deltaic plain in Greece, encircled by Mounts Vermio, Paiko and Pieria. The contemporary morphology was gradually developed from the tectonic variations of the upper Pleistocene. The area has been subjected to many changes due to both natural causes and to human intervention. ERS-1, 2 and Envisat data provided from the European Space Agency were analysed to produce a time-series analysis based on Persistent Scatterer techniques. The mass processing of the 81 satellite images led to the creation of more than 250 Interferograms. The broader area of interest consists primarily of agricultural lands, leading to limited Interferometric coherence, and therefore careful Interferogram filtering and phase unwrapping of the input stack was crucial for reliable velocity generation. Our results show a strong deformation signal in regions of significant lifelines, as the railway and road network. Moreover, the satellite imagery revealed two significantly deforming sites: Kalochori and Sindos. The broader Kalochori region, the locus of the industrial activity of the city of Thessaloniki, is located below sea level. Both sites are suffering from land subsidence for more than 50 years, with several marine invasions reported in the past. Interestingly enough the two datasets -that represent two decades- show a reversed deformation pattern: The period in-between 1993 to 2000 is characterized by subsidence up to 34 mm/y, whereas from 2002 to 2010 there is an uplifting trend (more than 20 mm/yr). This result is crosschecked with hydrogeological data; the interpretation depicts that at Kalochori and Sindos the human factor (i.e. over pumping) is the dominant driver of these surface displacements. Although this was an assumption of previous studies, here we present for the first time, systematic proof that the detected uplift of

  6. Chromospheric evaporation flows and density changes deduced from Hinode/EIS during an M1.6 flare

    CERN Document Server

    Gömöry, P; Su, Y; Temmer, M; Thalmann, J K

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed high-cadence sit-and-stare observations acquired with the Hinode/EIS spectrometer and HXR measurements acquired with RHESSI during an M-class flare. During the flare impulsive phase, we observe no significant flows in the cooler Fe XIII line but strong upflows, up to 80-150 km/s, in the hotter Fe XVI line. The largest Doppler shifts observed in the Fe XVI line were co-temporal with the sharp intensity peak. The electron density obtained from a Fe XIII line pair ratio exhibited fast increase (within two minutes) from the pre-flare level of 5.01x10^(9) cm^(-3) to 3.16x10^(10) cm^(-3) during the flare peak. The nonthermal energy flux density deposited from the coronal acceleration site to the lower atmospheric layers during the flare peak was found to be 1.34x10^(10) erg/s/cm^(2) for a low-energy cut-off that was estimated to be 16 keV. During the decline flare phase, we found a secondary intensity and density peak of lower amplitude that was preceded by upflows of 15 km/s that were detected in both ...

  7. Deducing transmissivity from specific capacity in the heterogeneous upper aquifer system of Jifarah Plain, NW-Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Farrah, Nawal; Van Camp, Marc; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-09-01

    The hydraulic characterisation of aquifer systems is important for the development of exploitation scenarios and management strategies. Especially in lithologically heterogeneous aquifers, local scale variations in transmissivity (T) may not be neglected. Field scale transmissivity values are usually derived from pumping tests, but in most cases their number and availability is rather limited. Therefore T values are often estimated from specific well capacities (SC) which can easily be measured in exploitation wells based on static and dynamic water levels. Empirical relations allow T to be calculated from SC values using a power law relation of the form T = A * SCN. In this paper this relation is investigated for three aquifers in north-west Lybia, using the results from step-drawdown tests which allow determination of well efficiencies, which can be incorporated into the regression analysis. The obtained fitting coefficients of the power law relations were compared with published values from other studies. Both parameters of the power law relation (scale factor and power coefficient) seem to be highly correlated following an exponential relationship (R2 = 0.89), reducing the T-SC relation to a single parameter equation, which is mainly related to lithology.

  8. Rupture parameters of the 21 May 2003, Mw 6.8, Zemmouri (Northern Algeria) earthquake deduced from InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbes, S.; Wicks, C.; Meghraoui, M.; Cakir, Z.

    2007-12-01

    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May, 2003 (Mw=6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the region since 1716. Global and NEIC focal mechanism solutions of the mainshock indicate reverse faulting with a ~N60E trending rupture dipping ~ 45° SE. The earthquake epicenter relocated along the shoreline caused an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ~50-km-long coastline. We mapped the coseismic surface displacement field caused by the earthquake using the ENVISAT ASAR (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST5) data. We were able to obtain coseismic interferograms from both the ascending and descending orbits of ENVISAT satellite. The RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the entire area of coastal uplift, ENVISAT data cover only the western half of the epicentral zone. Although the InSAR coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, DGPS and leveling). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half space. We invert the coseismic slip using a curved surface constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The fault rupture is 65-km-long and dips ~40° to the south with a smooth change in strike north of Boumerdes from N 60°-65° to N 95°-105°.

  9. Sedimentary cover in the South Western Desert of Egypt as deduced from Bouguer gravity and drill-hole data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senosy, M. M.; Youssef, M. M.; Abdel Zaher, M.

    2013-06-01

    The Western Desert, Egypt includes the major groundwater aquifer in the country. It is apart from the Major Sahara Nubian Aquifer which is present in Sudan, Chad, Egypt and Libya. Thickness of this aquifer is changed laterally from south to north and also from west to east. The changes may structurally or litheologicalley control. The present study is focused on using of Bouguer gravity anomaly mapped at a scale of 1:500,000 and the lithological logs of about 120 deep wells used to determine the thickness of the sedimentary sequence containing the main Nubian sandstone water aquifer in important area of Egypt. The area is located in the southern part of the Western Desert bounded by the latitudes 22°00'-26°30'N, and longitudes 28°30'-33°00'E. The predominant structures affecting the basement rocks and the sedimentary cover were traced and analyzed. The gravity stripping approach was applied to eliminate the gravity effects caused by sedimentary sequence and to separate density anomalies within the sedimentary fill from the influence of rocks at deeper levels in the crystalline crust. The study indicated that the surface of the basement rocks is highly rugged and mostly controlled by structures which have a direct effect on thickness variation of the sedimentary cover all over the area. Regionally the area is characterized by two major intracratonic basins (the Dahkla Basin and the Nile valley Basin) separated by a NE-SW trending swell of the Kharga uplift and bounded at the south by the Oweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan uplift. These major tectonic units are controlled by fault structures trending in N-S, E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE, which cut the basement rocks and extend upward in the sedimentary cover. The maximum thickness of sandstone formations is recorded at west Oweinat, west Kurkur, southwest of Aswan, Gramashin, Dakhla oasis and some localities west of Sohag and Qena towns. At these localities the thickness ranges between 600 and 900 m. As this formation is the main

  10. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the

  11. On the possibility of determining the radial profile of hydrogen isotope composition of JET plasmas, and of deducing radial transport of the isotope ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of internal hydrogen isotopic composition of plasmas in JET and elsewhere have been lacking. In this report we show that it is feasible to determine the profile of relative hydrogen isotope density, using a neutral particle analyzer. Using detailed modeling of the formation of atomic flux and its measurement, we have quantified sensitivity of the deduced plasma composition to uncertainty of plasma parameters that impact on the measurement. We have tested application of the proposed methodology by experimentally determining the perturbed deuteron density profile in a hydrogen plasma, when the deuteron density at the plasma edge was modulated using a short pulse of deuterium gas. We have also determined the deuteron density diffusivity. The determinations are very crude at present; however this exercise is intended to enable us to design better experiments to determine plasma isotopic composition and the radial isotope ion diffusivities. (author)

  12. Primary structure of the monomer of the 12S subunit of transcarboxylase as deduced from DNA and characterization of the product expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, C G; Kumar, G K; Haase, F C; Phillips, N F; Woo, S B; Park, V M; Magner, W J; Shenoy, B C; Wood, H G; Samols, D

    1993-09-01

    Transcarboxylase from Propionibacterium shermanii is a complex biotin-containing enzyme composed of 30 polypeptides of three different types: a hexameric central 12S subunit to which 6 outer 5S subunits are attached through 12 1.3S biotinyl subunits. The enzyme catalyzes a two-step reaction in which methylmalonyl coenzyme A and pyruvate serve as substrates to form propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) and oxalacetate, the 12S subunit specifically catalyzing one of the two reactions. We report here the cloning, sequencing, and expression of the 12S subunit. The gene was identified by matching amino acid sequences derived from isolated authentic 12S peptides with the deduced sequence of an open reading frame present in a cloned P. shermanii genomic fragment known to contain the gene encoding the 1.3S biotinyl subunit. The cloned 12S gene encodes a protein of 604 amino acids and of M(r) 65,545. The deduced sequence shows regions of extensive homology with the beta subunit of mammalian propionyl-CoA carboxylase as well as regions of homology with acetyl-CoA carboxylase from several species. Two genomic fragments were subcloned into pUC19 in an orientation such that the 12S open reading frame could be expressed from the lac promoter of the vector. Crude extracts prepared from these cells contained an immunoreactive band on Western blots (immunoblots) which comigrated with authentic 12S. The Escherichia coli-expressed 12S was purified to apparent homogeneity by a three-step procedure and compared with authentic 12S from P. shermanii. Their quaternary structures were identical by electron microscopy, and the E. coli 12S preparation was fully active in the reactions catalyzed by this subunit. We conclude that we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed the 12S subunit which exists in a hexameric active form in E.coli. PMID:8366018

  13. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  14. Primary structure of human corticosteroid binding globulin, deduced from hepatic and pulmonary cDNAs, exhibits homology with serine protease inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have isolated and sequenced cDNAs for corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) prepared from human liver and lung mRNAs. The results indicate that CBG mRNA is relatively abundant in the liver but is also present in the lung, testis, and kidney. The liver CBG cDNA contains an open reading frame for a 405-amino acid (M/sub r/ 45,149) polypeptide. This includes a predominantly hydrophobic, leader sequence of 22 residues that precedes the known NH2-terminal sequence of human CBG. We, therefore, predict that the mature protein is composed of 383 amino acids and is a polypeptide of M/sub r/ 42,646. A second, in-frame, 72-base-pair cistron of unknown significance exists between the TAA termination codon for CBG and a possible polyadenylylation signal (AATAAA) located 16 nucleotides before the polyadenylylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence of mature CBG contains two cysteine residues and consensus sequences for the attachment of six possible N-linked oligosaccharide chains. The sequences of the human lung and liver CBG cDNAs differ by only one nucleotide within the proposed leader sequence,and they attribute this to a point mutation. No sequence homology was found between CBG and other steroid binding proteins, but there is a remarkable similarity between the amino acid sequences of CBG and of α1-antitrypsin, and this extends to other members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) superfamily

  15. Long term carbon dioxide exchange above a mixed forest in the Belgian Ardennes: evaluation of different approaches to deduce total ecosystem respiration from Eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Elisabeth; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The general aim of this research is to analyze inter annual variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes exchanged by a mixed forest located at the Vielsalm experimental site in Belgium. At this site, CO2 flux measurements started in 1996 and are still going on. Thirteen complete years of measurements are thus available. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) inter annual variability may be driven by gross primary productivity (GPP) or Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), which should thus be both quantified. Using flux partitioning methods, TER is deduced from NEE measurements. GPP is then obtained by subtracting TER from NEE. Initially, a robust estimation of TER is required. This work seeks to compare two independent approaches to assess TER in order to quantify the implications on inter-annual variability. The comparison was performed on twelve complete years. TER estimates can be deduced by extrapolating to the whole day NEE measurements taken during selected night or day periods. In both case, the extrapolation is performed by using a respiration response to temperature. The first approach, referred as the night-time approach, consisted in calculating TER using a temperature response function derived from night-time data sets (Reichstein et al., 2005). The second approach, referred as the daytime approach, consisted in assessing TER from the intercept of the NEE/Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) response (Wohlfahrt et al., 2005). For each approach, different modalities were compared: the use of long term (annual) or short term (15 days) data sets for the night-time approach and the use of different types of regression for the daytime approach. In addition, the impact of the temperature choice was studied for each of the approaches. For the night-time approach, main results showed that air temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration derived from annual data did not reflect the short-term air temperature sensitivity. Vielsalm is a summer active ecosystem

  16. 16s rRNA的保守字和进化树重建%Conserved Words in 16s Ribosomal RNA Deduced from Evolutionary Tree Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗辽复; 贾孟文

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary distance is defined by oligonucleotide (n-bases) frequency difference of two sequences.Phylogenetic tree is reconstructed using a set of 16S (18S) rRNA sequences and the definition of distance.The quality of trees generally improves with increasing n and reaches a plateau of best fit at n=7 or 8.So,the 7-mer or 8-mer frequencies provides a basis to describe rRNA evolution.Then,a group of 7-mers are deduced which are correlate well with evolution.Evolution-related conservative words longer than 7 bases for Bacteria and Archaea in 16S rRNA sequences have been found.They are highly conserved in nearly all species of a kingdom (or a sub-kingdom) and are located on nearly same sites of sequences. The structural meaning of these conservative words is discussed briefly.%据寡核苷(n核苷)频数差定义进化距离,由此构成16s rRNA进化树,当n=7,8时和实验资料符合很好,在寻找出全部进化相关的7-核苷的基础上,本文进一步求得了长度大于7的保守字,它们在一个界别中的诸物种中高度保守,并出现于核糖体序列的基本相同的位置上,这些保守字对于核糖体的早期进化至关重要.

  17. Structural and dynamic aspects of binding of prototype lexitropsin to the decadeoxyribonucleotide d(CGCAATTGCC)2 deduced from high-resolution 1H NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and dynamic properties of the self-complementary decadeoxyribonucleotide d-(CGCAATTGCC)2 and the interaction between a prototype lexitropsin, or information-reading oligopeptide, and the decadeoxyribonucleotide and are deduced by using high-resolution 1H NMR techniques. The nonexchangeable and imino proton resonances of d(CGCAATTGCG)2 have been completely assigned by two-dimensional NMR studies. The decadeoxyribonucleotide exists as a right-handed B-DNA. In the 1H NMR spectrum of the l:1 complex, the selective chemical shifts and removal of degeneracy of AH2(4), AH2(5), T-CH3(6), and T-CH3(7) due to the anisotropy effects of the heterocyclic moieties of the ligand, and with lesser effects at the flanking base sites C(3) and G(8), locate the drug centrally in the decadeoxyribonucleotide. This conclusion is supported by plots of individual chemical shift changes across the decadeoxyribonucleotide. Strong nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) between pyrrol H5 and AH2(5), and weaker NOEs to AH1'(5), TH3'(6), and AH2'(5), firmly locate the ligand in the minor groove. Intraligand NOEs between the adjacent heterocyclic moieties indicate that the lexitropsin is subject to propeller twisting about the N6-C9 bond in both the bound and free forms. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and correlated spectroscopy (COSY) experiments also indicate that the removal of degeneracy of the C16 methylene protons upon complexation may arise from restricted rotation about the C15-N9, C15-C16, and C16-C17 bonds. NOE measurements on the decadeoxyribonucleotide in the 1:1 complex confirm it exists as a right-handed helix and belongs to the B family. Alternative mechanisms for this exchange process are considered

  18. Metabolic and evolutionary insights into the closely-related species Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans deduced from high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Marcus

    2010-12-01

    deduce that S. lividans 66 and TK24, both deficient in the glyoxylate bypass, possess an alternative metabolic mechanism for the assimilation of C2 compounds. Given that streptomycetes generally display high genetic instability it is envisaged that these high-density arrays will find application for rapid assessment of genome content (particularly amplifications/deletions in mutational studies of S. coelicolor and related species.

  19. Energy level alignment in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Sehati, Parisa; Braun, Slawomir; Fahlman, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy level alignment and molecular orientation at the interfaces in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks. We deduced a standing orientation for pentacene grown on Au while we conclude a flat lying geometry for PTCDA grown onto pentacene. We propose that the rough surface of polycrystalline Au induces the standing geometry in pentacene. It is further shown that in situ deposition of PTCDA on pentacene can influence the orientati...

  20. Five-Level Converter with Low Switching Frequency Applied as DC Voltage Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a multi-level converter as a DC supply. Equations for the converter will be deduced in the nondissipative case. The equations provide solutions to DC voltage and the angle of converter voltage. In addition the spectrum for the harmonics after the elimination...

  1. Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f), and Pu238(n,f) cross sections deduced from (p,t), (p,d), and (p,p') surrogate reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; McCleskey, M.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.; Thompson, I. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f) and Pu238(n,f) cross sections have been inferred by utilizing the surrogate ratio method. Targets of Pu239 and U235 were bombarded with 28.5-MeV protons, and the light ion recoils, as well as fission fragments, were detected using the STARS detector array at the K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. The (p, tf) reaction on Pu239 and U235 targets was used to deduce the σ (Pu236(n ,f))/σ(U232(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu236(n,f) cross section was subsequently determined for En=0.5-7.5 MeV. Similarly, the (p,df) reaction on the same two targets was used to deduce the σ(Pu237(n ,f))/σ(U233(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu237(n,f) cross section was extracted in the energy range En=0.5-7 MeV. The Pu238(n,f) cross section was also deduced by utilizing the (p,p') reaction channel on the same targets. There is good agreement with the recent ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section data for Pu238(n,f) in the range En=0.5-10.5 MeV and for Pu237(n,f) in the range En=0.5-7 MeV; however, the Pu236(n,f) cross section deduced in the present work is higher than the evaluation between 2 and 7 MeV.

  2. A variational formulation for a level set representation of multiphase flow and area preserving curvature flow

    OpenAIRE

    Esodoglu, Selim; Smereka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Variational descriptions for various multiphase level set formulations involving curvature flow are discussed. A representation of $n$ phases using $n−1$ level set functions is introduced having the advantage that constraints preventing overlaps or vacuum are not needed. The representation is then used in conjunction with our variational formulation to deduce a novel level set based algorithm for multiphase flow. In addition, a similar variational formulation is applied to area preserving cur...

  3. Late Holocene shorelines deduced from tidal notches on both sides of the Ionian Thrust (Greece) : Fiscardo Peninsula (Cephalonia) and Ithaca Island.

    OpenAIRE

    Evelpidou, N.; Karkani, A.; Kázmér, Miklós; Pirazzoli, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Fossil shorelines produced by recent co-seismic movements were identified throughasubmarine survey along the coasts of Ithaca and Fiscardo (Greece).In both areas a tidal notch-slightly submerged below present Mean Sea Level (MSL) was observed at various sites. This “modern” notch is known to have been submerged by the global sea-level rise during the 19th and 20th centuries. The depth after tide and air-pressure correction of the vertex of the “modern” notch (that owes its submergence to the ...

  4. Histogram plots and cutoff energies for nuclear discrete levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discrete level schemes for 1277 nuclei, from 6Li through 251Es, extracted from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File were analyzed. Cutoff energies (Umax), indicating the upper limit of level scheme completeness, were deduced from the inspection of histograms of the cumulative number of levels. Parameters of the constant-temperature level density formula (nuclear temperature T and energy shift U0) were obtained by means of the least square fit of the formula to the known levels below cutoff energy. The results are tabulated for all 1277 nuclei allowing for an easy and reliable application of the constant-temperature level density approach. A complete set of cumulative plots of discrete levels is also provided. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, ... and Metabolism; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on the Kidney ...

  6. Deduced amino acid sequence of the small hydrophobic protein of US avian pneumovirus has greater identity with that of human metapneumovirus than those of non-US avian pneumoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Abdul S; Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Huang, Zhuhui; Samal, Siba K

    2003-05-01

    We report here the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus strain Colorado (APV/CO). The SH gene of APV/CO is 628 nucleotides in length from gene-start to gene-end. The longest ORF of the SH gene encoded a protein of 177 aas in length. Comparison of the deduced aa sequence of the SH protein of APV/CO with the corresponding published sequences of other members of genera metapneumovirus showed 28% identity with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV), but no discernable identity with the APV subgroup A or B. Collectively, this data supports the hypothesis that: (i) APV/CO is distinct from European APV subgroups and belongs to the novel subgroup APV/C (APV/US); (ii) APV/CO is more closely related to hMPV, a mammalian metapneumovirus, than to either APV subgroup A or B. The SH gene of APV/CO was cloned using a genomic walk strategy which initiated cDNA synthesis from genomic RNA that traversed the genes in the order 3'-M-F-M2-SH-G-5', thus confirming that gene-order of APV/CO conforms in the genus Metapneumovirus. We also provide the sequences of transcription-signals and the M-F, F-M2, M2-SH and SH-G intergenic regions of APV/CO.

  7. Terrestrial environmental changes around the Gulf of Aden over the last 210 kyr deduced from the sediment n-alkane record: Implications for the dispersal of Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Tamaki, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-chain (C25-C36) n-alkanes and pollen grains in sediments from the Gulf of Aden covering the last 212 kyr to reconstruct the surrounding terrestrial environment, a critical region for the dispersal of Homo sapiens. Substantial increases in the flux of n-alkanes during 200-185, 120-95, and 70-50 ka were interpreted to indicate enhanced vegetation biomass in the Arabian Peninsula and the northern part of the Horn of Africa or increase in lithogenic material inputs. Periods of enhanced n-alkane flux occurred during or immediately after pluvial episodes, indicating that the increased precipitation may have induced substantially enhanced vegetation biomass, creating favorable conditions for Homo sapiens. Additionally, vegetation may have increased due to moderate precipitation unrecorded by speleothems or in accordance with the lowering of sea level, indicating that the dispersal might have been possible even after the shift to an arid environment indicated by the speleothems.

  8. Evolution of vertebrate IgM: complete amino acid sequence of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum mu chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, J S; Wiles, M V; Charlemagne, J; Schwager, J

    1992-10-01

    cDNA clones coding for the constant region of the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) mu heavy immunoglobulin chain were selected from total spleen RNA, using a cDNA polymerase chain reaction technique. The specific 5'-end primer was an oligonucleotide homologous to the JH segment of Xenopus laevis mu chain. One of the clones, JHA/3, corresponded to the complete constant region of the axolotl mu chain, consisting of a 1362-nucleotide sequence coding for a polypeptide of 454 amino acids followed in 3' direction by a 179-nucleotide untranslated region and a polyA+ tail. The axolotl C mu is divided into four typical domains (C mu 1-C mu 4) and can be aligned with the Xenopus C mu with an overall identity of 56% at the nucleotide level. Percent identities were particularly high between C mu 1 (59%) and C mu 4 (71%). The C-terminal 20-amino acid segment which constitutes the secretory part of the mu chain is strongly homologous to the equivalent sequences of chondrichthyans and of other tetrapods, including a conserved N-linked oligosaccharide, the penultimate cysteine and the C-terminal lysine. The four C mu domains of 13 vertebrate species ranging from chondrichthyans to mammals were aligned and compared at the amino acid level. The significant number of mu-specific residues which are conserved into each of the four C mu domains argues for a continuous line of evolution of the vertebrate mu chain. This notion was confirmed by the ability to reconstitute a consistent vertebrate evolution tree based on the phylogenic parsimony analysis of the C mu 4 sequences. PMID:1382992

  9. Day-to-day thermosphere parameter variation as deduced from Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar observations during March 16-22, 1990 magnetic storm period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    Full Text Available A self-consistent method for day-time F2-region modelling was applied to the analysis of Millstone Hill incoherent scatter observations during the storm period of March 16-22, 1990. The method allows us to calculate in a self-consistent way neutral composition, temperature and meridional wind as well as the ionized species height distribution. Theoretically calculated Ne(h profiles fit the observed daytime ones with great accuracy in the whole range of heights above 150 km for both quiet and disturbed days. The overall increase in Tex by 270 K from March 16 to March 22 reflects the increase of solar activity level during the period in question. A 30% decrease in [O] and a two-fold increase in [N2] are calculated for the disturbed day of March 22 relative to quiet time prestorm conditions. Only a small reaction to the first geomagnetic disturbance on March 18 and the initial phase of the second storm on March 20 was found in [O] and [N2] variations. The meridional neutral wind inferred from plasma vertical drift clearly demonstrates the dependence on the geomagnetic activity level being more equatorward on disturbed days. Small positive F2-layer storm effects on March 18 and 20 are totally attributed to the decrease in the northward neutral wind but not to changes in neutral composition. A moderate (by a factor of 1.5 O/N2 ratio decrease relative to the MSIS-83 model prediction is required to describe the observed NmF2 decrease on the most disturbed day of March 22, but virtually no change of this ratio is needed for March 21.

  10. Leveling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  11. Palaeoclimatic record in the loess-palaeosol sequence of the Strelitsa type section (Don glaciation area, Russia) deduced from rock magnetic and palynological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virina, Elena I.; Heller, Friedrich; Faustov, Stanislav S.; Bolikhovskaya, Nathalia S.; Krasnenkov, Robert V.; Gendler, Tatyana; Hailwood, Ernie A.; Hus, Jozeph

    2000-07-01

    Until now, palaeoclimatic reconstructions for the major stages in the development of the Quaternary loess-palaeosol sequence on the Russian Plain have been based on pedological, palynological and faunal (vertebrates and molluscs) analyses. In order to demonstrate the palaeoclimatic influence on the magnetic properties of this sequence, the magnetic susceptibility signature of the Strelitsa type section in the Upper Don basin is compared with a detailed landscape - climate reconstruction of loess and soil from palynological data. Large amplitude fluctuations of palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment are reflected clearly in the lithology and in the rock magnetic properties, which usually are enhanced in wet and warm interglacial periods, but stay at low levels during cold glacial epochs. Palynological climate zonation, however, is sometimes in conflict with the pedologic-magnetic record. Strong climate fluctuations, as indicated by changing pollen assemblages, are not always paralleled by corresponding changes in lithology and/or rock magnetic properties. Alternatively, light coloured illuvial horizons with low magnetic signal sometimes appear to have formed during early stages of interglacials, and the top parts of some palaeosols apparently formed during glacial stages.

  12. Recent crustal deformation of İzmir, Western Anatolia and surrounding regions as deduced from repeated GPS measurements and strain field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuğ, Bahadır; Kılıçoğlu, Ali

    2006-07-01

    To investigate contemporary neotectonic deformation in İzmir, Western Anatolia and in its neighborhood, a relatively dense Global Positioning System (GPS) monitoring network was established in 2001. Combination of three spatially dense GPS campaigns in 2001, 2003 and 2004 with temporally dense campaigns between 1992 and 2004 resulted in a combined velocity field representing active deformation rate in the region. We computed horizontal and vertical velocity fields with respect to Earth-centered, Earth-fixed ITRF2000, to Eurasia and to Anatolia as well. The rates of principal and shear strains along with rigid-body rotation rates were derived from velocity field. Results show east-west shortening between Karaburun Peninsula and northern part of İzmir Bay together with the extension of İzmir Bay in accordance with general extension regime of Western Anatolia and Eastern Agea. East-west shortening and north-south extension of Karaburun Peninsula are closely related to right-lateral faulting and a clockwise rotation. There exists a block in the middle of the peninsula with a differential motion at a rate of 3-5 ± 1 mm/year and 5-6 ± 1 mm/year to the east and south, respectively. As is in Western Anatolia, north-south extension is dominant in almost all parts of the region despite the fact that they exhibit significantly higher rates in the middle of the peninsula. Extensional rates along Tuzla Fault lying nearly perpendicular to İzmir Bay and in its west are maximum in the region with an extension rate of 300-500 ± 80-100 nanostrain/year and confirm its active state. Extensional rates in other parts of the region are at level of 50-150 nanostrain/year as expected in the other parts of Western Anatolia.

  13. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and lidar data - Case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, E.; Muñoz-Cobo Belart, J.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) can be used to extract glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne lidar in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high-resolution lidar DEM. The lidar DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice- and snow-free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical semivariogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice- and snow-free areas were used as inputs into 1000 sequential Gaussian simulations (SGSims). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM and the 95 % confidence level of this bias. This results in bias correction varying in magnitude between 0.03 m (in 1975) and 1.66 m (in 1946) and uncertainty values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional seasonal bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree-day model to obtain the volume change between the start of 2 glaciological years (1 October). This correction was largest for the 1960 DEM, corresponding to an average elevation change of -3.5 m or approx. three-quarters of the volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The total uncertainty of the derived mass balance record is dominated by uncertainty in the volume

  14. Energy level alignment in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehati, P.; Braun, S.; Fahlman, M.

    2013-09-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy level alignment and molecular orientation at the interfaces in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks. We deduced a standing orientation for pentacene grown on Au while we conclude a flat lying geometry for PTCDA grown onto pentacene. We propose that the rough surface of polycrystalline Au induces the standing geometry in pentacene. It is further shown that in situ deposition of PTCDA on pentacene can influence the orientation of the surface pentacene layer, flipping part of the surface pentacene molecules into a flat lying geometry, maximizing the orbital interaction across the pentacene-PTCDA heterojunction.

  15. Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and γ-spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jungck, Matthias H.A.; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by γ-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We fo...

  16. Level densities and $\\gamma$-ray strength functions in Sn isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, H. K.; Larsen, A.C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Voinov, A.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear level densities of $^{118,119}$Sn and the $\\gamma$-ray strength functions of $^{116,118,119}$Sn below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the ($^3$He, \\,$\\alpha \\gamma$) and ($^3$He,$^3$He$^\\prime\\gamma$) reactions. The level density function of $^{119}$Sn displays step-like structures. The microcanonical entropies are deduced from the level densities, and the single neutron entropy of $^{119}$Sn is determined to be $(1.7 \\pm 0.2)\\,k_B$. Results ...

  17. Low-lying levels and collective bands in doubly-odd 124Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleus 124Cs has been studied by in-beam γ- and e--spectroscopy techniques with the fusion-evaporation reaction 115In(12C, 3nγ) at 57 MeV. Multipolarities of the main low-energy transitions have been deduced from electron spectra. A level scheme is proposed with firm Iπ assignments. Low-spin low-lying levels and high-spin states have been investigated. The low-spin levels and two-quasiparticle bands are interpreted by using the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model. The band structures are also discussed in the frame of the cranked-shell model

  18. Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on 54,58,56Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Byun, Y.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Akhtar, S.; Dhakal, S.; Parker, C. E.

    2015-07-01

    Deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α -particle emission spectra, from d + 54,58,56Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 57Co, 55Co, 57Fe, 55Fe, 52Mn, 54Mn have been deduced from the compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)], 10.1016/0375-9474(92)90278-R was found to have a good agreement with our results.

  19. Theoretical assessment of the potential to deduce microphysical characteristics of ice clouds from polarimetric radar measurements at 95 GHz; Theoretische Untersuchungen zur Ableitung mikrophysikalischer Parameter von Eiswolken aus polarimetrischen Radarmessungen bei 95 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemke, H.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2000-07-01

    The potential of polarimetric radar measurements at 95 GHz to derive microphysical cloud characteristics is assessed. Scattering by atmospheric ice crystals is calculated applying the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for single crystals of various shape, size, and orientation. The results are combined to acquire radar signals for collections of particles representing the radar volume. Expressing the particle size with respect to the radius of a volume equivalent sphere, the co-plar reflectivity is only slightly affected by particle shape variations. Thus, keeping the limitations of such an approach in mind, the simplified representation of crystals as spheres is applicable. On the other hand, the signal is strongly influenced by the particle size and the total ice water content. Polarimetric radar parameters like linear depolarisation ratio and differential reflectivity are almost independent of size and ice water content. They are predominantly affected by the crystal shape and orientation and therefore have a potential to deduce information about ice crystal habits. Unfortunately, to date such measurements are subject to technical restrictions. (orig.)

  20. Deducing A Compensation Formula of the Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor's Temperature Drift on Zero Signal%压阻式压力传感器零点温漂补偿公式的推导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕敏

    2011-01-01

    This article deduces a set of formulas about compensating the pressure sensor's temperature drift on zero singal. For the sake of the balance of the electric bridge, more than ten compensating methods to the bridge arms are induced into two -- the series and parallel join respectively, and thus the research has simplified the calculation of maths and complexity of compensating work. Moreover, the usage of two formulas are introduced, and have been testified in both theories and experiments.%导出一套压阻式压力传感器零点温漂的补偿公式.从电桥平衡出发,提出对电桥桥臂一串一并的十几种补偿方法归结为两种,从而简化了数学计算和补偿工作的繁杂性,并对导出的公式的使用方法,加以说明,理论和实验得到了较好的验证.

  1. Thermal effect and energy-level transition rule for a mesoscopic LC circuit with inductance-capacitance coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Jie; Wang Ji-Suo; Liang Bao-Long; Zhang Xiao-Yan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the mesoscopic inductance and capacitance coupling LC circuit is quantized by means of the canonical quantization method. Using the 'invariant eigen-operator' method, it deduces the energy-level transition rule when the system is disturbed by an external electromagnetic field. At the same time, the quantum fluctuations for the system at finite temperature are examined by virtue of the generalized Hellmann-Feynman theorem.

  2. Level structure studies of 182W from the decay of 182Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative intensities of X rays and γ rays from the decay of 182Ta were measured precisely using Si(Li) and HPGe detectors. The intensities of the different components of K and L X rays were measured for the first time. The conversion electron intensities for the transitions with energy above 800 keV from the 182Ta decay were measured using a mini-orange electron spectrometer and the internal conversion coefficients for various transitions in 182W deduced. The (M+N)-conversion coefficients for the 1001.7, 1189.1, 1231.0, 1257.2, 1289.2, and 1342.7 keV transitions in 182W were measured for the first time. Also, γ-γ coincidence and correlation measurements were carried out using a HPGe-HPGe coincidence setup (2τ = 7 ns). The directional correlation coefficients for the 928-229, 960-229, 1002-229, 1158-229, 1223-229, and 1002, 1113, 1158, 1223, and 1231 keV transitions are deduced from the present directional correlation and conversion coefficient measurements. Experimental ratios of reduced transition probabilities for the transitions in 182W from positive and negative parity states are deduced and compared with the values predicted by the symmetric rotor model. From this comparison a unique K assignment of Kπ = 1+ and Kπ = 1- is made to the bands built on the 1257 and 1553 keV levels, respectively. (Author) 33 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Fault deducing model research of switched reluctance power system of airplane based on PHM%飞机开关磁阻发电系统故障推理模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 雷洪利; 韩建定; 朱喜华

    2011-01-01

    开关磁阻发电系统是飞机供电系统的核心部分,为了研究飞机供电系统健康管理技术,减少故障推理模型的检测参数,满足飞机可靠性方面的要求,利用MATLAB软件对开关磁阻发电机典型电气故障进行了仿真分析,并引入记忆模块解决以往仿真过程中产生的代数环问题.然后将发电机输出电压信号利用EMD算法进行分解,将其分解后的各层频率信号的标准差作为特征量训练神经网络,得出开关磁阻发电系统的故障推理模型,本模型只需测量输出电压一个参数,减少了检测参数的数量,为开关磁阻发电系统故障预测模型及飞机整个供电系统键康管理系统的开发奠定了基础.%The switched reluctance power system is the com of airplane power system. In order to research the application of PHM in the power system of airplane, reduce the measure parameters of the fault deducing model,and satisfy the requirements of airplane dependability, the typical electric faults of SRG was carefully analyzed in this paper with MATLAB, and the memory module was used to solve the algebraic loop problem. The SRG voltage signal with EMD was analyzed, and the decomposed signal as character data was used to train the neural network and gain the fault concluding model of SRG main electrical power system. Only one parameter of the output voltage was needed to be measured with this model, which reduced the number of the measured parameters and was meaningful to the research of the prognostic model and PHM system of power system.

  4. Swiss National Reference Levels in Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroua, A.; Baechler, S.; Verdun, F.R. [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Rickli, H. [Cardiology Department, Kanton Hospital, Saint-Gall (Switzerland); Trueb, Ph.R. [Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH), Bern (Switzerland); Vock, P. [Universitaetsspital Bern, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    A nationwide survey was launched in Switzerland in order to investigate the use of fluoroscopy and to establish national reference levels (R.L.) for dose-intensive procedures particularly in interventional radiology. The 2-year investigation covered 5 radiology and 9 cardiology departments in public hospitals and private clinics, and focused on twelve types of examinations: six diagnostic and six interventional. The performance of the fluoroscopy units used in these health-care centres (image quality and dose) was assessed extensively and 1000 examinations were registered. Information on the fluoroscopy time (T), the number of frames (N), the dose-area product (D.A.P.), the difficulty of the case, the age, gender, height and weight of the patient, as well as the experience of the practitioner was provided. The whole set of data was used in relative values (to the mean values for each type of examination) to establish the distributions of T, N and the D.A.P.. From these distributions a set of R.L. values was deduced for the types of examinations investigated using the 3.-quartile method. The R.L. values found are compared to the data published in the literature. (authors)

  5. On Level persistence (Relevant level persistence numbers)

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to describe of a new set of numerical invariants, the relevant level persistence numbers, and make explicit their relationship with the four types of bar codes, a more familiar set of complete invariants for level persistence. The paper provides the opportunity to compare level persistence with the persistence introduced by Edelsbrunner- Letscher-Zomorodian called in this paper, as sub-level persistence.

  6. First results on 236U levels in global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Quinto, F; Mino, K; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Whitehead, N; Yamamoto, M

    2009-07-01

    The global fallout (236)U level in soil was deduced from measurements of (236)U, (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs in surface soils which are solely influenced by global fallout. A total of 12 soil cores from the depths of 0-10, 0-20 and 0-30 cm were collected at a flat forest area in Japan. Concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (238)U were determined by alpha-particle spectrometry, while the (236)U/(238)U ratio was measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Consistent (236)U/(239)Pu ratios between 0.212 and 0.253 were found. Using this ratio, the total global fallout of (236)U on the earth is estimated to be as much as ca. 900 kg. This knowledge will contribute to the promotion of research on U isotopes, including (236)U, for the fields of geo-resources, waste management and geochemistry. PMID:19406452

  7. Estimating the glacier contribution to sea-level rise for the period 1800-2005

    OpenAIRE

    P. W. Leclercq; Oerlemans, J.; Cogley, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new estimate of the contribution of glaciers and ice caps to the sea-level rise over the period 1800-2005 is presented. We exploit the available information on changes in glacier length. Length records form the only direct evidence of glacier change that has potential global coverage before 1950. We calculate a globally representative signal from 349 glacier length records. By means of scaling, we deduce a global glacier volume signal, that is calibrated on the mass-balance a...

  8. Low energy level density and surface instabilities in heavy transition nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical analysis of Au, Pt, Hg nuclear levels was performed with Ericson's method. The odd mass gold experimental number of levels distributions are compared to the theoretical distributions corresponding to vibrational (Alaga and Kisslinger-Sorensen) and rotational (Stephens, Meyer-ter-Vehn) models. The Alaga model gives the most complete description of 193Au, 195Au levels and fits the lowest part of Gilbert-Cameron high energy distributions (deduced from the statistical model and neutron capture data). The Ericson's method shows other interesting features of Pt and Hg isotopes (i.e. level density dependence on nuclear shape and pairing correlations, evidence for phase transitions). Consequently, this method is a useful tool for guiding experimental as well as theoretical investigations of transition nuclei

  9. Energy levels of sup(155)Eu studied by thermal neutron capture reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-ray and conversion electron spectra of 155Eu from the (n, γ) reaction were studied using curved crystal spectrometers of GAMS 1, GAMS 2/3, β-spectrometer, BILL, and the pair spectrometer. γ-transition multipolarities have been determined in the energy interval of 40-1200 keV. The level scheme of 155Eu has been deduced with 51 level, up to the 1.7 MeV excitation energy. These levels are depopulated via 140 transitions of 360 ones observed in γ-ray spectrum. The levels are grouped into 13 rotational bands of which 3/2-(541), 1/2-(550), 5/2+(413)+Q20, 3/2+(411)+Q20 are entirelyew. The ΔK=0 type of E1 transitions are enhanced comparing with the ΔK=1 type of E1transitions

  10. Application of Excitation Function to the Prediction of RI Level Caused by Corona Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lingyu; JI Shengchang; HUI Sisi; GUO Jun; LI Yansong; FU Chenzhao

    2012-01-01

    Radio interference (RI), as an aftereffect of corona discharge, is an important research topic in the field of electromagnetic compatibility, where excitation function is applied broadly to the prediction of RI level. This paper presents the theory of excitation function method used in the RI level prediction. Then, some practical problems related to this method are discussed. The propagation procedure of corona current is solved by the phase-modal transformation, and the impedance matrix of multi transmission lines is calculated by a double logarithmic approximate model of Carson's Ground-Return impedance. At the same time, in order to calculate the RI level when total line corona is assumed, an analytical formula is deduced for integral operation. Based on the above solutions, an algorithm is presented and applied to the prediction of RI level of a practical overhead transmission line. Comparison of prediction and measurement results indicates that the algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and feasible.

  11. An Implementation Mechanisms of SVM Control Strategies Applied to Five Levels Cascaded Multi-Level Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yaichi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the area of the energy control with high voltage and power, the multilevel inverters constitute a relatively recent research orientation. The current applications of this technology are in the domains of the high voltage (over hundred kV, variable speed drives, transport and distribution of a good quality of electrical energy (HVDC, FACTS system, ..... To improve the output voltage for such inverters, many different modulation strategies have been developed. Among these strategies, the SVM (Space Vector Modulation. The technique provide the nearest switching vectors sequence to the reference vector without involving trigonometric functions and provide the additional advantages of superior harmonic quality. In this paper, we analyze different mechanisms of the output voltage synthesis and the problem of even order harmonic production. With the proposed a new trajectory SVM, which can eliminate all the even order harmonics for five levels inverter. Show clearly how to deduce the trajectories from the sequences allowing to have better performances among several possible trajectories. It is dedicated to the application of two particular trajectories.

  12. Robust, angstrom level circularity profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A noncontacting approach is presented which involves measuring the local circumferential curvature of the test piece by simultaneously measuring its circumferential slope at two slightly displaced locations. A pair of sensing beams is scanned along the circumference, and a profile of curvature is built, from which the circularity profile is deduced. The sensing of curvature makes the approach insensitive to all types of vibration and drift and runout errors in the relative rotation. The special qualities of the approach are summarized which make it well suited to measuring cylindrical optics and enable it to accommodate radii as small as twenty millimeters.

  13. Multi-Level Model

    OpenAIRE

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Is an original paper, which contains a hierarchical model with three levels, for determining the linearized non-homogeneous and homogeneous credibility premiums at company level, at sector level and at contract level, founded on the relevant covariance relations between the risk premium, the observations and the weighted averages. We give a rather explicit description of the input data for the multi- level hierarchical model used, only to show that in practical situations, there will always b...

  14. 罗非鱼源无乳链球菌S-核糖基高半胱氨酸酶基因(luxS)的克隆及其推导蛋白的三维结构预测%Cloning of Streptococcus agalactiae luxS gene from tilapia and 3D structure prediction of deduced protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳平; 李嘉彬; 郝乐; 刘振兴; 冯国清; 周结珊; 柯浩

    2013-01-01

    We have amplified, cloned and determined the sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae luxS gene from Tilapia sp. by PCR. The characteristics of the deduced luxS protein were predicted by ExPAsy software; the 3D structures of luxS and the deduced protein were established and analyzed by SWISS-Model and SwisS-PDBviewer software, respectively. The results indicate that the deduced luxS protein contains conserved active center and Zn2+ binding site, which may affect biofilm formation and regulate virulence factor. The Ramachandram plot shows that the structure of modeled luxS protein is reasonable.%利用PCR技术对罗非鱼源无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)S-核糖基高半胱氨酸酶(luxS)基因全长DNA进行了扩增、克隆和序列测定,采用ExPAsy软件包预测了推导蛋白的特性,利用SwisS-Model服务器建立了luxS 三维结构,利用SwisS-PDBviewer软件进行了蛋白质三维结构的分析.预测结果显示,罗非鱼源无乳链球菌luxS推导蛋白包括保守的酶活性中心和锌结合位点,具有影响生物被膜形成、毒力因子调控等特性功能;经拉氏构象图(Ramachandran plot)分析,所构建的luxS的空间结构合理.

  15. New energy levels, calculated lifetimes and transition probabilities in Xe IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, M; Raineri, M; Reyna Almandos, J [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), CC 3 (1897) Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina); Biemont, E [IPNAS, Universite de Liege, B15 Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-02-28

    Twenty-one new experimental energy levels belonging to the 4d{sup 9}6p, 4d{sup 9}4f and 4d{sup 9}5f configurations of Xe IX are presented. They have been deduced from 75 newly classified lines involving the configurations 4d{sup 9}5p, 4d{sup 9}6p, 4d{sup 9}4f, 4d{sup 9}5f and 4d{sup 9}5d, 4d{sup 9}5s, 4d{sup 9}6s for the odd and even parities, respectively. The radiative lifetimes of these levels as well as the weighted oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for all the observed spectral lines have been calculated with optimized parameters deduced from a least-squares fitting procedure applied in the framework of a relativistic Hartree-Fock method including core-polarization effects. The scale of transition probabilities has also been assessed through comparisons with lifetimes calculated using a relativistic multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock approach.

  16. DSC and universal bit-level combining for HARQ systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Tiejun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a Dempster -Shafer theory based combining scheme for single-input single-output (SISO systems with hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ, referred to as DSC, in which two methods for soft information calculations are developed for equiprobable (EP and non-equiprobable (NEP sources, respectively. One is based on the distance from the received signal to the decision candidate set consisting of adjacent constellation points when the source bits are equiprobable, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-D. The other is based on the posterior probability of the transmitted signals when the priori probability for the NEP source bits is available, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-APP. For the diverse EP and NEP source cases, both DSCD and DSC-APP are superior to maximal ratio combining, the so-called optimal combining scheme for SISO systems. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed DSC is illustrated by the simulations performed in Rayleigh channel and AWGN channel, respectively. The results show that the proposed DSC is insensitive to and especially applicable to the fading channels. In addition, a DS detection-aided bit-level DS combining scheme is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output--HARQ systems. The bit-level DS combining is deduced to be a universal scheme, and the traditional log-likelihood-ratio combining is a special case when the likelihood probability is used as bit-level soft information.

  17. A Level Set Filter for Speckle Reduction in SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Bo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite much effort and significant progress in recent years, speckle removal for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image still is a challenging problem in image processing. Unlike the traditional noise filters, which are mainly based on local neighborhood statistical average or frequencies transform, in this paper, we propose a speckle reduction method based on the theory of level set, one form of curvature flow propagation. Firstly, based on partial differential equation, the Lee filter can be cast as a formulation of anisotropic diffusion function; furthermore, we continued to deduce it into a level set formulation. Level set flow into the method allows the front interface to propagate naturally with topological changes, where the speed is proportional to the curvature of the intensity contours in an image. Hence, small speckle will disappear quickly, while large scale interfaces will be slow to evolve. Secondly, for preserving finer detailed structures in images when smoothing the speckle, the evolution is switched between minimum or maximum curvature speed depending on the scale of speckle. The proposed method has been illustrated by experiments on simulation image and ERS-2 SAR images under different circumstances. Its advantages over the traditional speckle reduction filter approaches have also been demonstrated.

  18. Sea level rise

    OpenAIRE

    Warrick, R. A.; Oerlemans, J.

    1990-01-01

    This Section addresses three questions: Has global-mean sea level been rising during the last 100 years? What are the causal factors that could explain a past rise in sea level? And what increases in sea level can be expected in the future?

  19. Contribution of climate forcing to sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsiopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Vergos, Georgios S.; Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2016-04-01

    With the availability of an abundance of earth observation data from satellite altimetry missions as well as those from the ENVISAT and CRYOSAT-2 satellites, monitoring of the sea level variations is gaining increased importance. In this work, altimetric data sets from the satellite remote sensing missions of ENVISAT and CRYOSAT-2 have been used to study the variations of the Mediterranean sea level. Alongside, a correlation analysis of Sea Level Anomalies (SLAs) with global and regional climatic indexes that influence the ocean state, has been carried out as well. The raw data used were SLAs from the respective altimetric missions, acquired by the on-board altimeters from the ENVISAT satellite for seven consecutive years (2003-2009) and from the CRYOSAT-2 satellite for six consecutive years (2010-2015). Three oscillation indexes have been investigated, as representative of climate-change and seasonal forcing on the sea level. The first one was the well-known Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), the next one the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the third, being primarily more representative of the Mediterranean sea state, was the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI). The possible correlation is investigated in both monthly and annual scales, while a regional multiple regression and a principal component analysis (PCA) between the SLAs and oscillation indexes is carried out. Multiple regression and PCA have been used as tools in order to deduce possible correlations between the Mediterranean sea level variations and the aforementioned oscillation indexes, under the assumption that SLA variations are driven by steric forcing. Finally, evidence of the sea level cyclo-stationarity in the Mediterranean Sea is deduced from the analysis of empirically derived covariance functions at monthly intervals from the available SLA data.

  20. Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. II. A Three-Dimensional Tracer Inversion Model to Deduce Regional Fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Charles D.; HEIMANN Martin; Stewart, Elisabeth F

    2001-01-01

    A three-dimensional tracer inversion model is described that couples atmospheric CO2 transport with prescribed and adjustable source/sink components of the global car- bon cycle to predict atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C isotopic ratio taking account of exchange fluxes of atmospheric CO2 with the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans. Industrial CO2 emissions are prescribed from fuel production data. Transport of CO2 is prescribed by a model, TM2, that employs 9 vertical levels from ...

  1. Multi-Level Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is an original paper, which contains a hierarchical model with three levels, for determining the linearized non-homogeneous and homogeneous credibility premiums at company level, at sector level and at contract level, founded on the relevant covariance relations between the risk premium, the observations and the weighted averages. We give a rather explicit description of the input data for the multi- level hierarchical model used, only to show that in practical situations, there will always be enough data to apply credibility theory to a real insurance portfolio.

  2. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  3. Nonuniversality in level dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kunstman, P; Zakrzewski, J A; Kunstman, Pawe{\\l}; Zyczkowski, Karol \\.; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    1997-01-01

    Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general non-universal and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced.

  4. Nonuniversality in level dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstman, P.; Zyczkowski, K.; Zakrzewski, J. [Instytut Fizyki Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    1997-03-01

    Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general {ital nonuniversal} and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Operating System Levels

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Operating System Levels This interactive tutorial presents the levels of functions within complex software systems, and the operations of the various levels: shell, directory manager, file manager, display driver, keyboard, disk driver, etc.The information is presented in three different modes. The student may choose to see an animated presentation, view a step-by-step self-paced presentation with explanations provided, or complete a do-it-yourself exercise. Last modified: 5/18/2009 CS...

  6. Theoretic analysis on phase delay phenomena of well water level tide in the double medium aquifer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model of double medium aquifer is briefly introduced in this paper, a partial differential equation about seepage motion derived by the tidal stress in the model layer is deduced. Compared this equation with Boulton equation used in the unconfined aquifer, a new lagging supply water term is obtained, which establish the physical basis for interpreting the phase delay phenomena of well water level caused by the solid tide. By analyzing the partial dif-ferential equation, it is found that this lagging supply term is related with the fluctuation of tide occurred in the deep aquifer.

  7. Levels of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When speaking about danger of catastrophe, it is the first level of danger. Its absence is the first level of safety. When speaking about danger of danger of catastrophe, it is the second level of danger. Its absence is the second level of safety. The paper proposes the way to formalize these ideas and use formal models to construct the states-and-event scale for a given object. The proposed approach can be applied to objects of different nature. The states-and-events scale may be used for transformation of initial objectives state-and-transitions graph to reduce bad classes of states

  8. LOWER LEVEL INFERENCE CONTROL IN STATISTICAL DATABASE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, D.L.; Wong, H.K.T.

    1984-02-01

    An inference is the process of transforming unclassified data values into confidential data values. Most previous research in inference control has studied the use of statistical aggregates to deduce individual records. However, several other types of inference are also possible. Unknown functional dependencies may be apparent to users who have 'expert' knowledge about the characteristics of a population. Some correlations between attributes may be concluded from 'commonly-known' facts about the world. To counter these threats, security managers should use random sampling of databases of similar populations, as well as expert systems. 'Expert' users of the DATABASE SYSTEM may form inferences from the variable performance of the user interface. Users may observe on-line turn-around time, accounting statistics. the error message received, and the point at which an interactive protocol sequence fails. One may obtain information about the frequency distributions of attribute values, and the validity of data object names from this information. At the back-end of a database system, improved software engineering practices will reduce opportunities to bypass functional units of the database system. The term 'DATA OBJECT' should be expanded to incorporate these data object types which generate new classes of threats. The security of DATABASES and DATABASE SySTEMS must be recognized as separate but related problems. Thus, by increased awareness of lower level inferences, system security managers may effectively nullify the threat posed by lower level inferences.

  9. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    , and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...

  10. Authentication Assurance Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Common Criteria approach has been applied to create a definition of Authentication Assurance Levels that can quantify the level of assurance reached for a system subject to a set of authentication procedures. The arms-control authentication application of the Common Criteria expands on more typical information security evaluations in that it must contend with information barriers and preclude sophisticated intentional subversion attempts.

  11. Soft X-ray coronal spectra at low activity levels observed by RESIK

    CERN Document Server

    Sylwester, B; Phillips, K J H

    2010-01-01

    The quiet-Sun X-ray emission is important for deducing coronal heating mechanisms, but it has not been studied in detail since the Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO) spacecraft era. Bragg crystal spectrometer X-ray observations have generally concentrated on flares and active regions. The high sensitivity of the RESIK (REntgenovsky Spectrometer s Izognutymi Kristalami) instrument on the CORONAS-F solar mission has enabled the X-ray emission from the quiet corona to be studied in a systematic way for the first time. Our aim is to deduce the physical conditions of the non-flaring corona from RESIK line intensities in several spectral ranges using both isothermal and multithermal assumptions. We selected and analyzed spectra in 312 quiet-Sun intervals in January and February 2003, sorting them into 5 groups according to activity level. For each group, the fluxes in selected spectral bands have been used to calculate values parameters for the best-fit that lead to a intensities characteristic of each group. We used...

  12. COMPARISON BETWEEN PATH LENGTHS TRAVELED BY SOLAR ELECTRONS AND IONS IN GROUND-LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of ±10% the deduced path length of low-energy (∼27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons. We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

  13. Comparison Between Path Lengths Traveled by Solar Electrons and Ions in Ground-Level Enhancement Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald; NG, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of plus or minus 10% the deduced path length of low-energy (approximately 27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons.We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

  14. Distribution of level spacing ratios using one- plus two-body random matrix ensembles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N D Chavda

    2015-02-01

    Probability distribution (()) of the level spacing ratios has been introduced recently and is used to investigate many-body localization as well as to quantify the distance from integrability on finite size lattices. In this paper, we study the distribution of the ratio of consecutive level spacings using one-body plus two-body random matrix ensembles for finite interacting many-fermion and many-boson systems. () for these ensembles move steadily from the Poisson to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) form as the two-body interaction strength is varied. Other related quantities are also used in the analysis to obtain critical strength c for the transition. The c values deduced using the () analysis are in good agreement with the results obtained using the nearest neighbour spacing distribution (NNSD) analysis.

  15. Analysis of generalized negative binomial distributions attached to hyperbolic Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaiba, Hassan; Demni, Nizar; Mouayn, Zouhair

    2016-07-01

    To each hyperbolic Landau level of the Poincaré disc is attached a generalized negative binomial distribution. In this paper, we compute the moment generating function of this distribution and supply its atomic decomposition as a perturbation of the negative binomial distribution by a finitely supported measure. Using the Mandel parameter, we also discuss the nonclassical nature of the associated coherent states. Next, we derive a Lévy-Khintchine-type representation of its characteristic function when the latter does not vanish and deduce that it is quasi-infinitely divisible except for the lowest hyperbolic Landau level corresponding to the negative binomial distribution. By considering the total variation of the obtained quasi-Lévy measure, we introduce a new infinitely divisible distribution for which we derive the characteristic function.

  16. Quantum Defect Theory description of weakly bound levels and Feshbach resonances in LiRb

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Chen, Yong P; Greene, Chris H

    2014-01-01

    The multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) in combination with the frame transformation (FT) approach is applied to model the Fano-Feshbach resonances measured for $^{7}$Li$^{87}$Rb and $^{6}$Li$^{87}$Rb [Marzok {\\it et al.} Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 79} 012717 (2009)]. The MQDT results show a level of accuracy comparable to that of previous models based on direct, fully numerical solutions of the the coupled channel Schr\\"odinger equations (CC). Here, energy levels deduced from 2-photon photoassociation spectra for $^{7}$Li$^{85}$Rb are assigned by applying the MQDT approach, obtaining the bound state energies for the coupled channel problem. Our results confirm that MQDT yields a compact description of photoassociation observables as well as the Fano-Feshbach resonance positions and widths.

  17. Water level instrumentation simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through simulation, evaluations of system performance can be made to increase efficiency, reduce costs, enhance safety and provide effective training. A full function simulation for evaluating water level measurement requires modeling the physical process, the process instrumentation response and where appropriate, the human input/response. This paper examines a full function application simulating the primary system water level in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The physical processes associated with BWR vessel level response are modeled with the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP). The MAAP code is used as the basis for providing primary system and containment thermal-hydraulic response to a compendium of expected plant transients. The BWR vessel level instruments is modeled with the FAI developed Instrumentation PACkage (IPAC). With the thermal-hydraulic input from MAAP, the IPAC software models the various phenomena associated with water level measurements including the effects due to: (1) instrument channel calibration, (2) instrument drift and (3) containment (drywell) environmental effects. This paper discusses the IPAC models (instrumentation components) along with the factors which influence the mass balance of water in the downcomer region. A comparison of the BWR vessel water level complete simulation package to data from a simulated BWR plant transient culminates the discussion of this paper. The full function simulation package presented in this paper, enables a software-based representation of the BWR vessel level to be evaluated under various hypothetical plant conditions including normal, accident, and severe accident events. (author)

  18. Intermittent Sea Level Acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Spada, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Fondamenti, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino

    2013-01-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea{level acceleration for the last 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, con firm the existence of a global sea level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0:01 mm/yr2. However, di fferently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or ...

  19. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  20. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    method.For oceanographic purposes, the altimetric record over the Arctic Ocean is inferiorin quality to that of moderate latitudes, but nonetheless an invaluable set of observations. During this project, newly processed Arctic altimetry from the ERS-1/-2 and Envisat missions has become available......Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...

  1. Low sodium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  2. Low potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or vomiting Using too much laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure Eating disorders (such as bulimia ) Low magnesium level Sweating

  3. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  4. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  5. Level Eulerian Posets

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenborg, Richard; Readdy, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The notion of level posets is introduced. This class of infinite posets has the property that between every two adjacent ranks the same bipartite graph occurs. When the adjacency matrix is indecomposable, we determine the length of the longest interval one needs to check to verify Eulerianness. Furthermore, we show that every level Eulerian poset associated to an indecomposable matrix has even order. A condition for verifying shellability is introduced and is automated using the algebra of walks. Applying the Skolem--Mahler--Lech theorem, the ${\\bf ab}$-series of a level poset is shown to be a rational generating function in the non-commutative variables ${\\bf a}$ and ${\\bf b}$. In the case the poset is also Eulerian, the analogous result holds for the ${\\bf cd}$-series. Using coalgebraic techniques a method is developed to recognize the ${\\bf cd}$-series matrix of a level Eulerian poset.

  6. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  7. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR data - case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, E.; Belart, J. M. C.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can be used as constraints for extracting glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high resolution LiDAR DEM (2 m × 2 m cell size and vertical accuracy LiDAR DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice and snow free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical variogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice and snow free areas were used as inputs into 1000 Sequential Gaussian Simulations (SGSim). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM. The derived bias correction, varying in magnitude between DEMs from 0.03 to 1.66 m (1946 DEM) was then applied. The simulation results were also used to calculate the 95 % confidence level of this bias, resulting in values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree day model to obtain the volume change between the start of two hydrological years (1 October). This correction corresponds to an average elevation change of ~ -3 m in the worst case for 1960, or about ~ 2/3 of volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The total

  8. PANJABI READER, LEVEL 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    THIS SECOND-LEVEL READER IN THE PANJABI LANGUAGE CAN BE USED IN A SECOND- OR THIRD-YEAR COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. THE GRAMMAR APPENDIX INCLUDED IS IDENTICAL TO THAT FOUND IN THE FIRST-LEVEL PANJABI READER (ED 010 485). THE MAIN PORTION OF THE BOOK CONSISTS OF 23 UNITS,…

  9. Changing Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  10. Canterbury Basin Sea Level

    OpenAIRE

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Institute for Geophysics John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Building 196 (ROC) 10100 Burnet Road (R2200) Austin TX 78758-4445 USA; Hoyanagi, K.; Department of Geology Faculty of Science Shinshu University 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 Japan; Blum, P.; United States Implementing Organization Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845 USA; Guèrin, G.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Slagle, A. L.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Blair, S. A.; Department of Geological Sciences Florida State University 006 Carraway Building Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Browne, G. H.; Hydrocarbon Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Carter, R. M.; Marine Geophysical Laboratory James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville QLD 4811 Australia; Ciobanu, M.; Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes CNRS UMR-6197 Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer Technopole Brest-Iroise Plouzane 29280 France; Claypool, G. E.; Organic Geochemist 8910 West 2nd Avenue Lakewood CO 80226 USA; Crundwell, M. P.; New Zealand Observer/Paleontologist (foraminifers) Paleontology and Environmental Change Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Ding, X.; School of Marine Sciences China University of Geosciences (Beijing) 29 XueYuan Road, Haidian District Beijing P.R. China; George, S. C.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109 Australia; Hepp, D. A.; MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences University of Bremen Leobener Strasse MARUM Building, Room 2230 28359 Bremen Germany

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin,...

  11. ANDROGEN LEVELS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valadan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. Several independent investigators have demonstrated the association of androgens with hypertension. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal levels of sex hormones, especially testosterone, are higher in patients with preeclampsia than in matched normotensive control subjects. Serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S and estradiol were measured in 60 subjects in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with documented preeclampsia (including 30 cases of mild and 30 cases of severe preeclampsia and 60 healthy normotensive women with similar maternal and gestational ages and body mass index (BMI and neonatal sex. All subjects were primigravid with singleton pregnancies. Cases of polycystic ovary (PCO, diabetes, chronic hypertension and chronic systemic diseases such as lupus and patients using steroid hormones and anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Levels of testosterone, DHEA-S and estradiol were not higher in primigravid women with preeclampsia than in normotensive women with similar gestational and maternal ages, BMI and neonatal sex. There were no significant differences in sex hormones measured between groups of mild and severe preeclampsia and normotensive women. There were also no significant differences in sex hormone levels according to neonatal sex. These findings are against the hypothesis of mediating or amplifying role of high androgen levels in pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  12. Service level agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, A

    1998-02-01

    Service level agreements provide clearer descriptions of the services to be provided and the objectives to be met. In many instances it is the first time that services have been defined allowing their performance to be suitably measured. They should be output based and not too prescriptive on how the services are to be delivered. The emphasis should be on establishing outputs and the arrangements for monitoring achievement. Customer expectations can exceed available resources and arbitration may become necessary if agreement cannot be reached on internal service level agreements. The main requirements of customers for change through service level agreements is usually improved communications on job status that includes notification of any delays and that agreed response times will be met.

  13. Fluoride levels and osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmi Kharb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor, commonly occurring in the age group of 10 to 24 years. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Aims: The present study was planned to analyze serum levels of fluoride in patients of osteosarcoma and fluoride content of their drinking water. Settings and Design: The present study was carried out comparing 10 patients of osteosarcoma and 10 healthy volunteers (who served as controls. Materials and Methods: Serum and drinking water fluoride levels were estimated by ion selective electrode. Statistical analysis used: The data were computed as mean ± SD and Student′s t test was applied. Results: Both, the serum and drinking water fluoride levels, were significant by higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma.

  14. Forecasting peak ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.W.; Layton, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Box-Jenkins (1970) time series models are used to predict peak afternoon O3 levels. Data sets from three monitoring stations in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, are used in the analysis, one of the stations being inner-city and the others being outer-city. It is found that univariate models using only the peak O3 data-set at a site to predict future peak O3 levels are unsatisfactory. However bivariate models using peak O3 data from one site to predict peak O3 levels at another site yield good results. However it is clear that these results only arise because the O3 is formed in a well mixed layer over the region leading to a high degree of correlation between O3 peaks throughout the region. 15 references.

  15. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  16. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  17. PANJABI READER. LEVEL 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    A FIRST-LEVEL READER IS PRESENTED, PRIMARILY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO HAVE A SPEAKING KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI AND SOME KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI GRAMMAR. THIS VOLUME CAN BE USED IN A GENERAL PANJABI LANGUAGE COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. A GLOSSARY AND A BRIEF GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX HAVE…

  18. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    A TEACHING MANUAL FOR AN ELEMENTARY (FIRST LEVEL) COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE COURSE USES AN AUDIOLINGUAL-TO-GRAPHIC APPROACH OF INSTRUCTION, DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR PARTS. THE FIRST PART EMPHASIZES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SKILLS IN PREREADING INSTRUCTIONAL EXERCISES. PART TWO CONSISTS OF A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE…

  19. Happiness levels stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the ideological foundations of the modern welfare states is the belief that people can be made happier by providing them with better living conditions. This belief is challenged by the idea that happiness tends to remain at the same level and will therefore hardl

  20. Levels of Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Keith

    Democracy in western countries now depends on literacy at every level: censuses by which governments can plan for the future; elections which are the cornerstone of democratic choice; local meetings which have agendas and minutes--the whole apparatus of social living is organized and recorded through literacy. This paper is concerned with how…

  1. Leveraging Stress Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mitali PATHAK

    2011-01-01

    Stress is a costly business expense that affects both employee health and company profits. At the backdrop of this, the present research study is an attempt to explore and analysis the findings of the research studies which have been concluded in resolving and managing conflict arising through variances in stress level at the organizational hierarchy.

  2. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...

  3. Leveraging Stress Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a costly business expense that affects both employee health and company profits. At the backdrop of this, the present research study is an attempt to explore and analysis the findings of the research studies which have been concluded in resolving and managing conflict arising through variances in stress level at the organizational hierarchy.

  4. Physical properties of conventional explosives deduced from radio frequency emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlin, Jeremiah D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nemzek, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory collected broadband radio frequency (RF) electric field change measurements from multiple detonations of high explosives (HE). Three types of HE were used: small cylinders of flake TNT, solid TNT, and PBX-9501. Low frequency signals (<80 MHz) were shot-to-shot repeatable and occurred within the first 100 {mu} s at measured amplitudes of about 2 V m{sup -1} at 35 m distance. High frequency signals (>290 MHz) occurred later, were an order of magnitude lower in signal strength, and were not repeatable. There is a positive correlation between the maximum electric field change and the shock velocity of the HE. The amount of free charge produced in the explosion estimated from the first RF pulse is between 10 and 150 {mu} C. This implies a weakly ionized plasma with temperatures between 2600 and 2900 K.

  5. Habitat-specific foraging of prothonotary warblers: Deducing habitat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Foraging behavior often reflects food availability in predictable ways. For example, in habitats where food availability is high, predators should attack prey more often and move more slowly than in habitats where food availability is low. To assess relative food availability and habitat quality, I studied the foraging behavior of breeding Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in two forest habitat types, cypress-gum swamp forest and coastal-plain levee forest. I quantified foraging behavior with focal animal sampling and continuous recording during foraging bouts. I measured two aspects of foraging behavior: 1) prey attack rate (attacks per minute), using four attack maneuvers (glean, sally, hover, strike), and 2) foraging speed (movements per minute), using three types of movement (hop, short flight [???1 m], long flight [>1 m]). Warblers attacked prey more often in cypress-gum swamp forest than in coastal-plain levee forest. Foraging speed, however, was not different between habitats. I also measured foraging effort (% time spent foraging) and relative frequency of attack maneuvers employed in each habitat; neither of these variables was influenced by forest type. I conclude that Prothonotary Warblers encounter more prey when foraging in cypress-gum swamps than in coastal-plain levee forest, and that greater food availability results in higher density and greater reproductive success for birds breeding in cypress-gum swamp.

  6. Deducing the symmetry of helical assemblies: Applications to membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudray, Nicolas; Lasala, Ralph; Zhang, Zhening; Clark, Kathy M; Dumont, Mark E; Stokes, David L

    2016-08-01

    Helical reconstruction represents a convenient and powerful approach for structure determination of macromolecules that assemble into helical arrays. In the case of membrane proteins, formation of tubular crystals with helical symmetry represents an attractive alternative, especially when their small size precludes the use of single-particle analysis. An essential first step for helical reconstruction is to characterize the helical symmetry. This process is often daunting, due to the complexity of helical diffraction and to the low signal-to-noise ratio in images of individual assemblies. Furthermore, the large diameters of the tubular crystals produced by membrane proteins exacerbates the innate ambiguities that, if not resolved, will produce incorrect structures. In this report, we describe a set of tools that can be used to eliminate ambiguities and to validate the choice of symmetry. The first approach increases the signal-to-noise ratio along layer lines by incoherently summing data from multiple helical assemblies, thus producing several candidate indexing schemes. The second approach compares the layer lines from images with those from synthetic models built with the various candidate schemes. The third approach uses unit cell dimensions measured from collapsed tubes to distinguish between these candidate schemes. These approaches are illustrated with tubular crystals from a boron transporter from yeast, Bor1p, and a β-barrel channel from the outer membrane of E. coli, OmpF. PMID:27255388

  7. Deducing Electron Properties From Hard X-Ray Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Kontar, E.P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kasparova, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; M. Piana; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron ...

  8. Deducing protein function by forensic integrative cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Earnshaw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to sequence genomes has provided us with near-complete lists of the proteins that compose cells, tissues, and organisms, but this is only the beginning of the process to discover the functions of cellular components. In the future, it's going to be crucial to develop computational analyses that can predict the biological functions of uncharacterised proteins. At the same time, we must not forget those fundamental experimental skills needed to confirm the predictions or send the analysts back to the drawing board to devise new ones.

  9. —Causality, Unintended Consequences and Deducing Shared Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Shugan

    2007-01-01

    Despite warnings against inferring causality from observed correlations or statistical dependence, some articles do. Observed correlation is neither necessary nor sufficient to infer causality as defined by the term's everyday usage. For example, a deterministic causal process creates pseudorandom numbers; yet, we observe no correlation between the numbers. Child height correlates with spelling ability because age causes both. Moreover, order is problematic—we hear train whistles before obser...

  10. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kašparová, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Piana, M.; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-09-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  11. Deducing Electron Properties From Hard X-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kontar, E P; Emslie, A G; Hajdas, W; Holman, G D; Hurford, G J; Kasparova, J; Mallik, P C V; Massone, A M; McConnell, M L; Piana, M; Prato, M; Schmahl, E J; Suarez-Garcia, E

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the \\textit{Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager} ({\\em RHESSI}). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processe...

  12. Extended Skyrme pseudo-potential deduced from infinite matter properties

    CERN Document Server

    Davesne, D; Becker, P; Jodon, R; Meyer, J; Pastore, A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the contributions to the Equation of State for the N$\\ell$LO Skyrme pseudo-potential ($\\ell$=2,3). We show that by adding 4th and 6th order gradient terms, it is possible to fairly reproduce the spin/isospin decomposition of an equation of state obtained from \\emph{ab-initio} methods. Moreover, by inspecting the partial-wave decomposition of the equation of state, we show for the first time a possible way to add explicit constraints on the sign of the tensor terms of the Skyrme interaction.

  13. Vegetation density as deduced from ERTS-1 MSS response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Richardson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Reflectance from vegetation increases with increasing vegetation density in the 0.75- to 1.35 micron wavelength interval. Therefore, ERTS-1 bands 6 (0.7 to 0.8 micron) and 7 (0.8 to 1.1 micron) contain information that should relate to the probable yield of crops and the animal carrying capacity of rangeland. The results of an experiment designed specifically to test the relations among leaf area index (LAI), plant population, plant cover and plant height, and the ERTS-1 MSS responses for 3 corn, 10 sorghum, and 10 cotton fields are given. Plant population was as useful as LAI for characterizing the sorghum and corn fields, and plant height was as good as LAI for characterizing cotton fields. These findings generally support the utility of ERTS-1 data for explaining variability in green biomass, harvestable forage and other indicators of productivity.

  14. Deducing effective light transport parameters in optically thin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzamuto, Giacomo; Toninelli, Costanza; Wiersma, Diederik

    2015-01-01

    We present an extensive Monte Carlo study on light transport in optically thin slabs, addressing both axial and transverse propagation. We completely characterize the so-called ballistic-to-diffusive transition, notably in terms of the spatial variance of the transmitted/reflected profile. We test the validity of the prediction cast by diffusion theory, that the spatial variance should grow independently of absorption and, to a first approximation, of the sample thickness and refractive index contrast. Based on a large set of simulated data, we build a freely available look-up table routine allowing reliable and precise determination of the microscopic transport parameters starting from robust observables which are independent of absolute intensity measurements. We also present the Monte Carlo software package that was developed for the purpose of this study.

  15. Deducing protein function by forensic integrative cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, William C

    2013-12-01

    Our ability to sequence genomes has provided us with near-complete lists of the proteins that compose cells, tissues, and organisms, but this is only the beginning of the process to discover the functions of cellular components. In the future, it's going to be crucial to develop computational analyses that can predict the biological functions of uncharacterised proteins. At the same time, we must not forget those fundamental experimental skills needed to confirm the predictions or send the analysts back to the drawing board to devise new ones.

  16. Properties of Active Galaxies Deduced from H I Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C; Greene, Jenny E

    2008-01-01

    We completed a new survey for H I emission for a large, well-defined sample of 154 nearby (z < 0.1) galaxies with type 1 AGNs. We make use of the extensive database presented in a companion paper to perform a comprehensive appraisal of the cold gas content in active galaxies and to seek new strategies to investigate the global properties of the host galaxies and their relationship to their central black holes (BHs). We show that the BH mass obeys a strong, roughly linear relation with the host galaxy's dynamical mass. BH mass follows a looser, though still highly significant, correlation with the maximum rotation velocity of the galaxy, as expected from the known scaling between rotation velocity and central velocity dispersion. Neither of these H I-based correlations is as tight as the more familiar relations between BH mass and bulge luminosity or velocity dispersion, but they offer the advantage of being insensitive to the glare of the nucleus and therefore are promising new tools for probing the host g...

  17. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  19. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  20. Level up Book Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  1. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  2. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  3. Radon levels in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels in atmospheric and aquatic systems in Cyprus have recently been measured using the radon monitor Alpha Guard. Indoor and outdoor radon levels were obtained in situ, whereas analysis of radon concentrations in water was performed using tap and ground water samples collected from several areas of the island. The average value for outdoor and indoor radon concentration is 11±10 and 7±6 Bq m-3, respectively, and for tap and ground water 0.4 Bq l-1 and 1.4 Bq l-1, respectively. From these data the annual dose equivalent of airborne radon to the Cypriot population is about 0.19 mSv y-1, which is quite low compared to the total dose equivalent of natural and man-made ionising radiation in Cyprus. Radon levels in aquatic systems are relatively low due to an exhaustive utilisation of ground water resources and also to the increased input of desalinated sea water in the water distribution network and eventually into the ground water reservoirs

  4. Level Width Broaden Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2004-01-01

    In fitting the double-differential measurements thelevelwidth broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg uncertainty.Besides level width broadening effect the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in this procedure.In general,the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed.However,the research indicates that to do so in this way the energy balance could not hold.For this reason,the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced,with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could hold exactly in the analytical form.

  5. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  6. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  7. Water Level Detection Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    inspection planning), object detection (verification of declared activities, or detection of undeclared activities), and detection of water level fluctuation (which may be linked to a clandestine power generation during a period where optical sensors are not effective, e.g. at night or during adverse weather conditions). Additional analysis of RADARSAT-1 data, supportable by ground truth information and IKONOS imagery, is being carried out and further results are expected to be available soon. Large steep walled or terraced reservoirs, as in the case of JEB Pit TMF would require a different analysis technique. Scoping work indicated that it would be possible to deduce the water level by measuring the wall height using 'radar shadow', in a manner similar to the exploitation of shadows in optical images

  8. Molecular design of new P3HT derivatives: Adjusting electronic energy levels for blends with PCBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Eliezer Fernando [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Lavarda, Francisco Carlos, E-mail: lavarda@fc.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Ciências, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Física, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube, 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    An intensive search is underway for new materials to make more efficient organic solar cells through improvements in thin film morphology, transport properties, and adjustments to the energy of frontier electronic levels. The use of chemical modifications capable of modifying the electronic properties of materials already known is an interesting approach, as it can, in principle, provide a more adequate adjustment of the frontier electronic levels while preserving properties such as solubility. Based on this idea, we performed a theoretical study of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 13 new derivatives obtained by substitution with electron acceptor and donor groups, in order to understand how the energy levels of the frontier orbitals are modified. The results show that it is possible to deduce the modification of the electronic levels in accordance with the substituent's acceptor/donor character. We also evaluated how the substituents influence the open circuit voltage and the exciton binding energy. - Highlights: • Prediction of P3HT derivatives properties for bulk-heterojunction solar cells. • Correlating substituent properties with electronic levels of P3HT derivatives. • Fluorinated P3HT improves open circuit voltage and stability.

  9. Research on Precision of Trigonometric Leveling of North NTS-300 Electronic Total Station%南方NTS-300全站仪三角高程测量精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 谢力分

    2011-01-01

    According to the principle of trigonometric leveling of enctronic total station, formula of height difference of trigonometric leveling is deduced and precision which can be reached by using the measuring method is studied.%根据全站仪三角高程测量原理,推导了全站仪三角高程测量高差的公式,并对南方NTS-300全站仪进行三角高程测量能达到的精度进行了研究分析。

  10. LHC Report: Level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is special: there is a limit to the number of the events the detector can handle per bunch crossing. Consequently the maximum luminosity provided in 2012 has been around 4 x1032 cm-2s-1 (compared to the maximum of 7.7 x1033 cm-2s-1 seen by ATLAS and CMS). Nonetheless LHCb still wants to integrate as much luminosity as possible.    To meet LHCb's requirements a luminosity leveling technique is used. A machine setup is chosen that would give a peak luminosity well above the required maximum if the beams are collided head-on at LHCb's interaction point. This peak luminosity is then reduced to the required maximum by moving the two beams transversely apart at the interaction point. As the beam current goes down during a fill, the beams can be moved together in small increments to keep the collision rate constant throughout the fill. In practice, when the LHC goes into collisions in LHCb, the initial luminosity is safely below LHCb's demanded le...

  11. Low-Level and High-Level Microarray Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Microarray data analysis involves low-level and high-level analysis.The low-level analysis focuses on how to get accurate and precisegene expression data. The analysis built on gene expression data isthe high-level analysis such as differential gene expressionanalysis, SFP detection, eQTL analysis and so on. This thesisfocuses on applications in both low-level and high-level analysis.In the low-level analysis, the proposed L-GCRMA method combines theadvantage of the GCRMA model and the Langmu...

  12. Chronic atrophic gastritis in association with hair mercury level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zeyun; Xue, Huiping; Jiang, Jianlan; Lin, Bing; Zeng, Si; Huang, Xiaoyun; An, Jianfu

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore hair mercury level in association with chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous stage of gastric cancer (GC), and thus provide a brand new angle of view on the timely intervention of precancerous stage of GC. We recruited 149 healthy volunteers as controls and 152 patients suffering from chronic gastritis as cases. The controls denied upper gastrointestinal discomforts, and the cases were diagnosed as chronic superficial gastritis (n=68) or chronic atrophic gastritis (n=84). We utilized Mercury Automated Analyzer (NIC MA-3000) to detect hair mercury level of both healthy controls and cases of chronic gastritis. The statistic of measurement data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, which was analyzed using Levene variance equality test and t test. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to determine associated factors affecting hair mercury levels, and multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to deduce regression equations. Statistical significance is considered if p value is less than 0.05. The overall hair mercury level was 0.908949 ± 0.8844490 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] in gastritis cases and 0.460198 ± 0.2712187 ng/g (mean±SD) in healthy controls; the former level was significantly higher than the latter one (p=0.000Pearson correlation analysis indicated that eating seafood was most correlated with hair mercury level and positively correlated in the healthy controls and that the severity of gastritis was most correlated with hair mercury level and positively correlated in the gastritis cases. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the regression equation of hair mercury level in controls could be expressed as 0.262 multiplied the value of eating seafood plus 0.434, the model that was statistically significant (p<0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis also indicated that the regression equation of hair mercury level in gastritis cases could be expressed as 0

  13. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P. [and others

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  14. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...

  15. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  16. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  17. ANALYZING THE SUCCESS LEVELS AND ATTITUDES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 7TH GRADE STUDENTS RELATED TO CULTURAL HERITAGE (ADIYAMAN PROVINCE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin DOĞAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the level of success which is related with the culturel heritage and the attitudes of 7th grade ( primary students, with some varianles. Theoretical content of this research tells about the importance of culturel heritage, its education and the relation between education and culture. In this study, hatching method is used which is one of the methods of quantative methods. This study is applied to 425 students in 14 schools in Adıyaman and Kahta. As a result of this research, it is proved that the 7th grade of students have positive attitudes and the average level of success towards to culturel heritage. At the same time, it is substantiated that there is is a positive relation between the attitude to culturel heritage and the success. Gf the success towards to culturel heritage heritage increases, this increase effect the attitudes automatically in a positive way. Morever, in this research, it is deduced that, sex has no effect on success and the attitudes towards to culturel heritage, but the level of economy effects the success and attitudes. The level of attitudes and success decline when the families income is under the level of minimal. Futhermore, when the education levels of the families increase, the level of success and the attitudes increases positively.

  18. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  19. Half-life Measurements of Excited Levels in Fission Products around Mass Number 150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Y., E-mail: kojima.yasuaki@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Shima, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, H. [Institute of Health Biosciences, the University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori 590-0494 (Japan); Shibata, M. [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    A spectrometer to measure nuclear level half-lives has been installed at the on-line isotope separator of the Kyoto University Reactor. This spectrometer consists of a LaBr3 scintillator, a thin plastic scintillator and an HPGe detector. Half-lives are deduced using the β-γ-γ delayed coincidence method. The prompt-time distribution curves measured with the spectrometer give a time resolution (FWHM) of 600 ps for 100-keV γ rays. This resolution means that half-lives down to the subnanosecond range or shorter can be measured. We reported recent measurements of the half-life of {sup 149}Pr and {sup 149}Nd. Some of the more interesting results include the first determination of the half-lives of {sup 149}Pr levels at 86.5 and 125.6 keV, which are 4.2(5) ns and 1.0(2) ns, respectively. In addition, the data indicate that the half-life of the 270.8-keV level in {sup 149}Nd is not 5.1(3) ns as reported previously, but 0.42(3) ns.

  20. Energy levels of 247Cm populated in the α decay of 98251Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α -Particle, conversion-electron, and γ -ray singles spectra of 251Cf sources containing few Bq activities were measured with high-resolution semiconductor detectors. α-γ coincidence and level half-life measurements were also performed. On the basis of these measurements the following single-particle states have been identified in 247Cm : 9/2 - [734] , 0 keV; 5/2 + [622] , 227.4 keV; 7/2 + [624] , 285.4 keV; 1/2 + [620] , 404.9 keV; 1/2 + [631] , 518.6 keV . The measured single-particle energies are in good agreement with energies calculated with a Woods-Saxon single-particle potential. From the measured half-life of the 227.4-keV level and the E3 branching ratio, a B(E3) value of 5 W.u. has been deduced between the 5/2 + [622] and 9/2 - [734] bands. The large B(E3) value is an indication of octupole mixing in the 227.4-keV level

  1. Acceptable contamination levels in solar grade silicon: From feedstock to solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jasmin.hofstetter@ies-def.upm.es; Lelievre, J.F.; Canizo, C.; Luque, A. del [Instituto de Energia Solar, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Ultimately, alternative ways of silicon purification for photovoltaic applications are developed and applied. There is an ongoing debate about what are the acceptable contamination levels within the purified silicon feedstock to specify the material as solar grade silicon. Applying a simple model and making some additional assumptions, we calculate the acceptable contamination levels of different characteristic impurities for each fabrication step of a typical industrial mc-Si solar cell. The acceptable impurity concentrations within the finished solar cell are calculated for SRH recombination exclusively and under low injection conditions. It is assumed that during solar cell fabrication impurity concentrations are only altered by a gettering step. During the crystallization process, impurity segregation at the solid-liquid interface and at extended defects are taken into account. Finally, the initial contamination levels allowed within the feedstock are deduced. The acceptable concentration of iron in the finished solar cell is determined to be 9.7x10{sup -3} ppma whereas the concentration in the silicon feedstock can be as high as 12.5 ppma. In comparison, the titanium concentration admitted in the solar cell is calculated to be 2.7x10{sup -4} ppma and the allowed concentration of 2.2x10{sup -2} ppma in the feedstock is only two orders of magnitude higher. Finally, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that slow cooling rates can lead to a decrease of the interstitial Fe concentration and thus relax the purity requirements in the feedstock.

  2. Survey of microbiological effects in low-level radioactive waste disposed of to land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of published literature was mounted to determine the current position of research into microbiological effects in low-level radioactive waste disposal sites and to assess the need for further research. It is concluded from the survey that the microbial activity present in domestic landfills also occurs in shallow land burial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The microbial activity results in the release of tritium as tritiated methane to the atmosphere and tritiated components to the leachate. Carbon-14 migration is also enhanced. It also accelerates the corrosion of steel and concrete used to contain the wastes. There is little evidence for enhanced migration of radionuclides as a result of their incorporation in bacteria but there is considerable evidence for enhancement resulting from the presence of complexing agents (such as ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid and tributyl phosphate) in the waste. Research in this field has been observed to be very active in the United States. Its objective is to predict with more certainty the important parameters for future low-level radioactive waste site designs. Quantitative prediction of microbial effects and their magnitude is not easy to deduce from the published literature, and new site designs will differ markedly from those that have been in operation over the last thirty years. (author)

  3. MULTI-REGION SEGMENTATION OF SAR IMAGE BY A MULTIPHASE LEVEL SET APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yusheng; Cao Zongjie; Pi Yiming

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, a multiphase level set approach unifying region and boundary-based infor- mation for multi-region segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is presented. An energy functional that is applicable for SAR image segmentation is defined. It consists of two terms describing the local statistic characteristics and the gradient characteristics of SAR image respectively. A multiphase level set model that explicitly describes the different regions in one image is proposed. The purpose of such a multiphase model is not only to simplify the way of denoting multi-region by level set but also to guarantee the accuracy of segmentation. According to the presented multiphase model, the curve evolution equations with respect to edge curves are deduced. The multi-region segmentation is implemented by the numeric solution of the partial differential equations. The performance of the approach is verified by both simulation and real SAR images. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm reduces the speckle effect on segmentation and increases the boundary alignment accuracy, thus correctly divides the multi-region SAR image into different homogenous regions.

  4. Note on level r consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Poliakov, Nikolay L.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the hierarchy of level $r$ consensus partially collapses. In particular, any profile $\\pi\\in \\mathcal{P}$ that exhibits consensus of level $(K-1)!$ around $\\succ_0$ in fact exhibits consensus of level $1$ around $\\succ_0$.

  5. OCR A level computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, George; O'Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Develop confident students with our expert authors: their insight and guidance will ensure a thorough understanding of OCR A Level computer science, with challenging tasks and activities to test essential analytical and problem-solving skills. - Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A Level Computer Science specification and written by a trusted and experienced author team, OCR Computer Science for A Level:- Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A Level Computer Science specification and written by a trusted and experienced author team, OCR Computer Science for A Level:- Builds stu

  6. Retailer’s lot-sizing policy under two warehouses and two levels of delay permitted using algebraic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to modify Huang’s model [13] by considering two warehouses. In addition, we try to use algebraic method to determine the optimal lot-sizing policy for the retailer under two warehouses and two levels of delay permitted. This paper provides this algebraic approach that could be used easily to introduce the basic inventory theories to younger students who lack the knowledge of calculus. Furthermore, we develop three easy-to-use theorems to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and optimal lot sizing for the retailer. As a result, we deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate these theorems obtained in this paper. In addition, we obtain a lot of managerial insights from this numerical example.

  7. Elevated prealbumin level following high thyroid hormones levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kinoshita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to report about a patient with high prealbumin level [56.8 mg/dL (reference range 22.0-40.0 mg/dL] following elevation in thyroid hormones levels. Among the thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine (free T4 and total T4 level showed an elevation. Triiodothyronine (free T3 and total T3 level was within normal limits. Since prealbumin mainly transports T4, the elevation of prealbumin level along with T4 level is reaso- nable. When patients have chronic hyperthyroidism without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb, a diagnosis will be Negative Graves’ disease. However, a part of patients with Negative Graves’ disease may be High prealbumin syndrome.

  8. Pellissier H5 hydrostatic level

    CERN Document Server

    Imfeld, H L

    2003-01-01

    Conventional spirit leveling using double scale invar rods has been in use at SLAC for some time as the standard method of obtaining very precise height difference information. Typical accuracy of +- 100 (micro)m and better can routinely be achieved. Procedures and software have evolved to the point where the method is relatively fast and reliable. However, recent projects such as the Final Focus Test Beam have pushed the requested vertical positioning tolerances for alignment of quadrupoles to the 30 mu m level. It is apparent that conventional spirit leveling cannot achieve this level of accuracy. To meet the challenge, the alignment group contracted with Pellissier, Inc. to develop a portable hydrostatic leveling system. The H5 grew out of this development effort and is expected to provide the needed accuracy and ease of use required for such vertical positioning projects. The H5 hydrostatic level is a portable instrument that under ideal operating conditions will provide elevation differences with an accu...

  9. Water Level Sensors, What Works?

    OpenAIRE

    Heiner, Bryan J.; Gill, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Water level sensors come in all shapes, sizes, and types and can range in price from a couple hundred to several thousand US dollars. This project utilizes real world examples from around the western United States to determine what level sensors work well and to document what characteristics may prevent them from providing accurate water level measurements in differing climates. Researchers have developed a calibration procedure that can be used in field or laboratory situations to ...

  10. AQA A level computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Bob

    2015-01-01

    AQA A-level Computer Science gives students the chance to think creatively and progress through the AQA AS and A-level Computer Science specifications. Detailed coverage of the specifications will enrich understanding of the fundamental principles of computing, whilst a range of activities help to develop the programming skills and computational thinking skills at A-level and beyond. - Enables students to build a thorough understanding of the fundamental principles in the AQA AS and A-Level Computer Science specifications, with detailed coverage of programming, algorithms, data structures a

  11. Lattice charge models and core level shifts in disordered alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, T. L.; Cole, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Differences in core level binding energies between atoms belonging to the same chemical species can be related to differences in their intra- and extra-atomic charge distributions, and differences in how their core holes are screened. With this in mind, we consider the charge-excess functional model (CEFM) for net atomic charges in alloys (Bruno et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 166401). We begin by deriving the CEFM energy function in order to elucidate the approximations which underpin this model. We thereafter consider the particular case of the CEFM in which the strengths of the ‘local interactions’ within all atoms are the same. We show that for binary alloys the ground state charges of this model can be expressed in terms of charge transfer between all pairs of unlike atoms analogously to the linear charge model (Magri et al 1990 Phys. Rev. B 42 11388). Hence, the model considered is a generalization of the linear charge model for alloys containing more than two chemical species. We then determine the model’s unknown ‘geometric factors’ over a wide range of parameter space. These quantities are linked to the nature of charge screening in the model, and we illustrate that the screening becomes increasingly universal as the strength of the local interactions is increased. We then use the model to derive analytical expressions for various physical quantities, including the Madelung energy and the disorder broadening in the core level binding energies. These expressions are applied to ternary random alloys, for which it is shown that the Madelung energy and magnitude of disorder broadening are maximized at the composition at which the two species with the largest ‘electronegativity difference’ are equal, while the remaining species have a vanishing concentration. This result is somewhat counterintuitive with regards to the disorder broadening since it does not correspond to the composition with the highest entropy. Finally, the model is applied to Cu

  12. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  13. Doppler limited laser spectroscopy on hafnium lines. Pt. II. Hyperfine structure of odd-parity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.6, p.303-10, 1999. The hyperfine structure of selected odd-parity levels of the configurations 5d6s 26p and 5d 26s6p of 177Hf I was studied in 10 lines lying in the red spectral region. Hyperfine spectra were obtained by the method of laser induced fluorescence in the plasma of a liquid nitrogen cooled hollow cathode discharge. The observed hyperfine structure constants A and B, together with results from earlier studies were analyzed by means of a parametric method. The interpretation has been carried out based on a refined multiconfigurational fine structure calculation including the main Rydberg series configurations mutually interacting. The set of fine structure parameters as well as the leading eigenvector percentages of levels relevant for this paper are given. The following single electron HFS parameters were deduced for 177Hf: a015d = 98.8(0.8)MHz, a016p=204.6 (6.4)MHz,b025d=4129 (133)MHz, b026p=7847(266)MHz for the lowest configuration. (orig.)

  14. Landau levels for electromagnetic wave

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that the frequencies of propagating electromagnetic wave (photon) in rotating dielectric media obey Landau quantization. We show that the degeneracy of right and left helicities of photons is broken on the lowest Landau level. In spatially homogeneous system this level is shown to be helical, i.e. left and right helical photons counter-propagate.

  15. Liquid helium level measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Liquid Helium level measurement system at the PLF, Mumbai has been recently upgraded. Monitoring liquid helium levels is crucial for steady operation of superconducting Linac booster. A Superconducting wire (NbTi) based sensor (American Magnetic make) is used to measure the liquid helium level. Resistance of the sensor changes with the liquid level and the change in resistance is measured using a four wire readout. The Electronics hardware is developed around Silicon lab module C8051F020, which has a 12 bit ADC on board. The sensor is excited with 80 mA constant current and the voltage across the sensor is measured using 12 bit ADC and processed further to get resistance. The measured resistance is converted to fractional level (0 to 100 %) and can be displayed on the LCD panel of the local unit as well as on the remote PC through serial communication. Each unit is capable of reading upto four level sensors. One of the important features of this measurement system is the auto calibration with a single button for all the four level sensors. Two control stations are designed, developed and successfully installed to monitor helium levels in all eight cryostats of the Linac. (author)

  16. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  17. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  18. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are discussed, with

  19. Late quaternary sea level changes of Gabes coastal plain and shelf: Identification of the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, southern Mediterranean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maher Gzam; Noureddine El Mejdoub; Younes Jedoui

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Gabes is outlined, during the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, by the genesis of forced regressive beach ridges situated respectively at –19 m b.s.l/100 ka and –8 m b.s.l/80 ka. This area, considered as a stable domain since at least the last 130 ka (Bouaziz et al. 2003), is a particular zone for the reconstruction of the late quaternary sea-level changes in the region. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and field observations are highlighted to deduce interaction between hydrodynamic factors and antecedent topography. Variations in geomorphology were attributed to geological inheritance. Petrography and sedimentary facies of the submerged coastal ridges reveal that the palaeocoastal morphology was more agitated than today and the fluvial discharges are consistent. Actual morphologic trend deduced from different environment coasts (sandy coasts, sea cliffs and tidal flat) is marked by accumulation of marine sands and progradation.

  20. Improvement of Global and Regional Mean Sea Level Trends Derived from all Altimetry Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary

    2012-07-01

    The global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993 using data from satellite altimetry missions. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 is increasing with a global trend of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL Aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from +/- 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend uncertainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in Sea Level Essential Climate Variable Project in the frame of the Climate Change Initiative, an ESA Programme, in addition to activities performed within the SALP/CNES, strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections allowing us to link regional time series together better. These improvements are described at global and regional scale for all the altimetry missions.

  1. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave...... statistics and structure response. The study comprises the influence of interest rate, service lifetime, downtime costs and damage accumulation. Design limit states and safety classes for breakwaters are discussed. The results indicate that optimum safety levels are somewhat higher than the safety levels...

  2. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  3. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  4. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  5. Affine morphisms at zero level

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Given a finite index subfactor, we show that the {\\em affine morphisms at zero level} in the affine category over the planar algebra associated to the subfactor is isomorphic to the fusion algebra of the subfactor as a *-algebra.

  6. Temperature level fiber sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    López Higuera, José Miguel; Rodríguez Cobo, Luis; Castrellón Uribe, Jesús; Quintela Incera, Antonio; Lomer Barboza, Mauro Matías

    2013-01-01

    A temperature level fiber sensor network is proposed and demonstrated. Each inline transducer is based on a FBG-SMA wire structure working as an on/off optical device being interrogated using a time domain technique.

  7. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  8. Nuclear levels of 163Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-radiation spectra have been measured in the energy range of 93-850 keV for the 163Dy (n, n'γ) reaction, and a comparison with the gamma-radiation spectrum of the (n, γ) reaction has been done. The data analysis allows to extend the 163Dy level scheme up to 1.2 MeV of the excitation energy. The level determination is based on energy balance for populating and depopulating gamma transitions. The level spin values have been estimated by a comparison of the transition intensities for the (n, n'γ) and (n, γ) reactions. Some new levels have been introduced basing on measured gamma-gamma coincidences

  9. The Maastrichtian sea level rise

    OpenAIRE

    Gullentops, F.

    1986-01-01

    The maximum sea level rise during the Maastrichtian has been much less than the 500 m claimed by some recent authors on this subject. Sedimentological and geomorphological arguments against such an hypothesis are forwarded.

  10. Methane Liquid Level Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Methane Liquid-Level Sensor, (MLS) for In-Space cryogenic storage capable of continuous monitoring...

  11. ROE Absolute Sea Level Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This raster dataset represents changes in absolute sea level along U.S. coasts from 1993 to 2014. Data were provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder (2015)...

  12. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Aug 9,2016 How’s your ... the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Interactive Cholesterol Guide Find videos, trackers and more with our ...

  13. Safety Rises to New Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafo, Joseph; Robillard, Marc

    2001-01-01

    Explains how high-rise residence halls can provide high-level safety and security at colleges and universities. Boston University is used to illustrate high-rise security and fire protection issues. (GR)

  14. Four Level Simulation of MOSFET

    OpenAIRE

    M .N. Doja; Moinuddin; Umesh Kumar

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a software (MOSOFT) has been developed for 4-level simulation of MOSFETS. This software simulates the device characteristics up to micron channel length and includes long channel, short channel, subthreshold and field dependent mobility degradation models.

  15. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Aung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to become the first nation to be sunk by global warming because it is one of the smallest and lowest-lying countries in the world. Approach: In this study, sea level data from the Australian project will be focussed on despite the fact that the length of data is not sufficiently long. The AusAID funded South Pacific Sea Level and climate monitoring project was set up in response to concerns raised by Pacific island countries over the potential impacts of an enhanced greenhouse effect on climate and sea levels in the South Pacific for 20 years. Results: Based upon the 15½ years of sea level data from the project, the sea level rise rate in Tuvalu as at september 2008 was 5.9 mM year-1. This was about four times higher than the global average of 1-2 mm year-1. Sea level in the Tuvalu area had risen approximately 9.14 cm since the inception of the project 15½ years ago. However, it was to be noted that the land is quite stable and the rate of land sinking is -0.06 mM year-1 only. Accordingly, there was no significant impact on the sea level trends. Conclusion: Although the data length is just over 15 years, the sea level trend values do not fluctuate significantly since 1999. It simply indicated that the rate of sea level rise in the Tuvalu region was not accelerating as anticipated by the community.

  16. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep; Wright, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  17. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep; Wright, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade ...

  18. Investigation and application of quantitative relationship between sp energy levels of Bi3+ ion and host lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on 1S0-3P1 (A band) and 1S0-1P1 (C band) transition energy of Bi3+ ion in dozens of different compounds has been gathered and analyzed. With the use of the dielectric theory of the chemical bond for complex crystals, relationships between A and C absorption band and environmental factor he were established: EA=2.972+6.206exp (−he/0.551); EC=3.236+10.924exp (−he/0.644). For Bi3+ doped hosts with known structure and refractive index, it is possible to predict Bi3+ energy level position with an good accuracy of typically ±0.51 eV using the two relationships. Moreover, a direct relationship between A and C band was deduced: EC=3.236+2.290(EA−2.972)0.856. Thus a very simple method to predict C band position was proposed. This work will be of great help to understand spectroscopy of Bi3+ and will be useful for developing new PDP, LED and mercury-free fluorescent lamp phosphors. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows relationship between positions of A band and C band of Bi3+ ion and environmental factor he of host. It establishes the relation between macroscopical spectroscopy of Bi3+ ion and microcosmic structure of the hosts. Highlights: ► Relationships between A, C absorption band and environmental factor he were established. ► A direct relation between A and C band was deduced and an easier method to predict C band was given. ► Positions of C band of Bi3+ ion in some compounds were predicted using our formula.

  19. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  20. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml, only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid.

  1. An International Comparative Study on the Cross-sectional Relationship between Export Industry Structure and Income Level with Reference to Chenery Model of Deducing ‘Middle-income-trap’ Escaping Requirement%出口产业结构和收入水平截面关系国际比较研究——借鉴钱纳里方程推论“中等收入陷阱”跨越条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强

    2014-01-01

    文章借鉴钱纳里方程,在全球范围遴选经济体组构样本;基于样本经济体1980~2012年数据,在货物出口产业结构和相对收入水平之间建立截面回归方程;并基于方程开展赶超度国际比较.结果表明,度量经济体“机电装备出口占比(PME)”赶超程度的指标和经济体相对收入水平最大值及其峰后均值正向关联;该占比赶超度大部分年份正值且其平均值为正,是非发达经济体跨越“中等收入陷阱”的必要而非充分条件;1984后中国PME赶超度持续正值,表明中国出口产业结构符合跨越条件要求.

  2. Social Structural Effects on the Level and Development of the Individual Experience of Anomie in the German Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Davidov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Can one observe an increasing level of individual lack of orientation because of rapid social change in modern societies? This question is examined using data from a representative longitudinal survey in Germany conducted in 2002–04. The study examines the role of education, age, sex, region (east/west, and political orientation for the explanation of anomia (micro level and its development. First we present the different sources of anomie in modern societies, based on the theoretical foundations of Durkheim and Merton, and introduce the different definitions of anomia, including our own cognitive version. Then we deduce several hypotheses from the theory, which we test by means of longitudinal data for the period 2002–04 in Germany using the latent growth curve model as our statistical method. The empirical findings show that all the sociodemographic variables, including political orientation, are strong predictors of the initial level of anomia. Regarding the development of anomia (macro level over time (2002–04, only the region (west has a significant impact. In particular, the results of a multi-group analysis show that people from West-Germany with a right-wing political orientation become more anomic over this period. The article concludes with some theoretical implications.

  3. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This ‘indirect’ learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, ‘indirect’ learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, ‘indirect’ learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information

  4. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Amos A. de, E-mail: amosdejong@gmail.com [Innovation Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Section of Environmental Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: piety.runhaar@wur.nl [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: Akolhoff@eia.nl [The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@geo.uu.nl [Department of Innovation and Environment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better

  5. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  6. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  7. Two Level Parallel Grammatical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ošmera, Pavel

    This paper describes a Two Level Parallel Grammatical Evolution (TLPGE) that can evolve complete programs using a variable length linear genome to govern the mapping of a Backus Naur Form grammar definition. To increase the efficiency of Grammatical Evolution (GE) the influence of backward processing was tested and a second level with differential evolution was added. The significance of backward coding (BC) and the comparison with standard coding of GEs is presented. The new method is based on parallel grammatical evolution (PGE) with a backward processing algorithm, which is further extended with a differential evolution algorithm. Thus a two-level optimization method was formed in attempt to take advantage of the benefits of both original methods and avoid their difficulties. Both methods used are discussed and the architecture of their combination is described. Also application is discussed and results on a real-word application are described.

  8. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  9. Radiometric level gauging in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new test system based on compton scattering of g-quantums on matter is described. The g emitter is a 22Na emitter with an activity below the threshold specified by radiation protection regulations. In more than 3000 test measurements, the instrument was tested on steel pipes and CFRP pipes with rated widths of DN 25 to DN 500 and wall thicknesses up to 12 mm. The mean deviation of measured levels as referred to real levels was 1.5 - 8 mm for levels of more than 50 mm and wall thicknesses (steel) up to 8 mm. The method is applicable to all pipe materials and liquid media. The results are not influenced either by the flow rate nor by gas bubbles in the fluid. The test instrument is easy to handle, and the staff requires only short-term training

  10. Cut performance levels and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job. PMID:22135955

  11. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  12. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  13. Differential responses of soil nematode community to pig manure application levels in Ferric Acrisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ru; Li, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Tao-Lin; Wang, Xing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha−1·yr−1) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation. Simpson diversity index and plant parasite index/maturity index of the nematode communities increased to a maximum level at a manure application rate of 3.5 t·ha−1·yr−1 and then sharply decreased. The changes in the soil nematode community were further determined to be correlated with chemical properties; available phosphorus had the strongest quadratic correlation with the two indices, implying that available phosphorus had a better indicative effect than other soil properties to nematode community. Available phosphorus in soil was deduced from 49 to 64 mg·kg−1 with the best nematode communities. Our results emphasized the importance of regular applications of manure in agriculture field to balance nematode diversity and build healthy agro-ecosystems. PMID:27734955

  14. Sulfur incorporation in high level nuclear waste glass: A S K-edge XAFS investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendebach, B.; Denecke, M. A.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2009-11-01

    We perform X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy measurements at the sulfur K-edge to elucidate the electronic and geometric bonding of sulfur atoms in borosilicate glass used for the vitrification of high level radioactive liquid waste. The sulfur is incorporated as sulfate, most probably as sodium sulfate, which can be deduced from the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) by fingerprint comparison with reference compounds. This finding is backed up by Raman spectroscopy investigation. In the extended XAFS data, no second shell beyond the first oxygen layer is visible. We argue that this is due to the sulfate being present as small clusters located into voids of the borosilicate network. Hence, destructive interference of the variable surrounding prohibits the presence of higher shell signals. The knowledge of the sulfur bonding characteristics is essential for further optimization of the glass composition and to balance the requirements of the process and glass quality parameters, viscosity and electrical resistivity on one side, waste loading and sulfur uptake on the other side.

  15. Reduction of parathyoid hormone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A method of acutely reducing the plasma level of PTH of a patient having an elevated PTH comprising the administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a GLP-2, or a variant, an analogue, or derivative of GLP-2 having the ability to bind and activate a GLP-2 receptor such as GLP-2 1-34...

  16. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N ×N matrices linear in a real parameter x . The matrix H (x ) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n >1 of linearly independent commuting partners Hi(x ) (integrals of motion) "]Hi(x ) ,Hj(x ) ]">H (x ) ,Hi(x ) =0 , for all x . In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H (x ) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N →∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN ; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x =x0 or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O (N-0.5) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  17. Nutrient balance at chain level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Oenema, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A nutrient balance approach is often used to quantify losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, that contribute to environmental problems such as eutrophication. A nutrient balance generally is computed at farm level, implying that nutrient losses related to pre-farm processes, such a

  18. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Delpisheh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  19. Inflation accounting at international level

    OpenAIRE

    Suciu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The inflation’s influence on monetary and non-monetary elements, on the capital and on the account of profit and damage, leads to the adoption of norms, both at a national and international level, which would attenuate the effects of inflation. The economic, political and social particularities determine the implementation of some procedures for adapting of inflation accounting.

  20. Multi-Level Document Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Stan; Homich, Eric; Sinclair, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype system that allows readers to view an electronic text in multiple simultaneous views, providing insight at several different levels of granularity, including a reading view. This prospect display is combined with a number of tools for manipulating the text, for example by highlighting sections of interest for a…

  1. Inflation accounting at international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflation’s influence on monetary and non-monetary elements, on the capital and on the account of profit and damage, leads to the adoption of norms, both at a national and international level, which would attenuate the effects of inflation. The economic, political and social particularities determine the implementation of some procedures for adapting of inflation accounting.

  2. Trainer Talk: Levels of Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present examples of trainer talk that scaffold trainee teachers' understanding of teaching in a post-observation feedback session. Previous research into scaffolding in a teacher training context describes scaffolding at a technique or strategy level, without describing how, in linguistic terms, the trainer can support and…

  3. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine…

  4. REVERSE LOGISTICS RETAIL LEVEL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  5. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.;

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  6. Sentence-Level Rewriting Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Writers usually need iterations of revisions and edits during their writings. To better understand the process of rewriting, we need to know what has changed be-tween the revisions. Prior work mainly focuses on detecting corrections within sentences, which is at the level of words or phrases. This paper proposes to detect revision changes at the…

  7. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  8. Level crossings and other level functionals of stationary Gaussian processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kratz, Marie F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis on the mathematical work done on level crossings of stationary Gaussian processes, with some extensions. The main results [(factorial) moments, representation into the Wiener Chaos, asymptotic results, rate of convergence, local time and number of crossings] are described, as well as the different approaches [normal comparison method, Rice method, Stein-Chen method, a general $m$-dependent method] used to obtain them; these methods are also very useful in the g...

  9. The distribution and activity of Cenozoic magma chamber in Tengchong volcano area deduced from the MODIS multi-temporal monthly night LST data%根据多时相夜间MODIS LST推断的腾冲地区新生代山岩岩浆囊分布与活动特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 彭松柏; 乔卫涛; 林木森; 王振胜; 田礼乔

    2011-01-01

    Tengchong volcanic geothermal area is located at the active arc zone of the subduction and collision of the Indian plate and Eurasian plates, and is considered as one of the most potentially active volcanic eruption areas in China. In order to study the spatial distribution and activity of the underground magma chamber, MODIS LST ( Land Surface Temperature) data were used to identify the geothermal anomalies that may be created by the heating from the underground magma chamber. The monthly night MODIS LST data from Mar. 2000 to Mar. 2011 of the study area were collected and analyzed. The 132 month average LST map was derived and three geothermal anomalies were identified. In the light of the previous studies in this area, it can be deduced that there are three magma chambers beneath the three thermal anomalies. The first one is located along Wuhe-Xinhua-Puchuan-Tuantian with the most significant geothermal anomaly, and covers 537km2. The second one is situated in the Langpu-Rehai-Maanshan area with a significant geothermal anomaly and an area of 226km2. The third one is located between Mazhan and Qushi with an obvious geothermal anomaly and a coverage of 28km2. It is also found that the patterns of the monthly LST variation of the three thermal anomalies are similar, with 2 temperature peaks occurring in May, June and August, September, which is different from that of the local temperature of the same period. The 10-year annual LST of the geothermal anomaly in Langpu-Rehai-Maanshan area shows the greatest variations among the three, which suggests the active convective exchange of heat between the underground magma chamber and the surface water, and can be inferred that the beneath this magma chamber is the most active among the three. The findings of this study agree well with the results from seismology, GPS-based deformation detection, He isotopic emission and relative geothermal gradient measurements. It demonstrates the effectiveness and potential of thermal

  10. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure. PMID:21772085

  11. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

  12. Random fluctuations of snow accumulation over antarctica and their relation to sea level change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, F.; Testut, L.; Legresy, B. [LEGOS (CNRS-CNES-UPS), Toulouse (France)

    2002-07-01

    Short-term changes in the volume of ice sheets as analyzed by radar altimetry may not be related to long-term climatic change. Indeed, the large relaxation time of an ice sheet induces a low-frequency response to random fluctuations of snow accumulation. However, the time scale of the response is big compared to the average human lifetime and the effect of these random fluctuations on sea level change may be important even if they are not linked to climatic change. In this study, the relaxation time of an ice sheet is expressed with respect to the ice thickness, surface slope and ice velocity. These parameters are deduced from the precise topography derived from the geodetic cycle of the ERS1 radar altimeter. The variance of the induced effect on ice elevation is found to be around 3 m over a 30-year scale and with a maximum of 10 m in Wilkes Land and in the western part of the West Antarctic ice sheet. Near the coast, this effect can mask a climatic signal and thus be critical for altimetric mass balance surveys. The estimated changes in Antarctica's elevation between the Seasat (1978) and ERS (1993) epochs could be explained at least partially by such processes. In terms of sea level change over the 30-year scale, the standard deviation of the induced effect is 8 {+-} 2.8 cm. Finally, we show that the probability of a present-day, induced sea level rise of between 0.5 and 1 mm/year over a 30-year time scale is estimated at 10% {+-} 10%, with coastal areas accounting for half of this signal. (orig.)

  13. Studies on deep electronic levels in silicon and aluminium gallium arsenide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports on investigations of the electrical and optical properties of deep impurity centers, related to the transition metals (TMs) Ti, Mo, W, V and Ni, in silicon. Emission rates, capture cross sections and photoionization cross sections for these impurities were determined by means of various Junction Space Charge Techniques (JSCTs), such as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), dark capacitance transient and photo capacitance transient techniques. Changes in Gibbs free energy as a function of temperature were calculated for all levels. From this temperature dependence, the changes in enthalpy and entropy involved in the electron and hole transitions were deduced. The influence of high electric fields on the electronic levels in chalcogen-doped silicon were investigated using the dark capacitance transient technique. The enhancement of the electron emission from the deep centers indicated a more complex field enhancement model than the expected Poole-Frenkel effect for coulombic potentials. The possibility to determine charge states of defects using the Poole-Frenkel effect, as often suggested, is therefore questioned. The observation of a persistent decrease of the dark conductivity due to illumination in simplified AlGaAs/GaAs high Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) over the temperature range 170K< T<300K is reported. A model for this peculiar behavior, based on the recombination of electrons in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) located at the AlGaAs/GaAs interface with holes generated by a two-step excitation process via the deep EL2 center in the GaAs epilayer, is put forward

  14. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math......The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  15. Biopower at the molar level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Martin; Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade or so much social science research on the developments in the life sciences and biomedicine seems to be focusing too narrowly on individualization or, more recently, on geneticization, that is, the ‘molecular’ level. This article argues that current public health policies...... in Denmark can only be properly understood by paying attention to the interventions targeting society and the population, that is, the ‘molar’ level, as well. Although the racialized kinds of biopower of the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries may be history, the health and vigour of populations......, the society and ‘its’ population today serves as a benchmark for a wide array public interventions seeking to make individuals and groups live a life that is longer and of a better quality. This new strategy, which goes well beyond reducing mortality and sickness, seems in principle to be without political...

  16. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  17. Linking Diverse Levels of Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Organisations start strategic renewal initiatives more often than ever before. Many initiatives, however, have little practical effect on the practices they are meant to change. They do not seem to submerge to the level where they become part of the actionable knowledge of the organisation....../or knowledge intensive companies (Starbuck 1992), which, due to their unsettled form and process, rely on the sense their members make of the change inputs and their creative enactment of these inputs. In such companies, change is a part of everyday practice that (re)produces organisational configurations...... and the reality experienced by practitioners, rather than an occational exception. This requires us to be more aware of how daily activities influence organisational level outcomes. The research question pursued in this paper is then: How are new ideas about strategic organisational change unfolded and absorbed...

  18. Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.

  19. Metallochaperones regulate intracellular copper levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lee Pang

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an important enzyme co-factor that is also extremely toxic at high intracellular concentrations, making active efflux mechanisms essential for preventing Cu accumulation. Here, we have investigated the mechanistic role of metallochaperones in regulating Cu efflux. We have constructed a computational model of Cu trafficking and efflux based on systems analysis of the Cu stress response of Halobacterium salinarum. We have validated several model predictions via assays of transcriptional dynamics and intracellular Cu levels, discovering a completely novel function for metallochaperones. We demonstrate that in addition to trafficking Cu ions, metallochaperones also function as buffers to modulate the transcriptional responsiveness and efficacy of Cu efflux. This buffering function of metallochaperones ultimately sets the upper limit for intracellular Cu levels and provides a mechanistic explanation for previously observed Cu metallochaperone mutation phenotypes.

  20. Landau levels and Riemann zeros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Germán; Townsend, Paul K

    2008-09-12

    The number N(E) of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function with positive imaginary part less than E is the sum of a "smooth" function N[over ](E) and a "fluctuation." Berry and Keating have shown that the asymptotic expansion of N[over ](E) counts states of positive energy less than E in a "regularized" semiclassical model with classical Hamiltonian H=xp. For a different regularization, Connes has shown that it counts states "missing" from a continuum. Here we show how the "absorption spectrum" model of Connes emerges as the lowest Landau level limit of a specific quantum-mechanical model for a charged particle on a planar surface in an electric potential and uniform magnetic field. We suggest a role for the higher Landau levels in the fluctuation part of N(E).

  1. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  2. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  3. Multiple Level Crowding: Crowding at the Object Parts Level and at the Object Configural level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, identification of a peripheral target in the presence of nearby flankers is worse than when the target appears alone. Prevailing theories hold that crowding occurs because of integration or "pooling" of low-level features at a single, relatively early stage of visual processing. Recent studies suggest that crowding can occur also between high-level object representations. The most relevant findings come from studies with faces and may be specific to faces. We examined whether crowding can occur at the object configural level in addition to part-level crowding, using nonface objects. Target (a disconnected square or diamond made of four elements) identification was measured at varying eccentricities. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The results showed crowding in both cases: Flankers interfered with target identification such that identification accuracy decreased with an increase in eccentricity, and no interference was observed at the fovea. Crowding by object parts, however, was weaker and had smaller spatial extent than crowding by object configurations; we related this finding to the relationship between crowding and perceptual organization. These results provide strong evidence that crowding occurs not only between object parts but also between configural representations of objects. PMID:26562896

  4. Managing Enterprise Service Level Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Li

    2010-01-01

    The continued trend of globalization and technology improvement like the internet and transportation have spawned an increasing number of complex service chains that span across local, regional and national boundaries. Service level agreement (SLA) plays a crucial role in gluing service chains together. In that regard, this paper provides a complete guidance of end-to-end lifecycle management of SLA, including SLA-aware service modelling and terms optimization, contract drafting and complianc...

  5. System-level musings about system-level science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.

    2009-12-01

    In teleology, a system has a purpose. In physics, a system has a tendency. For example, a mechanical system has a tendency to lower its potential energy. A thermodynamic system has a tendency to increase its entropy. Therefore, if geospace is seen as a system, what is its tendency? Surprisingly or not, there is no simple answer to this question. Or, to flip the statement, the answer is complex, or complexity. We can understand generally why complexity arises, as the geospace boundary is open to influences from the solar wind and Earth’s atmosphere and components of the system couple to each other in a myriad of ways to make the systemic behavior highly nonlinear. But this still begs the question: What is the system-level approach to geospace science? A reductionist view might assert that as our understanding of a component or subsystem progresses to a certain point, we can couple some together to understand the system on a higher level. However, in practice, a subsystem can almost never been observed in isolation with others. Even if such is possible, there is no guarantee that the subsystem behavior will not change when coupled to others. Hence, there is no guarantee that a subsystem, such as the ring current, has an innate and intrinsic behavior like a hydrogen atom. An absolutist conclusion from this logic can be sobering, as one would have to trace a flash of aurora to the nucleosynthesis in the solar core. The practical answer, however, is more promising; it is a mix of the common sense we call reductionism and awareness that, especially when strongly coupled, subsystems can experience behavioral changes, breakdowns, and catastrophes. If the stock answer to the systemic tendency of geospace is complexity, the objective of the system-level approach to geospace science is to define, measure, and understand this complexity. I will use the example of magnetotail dynamics to illuminate some key points in this talk.

  6. Myeloperoxidase levels predict executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslacher, H; Perkmann, T; Lukas, I; Barth, A; Ponocny-Seliger, E; Michlmayr, M; Scheichenberger, V; Wagner, O; Winker, R

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether baseline myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are associated with executive cognitive function in individuals with high physical activity. Baseline serum MPO levels of 56 elderly marathon runners and 58 controls were assessed by ELISA. Standardized tests were applied to survey domain-specific cognitive functions. Changes in brain morphology were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). High baseline serum MPO levels correlated with worse outcome in tests assessing executive cognitive function in athletes but not in the control group (NAI maze test p<0.05, Trail Making Test ratio p<0.01). In control participants, subcortical white matter hyperintensities were associated with higher scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (p<0.05), whereas athletes seem to be protected from this effect. During strenuous exercising, MPO as well as its educts may be elevated due to increased oxygen intake and excretion of pro-inflammatory mediators inducing host tissue damage via oxidative stress. This outweighs the potential benefits of physical activity on cognitive function.

  7. Level of Sexual Myths Level in Premature Ejaculation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine level of belief in sexual myths in the cases of premature ejacula­tion (PE which is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Methods: This study included 100 cases who applied Di­cle University Faculty of Medicine hospitals meet prema­ture ejaculation criteria of DSM-5 and 70 healthy controls. Sociodemographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rat­ing Scale (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAS, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASES-Men form and Sexual Myths Evaluation Form were applied to partici­pants. Results: In the study, rate of belief in sexual myths in PE cases was found significantly higher than healthy controls. In the PE cases, education time less than 10 years, the presence of comorbid sexual dysfunction were found to be statistically significant factors that increase the level of belief in sexual myths in the PE cases, HDS (p=0.0002, HAS (p=0.0001, ASES (p=0.0004 scores were statisti­cally significantly higher than the control group. In the loss of sexual desire in men with comorbid ASES (p=0.0001, with ED, ASES (p=0.001 and HDS (p=0.040 scores were found statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Sexual information should be given in the appropriate age by educated person in educational insti­tutions.

  8. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  9. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  10. Macroeconomic level of technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available World practice of economic management has proved that the best indicator of competitiveness is achieved by that economic system, the economic units of which timely and adequately update the resource and technical base, thus achieving higher financial and economic indicators. Ensuring that sustainable development becomes possible due to the transfer of technological innovations, namely the diffusion from the developer to the customer on both commercial and free of charge basis. The article focuses on functioning of technology transfer at the macro level, namely the creation of its domestic models.

  11. Radiation Levels around the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mala, P; Calviani, M; Nordt, A

    2013-01-01

    This work discuss on the radiation levels measured around the LHC machine during the 2012 operational year. The doses and particle fluences are measured primarily by RadMon detectors – about 300 RadMons are installed around the accelerator – and by thermoluminescent detectors. In addition, BLMs, IG5/PMI ionisation chambers as well as FGCs can be used for corresponding cumulated dose evaluations. The probability of SEE depends directly on the high-energy hadron (HEH) fluence, so this is the main parameter that is calculated based on RadMons counts.

  12. System-level flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Eardley, D. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Happer, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; LeLevier, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Nierenberg, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Press, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Ruderman, M. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Sullivan, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; York, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  13. Level Scheme of 223Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the decay of 227 Ac at levels of 223Fr, means of alpha Spectrometers of Si barrier detector and gamma Spectrometers of Ge(Li). The rotational bands 1/2-(541 ↓ ] , 1/2-(530 ↑ ) and 3/2-(532 ↓ ) have been identified, as well as two octupolar bands associated with the fundamental one. The results obtained indicate that the unified model is applicable in this intermediate zone of the nuclide chart. (Author) 150 refs

  14. CDRL - company dose restriction level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of year's close constraints and controls have been used as effective measures in aiding restricting exposure to ionising radiation. Predecessor companies to British Energy Generation (BEG) originally established the Company Dose Restriction Level (CDRL) as a consequence of the revision of risk estimates, then with the revised Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) the CDRL for BEG was also revised. The background, influences and consequences of CDRL appliance in a commercial organisation in calendar year 2000/1 are presented below. (author)

  15. Reactor water level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A BWR type reactor comprises a control valve disposed in a reactor water draining pipelines and undergoing an instruction to control the opening degree, an operation board having a setting device for generating the instruction and a control board for giving the instruction generated by the setting device to the control valve. The instruction is supplied from the setting device to the control valve by way of a control circuit to adjust the opening degree of the control valve thereby controlling the water level in the reactor. In addition, a controller generating an instruction independent of the setting device and a signal transmission channel for signal-transmitting the instruction independent of the control circuit are disposed, to connect the controller electrically to the signal transmission. The signal transmission channel and the control circuit are electrically connected to the control valve switchably with each other. Since instruction can be given to the control valve even at a periodical inspection or modification when the setting device and the control circuit can not be used, the reactor water level can be controlled automatically. Then, operator's working efficiency upon inspection can be improved remarkably. (N.H.)

  16. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  17. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Using a digital micromirror device to control both amplitude and phase, we inject arbitrary optical modes into our resonator. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We show that there is a conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  18. Radioactivity Levels in Kola Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples were collected in May 1995 from 16 locations in Kola Bay, North-west Russia, during an expedition starting from Murmansk and ending at Kildin Island in the Barents Sea. The purpose was to study the contamination level in an area with several potential sources of civilian and military radioactive pollution. 137Cs concentrations in the sediments, algae and benthic samples were low, but small particles containing 137Cs were separated from the sediment samples. All the sediments between the nuclear icebreaker base Atomflot and the open Barents Sea contained 60Co. Traces of 125Sb, 134Cs, 95Zr, 154Eu and 152Eu were also detected in some of the samples. Plutonium levels were low, but the increased 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio at Atomflot indicated a fresh release from the facility or from the waste storage vessels, Lepse and Imandra, lying in front of it. An increased 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio was also found in sediment collected in the outlet of Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. (author)

  19. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2001-01-01

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  20. Arctic research at three levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a posthumous publication of a Steven McNabb's presentation to the 1993 annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association. In it he described how the Social Transitions in the North research project involved explicit cross-cultural contact or participation at three levels: between scientists and public agencies; between scientists and study populations; and between research teams themselves. He explored a few of the entanglements and opportunities that arise in those interactions. Dr. McNabb urged northern researchers to avoid embracing rigid standards, for they will result in more entanglements and fewer opportunities. On the otherhand, if researchers are open-minded, they will be able to treat each dilemma as an opportunity that will make for better science.

  1. Excited levels of Pa-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of Pa-233 excited levels from the alpha decay of Np-237 and from beta decay of Th-233 has been performed. The alpha decay spectrum was measured with a semiconductor spectrometer of 18 keV effective resolution (FWHM). Over 13 new lines were identified. The gamma ray spectra of Np-237 and Th-233 were obtained with a Ge-Li detector low and medium range energy lines, and with Si-Li detector for the low energy region. A continuous purification method of Np-237 from its comparatively short-lived daughter Pa-233 was applied. A high number of new lines were identified in both spectra. The gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were obtained with INa(T1) detectors. (Author) 54 refs

  2. Biocards and Level of Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Keshwani, Sonal; Chakrabarti, Amaresh;

    2015-01-01

    in biocards. This was done in two workshops conducted with design students in Denmark and India. Students were given a design assignment and instructions for how to perform the BID ideation work. Half of the students were given biocards with abstract descriptions while the other half got biocards...... with concrete descriptions. The novelty of found solutions was evaluated by the students by rating novelty of each solution on a scale from 1 to 5. Mean values for abstract descriptions were 0,3 higher than for concrete descriptions indicating that more innovative solutions were found when students used...... biocards with abstract descriptions compared to concrete descriptions. The difference in mean value is significant with a confidence level better than 1%. It seems likely that more abstract descriptions in biocards helps avoiding design fixation in biomimetic design work....

  3. An Experimental Study on Apoptosis of cultivated Wild Ginseng Distilled Herbal Acupuncture by Concentration Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Chul Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to measure the efficacy of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture by concentration level, we've treated A549 human lung cancer lines with different concentrations of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture and examined mRNA and proteins which take parts in apoptosis. Methods : A549 human lung cancer lines were treated with various concentration levels of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture and cell toxicity was carefully examined. From the analysis of DNA fragmentation, RT-PCR, and Western blot, manifestation of mRNA and proteins which are associated with apoptosis were inspected. Results : The following results were obtained on apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer lines after administering various concentration levels of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture. 1. Measuring cell toxicity of lung cancer cells, strong cell toxicity was detected at high concentration level (1000㎕, 1200㎕, but no consistent concentration dependent reliance was detected. 2. Through DNA fragmentation, we were able to confirm cell destruction in all groups. 3. Experiment groups treated with cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture showed inhibition of Bcl-2 and COX-2 at mRNA and Protein level, whileas increase of Bax was shown. 4. Manifestation of p21, p53, Cyclin E, and Cyclin D1 were confirmed in all groups. 5. Extrication of Cytochrome C was detected at all groups, as well as increased activity of the enzyme caspase-3 and caspase-9, and PARP fragmentation were confirmed. Conclusion : According to the results, we can carefully deduce cell destruction of A549 human lung cancer lines were induced by Apoptosis. At the fixed level, cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture showed decrease of Bcl-2 and COX-2, as well as increase of Bax. Since cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture increases manifestation of p21, p53, Cyclin E, and Cyclin D1, it affects

  4. Improvement of global and regional mean sea level derived from satellite altimetry multi missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, M.; Faugere, Y.; Larnicol, G.; Picot, N.; Cazenave, A.; Benveniste, J.

    2012-04-01

    With the satellite altimetry missions, the global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993. 'Verification' phases, during which the satellites follow each other in close succession (Topex/Poseidon--Jason-1, then Jason-1--Jason-2), help to link up these different missions by precisely determining any bias between them. Envisat, ERS-1 and ERS-2 are also used, after being adjusted on these reference missions, in order to compute Mean Sea Level at high latitudes (higher than 66°N and S), and also to improve spatial resolution by combining all these missions together. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 provide a global rate of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from + 8 mm/yr to - 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend unceratainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in the frame of the SALP project (supported by CNES) and Sea-level Climate Change Initiative project (supported by ESA), strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections

  5. Energy matching and optimization analysis of waste to energy CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with exergy and energy level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system as a poly-generation technology has received an increasing attention in field of small scale power systems for applications ranging from residence to utilities. It will also play an important role in waste to energy application for megacities. However, how to evaluate and manage energy utilization of CCHP scientifically remains unclear. In this paper, energy level and exergy analysis are implemented on energy conversion processes to reveal the variation of energy amount and quality in the operation of CCHP system. Moreover, based on the energy level analysis, the methodology of energy matching and optimization for the CCHP system is proposed. By this method, the operational parameters of CCHP system can be deduced to obtain an efficient performance and proper energy utilization. It will be beneficial to understand and operate the CCHP system, and to provide a guiding principle of the energy conversion and management for the CCHP system. - Highlights: • Energy level is implemented to reveal the energy variation of CCHP system. • A mathematical energy level analysis model of CCHP system is proposed. • By energy level analysis between supply and demand, optimal zone is obtained. • This study will be useful for energy matching and optimization of CCHP system

  6. Reference levels at European level for cardiac interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In interventional cardiology, a wide variation in patient dose for the same type of procedure has been recognised by different studies. Variation is almost due to procedure complexity, equipment performance, procedure protocol and operator skill. The SENTINEL consortium has performed a survey in nine european centres collecting information on near 2000 procedures, and a new set of reference levels (RLs) for coronary angiography and angioplasty and diagnostic electrophysiology has been assessed for air kerma-area product: 45, 85 and 35 Gy cm2, effective dose: 8, 15 and 6 mSv, cumulative dose at interventional reference point: 650 and 1500 mGy, fluoroscopy time: 6.5, 15.5 and 21 min and cine frames: 700 and 1000 images, respectively. Because equipment performance and set-up are the factors contributing to patient dose variability, entrance surface air kerma for fluoroscopy, 13 mGy min-1, and image acquisition, 0.10 mGy per frame, have also been proposed in the set of RLs. (authors)

  7. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low and intermediate level waste immobilised in cement. Several topics have been investigated using a wide range of advanced physico-chemical and analytical techniques. These include: (a) the study of formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates, (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments, (c) colloid sorption behaviour, (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates, and (e) preliminary assessment of colloid migration behaviour. It has been shown that the generation of colloids in cement leachates can arise from a process of nucleation and growth leading to an amorphous phase which is predominantly calcium silicate hydrate. Such colloidal material has a capacity for association with polyvalent rare earths and actinides and these may be significant in the source term and processes involving radionuclide retention in the near field. It has also been shown that the near-field aqueous chemistry (pH, Ca2+ concentration) has a marked effect on colloid behaviour (deposition and stability). A mechanistic approach to predict colloid sorption affinity has been developed which highlights the importance of colloid characteristics and the nature of the ionic species. (author)

  8. Concentration level and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and grass around Mt.Qomolangma,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoPing; YAO TanDong; CONG ZhiYuan; YAN XinLiang; KANG ShiChang; ZHANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    High mountains may serve as a condenser for persistent organic pollutants.In the present study,soil and grass samples from Mt.Qomolangma region,China were collected from 4600 to 5620 m a.s.l and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine if they are concentrated at colder,more elevated sites and to evaluate their possible resources and fractionation.The total PAHs Concentration in soil samples was<600 ng g-1,the critical value to differentiate PAHs levels in remote and urban regions.This implied the PAHs levels at Mt.Qomolangma are relatively low and what one might expect in such a remote region of the world.These low values may represent a soil background for mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere soils away from the direct influence of an anthropogenic source.As for the distribution pattern,the low molecular weight PAHs were prone to accumulate at higher altitude,while the high molecular weight PAHs inversely related or unrelated with elevation.Based on high concentration of phenanthrene at elevated sample site and the ratios of individual PAHs,we deduced that home-heating combustion and vehicle emission may result in the constitution trait of PAHs in this mountain region.Monsoon traveling over India,Pakistan and other countries with dense population may carry contaminant to Mt.Qomolangma region.

  9. Air resistance and its influence on the biomechanics and energetics of sprinting at sea level and at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Smith, A J

    1984-01-01

    Following an examination of the processes by which chemical energy is converted into useful work during running, a mathematical model of the energetics of sprinting is constructed. This is used in conjunction with a careful analysis of Olympic records, in particular those obtained in the 1968 Games at Mexico City, to determine the magnitude of the rate of working against air resistance during running. It is established that times in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m events at the Mexico Olympics were approximately 1.7% lower than they would otherwise have been if the races had been run at sea level. This information is used to deduce that the external work done per unit time against air resistance is about 7.5-9% of the total power output of a sprinter, running at maximum speed at sea level. These figures compare well with the value of 7.8% obtained independently by Davies (J. appl. Physiol 48, 702-709, 1980). The analysis provides evidence that a linear relation exists between running speed and the rate of degradation of mechanical energy into thermal energy up to the highest sprinting speeds attainable. The maximum power generated by a sprinter is approximately 3 kW.

  10. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a country or several countries simultaneously. We believe that it is difficult to appreciate that a traditional model might explain a financial crisis, given that every context of occurrence, conditions of development and crisis settlement programs are unique and unrepeatable. Every crisis has in its structure certain issues that may be capitalized and can lead to success. Perhaps more obvious are the ways that can lead to total failure of the organization. Finding and capitalizing the potential success is the essence of the crisis management. The essence of the mismanagement of the crisis is to worse situation. The successful management of a crisis involves admitting that you are facing a crisis, taking reasonable measures to remedy the situation, to be seen taking them and heard saying the right words. The issue at this stage of crisis management is that perception becomes true reality. Crisis management is a set of factors designed to combat the crisis and reduce the damage caused by the crisis. In other words, crisis management attempts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of the crisis and protect the organization, the public involved and the specific field by the possible damages. The effective management of the crisis includes crisis communication. This is an essential component through which the organization faced with the difficult situation can rehabilitate it’s publicly image or even to improve it. The crisis communication occurs between the organization and

  11. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  12. Fingerprint matching system using Level 3 features

    OpenAIRE

    Prince; Manvjeet Kaur,; Ajay Mittal

    2010-01-01

    Fingerprint biometric security system identifies the unique property in human being and matching with template stored in database. Fingerprint details are generally defined in three levels i.e. Level 1 (Pattern), Level 2(Minutiae points) and Level 3 (pores and contour ridges). Level 3 features are barely used by automated fingerprintverification system. This research paper presents a Level 3 ingerprint matching system. In this paper, we deal with pores for matching with template. With the lo...

  13. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons. PMID:27281214

  14. The LHC at level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 10 March, a team of CERN surveyors descended into the LHC tunnel. Their aim: to take measurements of the height of the LHC magnets to see how geological shifts might be affecting the machine and to take reference positions of the machine before the interconnects are opened.    CERN surveyors take levelling measurements of the LHC magnets during LS1. The LHC tunnel is renowned for its geological stability: set between layers of sandstone and molasse, it has allowed the alignment of the world’s largest accelerators to be within sub-millimetre precision. But even the most stable of tunnels can be affected by geological events. To ensure the precise alignment of the LHC, the CERN survey team performs regular measurements of the vertical position of the magnets (a process known as “levelling”). Over the past month, the team has been taking measurements of the LHC before the temperature of the magnets reaches 100 K, beyond which there may be some mechanic...

  15. A System-Level Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghica, Dan R

    2012-01-01

    Game semantics is a trace-like denotational semantics for programming languages where the notion of legal observable behaviour of a term is defined combinatorially, by means of rules of a game between the term (the "Proponent") and its context (the "Opponent"). In general, the richer the computational features a language has, the less constrained the rules of the semantic game. In this paper we consider the consequences of taking this relaxation of rules to the limit, by granting the Opponent omnipotence, that is, permission to play any move without combinatorial restrictions. However, we impose an epistemic restriction by not granting Opponent omniscience, so that Proponent can have undisclosed secret moves. We introduce a basic C-like programming language and we define such a semantic model for it. We argue that the resulting semantics is an appealingly simple combination of operational and game semantics and we show how certain traces explain system-level attacks, i.e. plausible attacks that are realizable...

  16. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  17. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  18. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen-Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  19. Confirmation and fine-mapping of a major QTL for resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: population-level associations between markers and trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen Thomas

    2009-08-01

    multi-marker haplotypes. One four-marker haplotype was found to be the best predictor of QTL alleles, and was successfully used to deduce genotypes of the underlying polymorphism in 72% of the parents of the next generation within a breeding nucleus. A highly significant population-level correlation was found between deduced alleles at the underlying polymorphism and survival of offspring groups in the fry challenge test, parents with the three deduced genotypes (QQ, Qq, qq having mean offspring mortality rates of 0.13, 0.32, and 0.49, respectively. The frequency of the high-resistance allele (Q in the population was estimated to be 0.30. Apart from this major QTL, one other experiment-wise significant QTL for IPN-resistance was detected, located on linkage group 4. Conclusion The QTL confirmed in this study represents a case of a major gene explaining the bulk of genetic variation for a presumed complex trait. QTL genotypes were deduced within most parents of the 2005 generation of a major breeding company, providing a solid framework for linkage-based MAS within the whole population in subsequent generations. Since haplotype-trait associations valid at the population level were found, there is also a potential for MAS based on linkage disequilibrium (LD. However, in order to use MAS across many generations without reassessment of linkage phases between markers and the underlying polymorphism, the QTL needs to be positioned with even greater accuracy. This will require higher marker densities than are currently available.

  20. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  1. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  2. Opinions on College Students' Improving English level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis includes three aspects: discuss the necessity of improving English level, analyze the present situation of students' level, propose some methods to improve English level. Its aim is to encourage college students to improve their English level as possible as they can for the purpose of social development.

  3. 42 CFR 124.503 - Compliance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance level. 124.503 Section 124.503 Public... Unable To Pay § 124.503 Compliance level. (a) Annual compliance level. Subject to the provisions of this... persons unable to pay if it provides for the fiscal year uncompensated services at a level not less...

  4. The VGLC: The Video Game Level Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Summerville, Adam James; Snodgrass, Sam; Mateas, Michael; Ontañón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Levels are a key component of many different video games, and a large body of work has been produced on how to procedurally generate game levels. Recently, Machine Learning techniques have been applied to video game level generation towards the purpose of automatically generating levels that have the properties of the training corpus. Towards that end we have made available a corpora of video game levels in an easy to parse format ideal for different machine learning and other game AI researc...

  5. Fingerprint Matching Using Hierarchical Level Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bennet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fingerprint features extraction using different levels. The hierarchical order at four different levels, namely, Level 1 (pattern, Level 2 (minutia points, Level 3 (pores and ridge contours, and Level 4 (oscillated pattern. The fingerprint feature extraction frequently take advantage of Level 4 features to assist in identification, Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS currently rely only on Level 1 and Level 2 features. In fact, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI standard of fingerprint resolution for AFIS is 500 pixels per inch (ppi, which is inadequate for capturing Level 3 features, such as pores. With the advances in fingerprint sensing technology, many sensors are now equipped with dual resolution (1,000 ppi scanning capability. However, increasing the scan resolution alone does not necessarily provide any performance improvement in fingerprint matching, unless an extended feature set is utilized. As a result, a systematic analysis to determine how much performance gain one can achieve by introducing Level 4 features in AFIS is highly desired. We propose a hierarchical matching system that utilizes features at all the four levels extracted from 1,000-ppi fingerprints scans. Level 3 features, pores and ridge contours are automatically extracted using Gabor filters and wavelet transform and are locally matched using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm and Level 4 features, oscillated pattern including curve scanned DCT to measure the recognition rate using k-nn classifier, Our analytical study conclude Level 4 features carry significant discriminatory information. The matching system when Level 4 features are employed in combination with Level 1 Level 2 and Level 3 features. This proposed method outperforms the others, particularly in recognition rate.

  6. Cation distribution and micro level magnetic alignments in the nanosized nickel zinc ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Presence of noncollinear magnetic alignments in Ni–Zn ferrite nano systems. ► Population of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites unchanged with particle size. ► Coercivity and saturation magnetization values decreasing with particle size. ► Superparamagnetic behaviour found to decreases with increase in particle size. ► Bond lengths vary with temperature and affect the magnetic moment values. - Abstract: Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized through sol–gel synthesis method. Sintering at elevated temperatures was employed to obtain samples with higher particle sizes. The structural characterization using X-ray diffraction suggests that the three samples possess uniformal cation distribution. The variation of magnetization as a function of applied magnetic field at room temperature is studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer and all the samples found to exhibit nearly zero remanence and zero coercivity suggesting a superparamagnetic behaviour. The variation of magnetizations of the three different samples with temperature was studied by ZFC–FC technique at two different applied fields of 10 Oe and 1000 Oe. In order to study the possibility of structural changes, chemical and coordination differences of iron in the nanocrystalline Ni–Zn ferrite particles, room temperature 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was used. The application of 5 T magnetic field at 5 K temperature resolves the two sub spectra and canting angle of 27o and 12o were observed which clearly indicates the noncollinear magnetic alignment in nano crystallites of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4. The neutron diffraction study was performed at seven different temperatures 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 K. Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction data was performed to deduce the basic structural parameters, cation distribution and micro level magnetic alignments in the nanosized nickel zinc ferrite.

  7. Energetics and dynamics of atomic uranium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methods for discovering and identifying new electronic levels of atomic uranium and measuring parameters, such as radiative lifetimes and absorption cross-sections, are described. The uranium atoms are produced within an especially designed induction-heated oven. The uranium vapor is irradiated by nitrogen laser pumped, pulsed dye lasers. The various measurements are accomplished by detection of laser induced fluorescence from selectively excited levels. 138 atomic-uranium odd levels in the region 32260-34900 cm-1 and 16 even levels in the region 49500-49900 cm-1 are reported. Unique J values are presented for 64 levels and partial assignment (two possibilities) for 42 levels. Radiative lifetimes are presented for 134 levels. Absorption cross sections were measured for 12 transitions. Isotope shifts of 17 levels are given. Cross-sections for internal excitation transfer in uranium which are induced by collisions with argon atoms, are presented for 11 levels. (author)

  8. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  9. The Impact of Family-related issues on Child Disability Prevention Deduced from Compliance of Phenylketonuria Screening and Therapy%家庭环境对儿童残疾预防影响作用分析--以苯丙酮尿症为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯善伟

    2014-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is the most common autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder in which timely screening and strict diet therapy can prevent intelligence disability. The compliance of participating in neonatal screening and therapy is usually affected by family-related issues:High income, good education and family adherence benefit compliance of screening and therapy of PKU patients. On the contrary, adverse economic status, education level and family adherence mean decreased compliance. Thus, the state and society should put much more investment during the practice of disability prevention. Public education about diseases and disability prevention promotes family participation.%苯丙酮尿症是常见的遗传代谢病,及时筛查和严格饮食治疗可预防患儿出现智力残疾。新生儿筛查和治疗依从性常受家庭因素的影响,经济条件好、受教育水平高和关系和谐的家庭依从性好,筛查和医疗依从性高;反之经济条件差、受教育水平低和关系差的家庭对疾病认识差,筛查和治疗依从性也差,直接影响到患儿的残疾预防效果。因此在残疾预防实践过程中应提高国家和社会投入,加强疾病和残疾预防的公众教育,促进家庭参与的依从性。

  10. A Quina assemblage in level XIth of Esquilleu cave: specialized management of lithic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrión Santafé, Elena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The XIth Level lithic assemblage of Esquilleu Cave (Cantabria, Spain permits us to observe the high degree of standardization, morphological as well as technological,of lithic blank production,used mainly for the production of side-scrapers. This homogeneity permits us to infer some notions about function, as deduced by the essential characteristics of the side-scrapers (considerable thickness and convex edge delineation, and to suggest, albeit tentatively, the function of the settlement.

    El estudio del conjunto del Nivel XI de la Cueva del Esquilleu (Cantabria, España nos permite observar la elevada estandarización formal y tecnológica de la producción de matrices, orientada de forma preferente a la producción de raederas. Esta homogeneidad permite inferir algunas nociones sobre funcionalidad a partir de las características esenciales de las raederas (considerable espesor y delineación convexa del filo y aproximamos de forma tentativa a la funcionalidad de la ocupación.

  11. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    The paper attempts theoretically to clarify the interrelation between various levels of descriptions used in the modelling and the programming of information systems. We suggest an analysis where we characterise the description levels with respect to how precisely they may handle information about...... given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...

  12. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  13. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  14. EMI-EDGI Operational Level Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This document is the Operational Level Agreement signed by EMI and EDGI for the contribution of middleware from EDGI into the EMI distribution and the definition of service levels compatible with the existing EMI SLAs

  15. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or leased... to paragraphs (a) (1) and (2). (1) The base level of a U.S. operator shall be increased by a...

  16. Thermodynamics, core-level spectroscopy, morphology, and work function study of different TiCl{sub 3} crystalline phases: A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Wenpo, E-mail: cqliwp@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Feng, Wenjiang [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Zhang, Zhipeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Shengtao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Three TiCl{sub 3} polymorphs materials were systematically investigated. • Structural results agree well with experimental and available theoretical data. • Morphological and thermodynamic properties were computed and analyzed. • Core-level spectroscopy and work function were obtained. - Abstract: Computer simulation has been widely applied in many research fields owing to its superiority in revealing an insight understanding of the phenomena. In this work, the thermodynamics, core-level spectroscopy, morphology, and work function of TiCl{sub 3} with three different crystalline phases (α, β, and γ) have been comprehensively computed employing the Materials Studio package. Our computational DFT-D approach gives a structural description of the TiCl{sub 3} phases in good agreement with experiment. The core-level spectroscopy confirmed that α, β, and γ modifications for TiCl{sub 3} have lightly affected on the valences of the constitutional elements. A series of possible growth faces (h k l) were deduced using the classic Bravais–Friedel–Donnay–Harker (BFDH) model. We conclude that the sequence of work function for (0 0 1) surface was α > β ≈ γ.

  17. Improvement of High-Power Three-Level Explosion-Proof Inverters Using Soft Switching Control Based on Optimized Power-Loss Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Zhou Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-power three-level explosion-proof inverters demand high thermal stability of power devices, and a set of theories and methods is needed to achieve an accurate power-loss calculation of power devices, to establish heat dissipation model, and ultimately to reduce the power loss to improve thermal stability of system. In this paper, the principle of neutral point clamped three-level (NPC3L inverter is elaborated firstly, and a fourth-order RC equivalent circuit of IGBT is derived, on which basis the power-loss model of IGBT and the optimized maternal power-loss thermal model, using an optimized power-loss algorithm, are established. Secondly, in accordance with the optimized maternal power-loss thermal model, the generic formulas of power-loss calculation are deduced to calculate the power-loss modification values of NPC3L and soft switching three-level (S3L inverters, which will be the thermal sources during thermal analysis for maternal power-loss thermal models. Finally, the experiment conducted on the 2.1 MW experimental platform shows that S3L inverter has the same excellent output characteristics with NPC3L inverter, reduces the power loss significantly by 213 W in each half-bridge, and decreases the temperature by 10°C, coinciding with the theoretical calculation, which verifies the accuracy of optimized power-loss algorithm and the effectiveness of the improvement.

  18. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  19. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  20. Levels of Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of the second level (intermediate acoustical processing of rhyming words) and the third level (deep-semantic processing of words in sentences) of the "levels of processing" framework on memory performance of four types of intermediate-grade students (52 "normal" students, 50 students with learning disabilities, 25…

  1. 30 CFR 62.120 - Action level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action level. 62.120 Section 62.120 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR UNIFORM MINE HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.120 Action level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure equals or exceeds the action level the...

  2. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  3. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  4. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

  5. Non-contact optical Liquid Level Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, L. L.; Tevelev, L. V.; Shaimukhametov, R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Information about characteristics of the optical liquid level sensor are present. Sensors are used to control of the light level limit fluid - water, kerosene, alcohol, solutions, etc. Intrinsically safe, reliable and easy to use. The operating principle of the level sensor is an optoelectronic infrared device.

  6. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bello Garrote, F.L.; Eriksen, T.K.; Giacoppo, F.; Goergen, A.; Hagen, T.W.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A.C.; Nyhus, H.T.; Renstroem, T.; Rose, S.J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T.G.; Tveten, G.M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Aiche, M.; Ducasse, Q.; Jurado, B. [University of Bordeaux, CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 120, Gradignan (France); Bernstein, L.A.; Bleuel, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Byun, Y.; Voinov, A. [Ohio University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, Ohio (United States); Gunsing, F. [CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SPhN, Cedex (France); Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Wilson, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay Cedex (France); Wiedeking, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa)

    2015-12-15

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. From the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold. (orig.)

  7. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  8. Service level agreements for cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, Philipp; Theilmann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing provides a unique combination of business-driven application scenarios and advanced research in the area of service-level agreements for Clouds and service-oriented infrastructures. Current state-of-the-art research findings are presented in this book, as well as business-ready solutions applicable to Cloud infrastructures or ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) environments. Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing contributes to the various levels of service-level management from the infrastructure over the software to the business layer, includ

  9. An architectural approach to level design

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Explore Level Design through the Lens of Architectural and Spatial Experience TheoryWritten by a game developer and professor trained in architecture, An Architectural Approach to Level Design is one of the first books to integrate architectural and spatial design theory with the field of level design. It explores the principles of level design through the context and history of architecture, providing information useful to both academics and game development professionals.Understand Spatial Design Principles for Game Levels in 2D, 3D, and Multiplayer ApplicationsThe book presents architectura

  10. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  11. Resonances in the rotational constants of 0_{g}^{-}(6s_{1/2}+6p_{1/2}) Cs2 levels analysed by an improved-Bv-formula associated to a 2-channel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelassi, Haikel; Pruvost, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Spin-orbit coupling in 0g-(6s1/2+6p1/2) long-range molecular levels of Cs2 assigned to resonances in the rotational constant (Bv) spectrum (Lignier L. et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13 (2011) 18910; Pichler M. et al., J. Chem. Phys., 121 (2004) 1796) has been analyzed with a model which associates an improved-B v -formula (established here) and a 2-channel model. The approach explains the Lorentzian shape of the observed resonances superimposing a non-horizontal background and the fit of the B v -spectrum allows us to deduce the spin-orbit coupling parameters. We compare this approach with an analysis of the binding energies using the vibrational quantum defect (VQD). The good agreement between the methods lets one conclude that the improved-B v -formula associated with a 2-channel model provides a pertinent approach for analyzing coupled molecular series.

  12. Laws, Causation and Dynamics at Different Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (Section 2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (Sections 3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different 'levels'. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that 'ride free' of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasising how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed 'micro' and 'macro' which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation.

  13. Fingerprint matching system using Level 3 features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint biometric security system identifies the unique property in human being and matching with template stored in database. Fingerprint details are generally defined in three levels i.e. Level 1 (Pattern, Level 2(Minutiae points and Level 3 (pores and contour ridges. Level 3 features are barely used by automated fingerprintverification system. This research paper presents a Level 3 ingerprint matching system. In this paper, we deal with pores for matching with template. With the local pore model, a SIFT algorithm is used to match the pores with template. Experiments on a good quality fingerprint dataset are performed and the results demonstrate that the proposed Level 3 features matching model performed more accurately and robustly.

  14. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution.

  15. Level of evidence in hand surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Roberto S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few investigations have been done to analyze the level of evidence in journals related to hand surgery, compared to other related research fields. The objective of this study was to assess the level of evidence of the clinical research papers published in the Ibero-american (RICMA, the European (JHSE and American (JHSA Journals of Hand Surgery. Methods A total of 932 clinical research papers published between 2005 and 2009 (RICMA 60, JHSE 461, and JHSA 411 were reviewed. Two independent observers classified the level of evidence based on the Oxford International Classification, 5 being the lowest level and 1 the highest level. The observed frequencies of the level of evidence for each journal were compared with the expected frequencies by a chi-square (χ 2 test for categorical variables with a significance level of 0.05. Results Inter-observer agreement analysis showed a Kappa of 0.617. Intra-observer agreement analysis presented a Kappa of 0.66 for the observer 1, and a Kappa of 0.751 for the observer 2. More than 80% of the papers in RICMA and JHSE and a 67.6% in the JHSA presented a level of 4. No level 1 or 2 studies were published in RICMA, compared to JHSE (0.9% level 1 and 5.0% level 2 and JHSA (8.3% level 1 and 10% level 2. The percentage of papers with level 3 published in RICMA (16.7% was higher compared to the JHSE (11.1% and the JHSA (14.1%. All the results were statistically significant (χ2=63.945; p Conclusions The level of evidence in hand surgery is dependent on the type of journal; being the highest level evidence papers those published in the JHSA, followed by the JHSE and finally the RICMA. Knowing the status of the level of evidence published in hand surgery is the starting point to face the challenges of improving the quality of our clinical research

  16. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  17. Elevated levels of prolactin in nulliparous women.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, M. C.; Gerkins, V. R.; Henderson, B. E.; Brown, J. B.; Pike, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    Follicular-phase (Day 11) plasma prolactin, and plasma and urinary oestrogen levels of 70 nulliparous nuns were compared with those of 80 of their sisters, of whom 62 were parous. The nuns and their nulliparous sisters did not differ significantly in their prolactin and oestrogen levels. No differences in plasma oestrogens or urinary oestriol ratio were found between the parous and the nulliparous women. However, the mean prolactin level of the nuns and their nulliparous sisters was 35% highe...

  18. Mortality level, trends and differentials in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamuleni, M E

    1994-01-01

    "This article examines the levels, and trends and differentials in mortality in Malawi.... The study has shown that (i) the level of mortality is very high in Malawi; (ii) mortality has declined during the period under review; (iii) there was reduction in the rate of mortality decline in the seventies; and (iv) [there are] interesting differences in mortality in terms of rural-urban localities, regions and age-sex differentials. The observed levels, trends and differentials in mortality are however consistent with the level of social and economic development in the country."

  19. Combinatorial nuclear level-density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aberg, Sven [LUND SWEDEN; Uhrenhoit, Henrik [LUND SWEDEN; Ickhikawa, Takatoshi [RIKEN

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic nuclear level-density model is presented. The model is a completely combinatorial (micro-canonical) model based on the folded-Yukawa single-particle potential and includes explicit treatment of pairing, rotational and vibrational states. The microscopic character of all states enables extraction of level distribution functions with respect to pairing gaps, parity and angular momentum. The results of the model are compared to available experimental data: neutron separation energy level spacings, data on total level-density functions from the Oslo method and data on parity ratios.

  20. User-Level Device Drivers: Achieved Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Leslie; Gernot Heiser; Peter Chubb; Nicholas Fitzroy-Dale; Stefan G(o)tz; Charles Gray; Luke Macpherson; Daniel Potts; Yue-Ting Shen; Kevin Elphinstone

    2005-01-01

    Running device drivers as unprivileged user-level code, encapsulated into their own process, has often been proposed as a technique for increasing system robustness. However, in the past, systems based on user-level drivers have generally exhibited poor I/O performance. Consequently, user-level device drivers have never caught on to any significant degree. In this paper we demonstrate that it is possible to build systems which employ user-level device drivers, without significant performance degradation, even for high-bandwidth devices such as Gigabit Ethernet.

  1. Mid-level Representation for Visual Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, Moin

    2015-01-01

    Visual Recognition is one of the fundamental challenges in AI, where the goal is to understand the semantics of visual data. Employing mid-level representation, in particular, shifted the paradigm in visual recognition. The mid-level image/video representation involves discovering and training a set of mid-level visual patterns (e.g., parts and attributes) and represent a given image/video utilizing them. The mid-level patterns can be extracted from images and videos using the motion and appe...

  2. An encapsulated fiber optic fuel level sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Sai Shankar, M.; Saidi Reddy, P.; Sai Prasad, R. L. N.; Kamineni, K. S.; Kishore, P.

    2011-05-01

    An encapsulated fiber optic sensor head for the detection of level of fuel in a tank is presented. The design is based on a concentric cam used along with a float and extrinsic intensity modulation of light. The sensor has been tested for its performance to measure a fuel level range of 35cm and a sensitivity of 0.2316 volts/cm was observed during rise in fuel level. The sensitivity and range of level sensing can be varied by varying the length of the connecting rod.

  3. On sea level - ice sheet interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Natalya Alissa

    This thesis focuses on the physics of static sea-level changes following variations in the distribution of grounded ice and the influence of these changes on the stability and dynamics of marine ice sheets. Gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in grounded ice mass lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. I outline a revised theory for computing post-glacial sea-level predictions and discuss the dominant physical effects that contribute to the patterns of sea-level change associated with surface loading on different timescales. I show, in particular, that a large sea-level fall (rise) occurs in the vicinity of a retreating (advancing) ice sheet on both short and long timescales. I also present an application of the sea-level theory in which I predict the sea-level changes associated with a new model of North American ice sheet evolution and consider the implications of the results for efforts to establish the sources of Meltwater Pulse 1A. These results demonstrate that viscous deformational effects can influence the amplitude of sea-level changes observed at far-field sea-level sites, even when the time window being considered is relatively short (≤ 500 years). Subsequently, I investigate the feedback of sea-level changes on marine ice-sheet stability and dynamics by coupling a global sea-level model to ice-sheet models of increasing complexity. To begin, I incorporate gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into an equilibrium marine ice-sheet stability theory to show that the sea-level changes have a stabilizing influence on ice-sheet retreat. Next, I consider the impact of the stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat using a 1D dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model. Simulations with the coupled model, which incorporate viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, show that local sea-level changes at the grounding line act to slow, and in some cases, halt

  4. Interference-free ultrasonic level measuring sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid interference phenomena depending on the level, an ultrasonic level measuring sensor is proposed, which has an envelope tube around the path of the ultrasonic signal to prevent reflection. An ultrasonic transducer suspended by means of a linkage on a flange is additionally provided with a corrugated hose or a sintered metal tube around the path of the ultrasonic signal. A reference element necessary to raise the accuracy can be fitted in a cutout of the envelope tube. This device makes very precise measurement of the level possible without variations in the accuracy of measurement depending on the level, as interference due to shunt reflection is prevented. (orig./HP)

  5. Level design concept, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kremers, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad level design can make or break any game, so it is surprising how little reference material exists for level designers. Beginning level designers have a limited understanding of the tools and techniques they can use to achieve their goals, or even define them. This book is the first to use a conceptual and theoretical foundation to build such a set of practical tools and techniques. It is tied to no particular technology or genre, so it will be a useful reference for many years to come. Kremers covers many concepts universal to level design, such as interactivity, world building, im

  6. MISR Level 2 Surface parameters V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 Land Surface product contains information on land directional reflectance properties,albedos(spectral & PAR integrated),FPAR,asssociated radiation...

  7. Levels of Security Issues in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Charanya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Cloud computing is booming in most of the IT industry. Most of the organizations are moving to cloud computing due to various reasons. It provide elastic architecture accessible through internet and also it eliminate the setting up of high cost computing infrastructure for the IT based solutions and services. Cloud computing is pay-per-use model, on-demand network access to a sharedpool of configurable computing resources like Application-as a service, Platform as a services and infrastructure as a services. In this paper, survey of security issues at different levels such as application level, host level and network level is presented.

  8. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  9. An Enhanced Level Set Segmentation for Multichannel Images Using Fuzzy Clustering and Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Agrawal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, image segmentation has proved its applicability in various areas like satellite image processing, medical image processing and many more. In the present scenario the researchers tries to develop hybrid image segmentation techniques to generates efficient segmentation. Due to the development of the parallel programming, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM has attracted much attention as a fast alternative approach for solving partial differential equations. In this project work, first designed an energy functional based on the fuzzy c-means objective function which incorporates the bias field that accounts for the intensity in homogeneity of the real-world image. Using the gradient descent method, corresponding level set equations are obtained from which we deduce a fuzzy external force for the LBM solver based on the model by Zhao. The method is speedy, robust for denoise, and does not dependent on the position of the initial contour, effective in the presence of intensity in homogeneity, highly parallelizable and can detect objects with or without edges. For the implementation of segmentation techniques defined for gray images, most of the time researchers determines single channel segments of the images and superimposes the single channel segment information on color images. This idea leads to provide color image segmentation using single channel segments of multi channel images. Though this method is widely adopted but doesn’t provide complete true segmentation of multichannel ie color images because a color image contains three different channels for Red, green and blue components. Hence segmenting a color image, by having only single channel segments information, will definitely loose important segment regions of color images. To overcome this problem this paper work starts with the development of Enhanced Level Set Segmentation for single channel Images Using Fuzzy Clustering and Lattice Boltzmann Method. For the

  10. RNA-Seq and molecular docking reveal multi-level pesticide resistance in the bed bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamidala Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous nocturnal parasites of humans that have attained high impact status due to their worldwide resurgence. The sudden and rampant resurgence of C. lectularius has been attributed to numerous factors including frequent international travel, narrower pest management practices, and insecticide resistance. Results We performed a next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq experiment to find differentially expressed genes between pesticide-resistant (PR and pesticide-susceptible (PS strains of C. lectularius. A reference transcriptome database of 51,492 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was created by combining the databases derived from de novo assembled mRNA-Seq tags (30,404 ESTs and our previous 454 pyrosequenced database (21,088 ESTs. The two-way GLMseq analysis revealed ~15,000 highly significant differentially expressed ESTs between the PR and PS strains. Among the top 5,000 differentially expressed ESTs, 109 putative defense genes (cuticular proteins, cytochrome P450s, antioxidant genes, ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and acetyl cholinesterase involved in penetration resistance and metabolic resistance were identified. Tissue and development-specific expression of P450 CYP3 clan members showed high mRNA levels in the cuticle, Malpighian tubules, and midgut; and in early instar nymphs, respectively. Lastly, molecular modeling and docking of a candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP397A1V2 revealed the flexibility of the deduced protein to metabolize a broad range of insecticide substrates including DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, and imidacloprid. Conclusions We developed significant molecular resources for C. lectularius putatively involved in metabolic resistance as well as those participating in other modes of insecticide resistance. RNA-Seq profiles of PR strains combined with tissue-specific profiles and molecular docking revealed multi-level insecticide

  11. An Enhanced Level Set Segmentation for Multichannel Images Using Fuzzy Clustering and Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Agrawal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, image segmentation has proved its applicability in various areas like satellite image processing, medical image processing and many more. In the present scenario the researchers tries to develop hybrid image segmentation techniques to generates efficient segmentation. Due to the development of the parallel programming, the lattice Boltzmann met hod (LBM has attracted much attention as a fast alternative approach for solving partial differential equations. In this project work, first designed an energy functional based on the fuzzy c-means objective function which incorporates the bias field that accounts for the intensity in homogeneity of the real-world image. Using the gradient descent method, corresponding level set equations are obtained from which we deduce a fuzzy external force for the LBM solver based on the model by Zhao. The method is speedy, robust for denoise, and does not dependent on the position of the initial contour, effective in the presence of intensity in homogeneity, highly parallelizable and can detect objects with or without edges. For the implementation of segmentation techniques defined for gr ay images, most of the time researchers determines single channel segments of the images and superimposes the single channel segment information on color images. This idea leads to provide color image segmentation using single channel segments of multi chann el images. Though this method is widely adopted but doesn’t provide complete true segmentation of multichannel ie color images because a color image contains three different channels for Red, green and blue components. Hence segmenting a color image, b y having only single channel segments information, will definitely loose important segment regions of color images. To overcome this problem this paper work starts with the development of Enhanced Level Set Segmentation for single channel Images Using Fuzzy Clustering and Lattice Boltzmann Method. For the

  12. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  13. 24 CFR 990.180 - Utilities expense level: Computation of the rolling base consumption level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Computation of the rolling base consumption level. 990.180 Section 990.180 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.180 Utilities expense level: Computation of the rolling base consumption level. (a) General. (1) The rolling base consumption level (RBCL) shall be equal to the average...

  14. 24 CFR 990.175 - Utilities expense level: Computation of the current consumption level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Computation of the current consumption level. 990.175 Section 990.175 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.175 Utilities expense level: Computation of the current consumption level. The current consumption level shall be the actual amount of each utility consumed during the...

  15. Modeling category-level purchase timing with brand-level marketing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurchase timing of households is usually modeled at the category level. Marketing efforts are however only available at the brand level. Hence, to describe category-level interpurchase times using marketing efforts one has to construct a category-level measure of marketing efforts from t

  16. Robust, sub-angstrom level mid-spatial frequency profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A noncontacting measurement approach is presented that involves the measurement of the local curvature of the test piece by simultaneously measuring its slope at two slightly displaced locations. As the sensing beams are scanned along the test piece, a profile of curvature is built, from which the height profile is deduced by double integration. The sensing of curvature eliminates the need for a reference surface, and makes the approach insensitive to all types of vibration and drift, both in surface height and in surface slope. The approach is considered to be well suited to measuring grazing incidence optics with highly different transverse and longitudinal radii of curvature. Implementation features including a steering mirror and a movable detector provide for servo tracking of test pieces as fast as F-0.5, with radii as small as 20 mm (convex or concave).

  17. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1 in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bua-In Saowaluck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr. is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant and evaluate the mechanical wounding that may influence the transcription level of the monoterpene synthase gene. To isolate the gene, the selected clones from DNA derived from young leaves were sequenced and analyzed and the monoterpene synthase gene from cassumunar ginger (ZMM1 was identified. The ZMM1 CDS containing 1 773 bp (KF500399 is predicted to encode a protein of 590 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 40-74% identical with known sequences of other angiosperm monoterpene synthases belonging to the isoprenoid biosynthesis C1 superfamily. A transcript of ZMM1 was detected almost exclusively in the leaves and was related to leaf wounding. The results of this research offer insight into the control of monoterpene synthesis in this plant. This finding can be applied to breeding programs or crop management of cassumunar ginger for better yield and quality of essential oil.

  18. Effective hyperfine temperature in frustrated Gd 2Sn 2O 7: two level model and 155Gd Mössbauer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, E.; Bonville, P.; Bouchaud, J.-P.; Hodges, J. A.; Sanchez, J. P.; Vulliet, P.

    2002-06-01

    Using 155Gd Mössbauer spectroscopy down to 27 mK, we show that, in the geometrically frustrated pyrochlore Gd2Sn2O7, the Gd3+ hyperfine levels are populated out of equilibrium. From this, we deduce that the hyperfine field, and the correlated Gd3+ moments which produce this field, continue to fluctuate as T|--> 0. With a model of a spin 1/2 system experiencing a magnetic field which reverses randomly in time, we obtain an analytical expression for the steady state probability distribution of the level populations. This distribution is a simple function of the ratio of the nuclear spin relaxation time to the average electronic spin-flip time. In Gd2Sn2O7, we find the two time scales are of the same order of magnitude. We discuss the mechanism giving rise to the nuclear spin relaxation and the influence of the electronic spin fluctuations on the hyperfine specific heat. The corresponding low temperature measurements in Gd2Ti2O7 are presented and discussed.

  19. Lactogenic Study of the Effect of Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed on Serum Prolactin Level in Lactating Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Bako

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5 mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and serum prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa howed a significant increase (p<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (p<0.05 than the control group. This can be deduced that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases serum prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed stimulate prolactin synthesis; release and milk production in albino rats and it is affordable and safe for consumption.

  20. Toll signal transduction pathway in bivalves: complete cds of intermediate elements and related gene transcription levels in hemocytes of immune stimulated Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Mylène; Rosani, Umberto; Giambelluca, Sonia; Cammarata, Matteo; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Venier, Paola; Roch, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Based on protein domain structure and organization deduced from mRNA contigs, 15 transcripts of the Toll signaling pathway have been identified in the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Identical searches performed on publicly available Mytilus edulis ESTs revealed 11 transcripts, whereas searches performed in genomic and new transcriptome sequences of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, identified 21 Toll-related transcripts. The remarkable molecular diversity of TRAF and IKK coding sequences of C. gigas, suggests that the sequence data inferred from Mytilus cDNAs may not be exhaustive. Most of the Toll pathway genes were constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in M. galloprovincialis, although at different levels, and clearly induced after in vivo injection with bacteria. Such over-transcription was more rapid and intense with Gram-negative than with Gram-positive bacteria. Injection of a fungus modulated the transcription of few Toll pathway genes, with the induction levels of TLR/MyD88 complex being always less intense. Purified LPS and β-glucans had marginal effect whereas peptidoglycans were ineffective. At the moment, we found no evidence of an IMD transcript in bivalves. In conclusion, mussels possess a complete Toll pathway which can be triggered either by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.

  1. Calculation of direct effects of 60Co gamma rays on the different DNA structural levels: A simulation study using the Geant4-DNA toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, simple single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) due to direct effects of the secondary electron spectrum of 60Co gamma rays on different organizational levels of a volume model of the B-DNA conformation have been calculated using the Geant4-DNA toolkit. Result of this study for the direct DSB yield shows a good agreement with other theoretical and experimental results obtained by both photons and their secondary electrons; however, in the case of SSB a noticeable difference can be observed. Moreover, regarding the almost constant yields of the direct strand breaks in the different structural levels of the DNA, calculated in this work, and compared with some theoretical studies, it can be deduced that the direct strand breaks yields depend mainly on the primary double helix structure of the DNA and the higher-order structures cannot have a noticeable effect on the direct DNA damage inductions by 60Co gamma rays. In contrast, a direct dependency between the direct SSB and DSB yields and the volume of the DNA structure has been found. Also, a further study on the histone proteins showed that they can play an important role in the trapping of low energy electrons without any significant effect on the direct DNA strand breaks inductions, at least in the range of energies used in the current study

  2. Calculation of direct effects of {sup 60}Co gamma rays on the different DNA structural levels: A simulation study using the Geant4-DNA toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajik, Marjan; Rozatian, Amir S.H. [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Street, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Semsarha, Farid, E-mail: Semsarha@ibb.ut.ac.ir [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB), University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    In this study, simple single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) due to direct effects of the secondary electron spectrum of {sup 60}Co gamma rays on different organizational levels of a volume model of the B-DNA conformation have been calculated using the Geant4-DNA toolkit. Result of this study for the direct DSB yield shows a good agreement with other theoretical and experimental results obtained by both photons and their secondary electrons; however, in the case of SSB a noticeable difference can be observed. Moreover, regarding the almost constant yields of the direct strand breaks in the different structural levels of the DNA, calculated in this work, and compared with some theoretical studies, it can be deduced that the direct strand breaks yields depend mainly on the primary double helix structure of the DNA and the higher-order structures cannot have a noticeable effect on the direct DNA damage inductions by {sup 60}Co gamma rays. In contrast, a direct dependency between the direct SSB and DSB yields and the volume of the DNA structure has been found. Also, a further study on the histone proteins showed that they can play an important role in the trapping of low energy electrons without any significant effect on the direct DNA strand breaks inductions, at least in the range of energies used in the current study.

  3. Problems of Level in Distance Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanna T. Balmagambetova; Bakyt M. Aitpaeva; Nadezhda K. Khan

    2013-01-01

    . The article is focused on the problems of level approach to communicative competence formation in the course of the second language learning. The change of educational paradigm demands turn of linguists to differentiated learner-centered education – level system of language learning

  4. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  5. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  6. Axiomatization for 1-level universal AND operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying-cang; HE Hua-can

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is the partial axiomatization for 1-level universal logic. A propositional calculus formal deductive system UL-h∈(0,1] based on 1-level universal AND operator of universal logic is built up. The corresponding algebra L∏G- is introduced. The soundness and the completeness of system UL-h∈(0,1] are proved.

  7. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted...

  8. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.3 Classification levels. Information...

  9. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  10. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  11. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  12. Teaching Badminton Based on Student Skill Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Moffit, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Badminton has been identified as a lifelong activity. It is an inexpensive sport and everyone--children, seniors, and individuals with disabilities--can reach a level of enjoyment in the game after mastering basic skills and tactics. In teaching badminton, teachers need to understand how students develop game play ability from a low level to an…

  13. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important factors in

  14. Problem of levels in the lower continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mur, V.D.; Popov, V.S.; Voskresenskii, D.N.

    1978-02-01

    Quasistationary levels in the lower (negative) continuum of solutions of the Dirac equation are considered. The potential V (r) is assumed deep enough ( vertical-barV/sub max/vertical-bar>2mc/sup 2/) so that the levels of the discrete spectrum may cross the boundary epsilon =-mc/sup 2/ and dive into the lower continuum. Application of the WKB approximation allows complete solution of the problem of the real part of the level energy. Explicit equations are obtained for the spectrum of levels with energies epsilon<-mc/sup 2/, their number, and their angular-momentum distribution. Comparison with numerical calculations shows that the WKB method is satisfactorily accurate even at zeta=Ze/sup 2//hc> or approx. =2. However, the WKB method does not allow one to find the width of deep levels with low angular momenta. The exact solutions of the dirac equation are analyzed to elucidate this problem. It is shown that for zeta>>1 the width ..gamma../sub n/ is much smaller than both the level energies epsilon/sub n/ and the separation between close levels epsilon/sub n/+1--epsilon/sub n/; the levels are, thus, isolated. The change in the asymptotics (r..-->..infinity) of solutions of the Dirac equation upon crossing the boundary of the lower continuum is clarified.

  15. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  16. Levels and stages of organization of phytosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Klymyshyn

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available From the position of systems approach the universal principles of phytosystems organization and their hierarchical subordination are examined. Biological quanta are determined for the basic levels of phytosystems organization. A concept “phytocyclocenon” (elementary seral system is introduced. The legitimacy of its consideration as a basic evolutionary unit of phytocenosystem level of organization is grounded.

  17. LEVELS AND STAGES OF ORGANIZATION OF PHYTOSYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Klymyshyn

    2008-01-01

    From the position of systems approach the universal principles of phytosystems organization and their hierarchical subordination are examined. Biological quanta are determined for the basic levels of phytosystems organization. A concept “phytocyclocenon” (elementary seral system) is introduced. The legitimacy of its consideration as a basic evolutionary unit of phytocenosystem level of organization is grounded.

  18. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  19. Sea‐level rise coastal adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    THE NCAP II-Colombia is a strategic partnership between INVEMAR and ETC International to produce a comprehesive approach for developing the capacities needed at the regional level to meet the challenges of global climate change in particular the effects of accelerated sea level rise (SLR).

  20. Acoustic Cues to Perceived Prominence Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Stefan; Niebuhr, Oliver; Schroeter, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    A corpus study on German spontaneous speech proved the robustness of a meaningful perceptual distinction between two levels of prominence, namely fully- fledged versus secondary accents, and its effective use in prosodic annotation. We found that the two levels are characterized by prosodic profi...

  1. As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158889.html As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops But change requires dedication to regular exercise in the long run, study shows ... By Robert Preidt Tuesday, May 17, 2016 TUESDAY, May 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A higher level of heart-lung fitness may reduce your risk ...

  2. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  3. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  4. Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from “never thought about starting a business” to “thinking ab

  5. Teachers' Self-Assessed Level of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least…

  6. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  7. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  8. Sea level rise: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes du

  9. Gauge Impact with 5 Levels of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional learning evaluation requires consideration of five critical stages or levels of information. These five levels, which are presented in this article, represent an adaptation of an evaluation model developed by Kirkpatrick (1959, 1998) for judging the value of supervisory training programs in business and industry.…

  10. [Observation of autoionization levels in uranium I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C; Wang, X

    1999-02-01

    A number of Rydberg and autoionization levels of U I have been studied using three-step resonant ionization methods with three pulsed tunable dye lasers. Energy levels of uranium atom have been measured, which were located in the 49898-50880 cm(-1) energy interval. PMID:15818900

  11. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  12. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  13. Implementing Standardization Education at the National Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores how standardization education can be implemented at the national level. Previous studies form the main source for the paper. This research shows that implementation of standardization in the national education system requires policy at the national level, a long term

  14. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  15. Four Levels of Cross-cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    In order to attain intercultural awareness, we have to know Robert Hanvey's statement of four levels of inter-cultural awareness described in his book An Attainable Global Perspective (1976). This passage anazlyes the four levels of cross-cultural awareness.

  16. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further inc

  17. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Q; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion adaptively tunes itself between the two levels of fusion, and improves the final performance over the original two levels. The proposed hybrid fusion is simple and effective for combining different biom...

  18. [Cybernetic conceptualization of the levels of hypnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollina Mangiameli, G

    1980-04-28

    The synaptic function of the different associational levels of cortex and cortico-subcortical depending on inputs memorised in synchronism at each level, is probably responsible, on a broad scale of values, for auto- or heteroinducible levels of hypnosis due to inputs solicited by extraneuronal values determining feed-back with inputs recorded in neuronal DNA. This hypothesis is outlined here with reference to the same Author's "Metodica psicoterapica su elementi di cultura cibernetica" (Minerva Medica, 63, 968, 1972). Sophronic levels, and levels of hypnosis and hypnotism are, in the light of elements of cybernetic culture, neurophysiologically referrable not only to qualitatively different causes, and more specifically to the final cause triggering electrobiochemical reactions. They are, in other words, referrable to the electron and its dynamics, increasingly well known today to students of cybernetics.

  19. Dose rate levels around industrial gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose rate levels around two gamma ray sources utilized in a mining corporation have been determined. Both gamma ray sources are 137Cs and are installed in a mining corporation to measure on-line the density of mine products. Dose rate levels were calculated in several sites around the 137Cs sources using two active and several passive thermoluminescent dosemeters. Using the 137Cs' gamma factor dose rates were calculated in all the points. A comparison between the measured and calculated dose rate levels was carried out. Calculated dose rate levels was obtained for three cases: first, assuming the sources were bare, second, assuming the sources inside their shielding and the third, adding an extra shield to reduce the dose rate levels to those similar to local background. (author)

  20. Parity dependence of nuclear level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution proton resonance data have been examined for a possible parity dependence of nuclear level densities. Five spin-parity combinations--1/2+, 1/2-, 3/2-, 3/2+, and 5/2+--have been analyzed for three datasets--44Ca(p,p), 48Ti(p,p), and 56Fe(p,p). Much of the uncertainty in the level density arises from the determination of the fraction of levels that are not observed. The missing fraction of levels was determined by (a) the standard width analysis method that assumes a Porter-Thomas distribution for the reduced widths and (b) a recently developed method that analyzes the spacing distribution and assumes the Wigner distribution for the nearest-neighbor spacings. There are indications of parity dependence of the level densities for several of the spin-parity combinations

  1. On Abstraction Levels For Software Architecture Viewpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2005-01-01

    In the field of software architecture the abstraction level of a viewpoint has often been defined on a scale from low to high. However, the definition of abstraction levels on a scale from low to high makes it very subjective what is at each level. This makes it difficult to apply the different...... existing viewpoints in practice, because each viewpoint can be applied at many different levels of abstraction which the architect has to consider. This also makes it hard for people to enter the field of software architecture and become proficient in using its techniques and methods. By using the three...... abstraction levels defined in this paper, viewpoints can be described more accurately and applied more consistently. This can help developers easier gain proficiency in the use of viewpoints to describe software architectures of systems. In this paper concepts which clarify the relation between the defined...

  2. Construal levels and moral judgment: Some complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eyal, T., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y., (2008. Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.

  3. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  4. Partial level densities for nuclear data calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Avrigeanu, M

    1998-01-01

    The main formalisms of partial level densities (PLD) used in preequilibrium nuclear reaction models, based on the equidistant spacing model (ESM), are considered. A collection of FORTRAN77 functions for PLD calculation by using 14 formalisms for the related partial-state densities is provided and 28 sample cases (73 versions) are described. The results are given in graphic form too. Composite (recommended) formulas, which include the optional use of various corrections, i.e. the advanced pairing and shell correction in addition to the Pauli effect, and average energy-dependent single-particle level densities for the excited particles and holes, are also given. The formalism comprises the density of particle-hole bound states, and the effects of an exact correction for the Pauli-exclusion principle are considered. Keywords: Partial nuclear level density; Nuclear level density; Single-particle level density; Equidistant-spacing model; Preequilibrium emission; Nuclear reactions

  5. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  6. LEVEL SET METHODS BASED ON DISTANCE FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军; 唐云; 于洪川; 唐泽圣

    2003-01-01

    Some basic problems on the level set methods were discussed, such as the method used to preserve the distance function, the existence and uniqueness of solution for the level set equations. The main contribution is to prove that in a neighborhood of the initial zero level set, the level set equations with the restriction of the distance function have a unique solution, which must be the signed distance function with respect to the evolving surface. Some skillful approaches were used: Noticing that any solution for the original equation was a distance function, the original level set equations were transformed into a simpler alternative form. Moreover, since the new system was not a classical one, the system was transforned into an ordinary one, for which the implicit function method was adopted.

  7. Phase lag deduced information in photo-thermal actuation for nano-mechanical systems characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijster, R.J.F.; Vreugd, J. de; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2014-01-01

    In photo-thermal actuation, heat is added locally to a micro-cantilever by means of a laser. A fraction of the irradiation is absorbed, yielding thermal stresses and deformations in the structure. Harmonic modulation of the laser power causes the cantilever to oscillate. Moreover, a phase lag is int

  8. Deducing Shape of Anisotropic Particles in Solution from Light Scattering: Spindles and Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuper, Ilona; Terrano, Daniel; Streletzky, Kiril A.; Dement'eva, Olga V.; Semyonov, Sergey A.; Rudoy, Victor M.

    Depolarized Dynamic Light Scattering (DDLS) enables to measure rotational and translational diffusion of nanoparticles suspended in solution. The particle size, shape, diffusion, and interactions can then be inferred from the DDLS data using various models of diffusion. Incorporating the technique of DDLS to analyze the dimensions of easily imaged elongated particles, such as Iron (III) oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) Spindles and gold Nanorods, allows testing of the models for rotational and translational diffusion of elongated particles in solution. This, in turn, can help to better interpret DDLS data on hard-to-image anisotropic wet systems such as micelles, microgels, and protein complexes. This study focused on FeOOH Spindles and gold nanorod particles. The light scattering results on FeOOH analyzed using the basic model of non-interacting prolate ellipsoids yielded dimensions within 17% of the SEM measured dimensions. The dimensions of gold nanorod obtained from the straight cylinder model of DDLS data provided results within 25% of the sizes that were obtained from TEM. The nanorod DDLS data was also analyzed by a spherocylinder model.

  9. Lower mantle thermal structure deduced from seismic tomography, mineral physics and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadek, O.; Yuen, D. A.; Steinbach, V.; Chopelas, A.; Matyska, C.

    1994-01-01

    The long-wavelength thermal anomalies in the lower mantle have been mapped out using several seismic tomographic models in conjunction with thermodynamic parameters derived from high-pressure mineral physics experiments. These parameters are the depth variations of thermal expansivity and of the proportionality factor between changes in density and seismic velocity. The giant plume-like structures in the lower mantle under the Pacific Ocean and Africa have outer fringes with thermal anomalies around 300-400 K, but very high temperatures are found in the center of the plumes near the base of the core-mantle boundary. These extreme values can exceed +1500 K and may reflect large hot thermal anomalies in the lower mantle, which are supported by recent measurements of high melting temperatures of perovskite and iron. Extremely cold anomalies, around -1500 K, are found for anomalies in the deep mantle around the Pacific rim and under South America. Numerical simulations show that large negative thermal anomalies in the mid-lower mantle have modest magnitudes of around -500 K. correlation pattern exists between the present-day locations of cold masses in the lower mantle and the sites of past subduction since the Cretaceous. Results from correlation analysis show that the slab mass-flux in the lower mantle did not conform to a steady-state nature but exhibited time-dependent behavior.

  10. Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.

    number of marine habitats such as deep-sea habitats, pelagic waters, coastal regions, hydrothermal vent ecosystem, anoxic habitats, and icecold regions. This is of interest to a variety of research disciplines like ecology, evolution, biogeochemistry...

  11. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Xuguang; SUN Xiuqin; ZHENG Minggang; QU Lingyun; ZAN Jindong; ZHANG Jinxing

    2008-01-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals' acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  12. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account for the loss of DSi from solution.

  13. Deducing topology of protein-protein interaction networks from experimentally measured sub-networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLellan W Robb

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction networks are commonly sampled using yeast two hybrid approaches. However, whether topological information reaped from these experimentally-measured sub-networks can be extrapolated to complete protein-protein interaction networks is unclear. Results By analyzing various experimental protein-protein interaction datasets, we found that they are not random samples of the parent networks. Based on the experimental bait-prey behaviors, our computer simulations show that these non-random sampling features may affect the topological information. We tested the hypothesis that a core sub-network exists within the experimentally sampled network that better maintains the topological characteristics of the parent protein-protein interaction network. We developed a method to filter the experimentally sampled network to result in a core sub-network that more accurately reflects the topology of the parent network. These findings have fundamental implications for large-scale protein interaction studies and for our understanding of the behavior of cellular networks. Conclusion The topological information from experimental measured networks network as is may not be the correct source for topological information about the parent protein-protein interaction network. We define a core sub-network that more accurately reflects the topology of the parent network.

  14. Velocity-Autocorrelation Function in Liquids, Deduced from Neutron Incoherent Scattering Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Kim

    1976-01-01

    The Fourier transform p(ω) of the velocity-autocorrelation function is derived from neutron incoherent scattering results, obtained from the two liquids Ar and H2. The quality and significance of the results are discussed with special emphasis on the long-time t-3/2 tail, found in computer simula...... simulations and recent theories. The available experimental data from Na, Ar, and H2 close to their normal melting points are consistent with calculations which take into account the contribution to p(ω) from the tail at low frequencies....

  15. The origin of GEMS in IDPs as deduced from microstructural evolution of amorphous silicates with annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Davoisne, C; Leroux, H; D'Hendecourt, L B; Jones, A; Deboffle, D

    2006-01-01

    We present laboratory studies of the micro-structural evolution of an amorphous ferro-magnesian silicate, of olivine composition, following thermal annealing under vacuum. Annealing under vacuum was performed at temperatures ranging from 870 to 1020 K. After annealing spheroidal metallic nano-particles (2-50 nm) are found within the silicate films. We interpret this microstructure in terms of a reduction of the initial amorphous silicate FeO component, because of the carbon-rich partial pressure in the furnace due to pumping mechanism. Annealing in a controlled oxygen-rich atmosphere confirms this interpretation. The observed microstructures closely resemble those of the GEMS (Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulphides) found in chondritic IDPs (Interplanetary Dust Particles). Since IDPs contain abundant carbonaceous matter, a solid-state reduction reaction may have occurred during heating in the hot inner regions of the proto-solar disc. Related to this, the presence of forsterite grains grown from the amorphou...

  16. How historical seismicity in oceans can be deduced from sailors' testimonies and related to modern tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Denis; Rouland, Daniel; Cisternas, Armando; Streng, Daniel; Gir, Roopa; Souriau, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Before seismological catalogs were routinely produced, seafarers experienced major seismic events at sea that were documented in their logs. This article analyzes some of these old records - mostly from eighteenth and nineteenth centuries - in the context of plate tectonics. Large shocks that were felt on ships are related either to earthquakes, sub-marine volcanic eruptions, or to sub-marine sliding of rocks and/or sediments. We analyze various related parameters such as the location and size of the shaking, the duration of the shock, and the associated noise. A total of 396 observations have been retained for this study, mostly located in the Atlantic Ocean, reflecting its intense maritime traffic during the period of interest. Some of the detailed accounts allow us to clearly identify the nature of the shocks, including a possible interpretation in terms of focal mechanism. Our results, when compared to historical catalogs, reveal many previously undetected large events. Macroseismic results for a few large historical events occurring near the coasts confirm the validity of our approach, but also reveal its limitations. The good locations of most of the events allow us to relate them to plate boundaries. The Romanche transform zone has deserved particular interest due to the large number of related testimonies. This study particularly illustrates that historical seismicity may be applied to oceans. The collected testimonies also show how impressive and dangerous these large earthquakes at sea are, despite the absence of S-waves.

  17. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.;

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior...

  18. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Puglia, S. M. R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium ({sup 2}H), for the two lithium {sup 6,7}Li isotopes, for the {sup 9}Be and the one for the two boron {sup 10,11}B isotopes will be discussed.

  19. Paleoclimate variability during the Blake geomagnetic excursion (MIS 5d) deduced from a speleothem record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Osete, María-Luisa

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate possible connections between climate and the Earth's magnetic field, we examine paleoclimate proxies in a stalagmite (PA-8) recording the Blake excursion (˜112-˜116.4 ka) from Cobre cave (N Spain). Trace element, δ13C, δ18O, δ234U, fluorescent lamination, growth rate, and paleomagnetic records were synchronized using a floating lamina-counted chronology constrained by U-Th dates, providing a high-resolution multi-proxy paleoclimate record for MIS 5d. The alpine cave setting and the combination of proxies contributed to improve the confidence of the paleoclimatic interpretation. Periods of relatively warm and humid climate likely favored forest development and resulted in high speleothem growth rates, arguably annual fluorescent laminae, low δ13C and [Mg], and increased [Sr] and [Ba]. Colder periods limited soil activity and drip water availability, leading to reduced speleothem growth, poor development of fluorescent lamination, enhanced water-rock interaction leading to increased [Mg], δ13C, and δ234U, and episodic flooding. In the coldest and driest period recorded, evaporation caused simultaneous 18O and 13C enrichments and perturbed the trace element patterns. The Blake took place in a relatively warm interestadial at the inception of the Last Glacial period, but during a global cooling trend recorded in PA-8 by an overall decrease of δ18O and growth rate and increasing [Mg]. That trend culminated in the cessation of growth between ˜112 and ˜101 ka likely due to the onset of local glaciation correlated with Greenland stadial 25. That trend is consistent with a link between low geomagnetic intensity and climate cooling, but it does not prove it. Shorter term changes in relative paleointensity (RPI) relate to climate changes recorded in PA-8, particularly a prominent RPI low from ˜114.5 to ˜113 ka coincident with a significant cooling indicated by all proxy records, suggesting a link between geomagnetic intensity and climate at millennial time scales. Although the reliability of such inference is limited by the inferior resolution of the paleomagnetic data and a possible contamination of the RPI data by unaccounted changes in magnetite concentration, the agreement of those data with the marine record of cosmogenic Be suggests that the RPI record of PA-8 may reflect truly geomagnetic intensity variations.

  20. Coseismic and Postseismic slip distribution of the 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake deduced from A Bayesian Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Gong, X.

    2011-12-01

    In inversion of geodetic data for distribution of fault slip minimizing the first or second order derivatives of slip across fault plane is generally employed to smooth slips of neighboring patches.Smoothing parameter is subjective selected to determine the relative weight placed on fitting data versus smoothing the slip distribution.We use the Fully Bayesian Inversion method(Fukuda,2008)to simultaneously estimate the slip distribution and smoothing parameter objectively in a Bayesian framework. The distributed slips,the posterior probability density function and the smoothing parameter is formulated with Bayes' theorem and sampled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Here We will apply this method to Coseismic and Postseismic displacement data from the 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and compare the results of this method with generally favored method.

  1. Petrographically deduced triassic climate for the Deep River Basin, eastern piedmont of North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarn, S.T.; Mansfield, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A petrographic comparison of Triassic, fluvial sandstones from the Deep River Basin in the eastern piedmont of North Carolina with nearby Holocene stream sands (1) indicates that he Triassic climate was more arid than today's and (2) distinguishes an eastern, more plutonic terrane from a western, more metamorphic source terrane. The paleoclimatic interpretation is based on differences in framework composition between modern and ancient sands of the same grain size, derived from the same rock type, transported similar distances and deposited in similar settings. The Triassic sandstones contain more lithic-fragments but less quartz than otherwise equivalent, modern sand in the Deep River Basin. Feldspar content is more complex, controlled by both source-rock composition and climate. Sand from the more plutonic terrane contains more feldspar and plutonic lithic-fragments than sand from the more metamorphic terrane, which contains more quartz and metamorphic lithic-fragments. This petrographic interpretation of the Triassic sandstones along with the presence of coal, limestone, chert and caliche in the middle of the section suggests that the Triassic climate was cyclic, changing from arid to humid and back to arid. Plate-tectonic reconstructions place the Deep River Basin between the Triassic equator and Tropic of cancer, where the easterly trade winds would predominate. Therefore, the arid portions of the cycle could have been due to a periodic, orographic, rain shadow formed as the result of intermittent movement along the Jonesboro Fault, creating a highland area east of the Deep River Basin.

  2. Upper crustal resistivity structure around earthquake swarm deduced from dense AMT/MT observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Investigation of the electrical structure around a seismic active region is an important issue to discuss what control the seismicity. The southeastern flank of the Ontake volcano, which is located in central Japan, is one of the most interesting fields to be explored. In this area, earthquake swarm activity has been continuously observed since 1976. Additionally, a large earthquake with the depth about 2km and a magnitude of 6.8 occurred in 1984 in the swarm region. Recent study of seismic tomography investigated by dense seismic network (Noda et al., 2007) found out low velocity anomalies beneath earthquake clusters. In order to delineate the detailed physical properties of the upper crust surrounding the seismogenic zone compared with fine velocity structure, we plan to image lateral heterogeneity of subsurface electrical structure. Here, we report on new audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquired in 2008 at 34 sites. Our data are complemented with 34 broad-band MT sites of previous investigations (Kasaya et al., 2002; Iio et al., 2000). As a consequence of the preliminary two-dimensional inversion, conductive zone was found along the fault plane of the 1984 Earthquake. This electrical image was consistent, in principle, with previous broad-band MT studies. Additionally, several patches of conductor were also revealed at shallower depths. In this presentation, we will introduce dense AMT/MT data and discuss lateral heterogeneity on electrical resistivity comparing with the seismicity and velocity structure.

  3. Variability of carbonate diagenesis in equatorial Pacific sediments deduced from radiogenic and stable Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Janett; Hathorne, Ed C.; Frank, Martin; Vollstaedt, Hauke; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The recrystallisation (dissolution-precipitation) of carbonate sediments has been successfully modelled to explain profiles of pore water Sr concentration and radiogenic Sr isotope composition at different locations of the global ocean. However, there have been few systematic studies trying to better understand the relative importance of factors influencing the variability of carbonate recrystallisation. Here we present results from a multi-component study of recrystallisation in sediments from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 320/321 Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT), where sediments of similar initial composition have been subjected to different diagenetic histories. The PEAT sites investigated exhibit variable pore water Sr concentrations gradients with the largest gradients in the youngest sites. Radiogenic Sr isotopes suggest recrystallisation was relative rapid, consistent with modelling of other sediment columns, as the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are indistinguishable (within 2σ uncertainties) from contemporaneous seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Bulk carbonate leachates and associated pore waters of Site U1336 have lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios than contemporaneous seawater in sediments older than 20.2 Ma most likely resulting from the upward diffusion of Sr from older recrystallised carbonates. It seems that recrystallisation at Site U1336 may still be on-going at depths below 102.5 rmcd (revised metres composite depth) suggesting a late phase of recrystallisation. Furthermore, the lower Sr/Ca ratios of bulk carbonates of Site U1336 compared to the other PEAT sites suggest more extensive diagenetic alteration as less Sr is incorporated into secondary calcite. Compared to the other PEAT sites, U1336 has an inferred greater thermal gradient and a higher carbonate content. The enhanced thermal gradient seems to have made these sediments more reactive and enhanced recrystallisation. In this study we investigate stable Sr isotopes from carbonate-rich deep sea sediments for the first time. Pore water δ88/86Sr increases with depth (from 0.428‰ to values reaching up to 0.700‰) at Site U1336 documenting an isotope fractionation process during recrystallisation. Secondary calcite preferentially incorporates the lighter Sr isotope (86Sr) leaving pore waters isotopically heavy. The δ88/86Sr values of the carbonates themselves show more uniform values with no detectable change with depth. Carbonates have a much higher Sr content and total Sr inventory than the pore waters meaning pore waters are much more sensitive to fractionation processes than the carbonates. The δ88/86Sr results indicate that pore water stable Sr isotopes have the potential to indicate the recrystallisation of carbonate sediments.

  4. Evolutionary relationships among members of the Bromoviridae deduced from whole proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codoñer, F M; Elena, S F

    2006-02-01

    Many molecular phylogenies of viruses build upon the analysis of single genes. The study of whole-genomes, however, might yield more reliable information to infer tree topologies and a better approach for drawing the evolutionary history of virus families. In this study, we apply a novel comparative proteomic approach to seek whether incorporating information from the entire proteome would support the actual taxonomy of the family Bromoviridae. Our results suggest that the current taxonomic classification should be modified in several aspects to account for the genomic properties of the Bromoviridae. These differences are: i) Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is a true Ilarvirus instead of constituting an independent genus; ii) Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) should be considered as a member of the Bromoviridae; and iii) the genus Ilarvirus should be divided into fewer phylogenetic subgroups than suggested by antigenic differences. PMID:16172839

  5. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, C.; Luhr, H.; Ma, S. Y.;

    2012-01-01

    In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload) fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). We filtered the FGM data by using bandpasses with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different...... maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76-608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000-2005, we also investigate the postsunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT1 (Republic of China Satellite 1...

  6. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C.; Lühr, H.; Ma, S. Y.; Stolle, C.; Fejer, B. G.

    2012-08-01

    In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload) fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). We filtered the FGM data by using band-passes with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76-608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400 km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000-2005, we also investigate the post-sunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1). Since the height of the F-layer is highly correlated with the vertical plasma drift and solar flux, we sorted the ROCSAT-1 data into different groups by F10.7. From the integrated vertical drift we have estimated the post-sunset uplift of the ionosphere. By comparing the properties of EPB occurrence for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010). Small-scale EPB structures are observed by CHAMP when the irregularities reach apex heights of 800 km and more. Such events are encountered primarily in the Brazilian sector during the months around November, when the post-sunset vertical plasma drift is high.

  7. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xiong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload fluxgate magnetometer (FGM data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs. We filtered the FGM data by using band-passes with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76–608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400 km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000–2005, we also investigate the post-sunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1. Since the height of the F-layer is highly correlated with the vertical plasma drift and solar flux, we sorted the ROCSAT-1 data into different groups by F10.7. From the integrated vertical drift we have estimated the post-sunset uplift of the ionosphere. By comparing the properties of EPB occurrence for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010. Small-scale EPB structures are observed by CHAMP when the irregularities reach apex heights of 800 km and more. Such events are encountered primarily in the Brazilian sector during the months around November, when the post-sunset vertical plasma drift is high.

  8. The verification of lightning location accuracy in Finland deduced from lightning strikes to trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of lightning location systems (LLS), using natural lightning strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating lightning. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the lightning location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the lightning location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural lightning.

  9. Interplanetary dust physical properties deduced from scattered and emitted light simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Fray, N.; Cottin, H.

    2007-08-01

    In situ studies as well as interplanetary dust particles collections in the earth stratosphere provide important but spatially limited information about the interplanetary dust properties. It is therefore of major importance to complement these studies through remote observations of scattered and emitted light, interpreted through numerical simulations. Physical properties of the interplanetary dust in the near-ecliptic symmetry surface, such as the local polarization, the temperature and its composition, together with their heliocentric variations, may be derived from such observations [1], giving clues to the respective contribution of the particles sources. The size distribution, as well as the shape and the composition of the particles constituting the interplanetary dust cloud are tentatively derived from scattered and emitted light observations through a model of light scattering by a cloud of solid particles constituted by spheroidal grains and aggregates thereof [2]. Considering the same particles cloud, this model allows us to simultaneously interpret the heliocentric variation of the temperature, which is different from the black body one. A good fit of the local polarization phase curve, P(?), near 1.5 AU from the Sun is obtained for a mixture of both silicates and more absorbing organics material (˜40% in mass) and for a realistic particles size distribution, typical of the interplanetary dust (power law a-3 for particles with an equivalent diameter in the 0.2 μm to 20 μm size range and a-4.4 for larger particles). The contribution of un-fragmented dust particles aggregates of cometary origin is at least 20% in mass around 1.5 AU. This size distribution can also explain the variation of temperature with the solar distance. The decrease of P(?=90°) with the solar distance between 1.5 and 0.5 AU is interpreted as a progressive disappearance of solid organics (such as HCN polymers [3] or amorphous carbon) towards the Sun, probably linked with the presence of an extended zone of thermal degradation [4]. The drastic change of P(?=90°) closer to the Sun, below 0.5 AU, could be the result of other minerals (e.g. silicates) degradations in this zone. [1] Levasseur-Regourd et al., In: Interplanetary dust, Grün, Gustafson, Dermott, Fechtig (eds), pp. 57 (2001) [2] Lasue and Levasseur-Regourd, J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 100, 220 (2006) [3] Fray et al., Meteoritics and Planetary Science 39, 581, (2004) [4] Lasue et al., Astron. Astrophys. (submitted)

  10. Thrust kinematics deduced by primary and secondary magnetizations in the Internal Sierras (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, B.; Pueyo, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Central Southern Pyrenees are composed (from N to S) by the Axial Zone (made by several basement-involved nappes; (Gavarnie and Guarga), the Internal Sierras (IS) fold and thrust belt (Larra and Monte Perdido units), the Jaca piggyback basin (turbiditic and molassic) and the External Sierras. Several paleomagnetic studies have been carried out during the last decades in all units except for the IS. Different amounts of rotation were reported, usually from primary directions. This work shows paleomagnetic results derived from recent investigations in the IS. 78 sites were sampled in different thrust sheets in the Larra and Monte Perdido units. Sites were collected in Upper Cretaceous rocks; all of them were homogeneously distributed along the range strike. A N-S section through the Eocene turbiditic basin was also done (9 sites) to link our results to previous data. Stepwise thermal demagnetization every 25-50^oC was performed to unravel the NRM components. Magnetic mineralogy essays (IRM, IST and low temperature) confirm magnetite as the major magnetic carrier. Two paleomagnetic components can be distinguished; A) an intermediate direction unblocking from 350^o to 450^oC and B) a high temperature component (from 500^o -575^oC). The B component displays two polarities and a positive fold and reverse tests whereas the A component shows only reverse polarity and a pervasive negative fold test. The A component has been also found in the Eocene transect. Two major clues help to constrain the remagnetization age; on one hand the deformation age (Early-Middle Eocene in the Larra and Monte Perdido units) and, on the other hand, the age of the turbiditic rocks (Middle Eocene). Therefore the remagnetization process took place by the end of the IS thrust system configuration or in a later period. Since the rotation detected by the A and B components are similar, the rotation age can be constrained as younger than the remagnetization. All these deductions have important implications in the Pyrenean kinematics: Larra and Monte Perdido units did not undergo any significant rotation during their configuration. Therefore the cover rocks accommodated the rotation during the basement units stacking (Gavarnie and/or Guarga nappes).

  11. Ionospheric storm characteristics deduced from satellite radio beacon observations at three European stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraday rotation observations carried out at the stations Neustrelitz (53.30 N, 13.10 E), Graz (47.10 N, 15.50 E) and Florence (43.00 N, 10.70 E) by receiving the VHF beacon of the geostationary satellite SIRIO have been used to analyze more than hundred storm periods mainly on a statistical basis. Additionally, total electron content data obtained from differential Doppler measurements at NNSS satellite signals and vertical sounding data of the stations Dourbes (50.10 N, 4.60 E) and Rome (41.80 N, 12.50 E) are included in this analysis. The average response of the ionosphere shows an extended positive phase in winter whereas a well pronounced negative phase is typical for summer conditions. It is evident that the positive phase in electron content occurs in all seasons on the first storm day. The more pronounced storm effects in electron content than in f0 F2 indicate the important role of the upper ionosphere during storms. Further hints have been found for perturbations propagating equatorwards with seasonal dependent velocities accompanied by wind induced uplifting and mass transport of O2 and N2 leading to an enhanced loss of plasma. Immediately after SSC an eastward directed electric field is assumed to lift up the ionospheric plasma into regions of reduced loss. In general the storm associated percentage deviations of ionospheric electron content, F2 layer critical frequency, slab thickness as well as F2 layer height increase with enhanced geomagnetic activity

  12. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Onuchic, José N., E-mail: jonuchic@rice.edu [Center for Theoretical Biological Physics and Department of Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Schug, Alexander [Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein’s functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  13. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, José N.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  14. Comparison of CSC method and the B-net method for deducing smoothness condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renhong Wang; Kai Qu

    2009-01-01

    The first author of this paper established an approach to study the multivariate spline over arbitrary partition,and presented the so-called conformality method of smoothing cofactor (the CSC method).Farin introduced the B-net method which is suitable for studying the multivariate spline over simplex partitions.This paper indicates that the smoothness conditions obtained in terms of the B-net method can be derived by the CSC method for the spline spaces over simplex partitions,and the CSC method is more capable in some sense than the B-net method in studying the multivariate spline.

  15. Aerosol-Precipitation Responses Deduced from Ship tracks as Observed by CloudSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M.; Stephens, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    Ship tracks, produced from the exhaust plumes of ocean going vessels were analyzed using the 94-GHZ cloud profiling radar on the CloudSat satellite to examine the precipitation response of marine stratocumulus to changes in aerosol concentration. Ship tracks provide an ideal laboratory to study this response because the regions of clouds that are heavily contaminated by pollution can be separated from adjacent regions of clouds formed in the clean marine boundary layer. Several hundred ship tracks, coinciding with the radar and lidar observations from CloudSat and Calipso, were identified in MODIS imagery. The results demonstrate that, aerosol plumes from ships tend to decrease the spatial extent of rainfall (rain cover fraction) and intensity compared to the nearby pristine clouds. However, there were a substantial fraction of cases (30%), which exhibited increased rainfall. The sign and strength of the precipitation response was strongly tied to the mesoscale structure of the clouds. When the clouds exhibited closed cellular structures, liquid water amount, rainfall (-63%), and rain cover fraction significantly decreased (-55%). These reductions in rainfall were primarily associated with the decrease in rain cover fraction over the ship track domain. The opposite occurred in the open cell regime. Ship plumes ingested into this regime resulted in deeper, wetter, rainier, and brighter clouds, where rainfall increased by 88% primarily due to changes in intensity and to a lesser extent rain cover fraction. Microphysical changes almost always led to significantly smaller droplet radii in ship tracks, even when precipitation was increased. On the other hand, macrophysical changes (liquid water path) varied in magnitude and sign, and typically followed the direction of the precipitation response. The results presented here underline the need to consider the mesoscale structure of stratocumulus when examining the cloud dynamic response to changes in aerosol concentration.

  16. Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone microstructure: case studies from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ray; D Mukherjee; S Bandyopadhyay

    2009-11-01

    Bone microstructure is affected by ontogeny, phylogeny, biomechanics and environments. These aspects of life history of an extinct animal, especially its growth patterns, may be assessed as fossil bone generally maintains its histological integrity. Recent studies on the bone histology of fossil vertebrates from India encompass different types of temnospondyls and dicynodonts from different Permian and Triassic horizons. The examined taxa show that they had distinct bone histology and varied growth patterns. The Early Triassic trematosaurids had an overall fast growth, which contrasts with that of the Middle and Late Triassic temnospondyl taxa examined. The dicynodonts on the other hand, were characterized by an overall fast growth with periodic interruptions, variable growth rates dependent on ontogeny and indeterminate growth strategy. A comparative study encompassing several neotherapsid genera including the dicynodonts shows significant evolutionary trends towards determinate growth strategy and reduced developmental plasticity.

  17. Palaeoclimatic trends deduced from the hydrochemistry of a Triassic sandstone aquifer, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed geochemical study (elemental, isotopic and dissolved inert gases) of unconfined and confined sections of the Triassic non-marine sandstone aquifer in Eastern England has been undertaken. Aspects of the recharge history of this aquifer over the past 40 000 years are revealed by examination of the data. (orig./HK)

  18. Decadal variability in core surface flows deduced from geomagnetic observatory monthly means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaler, K. A.; Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    Monthly means of the magnetic field measurements at ground observatories are a key data source for studying temporal changes of the core magnetic field. However, when they are calculated in the usual way, contributions of external (magnetospheric and ionospheric) origin may remain, which make them less favourable for studying the field generated by dynamo action in the core. We remove external field predictions, including a new way of characterising the magnetospheric ring current, from the data and then calculate revised monthly means using robust methods. The geomagnetic secular variation (SV) is calculated as the first annual differences of these monthly means, which also removes the static crustal field. SV time series based on revised monthly means are much less scattered than those calculated from ordinary monthly means, and their variances and correlations between components are smaller. On the annual to decadal timescale, the SV is generated primarily by advection in the fluid outer core. We demonstrate the utility of the revised monthly means by calculating models of the core surface advective flow between 1997 and 2013 directly from the SV data. One set of models assumes flow that is constant over three months; such models exhibit large and rapid temporal variations. For models of this type, less complex flows achieve the same fit to the SV derived from revised monthly means than those from ordinary monthly means. However, those obtained from ordinary monthly means are able to follow excursions in SV that are likely to be external field contamination rather than core signals. Having established that we can find models that fit the data adequately, we then assess how much temporal variability is required. Previous studies have suggested that the flow is consistent with torsional oscillations (TO), solid body-like oscillations of fluid on concentric cylinders with axes aligned along the Earth's rotation axis. TO have been proposed to explain decadal timescale changes in the length-of-day. We invert for flow models where the only temporal changes are consistent with TO, but such models have an unacceptably large data misfit. However, if we relax the TO constraint to allow a little more temporal variability, we can fit the data as well as with flows assumed constant over three months, demonstrating that rapid SV changes can be reproduced by rather small flow changes. Although the flow itself changes slowly, its time derivative can be locally (temporally and spatially) large, in particular when and where core surface secular acceleration peaks. Spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the flows are not well resolved, and many of them are strongly correlated. Averaging functions, a measure of our ability to determine the flow at a given location from the data distribution available, are poor approximations to the ideal, even when centred on points of the core surface below areas of high observatory density. Both resolution and averaging functions are noticeably worse for the toroidal flow component, which dominates the flow, than the poloidal flow component, except around the magnetic equator where averaging functions for both components are poor.

  19. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo;

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate...... (type A) and constant load (type B). Fifty-four uniaxial-compression test specimens from 1327-2922 m were selected. Each test specimen (25 mm × 25 mm × 90 mm) was prepared with its uniaxial stress axis inclined 45° from the core axis in order to examine the flow behavior of strong single-maximum ice......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  20. Deducing software process improvement areas from a Cocomo II-based productivity measurement.

    OpenAIRE

    De Rore, L.; M. SNOECK; Poels, G; Dedene, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the SMEF2006 conference, we presented our experiences with the set-up of a measurement environment using the COCOMO II-model for software development projects in a company in the banking and insurance area. The set-up was part of a larger research project on managing efficiency aspects of software factory systems. One year of measurements later, a database of 22 projects is obtained. In this paper we will present our conclusions and findings after these first measurement results. The effor...

  1. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia;

    2013-01-01

    . This product called L2-IBI is generated from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm, and gives information as to whether a Swarm magnetic field observation is affected by EPBs. We validate the performance of the L2-IBI product by using magnetic field and plasma measurements from the CHAMP...

  2. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Hiroshi; Lim, Byung-Lak; OSAWA, Syozo

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land pl...

  3. The optical luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts deduced from ROTSE-III observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs) and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). We derive R-band fluxes for these two sub-samples 100 s after the onset of the burst. The optical LFs at 100 s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star formation rate. While fitting the optical LFs using Monte Carlo simulations, we take into account the detection function of ROTSE-III. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100 s is well described by an exponential rise and power-law decay, a broken power law,and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  4. Decadal variability in core surface flows deduced from geomagnetic observatory monthly means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whaler, K. A.; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris

    2016-01-01

    less favourable for studying the field generated by dynamo action in the core. We remove external field predictions, including a new way of characterising the magnetospheric ring current, from the data and then calculate revised monthly means using robust methods. The geomagnetic secular variation (SV...

  5. Ground-Motion Scaling in the Kachchh Basin, India, Deduced from

    OpenAIRE

    Malagnini, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Bodin, P.; Center for Earthquake Research and Information University of Memphis; Akinci, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2004-01-01

    We studied the excitation, propagation, and site effects in the Kachchh basin of India by using ground-motion recordings from a temporary seismograph network deployed to study aftershocks of the Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake of 26 January 2001. The Kachchh basin has been proposed as a useful analog region for studying hazard in other earthquake-prone but slowly deforming regions, such as the central United States. The earthquakes we studied ranged in size from about M 2 to M 5.2, a...

  6. Active Structure Evolutions Deduced from Geomorphic and Geodetic Evidence, from Hsinchu to Taoyuan, Northwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.; Hou, C.; Chen, W.

    2003-12-01

    As we know, Taiwan fault-and-thrust belt is built up by the arc-continent collision that is related to polarity flipping of subduction. The flipping boundary, delineated from Hsinchu to Hualien, divides the mountain belt into northern as well as southern part. Looking at the current tectonic configuration surrounding Taiwan, the northern one corresponds to the Ryukyu arc-trench system and has recently been influenced by back-arc rifting of Okinawa Trough (OT), which reactivated during Quaternary. As a consequence, the stress currently executing in northern Taiwan must be different from the southern Taiwan, manifesting to different neotectonic features. It is governed by the extensional stress transferred from OT. Basins, such as Taipei and Ilan, are the evidence to confirm this point. Along the western Taiwan located to the south of Taipei basin is the Taoyuan-Hsinchu area, where the landscape is still characterized by those previously produced under compression. In Taoyuan, two subparallel blind fault-related folds with axes trending NNE were developed due to the reactivation of preexisting normal fault system in continental margin. The entire system remained active until later than 30 ka. To the Hsinchu, the neotectonics is characterized by another two duplex systems (each one is composed of a thrust and its related anticline). The structural orientation is similar to of the Taoyuan. There are two main drainages, i,e.,Touchien and Fengshan rivers, flow across and separate Taoyuan and Hsinchu. Evident linear scarps and lineations have been developed aside oblique to the above-mentioned orientations of compression structures but roughly following the flowing direction. We interpret that they are generated by wrench fault systems tearing apart the original structures to accommodate the recently adjusted stress field. As recognized by the relevant geomorphic evidence, they are suggested as strike-slip faults with possibly normal dip-slip component. The newly accomplished dataset derived from geodetic network shows that except for the Hsincheng fault nearly no detectable contraction occurs across the major structures in the study area. The most surprising phenomenon is that the Fengshan river geodetically plays a major boundary. The northern crust (Taoyuan) is moving due east relatively to the southern crust (Hsinchu) in a rate of ca. 2 cm/yr. This represents that the Fengshan river is currently a right-lateral strike-slip fault, confirming the former strike-slip suggested by geomorphic features. To probe the other details, more stations and precise measurements are needed in the future.

  7. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reilinger

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal thrust, accommodates approximately a 15 mm/yr slip rate. The Northeast Anatolian fault, which extends from the Erzincan basin to Caucasus accommodates about 8 ± 5 mm/yr of left-lateral motion. The neotectonic fault pattern in Eastern Anatolia suggests that the NE Anatolian block moves in an E-ENE direction towards the South Caspian Sea. According to the same data, the Anatolian-Aegean block is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation. However, from the residuals it appears that this solution can only be taken as a preliminary approximation. The Eulerian rotation pole indicates that slip rate along the North Anatolian fault is about 26 ± 3 mm/yr. This value is 10 mm/yr higher than slip rates obtained from geological data and historical earthquake records and it includes westward drift of the Pontides of a few millimetres/year or more. GPS measurements reveal that the East Anatolian fault accommodates an 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative motion. GPS data suggest that Central Anatolia behaves as a rigid block, but from neotectonic studies, it clearly appears that it is sliced by a number of conjugate strike-slip faults. The Isparta Angle area might be considered a major obstacle for the westward motion of the Anatolian block (Central and Eastern Anatolia. The western flank of this geological structure, the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone appears to be a major boundary with a slip rate of 15-20 mm/yr. The Western Anatolian grabens take up a total of 15 mm/yr NE-SW extension. The fact that motions in Central Anatolia relative to Eurasia, are 15-20 mm/yr while in Western Anatolia and Aegean Sea they are 30-40 mm/yr could suggest that Western Anatolia decouples from Central Anatolia and the Isparta Angle by the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone and Eski?ehir fault. It is also hypothesized that the differentiation of tectonic styles and velocities in the Anatolian-Aegean block are related to differences between the slabs lying under the Cyprus and Hellenic arcs.

  8. Concentration of methane in the troposphere deduced from 1951 infrared solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Levine, J. S.; Miles, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 1-2 percent increase in tropospheric methane determined from gas chromatographic measurements since 1977 has important implications for atmospheric photochemistry and climate. To extend the measurement baseline, solar absorption spectra have been analyzed and mean troposphere CH4 mixing ratios for the years 1951 and 1981, and an average rate of CH4 increase of 1.1 + or - 0.2 percent per year is found for this period.

  9. Stratospheric impact on the troposphere deduced from potential vorticity inversion in relation to the Arctic Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinssen, Y.B.L.; van Delden, A.J.; Opsteegh, J.D.; de Geus, W.

    2010-01-01

    The zonal mean state of the atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere in winter is determined by the temperature at the Earth’s surface and by two potential vorticity (PV) anomalies (defined as that part of the PV field that induces a wind field) centred over the North Pole: one in the upper troposphere

  10. Method to deduce the energy spectrum by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, I.; Roth, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schuessler, F.; Unger, M. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Taken into account the great advantage of having a hybrid detector it has been developed a method, simulation independent, to determine the energy of the comic rays recorded by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The method assumes that the cosmic ray flux has the same distribution in zenith angle for all energy ranges. Therefore one can relate the calorimetric measurement of the fluorescence detector of the CR energy with a SD quantity, e.g. shower size at 1000m distance from the core, corrected for the different attenuations in the atmosphere. The method of measuring and calibrating the primary energy and the influence of reconstruction uncertainties on the energy spectrum are presented. (orig.)

  11. Electrodynamics of an omega-band as deduced from optical and magnetometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate an omega-band event that took place above northern Scandinavia around 02:00–02:30 UT on 9 March 1999. In our analysis we use ground based magnetometer, optical and riometer measurements together with satellite based optical images. The optical and riometer data are used to estimate the ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductances, while ionospheric equivalent currents are obtained from the magnetometer measurements. These data sets are used as input in a local KRM calculation, which gives the ionospheric potential electric field as output, thus giving us a complete picture of the ionospheric electrodynamic state during the omega-band event.

    The overall structure of the electric field and field-aligned current (FAC provided by the local KRM method are in good agreement with previous studies. Also the E×B drift velocity calculated from the local KRM solution is in good qualitative agreement with the plasma velocity measured by the Finnish CUTLASS radar, giving further support for the new local KRM method. The high-resolution conductance estimates allow us to discern the detailed structure of the omega-band current system. The highest Hall and Pedersen conductances, ~50 and ~25 S, respectively, are found at the edges of the bright auroral tongue. Inside the tongue, conductances are somewhat smaller, but still significantly higher than typical background values. The electric field shows a converging pattern around the tongues, and the field strength drops from ~40 mV/m found at optically dark regions to ~10 mV/m inside the areas of enhanced conductivity. Downward FAC flow in the dark regions, while upward currents flow inside the auroral tongue. Additionally, sharp conductance gradients at the edge of an auroral tongue are associated with narrow strips of intense FACs, so that a strip of downward current flows at the eastern (leading edge and a similar strip of upward current is present at the western (trailing edge. The Joule heating follows the electric field pattern, so that it is diminished inside the bright auroral tongue.

  12. Structural and temporal requirements for geomagnetic field reversal deduced from lava flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brad S; Hoffman, Kenneth A; Coe, Robert S; Brown, Laurie L; Jicha, Brian R; Pringle, Malcolm S; Chauvin, Annick

    2005-03-31

    Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field reflect changes in the geodynamo--flow within the outer core--that generates the field. Constraining core processes or mantle properties that induce or modulate reversals requires knowing the timing and morphology of field changes that precede and accompany these reversals. But the short duration of transitional field states and fragmentary nature of even the best palaeomagnetic records make it difficult to provide a timeline for the reversal process. 40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the most recent 'Matuyama-Brunhes' reversal, gives an age of 795 +/- 7 kyr, indistinguishable from that of lavas in Chile and La Palma that record a transition in the Earth's magnetic field, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the 'transitional' lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 kyr), agree with the astronomical age for the reversal. Here we propose that the older lavas record the onset of a geodynamo process, which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began approximately 18 kyr before the actual polarity switch. These data support the claim that complete reversals require a significant period for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect. PMID:15800621

  13. A partially differentiated interior for (1) Ceres deduced from its gravity field and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R. S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Bills, B. G.; Rambaux, N.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Vaughan, A. T.; Ermakov, A. I.; Zuber, M. T.; Fu, R. R.; Toplis, M. J.; Russell, C. T.; Nathues, A.; Preusker, F.

    2016-09-01

    Remote observations of the asteroid (1) Ceres from ground- and space-based telescopes have provided its approximate density and shape, leading to a range of models for the interior of Ceres, from homogeneous to fully differentiated. A previously missing parameter that can place a strong constraint on the interior of Ceres is its moment of inertia, which requires the measurement of its gravitational variation together with either precession rate or a validated assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. However, Earth-based remote observations cannot measure gravity variations and the magnitude of the precession rate is too small to be detected. Here we report gravity and shape measurements of Ceres obtained from the Dawn spacecraft, showing that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium with its inferred normalized mean moment of inertia of 0.37. These data show that Ceres is a partially differentiated body, with a rocky core overlaid by a volatile-rich shell, as predicted in some studies. Furthermore, we show that the gravity signal is strongly suppressed compared to that predicted by the topographic variation. This indicates that Ceres is isostatically compensated, such that topographic highs are supported by displacement of a denser interior. In contrast to the asteroid (4) Vesta, this strong compensation points to the presence of a lower-viscosity layer at depth, probably reflecting a thermal rather than compositional gradient. To further investigate the interior structure, we assume a two-layer model for the interior of Ceres with a core density of 2,460-2,900 kilograms per cubic metre (that is, composed of CI and CM chondrites), which yields an outer-shell thickness of 70-190 kilometres. The density of this outer shell is 1,680-1,950 kilograms per cubic metre, indicating a mixture of volatiles and denser materials such as silicates and salts. Although the gravity and shape data confirm that the interior of Ceres evolved thermally, its partially differentiated interior indicates an evolution more complex than has been envisioned for mid-sized (less than 1,000 kilometres across) ice-rich rocky bodies.

  14. General formula to deduce the space charge tune spread from a quadrupolar pick-up measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, Elias

    2016-01-01

    In 1966, W. Hardt derived the oscillation frequencies obtained in the presence of space charge forces and gradients errors for elliptical beams. Since then, a simple formula is usually used to relate the shift of the quadrupolar mode (obtained from the quadrupolar pick-up) and the space charge tune spread, depending only on the ratio between the two transverse equilibrium beam sizes. However, this formula is not always valid, in particular for machines running close to the coupling resonance Qx = Qy with almost round beams. A new general formula is presented, giving the space charge tune spread as a function of i) the measured shift of the quadrupolar mode, ii) the ratio between the two transverse equilibrium beam sizes and iii) the distance between the two transverse tunes.

  15. Landsat-derived glacier inventory for Jotunheimen, Norway, and deduced glacier changes since the 1930s

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassen, L.M.; F. Paul; Kääb, A.; Hausberg, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    A Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scene from 2003 covering the Jotunheimen and Breheimen region has been used to map the recent glacier extents using thresholded ratio images (TM3/TM5). Orthoprojected aerial photographs and glacier outlines from digital maps have been used to validate the method and control the results. We further calculated glacier changes by comparing the Landsat-derived 2003 glacier outlines with previous maps and inventories from the 1930s, 1960s and 1980s. Our results confi...

  16. Strain patterns deduced from high-resolution airborne surveys in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, P.; Garoeb, H.; Kamati, T.; Wackerle, R.; Martelet, G.; Truffert, C.

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic dataset have been acquired in the framework of a long-term programme that aims at a complete coverage of Namibia in 2008. More than half of the territory has been already flown with a 200m line spacing and 2500m tie lines, at a terrain clearance of 80 to 100 m. The contribution of the interpretation of these datasets to the definition of the strain pattern is presented. The first test zone concerns an orogenic zone, the southern zone of the Damara belt, south of Rehoboth. The different maps of the gradients of the magnetic field reduced to the pole have been used in order to define the regional strain pattern. Following up a limited field work that has characterized the geometry and kinematics of the main discontinuities, it has been shown that this zone is characterized by one single orogenic phase marked by a reverse crustal-scale shear zone system (with a down-dip stretching direction) to which regional-scale NE-SW folding is related. The anastomosed shear zone system is thus traced along more than 200 km. A provisional foliation trajectory map can be drawn, transecting the bedding in the hinges of the folds within sediments and underlined by a magnetite-rich veinlet network within the pre-tectonic granites. Moreover, this strain pattern has been extended under the superficial deposits that cover the eastern half of the studied area. Automatic structural analysis has been performed using Geosoft and ArcView/SynArc. Thus, source edge detection, search of ridges and curvature analysis provide qualitative analysis while the search of discontinuities along the horizontal gradients of the magnetic field using SynArc produces a very satisfactory statistical approach of the structural pattern. A second test zone illustrates an extensional tectonic context, i.e. the northern termination of the NNE-SSW Mesozoic aborted rift, developed synchronously with the opening of the Southern Atlantic ocean at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. A dense dolerite dyke network, poorly outcropping in this zone, is revealed. Its mapping has been performed mainly by using the ridges of the first vertical derivative of the magnetic field reduced to the pole. Up to 4 generations of dykes are differentiated, the apparent chronology suggesting a change from an initial rift to a strike slip environment, characterized by a sinistral component along the main NNE-SSW tectonic line. The magnetic maps also reveal that the emplacement of the alkaline ring complexes postdates this dolerite dyke network.

  17. The production rate of cosmogenic 21-Ne in chondrites deduced from 81-Kr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L.; Freundel, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmogenic Ne-21 is used widely to calculate exposure ages of stone meteorites. In order to do so, the production rate P(21) must be known. This rate, however, is dependent on the chemical composition of the meteorite as well as the mass of, and position within, the meteoroid during its exposure to the cosmic radiation. Even for a mean shielding the production rates determined from measurments of different radionuclides vary by a factor of two. A method that can be used to determine exposure ages of meteorites that avoids shielding and chemical composition corrections is the -81-Kr-Kr-method. However, for chondrites, in many cases, the direct determination of production rates for the Kr isotopes is prevented by the trapped gases and the neutron effects on bromine. Therefore, this method was applied to four eucrite falls and then their 81-Kr-83-Kr-ages were compared to their cosmogenic Ne-21 and Ar-38 concentrations. The eucrites Bouvante-le-Haut, Juvinas, Sioux County, and Stannern were chosen for these measurements because of their similar chemical composition regarding the major elements.

  18. Iron Fertilization in the Southern Ocean Deduced From Environmental Magnetism of Sediment Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2012-12-01

    With rock-magnetic technique, biogenic magnetites in sediments can be detected utilizing the characteristics of almost no magnetostatic interactions and narrow coercivity distribution, reflecting occurrence of single-domain magnetites in a chain (e.g., Egli et al., 2010; Roberts et al., 2011). Magnetic mineral assemblages in pelagic sediments of Pacific and Indian Oceans often have two distinctive constituents; the first is characterized by non-interacting on first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams and low-coercivity (~40 mT) with small dispersion on isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) component analyses, and the second is characterized by interacting and middle-coercivity (~100 mT). The former is interpreted as biogenic magnetites and the latter is terrigenous maghemites (Yamazaki, 2009; 2012). The ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization susceptibility to saturation IRM reflects relative abundance of the biogenic and terrigenous components. In the Southern Ocean, magnetic mineral concentration increases in glacial periods. The variation pattern closely resembles eolian dust flux records from Antarctic ice cores, but the cause of the linkage was unclear, as the dust flux is too small for the source of terrigenous materials in the Southern Ocean. Our environmental magnetic study of late Pleistocene sediments from the south Indian Ocean revealed that biogenic magnetites are a dominant constituent of the magnetic minerals. In glacials, the abundance of both biogenic and terrigenous components increased with increased proportions of the latter. Increased ocean productivity in glacials is suggested from increased proportions of biogenic magnetites with elongated morphologies, indicative of less-oxic conditions, and increased sedimentation rates. These observations suggest that the increased magnetic concentration in glacials in the Southern Ocean may be explained by iron fertilization; the production of biogenic magnetites was enhanced associated with increased ocean productivity, which was fueled by increased eolian dust flux. In pelagic clay cores in the North Pacific, the contributions of biogenic and terrigenous components to IRM are comparative. The abundance of the terrigenous component increases in glacials, whereas the biogenic component increases in interglacials. This suggests that iron fertilization did not occur in the North Pacific; increased eolian dust flux from the Asian continent in glacials did not promote production of biogenic magnetites.

  19. Personality Theories Facilitate Integrating the Five Principles and Deducing Hypotheses for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the original article "A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality," by Dan P. McAdams and Jennifer L. Pals (see record 2006-03947-002). In presenting their view of personality science, McAdams and Pals (April 2006) elaborated the importance of five principles for building an integrated science of…

  20. Tratamiento contable de los gastos financieros que superen la cantidad fiscalmente deducible (BOICAC 92/diciembre 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    Las personas que nos dedicamos al cada vez más complejo campo de la contabilidad no vemos finalizar el "más difícil todavía". Si bien es cierto que ya nos hemos acostumbrado al, a veces, complejo entramado del efecto impositivo, no es menos cierto que en los últimos tiempos la tan recurrente crisis económica y, naturalmente, el irresponsable despilfarro previo a la misma han supuesto la introducción de determinadas normas tributarias encaminadas a intentar una mayor recaudación de impuestos...