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Sample records for 31cl deduced levels

  1. The {beta}2p decay mechanism of {sup 31}Ar[23.40.Hc; 27.30.+t; Radioactivity 31Ar({beta}+p) [from Ca(p,3pxn) reaction]; Measured {beta}-delayed protons Ep, E2p; pp energy and angular correlations; 31Ar deduced {beta}1p and {beta}2p decay channels; 30S, 31Cl deduced levels, T, {pi}, branching ratios; CaO target; On-line mass separation; Double sided Si strip detector; Si p-i-n detectors; Surface barrier Si detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U.; Borge, M.J.G.; Axelsson, L.; Aeystoe, J.; Bergmann, U.C.; Fraile, L.M.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshoej, P.; Jading, Y.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Piqueras, I.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M.H.; Tengblad, O.; Thaysen, J.; Wenander, F

    2000-09-11

    We have measured the beta-decay of {sup 31}Ar with a high granularity setup sensitive to multiparticle decay branches. Two-proton emission is observed from the isobaric analog state in {sup 31}Cl to the four lowest states in {sup 29}P and furthermore from a large number of states fed in Gamow-Teller transitions. The mechanism of two-proton emission is studied via energy and angular correlations between the two protons. In all cases the mechanism is found to be sequential yielding information about states in {sup 30}S up to 8 MeV excitation energy. Improved data on the {beta}-delayed one-proton branches together with the two-proton data provide precise information about the beta-strength distribution up to 15 MeV excitation energy.

  2. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas i

  3. Relative sea level, deglaciation and tsunami history deduced from isolation basins

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Paper number 1 of the thesis is not available in Munin due to publisher's restrictions: 1. Romundset, A., Lohne, Ø.S., Mangerud, J. & Svendsen, J.I.: «The first Holocene relative sea-level curve from the middle part of Hardangerfjorden, western Norway», Boreas 39(2010), 87-104 (Wiley). Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2009.00108.x NORSK SAMANDRAG: Denne avhandlinga tek for seg endringane i relativt havnivå – strandforskyvinga – dei siste vel 11.500 åra på kysten ...

  4. One-Proton Halo in 31Cl with Relativistic Mean-Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡翔舟; 沈文庆; 任中洲; 蒋维洲; 方德清; 张虎勇; 钟晨; 魏义彬; 郭威; 马余刚; 朱志远

    2002-01-01

    We investigate proton-rich isotopes s1,32Cl using the nonlinear relativistic mean-field model. It is shown that this model can reproduce the properties of these nuclei well. A long tail appears in the calculated proton density distribution of 31 Cl. The results of relativistic density-dependent Hartree theory show a similar trend of tail density distribution. It is strongly suggested that there is a proton halo in 31Cl and it is indicated that there may be a proton skin in 32 Cl. The relation between the proton halo in 31Cl and the new proton magic number is discussed.

  5. Mass of astrophysically relevant $^{31}$Cl and the breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kankainen, A; Eronen, T; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Koponen, J; Moore, I D; Nesterenko, D; Reinikainen, J; Rinta-Antila, S; Voss, A; Äystö, J

    2015-01-01

    The mass of $^{31}$Cl has been measured with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer at the Ion-Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility. The determined mass-excess value, -7034.7(34) keV, is 15 times more precise than in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012. The quadratic form of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the T=3/2 quartet at A=31 fails ($\\chi^2_n$=11.6) and a non-zero cubic term, d=-3.49(44) keV, is obtained when the new mass value is adopted. $^{31}$Cl has been found to be less proton-bound with a proton separation energy of $S_p$=265(4) keV. Energies for the excited states in $^{31}$Cl and the photodisintegration rate on $^{31}$Cl have been determined with significantly improved precision using the new $S_p$ value. The improved photodisintegration rate helps to constrain astrophysical conditions where $^{30}$S can act as a waiting point in the rapid proton capture process in type I x-ray bursts.

  6. Excited states in {sup 31}S studied via beta decay of {sup 31}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kopecky, S.; Moore, I.; Nieminen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Wang, Y.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Fox, S.P.; Jenkins, D.G. [University of York, Department of Physics, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Fynbo, H.O.U. [University of Aarhus, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus (Denmark); Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The beta decay of {sup 31}Cl has been studied with a silicon detector array and a HPGe detector at the IGISOL facility. Previously controversial proton peaks have been confirmed to belong to {sup 31}Cl and a new proton group with an energy of 762(14) keV has been found. Proton captures to this state at 6921(15) keV in {sup 31}S can have an effect on the reaction rate of {sup 30}P(p,{gamma}) in ONe novae. Gamma rays of 1249.1(14) keV and 2234.5(8) keV corresponding to the de-excitations of the first two excited states in {sup 31}S have been measured. No beta-delayed protons from the IAS have been observed. (orig.)

  7. Constructing Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing route for achieving enhanced photocatalytic activity and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Su, Yiguo; Zhao, Qihang; Du, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiliang

    2016-06-01

    This work reports on the construction of a Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the phase transformation from BiOCl to Bi24O31Cl10 could be realized during the thermal annealing process. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) binding energy shifts, Raman spectra and Fouier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the formation of the Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction. The obtained Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl photocatalyst showed excellent conversion efficiency and selectivity toward photocatalytic conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The radical scavengers and electron spin resonance (ESR) results suggested that the photogenerated holes were the dominant reactive species responsible for the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and superoxide radicals were not involved in the photocatalytic process. The in-situ generation of Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction may own superior interfacial contact than the two-step synthesized heterojunctions, which promotes the transfer of photogenerated charge carriers and is favorable for excellent photocatalytic activities.

  8. Applying generalized non deducibility on compositions (GNDC) approach in dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, Stefania; Lenzini, Gabriele; Martinelli, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework where dependable systems can be uniformly modeled and dependable properties analyzed within the Generalized Non Deducibility on Compositions (GNDC), a scheme that has been profitably used in definition and analysis of security properties. Precisely, our framework requ

  9. A new evolutionary theory deduced mathematically from entropy amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new evolutionary theory which is able to unite the present evolutionary debates is deduced mathematically from the principle of entropy amplification.It suggests that the extensive evolution is driven by the amplification of entropy,or microscopic diversity,and the biological evolution is driven by the amplification of biodiversity.Forming high hierarchies is the most important way for the amplification and brings out spontaneously three kinds of selection.This theory has some positive cultural meanings.

  10. Photon strength function deduced from photon scattering and neutron capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dipole strength function of 78Se and 196Pt are investigated by two different experimental methods, capture of cold neutrons in 77Se and 195Pt and photon scattering experiments on 78Se and 196Pt. Considering the different ways of excitation, the strength function deduced from the results are expected to agree. The report shows the status of the data analysis and presents first preliminary results.

  11. Asteroid Sufaces/Regoliths Deduced by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S.

    Resolved imagery on a small number of asteroids provides information about the size, density and surface relief from which inferences may be made regarding their regoliths; Eros Eros is the best studied asteroid in this regard However, remote sensing is necessary to deduce properties for the large majority of objects. These techniques include: spectroscopy and multi-spectral band photometry, which provide clues as to the chemical composition of the surface, infrared (plus visible) radiometry, from which physical bulk and surface properties may be inferred through the derived albedo and thermal inertia, and radar, which permits one to deduce the near surface bulk density. This article reviews what these techniques have revealed about the surface characteristics of asteroids. Asteroids have been classified by the broad emissive properties of the surface as indicated by filter band photometry. Recently, observations from large scale surveys - 2MASS (Denis to a lesser extent) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - provided taxonomic classifications for thousands of asteroids. The mineralogy is more secure at higher spectral resolution. Silicates on the surface of asteroids have been inferred from IRAS, ISO and Kuiper Airborne infrared spectra. Infrared radiometry has been used to derive the albedos and diameters of ~2300 asteroids observed by IRAS and MSX. The simplified Standard Thermal Model (STM) works well for main belt asteroids. The model assumes that the asteroid does not rotate and is in instantaneous thermal equilibrium between absorbed sunlight and emitted radiation. Empirical factors for flux enhancement (beaming) and phase function are adopted. There is a dichotomy between large and small asteroids in this database. About 20% of the asteroids with diameters inertia, rotation rate, orientation of the rotation pole, surface roughness and degree of cratering. A complex model is required to account for all the variables. Such a model was developed using full

  12. Development of Deduced Protein Database Using Variable Bit Binary Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parvathavarthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of biological data is semi-structured and stored in any one the following file formats such as flat, XML and relational files. These databases must be integrated with the structured data available in relational or object-oriented databases. The sequence matching process is difficult in such file format, because string comparison takes more computation cost and time. To reduce the memory storage size of amino acid sequence in protein database, a novel probability-based variable bit length encoding technique has been introduced. The number of mapping of triplet CODON for every amino acid evaluates the probability value. Then, a binary tree has been constructed to assign unique bits of binary codes to each amino acid. This derived unique bit pattern of amino acid replaces the existing fixed byte representation. The proof of reduced protein database space has been discussed and it is found to be reduced between 42.86 to 87.17%. To validate our method, we have collected few amino acid sequences of major organisms like Sheep, Lambda phage and etc from NCBI and represented them using proposed method. The comparison shows that of minimum and maximum reduction in storage space are 43.30% and 72.86% respectively. In future the biological data can further be reduced by applying lossless compression on this deduced data.

  13. Rabbit serum amyloid protein A: expression and primary structure deduced from cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, M; Marhaug, G; Husby, G; Dowton, S B

    1991-12-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), the precursor of amyloid protein A (AA) in deposits of secondary amyloidosis, is an acute phase plasma apolipoprotein produced by hepatocytes. The primary structure of SAA demonstrates high interspecies homology. Several isoforms exist in individual species, probably with different amyloidogenic potential. The nucleotide sequences of two different rabbit serum amyloid A cDNA clones have been analysed, one (corresponding to SAA1) 569 base pairs (bp) long and the other (corresponding to SAA2) 513 bp long. Their deduced amino acid sequences differ at five amino acid positions, four of which are located in the NH2-terminal region of the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of SAA2 corresponds to rabbit protein AA previously described except for one amino acid in position 22. Eighteen hours after turpentine stimulation, rabbit SAA mRNA is abundant in liver, while lower levels are present in spleen. None of the other extrahepatic organs studied showed any SAA mRNA expression. A third mRNA species (1.9 kb) hybridizing with a single-stranded RNA probe transcribed from the rabbit SAA cDNA, was identified. SAA1 and SAA2 mRNA were found in approximately equal amounts in turpentine-stimulated rabbit liver, but seem to be coordinately decreased after repeated inflammatory stimulation.

  14. Advance of the perihelion of Mercury deduced from QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G m M / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation, Eq. (1) is a new version of GR and can be solved exactly. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., the nonlinearity of Einstein equation had been replaced by the nonlinearity caused by the variable mass in Eq.(1). Einstein equation can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. In my paper ‘QFT’S advance of the perihelion of Mercury, China Science &Technology Overview 125 88-90 (2011)’ QFT gravitational potential U = - G M /r is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux, from SR we again get that: f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c (2), f _{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f _{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. According to Eq.(2) the circular motion is instability and elliptic motion is in the auto-stability state. In the fluctuation vacuum a particle with mass M neighbor another particle with mass m, the renormalization mass M and m will be less than that when

  15. Hydrodynamic properties of gamma-ray bursts outflows deduced from thermal component

    CERN Document Server

    Pe'er, Asaf; O'Mahony, Shane; Margutti, Raffaella; Ryde, Felix; Larsson, Josefin; Lazzatti, Davide; Livio, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of a significant thermal emission component that was identified in 47 GRBs observed by different instruments. Within the framework of the "fireball" model, we deduce the values of the Lorentz factor Gamma, and the acceleration radius, r_0, for these bursts. We find that all the values of Gamma in our sample are in the range 10^2 = 310. We find a very weak dependence of Gamma on the acceleration radius r_0, Gamma ~ r_0^alpha with alpha = -0.10 +- 0.09 at sigma = 2.1 confidence level. The values of r_0 span a wide range, 10^7 ~10^{8.5} cm. This is higher than the gravitational radius of a 10 M_sun black hole by a factor ~100. We argue that this result provides indirect evidence for jet propagation inside a massive star, and suggests the existence of recollimation shocks that take place close to this radius.

  16. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    CERN Document Server

    Papuga, J; Kreim, K; Barbieri, C; Blaum, K; De Rydt, M; Duguet, T; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Rajabali, M M; Sanchez, R; Smirnova, N; Soma, V; Yordanov, D T

    2014-01-01

    $\\textbf{Background:}$ Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Purpose:}$ Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Method:}$ High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Results:}$ From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and $\\textit{ab initio}$ framework is al...

  17. Hysteresis Loop for a No-loaded, Delta-connected Transformer Model Deduced from Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrodi, Yves; Kamei, Kenji; Kohyama, Haruhiko; Ito, Hiroki

    At a transformer's steady-state condition, whereby a transformer and its load are constantly supplied by a sinusoidal source, the current-flux pair within the transformer core and its windings will cycle along a hysteresis loop. This nonlinear current-flux characteristic becomes important while at transformer gets reenergized. A remaining residual flux and the fact that a transformer is typically used up to its saturation level can lead to high-amplitude magnetizing inrush currents and associated voltage disturbances. These disturbances can be reduced by controlled transformer switching. In order to pre-evaluate the effect of a specific controlled transformer energization, pre-simulations can be applied. In that case the hysteresis loop and its saturation characteristic will become the most important model parameter. If the corresponding manufacturer specifications are not available a standard hysteresis loops can be used, but might come up with an inaccurate simulation result. Therefore, this paper analyses the measured 3-phase currents from two delta-connected power transformers by “Fourier Series” in order to deduce a single-phase hysteresis loop, which can be implemented into a typical 3-phase transformer model. Additionally, the saturation behavior of a power-transformer will be estimated and a comparison of ATP/EMTP simulations will conclude this paper.

  18. Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James G Brasseur; Mark A Nicosia; Anupam Pal; Larr S Miller

    2007-01-01

    We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest.However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology.

  19. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  20. New Route to Deducing Integration Formulas by Virtue of the IWOP Technique*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; LI Hong-Qi; XU Xing-Lei

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new route to deducing integration formulas, i.e., using the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we derive some new integration formulas, which seems concise. As a by-product,some new operator identities also appear.

  1. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  2. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M;

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250-555 p...

  3. Tropospheric CO vertical profiles deduced from total columns using data assimilation: methodology and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. El Amraoui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation of a method to derive the vertical profile of carbon monoxide (CO from its total column using data assimilation. The main motivation of this study is twofold. First, to deduce both the vertical CO profiles and the assimilated CO fields with good confidence. Second, for chemical species that can be measured only as the total column, this method provides an attractive alternative for estimating their vertical profiles in the troposphere. We choose version 3 (V3 of MOPITT CO total columns to validate the proposed method. MOPITT has the advantage of providing both the vertical profiles and the total columns of CO. Furthermore, this version has been extensively validated by comparison with many independent datasets, and has been used in many scientific studies. The first step of the paper consists in the specification of the observation errors based on the Chi-square (χ2 test. The observations have been binned according to day, night, land and sea (LAND_DAY, LAND_NIGHT and SEA, respectively. The respective optimal observation error values for which the χ2 metric is the closest to 1 are: 7%, 8% and 11% for SEA, LAND_DAY and LAND_NIGHT, respectively. In a second step, the CO total column, with its specified errors, is used within the assimilation system to estimate the vertical profiles. These are validated by comparison with vertical profiles of MOPITT V3 retrievals at global and regional scales. Generally, both datasets show similar patterns and good agreement at both global and regional scales. Nevertheless, the total column analyses (TOTCOL_ANALYSES slightly overestimate CO concentrations compared to MOPITT observations. In a third step, vertical profiles calculated from TOTCOL_ANALYSES have been compared to those calculated from the assimilation of MOPITT V3 vertical profiles (PROFILE_ANALYSES. Both datasets shows very good agreement, but TOTCOL_ANALYSES tend to slightly overestimate CO concentrations. The mean

  4. Tropospheric CO vertical profiles deduced from total columns using data assimilation: methodology and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amraoui, L.; Attié, J.-L.; Ricaud, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; Piacentini, A.; Peuch, V.-H.; Warner, J. X.; Abida, R.; Barré, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a validation of a method to derive the vertical profile of carbon monoxide (CO) from its total column using data assimilation. The main motivation of this study is twofold. First, to deduce both the vertical CO profiles and the assimilated CO fields with good confidence. Second, for chemical species that can be measured only as the total column, this method provides an attractive alternative for estimating their vertical profiles in the troposphere. We choose version 3 (V3) of MOPITT CO total columns to validate the proposed method. MOPITT has the advantage of providing both the vertical profiles and the total columns of CO. Furthermore, this version has been extensively validated by comparison with many independent datasets, and has been used in many scientific studies. The first step of the paper consists in the specification of the observation errors based on the Chi-square (χ2) test. The observations have been binned according to day, night, land and sea (LAND_DAY, LAND_NIGHT and SEA, respectively). The respective optimal observation error values for which the χ2 metric is the closest to 1 are: 7%, 8% and 11% for SEA, LAND_DAY and LAND_NIGHT, respectively. In a second step, the CO total column, with its specified errors, is used within the assimilation system to estimate the vertical profiles. These are validated by comparison with vertical profiles of MOPITT V3 retrievals at global and regional scales. Generally, both datasets show similar patterns and good agreement at both global and regional scales. Nevertheless, the total column analyses (TOTCOL_ANALYSES) slightly overestimate CO concentrations compared to MOPITT observations. In a third step, vertical profiles calculated from TOTCOL_ANALYSES have been compared to those calculated from the assimilation of MOPITT V3 vertical profiles (PROFILE_ANALYSES). Both datasets shows very good agreement, but TOTCOL_ANALYSES tend to slightly overestimate CO concentrations. The mean bias between

  5. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  6. Two New Types of Conserved Quantities Deduced from Noether Symmetry for Nonholonomic Mechanical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Ni; FANG Jian-Hui; PANG Ting; LIN Peng

    2009-01-01

    For a nonholonomic mechanical system, the generalized Mei conserved quantity and the new generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced from Noether symmetry of the system are studied.The criterion equation of the Noether symmetry for the system is got.The conditions under which the Noether symmetry can lead to the two new conserved quantities are presented and the forms of the conserved quantities are obtained.Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  7. Hojman conserved quantity deduced by weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jia-Fang; Gang Tie-Qiang; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the Hojman conserved quantity,a non-Noether conserved quantity,deduced by special weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems.Under special infinitesimal transformations in which the time is not variable,its criterion is given and a method of how to seek the Hojman conserved quantity is presented.A Hojman conserved quantity can be found by using the special weak Noether symmetry.

  8. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, M., E-mail: aikawa@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ebata, S.; Imai, S. [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the {sup nat}Cu({sup 12}C,X){sup 24}Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the {sup 137}Cs + {sup 12}C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement.

  9. New prospects for deducing the evolutionary history of metabolic pathways in prokaryotes: Aromatic biosynthesis as a case-in-point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Jensen, Roy A.

    1988-03-01

    Metabolic pathways of prokaryotes are more biochemically diverse than is generally recognized. Distinctive biochemical features are shared by phylogenetic clusters. The hierarchical levels of characterstate clustering depends upon evolutionary events which fortuitously became fixed in the genome of a common ancestor. Prokaryotes can now be ordered on a phylogenetic tree. This allows the evolutionary steps that underlie the construction and regulation of appropriately complex biochemical pathways to be traced in an evolutionary progression of prokaryote types that house these pathways. Essentially the approach is to deduce ancestral character states at ever deeper phylogenetic levels, utilizing logical principles of maximum parsimony. The current perspective on the evolution of the biochemical pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids is developed as a case-in-point model for analyses that should be feasible with many major metabolic systems. Phenylalanine biosynthesis probably arose prior to the addition of branches leading to tyrosine and tryptophan. An evolutionary scenario is developed that begins with non-enzymatic reactions which may have operated in primitive systems, followed by the evolution of an enzymatic system that pre-dated the divergence of major lineages of modern eubacteria (Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative purple bacteria, and cyanobacteria).

  10. Atmospheric phenomena deduced from radiosonde and GPS occultation measurements for various application related studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C J Johny; S K Sarkar; D Punyasesudu

    2009-02-01

    The tropopause height and tropopause temperature are sensitive to temperature changes in troposphere and stratosphere. These are the measures of global climatic variability. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, refractivity and water vapour are always needed for communication, navigation and atmospheric modeling studies. The tropopause characteristics over the Indian region have been studied using radio occultation measurements (CHAMP) on the basis of cold point criterion. Tropopause height shows large variation in the latitude range ∼30° –40°N during winter. Tropopause temperature less than −82°C, assumed to facilitate troposphere to stratosphere air transport, is observed at a number of tropical Indian locations and no seasonal pattern is observed in its occurrence. The bias in temperature and refractivity deduced from radiosonde and radio occultation measurements is also presented.

  11. An asymmetric color image encryption method by using deduced gyrator transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lili; Yuan, Caojin; Qiang, Junjie; Feng, Shaotong; Nie, Shouping

    2017-02-01

    An encryption algorithm is proposed by using the properties of deduced gyrator transform (GT). After being transformed by the GT algorithm and multiplied by a phase distribution p*, the spectrum modulus of the input image is considered to be the encrypted image by further performing Fourier transformation. To resist the attack from iterative phase retrieval, the red, green and blue components of the input image is modulated by a random phase mask and then combined using convolution. The encryption result is real-valued, which is convenient for display, transmission and storage. In the decryption process, the three original color components can be recovered with decryption keys which are different from the encryption keys. An optoelectronic hybrid system for the encryption process is also presented. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate its performance, and the security of the proposed system is analyzed as well.

  12. New values of gravitational moments J2 and J4 deduced from helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Redouane, Mecheri; Irbah, Abdanour; Provost, Janine; Berthomieu, Gabrielle; 10.1023/B:SOLA.0000043563.96766.21

    2009-01-01

    By applying the theory of slowly rotating stars to the Sun, the solar quadrupole and octopole moments J2 and J4 were computed using a solar model obtained from CESAM stellar evolution code (Morel, 1997) combined with a recent model of solar differential rotation deduced from helioseismology (Corbard et al., 2002). This model takes into account a near-surface radial gradient of rotation which was inferred and quantified from MDI f-mode observations by Corbard and Thompson (2002). The effect of this observational near-surface gradient on the theoretical values of the surface parameters J2, J4 is investigated. The results show that the octopole moment J4 is much more sensitive than the quadrupole moment J2 to the subsurface radial gradient of rotation.

  13. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jacosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission for the first time make regular particle and field measurements down to ~150 km altitude. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) instrument provides 3-D measurements of the electron energy and angular distributions. This study presents the pitch angle-resolved shape parameters that can separate photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, therefore used to deduce the Martian magnetic topology. The three-dimensional view of the magnetic topology is manifested for the first time. The northern hemisphere is found to be dominated by the crustal closed field lines, instead of draped interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF), on the dayside and more day-night connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. This study can also single out open field lines attached to the dayside ionosphere, which provide possible passage for ion outflow. Magnetic topology governs energetic electrons' movement, thus necessary to understand nightside ionosphere, and aurora.

  14. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  15. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H

    1998-04-01

    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors.

  16. Statistical γ -decay properties of 64Ni and deduced (n ,γ ) cross section of the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Campo, L.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Springer, A.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.

    2016-10-01

    Particle-γ coincidence data have been analyzed to obtain the nuclear level density and the γ -strength function of 64Ni by means of the Oslo method. The level density found in this work is in very good agreement with known energy levels at low excitation energies as well as with data deduced from particle-evaporation measurements at excitation energies above Ex≈5.5 MeV. The experimental γ -strength function presents an enhancement at γ energies below Eγ≈3 MeV and possibly a resonancelike structure centered at Eγ≈9.2 MeV. The obtained nuclear level density and γ -strength function have been used to estimate the (n ,γ ) cross section for the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni, of particular interest for astrophysical calculations of elemental abundances.

  17. Radiation pressure on a submerged absorptive partial reflector deduced from the Doppler shift

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-01-01

    When a light pulse is reflected from a mirror, energy and momentum are exchanged between the electromagnetic field and the material medium. The resulting change in the energy of the reflected photons is directly related to their Doppler shift arising from the change in the state of motion of the mirror. Similarly, the Doppler shift of photons that enter an absorber is intimately tied to the kinetic energy and momentum acquired by the absorber in its interaction with the incident light. The argument from the Doppler shift yields expressions for the exchanged energy and momentum that are identical with those obtained from Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz law of force, despite the fact that the physical bases of the two methods are fundamentally different. Here we apply the Doppler shift argument to a submerged partial reflector (one that absorbs a fraction of the incident light), deducing in the process the magnitude of the photon momentum within the submerging medium. We also discuss the case of the submerg...

  18. PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein mediates the interaction with NifA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Ran; CUI Yanhua; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    NifA in Azospirillum brasilense plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of nitrogenase in response to ammonia and oxygen available. Recently,our laboratory has identified four clones, whose gene prodcuts interact with NifA, from A. brasilense Sp7genomic libraries by using the yeast two-hybrid system with NifA as bait. We are interested in clone S35,one of the four clones, because it contains a PAS-domain coding region. The entire open reading frame (ORF) for the PAS domain-containing protein was isolated and designated as org35 here. org35gene is 2211-bp long and encodes a protein of 736aa with a predicted molecular weight of about 78.4 kD.The predicted amino acid sequence of org35 has similarity to some two-component sensor kinase/response regulator hybrids of bacteria. Structural analyses showed that Org35 comprises at least three discrete conserved domains: the N-terminal PAS, the central histidine protein kinase (HPK) and the C-terminal response regulator (RR). The PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein was found to interact directly with NifA, but the central HPK and the C-terminal RR domains of Org35 were not. These results indicated that interaction between NifA and Org35 was mediated by PAS domain.

  19. Optimizing Network Routing by Deducing a QoS Metric Using Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali.A.Sakr,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The routing within networks, must satisfy the QoS metrics. In traditional data networks, routing is concerned on connectivity or cost. Routing protocols usually characterize the network with one or more metric(s. However, in order to support a wide range of QoS requirements, routing protocols need to have a more complex model. Thenetwork is characterized with multiple metrics such as bandwidth, delay, jitters, loss rate, authentication, security,…etc. This complex model necessitates a long time to proceed. The Rough Set Theory (RST is applied to reduce these metrics successfully and decide the most effective ones. In this paper, RST is applied to reduce the online metrics that are reported by Routing Information Protocols (RIP. The paper represents information about network elements (links, or nodes to obtain the Quality of Service (QoS core [1]. ROSETTA software is applied to deduce a QoS metric as a substitution for all routing metrics. This metric is used to select the optimal routes. The results confirm that the proposed metric is adequately suit for selecting the proper routes.

  20. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Deleplanque, M A; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S; Ai, H; Beausang, C; Cridder, B

    2005-12-29

    The authors have deduced the cross section for {sup 237}U(n,f) over an equivalent neutron energy range from 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions: {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). Scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} and 131{sup o}.

  1. Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE 2 and NMC temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; Wang, P.-H.; Chiou, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor concentrations obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and collocated temperatures provided by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) from 1986 to 1990 are used to deduce seasonally and zonally averaged acidity, density, and refractive index of stratospheric aerosols. It is found that the weight percentage of sulfuric acid in the aerosols increases from about 60 just above the tropopause to about 86 at 35 km. The density increases from about 1.55 to 1.85 g/cu cm between the same altitude limits. Some seasonal variations of composition and density are evident at high latitudes. The refractive indices at 1.02, 0.694, and 0.532 micrometers increase, respectively, from about 1.425, 1.430, and 1.435 just above the tropopause to about 1.445, 1.455, and 1.458 at altitudes above 27 km, depending on the season and latitude. The aerosol properties presented can be used in models to study the effectiveness of heterogeneous chemistry, the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols, and the extinction and backscatter of aerosols at different wavelengths. Computed aerosol surface areas, rate coefficients for the heterogeneous reaction ClONO2 + H2O yields HOCl + HNO3 and aerosol mass concentrations before and after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 are shown as sample applications.

  2. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  3. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission has obtained comprehensive particle and magnetic field measurements. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer provides electron energy-pitch angle distributions along the spacecraft trajectory that can be used to infer magnetic topology. This study presents pitch angle-resolved electron energy shape parameters that can distinguish photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, which we use to deduce the Martian magnetic topology and connectivity to the dayside ionosphere. Magnetic topology in the Mars environment is mapped in three dimensions for the first time. At low altitudes (connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. Although draped field lines with 100 km amplitude vertical fluctuations that intersect the electron exobase ( 160-220 km) in two locations could appear to be closed at the spacecraft, a more likely explanation is provided by crustal magnetic fields, which naturally have the required geometry. Around 30% of the time, we observe open field lines from 200 to 400 km, which implies three distinct topological layers over the northern hemisphere: closed field lines below 200 km, open field lines with foot points at lower latitudes that pass over the northern hemisphere from 200 to 400 km, and draped interplanetary magnetic field above 400 km. This study also identifies open field lines with one end attached to the dayside ionosphere and the other end connected with the solar wind, providing a path for ion outflow.

  4. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  5. Relations between aliphatics and silicate components in 12 stratospheric particles deduced from vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; Le Sergeant d' Hendecourt, L., E-mail: sihane.merouane@ias.u-psud.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, UMR-8617, Université Paris Sud, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-01-10

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are among the most pristine extraterrestrial samples available in the laboratory for analyses with moderate to high spatial- and spectral-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Their composition can provide precious information on the early stages of the solar nebula as well as on the processes on the surfaces of different small bodies in the solar system from which IDPs originate. In this work, we have analyzed six anhydrous IDPs and six stratospheric particles possibly of cosmic origin through infrared (IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy to study and investigate their silicate and organic components. We find that the length/ramification of the aliphatic organics given by the CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios in the IDPs is closely linked to the silicate family (pyroxene or olivine) present in the samples. Both IR and Raman data suggest that this relation is not correlated with either aqueous (as evidenced by the absence of aqueous related minerals) or thermal processes (as deduced from Raman measurements). Therefore, this observation might be related to the initial path of formation of the organics on the silicate surfaces, thus tracing a possible catalytic role that silicates would play in the formation and/or ramification of organic matter in the primitive nebula.

  6. Some results on the upper atmosphere deduced from satellite occultation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felske, D.; Knuth, R.; Martini, L.; Ohle, K.H.; Sonnemann, G.; Stark, B.

    1980-08-01

    Measurements of neutral gas densities in the upper atmosphere deduced from extinction profiles from the Intercosmos 1, 4, 7, 11 and 16 and SOLRAD 9 and 10 solar radiation satellites at sunrise and sunset are presented. Occultation measurements in the Lyman alpha range have revealed the presence of an anomalously high absorption above 110 km in winter, which may be explained by high densities of water in the thermosphere. Calculations of oxygen densities based on extinction profiles measured in Lyman alpha and the Schumann-Runge range also indicate the presence of high densities of NO, and an unknown Lyman alpha absorber of molecular weight corresponding to that of water. Observations obtained for the D-region winter anomaly indicate that the wavelike ionization variations have counterparts in similar neutral thermosphere density variations, which may influence the ion production and/or loss processes. Finally, short-term neutral density fluctuations between 90 and 300 km measured during a strong F-region disturbance are presented which demonstrate sharp rises in O density and decreases in O2 density accompanied by increases in electron concentration during the first phase of the disturbance, the opposite changes during the second phase, and complex mixing variations between O and O2 and their plasma counterparts in the recovery phase.

  7. On the strength of the hydrogen-carbon interaction as deduced from physisorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T X; Bae, J-S; Wang, Y; Bhatia, S K

    2009-04-21

    We deduce a new value for the potential well depth for the C-H2 interaction on the basis of experimental validations of isotherms of H2 and D2 predicted using independently characterized microstructural parameters. We use two carbons, one an activated carbon fiber whose structure has been recently characterized by us (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912) using hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulation (HRMC) and the other the commercial Takeda 3A carbon molecular sieve whose pore size distribution is determined here from the 273 K CO2 adsorption isotherm. The conventional grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation technique incorporating a semiclassical Feynman and Hibbs (FH) potential approximation (FHGCMC) as well as path integral Monte Carlo calculations is employed to determine theoretical adsorption isotherms. It is found that curvature enhances the well depth for the LJ C-H2 interaction by a factor of 1.134 over that for a flat graphite surface, consistent with our recent study (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912). A value of the C-C well depth of 37.26 K, used for estimating the C-H2 well depth in conjunction with the Berthelot rules, with the Steele C-C well depth used for interaction with heavier gases (Ar, CO2 and CH4), leads to excellent agreement with experimental isotherms in all cases.

  8. Structure of La Primavera caldera, Jalisco, Mexico, deduced from gravity anomalies and drilling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, I.; Mena, M.

    1991-07-01

    Previous studies of La Primavera caldera have mostly been based on surface geology and topography. Since 1980, many wells, exploring for geothermal energy, have reached depths of about 2 to 3 km at the center of the caldera. The results of the drillings, together with those of the gravity surveys, provide information about the subsurface structure of the caldera, and shed light on its formation. The drilling results and gravity anomalies at La Primavera caldera and San Marcos, located at about 40 km distance from the caldera, suggest that regional gravity anomalies can be interpreted in terms of depths of the granitic basements: the basement beneath La Primavera caldera is about 3 km deep and consists of roughly the same horizon as that beneath San Marcos. The drilling results within the caldera reveal that the depth of the caldera fills ranges from 0.3 to 1 km at the drilling sites. The andesite basement, about 1 km deep, remains approximately horizontal, and the granitic basement has a depth of about 3 km. The surface topographies, such as the postcaldera domes, scarcely disturb the subsurface strata. The local gravity anomalies show two lows within the caldera reflecting the configuration of caldera bottom, two funnel-shaped depressions, one of which corresponds to a vent of the Tala tuff deduced from geological observations. The mass deficiency within the caldera estimated from the gravity anomaly, satisfies the general relationship that the mass deficiency is proportional to the caldera diameter cubed. This means that caldera structure is three-dimensional: the larger the diameter, the deeper the funnel-shape. At present this argument may be limited to funnel-shaped calderas.

  9. Deducing growth mechanisms for minerals from the shapes of crystal size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Drits, V.A.; Srodon, J.

    1998-01-01

    Crystal size distributions (CSDs) of natural and synthetic samples are observed to have several distinct and different shapes. We have simulated these CSDs using three simple equations: the Law of Proportionate Effect (LPE), a mass balance equation, and equations for Ostwald ripening. The following crystal growth mechanisms are simulated using these equations and their modifications: (1) continuous nucleation and growth in an open system, during which crystals nucleate at either a constant, decaying, or accelerating nucleation rate, and then grow according to the LPE; (2) surface-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with an essentially unlimited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (3) supply-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with a specified, limited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (4) supply- or surface-controlled Ostwald ripening in a closed system, during which the relative rate of crystal dissolution and growth is controlled by differences in specific surface area and by diffusion rate; and (5) supply-controlled random ripening in a closed system, during which the rate of crystal dissolution and growth is random with respect to specific surface area. Each of these mechanisms affects the shapes of CSDs. For example, mechanism (1) above with a constant nucleation rate yields asymptotically-shaped CSDs for which the variance of the natural logarithms of the crystal sizes (??2) increases exponentially with the mean of the natural logarithms of the sizes (??). Mechanism (2) yields lognormally-shaped CSDs, for which ??2 increases linearly with ??, whereas mechanisms (3) and (5) do not change the shapes of CSDs, with ??2 remaining constant with increasing ??. During supply-controlled Ostwald ripening (4), initial lognormally-shaped CSDs become more symmetric, with ??2 decreasing with increasing ??. Thus, crystal growth mechanisms often can be deduced by noting trends in ?? versus ??2 of CSDs for

  10. ARCHITECTURE OF PEROXISOMAL ALCOHOL OXIDASE CRYSTALS FROM THE METHYLOTROPHIC YEAST HANSENULA-POLYMORPHA AS DEDUCED BY ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VONCK, J; VANBRUGGEN, EFJ

    1992-01-01

    The architecture of alcohol oxidase crystalloids occurring in vivo in the peroxisomes of methylotrophic yeasts was deduced from electron micrographs of similar crystals of the Hansenula polymorpha enzyme grown in vitro. Three characteristic views of the crystal are observed, as well as single layers

  11. Approximate formulae (deduced from a mathematical model) for the characteristics of the interepidemic and epidemic periods of some virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, A L; Deutsch, I; Copelovici, Y

    1992-01-01

    By a qualitative analysis of the solutions of the mathematical model equations (describing the morbidity and susceptibility evolution in a viral epidemics), approximate formulae for the extreme values of the variables and for the duration of the main phases of a multiannual cycle are deduced. These formulae were validated by numerical simulation of the solutions, leading to the exact values of the mentioned essential characteristics of the diseases propagation.

  12. Deducing the magma chamber processes of middle Eocene volcanics, Sivas and Tokat regions; NE Turkey: Insights from clinopyroxene chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmengil, Gönenç; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelevic, Dejan

    2016-04-01

    Middle Eocene Tokat and Sivas volcanic successions occur within the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Different models are suggested for the development of the middle Eocene volcanism such as post-collisional, delamination and slab-breakoff models as well as the arc magmatism. In both areas, volcanic units cover all the basement units with a regional disconformity and comprise lavas spanning a compositional range from mainly basalt-basaltic andesite to a lesser amount trachyte. Here, we report mineral chemistry of different basaltic lavas through transect from northern continent (Tokat region, Pontides) to southern continent (Sivas region, Kırşehir block) to deduce the characteristics of the magma chamber processes which are active during the middle Eocene. Basaltic lavas include olivine bearing basalts (Ol-basalt: ± olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase); amphibole bearing basaltic andesite (Amp-basaltic andesite: amphibole + clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± biotite) and pyroxene bearing basaltic andesite (Px-basaltic andesite: clinopyroxene + plagioclase). Microlitic, glomeroporphyric and pilotaxitic texture are common. Clinopyroxene phenocrystals (macro ≥ 750 μm and micro ≤300 μm) are common in all three lava series which are investigated by transecting core to rim compositional profiles. They are generally augite and diopside; euhedral to subhedral in shape with oscillatory, normal and reverse zoning patterns. Also, all clinopyroxene phenocrystals are marked by moderately high Mg# (for Ol-basalt: 67-91; avg. 80; Amp-basaltic andesite: 76-83, avg: 80; Px -basaltic andesite 68-95, avg: 81). In Ol-basalt, clinopyroxene phenocrystals show normal zonation (high Mg# cores and low Mg# rims). In Amp-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxenes are generally homogenous in composition with minor variation of Mg# towards the rims. On the contrary, in Px-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxene macro phenocrystals show reverse zonation with the core with low Mg# and the rims with

  13. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In the post-sunset tropical ionospheric F-region plasma density often exhibits depletions, which are usually called equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). In this paper we give an overview of the Swarm Level 2 Ionospheric Bubble Index (IBI), which is a standard scientific data of the Swarm mission. Th...

  14. Oscillatory electron phonon coupling in Pb/Si(111) deduced by temperature-dependent quantum well states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Feng; Jia Jin-Feng; Han Tie-Zhu; Tang Zhe; Shen Quan-Tong; Guo Yang; Xue Qi-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Photoemission study of atomically flat Pb films with a thickness from 15 to 24 monolayers (ML) have been performed within a temperature range 75-270K. Well-defined quantum well states (QWSs) are observed, which exhibit interesting temperature-dependent behaviours. The peak position of the QWSs shifts towards higher binding energy with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the peak width broadens linearly due to enhanced electron-phonon coupling strength (λ). An oscillatory λ with a period of 2ML is deduced. Preliminary analysis shows that the oscillation can be explained in terms of the interface induced phase variations, and is thus a manifestation of the quantum size effects.

  15. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  16. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris

    2016-08-29

    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level.

  17. Adult Opisthorchis felineus major protein fractions deduced from transcripts: comparison with liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaznoy, Mikhail; Tatkov, Sergey; Katokhin, Alexey; Afonnikov, Dmitry; Babenko, Vladimir; Furman, Dagmara; Brusentsov, Ilya; Belavin, Pavel; Najakshin, Alexandr; Guselnikov, Sergey; Vasiliev, Gennady; Sivkov, Anton; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav

    2013-10-01

    The epidemiologically important liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, and Clonorchis sinensis are of interest to health professionals, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists. Recently the transcriptomes of the latter two species were intensively investigated. However our knowledge on molecular biology of O. felineus is scarce. We report the first results of the O. felineus transcriptome analysis. We isolated and annotated a total of 2560 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from adult O. felineus (deposited within the database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST), under accession numbers GenBank: JK624271-JK626790, JK006511-JK006547, JK649790-JK649792). Clustering and analysis resulted in the detection of 267 contigs. Of the protein sequences deduced from these, 82% had homologs in the NCBI (nr) protein database and 63% contained conserved domains, allowing the functions to be interpreted using the Gene Ontology terms. Comprehensive analysis of Opisthorchiidae- and Trematoda-specific substitutions within amino acid sequences deduced for the proteins myoglobin, vitelline precursor protein, cathepsin F, and 28kDa glutathione transferase was carried out. The gene set of the 32 ribosomal proteins for the three Opisthorchiidae species with the addition of available Schistosoma and Fasciola orthologs was created and is provided in the supplementary. The orthologous gene set created was used for inferring phylogeny within the Trematoda with special attention to interrelations within the Opisthorchiidae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer relationship between C. sinensis and O. viverrini and some divergence of O. felineus from either O. viverrini or C. sinensis.

  18. Using Measurements of Fill Factor at High Irradiance to Deduce Heterobarrier Band Offsets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J. M.; Steiner, M. A.; Kanevce, A.

    2011-07-01

    Using a 2D device simulation tool, we examine the high irradiance behavior of a single junction, GaAs concentrator cell as a function of the doping in the back surface confinement layer. The confinement layer is designed to be a barrier for both holes and electrons in the base of the solar cell. For a p-type base we show that the FF of the cell at high concentrations is a strong function of both the magnitude of the valence band offset and the doping level in the barrier. In short, for a given valence band offset (VBO), there is a critical barrier doping, below which the FF drops rapidly with lower doping. This behavior is confirmed experimentally for a GaInP/GaAs double heterostructure solar cell where the critical doping concentration (at 500 suns) in the back surface confinement layer is ~1e18 cm-3 for a VBO of 300 meV.

  19. Transcriptome characteristics of filamentous fungi deduced using high-throughput analytical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijueiro, Martha Lucía; Santoyo, Francisco; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G

    2014-11-01

    Transcriptomes are the complete set of genome sequences transcribed at a given time point by a given organism, organ, tissue or cell. The availability of high-throughput analytical techniques and, especially, the democratization of the use of RNA sequencing using new platforms have made it possible to transform transcriptome analysis into a common study affordable by most laboratories. In many cases, however, there is a certain level of prevention toward the use of these technologies because of the lack of knowledge about what has been done, what can be done and how high-throughput sequencing can help us solve specific scientific questions. Here, we will try to answer some initial questions about fungal transcriptome analysis, provide some examples of fungal biology questions that have been addressed using this approach and extract some general conclusions about the transcriptome structure and dynamics in fungal systems.

  20. Moisture transport pathways into the American Southwest from multiple oceanic sources as deduced from hydrogen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, M.; Sharp, Z. D.; Gutzler, D. S.

    2006-12-01

    There has been a long-standing controversy regarding the oceanic sources of atmospheric moisture over the southwestern US, especially during the summer monsoon circulation. Past arguments have been made for moisture sources in the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of California, Eastern Pacific, or some combination thereof. To help resolve this problem, we are using hydrogen isotopes as a tracer to reconstruct the history of moisture being advected into central New Mexico. The hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of water vapor is dependent on many factors, including the temperature of the source ocean, rainout history, contributions from evapotranspiration over the continent, and mixing between air masses. Since April 1, 2005 we have been measuring δD of atmospheric water vapor (δDwv) at ground level 1 to 3 times per day. In addition, we periodically collect water vapor in ~300m vertical increments to ~3km above the surface using a light aircraft. We see significant temporal variations in δDwv on several different scales in the ground-level δDwv measurements. Lower δDwv values in the winter are consistent with moisture transport from the Pacific Ocean, while larger δDwv values in the summer imply moisture from a warmer body of water. During the fall, winter, and spring, large variations in δDwv (up to 80‰) can occur over the period of a few days to a few hours whereas during the summer monsoon season the δDwv values are much less variable. The relationship between δDwv and dew point also varies throughout the year; good correlations exist through portions of spring, fall, and winter, while at other times no correlation is apparent. During the summer monsoon season, a distinctive anticorrelation exists between dew point and δDwv. Using trajectory analyses, we have been able to demonstrate that many of the variations in δDwv can be explained by changes in moisture transport pathways. It appears that the source of the moisture being advected into central New Mexico can

  1. Origins of short gamma-ray bursts deduced from offsets in their host galaxies revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Cui; Shigehiro Nagataki; Junichi Aoi; Ren-Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in their host galaxies provides us with an opportunity to investigate their origins.Based on the currently observed distribution of short GRBs relative to their host galaxies,we obtain the fraction of the component that traces the mergers of binary compact objects and the one that traces star formation rate (such as massive stars) in early- and late-type host galaxies.From the analysis of projected offset distribution and only based on population synthesis and massive star models,we find that the fraction of massive stars is 0.37+0.42-0.37 with an error at the lσ level for a sample with 22 short GRBs in the literature.From these results,it is hard to accept that the origin of short GRBs with observed statistics is well described by current models using only the offset distribution.The uncertainties in observational localizations of short GRBs also strongly affect the resulting fraction.

  2. Properties of post-shock solar wind deduced from geomagnetic indices responses after sudden impulses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shock plays a key role in causing the global dynamic changes of the geospace environment. For the perspective of Solar-Terrestrial relationship, it will be of great importance to estimate the properties of post-shock solar wind simply and accurately. Motivated by this, we performed a statistical analysis of IP shocks during 1998-2008, focusing on the significantly different responses of two well-used geomagnetic indices (SYMH and AL) to the passive of two types of IP shocks. For the IP shocks with northward IMF (91 cases), the SYMH index keeps on the high level after the sudden impulses (SI) for a long time. Meanwhile, the change of AL index is relative small, with an mean value of only -29 nT. However, for the IP shocks with southward IMF (92 cases), the SYMH index suddenly decreases at a certain rate after SI, and the change of AL index is much significant, of -316 nT. Furthermore, the change rate of SYMH index after SI is found to be linearly correlated with the post-shock reconnection ...

  3. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-06-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1 , Q_1 , and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2 . We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  4. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-11-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1, Q_1, and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2. We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  5. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced.

  6. Submarine paleoseismology of the northern Hikurangi subduction margin of New Zealand as deduced from Turbidite record since 16 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouderoux, Hugo; Proust, Jean-Noël; Lamarche, Geoffroy

    2014-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies seek to characterise the signature of pre-historical earthquakes by deriving quantitative information from the geological record such as the source, magnitude and recurrence of moderate to large earthquakes. In this study, we provide a ˜16,000 yr-long paleo-earthquake record of the 200 km-long northern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand, using cm-thick deep-sea turbidites identified in sediment cores. Cores were collected in strategic locations across the margin within three distinct morphological re-entrants - the Poverty, Ruatoria and Matakaoa re-entrants. The turbidite facies vary from muddy to sandy with evidence for rare hyperpycnites interbedded with hemipelagites and tephra. We use the Oxal probabilistic software to model the age of each turbidite, using the sedimentation rate of hemipelagite deduced from well-dated tephra layers and radiocarbon ages measurements on planktonic foraminifera.

  7. Intra-plasmaspheric wave power density deduced from long-term DEMETER measurements of terrestrial VLF transmitter wave amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.

    2012-12-01

    We deduce the 3d intra-plasmaspheric distribution of VLF wave power between conjugate regions of strong VLF wave amplitudes as measured by DEMETER for high-power terrestrial VLF transmitters during its ~6-yr lifetime. We employ a mixed WKB/full-wave technique to solve for the primary and secondary electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are transmitted and reflected from strong cold-plasma density gradients and posited irregularities, in order to match the respective end-point measured amplitude distributions. Energy arriving in the conjugate region and also escaping to other regions of the magnetosphere is note. The resulting 3d distribution allows improved estimates for the long-term average particle scattering induced by terrestrial VLF transmitters.

  8. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  10. Deducing the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K. B.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.

    2013-10-01

    The short half-lives associated with certain minor actinide nuclei that are relevant to stockpile stewardship pursuits and the development of next-generation nuclear reactors make direct neutron measurements very challenging. In certain cases, a stable beam and target ``surrogate reaction'' can be used in lieu of the neutron-induced reaction, and the (n,f) cross section can then be deduced indirectly. Agreement between surrogate and direct measurements for (n,f) cross sections in actinide nuclei is usually within 10%. The present work reports on the measurement of the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via 239Pu(p,tf) and 239Pu(p,df) surrogate reactions, respectively. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Facility using a 28.5 MeV proton beam to bombard 239Pu and 235U targets. Outgoing light ions were detected in coincidence with fission fragments using the STAR-LiTe detector array. Results of the analysis will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05ER41379 (Richmond), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-FG52-09NA29467 (TAMU).

  11. Compressive stress field in the crust deduced from shear-wave anisotropy: an example in capital area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; WU Jing

    2008-01-01

    The rocks in the crust are pervaded by stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks, and the complex fault tectonics and stress control the configuration of the microcracks, however shear-wave splitting could indicate this kind of characteristics. In this paper, Capital Area Seismograph Network (CASN), the widest scope and highest density of regional seismograph network presently in China, is adopted to deduce the principal compressive stress field distribution pattern from polarizations of fast shear-waves, based on shear-wave splitting analysis. The principal compressive stress in capital area of China is at NE85.7°±41.0° in this study. Compared with the results of principal compressive stress field in North China obtained from other methods, the results in this study are reliable in the principal com-pressive stress field distribution in capital area. The results show that it is an effective way, although it is the first time to directly obtain crustal stress field from seismic anisotropy. It is effectively applied to the zones with dense seismograph stations.

  12. Geomechanical log deduced from porosity and mineralogical content; Diagraphie geomecanique deduite de la porosite et de la composition mineralogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, E.; Vincke, O.; Longuemare, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    The 'geomechanical log' research project aims at estimating rock mechanical properties from a set of models, whose input data can be deduced from drilling logs and measurements on core samples (if these are available). The key point is to focus on defining relatively general and easy to handle models. In this paper, we propose various analytical models allowing one to estimate poroelastic and failure properties of limestones and sandstones directly from their porosity and, in the specific case of sandstone poroelastic characteristics, their mineralogical content. The properties obtained are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The second step of the project will be to actually infer the input data for the models (here porosity and mineral content) from drilling logs and to compare the results obtained to tests on core samples. A geomechanical log could then be automatically created from standard logs and help to optimize drilling. We also intend to test the same approaches on rock plastic properties and shale behavior. (authors)

  13. Neutron spectrum and yield of the Hiroshima A-bomb deduced from radionuclide measurements at one location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Kato, K; Korschinek, G; Morinaga, H; Nolte, E

    1995-07-01

    In this paper measurements of the radionuclides of 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu in samples from Hiroshima, which were exposed to neutrons of the A-bomb explosion, are interpreted. In order to calculate the neutron spectrum at the sample site, neutron transport calculations using Monte Carlo techniques were carried out. Activation profiles in a granite mock-up irradiated with reactor neutrons could be reproduced by this method using DS86 input parameters. The calculated neutron spectrum at the sample site for non-thermal neutrons is identical to that obtained in DS86, but contains some 50% more thermal neutrons. The influence of parameters like soil composition, source terms and air humidity on the activation of these radioisotopes is discussed. The granite-covered earth at the sample site, for example, hardens the spectrum in comparison with DS86 values. Even when using a fission spectrum pointing downward and neglecting air humidity one cannot explain our 36Cl measurements. If the effective thermal neutron fluences, that have a similar ratio of resonance integral to thermal neutron capture cross sections obtained from 36Cl, 41Ca and 152Eu, are averaged, a bomb yield of about 16 kt is deduced in agreement with a bomb yield of (15 +/- 3) kt estimated in DS86.

  14. Coastal evolution of a Holocene barrier spit (Bug peninsula/NW-Rügen deduced from geological structure and relative sea-level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naumann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Die an der südwestlichen Ostseeküste gelegene Halbinsel Bug/NW Rügen wurde untersucht, um die Entwicklung von Haken und Nehrungen unter dem Einfluss des holozänen Meeresspiegelanstiegs zu studieren. Als Datengrundlage dienten 25 Sedimentkerne, sowie sieben Georadar- und sechs Sedimentecholotprofile, aus denen sechs Lithofaziestypen abgeleitet wurden. Danach besteht die Nehrung aus einer durchschnittlich 10 m mächtigen holozänen Sedimentfolge, die auf pleistozäner Basis aus Geschiebemergel und (glazi-fluviolimnischen Feinsanden lagert. Obwohl keine absoluten Altersdaten gewonnen wurden, kann die Sedimentabfolge mit der lokalen relativen Meeresspiegelkurve problemlos korreliert und eine Modellvorstellung für die Nehrungsentwicklung geschlussfolgert werden. Die marine Inundation des Untersuchungsgebietes erfolgte um 7.000 BC während der Littorina-Transgression. In diesem Stadium stieg der Meeresspiegel rapide an und generierte einen schnell wachsenden Akkumulationsraum, in dem feinklastisches Material an oder unter der Wellenbasis akkumulierte und zu einem Reliefausgleich beitrug. Akkumulative Küstenformen bildeten sich nur in geringem Maße, da der Akkumulationsraum schneller wuchs als er durch das aus der Küstenerosion stammende Material aufgefüllt werden konnte. In dem Maße, indem der Meeresspiegelanstieg sich verlangsamte, gewann die Akkumulation an Bedeutung und der Hauptteil der Nehrung wurde innerhalb von rund zweitausend Jahren landfest. Entsprechend dem Verlauf von Strandwällen auf seiner heutigen Oberfläche lassen sich zwei Entwicklungsphasen aushalten, die von unterschiedlichen wellenenergetischen, erosiven und overwash-Prozessen bestimmt werden. Gegenwärtig besitzt die Nehrung ein Volumen von 66,4 Mio m³, woraus sich auf einen Rückgang des benachbarten Kliffs von rund 2000 m schließen lässt. Obwohl die Nehrung entwicklungsmäßig in ihrem Reifestadium angelangt zu sein scheint, deuten einige Merkmale auf zunehmende Instabilität hin. Im nördlichen Bereich verhindern Küstenschutzmaßnahmen einen Nehrungsdurchbruch und beginnende Auflösung. Im Süden haben Fahrwasserbaggerungen eine weitere Längenzunahme und das Zusammenwachsen mit Haken von Hiddensee verhindert. Ohne diese Maßnahmen würde die Nehrung durch Seegattbildung und zunehmende Erosion im Norden und Seegattschließung und zunehmende Uferprogradation im Süden eine neue Gestalt annehmen.

  15. Current deformation in Central Afar and triple junction kinematics deduced from GPS and InSAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubre, Cécile; Déprez, Aline; Masson, Frédéric; Socquet, Anne; Lewi, Elias; Grandin, Raphaël; Nercessian, Alexandre; Ulrich, Patrice; De Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Saad, Ibrahim; Abayazid, Ahmadine; Peltzer, Gilles; Delorme, Arthur; Calais, Eric; Wright, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Kinematics of divergent boundaries and Rift-Rift-Rift junctions are classically studied using long-term geodetic observations. Since significant magma-related displacements are expected, short-term deformation provides important constraints on the crustal mechanisms involved both in active rifting and in transfer of extensional deformation between spreading axes. Using InSAR and GPS data, we analyse the surface deformation in the whole Central Afar region in detail, focusing on both the extensional deformation across the Quaternary magmato-tectonic rift segments, and on the zones of deformation transfer between active segments and spreading axes. The largest deformation occurs across the two recently activated Asal-Ghoubbet (AG) and Manda Hararo-Dabbahu (MH-D) magmato-tectonic segments with very high strain rates, whereas the other Quaternary active segments do not concentrate any large strain, suggesting that these rifts are either sealed during interdyking periods or not mature enough to remain a plate boundary. Outside of these segments, the GPS horizontal velocity field shows a regular gradient following a clockwise rotation of the displacements from the Southeast to the East of Afar, with respect to Nubia. Very few shallow creeping structures can be identified as well in the InSAR data. However, using these data together with the strain rate tensor and the rotations rates deduced from GPS baselines, the present-day strain field over Central Afar is consistent with the main tectonic structures, and therefore with the long-term deformation. We investigate the current kinematics of the triple junction included in our GPS data set by building simple block models. The deformation in Central Afar can be described by adding a central microblock evolving separately from the three surrounding plates. In this model, the northern block boundary corresponds to a deep EW-trending trans-tensional dislocation, locked from the surface to 10-13 km and joining at depth the

  16. SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surface temperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaumann, Uwe; Duprat, Josette; Pujol, Claude; Labeyrie, Laurent D.

    1996-02-01

    leave the system.) (Paper 95PA01743,SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surfacetemperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments, UwePflaumann, Josette Duprat, Claude Pujol, and Laurent D. Labeyrie).Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; Payment mustaccompany order.

  17. Evidence of different ocean responses to atmospheric pressurevariations in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Basins as deduced fromERS-2 altimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gómez-Enri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in the use of altimeter data in oceanographic studies in the past two decades has improved the knowledge of the processes that govern the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere. One of these processes is the response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure variations, which has been deeply analysed in the past. That response is based on the isostatic assumption used to establish a standard correction for altimetric purposes, the Inverse Barometer Correction (IBC. As a general rule, the ocean goes up/down 1cm when the atmospheric pressure goes down/up 1mbar. However, in light of recent works in some oceanic regions, discrepancies arise when the real response is compared to the hypothetical one. It is important to quantify this discrepancy, in order to improve the accuracy of the correction, which is one of the most significant geophysical corrections applied to altimeter records. Some aspects of this response remain unclear, such as the real space-temporal scales where IBC can be applied, the influence of wind, non-isostatic atmospheric pressure-driven signals, and the effect of aliasing from high frequency signals. This paper is an attempt to gain insight into this phenomenon. The data used are the residuals obtained between sea surface heights from the ERS-2 altimeter and the outputs of a global barotropic ocean model. Significant departures from the hypothetical isostatic response in all data series (spatial and temporal domain have been found, especially in the case of altimeter records. By applying the collinear track method, we observe that the estimated Atlantic Ocean response is quite similar to the one deduced from the isostatic assumption at all latitudinal bands. Nonetheless, the Indian and Pacific Oceans show important departures from the hypothetical value at low latitudes. Results obtained with the crossover track method show important deviations at low latitudes in the three basins. In

  18. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

    2002-01-01

    an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

  19. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively. The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns is −7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a

  20. Isolation of a human anti-haemophilic factor IX cDNA clone using a unique 52-base synthetic oligonucleotide probe deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, M; de la Salle, H; Schamber, F; Balland, A; Kohli, V; Findeli, A; Tolstoshev, P; Lecocq, J P

    1983-04-25

    A unique 52mer oligonucleotide deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine Factor IX was synthesized and used as a probe to screen a human liver cDNA bank. The Factor IX clone isolated shows 5 differences in nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence as compared to a previously isolated clone. In addition, precisely one codon has been deleted.Images

  1. Predominance of Procedural Knowledge and Between-Operation Interference as Deduced from Fraction Errors of Preservice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amancio L. Cantoria, Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of fractions in Philippine mathematics curriculum starts as early as first grade. In spite of the regular rehearsal of this mathematical topic through secondary school level, many students reach college without showing adequate skills in fraction. This study determined the performance and analyzed the errors of preservice teachers in dealing with fractions. Findings revealed that preservice teachers’ performance in solving fractions reached an unacceptable level. Prevalent errors were demonstrated when adding dissimilar fractions, adding a mixed number and a fraction, and multiplying a mixed number by a fraction, because the dominant procedural knowledge in fraction addition interferes with their knowledge of fraction multiplication, and vice versa. Moreover, preservice teachers exhibit low level of content knowledge of fractions as shown in their inability to add common fractions and their failure to translate mixed numbers into equivalent fractions.

  2. Concentrations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in the free upper troposphere and lower stratosphere deduced from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 infrared solar occultation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the volume mixing ratio profiles of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, deduced from the spectroscopic analysis of IR solar absorption spectra obtained in the occultation mode with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during its mission aboard Spacelab 3. A comparison of the ATMOS measurements for both northern and southern latitudes with previous field investigations at low midlatitudes shows a relatively good agreement. Southern Hemisphere volume mixing ratio profiles for both molecules were obtained for the first time, as were the profiles for the Northern Hemisphere covering the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere simultaneously.

  3. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2016-08-02

    RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  4. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Kawamura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  5. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-26

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event-the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids-as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  6. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ikehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  7. Ionospheric Response to the Total Solar Eclipse of 22 July 2009 as Deduced from VLBI and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Shu, F. C.; Zheng, W. M.; Kondo, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Sekido, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over China at latitudes of about 30 N on the morning of 22 July 2009, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of the sun on the earth's upper ionosphere. GPS observations from Shanghai GPS Local Network and VLBI observations from stations Shanghai, Urumqi, and Kashima were used to observe the response of TEC to the total solar eclipse. From the GPS data reduction, the sudden decrease of TEC at the time of the eclipse, amounting to 2.8 TECU, and gradual increase of TEC after the eclipse were found by analyzing the diurnal variations. More distinctly, the variations of TEC were studied along individual satellite passes. The delay in reaching the minimum level of TEC with the maximum phase of eclipse was 5-10 min. Besides, we also compared the ionospheric activity derived from different VLBI stations with the GPS results and found a strong correlation between them.

  8. Nanocrystalline tin oxide: Possible origin of its weak ferromagnetism deduced from nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Lian, Yadong; Gu, Min; Yu, Ji; Tang, Tong B.; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Weiyi

    2016-09-01

    Nanocrystalline tin oxide was fabricated, with molar ratio O/Sn determined as 1.40, 1.55, 1.79, 1.92 and 1.96 from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They displayed weak ferromagnetism, the sample with O/Sn = 1.55 showing the maximum saturation magnetization reaching almost 8 ×10-3 emu /g at room temperature. 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance allowed the deduction, based on four resolved resonance peaks, that their Sn ions had four possible coordination numbers, namely 3, 4, 5 and 6. The relative fraction of 4-coordinated cations was the one found to bear positive linear correlation with saturation magnetization of the sample. It is surmised that magnetism in tin oxide results mainly from 4-coordination Sn ions, of valance about +3, as estimated from the binding energies of their 3d photoelectron emission levels.

  9. Land Deformation at the Thessaloniki - Giannitsa Plain (Greece) Deduced from 20- years Radar Observations using Persistent Scatterers Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svigkas, N.; Papoutsis, I.; Loupasakis, K.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Kontoes, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the detected deformation and interpret the results in the light of ground-truth hydrological data, for the Thessaloniki-Giannitsa plain, the largest deltaic plain in Greece, encircled by Mounts Vermio, Paiko and Pieria. The contemporary morphology was gradually developed from the tectonic variations of the upper Pleistocene. The area has been subjected to many changes due to both natural causes and to human intervention. ERS-1, 2 and Envisat data provided from the European Space Agency were analysed to produce a time-series analysis based on Persistent Scatterer techniques. The mass processing of the 81 satellite images led to the creation of more than 250 Interferograms. The broader area of interest consists primarily of agricultural lands, leading to limited Interferometric coherence, and therefore careful Interferogram filtering and phase unwrapping of the input stack was crucial for reliable velocity generation. Our results show a strong deformation signal in regions of significant lifelines, as the railway and road network. Moreover, the satellite imagery revealed two significantly deforming sites: Kalochori and Sindos. The broader Kalochori region, the locus of the industrial activity of the city of Thessaloniki, is located below sea level. Both sites are suffering from land subsidence for more than 50 years, with several marine invasions reported in the past. Interestingly enough the two datasets -that represent two decades- show a reversed deformation pattern: The period in-between 1993 to 2000 is characterized by subsidence up to 34 mm/y, whereas from 2002 to 2010 there is an uplifting trend (more than 20 mm/yr). This result is crosschecked with hydrogeological data; the interpretation depicts that at Kalochori and Sindos the human factor (i.e. over pumping) is the dominant driver of these surface displacements. Although this was an assumption of previous studies, here we present for the first time, systematic proof that the detected uplift of

  10. Chromospheric evaporation flows and density changes deduced from Hinode/EIS during an M1.6 flare

    CERN Document Server

    Gömöry, P; Su, Y; Temmer, M; Thalmann, J K

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed high-cadence sit-and-stare observations acquired with the Hinode/EIS spectrometer and HXR measurements acquired with RHESSI during an M-class flare. During the flare impulsive phase, we observe no significant flows in the cooler Fe XIII line but strong upflows, up to 80-150 km/s, in the hotter Fe XVI line. The largest Doppler shifts observed in the Fe XVI line were co-temporal with the sharp intensity peak. The electron density obtained from a Fe XIII line pair ratio exhibited fast increase (within two minutes) from the pre-flare level of 5.01x10^(9) cm^(-3) to 3.16x10^(10) cm^(-3) during the flare peak. The nonthermal energy flux density deposited from the coronal acceleration site to the lower atmospheric layers during the flare peak was found to be 1.34x10^(10) erg/s/cm^(2) for a low-energy cut-off that was estimated to be 16 keV. During the decline flare phase, we found a secondary intensity and density peak of lower amplitude that was preceded by upflows of 15 km/s that were detected in both ...

  11. Low altitude energetic electron lifetimes after enhanced magnetic activity as deduced from SAC-C and DEMETER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benck

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When flux enhancements of energetic electrons are produced as a consequence of geomagnetic storm occurrence, they tend to vanish gradually when the magnetic activity calms down and the fluxes decay to quiet-time levels. We use SAC-C and DEMETER low altitude observations to estimate the energetic electron lifetimes (E=0.16–1.4 MeV, L=1.6–5, B=0.22–0.46 G and compare the decay rates to those observed at high altitude. While crossing the radiation belts at high latitude, the SAC-C and DEMETER instruments sample particles with small equatorial pitch angles (αeq<18° for L>2.5 whereas the comparison is done with other satellite data measured mainly in the equatorial plane (for αeq>75°. While in the inner belt and in the slot region no significant lifetime differences are observed from the data sets with different αeq, in the outer belt, for the least energetic electrons (<500 keV, the lifetimes are up to ~3 times larger for the electrons with the equatorial pitch-angle close to the loss cone than for those mirroring near the equator. The difference decreases with increasing energy and vanishes for energies of about 1 MeV.

  12. Relationship between surface and subsurface structures of the northern Atlas foreland of Tunisia deduced from regional gravity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frifita, N.; Arfaoui, M. S.; Zargouni, F.

    2016-08-01

    Gravity data were analyzed in the northern Atlas of Tunisia in order to identify the deep structures of the region and their relationship to the geological outcrop. The analysis based on the Bouguer gravity maps related to upward continuation at 1, 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 km. The lineaments obtained by the horizontal gradient method were interpreted as deep faults with two global directions NE-SW and NW-SE related to major tectonic corridors. These lineaments were confirmed by the automatic estimation of depth solutions using the Euler deconvolution technique. By separation between the gravity anomaly bodies in different levels, it shows that almost all of the lineaments are oriented in NE-SW and NW-SE directions. The NW-SE-trending lineaments are related to deep faults and the NE-SW-oriented lineaments define the global direction of the surface, and they are related to shallow structures. 2.5D gravity modeling was used to improve the results obtained by the Maxima and the Euler deconvolution techniques. The 2.5D model points out the variation of depths of the NE-SW-trending major faults. In this study, we demonstrate the relationship between the NE-SW and the NW-SE directions. These two major sets of faults have been determined by the statistical study of the lineaments. This study confirms some faults already recognized or supposed by the classical geological studies, and it also detects a new deep fault masked in the surface, and gives information about major fault depths and the relation between different structures.

  13. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the

  14. New constraints on the rupture process of the 1999 August 17 Izmit earthquake deduced from estimates of stress glut rate moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévédé, E.; Bouin, M.-P.; Bukchin, B.; Mostinskiy, A.; Patau, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper illustrates the use of integral estimates given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 for constraining the rupture scenario of a large earthquake in the particular case of the 1999 Izmit mainshock. We determine the integral estimates of the geometry, source duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 by inverting long-period surface wave (LPSW) amplitude spectra. Kinematic and static models of the Izmit earthquake published in the literature are quite different from one another. In order to extract the characteristic features of this event, we calculate the same integral estimates directly from those models and compare them with those deduced from our inversion. While the equivalent rupture zone and the eastward directivity are consistent among all models, the LPSW solution displays a strong unilateral character of the rupture associated with a short rupture duration that is not compatible with the solutions deduced from the published models. With the aim of understand this discrepancy, we use simple equivalent kinematic models to reproduce the integral estimates of the considered rupture processes (including ours) by adjusting a few free parameters controlling the western and eastern parts of the rupture. We show that the joint analysis of the LPSW solution and source tomographies allows us to elucidate the scattering of source processes published for this earthquake and to discriminate between the models. Our results strongly suggest that (1) there was significant moment released on the eastern segment of the activated fault system during the Izmit earthquake; (2) the apparent rupture velocity decreases on this segment.

  15. Vulnerable areas and adapation measures for sea level rise along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Suneethi, J.; Furtado, R.

    to the global climatic changes, the available historical mean sea level data between 1920-1999 at 10 locations was evaluated. There is a large contrast in the deduced sea level changes. The sea level rise along the Gulf of Kachchh and the coast of West Bengal...

  16. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  17. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  18. The application of striation analysis and focal mechanism stress inversion in deducing the kinematic history of faults: Examples from the Bristol Channel UK and the Ionian Zone Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Nikolaos S.; Miliorizos, Marios N.; Oshoano Aipoh, Hilary

    2013-04-01

    The present work compliments the application of a methodology, in reviewing and investigating further the kinematic history of faults, based on striation analysis and stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms and combines them to refine tectonic modelling and hence improve further hazard assessment. Two areas are chosen for this application: the Bristol Channel, UK and the Ionian Zone, Greece. Striation analysis is carried out in two complementary fault terranes. The first along the northern margin of the Inner Bristol Channel, UK, offers a natural laboratory to study in detail the reactivation history of the inverted Bristol Channel basin; and, the second along the north western coastline of the Ionian Zone, Greece, presents an opportunity to illustrate the relationship between movement of a framework of faults within the external orogenic zone of the Hellenides and the stress deduced from focal mechanisms of earthquakes in the region. The UK example reveals phases of Mesozoic negative inversion of Late Palaeozoic basement frontal and oblique ramp thrust faults, followed by Caenozoic positive inversions of Mesozoic normal and strike slip faults. The Greek example shows an equally composite history of faulting; Tethyan basement strata contain normal faults that pass up sequence and across unconformities into Mesozoic and Caenozoic strata, with thrusts and positively inverted faults recording typical dextral transpression. The fault framework in older strata and the veneers of Recent strata above them display Neotectonic fault histories of sinistral transtension, in addition to the transpression. Since the Ionian Zone lies suitably in the external zone, deformation favours the reactivation of fault lineaments, rather than the genesis of pristine faults. Both examples are used to demonstrate this structural principle. Focal mechanisms of Greek earthquake data are used in stress inversion and the results are applied upon the inherited fault framework and are

  19. 16s rRNA的保守字和进化树重建%Conserved Words in 16s Ribosomal RNA Deduced from Evolutionary Tree Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗辽复; 贾孟文

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary distance is defined by oligonucleotide (n-bases) frequency difference of two sequences.Phylogenetic tree is reconstructed using a set of 16S (18S) rRNA sequences and the definition of distance.The quality of trees generally improves with increasing n and reaches a plateau of best fit at n=7 or 8.So,the 7-mer or 8-mer frequencies provides a basis to describe rRNA evolution.Then,a group of 7-mers are deduced which are correlate well with evolution.Evolution-related conservative words longer than 7 bases for Bacteria and Archaea in 16S rRNA sequences have been found.They are highly conserved in nearly all species of a kingdom (or a sub-kingdom) and are located on nearly same sites of sequences. The structural meaning of these conservative words is discussed briefly.%据寡核苷(n核苷)频数差定义进化距离,由此构成16s rRNA进化树,当n=7,8时和实验资料符合很好,在寻找出全部进化相关的7-核苷的基础上,本文进一步求得了长度大于7的保守字,它们在一个界别中的诸物种中高度保守,并出现于核糖体序列的基本相同的位置上,这些保守字对于核糖体的早期进化至关重要.

  20. Deducing the molecular properties of zwitterionic, protonated, deprotonated, and double-deprotonated forms of L-cysteine from vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman, VCD) and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moreno, María Mar; Avilés-Moreno, Juan Ramón; Márquez-García, A A; López-González, Juan Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of L-cysteine (C3H7NO2S, (2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid) in water at different pH values was analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The behavior was studied at pH values of 5.21 (at this pH, L-cysteine is a zwitterionic species), 1.00 (protonated species), 8.84 (monodeprotonated species), and 13.00 (dideprotonated species). We carried out a vibrational study using nonchiroptical (IR-Raman) and chiroptical (VCD) techniques complemented by quantum chemical calculations. We adopted a dual strategy, as follows. (i) The hybrid density functionals B3LYP and M062X and the ab initio MP2 method were employed, with the same 6-311++G (d,p) basis set, in order to characterize the relative energies and structures of an extensive set of conformers of L-cysteine. The presence of water was included by utilizing the IEF-PCM implicit solvation model. (ii) The vibrational analysis was made using a chirality-sensitive using a chirality-sensitive technique (VCD) and chirality-insensitive techniques (IR, including MIR and FIR, and Raman), especially in aqueous solution. The results obtained theoretically and experimentally were compared in order to deduce the most stable structures at each pH. Moreover, for the first time, the monodeprotonated anion of L-cysteine was detected in aqueous solution by means of IR, Raman and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). Finally, analysis of the low-frequency region using the IR and Raman techniques was shown to be a very important way to understanding the conformational preference of the zwitterionic species.

  1. 一种地炮作战效能评估动态推演方法%A Dynamic Deducing Method of Field Artillery Operational Effectiveness Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 俞杰; 赵定烽

    2011-01-01

    Traditional assessment method cannot fit current needs of information war. As for it,a new dynamic deducing method which based on MAS (Multi-Agent System)and CAS (Complex Adaptative System) technology is used to assess operational effectiveness of field artillery. In this method,from micro viewpoint,agent is bulit in mulit-resolution way, and from macro viewpont, the dynamic confront process of campaign is modeled. The method can solute the problem of the traditional static assessment methods such as not reflecting dynamicly confrontting with enemy .leaving aside a systematic viewpoind of operation and so on, This is a new idea and method for assesment of artillery operational effectiveness.%为了解决传统地炮作战效能评估方法不能适应信息化条件下我军需求的问题,基于复杂适应系统理论和多智能体建模技术提出动态推演方法进行地炮作战效能评估.微观层面对智能体进行多分辨率建模,宏观层面模拟作战动态对抗过程,能有效地解决传统评估方法难以适应复杂环境,难以反映动态对抗,割裂体系逐个评估,割裂人与武器联系的不足.该方法为研究地炮效能评估提供了新思路.

  2. Deducing corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 signaling networks from gene expression data by usage of genetic algorithms and graphical Gaussian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holsboer Florian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a hallmark of complex and multifactorial psychiatric diseases such as anxiety and mood disorders. About 50-60% of patients with major depression show HPA axis dysfunction, i.e. hyperactivity and impaired negative feedback regulation. The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and its receptor type 1 (CRHR1 are key regulators of this neuroendocrine stress axis. Therefore, we analyzed CRH/CRHR1-dependent gene expression data obtained from the pituitary corticotrope cell line AtT-20, a well-established in vitro model for CRHR1-mediated signal transduction. To extract significantly regulated genes from a genome-wide microarray data set and to deduce underlying CRHR1-dependent signaling networks, we combined supervised and unsupervised algorithms. Results We present an efficient variable selection strategy by consecutively applying univariate as well as multivariate methods followed by graphical models. First, feature preselection was used to exclude genes not differentially regulated over time from the dataset. For multivariate variable selection a maximum likelihood (MLHD discriminant function within GALGO, an R package based on a genetic algorithm (GA, was chosen. The topmost genes representing major nodes in the expression network were ranked to find highly separating candidate genes. By using groups of five genes (chromosome size in the discriminant function and repeating the genetic algorithm separately four times we found eleven genes occurring at least in three of the top ranked result lists of the four repetitions. In addition, we compared the results of GA/MLHD with the alternative optimization algorithms greedy selection and simulated annealing as well as with the state-of-the-art method random forest. In every case we obtained a clear overlap of the selected genes independently confirming the results of MLHD in combination with a genetic

  3. Metabolic and evolutionary insights into the closely-related species Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans deduced from high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Marcus

    2010-12-01

    deduce that S. lividans 66 and TK24, both deficient in the glyoxylate bypass, possess an alternative metabolic mechanism for the assimilation of C2 compounds. Given that streptomycetes generally display high genetic instability it is envisaged that these high-density arrays will find application for rapid assessment of genome content (particularly amplifications/deletions in mutational studies of S. coelicolor and related species.

  4. Impact delivery of organic matter on the acapulcoite-lodranite parent-body deduced from C, N isotopes and nanostructures of carbon phases in Acapulco and Lodran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, E.; Aléon, J.; Rouzaud, J.-N.

    2014-10-01

    Lodran. Carbon phases in Lodran would have been formed by the secondary carbonization of hydrocarbon fluids released during the primary carbonization of IOM. In the framework of this model, the C isotopic compositions can be reproduced using Rayleigh distillation at each carbonization step and the N isotopic compositions can be understood as resulting from the variable loss and preservation of 15N-rich nitriles (δ15N ∼ +800‰) and 15N-poor pyrroles (δ15N = -140‰) during carbonization. The combined interpretation of the temperatures deduced from this model, petrographic cooling rates, and thermochronological indicators suggest that the CI-CM IOM could have been introduced in the parent-body by an impact, about 10 Myr after solar system formation.

  5. Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f), and Pu238(n,f) cross sections deduced from (p,t), (p,d), and (p,p') surrogate reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; McCleskey, M.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.; Thompson, I. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f) and Pu238(n,f) cross sections have been inferred by utilizing the surrogate ratio method. Targets of Pu239 and U235 were bombarded with 28.5-MeV protons, and the light ion recoils, as well as fission fragments, were detected using the STARS detector array at the K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. The (p, tf) reaction on Pu239 and U235 targets was used to deduce the σ (Pu236(n ,f))/σ(U232(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu236(n,f) cross section was subsequently determined for En=0.5-7.5 MeV. Similarly, the (p,df) reaction on the same two targets was used to deduce the σ(Pu237(n ,f))/σ(U233(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu237(n,f) cross section was extracted in the energy range En=0.5-7 MeV. The Pu238(n,f) cross section was also deduced by utilizing the (p,p') reaction channel on the same targets. There is good agreement with the recent ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section data for Pu238(n,f) in the range En=0.5-10.5 MeV and for Pu237(n,f) in the range En=0.5-7 MeV; however, the Pu236(n,f) cross section deduced in the present work is higher than the evaluation between 2 and 7 MeV.

  6. Rapid coastal subsidence in the central Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh) since the 17th century deduced from submerged salt-producing kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, T. J.; Kudrass, H.; Linstädter, J.; Islam, B.; Zander, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The densely populated low lying Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta is highly vulnerable to the global sea-level rise. In order to estimate the subsidence of the delta over historical time scales, we examined submerged salt-producing kiln sites in the coastal Sundarbans. These kilns were built just above the previous winterly spring high-tide level, but are currently located ~155 × 15 cm below the corresponding modern level. According to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the kilns were ultimately fired ~300 years ago (1705 × 35 AD) and salt production was terminated abruptly by a catastrophic event (major cyclone), which affected the kiln sites at different levels and locations. Two particular buried mangrove root horizons 80 cm below this kiln level also indicate catastrophic scenarios (probably subsidence events related to a regional earthquake). AMS-14C ages measured on the charcoal layers at the kiln's bases and on these associated mangrove stump horizons support the OSL dates. Based on the respective elevations of these kiln and mangrove palaeo-horizons and on the ages, the 300-year-average rate of sinking of the outer delta is 5.2 × 1.2 mm/a, which includes 0.8 mm/a of eustatic sea-level rise over this historical period. Expecting further acceleration of the eustatic sea-level rise of up to 7 mm/a, we calculate a rise in relative sea level of up to 8.9 × 3.3 mm/a for the next few decased, which will dramatically aggravate the already present problematic situation. Only a prudently-managed control of sediment accretion will keep southern Bangladesh above the sea level. (Hanebuth et al., Geology, Sept 2013, doi: 10.1130/G34646.1.)

  7. Five-Level Converter with Low Switching Frequency Applied as DC Voltage Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a multi-level converter as a DC supply. Equations for the converter will be deduced in the nondissipative case. The equations provide solutions to DC voltage and the angle of converter voltage. In addition the spectrum for the harmonics after the elimination...

  8. Time-Minimal Control of Dissipative Two-level Quantum Systems: the Generic Case

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnard, B; Sugny, D

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to complete preliminary results concerning the time-minimal control of dissipative two-level quantum systems whose dynamics is governed by Lindblad equations. The extremal system is described by a 3D-Hamiltonian depending upon three parameters. We combine geometric techniques with numerical simulations to deduce the optimal solutions.

  9. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the ...

  10. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•ΔELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ΔELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•ΔELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ΔT=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ΔT=0.78°C. The differences are

  11. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding a major allergenic protein in rice seeds. Homology of the deduced amino acid sequence with members of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, H; Adachi, T; Fujii, N; Matsuda, T; Nakamura, R; Tanaka, K; Urisu, A; Kurosawa, Y

    1992-05-18

    A cDNA clone of rice major allergenic protein (RAP) was isolated from a cDNA library of maturing rice seeds. The cDNA had an open reading frame (486 nucleotides) which coded a 162 amino acid residue polypeptide comprising a 27-residue signal peptide and a 135-residue mature protein of M(r) 14,764. The deduced amino acid sequence of RAP showed a considerable similarity to barley trypsin inhibitor [1983, J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7998-8003] and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor [1981, Phytochemistry 20, 1781-1784].

  12. Oligocene Cyclic Sedimentation Deduced from Taphonomic Analysis of Molluscs in Lacustrine Deposits of the Pematang Group, Pesada Well, Central Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene cycle of Pesada Well, Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia is composed of a deepening-upward series of depositional cycles in a lacustrine environment affected by oscillations of the water level. Taphonomic analysis of gastropod molluscs was used to interpret the cycle architecture of the Brown Shale (Pematang Group. Four types of shell concentrations were identified. The early transgressive deposit has a distinct erosion surface at the base, contains concretions, is formed of coarse-grained sediment with abraded and broken shells, and is interpreted as reworked deposits. The late transgressive deposit contains a hiatal concentration formed by continuing lake level rise, with many complete shells preserved in life position. The maximum transgressive deposit has complete shells in life position or that have been transported, as well as juvenile molluscs and broken shells. The early regressive deposit contains alternating shell-rich and shell-poor layers. Since the lacustrine system shows no tectonic effects and also no marine influenced indications, the seven sedimentary cycles identified in the Pesada Well are likely to have been affected by oscillations between monsoonal and dry periods.

  13. Deduced amino acid sequence of the small hydrophobic protein of US avian pneumovirus has greater identity with that of human metapneumovirus than those of non-US avian pneumoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Abdul S; Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Huang, Zhuhui; Samal, Siba K

    2003-05-01

    We report here the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus strain Colorado (APV/CO). The SH gene of APV/CO is 628 nucleotides in length from gene-start to gene-end. The longest ORF of the SH gene encoded a protein of 177 aas in length. Comparison of the deduced aa sequence of the SH protein of APV/CO with the corresponding published sequences of other members of genera metapneumovirus showed 28% identity with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV), but no discernable identity with the APV subgroup A or B. Collectively, this data supports the hypothesis that: (i) APV/CO is distinct from European APV subgroups and belongs to the novel subgroup APV/C (APV/US); (ii) APV/CO is more closely related to hMPV, a mammalian metapneumovirus, than to either APV subgroup A or B. The SH gene of APV/CO was cloned using a genomic walk strategy which initiated cDNA synthesis from genomic RNA that traversed the genes in the order 3'-M-F-M2-SH-G-5', thus confirming that gene-order of APV/CO conforms in the genus Metapneumovirus. We also provide the sequences of transcription-signals and the M-F, F-M2, M2-SH and SH-G intergenic regions of APV/CO.

  14. Terrestrial environmental changes around the Gulf of Aden over the last 210 kyr deduced from the sediment n-alkane record: Implications for the dispersal of Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Tamaki, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-chain (C25-C36) n-alkanes and pollen grains in sediments from the Gulf of Aden covering the last 212 kyr to reconstruct the surrounding terrestrial environment, a critical region for the dispersal of Homo sapiens. Substantial increases in the flux of n-alkanes during 200-185, 120-95, and 70-50 ka were interpreted to indicate enhanced vegetation biomass in the Arabian Peninsula and the northern part of the Horn of Africa or increase in lithogenic material inputs. Periods of enhanced n-alkane flux occurred during or immediately after pluvial episodes, indicating that the increased precipitation may have induced substantially enhanced vegetation biomass, creating favorable conditions for Homo sapiens. Additionally, vegetation may have increased due to moderate precipitation unrecorded by speleothems or in accordance with the lowering of sea level, indicating that the dispersal might have been possible even after the shift to an arid environment indicated by the speleothems.

  15. First- and Second-level Bayesian Inference of Flow Resistivity of Sound Absorber and Room’s Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Sabine absorption coefficient is a widely used one deduced from reverberation time measurements via the Sabine equation. First- and second-level Bayesian analysis are used to estimate the flow resistivity of a sound absorber and the influences of the test chambers from Sabine absorption...

  16. Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son–Mahanadi Basin, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal Jeet Singh; Srikanta Murthy; Anju Saxena; Husain Shabbar

    2017-03-01

    Faunipollenites–Gondisporites assemblage zone of Tiwari and Tripathi (1992) of Late Permian (Lopingian) Raniganj Formation in Damodar Basin. The FAD’s of Alisporites,Klausipollenites, Falcisporites, Arcuatipollenites pellucidus and Playfordiaspora cancellosa palynotaxa in this assemblage enhance the end Permian level of the Jhingurdah Top seam, as these elements are the key species to mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic.

  17. Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son-Mahanadi Basin, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamal Jeet; Murthy, Srikanta; Saxena, Anju; Shabbar, Husain

    2017-03-01

    -Faunipollenites-Gondisporites assemblage zone of Tiwari and Tripathi (1992) of Late Permian (Lopingian) Raniganj Formation in Damodar Basin. The FAD's of Alisporites, Klausipollenites, Falcisporites, Arcuatipollenites pellucidus and Playfordiaspora cancellosa palynotaxa in this assemblage enhance the end Permian level of the Jhingurdah Top seam, as these elements are the key species to mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic.

  18. Two-level tuning of fuzzy PID controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G I; Hu, B G; Gosine, R G

    2001-01-01

    Fuzzy PID tuning requires two stages of tuning; low level tuning followed by high level tuning. At the higher level, a nonlinear tuning is performed to determine the nonlinear characteristics of the fuzzy output. At the lower level, a linear tuning is performed to determine the linear characteristics of the fuzzy output for achieving overall performance of fuzzy control. First, different fuzzy systems are defined and then simplified for two-point control. Non-linearity tuning diagrams are constructed for fuzzy systems in order to perform high level tuning. The linear tuning parameters are deduced from the conventional PID tuning knowledge. Using the tuning diagrams, high level tuning heuristics are developed. Finally, different applications are demonstrated to show the validity of the proposed tuning method.

  19. Leveling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  20. Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and γ-spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jungck, Matthias H.A.; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by γ-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We fo...

  1. Molecular cloning of a beta-glucan pattern-recognition lipoprotein from the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei: correlations between the deduced amino acid sequence and the native protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Figueroa, María Gabriela; Vargas-Requena, Claudia; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2004-06-01

    The hemolymph pattern-recognition beta-glucan binding protein from the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei is also a high density lipoprotein (betaGBP-HDL) involved in innate immunity. The betaGBP-HDL full length cDNA sequence determined was 6.3 kb long, and contains a long 3'UTR region with a polyadenylation signal and a poly-A+ tail. The open reading frame is 1454 amino acids long and the N-terminal residue of the mature protein is localized in position 198 of the ORF. Comparison of the betaGBP-HDL amino acid sequence against GenBank detected only significant similarity to betaGBP from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. betaGBP-HDL is expressed in hepatopancreas, muscle, pleopods and gills, but not in hemocytes as determined by RT-PCR. We discuss the analysis of the deduced primary sequence in terms of the predicted secondary structure, glucanase-like and RGD motives relevant to its dual roles in defence and lipid transport.

  2. Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on 54,58,56Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Byun, Y.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Akhtar, S.; Dhakal, S.; Parker, C. E.

    2015-07-01

    Deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α -particle emission spectra, from d + 54,58,56Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 57Co, 55Co, 57Fe, 55Fe, 52Mn, 54Mn have been deduced from the compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)], 10.1016/0375-9474(92)90278-R was found to have a good agreement with our results.

  3. DLTS Study of RIE-Induced Deep Levels in Si Using p+n Diode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miyoko Oku; Taguchi, Minoru; Kanzaki, Koichi; Zohta, Yasuhito

    1983-02-01

    Deep levels in Si induced by reactive ion etching (RIE) of SiO2 film have been studied by DLTS. In order to detect the RIE-induced damage existing near the surface region, special device structures consisting of p+n diode arrays are used. It is found that the dominant deep levels produced by RIE are four hole traps. One level at Ev+0.40 eV exhibits the Poole-Frenkel effect, from which it is identified as an acceptor. Another level at Ev+0.46 eV is deduced to be an interstitial iron level from the emission rate. There is a strong decrease in the deep level concentrations upon annealing above 500°C. However, the deep levels do not completely disappear upon annealing at high temperatures. The deep level concentrations correlate well with the current-voltage characteristics of the devices.

  4. Thermal effect and energy-level transition rule for a mesoscopic LC circuit with inductance-capacitance coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Jie; Wang Ji-Suo; Liang Bao-Long; Zhang Xiao-Yan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the mesoscopic inductance and capacitance coupling LC circuit is quantized by means of the canonical quantization method. Using the 'invariant eigen-operator' method, it deduces the energy-level transition rule when the system is disturbed by an external electromagnetic field. At the same time, the quantum fluctuations for the system at finite temperature are examined by virtue of the generalized Hellmann-Feynman theorem.

  5. Fault deducing model research of switched reluctance power system of airplane based on PHM%飞机开关磁阻发电系统故障推理模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 雷洪利; 韩建定; 朱喜华

    2011-01-01

    开关磁阻发电系统是飞机供电系统的核心部分,为了研究飞机供电系统健康管理技术,减少故障推理模型的检测参数,满足飞机可靠性方面的要求,利用MATLAB软件对开关磁阻发电机典型电气故障进行了仿真分析,并引入记忆模块解决以往仿真过程中产生的代数环问题.然后将发电机输出电压信号利用EMD算法进行分解,将其分解后的各层频率信号的标准差作为特征量训练神经网络,得出开关磁阻发电系统的故障推理模型,本模型只需测量输出电压一个参数,减少了检测参数的数量,为开关磁阻发电系统故障预测模型及飞机整个供电系统键康管理系统的开发奠定了基础.%The switched reluctance power system is the com of airplane power system. In order to research the application of PHM in the power system of airplane, reduce the measure parameters of the fault deducing model,and satisfy the requirements of airplane dependability, the typical electric faults of SRG was carefully analyzed in this paper with MATLAB, and the memory module was used to solve the algebraic loop problem. The SRG voltage signal with EMD was analyzed, and the decomposed signal as character data was used to train the neural network and gain the fault concluding model of SRG main electrical power system. Only one parameter of the output voltage was needed to be measured with this model, which reduced the number of the measured parameters and was meaningful to the research of the prognostic model and PHM system of power system.

  6. The Half Life of the 53 keV Level in {sup 197}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S.G.

    1967-02-15

    The half life of the recently proposed 53 keV level in {sup 197}Pt has been measured to 18.5 {+-} 1.5 nsec using the delayed coincidence technique. This level, which is identified with the f{sub 5/2} single particle state, decays directly to the p{sub 1/2} ground state in {sup 197}Pt. The reduced E2 transition probability for this 53 keV transition has been deduced and compared with the results obtained for the corresponding transitions in other Pt, Hg, and Pb isotopes and with the theoretical predictions by Sorensen and by Wahlborn and Martinson.

  7. Level densities and thermodynamical quantities of heated $^{93-98}$Mo isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Chankova, R; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Bernstein, L A; Guttormsen, M; Ingebretsen, F; Lönnroth, T; Messelt, S; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Sunde, A C; Voinov, A

    2006-01-01

    Level densities for $^{93-98}$Mo have been extracted using the ($^3$He,$\\alpha \\gamma$) and ($^3$He,$^3$He'$\\gamma$) reactions. From the level densities thermodynamical quantities such as temperature and heat capacity can be deduced. Data have been analyzed by utilizing both the microcanonical and the canonical ensemble. Structures in the microcanonical temperature are due to the breaking of Cooper pairs. The S-shape of the heat capacity curves found within the canonical ensemble indicates the pairing phase transition and critical temperatures for the quenching of pairing correlation are found at $T_c\\sim 0.7 -1.0$ MeV.

  8. Swiss National Reference Levels in Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroua, A.; Baechler, S.; Verdun, F.R. [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Rickli, H. [Cardiology Department, Kanton Hospital, Saint-Gall (Switzerland); Trueb, Ph.R. [Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH), Bern (Switzerland); Vock, P. [Universitaetsspital Bern, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    A nationwide survey was launched in Switzerland in order to investigate the use of fluoroscopy and to establish national reference levels (R.L.) for dose-intensive procedures particularly in interventional radiology. The 2-year investigation covered 5 radiology and 9 cardiology departments in public hospitals and private clinics, and focused on twelve types of examinations: six diagnostic and six interventional. The performance of the fluoroscopy units used in these health-care centres (image quality and dose) was assessed extensively and 1000 examinations were registered. Information on the fluoroscopy time (T), the number of frames (N), the dose-area product (D.A.P.), the difficulty of the case, the age, gender, height and weight of the patient, as well as the experience of the practitioner was provided. The whole set of data was used in relative values (to the mean values for each type of examination) to establish the distributions of T, N and the D.A.P.. From these distributions a set of R.L. values was deduced for the types of examinations investigated using the 3.-quartile method. The R.L. values found are compared to the data published in the literature. (authors)

  9. Gamma-ray decay of levels in /sup 53/Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.; Larson, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    Gamma-ray decay of levels in the stable isotope /sup 53/Cr has been studied using /sup 53/Cr(n,n'..gamma..) reactions for incident neutron energies between threshold and 10 MeV. Of the 65 gamma rays or gamma-ray groups observed for neutron interactions with /sup 53/Cr, 50 have been placed or tentatively placed among 34 levels in /sup 53/Cr up to an excitation energy of 4.36 MeV. Deduced branching ratios are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements except for decay of the E/sub x/ = 1537-keV level. For the decay of the E/sub x/ = 1537-keV level we are unable to explain variations in the branching ratios of the transition gamma rays as a function of incident neutron energy within the framework of the presently known level structure of /sup 53/Cr and suggest the possibility of a second energy level at E/sub x/ = 1537 keV. 59 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Resurgence, Stokes phenomenon and alien derivatives for level-one linear differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Loday-Richaud, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    A precise description of the singularities of the Borel transform of solutions of a level-one linear differential system is deduced from a proof of the summable-resurgence of the solutions by the perturbative method of J. \\'Ecalle. Then we compare the meromorphic classification (Stokes phenomenon) from the viewpoint of the Stokes cocycle and the viewpoint of alien derivatives. We make explicit the Stokes-Ramis matrices as functions of the connection constants in the Borel plane and we develop two examples. No assumption of genericity is made.

  11. Resurgence, Stokes phenomenon and alien derivatives for level-one linear differential systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loday-Richaud, Michèle; Remy, Pascal

    A precise description of the singularities of the Borel transform of solutions of a level-one linear differential system is deduced from a proof of the summable-resurgence of the solutions by the perturbative method of J. Écalle. Then we compare the meromorphic classification (Stokes phenomenon) from the viewpoint of the Stokes cocycle and the viewpoint of alien derivatives. We make explicit the Stokes-Ramis matrices as functions of the connection constants in the Borel plane and we develop two examples. No assumption of genericity is made.

  12. Application of Excitation Function to the Prediction of RI Level Caused by Corona Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lingyu; JI Shengchang; HUI Sisi; GUO Jun; LI Yansong; FU Chenzhao

    2012-01-01

    Radio interference (RI), as an aftereffect of corona discharge, is an important research topic in the field of electromagnetic compatibility, where excitation function is applied broadly to the prediction of RI level. This paper presents the theory of excitation function method used in the RI level prediction. Then, some practical problems related to this method are discussed. The propagation procedure of corona current is solved by the phase-modal transformation, and the impedance matrix of multi transmission lines is calculated by a double logarithmic approximate model of Carson's Ground-Return impedance. At the same time, in order to calculate the RI level when total line corona is assumed, an analytical formula is deduced for integral operation. Based on the above solutions, an algorithm is presented and applied to the prediction of RI level of a practical overhead transmission line. Comparison of prediction and measurement results indicates that the algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and feasible.

  13. An Implementation Mechanisms of SVM Control Strategies Applied to Five Levels Cascaded Multi-Level Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yaichi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the area of the energy control with high voltage and power, the multilevel inverters constitute a relatively recent research orientation. The current applications of this technology are in the domains of the high voltage (over hundred kV, variable speed drives, transport and distribution of a good quality of electrical energy (HVDC, FACTS system, ..... To improve the output voltage for such inverters, many different modulation strategies have been developed. Among these strategies, the SVM (Space Vector Modulation. The technique provide the nearest switching vectors sequence to the reference vector without involving trigonometric functions and provide the additional advantages of superior harmonic quality. In this paper, we analyze different mechanisms of the output voltage synthesis and the problem of even order harmonic production. With the proposed a new trajectory SVM, which can eliminate all the even order harmonics for five levels inverter. Show clearly how to deduce the trajectories from the sequences allowing to have better performances among several possible trajectories. It is dedicated to the application of two particular trajectories.

  14. 罗非鱼源无乳链球菌S-核糖基高半胱氨酸酶基因(luxS)的克隆及其推导蛋白的三维结构预测%Cloning of Streptococcus agalactiae luxS gene from tilapia and 3D structure prediction of deduced protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳平; 李嘉彬; 郝乐; 刘振兴; 冯国清; 周结珊; 柯浩

    2013-01-01

    We have amplified, cloned and determined the sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae luxS gene from Tilapia sp. by PCR. The characteristics of the deduced luxS protein were predicted by ExPAsy software; the 3D structures of luxS and the deduced protein were established and analyzed by SWISS-Model and SwisS-PDBviewer software, respectively. The results indicate that the deduced luxS protein contains conserved active center and Zn2+ binding site, which may affect biofilm formation and regulate virulence factor. The Ramachandram plot shows that the structure of modeled luxS protein is reasonable.%利用PCR技术对罗非鱼源无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)S-核糖基高半胱氨酸酶(luxS)基因全长DNA进行了扩增、克隆和序列测定,采用ExPAsy软件包预测了推导蛋白的特性,利用SwisS-Model服务器建立了luxS 三维结构,利用SwisS-PDBviewer软件进行了蛋白质三维结构的分析.预测结果显示,罗非鱼源无乳链球菌luxS推导蛋白包括保守的酶活性中心和锌结合位点,具有影响生物被膜形成、毒力因子调控等特性功能;经拉氏构象图(Ramachandran plot)分析,所构建的luxS的空间结构合理.

  15. Search for isospin effects on nuclear level density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucarelli F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the isospin dependence of the level density have been recently reported in the literature for nuclei with 20 ≤ A ≤ 110. Corrections to the level density have been deduced which would imply a significant reduction of this quantity for nuclei far from the valley of stability. Isospin effects on the level density are also expected through the symmetry energy contribution to the nuclear masses, which is predicted to increase with the temperature. According to these findings, we have implemented the statistical model in order to account for isospin effects on the level density parameter a and on the temperature-dependent symmetry energy. We present the results of calculations for the decay of a variety of neutron-rich composite systems. We found that isospin produces sizable eïňĂects on difierent observables, this result being promising for future experiments with the second generation RIB facilities SPES and SPIRAL2. We report the results of a first experiment aimed at searching for isospin effects in the decay of 139 Eu composite nuclei produced by a stable beam at E x =90 MeV.

  16. Low frequency critical current noise and two level system defects in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Christopher Daniel

    The critical current in a Josephson junction is known to exhibit a 1/falpha low frequency noise. Implemented as a superconducting qubit, this low frequency noise can lead to decoherence. While the 1/f noise has been known to arise from an ensemble of two level systems connected to the tunnel barrier, the precise microscopic nature of these TLSs remain a mystery. In this thesis we will present measurements of the 1/f alpha low frequency noise in the critical current and tunneling resistance of Al-AlOx-Al Josephson junctions. Measurements in a wide range of resistively shunted and unshunted junctions confirm the equality of critical current and tunneling resistance noise. That is the critical current fluctuation corresponds to fluctuations of the tunneling resistance. In not too small Al-AlOx-Al junctions we have found that the fractional power spectral density scales linearly with temperature. We confirmed that the 1/falpha power spectrum is the result of a large number of two level systems modulating the tunneling resistance. At small junction areas and low temperatures, the number of thermally active TLSs is insufficient to integrate out a featureless 1/ f spectral shape. By analyzing the spectral variance in small junction areas, we have been able to deduce the TLS defect density, n ≈ 2.53 per micrometer squared per Kelvin spread in the TLS energy per factor e in the TLS lifetimes. This density is consistent with the density of tunneling TLSs found in glassy insulators, as well as the density deduced from coherent TLSs interacting at qubit frequencies. The deduced TLS density combined with the magnitude of the 1/f power spectral density in large area junctions, gives an average TLS effective area, A ˜ 0.3 nanometer squared. In ultra small tunnel junctions, we have studied the time-domain dynamics of isolated TLSs. We have found a TLS whose dynamics is described by the quantum tunneling between the two localized wells, and a one-phonon absorption

  17. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  18. A Level Set Filter for Speckle Reduction in SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite much effort and significant progress in recent years, speckle removal for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image still is a challenging problem in image processing. Unlike the traditional noise filters, which are mainly based on local neighborhood statistical average or frequencies transform, in this paper, we propose a speckle reduction method based on the theory of level set, one form of curvature flow propagation. Firstly, based on partial differential equation, the Lee filter can be cast as a formulation of anisotropic diffusion function; furthermore, we continued to deduce it into a level set formulation. Level set flow into the method allows the front interface to propagate naturally with topological changes, where the speed is proportional to the curvature of the intensity contours in an image. Hence, small speckle will disappear quickly, while large scale interfaces will be slow to evolve. Secondly, for preserving finer detailed structures in images when smoothing the speckle, the evolution is switched between minimum or maximum curvature speed depending on the scale of speckle. The proposed method has been illustrated by experiments on simulation image and ERS-2 SAR images under different circumstances. Its advantages over the traditional speckle reduction filter approaches have also been demonstrated.

  19. A Level Set Filter for Speckle Reduction in SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongga; Huang, Bo; Huang, Xiaoxia

    2010-12-01

    Despite much effort and significant progress in recent years, speckle removal for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image still is a challenging problem in image processing. Unlike the traditional noise filters, which are mainly based on local neighborhood statistical average or frequencies transform, in this paper, we propose a speckle reduction method based on the theory of level set, one form of curvature flow propagation. Firstly, based on partial differential equation, the Lee filter can be cast as a formulation of anisotropic diffusion function; furthermore, we continued to deduce it into a level set formulation. Level set flow into the method allows the front interface to propagate naturally with topological changes, where the speed is proportional to the curvature of the intensity contours in an image. Hence, small speckle will disappear quickly, while large scale interfaces will be slow to evolve. Secondly, for preserving finer detailed structures in images when smoothing the speckle, the evolution is switched between minimum or maximum curvature speed depending on the scale of speckle. The proposed method has been illustrated by experiments on simulation image and ERS-2 SAR images under different circumstances. Its advantages over the traditional speckle reduction filter approaches have also been demonstrated.

  20. DSC and universal bit-level combining for HARQ systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Tiejun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a Dempster -Shafer theory based combining scheme for single-input single-output (SISO systems with hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ, referred to as DSC, in which two methods for soft information calculations are developed for equiprobable (EP and non-equiprobable (NEP sources, respectively. One is based on the distance from the received signal to the decision candidate set consisting of adjacent constellation points when the source bits are equiprobable, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-D. The other is based on the posterior probability of the transmitted signals when the priori probability for the NEP source bits is available, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-APP. For the diverse EP and NEP source cases, both DSCD and DSC-APP are superior to maximal ratio combining, the so-called optimal combining scheme for SISO systems. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed DSC is illustrated by the simulations performed in Rayleigh channel and AWGN channel, respectively. The results show that the proposed DSC is insensitive to and especially applicable to the fading channels. In addition, a DS detection-aided bit-level DS combining scheme is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output--HARQ systems. The bit-level DS combining is deduced to be a universal scheme, and the traditional log-likelihood-ratio combining is a special case when the likelihood probability is used as bit-level soft information.

  1. Multi-Level Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is an original paper, which contains a hierarchical model with three levels, for determining the linearized non-homogeneous and homogeneous credibility premiums at company level, at sector level and at contract level, founded on the relevant covariance relations between the risk premium, the observations and the weighted averages. We give a rather explicit description of the input data for the multi- level hierarchical model used, only to show that in practical situations, there will always be enough data to apply credibility theory to a real insurance portfolio.

  2. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  3. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  4. Nonuniversality in level dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kunstman, P; Zakrzewski, J A; Kunstman, Pawe{\\l}; Zyczkowski, Karol \\.; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    1997-01-01

    Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general non-universal and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced.

  5. Nonuniversality in level dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstman, P.; Zyczkowski, K.; Zakrzewski, J. [Instytut Fizyki Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    1997-03-01

    Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general {ital nonuniversal} and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Theoretic analysis on phase delay phenomena of well water level tide in the double medium aquifer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model of double medium aquifer is briefly introduced in this paper, a partial differential equation about seepage motion derived by the tidal stress in the model layer is deduced. Compared this equation with Boulton equation used in the unconfined aquifer, a new lagging supply water term is obtained, which establish the physical basis for interpreting the phase delay phenomena of well water level caused by the solid tide. By analyzing the partial dif-ferential equation, it is found that this lagging supply term is related with the fluctuation of tide occurred in the deep aquifer.

  7. LOWER LEVEL INFERENCE CONTROL IN STATISTICAL DATABASE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, D.L.; Wong, H.K.T.

    1984-02-01

    An inference is the process of transforming unclassified data values into confidential data values. Most previous research in inference control has studied the use of statistical aggregates to deduce individual records. However, several other types of inference are also possible. Unknown functional dependencies may be apparent to users who have 'expert' knowledge about the characteristics of a population. Some correlations between attributes may be concluded from 'commonly-known' facts about the world. To counter these threats, security managers should use random sampling of databases of similar populations, as well as expert systems. 'Expert' users of the DATABASE SYSTEM may form inferences from the variable performance of the user interface. Users may observe on-line turn-around time, accounting statistics. the error message received, and the point at which an interactive protocol sequence fails. One may obtain information about the frequency distributions of attribute values, and the validity of data object names from this information. At the back-end of a database system, improved software engineering practices will reduce opportunities to bypass functional units of the database system. The term 'DATA OBJECT' should be expanded to incorporate these data object types which generate new classes of threats. The security of DATABASES and DATABASE SySTEMS must be recognized as separate but related problems. Thus, by increased awareness of lower level inferences, system security managers may effectively nullify the threat posed by lower level inferences.

  8. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  9. Definition of Virtual Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

  10. Quantum Defect Theory description of weakly bound levels and Feshbach resonances in LiRb

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Chen, Yong P; Greene, Chris H

    2014-01-01

    The multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) in combination with the frame transformation (FT) approach is applied to model the Fano-Feshbach resonances measured for $^{7}$Li$^{87}$Rb and $^{6}$Li$^{87}$Rb [Marzok {\\it et al.} Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 79} 012717 (2009)]. The MQDT results show a level of accuracy comparable to that of previous models based on direct, fully numerical solutions of the the coupled channel Schr\\"odinger equations (CC). Here, energy levels deduced from 2-photon photoassociation spectra for $^{7}$Li$^{85}$Rb are assigned by applying the MQDT approach, obtaining the bound state energies for the coupled channel problem. Our results confirm that MQDT yields a compact description of photoassociation observables as well as the Fano-Feshbach resonance positions and widths.

  11. Distribution of level spacing ratios using one- plus two-body random matrix ensembles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N D Chavda

    2015-02-01

    Probability distribution (()) of the level spacing ratios has been introduced recently and is used to investigate many-body localization as well as to quantify the distance from integrability on finite size lattices. In this paper, we study the distribution of the ratio of consecutive level spacings using one-body plus two-body random matrix ensembles for finite interacting many-fermion and many-boson systems. () for these ensembles move steadily from the Poisson to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) form as the two-body interaction strength is varied. Other related quantities are also used in the analysis to obtain critical strength c for the transition. The c values deduced using the () analysis are in good agreement with the results obtained using the nearest neighbour spacing distribution (NNSD) analysis.

  12. Analysis of generalized negative binomial distributions attached to hyperbolic Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaiba, Hassan; Demni, Nizar; Mouayn, Zouhair

    2016-07-01

    To each hyperbolic Landau level of the Poincaré disc is attached a generalized negative binomial distribution. In this paper, we compute the moment generating function of this distribution and supply its atomic decomposition as a perturbation of the negative binomial distribution by a finitely supported measure. Using the Mandel parameter, we also discuss the nonclassical nature of the associated coherent states. Next, we derive a Lévy-Khintchine-type representation of its characteristic function when the latter does not vanish and deduce that it is quasi-infinitely divisible except for the lowest hyperbolic Landau level corresponding to the negative binomial distribution. By considering the total variation of the obtained quasi-Lévy measure, we introduce a new infinitely divisible distribution for which we derive the characteristic function.

  13. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  14. Level Eulerian Posets

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenborg, Richard; Readdy, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The notion of level posets is introduced. This class of infinite posets has the property that between every two adjacent ranks the same bipartite graph occurs. When the adjacency matrix is indecomposable, we determine the length of the longest interval one needs to check to verify Eulerianness. Furthermore, we show that every level Eulerian poset associated to an indecomposable matrix has even order. A condition for verifying shellability is introduced and is automated using the algebra of walks. Applying the Skolem--Mahler--Lech theorem, the ${\\bf ab}$-series of a level poset is shown to be a rational generating function in the non-commutative variables ${\\bf a}$ and ${\\bf b}$. In the case the poset is also Eulerian, the analogous result holds for the ${\\bf cd}$-series. Using coalgebraic techniques a method is developed to recognize the ${\\bf cd}$-series matrix of a level Eulerian poset.

  15. Low potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or vomiting Using too much laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure Eating disorders (such as bulimia ) Low magnesium level Sweating

  16. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  17. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    method.For oceanographic purposes, the altimetric record over the Arctic Ocean is inferiorin quality to that of moderate latitudes, but nonetheless an invaluable set of observations. During this project, newly processed Arctic altimetry from the ERS-1/-2 and Envisat missions has become available......Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...

  18. Three Levels of Semiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a second-order semiotic framework for ontological levels, which is based on the structure of semiosis in a more fundamental way than other existing approaches to semiotic levels. Building on the key semiotic concept of representation, three levels are posited: (1) non- or proto-semiotic...... processes, without representation, such as physical or causal processes, (2) semiotic processes, with representation, such as the processes of life and cognition, and (3) second-order semiotic processes, with representation of representation, such as self-conscious and self-reflexive communicative processes....... This semiotic framework for ontological levels is compared with recent discussions of different ontological kinds of kinds such as indifferent and interactive kinds. This leads to the distinction between not two, but three kinds of kinds: indifferent, adaptive and reflexive kinds, of which the last two hitherto...

  19. Low magnesium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating the condition that is causing low magnesium can help. If you play sports or do other vigorous activity, drink fluids such as sports drinks that contain electrolytes to keep your magnesium level in a healthy range.

  20. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  1. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  2. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  3. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  4. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  5. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    flooding in the Thames Estuary under imaginable worst case sea-level rise scenarios. Int J Water Resour Dev Special Edition Water Disasters 21(4):577...Extreme tide and sea-level events. Technical report, Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Corporate Research Centre. McMillan, A., Batstone, C...Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner GK, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM. A Special Report of Working Groups

  6. PANJABI READER, LEVEL 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    THIS SECOND-LEVEL READER IN THE PANJABI LANGUAGE CAN BE USED IN A SECOND- OR THIRD-YEAR COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. THE GRAMMAR APPENDIX INCLUDED IS IDENTICAL TO THAT FOUND IN THE FIRST-LEVEL PANJABI READER (ED 010 485). THE MAIN PORTION OF THE BOOK CONSISTS OF 23 UNITS,…

  7. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  8. Inter-relationships of haplosporidians deduced from ultrastructural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Burreson, E.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were link

  9. Deducing protein function by forensic integrative cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Earnshaw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to sequence genomes has provided us with near-complete lists of the proteins that compose cells, tissues, and organisms, but this is only the beginning of the process to discover the functions of cellular components. In the future, it's going to be crucial to develop computational analyses that can predict the biological functions of uncharacterised proteins. At the same time, we must not forget those fundamental experimental skills needed to confirm the predictions or send the analysts back to the drawing board to devise new ones.

  10. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kašparová, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Piana, M.; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-09-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  11. Properties of Active Galaxies Deduced from H I Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C; Greene, Jenny E

    2008-01-01

    We completed a new survey for H I emission for a large, well-defined sample of 154 nearby (z < 0.1) galaxies with type 1 AGNs. We make use of the extensive database presented in a companion paper to perform a comprehensive appraisal of the cold gas content in active galaxies and to seek new strategies to investigate the global properties of the host galaxies and their relationship to their central black holes (BHs). We show that the BH mass obeys a strong, roughly linear relation with the host galaxy's dynamical mass. BH mass follows a looser, though still highly significant, correlation with the maximum rotation velocity of the galaxy, as expected from the known scaling between rotation velocity and central velocity dispersion. Neither of these H I-based correlations is as tight as the more familiar relations between BH mass and bulge luminosity or velocity dispersion, but they offer the advantage of being insensitive to the glare of the nucleus and therefore are promising new tools for probing the host g...

  12. Deducing Electron Properties From Hard X-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kontar, E P; Emslie, A G; Hajdas, W; Holman, G D; Hurford, G J; Kasparova, J; Mallik, P C V; Massone, A M; McConnell, M L; Piana, M; Prato, M; Schmahl, E J; Suarez-Garcia, E

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the \\textit{Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager} ({\\em RHESSI}). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processe...

  13. Deducing effective light transport parameters in optically thin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzamuto, Giacomo; Toninelli, Costanza; Wiersma, Diederik

    2015-01-01

    We present an extensive Monte Carlo study on light transport in optically thin slabs, addressing both axial and transverse propagation. We completely characterize the so-called ballistic-to-diffusive transition, notably in terms of the spatial variance of the transmitted/reflected profile. We test the validity of the prediction cast by diffusion theory, that the spatial variance should grow independently of absorption and, to a first approximation, of the sample thickness and refractive index contrast. Based on a large set of simulated data, we build a freely available look-up table routine allowing reliable and precise determination of the microscopic transport parameters starting from robust observables which are independent of absolute intensity measurements. We also present the Monte Carlo software package that was developed for the purpose of this study.

  14. Deducing protein function by forensic integrative cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, William C

    2013-12-01

    Our ability to sequence genomes has provided us with near-complete lists of the proteins that compose cells, tissues, and organisms, but this is only the beginning of the process to discover the functions of cellular components. In the future, it's going to be crucial to develop computational analyses that can predict the biological functions of uncharacterised proteins. At the same time, we must not forget those fundamental experimental skills needed to confirm the predictions or send the analysts back to the drawing board to devise new ones.

  15. ANDROGEN LEVELS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valadan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. Several independent investigators have demonstrated the association of androgens with hypertension. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal levels of sex hormones, especially testosterone, are higher in patients with preeclampsia than in matched normotensive control subjects. Serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S and estradiol were measured in 60 subjects in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with documented preeclampsia (including 30 cases of mild and 30 cases of severe preeclampsia and 60 healthy normotensive women with similar maternal and gestational ages and body mass index (BMI and neonatal sex. All subjects were primigravid with singleton pregnancies. Cases of polycystic ovary (PCO, diabetes, chronic hypertension and chronic systemic diseases such as lupus and patients using steroid hormones and anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Levels of testosterone, DHEA-S and estradiol were not higher in primigravid women with preeclampsia than in normotensive women with similar gestational and maternal ages, BMI and neonatal sex. There were no significant differences in sex hormones measured between groups of mild and severe preeclampsia and normotensive women. There were also no significant differences in sex hormone levels according to neonatal sex. These findings are against the hypothesis of mediating or amplifying role of high androgen levels in pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  16. Service level agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, A

    1998-02-01

    Service level agreements provide clearer descriptions of the services to be provided and the objectives to be met. In many instances it is the first time that services have been defined allowing their performance to be suitably measured. They should be output based and not too prescriptive on how the services are to be delivered. The emphasis should be on establishing outputs and the arrangements for monitoring achievement. Customer expectations can exceed available resources and arbitration may become necessary if agreement cannot be reached on internal service level agreements. The main requirements of customers for change through service level agreements is usually improved communications on job status that includes notification of any delays and that agreed response times will be met.

  17. Nuclear level density predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucurescu Dorel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple formulas depending only on nuclear masses were previously proposed for the parameters of the Back-Shifted Fermi Gas (BSFG model and of the Constant Temperature (CT model of the nuclear level density, respectively. They are now applied for the prediction of the level density parameters of all nuclei with available masses. Both masses from the new 2012 mass table and from different models are considered and the predictions are discussed in connection with nuclear regions most affected by shell corrections and nuclear structure effects and relevant for the nucleosynthesis.

  18. Multi-level Semiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Giorgi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    are organized hierarchically, communication processes require a kind of processual organization that may be better described as being heterarchical. Theoretically, the challenge arises in the temporal domain, that is, in the developmental and evolutionary dimension of dynamic semiotic processes. We discuss...... the importance of this fundamental difference in order to explain how levels, domains and orders of magnitude, on one hand, and synchronic and diachronic processes, on the other, contribute to the overall organization of every living being. To account for such multi-level organization, semiotic freedom...

  19. Low-lying isomeric levels in 75Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugas, J. M. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); Faul, T. [CEA, France; Grawe, H. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Grzywacz, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lewitowicz, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); Achouri, N. L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Caen, France; Angelique, J. C. [CNRS/IN2P3, Caen, France; Baiborodin, D. [Nuclear Physic Institute, Czech Republic; Bentida, R. [Universite de Lyon, France; Beraud, R. [Universite de Lyon, France; Borcea, C. [IFIN, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Catford, W. [University of Surrey, UK; Emsallem, A. [Universite de Lyon, France; De France, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); Grzywacz, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lemmon, R. [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Lopez Jimenez, M. J. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); de Oliveira Santos, F. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); Regan, P. H. [University of Surrey, UK; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Sauvestre, J. E. [CEA, France; Sawicka, M. [University of Warsaw; Stanoiu, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); Sieja, K. [Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Germany; Nowacki, F. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg, France

    2010-01-01

    Isomeric low-lying states were identified and investigated in the 75Cu nucleus. Two states at 61.8(5)- and 128.3(7)-keV excitation energies with half-lives of 370(40)- and 170(15)-ns were assigned as 75m1Cu and 75m2Cu, respectively. The measured half-lives combined with the recent spin assignment of the ground state allow one to deduce tentatively spin and parity of the two isomers and the dominant multipolarities of the isomeric transitions with respect to the systematics of the Cu isotopes. Shell-model calculations using an up-to-date effective interaction reproduce the evolution of the 1/2 , 3/2 , and 5/2 states for the neutron-rich odd-mass Cu isotopes when filling the g9/2. The results indicate a significant change in the nuclear structure in this region, where a single-particle 5/2 state coexists with more and more collective 3/2 and 1/2 levels at low excitation energies.

  20. Happiness levels stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the ideological foundations of the modern welfare states is the belief that people can be made happier by providing them with better living conditions. This belief is challenged by the idea that happiness tends to remain at the same level and will therefore hardl

  1. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy;

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  2. PANJABI READER. LEVEL 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    A FIRST-LEVEL READER IS PRESENTED, PRIMARILY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO HAVE A SPEAKING KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI AND SOME KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI GRAMMAR. THIS VOLUME CAN BE USED IN A GENERAL PANJABI LANGUAGE COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. A GLOSSARY AND A BRIEF GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX HAVE…

  3. Knowledge-Level Reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Bredeweg, Bert; Schreiber, G.; Karbach, Werner; Reinders, Martin; Voss, A.; Akkermans, H.; Bartsch-Spoerl, Brigitte; Vinkhuyzen, Erik

    This paper presents an overview of the REFLECT project. It defines the notion of knowledge level reflection that has been central to the project, it compares this notion with existing approaches to reflection in related fields, and investigates some of the consequences of the concept of knowledge le

  4. Leveraging Stress Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a costly business expense that affects both employee health and company profits. At the backdrop of this, the present research study is an attempt to explore and analysis the findings of the research studies which have been concluded in resolving and managing conflict arising through variances in stress level at the organizational hierarchy.

  5. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    A TEACHING MANUAL FOR AN ELEMENTARY (FIRST LEVEL) COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE COURSE USES AN AUDIOLINGUAL-TO-GRAPHIC APPROACH OF INSTRUCTION, DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR PARTS. THE FIRST PART EMPHASIZES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SKILLS IN PREREADING INSTRUCTIONAL EXERCISES. PART TWO CONSISTS OF A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE…

  6. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    , and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias......This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue...

  7. Subquantum level of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S S

    2002-01-01

    Not long ago spinors were considered as the simplest and most fundamental objects of particle physics. However it turns out that there exist more fundamental objects, from which spinors may be built (and, in this sense, they play the role of Kummer ideal numbers). We call they fundors. They are used in the description of a new more deep level of physical reality - pre-matter, from which usual elementary particles arise. Here, a mathematical carcass of the theory is built.

  8. Tissue-level cytoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Hightower, L E; Brown, M A; Renfro, J.L.; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T.; House, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprote...

  9. The Knowledge Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    precisely to realizing mental functions in physical systems. In the hands of Daniel Dennett (1978), a philosopher who has concerned himself rather...illustrated repeatedly by Dennett with the gross flow diagrams of AI programs. The intentional stance corresponds to the knowledge level. In...particular, Dennett takes the important step of jettisoning the major result-cum- assumption of the original doctrine, to wit, that the intentional is

  10. Zinc level and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Doaa S.E Zaky; Eman A Sultan; Mahmoud F Salim; Rana S Dawod

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic condition that is associated with disturbances in the metabolism of zinc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum zinc level and different clinical and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Patients and methods Twenty-four individuals with BMI more than 30 kg/m 2 and 14 healthy controls (BMI < 24 kg/m 2 ) were assessed for BMI and waist circumference using anthropometric measurements. Colorimetric tes...

  11. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  12. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  13. In-beam γ-ray Spectroscopy of Level Structure in 134Ba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoPeng; LiuMinliang; LiuZhong; ZhangYuhu; ZhouXiaohong; GuoYingxiang; MaYingjun; Y.Sasaki; K.Yamada; H.Ohshima; S.Yokose; M.Ishizuka; T.Komatsubara; K.Furuno

    2003-01-01

    Excited states of 134Ba, populated via the heavy-ion induced 128Te(10B, 1p3n)134Ba reaction at 46 MeV beam energy, have been studied to medium and high spins by in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy techniques. The experiment was performed at the tandem accelerator laboratory in the University of Tsukuba, Japan. The target is an isotopically enriched 128Te metallic foil of 2.3mg/cm2 thickness with a 3mg/cm2 gold backing. Nine anti-Compton HPGe detectors were employed for the measurements of γ-γ-t coincidences. The level scheme of 134Ba, deduced from this study, was shown in Fig.1.

  14. Level Width Broaden Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2004-01-01

    In fitting the double-differential measurements thelevelwidth broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg uncertainty.Besides level width broadening effect the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in this procedure.In general,the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed.However,the research indicates that to do so in this way the energy balance could not hold.For this reason,the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced,with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could hold exactly in the analytical form.

  15. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  16. Network security risk level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BURTESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of the existence of a computers network within any company with pretensions are obvious. But the construction and the existence of a network without meeting some minimum security requirements, although it would be preferable to be optimal, can lead to bad functioning in the performance of the company’s business. The vulnerability of a grouping, such as a network, is given by the weakest point in its competence. The establishing of the risk level of each component of the network, and implicitly of the grouping, is highly necessary

  17. Non-invasive submilligram level quantification of in vivo blood components with slitless high-sensitivity spectrometer and noncooled NIR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

    2015-03-01

    By using a "slit-less" Fourier-transform spectrometer, we demonstrate that cardiac-pulsation amplitude of absorbance can be extracted from 3.5-level absorbance unit (AU) spectra of a human fingertip with a resolution of blood components (water, HbO2, and lipids/proteins) in a fingertip are deduced in the sub-milligram order. The results indicate the capacity of the spectrometer for a portable non-invasive blood monitor as well as for a high-end analytic instrument.

  18. Identification of platform levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    reduction, ability to launch a wider product portfolio without increasing resources and reduction of complexity within the whole company. To support the multiple product development process, platform based product development has in many companies such as Philips, VW, Ford etc. proven to be a very effective...... because the nature of developing platforms and applications are very different. In single product development reuse is often determined by individual designers, in multiple product development reuse is to a large degree a management issue. It is difficult for a company to switch from single to multiple...... development will be examined. Based on the identification of the above characteristics five platform levels are described. The research presented in this paper is a result of MSc, Ph.D projects at the Technical University of Denmark and consultancy projects within the organisation of Institute of Product...

  19. Switch wear leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  20. Delineating mid- and low-level water vapor patterns in pre-convective environments using VAS moisture channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. A.; Uccellini, L. W.; Mostek, A.; Keyser, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared and visible imagery from VAS are used to delineate mid- and lower-tropospheric moisture fields for a variety of severe storm cases in the southern and central United States. The ability of sequences of images to isolate areas of large negative vertical moisture gradients and apparent convective instability prior to the onset of convective storms is assessed. A variety of image combination procedures are used to deduce the stability fields which are then compared with the available radiosonde data. The results for several severe storm cases indicate that VAS can detect mid- and low-level mesoscale water vapor fields as distinct radiometric signals. The VAS imagery shows a strong tendency for thunderstorms to develop along the edges of bands of midlevel dryness as they overtake either preexisting or developing low-level moisture maxima. Image sequences depict the speed with which deep moist and dry layers can develop and move.

  1. LHC Report: Level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is special: there is a limit to the number of the events the detector can handle per bunch crossing. Consequently the maximum luminosity provided in 2012 has been around 4 x1032 cm-2s-1 (compared to the maximum of 7.7 x1033 cm-2s-1 seen by ATLAS and CMS). Nonetheless LHCb still wants to integrate as much luminosity as possible.    To meet LHCb's requirements a luminosity leveling technique is used. A machine setup is chosen that would give a peak luminosity well above the required maximum if the beams are collided head-on at LHCb's interaction point. This peak luminosity is then reduced to the required maximum by moving the two beams transversely apart at the interaction point. As the beam current goes down during a fill, the beams can be moved together in small increments to keep the collision rate constant throughout the fill. In practice, when the LHC goes into collisions in LHCb, the initial luminosity is safely below LHCb's demanded le...

  2. Tissue-level cytoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; Brown; Renfro, J L; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T; House, S D

    2000-11-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation.

  3. Research on Precision of Trigonometric Leveling of North NTS-300 Electronic Total Station%南方NTS-300全站仪三角高程测量精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 谢力分

    2011-01-01

    According to the principle of trigonometric leveling of enctronic total station, formula of height difference of trigonometric leveling is deduced and precision which can be reached by using the measuring method is studied.%根据全站仪三角高程测量原理,推导了全站仪三角高程测量高差的公式,并对南方NTS-300全站仪进行三角高程测量能达到的精度进行了研究分析。

  4. Sequence analysis of luxS gene of Haemophilus parasuis and homology modeling of 3D structure of the deduced protein%副猪嗜血杆菌S-核糖基高半胱氨酸酶基因序列分析与推导蛋白三维结构的分子模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳平; 张杰; 陈豪泰; 马丽娜; 赵娜; 丁耀忠; 刘文倩; 王猛; 刘永生

    2011-01-01

    利用PCR方法获得副猪嗜血杆菌S-核糖基高半胱氨酸酶(luxS)基因全长DNA,将PCR纯化产物与pMD18-T载体连接并转化E.coil DH5α菌株,重组阳性质粒测序并采用生物信息学软件对所推导的氨基酸序列进行三维结构分析.结果表明,该基因全长510 bp,并与GenBank中登录的其他5株菌株luxS基因完整参考序列进行比较,同源性均在70%以上.用ExPAsy软件包预测了推导蛋白的特性,运用Swiss-PDB viewer软件的SWISS-Model处理器,并利用同源建模的思想建立HPS-luxS的三维结构.拉马钱德兰图证明,构建的luxS蛋白的空间结构是合理的.%Haemophilus parasuis luxS gene was amplified by PCR, the purified PCR product(510 bp) was cloned into pMD18-T vector and transformed into competent cell E.coil DH5α, the positive recombinant plasmid was sequenced.The nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared with the full-length sequence of the other five referred bacterial strains available on GenBank,identity was higher than 70%.The characteristics of deduced protein were predieted by ExPAsy software.The homology modeling of 3D structure was done by SWISS-Model of Swiss-PDB viewer.The Ramachandram Plot showed that the structure of modeled luxS protein was reasonable.

  5. The Contributing Factors of Black Humor Features of Mark Twain's Fiction Deducing from The Autobiography of Mark Twain%纪实与虚构的互应:从马克·吐温的自传看其小说黑色幽默特点的形成原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晖

    2011-01-01

    马克.吐温的自传与其创作的小说之间存在着纪实与虚构的互应关系。他的不少小说都具有明显的黑色幽默元素,从自传《马克.吐温回忆录》来看,吐温小说黑色幽默特点形成的原因主要包括四个方面:既充满欢乐又存在隐忧的童年生活,使其形成了独特的个性和思想;几位亲人的相继离去,逐渐改变了吐温对世事人生的看法,形成其幽默创作中的悲剧潜流;晚年生活的不幸,强化了他的悲观主义世界观;喜爱阅读自然科学书籍,也对形成其创作中的黑色幽默产生影响。%Mark Twain's autobiography and fiction echo each other.Some of his novels and stories possess black humor features.Deducing from The Autobiography of Mark Twain,we could find almost four contributing factors.Firstly,Twain's childhood is very happy and also has latent misery,which helps to form his peculiar personality and thought.Secondly,the deaths of several family members change his views on world and people step by step,and force him to add the tragic ingredient into his humor fiction.Thirdly,the misfortunes in his old age strengthen his pessimistic world outlook.Fourthly,he likes reading natural science books,which helps the formation of black humor features in his writing.

  6. Consistent estimate of ocean warming, land ice melt and sea level rise from Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Alejandro; Meyssignac, Benoît; Lemoine, Jean Michel

    2016-04-01

    Based on the sea level budget closure approach, this study investigates the consistency of observed Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) estimates from satellite altimetry, observed Ocean Thermal Expansion (OTE) estimates from in-situ hydrographic data (based on Argo for depth above 2000m and oceanic cruises below) and GRACE observations of land water storage and land ice melt for the period January 2004 to December 2014. The consistency between these datasets is a key issue if we want to constrain missing contributions to sea level rise such as the deep ocean contribution. Numerous previous studies have addressed this question by summing up the different contributions to sea level rise and comparing it to satellite altimetry observations (see for example Llovel et al. 2015, Dieng et al. 2015). Here we propose a novel approach which consists in correcting GRACE solutions over the ocean (essentially corrections of stripes and leakage from ice caps) with mass observations deduced from the difference between satellite altimetry GMSL and in-situ hydrographic data OTE estimates. We check that the resulting GRACE corrected solutions are consistent with original GRACE estimates of the geoid spherical harmonic coefficients within error bars and we compare the resulting GRACE estimates of land water storage and land ice melt with independent results from the literature. This method provides a new mass redistribution from GRACE consistent with observations from Altimetry and OTE. We test the sensibility of this method to the deep ocean contribution and the GIA models and propose best estimates.

  7. Level densities and γ-ray strength functions in Sn isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, H. K.; Larsen, A. C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Voinov, A.

    2010-06-01

    The nuclear level densities of Sn118,119 and the γ-ray strength functions of Sn116,118,119 below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the (He3,αγ) and (He3,He3'γ) reactions. The level-density function of Sn119 displays steplike structures. The microcanonical entropies are deduced from the level densities, and the single neutron entropy of Sn119 is determined to be 1.7 ± 0.2 kB. Results from a combinatorial model support the interpretation that some of the low-energy steps in the level density function are caused by neutron pair breaking. An enhancement in all the γ-ray strength functions of Sn116-119, compared to standard models for radiative strength, is observed for the γ-ray energy region of ≃4-11 MeV. These small resonances all have a centroid energy of 8.0(1) MeV and an integrated strength corresponding to 1.7(9)% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. The Sn resonances may be due to electric dipole neutron skin oscillations or to an enhancement of the giant magnetic dipole resonance.

  8. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  9. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P. [and others

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  10. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  11. The structure of the Martian cryolithosphere upper levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Bobina, N. N.; Zabalueva, E. V.; Shashkina, V. P.

    1988-01-01

    Structural inhomogeneities of the Martian cryolithosphere upper levels were studied by the proposed crater method. On the basis of analysis of 127 photomaps of 1:2 million scale morphological and morphometrical parameters of all the fresh craters larger than 1 km in diameter with fluidized ejecta and without it were investigated. Using the parameters of the craters, the roof depths of ice-bearing rocks were estimated and the data on the ice relative constant in the excavated permafrost layer were obtained. These data were used for the construction of maps of the boundary depth between ice-free nearsurface layer and ice-bearing rocks. A series of maps of the relative ice content for individual permafrost horizons was constructed. It was deduced from the obtained maps that the zone of the dryest nearsurface rocks on Mars is in the latitude belt + or - 30 degrees where maximum floor depths of the ice-bearing rocks vary from 400 to more than 400 m. It was found that the thickness of ice-free rocks in the Southern Hemisphere is larger than in the Northern one. The tendency of similarity of latitudinal zonality observed both on the maps of the minimal and mean roof depths may be considered as an indicator of structural stability of upper horizons of the Martian cryolithosphere down to the depths of 300 to 400 m. The areas of minimal ice content in the nearsurface layers coincide with the zone of maximum thickness of ice-free rocks. The ice relative content in Martian rocks becomes systematically higher from 30 deg latitude to the polars. The same tendency is observed in depth. The data obtained may be useful for the selecting of landing sites for Mars samples return and other missions.

  12. Levels in Games for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Moderator Tom; Belchior, Participants Patricia; Chamberlin, Barbara; Mellecker, Robin

    2014-04-01

    There is a time-honored procedure in games for pure entertainment wherein games challenge their players by offering successfully higher levels of difficulty. An eminent researcher proposed that player engagement and enjoyment require the player being constantly challenged, but at a level she or he can handle. A game's difficulty levels enable the player to face more difficult challenges as she or he builds gameplaying skills. Although levels work in games for entertainment, it is not clear how effective or important levels are in games for health, or how they are designed. We invited several accomplished games for health designers and researchers to discuss levels.

  13. ANALYZING THE SUCCESS LEVELS AND ATTITUDES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 7TH GRADE STUDENTS RELATED TO CULTURAL HERITAGE (ADIYAMAN PROVINCE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin DOĞAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the level of success which is related with the culturel heritage and the attitudes of 7th grade ( primary students, with some varianles. Theoretical content of this research tells about the importance of culturel heritage, its education and the relation between education and culture. In this study, hatching method is used which is one of the methods of quantative methods. This study is applied to 425 students in 14 schools in Adıyaman and Kahta. As a result of this research, it is proved that the 7th grade of students have positive attitudes and the average level of success towards to culturel heritage. At the same time, it is substantiated that there is is a positive relation between the attitude to culturel heritage and the success. Gf the success towards to culturel heritage heritage increases, this increase effect the attitudes automatically in a positive way. Morever, in this research, it is deduced that, sex has no effect on success and the attitudes towards to culturel heritage, but the level of economy effects the success and attitudes. The level of attitudes and success decline when the families income is under the level of minimal. Futhermore, when the education levels of the families increase, the level of success and the attitudes increases positively.

  14. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  15. MULTI-REGION SEGMENTATION OF SAR IMAGE BY A MULTIPHASE LEVEL SET APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yusheng; Cao Zongjie; Pi Yiming

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, a multiphase level set approach unifying region and boundary-based infor- mation for multi-region segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is presented. An energy functional that is applicable for SAR image segmentation is defined. It consists of two terms describing the local statistic characteristics and the gradient characteristics of SAR image respectively. A multiphase level set model that explicitly describes the different regions in one image is proposed. The purpose of such a multiphase model is not only to simplify the way of denoting multi-region by level set but also to guarantee the accuracy of segmentation. According to the presented multiphase model, the curve evolution equations with respect to edge curves are deduced. The multi-region segmentation is implemented by the numeric solution of the partial differential equations. The performance of the approach is verified by both simulation and real SAR images. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm reduces the speckle effect on segmentation and increases the boundary alignment accuracy, thus correctly divides the multi-region SAR image into different homogenous regions.

  16. Half-life Measurements of Excited Levels in Fission Products around Mass Number 150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Y., E-mail: kojima.yasuaki@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Shima, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, H. [Institute of Health Biosciences, the University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori 590-0494 (Japan); Shibata, M. [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    A spectrometer to measure nuclear level half-lives has been installed at the on-line isotope separator of the Kyoto University Reactor. This spectrometer consists of a LaBr3 scintillator, a thin plastic scintillator and an HPGe detector. Half-lives are deduced using the β-γ-γ delayed coincidence method. The prompt-time distribution curves measured with the spectrometer give a time resolution (FWHM) of 600 ps for 100-keV γ rays. This resolution means that half-lives down to the subnanosecond range or shorter can be measured. We reported recent measurements of the half-life of {sup 149}Pr and {sup 149}Nd. Some of the more interesting results include the first determination of the half-lives of {sup 149}Pr levels at 86.5 and 125.6 keV, which are 4.2(5) ns and 1.0(2) ns, respectively. In addition, the data indicate that the half-life of the 270.8-keV level in {sup 149}Nd is not 5.1(3) ns as reported previously, but 0.42(3) ns.

  17. Acceptable contamination levels in solar grade silicon: From feedstock to solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jasmin.hofstetter@ies-def.upm.es; Lelievre, J.F.; Canizo, C.; Luque, A. del [Instituto de Energia Solar, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Ultimately, alternative ways of silicon purification for photovoltaic applications are developed and applied. There is an ongoing debate about what are the acceptable contamination levels within the purified silicon feedstock to specify the material as solar grade silicon. Applying a simple model and making some additional assumptions, we calculate the acceptable contamination levels of different characteristic impurities for each fabrication step of a typical industrial mc-Si solar cell. The acceptable impurity concentrations within the finished solar cell are calculated for SRH recombination exclusively and under low injection conditions. It is assumed that during solar cell fabrication impurity concentrations are only altered by a gettering step. During the crystallization process, impurity segregation at the solid-liquid interface and at extended defects are taken into account. Finally, the initial contamination levels allowed within the feedstock are deduced. The acceptable concentration of iron in the finished solar cell is determined to be 9.7x10{sup -3} ppma whereas the concentration in the silicon feedstock can be as high as 12.5 ppma. In comparison, the titanium concentration admitted in the solar cell is calculated to be 2.7x10{sup -4} ppma and the allowed concentration of 2.2x10{sup -2} ppma in the feedstock is only two orders of magnitude higher. Finally, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that slow cooling rates can lead to a decrease of the interstitial Fe concentration and thus relax the purity requirements in the feedstock.

  18. Helium II level measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  19. OCR A level computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, George; O'Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Develop confident students with our expert authors: their insight and guidance will ensure a thorough understanding of OCR A Level computer science, with challenging tasks and activities to test essential analytical and problem-solving skills. - Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A Level Computer Science specification and written by a trusted and experienced author team, OCR Computer Science for A Level:- Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A Level Computer Science specification and written by a trusted and experienced author team, OCR Computer Science for A Level:- Builds stu

  20. Retailer’s lot-sizing policy under two warehouses and two levels of delay permitted using algebraic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to modify Huang’s model [13] by considering two warehouses. In addition, we try to use algebraic method to determine the optimal lot-sizing policy for the retailer under two warehouses and two levels of delay permitted. This paper provides this algebraic approach that could be used easily to introduce the basic inventory theories to younger students who lack the knowledge of calculus. Furthermore, we develop three easy-to-use theorems to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and optimal lot sizing for the retailer. As a result, we deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate these theorems obtained in this paper. In addition, we obtain a lot of managerial insights from this numerical example.

  1. A fast and robust level set method for image segmentation using fuzzy clustering and lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla-Arabé, Souleymane; Gao, Xinbo; Wang, Bin

    2013-06-01

    In the last decades, due to the development of the parallel programming, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has attracted much attention as a fast alternative approach for solving partial differential equations. In this paper, we first designed an energy functional based on the fuzzy c-means objective function which incorporates the bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity of the real-world image. Using the gradient descent method, we obtained the corresponding level set equation from which we deduce a fuzzy external force for the LBM solver based on the model by Zhao. The method is fast, robust against noise, independent to the position of the initial contour, effective in the presence of intensity inhomogeneity, highly parallelizable and can detect objects with or without edges. Experiments on medical and real-world images demonstrate the performance of the proposed method in terms of speed and efficiency.

  2. Pellissier H5 hydrostatic level

    CERN Document Server

    Imfeld, H L

    2003-01-01

    Conventional spirit leveling using double scale invar rods has been in use at SLAC for some time as the standard method of obtaining very precise height difference information. Typical accuracy of +- 100 (micro)m and better can routinely be achieved. Procedures and software have evolved to the point where the method is relatively fast and reliable. However, recent projects such as the Final Focus Test Beam have pushed the requested vertical positioning tolerances for alignment of quadrupoles to the 30 mu m level. It is apparent that conventional spirit leveling cannot achieve this level of accuracy. To meet the challenge, the alignment group contracted with Pellissier, Inc. to develop a portable hydrostatic leveling system. The H5 grew out of this development effort and is expected to provide the needed accuracy and ease of use required for such vertical positioning projects. The H5 hydrostatic level is a portable instrument that under ideal operating conditions will provide elevation differences with an accu...

  3. Developing new levels of edit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) staff have had four levels of edit to choose from for technical reports. When a CQI survey showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, LANL set about revising them. The goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure value added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product--three author-based levels of edit.

  4. Developing new levels of edit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, J.; DeLanoy, M.; Deupree, R.; Skiby, J.; Thompson, B.

    1998-07-01

    In 1985, the writing and editing group at Los Alamos National Laboratory established four levels of edit for technical reports. When a survey in 1994 showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, the authors set about revising them. Their goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure that value was added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product -- three author-based levels of edit.

  5. AQA A level computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Bob

    2015-01-01

    AQA A-level Computer Science gives students the chance to think creatively and progress through the AQA AS and A-level Computer Science specifications. Detailed coverage of the specifications will enrich understanding of the fundamental principles of computing, whilst a range of activities help to develop the programming skills and computational thinking skills at A-level and beyond. - Enables students to build a thorough understanding of the fundamental principles in the AQA AS and A-Level Computer Science specifications, with detailed coverage of programming, algorithms, data structures a

  6. Low Light Level TV Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, J

    1970-10-01

    As the science of low light level sensing becomes better understood, the demand for systems with this capability has increased considerably in recent years. Low light level television systems are part of these low light sensing devices in which interest has grown. Development of low light level TV systems has, in turn, stimulated technical advances in new tube types with improved performance, development of electronic techniques which enhance the over-all performance, and design techniques which make the system more versatile and adaptable. A general look at some of these developments and techniques gives insight into the versatility and adaptability of low light level TV.

  7. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  8. Amplitude of late Miocene sea-level fluctuations from karst development in reef-slope deposits (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reolid, Jesús; Betzler, Christian; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    A prograding late Miocene carbonate platform in southern Spain revealing different sea-level pinning points was analysed with the aim to increase the accuracy of reconstruction of past sea-level changes. These pinning points are distinct diagenetic zones (DZ) and the position of reef-framework deposits. DZ1 is defined by the dissolution of bioclastic components and DZ2 by calcitic cement precipitation in dissolution pores. Calcite cements are granular and radiaxial fibrous, and are of meteoric origin as deduced from cathodoluminescence, EDX spectroscopy, as well as from δ13C and δ18O isotope analyses. DZ3 has moldic porosity after aragonitic bioclasts with minor granular calcitic cements. DZ1 and DZ2 indicate karstification and the development of a coastal palaeoaquifer during a sea-level lowstand. DZ3 diagenetic features are related to the final subaerial exposure of the section during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Facies and diagenetic data reveal a complete cycle of sea-level fall (23 ± 1 m) and rise (31 ± 1 m). A robust age model based on magneto- and cyclostratigraphy for these deposits places this cycle between 5.89 and 5.87 Ma. Therefore, for the first time, this work allows a direct comparison of an outcrop with a pelagic marine proxy record of a specific Neogene sea-level fluctuation.

  9. Effects of temperature distribution and level on heat transfer on a rotating free disk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xi; XU Guo-qiang; LUO Xiang

    2011-01-01

    In gas turbine engines, with the existence of the intense forced convection and significant buoyancy effects, temperature distribution and level on turbine or compressor disks affect the heat transfer characteristics strongly. In this paper, numerical simulations were performed to analyze these influences for a free disk, with the laminar and turbulent flow respectively. The influences of temperature distribution on the heat transfer were observed by using incompressible cooling air, and temperature profiles of nth order monomial and polynomial were assumed on the disk. The analysis revealed that the heat transfer for two flow states on the free disk is determined by the exponent n of the monomial profile when specifying the rotating Reynolds number; for an arbitrary polynomial profile, the local Nusselt number can be deduced from results of monomial profiles. To study the effects of temperature level on heat transfer singly, monomial profiles were used and the local Nusselt number of compressible and incompressible cooling air were compared. And both for two flow states, the following conclusions could be drawn: the relative difference of local Nusselt number is mainly controlled by nondimensional local temperature difference, and almost independent of the monomial's coefficient C, exponent n and the rotating Reynolds number. Subsequently, a correction method for heat transfer of the free disk is presented and verified computationally, with which the local Nusselt number, obtained with a uniform and low temperature profile, can be revised by arbitrary distribution and high temperature magnitude.

  10. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  11. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  12. Landau levels for electromagnetic wave

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that the frequencies of propagating electromagnetic wave (photon) in rotating dielectric media obey Landau quantization. We show that the degeneracy of right and left helicities of photons is broken on the lowest Landau level. In spatially homogeneous system this level is shown to be helical, i.e. left and right helical photons counter-propagate.

  13. Late quaternary sea level changes of Gabes coastal plain and shelf: Identification of the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, southern Mediterranean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maher Gzam; Noureddine El Mejdoub; Younes Jedoui

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Gabes is outlined, during the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, by the genesis of forced regressive beach ridges situated respectively at –19 m b.s.l/100 ka and –8 m b.s.l/80 ka. This area, considered as a stable domain since at least the last 130 ka (Bouaziz et al. 2003), is a particular zone for the reconstruction of the late quaternary sea-level changes in the region. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and field observations are highlighted to deduce interaction between hydrodynamic factors and antecedent topography. Variations in geomorphology were attributed to geological inheritance. Petrography and sedimentary facies of the submerged coastal ridges reveal that the palaeocoastal morphology was more agitated than today and the fluvial discharges are consistent. Actual morphologic trend deduced from different environment coasts (sandy coasts, sea cliffs and tidal flat) is marked by accumulation of marine sands and progradation.

  14. Conceptual framework for biosecurity levels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-10-01

    Biosecurity must be implemented without impeding biomedical and bioscience research. Existing security literature and regulatory requirements do not present a comprehensive approach or clear model for biosecurity, nor do they wholly recognize the operational issues within laboratory environments. To help address these issues, the concept of Biosecurity Levels should be developed. Biosecurity Levels would have increasing levels of security protections depending on the attractiveness of the pathogens to adversaries. Pathogens and toxins would be placed in a Biosecurity Level based on their security risk. Specifically, the security risk would be a function of an agent's weaponization potential and consequences of use. To demonstrate the concept, examples of security risk assessments for several human, animal, and plant pathogens will be presented. Higher security than that currently mandated by federal regulations would be applied for those very few agents that represent true weapons threats and lower levels for the remainder.

  15. Spins and Magnetic Moments of $^{49}$K and $^{51}$K: establishing the 1/2$^+$ and 3/2$^+$ level ordering beyond $N$ = 28

    CERN Document Server

    Papuga, J; Kreim, K; Blaum, K; Brown, B A; De Rydt, M; Ruiz, R F Garcia; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Otsuka, T; Rajabali, M M; Sánchez, R; Utsuno, Y; Yordanov, D T

    2013-01-01

    The ground-state spins and magnetic moments of $^{49,51}$K have been measured using bunched-beam high-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE-CERN. For $^{49}$K a ground-state spin $I = 1/2$ was firmly established. The observed hyperfine structure of $^{51}$K requires a spin $I > 1/2$ and from its magnetic moment $\\mu(^{51}\\text{K})= +0.5129(22)\\, \\mu_N$ a spin/parity $I^\\pi=3/2^+$ with a dominant $\\pi 1d_{3/2}^{-1}$ hole configuration was deduced. This establishes for the first time the re-inversion of the single-particle levels and illustrates the prominent role of the residual monopole interaction for single-particle levels and shell evolution.

  16. Improvement of Global and Regional Mean Sea Level Trends Derived from all Altimetry Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary

    2012-07-01

    The global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993 using data from satellite altimetry missions. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 is increasing with a global trend of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL Aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from +/- 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend uncertainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in Sea Level Essential Climate Variable Project in the frame of the Climate Change Initiative, an ESA Programme, in addition to activities performed within the SALP/CNES, strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections allowing us to link regional time series together better. These improvements are described at global and regional scale for all the altimetry missions.

  17. Methane Liquid Level Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Methane Liquid-Level Sensor, (MLS) for In-Space cryogenic storage capable of continuous monitoring of...

  18. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  19. Affine morphisms at zero level

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Given a finite index subfactor, we show that the {\\em affine morphisms at zero level} in the affine category over the planar algebra associated to the subfactor is isomorphic to the fusion algebra of the subfactor as a *-algebra.

  20. Time orientation and construal level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Jannette; Handgraaf, Michel J.J.; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Eating and exercising behaviour are both characterized by immediate and future consequences. Consequently, consideration of these consequences (i.e. time orientation) predicts eating and exercising behaviour. We investigate whether construal level acts as an underlying mechanism of these relations.

  1. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  2. Cambridge technicals level 3 IT

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Victoria; Middleton, Saundra

    2016-01-01

    Support your teaching of the new Cambridge Technicals 2016 suite with Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT, developed in partnership between OCR and Hodder Education; this textbook covers each specialist pathway and ensures your ability to deliver a flexible course that is both vocationally focused and academically thorough. Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT is matched exactly to the new specification and follows specialist pathways in IT Infrastructure Technician, Emerging Digital Technology Practitioner, Application Developer, and Data Analyst. - Ensures effective teaching of each specialis

  3. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml, only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid.

  4. Social Structural Effects on the Level and Development of the Individual Experience of Anomie in the German Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Davidov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Can one observe an increasing level of individual lack of orientation because of rapid social change in modern societies? This question is examined using data from a representative longitudinal survey in Germany conducted in 2002–04. The study examines the role of education, age, sex, region (east/west, and political orientation for the explanation of anomia (micro level and its development. First we present the different sources of anomie in modern societies, based on the theoretical foundations of Durkheim and Merton, and introduce the different definitions of anomia, including our own cognitive version. Then we deduce several hypotheses from the theory, which we test by means of longitudinal data for the period 2002–04 in Germany using the latent growth curve model as our statistical method. The empirical findings show that all the sociodemographic variables, including political orientation, are strong predictors of the initial level of anomia. Regarding the development of anomia (macro level over time (2002–04, only the region (west has a significant impact. In particular, the results of a multi-group analysis show that people from West-Germany with a right-wing political orientation become more anomic over this period. The article concludes with some theoretical implications.

  5. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Amos A. de, E-mail: amosdejong@gmail.com [Innovation Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Section of Environmental Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: piety.runhaar@wur.nl [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: Akolhoff@eia.nl [The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@geo.uu.nl [Department of Innovation and Environment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better

  6. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  7. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  8. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  9. Landau Levels in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Giordano, Matteo; Katz, Sandor D; Kovacs, Tamas G; Pittler, Ferenc; Wellnhofer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of the two-dimensional continuum Dirac operator in the presence of a uniform background magnetic field consists of Landau levels, which are degenerate and separated by gaps. On the lattice the Landau levels are spread out by discretization artefacts, but a remnant of their structure is clearly visible (Hofstadter butterfly). If one switches on a non-Abelian interaction, the butterfly structure will be smeared out, but the lowest Landau level (LLL) will still be separated by a gap from the rest of the spectrum. In this talk we discuss how one can define the LLL in QCD and check how well certain physical quantities are approximated by taking into account only the LLL.

  10. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  11. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported.

  12. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported.

  13. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  14. Differential responses of soil nematode community to pig manure application levels in Ferric Acrisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ru; Li, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Tao-Lin; Wang, Xing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha−1·yr−1) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation. Simpson diversity index and plant parasite index/maturity index of the nematode communities increased to a maximum level at a manure application rate of 3.5 t·ha−1·yr−1 and then sharply decreased. The changes in the soil nematode community were further determined to be correlated with chemical properties; available phosphorus had the strongest quadratic correlation with the two indices, implying that available phosphorus had a better indicative effect than other soil properties to nematode community. Available phosphorus in soil was deduced from 49 to 64 mg·kg−1 with the best nematode communities. Our results emphasized the importance of regular applications of manure in agriculture field to balance nematode diversity and build healthy agro-ecosystems. PMID:27734955

  15. Sulfur incorporation in high level nuclear waste glass: A S K-edge XAFS investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendebach, B.; Denecke, M. A.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2009-11-01

    We perform X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy measurements at the sulfur K-edge to elucidate the electronic and geometric bonding of sulfur atoms in borosilicate glass used for the vitrification of high level radioactive liquid waste. The sulfur is incorporated as sulfate, most probably as sodium sulfate, which can be deduced from the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) by fingerprint comparison with reference compounds. This finding is backed up by Raman spectroscopy investigation. In the extended XAFS data, no second shell beyond the first oxygen layer is visible. We argue that this is due to the sulfate being present as small clusters located into voids of the borosilicate network. Hence, destructive interference of the variable surrounding prohibits the presence of higher shell signals. The knowledge of the sulfur bonding characteristics is essential for further optimization of the glass composition and to balance the requirements of the process and glass quality parameters, viscosity and electrical resistivity on one side, waste loading and sulfur uptake on the other side.

  16. Differential responses of soil nematode community to pig manure application levels in Ferric Acrisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ru; Li, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Tao-Lin; Wang, Xing-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha‑1·yr‑1) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation. Simpson diversity index and plant parasite index/maturity index of the nematode communities increased to a maximum level at a manure application rate of 3.5 t·ha‑1·yr‑1 and then sharply decreased. The changes in the soil nematode community were further determined to be correlated with chemical properties; available phosphorus had the strongest quadratic correlation with the two indices, implying that available phosphorus had a better indicative effect than other soil properties to nematode community. Available phosphorus in soil was deduced from 49 to 64 mg·kg‑1 with the best nematode communities. Our results emphasized the importance of regular applications of manure in agriculture field to balance nematode diversity and build healthy agro-ecosystems.

  17. Reduction of parathyoid hormone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A method of acutely reducing the plasma level of PTH of a patient having an elevated PTH comprising the administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a GLP-2, or a variant, an analogue, or derivative of GLP-2 having the ability to bind and activate a GLP-2 receptor such as GLP-2 1-34...

  18. Trainer Talk: Levels of Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present examples of trainer talk that scaffold trainee teachers' understanding of teaching in a post-observation feedback session. Previous research into scaffolding in a teacher training context describes scaffolding at a technique or strategy level, without describing how, in linguistic terms, the trainer can support and…

  19. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  20. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  1. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N ×N matrices linear in a real parameter x . The matrix H (x ) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n >1 of linearly independent commuting partners Hi(x ) (integrals of motion) "]Hi(x ) ,Hj(x ) ]">H (x ) ,Hi(x ) =0 , for all x . In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H (x ) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N →∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN ; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x =x0 or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O (N-0.5) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  2. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  3. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A; Shastry, B Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N×N matrices linear in a real parameter x. The matrix H(x) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n>1 of linearly independent commuting partners H^{i}(x) (integrals of motion) [H(x),H^{i}(x)]=0, [H^{i}(x),H^{j}(x)]=0, for all x. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H(x) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N→∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x=x_{0} or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O(N^{-0.5}) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  4. GOCE level 2 gravity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.; Fiorot, S.; Fuchs, M.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Tscherning, C.C.; Veicherts, M.; Visser, P.N.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Two of the GOCE Level 2 products are the gravity gradients (GGs) in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and the GGs in the Local North-Oriented Frame (LNOF). The GRF is an instrument frame and the GGs are derived from the L1b GGs. The L1b to L2 GG processing involves corrections for temporal gravi

  5. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave stati...

  6. REVERSE LOGISTICS RETAIL LEVEL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  7. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Delpisheh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  8. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine…

  9. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL; ENEA CONSTANTA

    2014-01-01

    The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a...

  10. Developing first-level leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestland, Andreas; Hanig, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Oil and energy corporation BP was well aware of the importance of its work group managers on the front lines. Their decisions, in aggregate, make an enormous difference in BP's turnover, costs, quality control, safety, innovation, and environmental performance. There were about 10,000 such supervisors, working in every part of the company-from solar plants in Spain, to drilling platforms in the North Sea, to marketing teams in Chicago. Some 70% to 80% of BP employees reported directly to these lower-level managers. Yet, until recently, the corporation didn't have a comprehensive training program--let alone an official name--for them. For their part, the frontline managers felt disconnected; it was often hard for them to understand how their individual decisions contributed to the growth and reputation of BP as a whole. In this article, BP executive Andreas Priestland and Dialogos VP Robert Hanig describe how BP in the past five years has learned to connect with this population of managers. After one and a half years of design and development, there is now a companywide name--"first-level leaders"--and a comprehensive training program for this cohort. The authors describe the collaborative effort they led to create the program's four components: Supervisory Essentials, Context and Connections, the Leadership Event, and Peer Partnerships. The design team surveyed those it had deemed first-level leaders and others throughout BP; extensively benchmarked other companies' training efforts for lower-level managers; and conducted a series of pilot programs that involved dozens of advisers. The training sessions were first offered early in 2002, and since then, more than 8000 of BP's first-level leaders have attended. The managers who've been through training are consistently ranked higher in performance than those who haven't, both by their bosses and by the employees who report to them, the authors say.

  11. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure.

  12. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

  13. Random fluctuations of snow accumulation over antarctica and their relation to sea level change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, F.; Testut, L.; Legresy, B. [LEGOS (CNRS-CNES-UPS), Toulouse (France)

    2002-07-01

    Short-term changes in the volume of ice sheets as analyzed by radar altimetry may not be related to long-term climatic change. Indeed, the large relaxation time of an ice sheet induces a low-frequency response to random fluctuations of snow accumulation. However, the time scale of the response is big compared to the average human lifetime and the effect of these random fluctuations on sea level change may be important even if they are not linked to climatic change. In this study, the relaxation time of an ice sheet is expressed with respect to the ice thickness, surface slope and ice velocity. These parameters are deduced from the precise topography derived from the geodetic cycle of the ERS1 radar altimeter. The variance of the induced effect on ice elevation is found to be around 3 m over a 30-year scale and with a maximum of 10 m in Wilkes Land and in the western part of the West Antarctic ice sheet. Near the coast, this effect can mask a climatic signal and thus be critical for altimetric mass balance surveys. The estimated changes in Antarctica's elevation between the Seasat (1978) and ERS (1993) epochs could be explained at least partially by such processes. In terms of sea level change over the 30-year scale, the standard deviation of the induced effect is 8 {+-} 2.8 cm. Finally, we show that the probability of a present-day, induced sea level rise of between 0.5 and 1 mm/year over a 30-year time scale is estimated at 10% {+-} 10%, with coastal areas accounting for half of this signal. (orig.)

  14. Landau levels and Riemann zeros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Germán; Townsend, Paul K

    2008-09-12

    The number N(E) of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function with positive imaginary part less than E is the sum of a "smooth" function N[over ](E) and a "fluctuation." Berry and Keating have shown that the asymptotic expansion of N[over ](E) counts states of positive energy less than E in a "regularized" semiclassical model with classical Hamiltonian H=xp. For a different regularization, Connes has shown that it counts states "missing" from a continuum. Here we show how the "absorption spectrum" model of Connes emerges as the lowest Landau level limit of a specific quantum-mechanical model for a charged particle on a planar surface in an electric potential and uniform magnetic field. We suggest a role for the higher Landau levels in the fluctuation part of N(E).

  15. Biopower at the molar level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Martin; Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade or so much social science research on the developments in the life sciences and biomedicine seems to be focusing too narrowly on individualization or, more recently, on geneticization, that is, the ‘molecular’ level. This article argues that current public health policies...... in Denmark can only be properly understood by paying attention to the interventions targeting society and the population, that is, the ‘molar’ level, as well. Although the racialized kinds of biopower of the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries may be history, the health and vigour of populations......, the society and ‘its’ population today serves as a benchmark for a wide array public interventions seeking to make individuals and groups live a life that is longer and of a better quality. This new strategy, which goes well beyond reducing mortality and sickness, seems in principle to be without political...

  16. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  17. Metallochaperones regulate intracellular copper levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lee Pang

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an important enzyme co-factor that is also extremely toxic at high intracellular concentrations, making active efflux mechanisms essential for preventing Cu accumulation. Here, we have investigated the mechanistic role of metallochaperones in regulating Cu efflux. We have constructed a computational model of Cu trafficking and efflux based on systems analysis of the Cu stress response of Halobacterium salinarum. We have validated several model predictions via assays of transcriptional dynamics and intracellular Cu levels, discovering a completely novel function for metallochaperones. We demonstrate that in addition to trafficking Cu ions, metallochaperones also function as buffers to modulate the transcriptional responsiveness and efficacy of Cu efflux. This buffering function of metallochaperones ultimately sets the upper limit for intracellular Cu levels and provides a mechanistic explanation for previously observed Cu metallochaperone mutation phenotypes.

  18. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  19. Landau levels and Riemann zeros

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, German

    2008-01-01

    The number $N(E)$ of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function with positive imaginary part less than $E$ is the sum of a `smooth' function $\\bar N(E)$ and a `fluctuation'. Berry and Keating have shown that the asymptotic expansion of $\\bar N(E)$ counts states of positive energy less than $E$ in a `regularized' semi-classical model with classical Hamiltonian $H=xp$. For a different regularization, Connes has shown that it counts states `missing' from a continuum. Here we show how the `absorption spectrum' model of Connes emerges as the lowest Landau level limit of a specific quantum mechanical model for a charged particle on a planar surface in an electric potential and uniform magnetic field. We suggest a role for the higher Landau levels in the fluctuation part of $N(E)$.

  20. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  1. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  2. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  3. Level structure of 159Lu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Hai-Qing; ZHAI Jian; LI Xian-Feng; MA Ying-Jun; ZHAO Yan-Xin; WANG Ya-Kun; ZHAO Lei; ZHU Li-Hua; WU Xiao-Guang; HE Chuang-Ye; LIU Yin; HAO Xin; LI Xue-Qin

    2009-01-01

    The high-spin states of 159Lu were populated by fusion-evaporation reaction 144Sm (19F, 4n) with beam energy 106 MeV. A new level scheme was established, which consists of the yrast band with negative parity, the octupole vibration band based on the states and quasipartical band with positive parity. The high spin states of 159Lu were discussed by systemic characteristics.

  4. System-level musings about system-level science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.

    2009-12-01

    In teleology, a system has a purpose. In physics, a system has a tendency. For example, a mechanical system has a tendency to lower its potential energy. A thermodynamic system has a tendency to increase its entropy. Therefore, if geospace is seen as a system, what is its tendency? Surprisingly or not, there is no simple answer to this question. Or, to flip the statement, the answer is complex, or complexity. We can understand generally why complexity arises, as the geospace boundary is open to influences from the solar wind and Earth’s atmosphere and components of the system couple to each other in a myriad of ways to make the systemic behavior highly nonlinear. But this still begs the question: What is the system-level approach to geospace science? A reductionist view might assert that as our understanding of a component or subsystem progresses to a certain point, we can couple some together to understand the system on a higher level. However, in practice, a subsystem can almost never been observed in isolation with others. Even if such is possible, there is no guarantee that the subsystem behavior will not change when coupled to others. Hence, there is no guarantee that a subsystem, such as the ring current, has an innate and intrinsic behavior like a hydrogen atom. An absolutist conclusion from this logic can be sobering, as one would have to trace a flash of aurora to the nucleosynthesis in the solar core. The practical answer, however, is more promising; it is a mix of the common sense we call reductionism and awareness that, especially when strongly coupled, subsystems can experience behavioral changes, breakdowns, and catastrophes. If the stock answer to the systemic tendency of geospace is complexity, the objective of the system-level approach to geospace science is to define, measure, and understand this complexity. I will use the example of magnetotail dynamics to illuminate some key points in this talk.

  5. Myeloperoxidase levels predict executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslacher, H; Perkmann, T; Lukas, I; Barth, A; Ponocny-Seliger, E; Michlmayr, M; Scheichenberger, V; Wagner, O; Winker, R

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether baseline myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are associated with executive cognitive function in individuals with high physical activity. Baseline serum MPO levels of 56 elderly marathon runners and 58 controls were assessed by ELISA. Standardized tests were applied to survey domain-specific cognitive functions. Changes in brain morphology were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). High baseline serum MPO levels correlated with worse outcome in tests assessing executive cognitive function in athletes but not in the control group (NAI maze test p<0.05, Trail Making Test ratio p<0.01). In control participants, subcortical white matter hyperintensities were associated with higher scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (p<0.05), whereas athletes seem to be protected from this effect. During strenuous exercising, MPO as well as its educts may be elevated due to increased oxygen intake and excretion of pro-inflammatory mediators inducing host tissue damage via oxidative stress. This outweighs the potential benefits of physical activity on cognitive function.

  6. Level of Sexual Myths Level in Premature Ejaculation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine level of belief in sexual myths in the cases of premature ejacula­tion (PE which is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Methods: This study included 100 cases who applied Di­cle University Faculty of Medicine hospitals meet prema­ture ejaculation criteria of DSM-5 and 70 healthy controls. Sociodemographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rat­ing Scale (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAS, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASES-Men form and Sexual Myths Evaluation Form were applied to partici­pants. Results: In the study, rate of belief in sexual myths in PE cases was found significantly higher than healthy controls. In the PE cases, education time less than 10 years, the presence of comorbid sexual dysfunction were found to be statistically significant factors that increase the level of belief in sexual myths in the PE cases, HDS (p=0.0002, HAS (p=0.0001, ASES (p=0.0004 scores were statisti­cally significantly higher than the control group. In the loss of sexual desire in men with comorbid ASES (p=0.0001, with ED, ASES (p=0.001 and HDS (p=0.040 scores were found statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Sexual information should be given in the appropriate age by educated person in educational insti­tutions.

  7. Macroeconomic level of technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available World practice of economic management has proved that the best indicator of competitiveness is achieved by that economic system, the economic units of which timely and adequately update the resource and technical base, thus achieving higher financial and economic indicators. Ensuring that sustainable development becomes possible due to the transfer of technological innovations, namely the diffusion from the developer to the customer on both commercial and free of charge basis. The article focuses on functioning of technology transfer at the macro level, namely the creation of its domestic models.

  8. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  9. Level structure of 89Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermúdez, G.; Cardona, M. A.; Ribas, R. V.; Filevich, A.; Achterberg, E.; Szybisz, L.

    1993-10-01

    The level structure of 89Mo has been studied with the 60Ni(32S,2pn) reaction at 110 MeV beam energy. Mainly two bands of γ rays depopulating states of probable spin-parity values ranging up to (27/2)+ were determined from the excitation function, neutron and γ-γ coincidences, and γ-ray angular distributions. The high-spin states of 89Mo show a scheme very similar to that of the 87Zr isotone. The interpretation of these states in terms of the three neutron-hole configuration (νg9/2)-3 and core-excited states is discussed.

  10. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable $N\\times N$ matrices linear in a real parameter $x$. The matrix $H(x)$ is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number $n>1$ of linearly independent commuting partners $H^i(x)$ (integrals of motion) $\\left[H(x),H^i(x)\\right] = 0$, $\\left[H^i(x), H^j(x)\\right]$ = 0, for all $x$. In a recent work, we developed a basis-independent construction of $H(x)$ for any $n$ from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determin...

  11. System-level flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Eardley, D. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Happer, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; LeLevier, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Nierenberg, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Press, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Ruderman, M. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Sullivan, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; York, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  12. Level Structure in 190Tl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XieChengying; ZhouXiaohong; ZhangYuhu; GuoYingxiang; LeiXiangguo; SongLitao; WangHualei; LiuMinliang; ZhengYong; GuoWentao; YuHaiping; LuoPeng; WenShuxian; ZhuLihua; WuXiaoguang

    2003-01-01

    The high-spin states of very neutron-deficient doubly odd nucleus 190T1 have been investigated via the 160Gd(35C1, 5n)190T1 reaction by using techniques of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Measurements of X-γ and γ-γ-t coincidences were performed with 12BGO(AC)HPGe detectors. Based on the gated spectra, γ-γ coinci-dence relationships, γ ray energy sums, γ ray relative intensities and the previous work, the level scheme

  13. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    be converted into sea level height by using the hydrostatic equation. Radar gauge uses a radar sensor, kept at a height looking down the sea, sends out a pulse of radio waves and measures the travel time to be reflected off the surface and back... to the sensor. By using the travel time and the speed of radio waves one can estimate the sea surface height. The tide gauge data have been analysed and used to predict the time of ‘high tide’ and ‘low tide’, which are used by ships to decide the timing...

  14. Levels 3-4 English

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together the essential close reading skills needed by students taking part in the Broad General Education, Levels 3-4 (in S1 to S3).Split into two parts, the first section uses examples, models and active-learning tasks to teach key concepts of reading for understanding, analysis and evaluation. The second section provides 15 practice assessments, based on a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts, which become progressively more challenging. As well as allowing learners to demonstrate BGE reading skills, this section serves as a useful precursor to the

  15. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Using a digital micromirror device to control both amplitude and phase, we inject arbitrary optical modes into our resonator. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We show that there is a conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  16. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  17. About disposition of energy levels

    CERN Document Server

    Liverts, Evgeny Z

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of central potential of the form $-\\beta e^{-r}r^{\\gamma}$ were studied using the recently developed critical parameter technique. The particular cases of $\\gamma=0$ and $\\gamma=-1$ yield, respectively, the exponential and Yukawa potentials widely used in the atomic, molecular and nuclear physics. We found different behavior of the energy levels of this potential for three different ranges of the value of $\\gamma$. For $\\gamma\\geq0$ it was found that the energy of bound states with the same principal quantum number $N$ decreases with increasing angular momentum $\\ell$. The Gaussian and Woods-Saxon potentials also show this behavior. On the contrary, for $-2\\leq\\gamma\\leq-1$ increasing $\\ell$ gives a higher energy, resembling the Hulthen potential. However, a potential with $-1<\\gamma<0$ possesses mixed properties, which give rise to several interesting results. For one, the order of energy levels with different quantum numbers is not preserved when varying the parameter $\\beta$. Th...

  18. Making predictions skill level analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarína, Krišková; Marián, Kireš

    2017-01-01

    The current trend in the education is focused on skills that are cross-subject and have a great importance for the pupil future life. Pupils should acquire different types of skills during their education to be prepared for future careers and life in the 21st century. Physics as a subject offers many opportunities for pupils' skills development. One of the skills that are expected to be developed in physics and also in other sciences is making predictions. The prediction, in the meaning of the argument about what may happen in the future, is an integral part of the empirical cognition, in which students confront existing knowledge and experience with new, hitherto unknown and surprising phenomena. The extent of the skill is the formulation of hypotheses, which is required in the upper secondary physics education. In the contribution, the prediction skill is specified and its eventual levels are classified. Authors focus on the tools for skill level determination based on the analysis of pupils` worksheets. Worksheets are the part of the educational activities conducted within the Inquiry Science Laboratory Steelpark. Based on the formulation of pupils' prediction the pupils thinking can be seen and their understanding of the topic, as well as preconceptions and misconceptions.

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  20. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  1. CO2 and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  2. Last deglacial relative sea level variations in Antarctica derived from glacial isostatic adjustment modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun'ichi Okuno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present relative sea level (RSL curves in Antarctica derived from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA predictions based on the melting scenarios of the Antarctic ice sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM given in previous works. Simultaneously, Holocene-age RSL observations obtained at the raised beaches along the coast of Antarctica are shown to be in agreement with the GIA predictions. The differences from previously published ice-loading models regarding the spatial distribution and total mass change of the melted ice are significant. These models were also derived from GIA modelling; the variations can be attributed to the lack of geological and geographical evidence regarding the history of crustal movement due to ice sheet evolution. Next, we summarise the previously published ice load models and demonstrate the RSL curves based on combinations of different ice and earth models. The RSL curves calculated by GIA models indicate that the model dependence of both the ice and earth models is significantly large at several sites where RSL observations were obtained. In particular, GIA predictions based on the thin lithospheric thickness show the spatial distributions that are dependent on the melted ice thickness at each sites. These characteristics result from the short-wavelength deformation of the Earth. However, our predictions strongly suggest that it is possible to find the average ice model despite the use of the different models of lithospheric thickness. By sea level and crustal movement observations, we can deduce the geometry of the post-LGM ice sheets in detail and remove the GIA contribution from the crustal deformation and gravity change observed by space geodetic techniques, such as GPS and GRACE, for the estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change associated with recent global warming.

  3. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  4. Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.

  5. Arctic research at three levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a posthumous publication of a Steven McNabb's presentation to the 1993 annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association. In it he described how the Social Transitions in the North research project involved explicit cross-cultural contact or participation at three levels: between scientists and public agencies; between scientists and study populations; and between research teams themselves. He explored a few of the entanglements and opportunities that arise in those interactions. Dr. McNabb urged northern researchers to avoid embracing rigid standards, for they will result in more entanglements and fewer opportunities. On the otherhand, if researchers are open-minded, they will be able to treat each dilemma as an opportunity that will make for better science.

  6. Biocards and Level of Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Keshwani, Sonal; Chakrabarti, Amaresh;

    2015-01-01

    in biocards. This was done in two workshops conducted with design students in Denmark and India. Students were given a design assignment and instructions for how to perform the BID ideation work. Half of the students were given biocards with abstract descriptions while the other half got biocards...... with concrete descriptions. The novelty of found solutions was evaluated by the students by rating novelty of each solution on a scale from 1 to 5. Mean values for abstract descriptions were 0,3 higher than for concrete descriptions indicating that more innovative solutions were found when students used...... biocards with abstract descriptions compared to concrete descriptions. The difference in mean value is significant with a confidence level better than 1%. It seems likely that more abstract descriptions in biocards helps avoiding design fixation in biomimetic design work....

  7. An Experimental Study on Apoptosis of cultivated Wild Ginseng Distilled Herbal Acupuncture by Concentration Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Chul Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to measure the efficacy of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture by concentration level, we've treated A549 human lung cancer lines with different concentrations of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture and examined mRNA and proteins which take parts in apoptosis. Methods : A549 human lung cancer lines were treated with various concentration levels of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture and cell toxicity was carefully examined. From the analysis of DNA fragmentation, RT-PCR, and Western blot, manifestation of mRNA and proteins which are associated with apoptosis were inspected. Results : The following results were obtained on apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer lines after administering various concentration levels of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture. 1. Measuring cell toxicity of lung cancer cells, strong cell toxicity was detected at high concentration level (1000㎕, 1200㎕, but no consistent concentration dependent reliance was detected. 2. Through DNA fragmentation, we were able to confirm cell destruction in all groups. 3. Experiment groups treated with cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture showed inhibition of Bcl-2 and COX-2 at mRNA and Protein level, whileas increase of Bax was shown. 4. Manifestation of p21, p53, Cyclin E, and Cyclin D1 were confirmed in all groups. 5. Extrication of Cytochrome C was detected at all groups, as well as increased activity of the enzyme caspase-3 and caspase-9, and PARP fragmentation were confirmed. Conclusion : According to the results, we can carefully deduce cell destruction of A549 human lung cancer lines were induced by Apoptosis. At the fixed level, cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture showed decrease of Bcl-2 and COX-2, as well as increase of Bax. Since cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture increases manifestation of p21, p53, Cyclin E, and Cyclin D1, it affects

  8. Improvement of global and regional mean sea level derived from satellite altimetry multi missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, M.; Faugere, Y.; Larnicol, G.; Picot, N.; Cazenave, A.; Benveniste, J.

    2012-04-01

    With the satellite altimetry missions, the global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993. 'Verification' phases, during which the satellites follow each other in close succession (Topex/Poseidon--Jason-1, then Jason-1--Jason-2), help to link up these different missions by precisely determining any bias between them. Envisat, ERS-1 and ERS-2 are also used, after being adjusted on these reference missions, in order to compute Mean Sea Level at high latitudes (higher than 66°N and S), and also to improve spatial resolution by combining all these missions together. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 provide a global rate of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from + 8 mm/yr to - 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend unceratainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in the frame of the SALP project (supported by CNES) and Sea-level Climate Change Initiative project (supported by ESA), strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections

  9. Quantitative resistance level (MIC) of Pasteurella multocida isolated from pigs between 2004 and 2006: national resistance monitoring by the BVL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Heike; Schröer, Ulrike; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The National Resistance Monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) is to determine the prevalence of resistance of bacterial pathogens from animals using a valid database. From 2004 to 2006, a total of 1,472 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from pigs with acute respiratory tract diseases was submitted to the BVL and examined. Of these, 1,11 (75.5 %) were included in the study and tested using 24 different antimicrobial substances. The results showed that the resistance level is generally low, with the exception of the substances tetracycline, trimethoprim, and the combination trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. It also became clear that resistance data need to be evaluated separately for each of the animal production categories, so that a realistic figure of the current resistance level can be presented. This knowledge provides information about the resistance situation in Germany, and helps deduce the necessary management measures that must be taken to minimize resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, it provides valuable information that can form the basis for empirical therapy, so that the National Resistance Monitoring makes an important contribution to the safety of food derived from animals and consequently aids the improvement of consumer protection.

  10. Concentration level and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and grass around Mt.Qomolangma,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoPing; YAO TanDong; CONG ZhiYuan; YAN XinLiang; KANG ShiChang; ZHANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    High mountains may serve as a condenser for persistent organic pollutants.In the present study,soil and grass samples from Mt.Qomolangma region,China were collected from 4600 to 5620 m a.s.l and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine if they are concentrated at colder,more elevated sites and to evaluate their possible resources and fractionation.The total PAHs Concentration in soil samples was<600 ng g-1,the critical value to differentiate PAHs levels in remote and urban regions.This implied the PAHs levels at Mt.Qomolangma are relatively low and what one might expect in such a remote region of the world.These low values may represent a soil background for mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere soils away from the direct influence of an anthropogenic source.As for the distribution pattern,the low molecular weight PAHs were prone to accumulate at higher altitude,while the high molecular weight PAHs inversely related or unrelated with elevation.Based on high concentration of phenanthrene at elevated sample site and the ratios of individual PAHs,we deduced that home-heating combustion and vehicle emission may result in the constitution trait of PAHs in this mountain region.Monsoon traveling over India,Pakistan and other countries with dense population may carry contaminant to Mt.Qomolangma region.

  11. Air resistance and its influence on the biomechanics and energetics of sprinting at sea level and at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Smith, A J

    1984-01-01

    Following an examination of the processes by which chemical energy is converted into useful work during running, a mathematical model of the energetics of sprinting is constructed. This is used in conjunction with a careful analysis of Olympic records, in particular those obtained in the 1968 Games at Mexico City, to determine the magnitude of the rate of working against air resistance during running. It is established that times in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m events at the Mexico Olympics were approximately 1.7% lower than they would otherwise have been if the races had been run at sea level. This information is used to deduce that the external work done per unit time against air resistance is about 7.5-9% of the total power output of a sprinter, running at maximum speed at sea level. These figures compare well with the value of 7.8% obtained independently by Davies (J. appl. Physiol 48, 702-709, 1980). The analysis provides evidence that a linear relation exists between running speed and the rate of degradation of mechanical energy into thermal energy up to the highest sprinting speeds attainable. The maximum power generated by a sprinter is approximately 3 kW.

  12. High-level damage saturation below amorphisation in ion implanted β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, Elke, E-mail: elke.wendler@uni-jena.de; Treiber, Enrico; Baldauf, Julia; Wolf, Steffen; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-07-15

    Ion implantation induced effects were studied in single crystalline 〈0 1 0〉 oriented bulk β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} at room temperature using P, Ar and Sn ions with ion fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 11} up to 2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling configuration (RBS) using He ions of various ion energies was applied for damage analysis. Clear damage peaks are visible in the RBS spectra. The concentration of displaced lattice atoms in the maximum of the distribution (as deduced from the channelling spectra) increases with increasing ion fluence up to a saturation value of about 90%. Once this level is reached, further implantation only leads to a broadening of the distribution, while the concentration remains at 90%. The ion fluence dependence of maximum damage concentration is represented by a common model assuming two types of defects: point defects (which can recombine with those already existing from previous ion impacts) and non-recombinable damage clusters. The damage produced dominantly consists of randomly displaced lattice atoms, which indicates point defects and point defect complexes. For higher damage levels also a contribution of correlated displaced lattice atoms can be identified. This suggests that the damage clusters are not amorphous. A possible explanation of the observed results could be the formation of another phase of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  13. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a country or several countries simultaneously. We believe that it is difficult to appreciate that a traditional model might explain a financial crisis, given that every context of occurrence, conditions of development and crisis settlement programs are unique and unrepeatable. Every crisis has in its structure certain issues that may be capitalized and can lead to success. Perhaps more obvious are the ways that can lead to total failure of the organization. Finding and capitalizing the potential success is the essence of the crisis management. The essence of the mismanagement of the crisis is to worse situation. The successful management of a crisis involves admitting that you are facing a crisis, taking reasonable measures to remedy the situation, to be seen taking them and heard saying the right words. The issue at this stage of crisis management is that perception becomes true reality. Crisis management is a set of factors designed to combat the crisis and reduce the damage caused by the crisis. In other words, crisis management attempts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of the crisis and protect the organization, the public involved and the specific field by the possible damages. The effective management of the crisis includes crisis communication. This is an essential component through which the organization faced with the difficult situation can rehabilitate it’s publicly image or even to improve it. The crisis communication occurs between the organization and

  14. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  15. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen-Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  16. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  17. Optical clearing at cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Bykov, Alexander V.; Tuorila, Juho; Haapalainen, Tomi; Karmenyan, Artashes V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-07-01

    Strong light scattering in tissues and blood reduces the usability of many optical techniques. By reducing scattering, optical clearing enables deeper light penetration and improves resolution in several optical imaging applications. We demonstrate the usage of optical tweezers and elastic light scattering to study optical clearing [one of the major mechanisms-matching of refractive indices (RIs)] at the single particle and cell level. We used polystyrene spheres and human red blood cells (RBCs) as samples and glycerol or glucose water solutions as clearing agents. Optical tweezers kept single microspheres and RBCs in place during the measurement of light scattering patterns. The results show that optical clearing reduces the scattering cross section and increases g. Glucose also decreased light scattering from a RBC. Optical clearing affected the anisotropy factor g of 23.25-μm polystyrene spheres, increasing it by 0.5% for an RI change of 2.2% (20% glycerol) and 0.3% for an RI change of 1.1% (13% glucose).

  18. The LHC at level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 10 March, a team of CERN surveyors descended into the LHC tunnel. Their aim: to take measurements of the height of the LHC magnets to see how geological shifts might be affecting the machine and to take reference positions of the machine before the interconnects are opened.    CERN surveyors take levelling measurements of the LHC magnets during LS1. The LHC tunnel is renowned for its geological stability: set between layers of sandstone and molasse, it has allowed the alignment of the world’s largest accelerators to be within sub-millimetre precision. But even the most stable of tunnels can be affected by geological events. To ensure the precise alignment of the LHC, the CERN survey team performs regular measurements of the vertical position of the magnets (a process known as “levelling”). Over the past month, the team has been taking measurements of the LHC before the temperature of the magnets reaches 100 K, beyond which there may be some mechanic...

  19. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  20. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  1. Average radiation widths of levels in natural xenon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguere, G., E-mail: gilles.noguere@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2011-11-15

    Average radiation widths <{Gamma}{sub {gamma}>} for the stable xenon isotopes have been estimated using neutron resonance spectroscopic information deduced from high-resolution capture and transmission data measured at the electron linear accelerator GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Geel, Belgium. The combination of conventional Neutron Resonance Shape Analysis techniques (NRSA) with high-energy model calculations in a simple Bayesian learning method permit to calculate a consistent local systematic in the xenon's mass region (Z=54) from A=124 to A=136.

  2. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.86 Performance levels. (a) General. (1) Paragraph (b) of this..., new performance levels. (b) Performance levels for each performance indicator. (1)(i) The performance levels for Performance Indicators 1.1 through 1.6 are— Performance indicator Performance......

  3. Opinions on College Students' Improving English level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis includes three aspects: discuss the necessity of improving English level, analyze the present situation of students' level, propose some methods to improve English level. Its aim is to encourage college students to improve their English level as possible as they can for the purpose of social development.

  4. The Impact of Family-related issues on Child Disability Prevention Deduced from Compliance of Phenylketonuria Screening and Therapy%家庭环境对儿童残疾预防影响作用分析--以苯丙酮尿症为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯善伟

    2014-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is the most common autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder in which timely screening and strict diet therapy can prevent intelligence disability. The compliance of participating in neonatal screening and therapy is usually affected by family-related issues:High income, good education and family adherence benefit compliance of screening and therapy of PKU patients. On the contrary, adverse economic status, education level and family adherence mean decreased compliance. Thus, the state and society should put much more investment during the practice of disability prevention. Public education about diseases and disability prevention promotes family participation.%苯丙酮尿症是常见的遗传代谢病,及时筛查和严格饮食治疗可预防患儿出现智力残疾。新生儿筛查和治疗依从性常受家庭因素的影响,经济条件好、受教育水平高和关系和谐的家庭依从性好,筛查和医疗依从性高;反之经济条件差、受教育水平低和关系差的家庭对疾病认识差,筛查和治疗依从性也差,直接影响到患儿的残疾预防效果。因此在残疾预防实践过程中应提高国家和社会投入,加强疾病和残疾预防的公众教育,促进家庭参与的依从性。

  5. Guide for intervention levels in radiological accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tai; Khang, Byung Oui; Lee, Goan Yup; Han, Gee Yang [Korea Atomic Energy Resesrch Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Based on IAEA SS109 and ICRP63, intervention levels and action levels are derived using cost-benefit approach method. Intervention levels are optimized so that the net benefit from protective measures will be maximized. Evacuation, sheltering, relocation, permanent resettlement, administration of stable iodine and food restriction are included in protective measures. Intervention levels are calculated using site specific parameters in Korea. As a results of calculation, general intervention levels are similar to IAEA recommendation and action levels for food restriction are a little higher than IAEA recommendation and Japan guide. Guide on intervention levels in Korea is also suggested based on the calculated results.

  6. Cis-trans isomerization in the S1 state of acetylene: identification of cis-well vibrational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merer, Anthony J; Steeves, Adam H; Baraban, Joshua H; Bechtel, Hans A; Field, Robert W

    2011-06-28

    A systematic analysis of the S(1)-trans (Ã(1)A(u)) state of acetylene, using IR-UV double resonance along with one-photon fluorescence excitation spectra, has allowed assignment of at least part of every single vibrational state or polyad up to a vibrational energy of 4200 cm(-1). Four observed vibrational levels remain unassigned, for which no place can be found in the level structure of the trans-well. The most prominent of these lies at 46 175 cm(-1). Its (13)C isotope shift, exceptionally long radiative lifetime, unexpected rotational selection rules, and lack of significant Zeeman effect, combined with the fact that no other singlet electronic states are expected at this energy, indicate that it is a vibrational level of the S(1)-cis isomer (Ã(1)A(2)). Guided by ab initio calculations [J. H. Baraban, A. R. Beck, A. H. Steeves, J. F. Stanton, and R. W. Field, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244311 (2011)] of the cis-well vibrational frequencies, the vibrational assignments of these four levels can be established from their vibrational symmetries together with the (13)C isotope shift of the 46 175 cm(-1) level (assigned here as cis-3(1)6(1)). The S(1)-cis zero-point level is deduced to lie near 44 900 cm(-1), and the ν(6) vibrational frequency of the S(1)-cis well is found to be roughly 565 cm(-1); these values are in remarkably good agreement with the results of recent ab initio calculations. The 46 175 cm(-1) vibrational level is found to have a 3.9 cm(-1) staggering of its K-rotational structure as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the isomerization barrier. Such tunneling does not give rise to ammonia-type inversion doubling, because the cis and trans isomers are not equivalent; instead the odd-K rotational levels of a given vibrational level are systematically shifted relative to the even-K rotational levels, leading to a staggering of the K-structure. These various observations represent the first definite assignment of an isomer of

  7. Placental lactogen levels in diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursell, W; Brudenell, M; Chard, T

    1973-04-14

    A prospective study has been carried out of placental lactogen levels in pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus. The levels were higher than those in normal pregnant subjects; the higher levels were related to increased placental and fetal weight but more closely to the former; and lower levels were found when there was clinical evidence of placental dysfunction. Those patients requiring the largest insulin increment for the control of their diabetes in the pregnancy have placental lactogen levels in the higher range.

  8. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  9. A two-level atom and the problem of the radiation reaction in the semiclassical theory: optical Bloch equations revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdutovich, G. I.; Ghiner, A. V.

    2000-08-01

    A famous model of a two-level atom interacting with the classical electromagnetic field is used to illustrate the fundamental problem of the relationship between the dynamical and relaxation processes under the interaction of radiation with a quantum-mechanical system and, as a result, to derive nonlinear Bloch-like equations. The presented considerations are based on the analysis of the balance of the fluxes of energy between atomic and field subsystems. It is shown that the generally accepted model of the exponential relaxation deduced for an isolated excited atom and inserted customarily into optical Bloch equations (OBE) describing atom in an external field always leads to a very strange result: spontaneous emission of an atom should be accompanied by the radiation of the coherent field into the external field's mode. Making use of only the energetic considerations, we found the relaxation mechanism (in the form of additional terms in the OBE) which, on the one hand, guarantees the fulfillment of the energetic balance and, on the other hand, allows to introduce arbitrary additional collision-like relaxation mechanism without violation of this balance. Note that these additional terms introduced into OBE from the energetic considerations in a remarkable manner exactly correspond to the renormalization of the external field with the allowance of the classical radiation damping (RD) effect. The revisited OBE may be used as the starting point for considering the dynamics of an atom by making allowance for the quantum properties of an external field.

  10. A Quina assemblage in level XIth of Esquilleu cave: specialized management of lithic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrión Santafé, Elena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The XIth Level lithic assemblage of Esquilleu Cave (Cantabria, Spain permits us to observe the high degree of standardization, morphological as well as technological,of lithic blank production,used mainly for the production of side-scrapers. This homogeneity permits us to infer some notions about function, as deduced by the essential characteristics of the side-scrapers (considerable thickness and convex edge delineation, and to suggest, albeit tentatively, the function of the settlement.

    El estudio del conjunto del Nivel XI de la Cueva del Esquilleu (Cantabria, España nos permite observar la elevada estandarización formal y tecnológica de la producción de matrices, orientada de forma preferente a la producción de raederas. Esta homogeneidad permite inferir algunas nociones sobre funcionalidad a partir de las características esenciales de las raederas (considerable espesor y delineación convexa del filo y aproximamos de forma tentativa a la funcionalidad de la ocupación.

  11. Spectral Analyses and Radiation Exposures from Several Ground-Level Enhancement (GLE) Solar Proton Events: A Comparison of Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan; Dietrich, William; Badavi, Francis; Rojdev, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Several methods for analyzing the particle spectra from extremely large solar proton events, called Ground-Level Enhancements (GLEs), have been developed and utilized by the scientific community to describe the solar proton energy spectra and have been further applied to ascertain the radiation exposures to humans and radio-sensitive systems, namely electronics. In this paper 12 GLEs dating back to 1956 are discussed, and the three methods for describing the solar proton energy spectra are reviewed. The three spectral fitting methodologies are EXP [an exponential in proton rigidity (R)], WEIB [Weibull fit: an exponential in proton energy], and the Band function (BAND) [a double power law in proton rigidity]. The EXP and WEIB methods use low energy (MeV) GLE solar proton data and make extrapolations out to approx.1 GeV. On the other hand, the BAND method utilizes low- and medium-energy satellite solar proton data combined with high-energy solar proton data deduced from high-latitude neutron monitoring stations. Thus, the BAND method completely describes the entire proton energy spectrum based on actual solar proton observations out to 10 GeV. Using the differential spectra produced from each of the 12 selected GLEs for each of the three methods, radiation exposures are presented and discussed in detail. These radiation exposures are then compared with the current 30-day and annual crew exposure limits and the radiation effects to electronics.

  12. Coupling of conduction electrons to two-level systems formed by hydrogen: a scattering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, I; Zawadowski, A

    2009-04-29

    An effective Hamiltonian for a two-level system (TLS) which could model the interaction between a tunneling proton and the conduction electrons of a metal is investigated in a comparative way. In the conventional first-order Born approximation with plane waves, and for small-distance displacement of the tunneling particle, a simple correlation between the atomic motion and angular momentum change of the scattering electron is deduced. For such a displacement, and within a distorted wave Born approximation for initial and final states, the change in the scattering amplitude is expressed via bounded trigonometric functions of the corresponding difference of scattering phase shifts. The numerical value of this amplitude change is analyzed in the framework of a self-consistent screening description for an impurity embedding in a paramagnetic electron gas. The coupling thus obtained of the tunneling proton to a homogeneous electron gas is too weak to be in the range required for realization of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  13. EMI-EDGI Operational Level Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This document is the Operational Level Agreement signed by EMI and EDGI for the contribution of middleware from EDGI into the EMI distribution and the definition of service levels compatible with the existing EMI SLAs

  14. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  15. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  16. BACKGROUND NOISE LEVELS IN STUDIOS AND AUDITORIA

    OpenAIRE

    James, A.

    1990-01-01

    The specification of background noise levels for auditoria must strike a balance between the lowest possible noise level from services and the need for some "masking" of extraneous sources. Studios are often designed to provide a suitable level of masking, using either aerodynamic or electronically-generated white noise. Data on noise levels in a large number of auditoria have been examined to determine whether a similar process is applicable to these. A wide range of seemingly arbitrary desi...

  17. Level of evidence gap in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Bernstein, Joseph; Ahn, Jaimo; McKay, Scott D; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2012-09-01

    Level of evidence is the most widely used metric for the quality of a publication, but instances exist in which a Level I study is neither feasible nor desirable. The goal of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence gap in current orthopedic research, which the authors defined as the disparity between the level of evidence that would be required to optimally answer the primary research question and the level of evidence that was actually used. Five orthopedic surgeons (K.D.B., J.B., J.A., S.D.M., W.N.S.) evaluated blinded articles from the first 6 months of 2010 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) (JBJS-Am), classifying the study type and design and extracting a primary research question from each article. Each evaluator then defined the study type and method, along with the level of evidence that would ideally be used to address the primary research question. The level of evidence gap was then calculated by subtracting the actual level of evidence of the manuscript from the level of evidence of the idealized study. Of the 64 JBJS-Am manuscripts eligible for analysis, the average level of evidence was between Level II and III (mean, 2.73). The average level of evidence gap was 1.06 compared with the JBJS-Am-designated level of evidence and 1.28 compared with the evaluators' assessment. Because not all questions require Level I studies, level of evidence alone may not be the best metric for the quality of orthopedic surgery literature. Instead, the authors' concept of a level of evidence gap may be a better tool for assessing the state of orthopedic research publications.

  18. Improvement of High-Power Three-Level Explosion-Proof Inverters Using Soft Switching Control Based on Optimized Power-Loss Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Zhou Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-power three-level explosion-proof inverters demand high thermal stability of power devices, and a set of theories and methods is needed to achieve an accurate power-loss calculation of power devices, to establish heat dissipation model, and ultimately to reduce the power loss to improve thermal stability of system. In this paper, the principle of neutral point clamped three-level (NPC3L inverter is elaborated firstly, and a fourth-order RC equivalent circuit of IGBT is derived, on which basis the power-loss model of IGBT and the optimized maternal power-loss thermal model, using an optimized power-loss algorithm, are established. Secondly, in accordance with the optimized maternal power-loss thermal model, the generic formulas of power-loss calculation are deduced to calculate the power-loss modification values of NPC3L and soft switching three-level (S3L inverters, which will be the thermal sources during thermal analysis for maternal power-loss thermal models. Finally, the experiment conducted on the 2.1 MW experimental platform shows that S3L inverter has the same excellent output characteristics with NPC3L inverter, reduces the power loss significantly by 213 W in each half-bridge, and decreases the temperature by 10°C, coinciding with the theoretical calculation, which verifies the accuracy of optimized power-loss algorithm and the effectiveness of the improvement.

  19. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Timlin MD, MSc; Kirthi Machireddy; Michelle Petri MD, MPH

    2017-01-01

    Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis.

  20. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Timlin MD, MSc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis.

  1. Rapid neural adaptation to sound level statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Isabel; Robinson, Ben L; Harper, Nicol S; McAlpine, David

    2008-06-18

    Auditory neurons must represent accurately a wide range of sound levels using firing rates that vary over a far narrower range of levels. Recently, we demonstrated that this "dynamic range problem" is lessened by neural adaptation, whereby neurons adjust their input-output functions for sound level according to the prevailing distribution of levels. These adjustments in input-output functions increase the accuracy with which levels around those occurring most commonly are coded by the neural population. Here, we examine how quickly this adaptation occurs. We recorded from single neurons in the auditory midbrain during a stimulus that switched repeatedly between two distributions of sound levels differing in mean level. The high-resolution analysis afforded by this stimulus showed that a prominent component of the adaptation occurs rapidly, with an average time constant across neurons of 160 ms after an increase in mean level, much faster than our previous experiments were able to assess. This time course appears to be independent of both the timescale over which sound levels varied and that over which sound level distributions varied, but is related to neural characteristic frequency. We find that adaptation to an increase in mean level occurs more rapidly than to a decrease. Finally, we observe an additional, slow adaptation in some neurons, which occurs over a timescale of tens of seconds. Our findings provide constraints in the search for mechanisms underlying adaptation to sound level. They also have functional implications for the role of adaptation in the representation of natural sounds.

  2. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  3. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  4. Levels of Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of the second level (intermediate acoustical processing of rhyming words) and the third level (deep-semantic processing of words in sentences) of the "levels of processing" framework on memory performance of four types of intermediate-grade students (52 "normal" students, 50 students with…

  5. Characteristics of serum endocan levels in infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Seo

    Full Text Available Endocan is a newly recognized biomarker of sepsis. However, there have been no studies of the trends in endocan levels during infection and their associations with other clinical factors. The aim of this study was to assess the time course of endocan levels and the associations of endocan with clinical factors during infection by comparison with other biomarkers.Serum samples and blood cultures were obtained from patients who were diagnosed with infection from June 2013 to March 2014. Serum endocan, C-reactive protein (CRP, and procalcitonin (PCT levels during four periods during infection were measured (day 0, day 1-2, day 3-5, and day 6-10.A total of 78 patients were enrolled in this study. The median endocan level decreased by only 23% during infection, whereas both serum CRP and PCT levels decreased by more than 80%. Endocan levels were correlated to neither CRP levels nor PCT levels in each period. Endocan levels at day 0 in patients with bacteremia were higher than those without bacteremia (1.09 ng/mL vs 0.82 ng/mL, P=0.002, but neither CRP levels nor PCT levels at day 0 were different between the two groups. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves of endocan, CRP, and PCT at day 0 were 0.662, 0.343, and 0.563, respectively. Positive blood cultures tended to be related to high endocan levels, but not significantly (odds ratio: 4.24, 95% CI: 0.99-10.34, P=0.05.In bacteremic cases, serum endocan levels in bacteremia tended to be higher than in non-bacteremic cases. Although endocan level was not identified as a prognostic factor of bacteremia, further prospective study concerning the relationship between serum endocan level and bacteremia would be needed.

  6. An architectural approach to level design

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Explore Level Design through the Lens of Architectural and Spatial Experience TheoryWritten by a game developer and professor trained in architecture, An Architectural Approach to Level Design is one of the first books to integrate architectural and spatial design theory with the field of level design. It explores the principles of level design through the context and history of architecture, providing information useful to both academics and game development professionals.Understand Spatial Design Principles for Game Levels in 2D, 3D, and Multiplayer ApplicationsThe book presents architectura

  7. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  8. Service level agreements for cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, Philipp; Theilmann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing provides a unique combination of business-driven application scenarios and advanced research in the area of service-level agreements for Clouds and service-oriented infrastructures. Current state-of-the-art research findings are presented in this book, as well as business-ready solutions applicable to Cloud infrastructures or ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) environments. Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing contributes to the various levels of service-level management from the infrastructure over the software to the business layer, includ

  9. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bello Garrote, F.L.; Eriksen, T.K.; Giacoppo, F.; Goergen, A.; Hagen, T.W.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A.C.; Nyhus, H.T.; Renstroem, T.; Rose, S.J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T.G.; Tveten, G.M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Aiche, M.; Ducasse, Q.; Jurado, B. [University of Bordeaux, CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 120, Gradignan (France); Bernstein, L.A.; Bleuel, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Byun, Y.; Voinov, A. [Ohio University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, Ohio (United States); Gunsing, F. [CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SPhN, Cedex (France); Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Wilson, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay Cedex (France); Wiedeking, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa)

    2015-12-15

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. From the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold. (orig.)

  10. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  11. Resonances in the rotational constants of 0_{g}^{-}(6s_{1/2}+6p_{1/2}) Cs2 levels analysed by an improved-Bv-formula associated to a 2-channel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelassi, Haikel; Pruvost, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Spin-orbit coupling in 0g-(6s1/2+6p1/2) long-range molecular levels of Cs2 assigned to resonances in the rotational constant (Bv) spectrum (Lignier L. et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13 (2011) 18910; Pichler M. et al., J. Chem. Phys., 121 (2004) 1796) has been analyzed with a model which associates an improved-B v -formula (established here) and a 2-channel model. The approach explains the Lorentzian shape of the observed resonances superimposing a non-horizontal background and the fit of the B v -spectrum allows us to deduce the spin-orbit coupling parameters. We compare this approach with an analysis of the binding energies using the vibrational quantum defect (VQD). The good agreement between the methods lets one conclude that the improved-B v -formula associated with a 2-channel model provides a pertinent approach for analyzing coupled molecular series.

  12. Laws, Causation and Dynamics at Different Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (Section 2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (Sections 3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different 'levels'. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that 'ride free' of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasising how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed 'micro' and 'macro' which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation.

  13. Fingerprint matching system using Level 3 features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint biometric security system identifies the unique property in human being and matching with template stored in database. Fingerprint details are generally defined in three levels i.e. Level 1 (Pattern, Level 2(Minutiae points and Level 3 (pores and contour ridges. Level 3 features are barely used by automated fingerprintverification system. This research paper presents a Level 3 ingerprint matching system. In this paper, we deal with pores for matching with template. With the local pore model, a SIFT algorithm is used to match the pores with template. Experiments on a good quality fingerprint dataset are performed and the results demonstrate that the proposed Level 3 features matching model performed more accurately and robustly.

  14. Saliency Detection via Combining Region-Level and Pixel-Level Predictions with CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Youbao; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel saliency detection method by combining region-level saliency estimation and pixel-level saliency prediction with CNNs (denoted as CRPSD). For pixel-level saliency prediction, a fully convolutional neural network (called pixel-level CNN) is constructed by modifying the VGGNet architecture to perform multi-scale feature learning, based on which an image-to-image prediction is conducted to accomplish the pixel-level saliency detection. For region-level saliency estima...

  15. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution.

  16. Organised structures in wall turbulence as deduced from stability theory-based methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Sen; S V Veeravalli; P W Carpenter; G Joshi; P S Josan

    2007-02-01

    In earlier work, we have explored the relevance of hydrodynamic stability theory to fully developed turbulent wall flows. Using an extended Orr-Summerfeld Equation, based on an anisotropic eddy-viscosity model, it was shown that there exists a wide range of unstable wave numbers (wall modes), which mimic some of the key features of turbulent wall flows. Here we present experimental confirmation for the same. There is good qualitative and quantitative agreement between theory and experiment. Once the dominant coherent structure is obtained from stability theory, control of turbulence would be the next logical step. As shown, the use of a compliant wall shows considerable promise. We also present some theoretical work for bypass transition (Klebanoff/K-modes), wherein the receptivity of a laminar boundary layer to a vortex sheet in the freestream has been studied. Further, it is shown that triadic interaction between K-modes, 2D TS waves and 3D TS waves can lead to rapid algebraic growth. A similar mechanism seems to carry over to inner wall structures in wall turbulence and perhaps this is the “root cause” for sustenance of turbulence.

  17. Deducing the origin of soluble adenylyl cyclase, a gene lost in multiple lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Jeroen; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The family of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclases consists of a very large group of 12 transmembrane adenylyl cyclases and a very small group of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Orthologs of human sAC are present in rat Diclyostelium and bacteria but absent from the completely sequenced genomes of Drosophil

  18. General formula to deduce the space charge tune spread from a quadrupolar pick-up measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, Elias

    2016-01-01

    In 1966, W. Hardt derived the oscillation frequencies obtained in the presence of space charge forces and gradients errors for elliptical beams. Since then, a simple formula is usually used to relate the shift of the quadrupolar mode (obtained from the quadrupolar pick-up) and the space charge tune spread, depending only on the ratio between the two transverse equilibrium beam sizes. However, this formula is not always valid, in particular for machines running close to the coupling resonance Qx = Qy with almost round beams. A new general formula is presented, giving the space charge tune spread as a function of i) the measured shift of the quadrupolar mode, ii) the ratio between the two transverse equilibrium beam sizes and iii) the distance between the two transverse tunes.

  19. Deducing topology of protein-protein interaction networks from experimentally measured sub-networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLellan W Robb

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction networks are commonly sampled using yeast two hybrid approaches. However, whether topological information reaped from these experimentally-measured sub-networks can be extrapolated to complete protein-protein interaction networks is unclear. Results By analyzing various experimental protein-protein interaction datasets, we found that they are not random samples of the parent networks. Based on the experimental bait-prey behaviors, our computer simulations show that these non-random sampling features may affect the topological information. We tested the hypothesis that a core sub-network exists within the experimentally sampled network that better maintains the topological characteristics of the parent protein-protein interaction network. We developed a method to filter the experimentally sampled network to result in a core sub-network that more accurately reflects the topology of the parent network. These findings have fundamental implications for large-scale protein interaction studies and for our understanding of the behavior of cellular networks. Conclusion The topological information from experimental measured networks network as is may not be the correct source for topological information about the parent protein-protein interaction network. We define a core sub-network that more accurately reflects the topology of the parent network.

  20. The optical luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts deduced from ROTSE-III observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, X. H.; Wu, X. F.; Wei, J. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yuan, F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Zheng, W. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Liang, E. W. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Akerlof, C. W.; McKay, T. A. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ashley, M. C. B. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Flewelling, H. A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Göǧüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, 34956 İstanbul (Turkey); Güver, T. [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Istanbul University Science Faculty, 34119 Istanbul (Turkey); Kızıloǧlu, Ü. [Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Pandey, S. B. [ARIES, Manora Peak, Nainital 263129, Uttarakhand (India); Rykoff, E. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Rujopakarn, W. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Schaefer, B. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wheeler, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Yost, S. A., E-mail: xhcui@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fang.yuan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zwk@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, College of St. Benedict, St. John' s University, Collegeville, MN 56321 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs) and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). We derive R-band fluxes for these two sub-samples 100 s after the onset of the burst. The optical LFs at 100 s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star formation rate. While fitting the optical LFs using Monte Carlo simulations, we take into account the detection function of ROTSE-III. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100 s is well described by an exponential rise and power-law decay, a broken power law,and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  1. The Optical Luminosity Function of Gamma-ray Bursts deduced from ROTSE-III Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, X H; Wei, J J; Yuan, F; Zheng, W K; Liang, E W; Akerlof, C W; Ashley, M C B; Flewelling, H A; Gogus, E; Guver, T; Kiziloglu, U; McKay, T A; Pandey, S B; Rykoff, E S; Rujopakarn, W; Schaefer, B E; Wheeler, J C; Yost, S A

    2014-01-01

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs), and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). The $R$ band fluxes 100s after the onset of the burst for these two sub-samples are derived. The optical LFs at 100s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star-formation rate. The detection function of ROTSE-III is taken into account during the fitting of the optical LFs by using Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100s is well-described with an exponential rise and power-law decay (ERPLD), broken power-law (BPL), and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  2. Velocity-Autocorrelation Function in Liquids, Deduced from Neutron Incoherent Scattering Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Kim

    1976-01-01

    The Fourier transform p(ω) of the velocity-autocorrelation function is derived from neutron incoherent scattering results, obtained from the two liquids Ar and H2. The quality and significance of the results are discussed with special emphasis on the long-time t-3/2 tail, found in computer...

  3. Variations of anthropogenic CO2 in urban area deduced by radiocarbon concentration in modern tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z; Nakamura, Toshio; Pazdur, Anna

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon concentration in the atmosphere is significantly lower in areas where man-made emissions of carbon dioxide occur. This phenomenon is known as Suess effect, and is caused by the contamination of clean air with non-radioactive carbon from fossil fuel combustion. The effect is more strongly observed in industrial and densely populated urban areas. Measurements of carbon isotope concentrations in a study area can be compared to those from areas of clear air in order to estimate the amount of carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel combustion by using a simple mathematical model. This can be calculated using the simple mathematical model. The result of the mathematical model followed in this study suggests that the use of annual rings of trees to obtain the secular variations of 14C concentration of atmospheric CO2 can be useful and efficient for environmental monitoring and modeling of the carbon distribution in local scale.

  4. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Radial growth of boreal tree species is only rarely studied in riparian habitats. Here we investigated chronologies of earlywood, latewood, and annual ring widths and blue intensity (BI; a surrogate to latewood density) from riparian lake shore and upland forest interior pines (Pinus sylvestris L...... with the tree-ring chronologies were related to snow conditions at the start of the growing season. Deeper snowpack led to reduced upland pine growth, possibly due to delayed snowmelt and thus postponed onset of the growing season. Warm late winters were followed by increased riparian pine growth because...... a strong correlation with warm-season temperatures, indicating an encouraging possibility of summer temperature reconstruction using middle/south boreal pine tree-ring archives....

  5. Lower mantle thermal structure deduced from seismic tomography, mineral physics and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadek, O.; Yuen, D. A.; Steinbach, V.; Chopelas, A.; Matyska, C.

    1994-01-01

    The long-wavelength thermal anomalies in the lower mantle have been mapped out using several seismic tomographic models in conjunction with thermodynamic parameters derived from high-pressure mineral physics experiments. These parameters are the depth variations of thermal expansivity and of the proportionality factor between changes in density and seismic velocity. The giant plume-like structures in the lower mantle under the Pacific Ocean and Africa have outer fringes with thermal anomalies around 300-400 K, but very high temperatures are found in the center of the plumes near the base of the core-mantle boundary. These extreme values can exceed +1500 K and may reflect large hot thermal anomalies in the lower mantle, which are supported by recent measurements of high melting temperatures of perovskite and iron. Extremely cold anomalies, around -1500 K, are found for anomalies in the deep mantle around the Pacific rim and under South America. Numerical simulations show that large negative thermal anomalies in the mid-lower mantle have modest magnitudes of around -500 K. correlation pattern exists between the present-day locations of cold masses in the lower mantle and the sites of past subduction since the Cretaceous. Results from correlation analysis show that the slab mass-flux in the lower mantle did not conform to a steady-state nature but exhibited time-dependent behavior.

  6. The Flattened Dark Matter Halo of M31 as Deduced from the Observed HI Scale Heights

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Arunima

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use the outer-galactic HI scale height data as well as the observed rotation curve as constraints to determine the halo density distribution of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). We model the galaxy as a gravitationally-coupled system of stars and gas, responding to the external force-field of a known Hernquist bulge and the dark matter halo, the density profile of the latter being characterized by four free parameters. The parameter space of the halo is optimized so as to match the observed HI thickness distribution as well as the rotation curve on an equal footing, unlike the previous studies of M31 which were based on rotation curves alone. We show that an oblate halo, with an isothermal density profile, provides the best fit to the observed data. This gives a central density of 0.011 M_sun /pc^3, a core radius of 21 kpc, and an axis ratio of 0.4. The main result from this work is the flattened dark matter halo for M31, which is required to match the outer galactic HI scale height data. Interest...

  7. Comparison of CSC method and the B-net method for deducing smoothness condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renhong Wang; Kai Qu

    2009-01-01

    The first author of this paper established an approach to study the multivariate spline over arbitrary partition,and presented the so-called conformality method of smoothing cofactor (the CSC method).Farin introduced the B-net method which is suitable for studying the multivariate spline over simplex partitions.This paper indicates that the smoothness conditions obtained in terms of the B-net method can be derived by the CSC method for the spline spaces over simplex partitions,and the CSC method is more capable in some sense than the B-net method in studying the multivariate spline.

  8. The effects of magnetic annealing of transition metal alloys deduced from ab initio electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razee, S.S.A.; Staunton, J.B. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Ginatempo, B.; Bruno, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Unita INFM, Universita di Messina, Messina (Italy); Pinski, F.J. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-09-24

    A theory is presented for describing the effects of annealing magnetic alloys in magnetic fields. It has an ab initio spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) electronic structure basis and uses the framework of concentration waves. Alloys which would otherwise be soft magnets are found experimentally to develop directional chemical order and significant uniaxial anisotropy when annealed in magnetic fields. Our approach is able to provide a quantitative description of these effects together with the underlying electronic mechanisms. We describe applications to the soft magnetic alloys permalloy and FeCo. (author)

  9. Concentration of methane in the troposphere deduced from 1951 infrared solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Levine, J. S.; Miles, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 1-2 percent increase in tropospheric methane determined from gas chromatographic measurements since 1977 has important implications for atmospheric photochemistry and climate. To extend the measurement baseline, solar absorption spectra have been analyzed and mean troposphere CH4 mixing ratios for the years 1951 and 1981, and an average rate of CH4 increase of 1.1 + or - 0.2 percent per year is found for this period.

  10. Stratospheric impact on the troposphere deduced from potential vorticity inversion in relation to the Arctic Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinssen, Y.B.L.; van Delden, A.J.; Opsteegh, J.D.; de Geus, W.

    2010-01-01

    The zonal mean state of the atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere in winter is determined by the temperature at the Earth’s surface and by two potential vorticity (PV) anomalies (defined as that part of the PV field that induces a wind field) centred over the North Pole: one in the upper troposphere

  11. Hair and Sacrifice in the Andean World, as deduced by biomolecular approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wilson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s first haircut is considered to be a major milestone in many world cultures and religions even today. It is interesting to note therefore that children placed as Inca child sacrifices in shrines on a number of the principal mountains in the Andes were found with many offerings, including small bags made of animal intestines containing cut human hair. The exceptional preservation of these young individuals offers huge potential for us to gain insight into the ritual process, given that most have remained in permafrost conditions since they were left on the mountain as part of the state-sanctioned Capacocha ceremony practised by the Inca.

  12. Scaling law deduced from impact-cratering experiments on basalt targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-07-01

    Since impact-cratering phenomena on planetary bodies were the key process which modified the surface topography and formed regolith layers, many experiments on non-cohesive materials (sand, glass beads) were performed. On the other hand, experiments on natural rocks were limited. Especially, experiments on basalt targets are rare, although basalt is the most common rocky material on planetary surfaces. The reason may be the difficulties of obtaining basalt samples suitable for cratering experiments. Recently, we obtained homogenous and crackless large basalt blocks. We performed systematic cratering experiments using the basalt targets. Experimental Procedure: Impact experiments were performed using a double stage light-gas (hydrogen) gun on the JAXA Sagamihara campus. Spherical projectiles of nylon, aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten carbide were launched at velocities between 2400 and 6100 m/sec. The projectiles were 1.0 to 7.1 mm in diameter and 0.004 to 0.22 g in mass. The incidence angle was fixed at 90 degrees. The targets were rectangular blocks of Ukrainian basalt. The impact plane was a square with 20-cm sides. The thickness was 9 cm. Samples were cut out from a columnar block so that the impact plane might become perpendicular to the axis of the columnar joint. The mass was about 10.5 kg. The density was 2920 ± 10 kg/m^3 . Twenty eight shots were performed. Three-dimensional shapes of craters were measured by an X-Y stage with a laser displacement sensor (Keyence LK-H150). The interval between the measurement points was 200 micrometer. The volume, depth, and aperture area of the crater were calculated from the 3-D data using analytical software. Since the shapes of the formed craters are markedly asymmetrical, the diameter of the circle whose area is equal to the aperture area was taken as the crater diameter. Results: The diameter, depth, and the volume of the formed craters are normalized by the π parameters. Experimental conditions are also expressed by the π parameters. The figure shows the relation of the normalized volume and the π_3 parameter. A clear dependency on the projectile density is shown in the figure. Multiple regression analyses yield the relation π_V ∝ π_3^{-1.04 ± 0.14} π_4^{0.45 ± 0.18} . Other results and comparisons with those of previous studies are presented in the paper.

  13. Erosion rates deduced from Seasonal mass balance along an active braided river in Tianshan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements performed during two complete flow seasons on the Urumqi River, a proglacial mountain stream in the northeastern ank of the Tianshan, an active mountain range in Central Asia. This survey of flow dynamics and sediment transport (dissolved, suspended and bed loads, together with a 25-year record of daily discharge, enables the assessment of secular denudation rates on this high mountain catchment of Central Asia. Our results show that chemical weathering accounts for more than one third of the total denudation rate. Sediment transported as bed load cannot be neglected in the balance given that sand and gravel transport accounts for one third of the solid load of the river. Overall, the mean denudation rates are low, averaging 46 t × km−2 × yr−1 (17–18 m Myr−1. We furthermore analyse the hydrologic record to show that the long-term sediment budget is not dominated by extreme and rare events but by the total amount of rainfall or annual runoff. The rates we obtain are in agreement with rates obtained from the mass balance reconstruction of the Plio-Quaternary gravely deposits of the foreland but signicantly lower than the rates recently obtained from cosmogenic dating of river sand. We show that the resolution of this incompatibility has an important consequence for our understanding of the interplay between erosion and tectonics in the semi-humid ranges of Central Asia.

  14. Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Studies on the molecular diversity of the micro-eukaryotic community have shown that fungi occupy a central position in a large number of marine habitats. Environmental surveys using molecular tools have shown the presence of fungi from a large...

  15. Use of nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS to deduce selectivity of reaction in glycoside hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eDeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements.

  16. Atmospheric Visual and Infrared Transmission Deduced from Surface Weather Observations: Weather and Warplanes. V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    require stadistically valid predictions of PGM utility as a function of weather conditions in different potential theaters of combat at different times of...resource in making statisti- cally valid predictions of weapon performance (including diurnal, sea- sonal, and geographic variability). The model of...dewpoint range IO°F- 700F. -1 -16- be valid at 296 0K (73*F). They further suggest a strong temperature dependence of yc. (These corrections have been

  17. Thrust kinematics deduced by primary and secondary magnetizations in the Internal Sierras (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, B.; Pueyo, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Central Southern Pyrenees are composed (from N to S) by the Axial Zone (made by several basement-involved nappes; (Gavarnie and Guarga), the Internal Sierras (IS) fold and thrust belt (Larra and Monte Perdido units), the Jaca piggyback basin (turbiditic and molassic) and the External Sierras. Several paleomagnetic studies have been carried out during the last decades in all units except for the IS. Different amounts of rotation were reported, usually from primary directions. This work shows paleomagnetic results derived from recent investigations in the IS. 78 sites were sampled in different thrust sheets in the Larra and Monte Perdido units. Sites were collected in Upper Cretaceous rocks; all of them were homogeneously distributed along the range strike. A N-S section through the Eocene turbiditic basin was also done (9 sites) to link our results to previous data. Stepwise thermal demagnetization every 25-50^oC was performed to unravel the NRM components. Magnetic mineralogy essays (IRM, IST and low temperature) confirm magnetite as the major magnetic carrier. Two paleomagnetic components can be distinguished; A) an intermediate direction unblocking from 350^o to 450^oC and B) a high temperature component (from 500^o -575^oC). The B component displays two polarities and a positive fold and reverse tests whereas the A component shows only reverse polarity and a pervasive negative fold test. The A component has been also found in the Eocene transect. Two major clues help to constrain the remagnetization age; on one hand the deformation age (Early-Middle Eocene in the Larra and Monte Perdido units) and, on the other hand, the age of the turbiditic rocks (Middle Eocene). Therefore the remagnetization process took place by the end of the IS thrust system configuration or in a later period. Since the rotation detected by the A and B components are similar, the rotation age can be constrained as younger than the remagnetization. All these deductions have important implications in the Pyrenean kinematics: Larra and Monte Perdido units did not undergo any significant rotation during their configuration. Therefore the cover rocks accommodated the rotation during the basement units stacking (Gavarnie and/or Guarga nappes).

  18. Deformation mechanisms deduced from AMS data in the Jaca-Pamplona basin (southern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrasoan˜a, J. C.; Pueyo-Morer, E. L.; Millán-Garrido, H.; Parés, J. M.; Del Valle, J.

    The first AMS data obtained in the Eocene marls and turbidites of the Jaca-Pamplona basin, and their interpretation in the local structural framework are presented. AMS data have proved to be excellent geometric indicators of microstructural features, as well as markers of the relative strain of rocks. The performed AMS analysis allowed to infer the strain of rocks, which is not possible by means of the classical structural methods, in areas where strata do not display any strain markers. Besides, the AMS data have been the sensitive enough to allow a preliminary estimation of the deformation mechanisms that ruled the structural configuration of the study area.

  19. Aerosol-Precipitation Responses Deduced from Ship tracks as Observed by CloudSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M.; Stephens, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    Ship tracks, produced from the exhaust plumes of ocean going vessels were analyzed using the 94-GHZ cloud profiling radar on the CloudSat satellite to examine the precipitation response of marine stratocumulus to changes in aerosol concentration. Ship tracks provide an ideal laboratory to study this response because the regions of clouds that are heavily contaminated by pollution can be separated from adjacent regions of clouds formed in the clean marine boundary layer. Several hundred ship tracks, coinciding with the radar and lidar observations from CloudSat and Calipso, were identified in MODIS imagery. The results demonstrate that, aerosol plumes from ships tend to decrease the spatial extent of rainfall (rain cover fraction) and intensity compared to the nearby pristine clouds. However, there were a substantial fraction of cases (30%), which exhibited increased rainfall. The sign and strength of the precipitation response was strongly tied to the mesoscale structure of the clouds. When the clouds exhibited closed cellular structures, liquid water amount, rainfall (-63%), and rain cover fraction significantly decreased (-55%). These reductions in rainfall were primarily associated with the decrease in rain cover fraction over the ship track domain. The opposite occurred in the open cell regime. Ship plumes ingested into this regime resulted in deeper, wetter, rainier, and brighter clouds, where rainfall increased by 88% primarily due to changes in intensity and to a lesser extent rain cover fraction. Microphysical changes almost always led to significantly smaller droplet radii in ship tracks, even when precipitation was increased. On the other hand, macrophysical changes (liquid water path) varied in magnitude and sign, and typically followed the direction of the precipitation response. The results presented here underline the need to consider the mesoscale structure of stratocumulus when examining the cloud dynamic response to changes in aerosol concentration.

  20. A model for carbohydrate metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum deduced from comparative whole genome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Kroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to the whole genome sequence of a second diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana. Protein localization to mitochondria was predicted based on identified similarities to mitochondrial localization motifs in other eukaryotes, whereas protein localization to plastids was based on the presence of signal peptide motifs in combination with plastid localization motifs previously shown to be required in diatoms. We identified genes potentially involved in a C4-like photosynthesis in P. tricornutum and, on the basis of sequence-based putative localization of relevant proteins, discuss possible differences in carbon concentrating mechanisms and CO(2 fixation between the two diatoms. We also identified genes encoding enzymes involved in photorespiration with one interesting exception: glycerate kinase was not found in either P. tricornutum or T. pseudonana. Various Calvin cycle enzymes were found in up to five different isoforms, distributed between plastids, mitochondria and the cytosol. Diatoms store energy either as lipids or as chrysolaminaran (a beta-1,3-glucan outside of the plastids. We identified various beta-glucanases and large membrane-bound glucan synthases. Interestingly most of the glucanases appear to contain C-terminal anchor domains that may attach the enzymes to membranes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present a detailed synthesis of carbohydrate metabolism in diatoms based on the genome sequences of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This model provides novel insights into acquisition of dissolved inorganic carbon and primary metabolic pathways of carbon in two different diatoms, which is of significance for an improved understanding of global carbon cycles.

  1. Large-Scale Forest Modeling: Deducing Stand Density from Inventory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While effects of thinning and natural disturbances on stand density play a central role for forest growth, their representation in large-scale studies is restricted by both model and data availability. Here a forest growth model was combined with a newly developed generic thinning model to estimate stand density and site productivity based on widely available inventory data (tree species, age class, volume, and increment. The combined model successfully coupled biomass, increment, and stand closure (=stand density/self-thinning limited stand density, as indicated by cross-validation against European-wide inventory data. The improvement in model performance attained by including variable stand closure among age cohorts compared to a fixed closure suggests that stand closure is an important parameter for accurate forest growth modeling also at large scales.

  2. Numbers of Electrons in Solar Flares as Deduced from Microwave and X-Ray Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xing-Feng; YAO Jin-Xing

    2001-01-01

    We discuss whether the numbers of x-ray and radio-produced electrons in solar flares are the same. The number of radio-produced electrons that is estimated with an inhomogeneous source increases by a factor of 103 - 104because of the inhomogeneity and the decreased magnetic field (B = 120 G) of the radio source. The number of x-ray-produced electrons decreases by a factor of 10 - 30 due to the increase of the number density of ions (3 × 1010 cm-3). These are the reasons why the number of radio-produced electrons is approximately equal tothat of x-ray-produced electrons in the 1981 April 27 burst.

  3. Phase lag deduced information in photo-thermal actuation for nano-mechanical systems characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijster, R. J. F., E-mail: roy.bijster@tno.nl; Vreugd, J. de [Department of Optomechatronics, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Sadeghian, H. [Department of Optomechatronics, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-08-18

    In photo-thermal actuation, heat is added locally to a micro-cantilever by means of a laser. A fraction of the irradiation is absorbed, yielding thermal stresses and deformations in the structure. Harmonic modulation of the laser power causes the cantilever to oscillate. Moreover, a phase lag is introduced which is very sensitive to the spot location and the cantilever properties. This phase lag is theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. Combined with thermo-mechanical properties of the cantilever and its geometry, the location of the laser spot, the thermal diffusivity, and the layer thicknesses of the cantilever can be extracted.

  4. Deducing Wild 2 Components with a Statistical Dataset of Olivine in Chondrite Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.; Le, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A preliminary exam of the Wild 2 olivine yielded a major element distribution that is strikingly similar to those for aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, and CR) [1], in which FeO-rich olivine is preferentially altered. With evidence lacking for large-scale alteration in Wild 2, the mechanism for this apparent selectivity is poorly understood. We use a statistical approach to explain this distribution in terms of relative contributions from different chondrite forming regions. Samples and Analyses: We have made a particular effort to obtain the best possible analyses of both major and minor elements in Wild 2 olivine and the 5-30 micrometer population in chondrite matrix. Previous studies of chondrite matrix either include larger isolated grains (not found in the Wild 2 collection) or lack minor element abundances. To overcome this gap in the existing data, we have now compiled greater than 10(exp 3) EPMA analyses of matrix olivine in CI, CM, CR, CH, Kakangari, C2-ungrouped, and the least equilibrated CO, CV, LL, and EH chondrites. Also, we are acquiring TEM/EDXS analyses of the Wild 2 olivine with 500s count times, to reduce relative errors of minor elements with respect to those otherwise available. Results: Using our Wild 2 analyses and those from [2], the revised major element distribution is more similar to anhydrous IDPs than previous results, which were based on more limited statistics (see figure below). However, a large frequency peak at Fa(sub 0-1) still persists. All but one of these grains has no detectable Cr, which is dissimilar to the Fa(sub 0-1) found in the CI and CM matrices. In fact, Fa(sub 0-1) with strongly depleted Cr content is a composition that appears to be unique to Kakangari and enstatite (highly reduced) chondrites. We also note the paucity of Fa(sub greater than 58), which would typically indicate crystallization in a more oxidizing environment [3]. We conclude that, relative to the bulk of anhydrous IDPs, Wild 2 may have received a larger contribution from the Kakangari and/or enstatite chondrite forming regions. Alternatively, Wild 2 may have undergone accretion in an anomalously reducing region, marked by nebular condensation of this atypical forsterite. In [4], a similar conclusion was reached with an Fe-XANES study. We will also use similar lines of reasoning, and our previous conclusions in [5], to constrain the relative contributions of silicates that appear to have been radially transported from different ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite forming regions to the Kuiper Belt. In addition, the widespread depletion of Cr in these FeO-rich (Fa(sub greater than 20)) fragments is consistent with mild thermal metamorphism in Wild 2.

  5. Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone microstructure: case studies from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ray; D Mukherjee; S Bandyopadhyay

    2009-11-01

    Bone microstructure is affected by ontogeny, phylogeny, biomechanics and environments. These aspects of life history of an extinct animal, especially its growth patterns, may be assessed as fossil bone generally maintains its histological integrity. Recent studies on the bone histology of fossil vertebrates from India encompass different types of temnospondyls and dicynodonts from different Permian and Triassic horizons. The examined taxa show that they had distinct bone histology and varied growth patterns. The Early Triassic trematosaurids had an overall fast growth, which contrasts with that of the Middle and Late Triassic temnospondyl taxa examined. The dicynodonts on the other hand, were characterized by an overall fast growth with periodic interruptions, variable growth rates dependent on ontogeny and indeterminate growth strategy. A comparative study encompassing several neotherapsid genera including the dicynodonts shows significant evolutionary trends towards determinate growth strategy and reduced developmental plasticity.

  6. Features of protein-protein interactions in two-component signaling deduced from genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert A; Szurmant, Hendrik; Hoch, James A; Hwa, Terence

    2007-01-01

    As more and more sequence data become available, new approaches for extracting information from these data become feasible. This chapter reports on one such method that has been applied to elucidate protein-protein interactions in bacterial two-component signaling pathways. The method identifies residues involved in the interaction through an analysis of over 2500 functionally coupled proteins and a precise determination of the substitutional constraints placed on one protein by its signaling mate. Once identified, a simple log-likelihood scoring procedure is applied to these residues to build a predictive tool for assigning signaling mates. The ability to apply this method is based on a proliferation of related domains within multiple organisms. Paralogous evolution through gene duplication and divergence of two-component systems has commonly resulted in tens of closely related interacting pairs within one organism with a roughly one-to-one correspondence between signal and response. This provides us with roughly an order of magnitude more protein pairs than there are unique, fully sequenced bacterial species. Consequently, this chapter serves as both a detailed exposition of the method that has provided more depth to our knowledge of bacterial signaling and a look ahead to what would be possible on a more widespread scale, that is, to protein-protein interactions that have only one example per genome, as the number of genomes increases by a factor of 10.

  7. Proton Spectroscopic Factors Deduced from Helium-3 Global Phenomenological and Microscopic Optical Model Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Lee; Pang, Dan-Yang; Han, Yin-Lu; B. Tsang, M.

    2014-09-01

    Global phenomenological GDP08 and microscopic helium-3 optical model potentials have been recently derived. We evaluate these two potential sets by comparing the elastic scattering data of 25 MeV 3He on 16O, 18O, 19F, 23Na, 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg, 27Al, 28Si, 30Si, 31P, 32S, 34S, 35Cl, 37Cl, and 39K isotopes. Using the deuteron angular distributions calculated with the distorted wave Born approximation model, we extract the ground-state proton spectroscopic factors from (3He, d) reactions on the same set of nuclei. The extracted proton spectroscopic factors are compared with the large-basis shell-model calculations.

  8. MATESOFT: a program for deducing parental genotypes and estimating mating system statistics in haplodiploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moilanen, A.; Sundström, L.; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects......breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects...

  9. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.;

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior...

  10. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Puglia, S. M. R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium ({sup 2}H), for the two lithium {sup 6,7}Li isotopes, for the {sup 9}Be and the one for the two boron {sup 10,11}B isotopes will be discussed.

  11. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, C.; Luhr, H.; Ma, S. Y.;

    2012-01-01

    for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010...

  12. The sign of temperature inhomogeneities deduced from time-distance helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Brüggen, M

    2000-01-01

    Inhomogeneities in wave propagation conditions near and below the solar surface have been detected by means of time-distance helioseismology. Here we calculate the effect of temperature inhomogeneities on the travel times of sound waves. A temperature increase, e.g. in active regions, not only increases the sound speed but also lengthens the path along which the wave travels because the expansion of the heated layers shifts the upper turning of the waves upward. Using a ray tracing approximation we find that in many cases the net effect of a temperature enhancement is an {\\it increase} of the travel times. We argue that the reduced travel times that are observed are caused by a combination of magnetic fields in the active region and {\\it reduced} subsurface temperatures. Such a reduction may be related to the increased radiative energy loss from small magnetic flux tubes.

  13. The radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field as deduced from Faraday rotation observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mancuso, S

    2013-01-01

    Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of the polarized emission from extragalactic radio sources occulted by the coronal plasma were used to infer the radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field near solar minimum activity. By inverting LASCO/SOHO polarized brightness (pB) data taken during the days of observations on May 1997, we retrieved the electron density distribution along the lines of sight to the sources, thus allowing to disentangle the two plasma properties that contribute to the observed RMs. By comparing the observed RM values to those theoretically predicted by a power-law model of the radial component of the coronal magnetic field, using a best-fitting procedure, we found that the radial component of the inner heliospheric magnetic field can be nicely approximated by a power-law of the form B_r = 3.76 r^{-2.29} G in a range of heights from about 5 to 14 solar radii. Finally, our analysis suggests that the radial computation of the potential field source surface (PFSS) model from the Wilco...

  14. Structural Investigations of Afghanistan Deduced from Remote Sensing and Potential Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibi Hakim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study integrates potential gravity and magnetic field data with remotely sensed images and geological data in an effort to understand the subsurface major geological structures in Afghanistan. Integrated analysis of Landsat SRTM data was applied for extraction of geological lineaments. The potential field data were analyzed using gradient interpretation techniques, such as analytic signal (AS, tilt derivative (TDR, horizontal gradient of the tilt derivative (HG-TDR, Euler Deconvolution (ED and power spectrum methods, and results were correlated with known geological structures.

  15. The production rate of cosmogenic 21-Ne in chondrites deduced from 81-Kr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L.; Freundel, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmogenic Ne-21 is used widely to calculate exposure ages of stone meteorites. In order to do so, the production rate P(21) must be known. This rate, however, is dependent on the chemical composition of the meteorite as well as the mass of, and position within, the meteoroid during its exposure to the cosmic radiation. Even for a mean shielding the production rates determined from measurments of different radionuclides vary by a factor of two. A method that can be used to determine exposure ages of meteorites that avoids shielding and chemical composition corrections is the -81-Kr-Kr-method. However, for chondrites, in many cases, the direct determination of production rates for the Kr isotopes is prevented by the trapped gases and the neutron effects on bromine. Therefore, this method was applied to four eucrite falls and then their 81-Kr-83-Kr-ages were compared to their cosmogenic Ne-21 and Ar-38 concentrations. The eucrites Bouvante-le-Haut, Juvinas, Sioux County, and Stannern were chosen for these measurements because of their similar chemical composition regarding the major elements.

  16. A partially differentiated interior for (1) Ceres deduced from its gravity field and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R. S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Bills, B. G.; Rambaux, N.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Vaughan, A. T.; Ermakov, A. I.; Zuber, M. T.; Fu, R. R.; Toplis, M. J.; Russell, C. T.; Nathues, A.; Preusker, F.

    2016-09-01

    Remote observations of the asteroid (1) Ceres from ground- and space-based telescopes have provided its approximate density and shape, leading to a range of models for the interior of Ceres, from homogeneous to fully differentiated. A previously missing parameter that can place a strong constraint on the interior of Ceres is its moment of inertia, which requires the measurement of its gravitational variation together with either precession rate or a validated assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. However, Earth-based remote observations cannot measure gravity variations and the magnitude of the precession rate is too small to be detected. Here we report gravity and shape measurements of Ceres obtained from the Dawn spacecraft, showing that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium with its inferred normalized mean moment of inertia of 0.37. These data show that Ceres is a partially differentiated body, with a rocky core overlaid by a volatile-rich shell, as predicted in some studies. Furthermore, we show that the gravity signal is strongly suppressed compared to that predicted by the topographic variation. This indicates that Ceres is isostatically compensated, such that topographic highs are supported by displacement of a denser interior. In contrast to the asteroid (4) Vesta, this strong compensation points to the presence of a lower-viscosity layer at depth, probably reflecting a thermal rather than compositional gradient. To further investigate the interior structure, we assume a two-layer model for the interior of Ceres with a core density of 2,460-2,900 kilograms per cubic metre (that is, composed of CI and CM chondrites), which yields an outer-shell thickness of 70-190 kilometres. The density of this outer shell is 1,680-1,950 kilograms per cubic metre, indicating a mixture of volatiles and denser materials such as silicates and salts. Although the gravity and shape data confirm that the interior of Ceres evolved thermally, its partially differentiated interior indicates an evolution more complex than has been envisioned for mid-sized (less than 1,000 kilometres across) ice-rich rocky bodies.

  17. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author

  18. Seismic structure off the Kii Peninsula, Japan, deduced from passive- and active-source seismographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kaiho, Yuka; Obana, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-01

    We conduct seismic tomography to model subsurface seismicity between 2010 and 2012 and structural heterogeneity off the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, and to investigate their relationships with segmentation of the Nankai and Tonankai seismogenic zones of the Nankai Trough. In order to constrain both the shallow and deep structure of the offshore seismogenic segments, we use both active- and passive-source data recorded by both ocean-bottom seismometers and land seismic stations. The relocated microearthquakes indicate a lack of seismic activity in the Tonankai seismogenic segment off Kumano, whereas there was active intraslab seismicity in the Kii Channel area of the Nankai seismogenic segment. Based on comparisons among the distribution of seismicity, age, and spreading rate of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, and the slip-deficit distribution, we conclude that seismicity in the subducting slab under the Kii Channel region nucleated from structures in the Philippine Sea slab that pre-date subduction and that fluids released by dehydration are related to decreased interplate coupling of these intraslab earthquakes. Our velocity model clearly shows the areal extent of two key structures reported in previous 2-D active-source surveys: a high-velocity zone beneath Cape Shionomisaki and a subducted seamount off Cape Muroto, both of which are roughly circular and of 15-20 km radius. The epicenters of the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes are near the edge of the high-velocity body beneath Cape Shionomisaki, suggesting that this anomalous structure is related to the nucleation of these two earthquakes. We identify several other high- and low-velocity zones immediately above the plate boundary in the Tonankai and Nankai seismogenic segments. In comparison with the slip-deficit model, some of the low-velocity zones appear to correspond to an area of strong coupling. Our observations suggest that, unlike the Japan Trench subduction zone, in our study area there is not a simple correspondence between areas of large coseismic slip or strong interplate coupling and areas of high velocity in the overriding plate.

  19. Method to deduce the energy spectrum by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, I.; Roth, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schuessler, F.; Unger, M. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Taken into account the great advantage of having a hybrid detector it has been developed a method, simulation independent, to determine the energy of the comic rays recorded by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The method assumes that the cosmic ray flux has the same distribution in zenith angle for all energy ranges. Therefore one can relate the calorimetric measurement of the fluorescence detector of the CR energy with a SD quantity, e.g. shower size at 1000m distance from the core, corrected for the different attenuations in the atmosphere. The method of measuring and calibrating the primary energy and the influence of reconstruction uncertainties on the energy spectrum are presented. (orig.)

  20. Empirical singular vectors of baroclinic flows deduced from experimental data of a differentially heated rotating annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Instability is related to exponentially growing eigenmodes. Interestingly, when finite time intervals are considered, growth rates of certain initial perturbations can exceed the growth rates of the most unstable modes. Moreover, even when all modes are damped, such particular initial perturbations can still grow during finite time intervals. The perturbations with the largest growth rates are called singular vectors (SVs or optimal perturbations. They not only play an important role in atmospheric ensemble predictions, but also for the theory of instability and turbulence. Starting point for a classical SV-analysis is a linear dynamical system with a known system matrix. In contrast to this traditional approach, measured data are used here to estimate the linear propagator. For this estimation, a method is applied that uses the covariances of the measured time series to find the principal oscillation patterns (POPs that are the empirically estimated linear eigenmodes of the system. By using the singular value decomposition (SVD, we can estimate the modes of maximal growth of the propagator which are thus the empirically estimated SVs. These modes can be understood as a superposition of POPs that form a complete but in general non-orthogonal basis. The data used, originate from a differentially heated rotating annulus laboratory experiment. This experiment is an analogue of the earth's atmosphere and is used to study the development of baroclinic waves in a well controlled and reproducible way without the need of numerical approximations. Baroclinic waves form the background for many studies on SV growth and it is thus straight forward to apply the technique of empirical SV estimation to these laboratory data. To test the method of SV estimation, we use a quasi-geostrophic barotropic model and compare the known SVs from that model with SVs estimated from a surrogate data set that was generated with the help of the exact model propagator and some random noise. In that context, we also address the question of the appropriate filter technique to remove noise from the data prior to the empirical SV-analysis. We ask whether there is an objective mean to distinguish between noise and signal. Finally, we compare the results with earlier findings from a numerical low-order model of baroclinic waves for which the system matrix is known. The results from the low-order model suggested that irregular flows have in general larger SV growth rates. These findings have been used to explain the gradual increase of irregularity when the rotation rate of the annulus is increased while keeping the radial temperature contrast constant. This simple picture cannot be confirmed by the laboratory data. The singular value spectrum becomes rather broad for irregular flows similar to the SV spectrum of atmospheric models. Thus the irregularity might be related to the presence of a large number of SVs with similar growth rates and not to few SVs with exceptional large growth rates.

  1. Declining moisture availability in late Eocene Antarctica as deduced from Nothofagus sporopollenin δ13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griener, K. W.; Nelson, D. M.; Warny, S.

    2012-12-01

    Palynological data demonstrate that significant changes in vegetation and climate occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) Boundary on the Antarctic Peninsula. These changes include decreases in terrestrial palynomorph abundance and diversity as well as dinoflagellate assemblages that reflect colder sea surface temperatures and increased glaciation (Warny and Askin, 2011). Understanding the factors controlling these changes in climate and vegetation is a topic of great interest. One area of remaining uncertainty is how the hydrologic regime varied during Antarctica's shift from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. For example, estimates of Antarctic precipitation from around the E-O boundary based on plant leaf margins (e.g. Francis et al., 2008), clay mineralogy (e.g. Christian and Kennett, 1997), and models (Thorn and DeConto 2006) are vastly different. We used a moving-wire device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (Sessions et al., 2005; Nelson et al., 2008) to analyze δ13C of small quantities of Nothofagus sporopollenin extracted from Antarctic Eocene SHALDRIL cores from ~35.9 Mya, just prior to the E-O Boundary (Bohaty et al., 2011). We also analyzed δ13C of modern Nothofagus sporopollenin from herbaria specimens and related these results to historical climate data. Our modern data show that carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of Nothofagus sporopollenin is positively correlated with mean annual and growing-season precipitation, consistent with prior studies that demonstrate a strong relationship between Δ and water availability in C3 plants. Eocene Nothofagus Δ values progressively decreased through time, implying a decline in moisture availability. There is a close correlation between Nothofagus palynomorph abundance (Warny and Askin, 2011) and Δ, indicating that Nothofagus abundance declined in response to decreasing moisture availability. We consider changes in sea surface temperatures as well as increased glaciation as possible causes behind these changes in aridity.

  2. An interplanetary magnetic field enhancement observed by five spacecraft: Deducing the magnetic structure, size and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Delzanno, G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2012-12-01

    Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs) were discovered almost 30 years ago in the PVO magnetic-field records and attributed to the interaction between solar wind and dust particles from comets or asteroids, but the physics of this interaction remained obscure. Our current understanding is that IFEs result from collisions of small interplanetary bodies that produce electrically charged nanometer-scale dust particles possibly enhanced by tribo-electric charging in the collision. These charged dust particles in turn interact with the magnetized solar wind. Momentum is transferred from the solar wind to the dust cloud via the collective effect of the formation of a magnetic barrier. This momentum transfer accelerates the particles to near the solar wind speed and moves the dust outward through the solar gravitational potential well. Multi-spacecraft observations can help us to determine the speed of the IFE and the orientation of the current sheet. They enable us to reconstruct the pressure profile of an IFE in three dimensions and estimate the mass contained in the IFE. We have done these reconstructions with an IFE observed on March 3, 2011 with Wind, ACE, ARTEMIS P1 and P2 and Geotail. We find that the magnetic field near the center of the IFE is highly twisted indicating a complicated magnetic topology as expected in a plasma-charged dust interaction. The magnetic field and plasma properties during this event distinguish it from a typical flux rope. Based on the statistical results obtained at 1 AU and the assumption that all the IFEs are self-similar, we find that this IFE has a radial scale length several times longer than the cross flow radius and contains a mass of about 108 kg. The rates of collisions expected for objects of this size are consistent with the observed rates of these disturbances.

  3. Paleoclimate variability during the Blake geomagnetic excursion (MIS 5d) deduced from a speleothem record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Osete, María-Luisa

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate possible connections between climate and the Earth's magnetic field, we examine paleoclimate proxies in a stalagmite (PA-8) recording the Blake excursion (˜112-˜116.4 ka) from Cobre cave (N Spain). Trace element, δ13C, δ18O, δ234U, fluorescent lamination, growth rate, and paleomagnetic records were synchronized using a floating lamina-counted chronology constrained by U-Th dates, providing a high-resolution multi-proxy paleoclimate record for MIS 5d. The alpine cave setting and the combination of proxies contributed to improve the confidence of the paleoclimatic interpretation. Periods of relatively warm and humid climate likely favored forest development and resulted in high speleothem growth rates, arguably annual fluorescent laminae, low δ13C and [Mg], and increased [Sr] and [Ba]. Colder periods limited soil activity and drip water availability, leading to reduced speleothem growth, poor development of fluorescent lamination, enhanced water-rock interaction leading to increased [Mg], δ13C, and δ234U, and episodic flooding. In the coldest and driest period recorded, evaporation caused simultaneous 18O and 13C enrichments and perturbed the trace element patterns. The Blake took place in a relatively warm interestadial at the inception of the Last Glacial period, but during a global cooling trend recorded in PA-8 by an overall decrease of δ18O and growth rate and increasing [Mg]. That trend culminated in the cessation of growth between ˜112 and ˜101 ka likely due to the onset of local glaciation correlated with Greenland stadial 25. That trend is consistent with a link between low geomagnetic intensity and climate cooling, but it does not prove it. Shorter term changes in relative paleointensity (RPI) relate to climate changes recorded in PA-8, particularly a prominent RPI low from ˜114.5 to ˜113 ka coincident with a significant cooling indicated by all proxy records, suggesting a link between geomagnetic intensity and climate at millennial time scales. Although the reliability of such inference is limited by the inferior resolution of the paleomagnetic data and a possible contamination of the RPI data by unaccounted changes in magnetite concentration, the agreement of those data with the marine record of cosmogenic Be suggests that the RPI record of PA-8 may reflect truly geomagnetic intensity variations.

  4. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C.; Lühr, H.; Ma, S. Y.; Stolle, C.; Fejer, B. G.

    2012-08-01

    In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload) fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). We filtered the FGM data by using band-passes with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76-608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400 km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000-2005, we also investigate the post-sunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1). Since the height of the F-layer is highly correlated with the vertical plasma drift and solar flux, we sorted the ROCSAT-1 data into different groups by F10.7. From the integrated vertical drift we have estimated the post-sunset uplift of the ionosphere. By comparing the properties of EPB occurrence for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010). Small-scale EPB structures are observed by CHAMP when the irregularities reach apex heights of 800 km and more. Such events are encountered primarily in the Brazilian sector during the months around November, when the post-sunset vertical plasma drift is high.

  5. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xiong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload fluxgate magnetometer (FGM data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs. We filtered the FGM data by using band-passes with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76–608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400 km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000–2005, we also investigate the post-sunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1. Since the height of the F-layer is highly correlated with the vertical plasma drift and solar flux, we sorted the ROCSAT-1 data into different groups by F10.7. From the integrated vertical drift we have estimated the post-sunset uplift of the ionosphere. By comparing the properties of EPB occurrence for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010. Small-scale EPB structures are observed by CHAMP when the irregularities reach apex heights of 800 km and more. Such events are encountered primarily in the Brazilian sector during the months around November, when the post-sunset vertical plasma drift is high.

  6. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo;

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  7. Formation des enseignants dans une perspective d'education permanente au benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboton, Sébastien; Moussa, Yaya Mede

    1994-05-01

    The history of teacher training in Benin, which provides evidence of social and cultural change, suggests that a system of lifelong education should be introduced which unites formal, non-formal and informal education, all of which already exist in embryo. The education originally given to every member of society was a continuing progression from initiate to initiator, a lifelong education that involved, among other things, knowledge of agricultural production. This traditional system was disrupted by the reorganization of teacher training after 1945. Recurrent training of teachers remained inadequate because of limited external funding for in-service training, the lack of teachers, the suspension of recruitment and the closure of teacher training colleges. The 1975 reform, through the initiative known as Operation Education and Development, envisaged links between school and social environment, allying intellectual work with production. This meant a radical change in the role of the teacher, who was confronted with technical advance and was obliged to enter a difficult continuing process of self-training. Furthermore, population growth and the restrictions imposed by the World Bank have brought about developments in both lifelong learning and apprenticeship. These two elements are brought together under an initiative known as Production Scolaire Artisanale, designed for out-of-school learners and artisans. The author concludes that the creation of a coherent system of voluntary education would be possible in a society that was itself favourably disposed to education.

  8. The verification of lightning location accuracy in Finland deduced from lightning strikes to trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of lightning location systems (LLS), using natural lightning strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating lightning. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the lightning location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the lightning location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural lightning.

  9. Using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to deduce nitrogen density mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, F.; Lemerini, M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents an optical method using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We especially diagnose a pure nitrogen gas subjected to a point to plane corona discharge, and visualize the density spatial map. The interelectrode distance equals 6 mm and the variation of the optical path has been measured at different pressures: 220 Torr, 400 Torr, and 760 Torr. The interferograms are recorded with a CCD camera, and the numerical analysis of these interferograms is assured by the inverse Abel transformation. The nitrogen density is extracted through the Gladstone-Dale relation. The obtained results are in close agreement with values available in the literature.

  10. Petrographically deduced triassic climate for the Deep River Basin, eastern piedmont of North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarn, S.T.; Mansfield, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A petrographic comparison of Triassic, fluvial sandstones from the Deep River Basin in the eastern piedmont of North Carolina with nearby Holocene stream sands (1) indicates that he Triassic climate was more arid than today's and (2) distinguishes an eastern, more plutonic terrane from a western, more metamorphic source terrane. The paleoclimatic interpretation is based on differences in framework composition between modern and ancient sands of the same grain size, derived from the same rock type, transported similar distances and deposited in similar settings. The Triassic sandstones contain more lithic-fragments but less quartz than otherwise equivalent, modern sand in the Deep River Basin. Feldspar content is more complex, controlled by both source-rock composition and climate. Sand from the more plutonic terrane contains more feldspar and plutonic lithic-fragments than sand from the more metamorphic terrane, which contains more quartz and metamorphic lithic-fragments. This petrographic interpretation of the Triassic sandstones along with the presence of coal, limestone, chert and caliche in the middle of the section suggests that the Triassic climate was cyclic, changing from arid to humid and back to arid. Plate-tectonic reconstructions place the Deep River Basin between the Triassic equator and Tropic of cancer, where the easterly trade winds would predominate. Therefore, the arid portions of the cycle could have been due to a periodic, orographic, rain shadow formed as the result of intermittent movement along the Jonesboro Fault, creating a highland area east of the Deep River Basin.

  11. Structural and temporal requirements for geomagnetic field reversal deduced from lava flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brad S; Hoffman, Kenneth A; Coe, Robert S; Brown, Laurie L; Jicha, Brian R; Pringle, Malcolm S; Chauvin, Annick

    2005-03-31

    Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field reflect changes in the geodynamo--flow within the outer core--that generates the field. Constraining core processes or mantle properties that induce or modulate reversals requires knowing the timing and morphology of field changes that precede and accompany these reversals. But the short duration of transitional field states and fragmentary nature of even the best palaeomagnetic records make it difficult to provide a timeline for the reversal process. 40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the most recent 'Matuyama-Brunhes' reversal, gives an age of 795 +/- 7 kyr, indistinguishable from that of lavas in Chile and La Palma that record a transition in the Earth's magnetic field, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the 'transitional' lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 kyr), agree with the astronomical age for the reversal. Here we propose that the older lavas record the onset of a geodynamo process, which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began approximately 18 kyr before the actual polarity switch. These data support the claim that complete reversals require a significant period for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect.

  12. Volcanic and glacial evolution of Chachani-Nocarane complex (Southern Peru) deduced from the geomorphologic map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Chachani-Nocarane (16°11'S; 71°31'W; 6.057 m asl) is a large volcanic complex located in the western Central-Andean Cordillera, South of Peru. The date of the last eruption is not known and there are no registers of recent volcanic activity. The complex is shaped by glacial forms belonging to different phases, and periglacial forms (several generations of rock glaciers) which alternate with volcanic forms. The aim of this research is to establish the glacio-volcanic evolution of the volcanic complex Chachani-Nocarane. In order to do so, a detailed 1:20.000 scale geomorphological map was elaborated by integrating the following techniques: interpretation of the 1:35.000 scale aerial photographs (Instituto Geográfico Nacional de Perú, 1956) and the analysis of satellite images (Mrsid; NASA, 2000). Finally, the cartography was corrected though field work campaigns. Through the geomorphologic analysis of the landforms and their relative position, we have identified twelve phases, seven volcanic and five glacial phases. The most ancient volcanic phase is locate to the north area of the study area and correspond with Nocarane and Chingana volcanoes, alignment NW-SE. Above those ensemble the rest of the large delimited geomorphological units overlap. The most recent is located to the SW and consists of a complex series of domes, lava cones and voluminous lavas. Within the glacial phases, the most ancient one is related to the Last Glacial Maximum during the Pleistocene. Over this period, glaciers formed moraines from 3150 to 3600 m asl. The most recent glacier pulsation corresponds to the Little Ice Age (LIA). The moraines related to that event are the closest to the summits, located between 5.100 and 5.300 m asl, and they represent the last trace of glacial activity on the volcanic complex. Currently, this tropical mountain does not have glaciers. The only solid-state water reserves are found in the form of permafrost, as shown by various generations of rock glaciers placed in the upper part of the mountain, between 4.300 and 5.400 m asl in Nevado Nocarane and between 4.350 and 5.100 m asl in Nevado Chachani. Most of the delimited rock glaciers were formed under vertical walls where the supply of detritus material is significant. The generation of rock glaciers found at a higher altitude presents geomorphological indicators of current activity. Research funded by CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

  13. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account for the loss of DSi from solution.

  14. Students' Dilemmas in Reaction Stoichiometry Problem Solving: Deducing the Limiting Reagent in Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Waldrip, Bruce G.; Chandrasegaran, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study was conducted to investigate the understanding of the limiting reagent concept and the strategies used by five Year 11 students when solving four reaction stoichiometry problems. Students' written problem-solving strategies were studied using the think-aloud protocol during problem-solving, and retrospective verbalisations…

  15. Outbreaks of Yuzu Dieback in Goheung Area: Possible Causes Deduced from Weather Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Hyung Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting in 2012, severe diebacks usually accompanied by abundant gum exudation have occurred on yuzu trees in Goheung-gun, Jeonnam Province, where severely affected trees were occasionally killed. On-farm surveys were conducted at 30 randomly-selected orchards located at Pungyang-myeon, Goheung-gun, and the resulting disease incidences were 18.5% and 39.6% for dieback and gumming symptoms, respectively. Black spots on branches and leaves also appeared on infected trees showing a typical dieback symptom. Morphological and molecular identifications of the isolated fungal organisms from lesions on the symptomatic leaves and branches revealed that they are identical to Phomopsis citri, known to cause gummosis. In order to find the reason for this sudden epidemic, we investigated the weather conditions that are exclusively distinct from previous years, hypothesizing that certain weather extremes might have caused the severe induction of pre-existing disease for yuzu. There were two extreme temperature drops beyond the yuzu’s cold hardiness limit right after an abnormally-warm-temperature-rise during the winter of 2011–12, which could cause severe frost damage resulting in mechanical injuries and physiological weakness to the affected trees. Furthermore, there was an increased frequency of strong wind events, seven times in 2012 compared to only a few times in the previous years, that could also lead to extensive injuries on branches. In conclusion, we estimated that the possible damages by severe frost and frequent strong wind events during 2012 could cause the yuzu trees to be vulnerable to subsequent fungal infection by providing physical entries and increasing plant susceptibility to infections.

  16. Outbreaks of Yuzu Dieback in Goheung Area: Possible Causes Deduced from Weather Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Koh, Young Jin

    2015-09-01

    Starting in 2012, severe diebacks usually accompanied by abundant gum exudation have occurred on yuzu trees in Goheung-gun, Jeonnam Province, where severely affected trees were occasionally killed. On-farm surveys were conducted at 30 randomly-selected orchards located at Pungyang-myeon, Goheung-gun, and the resulting disease incidences were 18.5% and 39.6% for dieback and gumming symptoms, respectively. Black spots on branches and leaves also appeared on infected trees showing a typical dieback symptom. Morphological and molecular identifications of the isolated fungal organisms from lesions on the symptomatic leaves and branches revealed that they are identical to Phomopsis citri, known to cause gummosis. In order to find the reason for this sudden epidemic, we investigated the weather conditions that are exclusively distinct from previous years, hypothesizing that certain weather extremes might have caused the severe induction of pre-existing disease for yuzu. There were two extreme temperature drops beyond the yuzu's cold hardiness limit right after an abnormally-warm-temperature-rise during the winter of 2011-12, which could cause severe frost damage resulting in mechanical injuries and physiological weakness to the affected trees. Furthermore, there was an increased frequency of strong wind events, seven times in 2012 compared to only a few times in the previous years, that could also lead to extensive injuries on branches. In conclusion, we estimated that the possible damages by severe frost and frequent strong wind events during 2012 could cause the yuzu trees to be vulnerable to subsequent fungal infection by providing physical entries and increasing plant susceptibility to infections.

  17. Low Angle Contact Between the Oaxaca and Juárez Terranes Deduced From Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzate-Flores, Jorge A.; Molina-Garza, Roberto; Corbo-Camargo, Fernando; Márquez-Ramírez, Víctor

    2016-10-01

    We present the electrical resistivity model along a profile perpendicular to the Middle America trench in southern Mexico that reveals previously unrecognized tectonic features at upper to mid-crustal depths. Our results support the hypotheses that the upper crust of the Oaxaca terrane is a residual ~20 km thick crust composed by an ~10 km thick faulted crustal upper layer and an ~10 km thick hydrated and/or mineralized layer. Oaxaca basement overthrust the younger Juárez (or Cuicateco) terrane. The electrical resistivity model supports the interpretation of a slab subducting at a low angle below Oaxaca. Uplift in the Oaxaca region appears to be related to fault reactivation induced by low angle subduction. In the Juárez terrane, isostatic forces may contribute to uplift because it is largely uncompensated. In the Sierra Madre del Sur, closer to the coast, uplift is facilitated by slab-dehydration driven buoyancy. Both gravity and resistivity models are consistent with a thinned upper crust in the northeast end of the profile.

  18. Firing variability is higher than deduced from the empirical coefficient of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2011-08-01

    A convenient and often used summary measure to quantify the firing variability in neurons is the coefficient of variation (CV), defined as the standard deviation divided by the mean. It is therefore important to find an estimator that gives reliable results from experimental data, that is, the estimator should be unbiased and have low estimation variance. When the CV is evaluated in the standard way (empirical standard deviation of interspike intervals divided by their average), then the estimator is biased, underestimating the true CV, especially if the distribution of the interspike intervals is positively skewed. Moreover, the estimator has a large variance for commonly used distributions. The aim of this letter is to quantify the bias and propose alternative estimation methods. If the distribution is assumed known or can be determined from data, parametric estimators are proposed, which not only remove the bias but also decrease the estimation errors. If no distribution is assumed and the data are very positively skewed, we propose to correct the standard estimator. When defining the corrected estimator, we simply use that it is more stable to work on the log scale for positively skewed distributions. The estimators are evaluated through simulations and applied to experimental data from olfactory receptor neurons in rats.

  19. Level of evidence in hand surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Roberto S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few investigations have been done to analyze the level of evidence in journals related to hand surgery, compared to other related research fields. The objective of this study was to assess the level of evidence of the clinical research papers published in the Ibero-american (RICMA, the European (JHSE and American (JHSA Journals of Hand Surgery. Methods A total of 932 clinical research papers published between 2005 and 2009 (RICMA 60, JHSE 461, and JHSA 411 were reviewed. Two independent observers classified the level of evidence based on the Oxford International Classification, 5 being the lowest level and 1 the highest level. The observed frequencies of the level of evidence for each journal were compared with the expected frequencies by a chi-square (χ 2 test for categorical variables with a significance level of 0.05. Results Inter-observer agreement analysis showed a Kappa of 0.617. Intra-observer agreement analysis presented a Kappa of 0.66 for the observer 1, and a Kappa of 0.751 for the observer 2. More than 80% of the papers in RICMA and JHSE and a 67.6% in the JHSA presented a level of 4. No level 1 or 2 studies were published in RICMA, compared to JHSE (0.9% level 1 and 5.0% level 2 and JHSA (8.3% level 1 and 10% level 2. The percentage of papers with level 3 published in RICMA (16.7% was higher compared to the JHSE (11.1% and the JHSA (14.1%. All the results were statistically significant (χ2=63.945; p Conclusions The level of evidence in hand surgery is dependent on the type of journal; being the highest level evidence papers those published in the JHSA, followed by the JHSE and finally the RICMA. Knowing the status of the level of evidence published in hand surgery is the starting point to face the challenges of improving the quality of our clinical research

  20. Circulating levels of homocysteine in preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that maternal hyperhomocysteinemia to be associated with preeclampsia. The aims of the present study were to examine maternal serum levels of total homocysteine in preeclamptic women and its association with the severity of the disease. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 matched healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total homocysteine were assessed using enzyme immunoassay method. Maternal serum levels of total homocysteine were significantly higher in preeclamptic group than in normal pregnant women. Women with severe preeclampsia had higher serum levels of total homocysteine than mild preeclamptic patients. Levels of total homocysteine correlated positively with systolic blood pressure values in preeclamptic women. In summary, maternal serum levels of total homocysteine were increased in preeclamptic women and hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with severity of preeclampsia.

  1. Elevated B6 levels and peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K; Zeris, S; Kothari, M J

    2008-01-01

    Polyneuropathy related to decreased levels of Vitamin B6 are well known. In contrast, the association between elevated levels of pyridoxine and neuropathy is not well described. This study is a retrospective review of patients in our neuromuscular clinic that were found to have elevated B6 levels. Twenty-six patients were found to have elevated serum B6 levels. The mean B6 level was 68.8 ng/ml. Twenty patients (76.9%) reported daily vitamin use. Twenty-one patients (80.8%) reported only sensory complaints. The most common symptoms reported were numbness (96%), burning pain (49.9%), tingling (57.7%), balance difficulties (30.7%), and weakness (7.8%). Nine (out of 26) had an abnormal EMG/NCS. Eight patients had an abnormal quantitative sensory study. We conclude that elevated pyridoxine levels should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy.

  2. High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    2006 High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited Frank E. Ritter, Steven R. Haynes, and Mark Cohen (ritter, shaynes, mcohen@ist.psu.edu...time again to consider high level behavior representation languages. Cognitive models and intelligent agents are becoming more complex and pervasive...00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL OF PRODUCTION OF RUSSIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Sagieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the technological level of production of Russian organizations. Areas of study cover the characteristics of the use of technology in manufacturing (the extent of use and level of technology, the problems solved by using specific types of technologies and the use in the production process of intellectual property; factors driving growth of technological level of the surveyed medium and large organizations and provides them with a competitive advantage

  4. Level statistics for nearly integrable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-Magd, A Y

    2009-07-01

    We assume that the level spectra of quantum systems in the initial phase of transition from integrability to chaos are approximated by superpositions of independent sequences. Each individual sequence is modeled by a random matrix ensemble. We obtain analytical expressions for the level spacing distribution and level number variance for such a system. These expressions are successfully applied to the analysis of the resonance spectrum in a nearly integrable microwave billiard.

  5. Placental lactogen levels in rhesus isoimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R H; Letchworth, A T; Niven, P A; Chard, T

    1974-03-02

    A prospective study of the plasma levels of human placental lactogen (HPL) in pregnancies complicated by rhesus isoimmunization showed that in mild and moderately affected cases the levels were normal, while in severely affected cases they were raised. Serial levels of HPL before the 26th week provide a valuable indication of fetal outcome, and we suggest that this estimation should be used routinely as an adjunct to other tests in the management of rhesus isoimmunization.

  6. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule; Chinedu Cletus Obinwa; Christian Ebele Okekeze; Eyo Ifreke

    2012-01-01

    The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower) and maximum (upper) level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, ...

  7. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田, 芳弘; 平木, 祥夫; 森本,節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石,則之; 木本, 真; 上者,郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野, 要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  8. Handbook on multi-level governance

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship of multi-level governance has developed into one of the most innovative themes of research in political science and public policy. This accessible Handbook presents a thorough review of the wide-ranging literature, encompassing various theoretical and conceptual approaches to multi-level governance and their application to policy-making in domestic, regional and global contexts. The importance of multi-level governance in specific policy areas is highlighted, and the contribut...

  9. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  10. Systematics of nuclear level density parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, Dorel [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Egidy, Till von [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The level density parameters for the back-shifted Fermi gas (both without and with energy-dependent level density parameter) and the constant temperature models have been determined for 310 nuclei between {sup 18}F and {sup 251}Cf by fitting the complete level schemes at low excitation energies and the s-wave neutron resonance spacings at the neutron binding energies. Simple formulae are proposed for the description of the two parameters of each of these models, which involve only quantities available from the mass tables. These formulae may constitute a reliable tool for extrapolating to nuclei far from stability, where nuclear level densities cannot be measured.

  11. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, Andrei C; van der Laan, Wladimir J; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive simulations has been limited due to the high computational demands involved. In this paper, we address this computational challenge by leveraging the increased computing power of graphics processors, to achieve fast simulations based on level sets. Our efficient, sparse GPU level-set method is substantially faster than other state-of-the-art, parallel approaches on both CPU and GPU hardware. We further investigate its performance through a method for surface reconstruction, based on GPU level sets. Our novel multiresolution method for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds compares favorably with recent, existing techniques and other parallel implementations. Finally, we point out that both level-set computations and rendering of level-set surfaces can be performed at interactive rates, even on large volumetric grids. Therefore, many applications based on level sets can benefit from our sparse level-set method.

  12. Renin and angiotensin levels in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton Pipkin, F; Smales, O R; O'Callaghan, M.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma renin activity, plasma renin concentration, and angiotensin II levels were measured in 63 normal children aged between 2 months and 12 years. The results showed that the high levels of renin and angiotensin II present in infancy remained above adult levels throughout the first decade of life but that there was a decline with age. Boys less than 8 years old had lower plasma renin activity and angiotensin II levels than girls of a similar age; this may be due to a relative substrate defi...

  13. On sea level - ice sheet interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Natalya Alissa

    This thesis focuses on the physics of static sea-level changes following variations in the distribution of grounded ice and the influence of these changes on the stability and dynamics of marine ice sheets. Gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in grounded ice mass lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. I outline a revised theory for computing post-glacial sea-level predictions and discuss the dominant physical effects that contribute to the patterns of sea-level change associated with surface loading on different timescales. I show, in particular, that a large sea-level fall (rise) occurs in the vicinity of a retreating (advancing) ice sheet on both short and long timescales. I also present an application of the sea-level theory in which I predict the sea-level changes associated with a new model of North American ice sheet evolution and consider the implications of the results for efforts to establish the sources of Meltwater Pulse 1A. These results demonstrate that viscous deformational effects can influence the amplitude of sea-level changes observed at far-field sea-level sites, even when the time window being considered is relatively short (≤ 500 years). Subsequently, I investigate the feedback of sea-level changes on marine ice-sheet stability and dynamics by coupling a global sea-level model to ice-sheet models of increasing complexity. To begin, I incorporate gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into an equilibrium marine ice-sheet stability theory to show that the sea-level changes have a stabilizing influence on ice-sheet retreat. Next, I consider the impact of the stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat using a 1D dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model. Simulations with the coupled model, which incorporate viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, show that local sea-level changes at the grounding line act to slow, and in some cases, halt

  14. Level design concept, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kremers, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad level design can make or break any game, so it is surprising how little reference material exists for level designers. Beginning level designers have a limited understanding of the tools and techniques they can use to achieve their goals, or even define them. This book is the first to use a conceptual and theoretical foundation to build such a set of practical tools and techniques. It is tied to no particular technology or genre, so it will be a useful reference for many years to come. Kremers covers many concepts universal to level design, such as interactivity, world building, im

  15. Mortality level, trends and differentials in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamuleni, M E

    1994-01-01

    "This article examines the levels, and trends and differentials in mortality in Malawi.... The study has shown that (i) the level of mortality is very high in Malawi; (ii) mortality has declined during the period under review; (iii) there was reduction in the rate of mortality decline in the seventies; and (iv) [there are] interesting differences in mortality in terms of rural-urban localities, regions and age-sex differentials. The observed levels, trends and differentials in mortality are however consistent with the level of social and economic development in the country."

  16. MISR Level 2 Surface parameters V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 Land Surface product contains information on land directional reflectance properties,albedos(spectral & PAR integrated),FPAR,asssociated radiation...

  17. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  18. Levels of Security Issues in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Charanya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Cloud computing is booming in most of the IT industry. Most of the organizations are moving to cloud computing due to various reasons. It provide elastic architecture accessible through internet and also it eliminate the setting up of high cost computing infrastructure for the IT based solutions and services. Cloud computing is pay-per-use model, on-demand network access to a sharedpool of configurable computing resources like Application-as a service, Platform as a services and infrastructure as a services. In this paper, survey of security issues at different levels such as application level, host level and network level is presented.

  19. RNA-Seq and molecular docking reveal multi-level pesticide resistance in the bed bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamidala Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous nocturnal parasites of humans that have attained high impact status due to their worldwide resurgence. The sudden and rampant resurgence of C. lectularius has been attributed to numerous factors including frequent international travel, narrower pest management practices, and insecticide resistance. Results We performed a next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq experiment to find differentially expressed genes between pesticide-resistant (PR and pesticide-susceptible (PS strains of C. lectularius. A reference transcriptome database of 51,492 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was created by combining the databases derived from de novo assembled mRNA-Seq tags (30,404 ESTs and our previous 454 pyrosequenced database (21,088 ESTs. The two-way GLMseq analysis revealed ~15,000 highly significant differentially expressed ESTs between the PR and PS strains. Among the top 5,000 differentially expressed ESTs, 109 putative defense genes (cuticular proteins, cytochrome P450s, antioxidant genes, ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and acetyl cholinesterase involved in penetration resistance and metabolic resistance were identified. Tissue and development-specific expression of P450 CYP3 clan members showed high mRNA levels in the cuticle, Malpighian tubules, and midgut; and in early instar nymphs, respectively. Lastly, molecular modeling and docking of a candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP397A1V2 revealed the flexibility of the deduced protein to metabolize a broad range of insecticide substrates including DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, and imidacloprid. Conclusions We developed significant molecular resources for C. lectularius putatively involved in metabolic resistance as well as those participating in other modes of insecticide resistance. RNA-Seq profiles of PR strains combined with tissue-specific profiles and molecular docking revealed multi-level insecticide

  20. An Enhanced Level Set Segmentation for Multichannel Images Using Fuzzy Clustering and Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Agrawal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, image segmentation has proved its applicability in various areas like satellite image processing, medical image processing and many more. In the present scenario the researchers tries to develop hybrid image segmentation techniques to generates efficient segmentation. Due to the development of the parallel programming, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM has attracted much attention as a fast alternative approach for solving partial differential equations. In this project work, first designed an energy functional based on the fuzzy c-means objective function which incorporates the bias field that accounts for the intensity in homogeneity of the real-world image. Using the gradient descent method, corresponding level set equations are obtained from which we deduce a fuzzy external force for the LBM solver based on the model by Zhao. The method is speedy, robust for denoise, and does not dependent on the position of the initial contour, effective in the presence of intensity in homogeneity, highly parallelizable and can detect objects with or without edges. For the implementation of segmentation techniques defined for gray images, most of the time researchers determines single channel segments of the images and superimposes the single channel segment information on color images. This idea leads to provide color image segmentation using single channel segments of multi channel images. Though this method is widely adopted but doesn’t provide complete true segmentation of multichannel ie color images because a color image contains three different channels for Red, green and blue components. Hence segmenting a color image, by having only single channel segments information, will definitely loose important segment regions of color images. To overcome this problem this paper work starts with the development of Enhanced Level Set Segmentation for single channel Images Using Fuzzy Clustering and Lattice Boltzmann Method. For the

  1. An Enhanced Level Set Segmentation for Multichannel Images Using Fuzzy Clustering and Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Agrawal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, image segmentation has proved its applicability in various areas like satellite image processing, medical image processing and many more. In the present scenario the researchers tries to develop hybrid image segmentation techniques to generates efficient segmentation. Due to the development of the parallel programming, the lattice Boltzmann met hod (LBM has attracted much attention as a fast alternative approach for solving partial differential equations. In this project work, first designed an energy functional based on the fuzzy c-means objective function which incorporates the bias field that accounts for the intensity in homogeneity of the real-world image. Using the gradient descent method, corresponding level set equations are obtained from which we deduce a fuzzy external force for the LBM solver based on the model by Zhao. The method is speedy, robust for denoise, and does not dependent on the position of the initial contour, effective in the presence of intensity in homogeneity, highly parallelizable and can detect objects with or without edges. For the implementation of segmentation techniques defined for gr ay images, most of the time researchers determines single channel segments of the images and superimposes the single channel segment information on color images. This idea leads to provide color image segmentation using single channel segments of multi chann el images. Though this method is widely adopted but doesn’t provide complete true segmentation of multichannel ie color images because a color image contains three different channels for Red, green and blue components. Hence segmenting a color image, b y having only single channel segments information, will definitely loose important segment regions of color images. To overcome this problem this paper work starts with the development of Enhanced Level Set Segmentation for single channel Images Using Fuzzy Clustering and Lattice Boltzmann Method. For the

  2. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  3. Modeling category-level purchase timing with brand-level marketing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurchase timing of households is usually modeled at the category level. Marketing efforts are however only available at the brand level. Hence, to describe category-level interpurchase times using marketing efforts one has to construct a category-level measure of marketing efforts from t

  4. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  5. Effective hyperfine temperature in frustrated Gd 2Sn 2O 7: two level model and 155Gd Mössbauer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, E.; Bonville, P.; Bouchaud, J.-P.; Hodges, J. A.; Sanchez, J. P.; Vulliet, P.

    2002-06-01

    Using 155Gd Mössbauer spectroscopy down to 27 mK, we show that, in the geometrically frustrated pyrochlore Gd2Sn2O7, the Gd3+ hyperfine levels are populated out of equilibrium. From this, we deduce that the hyperfine field, and the correlated Gd3+ moments which produce this field, continue to fluctuate as T|--> 0. With a model of a spin 1/2 system experiencing a magnetic field which reverses randomly in time, we obtain an analytical expression for the steady state probability distribution of the level populations. This distribution is a simple function of the ratio of the nuclear spin relaxation time to the average electronic spin-flip time. In Gd2Sn2O7, we find the two time scales are of the same order of magnitude. We discuss the mechanism giving rise to the nuclear spin relaxation and the influence of the electronic spin fluctuations on the hyperfine specific heat. The corresponding low temperature measurements in Gd2Ti2O7 are presented and discussed.

  6. Toll signal transduction pathway in bivalves: complete cds of intermediate elements and related gene transcription levels in hemocytes of immune stimulated Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Mylène; Rosani, Umberto; Giambelluca, Sonia; Cammarata, Matteo; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Venier, Paola; Roch, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Based on protein domain structure and organization deduced from mRNA contigs, 15 transcripts of the Toll signaling pathway have been identified in the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Identical searches performed on publicly available Mytilus edulis ESTs revealed 11 transcripts, whereas searches performed in genomic and new transcriptome sequences of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, identified 21 Toll-related transcripts. The remarkable molecular diversity of TRAF and IKK coding sequences of C. gigas, suggests that the sequence data inferred from Mytilus cDNAs may not be exhaustive. Most of the Toll pathway genes were constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in M. galloprovincialis, although at different levels, and clearly induced after in vivo injection with bacteria. Such over-transcription was more rapid and intense with Gram-negative than with Gram-positive bacteria. Injection of a fungus modulated the transcription of few Toll pathway genes, with the induction levels of TLR/MyD88 complex being always less intense. Purified LPS and β-glucans had marginal effect whereas peptidoglycans were ineffective. At the moment, we found no evidence of an IMD transcript in bivalves. In conclusion, mussels possess a complete Toll pathway which can be triggered either by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Calculation of direct effects of {sup 60}Co gamma rays on the different DNA structural levels: A simulation study using the Geant4-DNA toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajik, Marjan; Rozatian, Amir S.H. [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Street, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Semsarha, Farid, E-mail: Semsarha@ibb.ut.ac.ir [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB), University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    In this study, simple single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) due to direct effects of the secondary electron spectrum of {sup 60}Co gamma rays on different organizational levels of a volume model of the B-DNA conformation have been calculated using the Geant4-DNA toolkit. Result of this study for the direct DSB yield shows a good agreement with other theoretical and experimental results obtained by both photons and their secondary electrons; however, in the case of SSB a noticeable difference can be observed. Moreover, regarding the almost constant yields of the direct strand breaks in the different structural levels of the DNA, calculated in this work, and compared with some theoretical studies, it can be deduced that the direct strand breaks yields depend mainly on the primary double helix structure of the DNA and the higher-order structures cannot have a noticeable effect on the direct DNA damage inductions by {sup 60}Co gamma rays. In contrast, a direct dependency between the direct SSB and DSB yields and the volume of the DNA structure has been found. Also, a further study on the histone proteins showed that they can play an important role in the trapping of low energy electrons without any significant effect on the direct DNA strand breaks inductions, at least in the range of energies used in the current study.

  8. Interpretation of quasi-Fermi level splitting in Cu(Ga,In)Se{sub 2}-absorbers by confocally recorded spectral luminescence and numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabe, Sebastian [Institute of Physics, CvO University Oldenburg (Germany)], E-mail: levent.guetay@uni-oldenburg.de; Guetay, Levent; Bauer, Gottfried H. [Institute of Physics, CvO University Oldenburg (Germany)

    2009-02-02

    Spectral room temperature photoluminescence (pl) of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} films (CIGSe) is evaluated with respect to optoelectronic properties and in particular for the determination of the splitting of quasi-Fermi levels (E{sub Fn} - E{sub Fp}). For lateral resolution of {<=} 1 {mu}m a confocal pl-setup is used. The depth profile of the excess carrier densities determining the rates of radiative transitions strongly govern the spectral pl-shape which has been numerically modeled with a matrix transfer formalism. In this optical approach we discriminate for wave propagation and attenuation in a multilayer system between a plane-wave ansatz and a 3D-spherical formalism, depending on excitation area large or small/similar compared to the thickness of the absorber. In both cases re-absorption of photons in energetic regimes with absorption approaches unity, from which the splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels is preferentially deduced, substantially influence the spectral luminescence signal. For heterojunctions usually located at the light entrance side of the device our evaluation with good agreement reflects (E{sub Fn} - E{sub Fp}) in the vicinity of the barrier and thus indicates the maximum achievable open circuit voltage of the finally processed diode. Departures of the spectral pl from the idealized Bose-term signalize unfavorable carrier profiles and a depth dependence of optoelectronic absorber properties.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1 in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bua-In Saowaluck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr. is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant and evaluate the mechanical wounding that may influence the transcription level of the monoterpene synthase gene. To isolate the gene, the selected clones from DNA derived from young leaves were sequenced and analyzed and the monoterpene synthase gene from cassumunar ginger (ZMM1 was identified. The ZMM1 CDS containing 1 773 bp (KF500399 is predicted to encode a protein of 590 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 40-74% identical with known sequences of other angiosperm monoterpene synthases belonging to the isoprenoid biosynthesis C1 superfamily. A transcript of ZMM1 was detected almost exclusively in the leaves and was related to leaf wounding. The results of this research offer insight into the control of monoterpene synthesis in this plant. This finding can be applied to breeding programs or crop management of cassumunar ginger for better yield and quality of essential oil.

  10. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...

  11. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Laan, Wladimir J. van der; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive sim

  12. Climate-driven changes in water level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Bjerring; Olsen, Jesper; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    level rose. Moreover, Nymphaeaceae trichosclereids were abundant during the period of algal enrichment. Cladoceran taxa associated with floating leaved plants or benthic habitats responded in a complex way to changes in water level, but the cladoceran assemblages generally reflected deep lake conditions...

  13. Sea level rise: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes du

  14. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  15. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Kodex, M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. This has enhanced the interest in identifying agents that can normalize elevated plasma fibrinogen levels. Agents that have this capacity are the lipid lowering fibric acid derivatives (e.g. ciprofibrate) and the plate

  16. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important factors in

  17. Gain leveling using electromagnetically induced transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo, Z.C. [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Opto-Electronics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Su, X.M. [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light and Atom and Molecule Spectroscopy of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)]. E-mail: euxmsu@public.cc.jl.cn; Zhang, Y.S. [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Opto-Electronics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2005-02-28

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme of gain leveling for erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) by applying a strong coherent field to a three level amplified system using electromagnetically induced transparency. Due to the effect of this coupling field on the Stark-splitting sublevels, this scheme can be realized a flat gain operating around 1.53 {mu}m.

  18. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  19. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  20. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  1. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  2. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  3. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  4. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from never thought about starting a business to thinking ab

  5. Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from “never thought about starting a business” to “thinking ab

  6. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  7. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  8. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each nurs

  9. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted...

  10. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.3 Classification levels. Information...

  11. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  12. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  13. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  14. Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils;

    In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain ...

  15. Four Levels of Cross-cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    In order to attain intercultural awareness, we have to know Robert Hanvey's statement of four levels of inter-cultural awareness described in his book An Attainable Global Perspective (1976). This passage anazlyes the four levels of cross-cultural awareness.

  16. Problems of Level in Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna T. Balmagambetova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . The article is focused on the problems of level approach to communicative competence formation in the course of the second language learning. The change of educational paradigm demands turn of linguists to differentiated learner-centered education – level system of language learning

  17. Carnitine Level Changes with the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD on carnitine levels were determined in 38 consecutive patients with epilepsy treated at Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Medical Center, Chicago, IL Carnitine levels were determined at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 months of diet treatment.

  18. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  19. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  20. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen;

    the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  1. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii) abil...

  2. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  3. The architecture and fiction in level design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2006-01-01

    the architect and designer approach the world of level design? What tools are necessary for creating a game flow in first-person shooter's level design? Is it possible to look at experienced architecture for the origin of Level design? And is it possible to establish a number of rules for creating a good or bad...... The architect's professional field has expanded with the new virtual medias There is a new set of rules different from the scenography of the film and different from the architecture of amusement parks. The new rules are fiction, interaction, complexity, and artificial intelligence...... architecture in level design? We will look at two different games FarCry and Half-Life 2.   Keywords: World design, experience architecture, level design, game flow and gameplay....

  4. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  5. LEVEL SET METHODS BASED ON DISTANCE FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军; 唐云; 于洪川; 唐泽圣

    2003-01-01

    Some basic problems on the level set methods were discussed, such as the method used to preserve the distance function, the existence and uniqueness of solution for the level set equations. The main contribution is to prove that in a neighborhood of the initial zero level set, the level set equations with the restriction of the distance function have a unique solution, which must be the signed distance function with respect to the evolving surface. Some skillful approaches were used: Noticing that any solution for the original equation was a distance function, the original level set equations were transformed into a simpler alternative form. Moreover, since the new system was not a classical one, the system was transforned into an ordinary one, for which the implicit function method was adopted.

  6. Construal levels and moral judgment: Some complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eyal, T., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y., (2008. Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.

  7. [Cybernetic conceptualization of the levels of hypnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollina Mangiameli, G

    1980-04-28

    The synaptic function of the different associational levels of cortex and cortico-subcortical depending on inputs memorised in synchronism at each level, is probably responsible, on a broad scale of values, for auto- or heteroinducible levels of hypnosis due to inputs solicited by extraneuronal values determining feed-back with inputs recorded in neuronal DNA. This hypothesis is outlined here with reference to the same Author's "Metodica psicoterapica su elementi di cultura cibernetica" (Minerva Medica, 63, 968, 1972). Sophronic levels, and levels of hypnosis and hypnotism are, in the light of elements of cybernetic culture, neurophysiologically referrable not only to qualitatively different causes, and more specifically to the final cause triggering electrobiochemical reactions. They are, in other words, referrable to the electron and its dynamics, increasingly well known today to students of cybernetics.

  8. Procalcitonin serum levels in tertian malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwakata Collins B

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Procalcitonin (PCT is closely correlated with parasite burden and clinical outcome in falciparum malaria. The role of PCT in tertian malaria has not previously been investigated. Patients and methods PCT serum levels in 37 patients with tertian malaria were analysed. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed and statistically correlated both to the initial PCT levels and during the course of the disease. Results PCT levels rose for one day after commencing treatment and declined thereafter. However, there was no significant correlation with parasite burden, clinical parameters, laboratory values, or the presence of semi-immunity. Before treatment, the majority of patients showed normal or slightly elevated PCT levels ( Conclusions There is a fundamental difference in the relationship of PCT with tertian malaria not seen in other infectious diseases in which elevated PCT levels have been observed. This suggests distinct pathophysiological pathways in malaria.

  9. On Abstraction Levels For Software Architecture Viewpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2005-01-01

    abstraction levels defined in this paper, viewpoints can be described more accurately and applied more consistently. This can help developers easier gain proficiency in the use of viewpoints to describe software architectures of systems. In this paper concepts which clarify the relation between the defined......In the field of software architecture the abstraction level of a viewpoint has often been defined on a scale from low to high. However, the definition of abstraction levels on a scale from low to high makes it very subjective what is at each level. This makes it difficult to apply the different...... existing viewpoints in practice, because each viewpoint can be applied at many different levels of abstraction which the architect has to consider. This also makes it hard for people to enter the field of software architecture and become proficient in using its techniques and methods. By using the three...

  10. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN FIBRINOGEN LEVEL AND CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-cheng Zhu; Li-ying Cui; Bao-lai Hua; Jia-qi Pan

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between plasma fibrinogen level and cerebral infarction (CI) as well as the difference of fibrinogen among subtypes of CI.Methods A case-controlled study was conducted with 131 cases of CI and 148 controls. Plasma fibrinogen levels were detected by the Clauss method.Results High fibrinogen level (3.09±0.94 g/L) was correlated with CI (OR=2.47, 95% CI:1.51-4.04,P<0.005) at the onset stage of the disease. Persistent high fibrinogen level (3.14±0.81 g/L) at 6-month after stroke onset was detected and correlated with CI (OR=4.34, 95% CI: 1.80-10. 51,P=0.001). Higher fibrinogen level was correlated with total anterior circulation infarction (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarction (PACI), and posterior circulation infarction (POCI) (OR = 4.008, P<0.001). Higher fibrinogen level was correlated with extracranial atherosclerosis (OR=3.220, P<0.05), but not with intracranial atherosclerosis.Conclusion Fibrinogen level may be a risk factor of CI and probably correlates with subtypes of CI and distributions of atherosclerosis.

  12. Groundwater Level Predictions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓敏; 尚松浩; 刘翔

    2002-01-01

    The prediction of groundwater level is important for the use and management of groundwater resources. In this paper, the artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to predict groundwater level in the Dawu Aquifer of Zibo in Eastern China. The first step was an auto-correlation analysis of the groundwater level which showed that the monthly groundwater level was time dependent. An auto-regression type ANN (ARANN) model and a regression-auto-regression type ANN (RARANN) model using back-propagation algorithm were then used to predict the groundwater level. Monthly data from June 1988 to May 1998 was used for the network training and testing. The results show that the RARANN model is more reliable than the ARANN model, especially in the testing period, which indicates that the RARANN model can describe the relationship between the groundwater fluctuation and main factors that currently influence the groundwater level. The results suggest that the model is suitable for predicting groundwater level fluctuations in this area for similar conditions in the future.

  13. Global Sea Level Change and Thermal Contribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2009-01-01

    The global long-term sea level trend is obtained from the analysis of tide gauge data and TOPEX/Poseidon data. The linear trend of global mean sea level is highly non-umiform spatially, with an average rate of 2.2 mm year-1 in T/P sea-level rise from October 1992 to September 2002. Sea level change duc to temperature vanation (the thermosteric sea level) is discussed. The results are compared with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data in the same temporal span at different spatial scales. It is indicated that the ther-mal effect accounts for 86% and 73% of the observed seasonal variability in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The TOPEX/Poseidon observed sea level lags behind the TSI, by 2 months in the zonal band of 40°-60° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Systematic differences of about 1-2cm between TOPEX/Poseidon observations and thermosteric sea level data are obtained. The potential causes for these differences include water exchange among the atmosphere, land, and oceans, and some pos-sible deviations in thermosteric contribution estimates and geophysical corrections to the TOPEX/Poseidon data.

  14. Core level shifts of intercalated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Ulrike A.; Petrović, Marin; Gerber, Timm; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Grånäs, Elin; Arman, Mohammad A.; Herbig, Charlotte; Schnadt, Joachim; Kralj, Marko; Knudsen, Jan; Michely, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Through intercalation of metals and gases the Dirac cone of graphene on Ir(111) can be shifted with respect to the Fermi level without becoming destroyed by strong hybridization. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the C 1s core level shift (CLS) of graphene in contact with a number of structurally well-defined intercalation layers (O, H, Eu, and Cs). By analysis of our own and additional literature data for decoupled graphene, the C 1s CLS is found to be a non-monotonic function of the doping level. For small doping levels the shifts are well described by a rigid band model. However, at larger doping levels, a second effect comes into play which is proportional to the transferred charge and counteracts the rigid band shift. Moreover, not only the position, but also the C 1s peak shape displays a unique evolution as a function of doping level. Our conclusions are supported by intercalation experiments with Li, with which, due to the absence of phase separation, the doping level of graphene can be continuously tuned.

  15. Clinical problems and levels of psychosomatic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Martins

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction, some doctrinary and technical problems dealing with the complexity of the human mind and the possible approaches to investigate and treat the personality are discussed and, among them, the "medical model" is emphasized. A brief description of some cases in the author's experience are presented; they, at first, had been very difficult to diagnose. However, after some time, they were found to be of indisputable neuro-psychogenetic pathogenesis. The psychosomatic aspects of each case are analyzed, with emphasis on the different levels of pathogenic action and the means of elaboration to defend and readapt the affected personality, resulting in its final clinical expression. There are four possible levels where the primary dysfunction may act; (a physiopathologic neuronal level; (b cerebral subsystemic level; (c psychodynamic level; (d psychosocial level. The primary dysfunction, acting as a new stimulus on each of these levels, may determine in the personality pathologic responses that may assume very complex clinical situations. Many of these responses are quite different from the precipitating primary dysfunction, although there are still many evident links among them.

  16. Hölder Scales of Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of sea level is essential in the field of geosciences, ranging from ocean dynamics to climates. The fractal properties of sea level, such as long-range dependence (LRD or long memory, 1/f noise behavior, and self-similarity (SS, are known. However, the description of its multiscale behavior as well as local roughness with the Hölder exponent h(t from a view of multifractional Brownian motion (mBm is rarely reported, to the best of our knowledge. In this research, we will exhibit that there is the multiscale property of sea level based on h(ts of sea level data recorded by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC at six stations in the Florida and Eastern Gulf of Mexico. The contributions of this paper are twofold as follows. (i Hölder exponent of sea level may not change with time considerably at small time scale, for example, daily time scale, but it varies significantly at large time scale, such as at monthly time scale. (ii The dispersion of the Hölder exponents of sea level may be different at different stations. This implies that the Hölder roughness of sea level may be spatial dependent.

  17. Blood creatinine level in postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Funaki, Hironao; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuka; Akasaka, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Blood chemical analysis for the diagnosis of diseases in forensic cases should be conducted in the same way as for clinical cases. However, it is sometimes difficult to obtain serum samples in forensic cases because of postmortem changes such as hemolysis and putrefaction. This study aimed to evaluate renal function in postmortem cases by blood creatinine analysis. The blood creatinine level was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using whole blood samples taken from 77 postmortem cases, and the relationships between blood creatinine level, postmortem interval, and cause of death were examined. The median blood creatinine level was found to be 1.15 mg/dL, with no significant differences between blood samples taken from different parts of the body. The blood creatinine level was stable for 3 days after death and gradually increased after that period, in line with a previous study using enzymatic analysis that found the serum creatinine level was stable in the early postmortem period. The blood creatinine level was high in the cases of blunt injury, intoxication, and in deaths caused by fire. This was considered to reflect acute renal dysfunction. However, the postmortem blood creatinine level remained higher than the clinical normal value despite omitting cases with renal dysfunction from the analysis. Therefore, we next investigated the change in postmortem creatinine levels in mice and found that the blood creatinine level increased with the emergence of rigor mortis. Our findings indicate that HPLC is useful in the postmortem evaluation of renal function even in the cases where serum cannot be obtained. However, the presence of rigor mortis should be considered in the evaluation of blood creatinine values.

  18. Noise levels of amusement ride operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Thies, Liza E; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2017-04-01

    One of the leading causes of noise-induced hearing loss is occupational noise exposure; however, little attention has been given to the exposure among amusement ride operators. According to the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, 600,000 ride operators are employed in the U.S. The first objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate if ride operators were exposed to noise levels over 85 dB. The second objective was to classify the ride features that led to the highest noise levels. 136 rides were measured at 17 total amusement parks, county fairs, and festivals in southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois during summer 2015. A sound level meter recorded noise measurements as close in proximity to the ride operator as possible. Each ride was measured for two or three complete ride cycles, which included loading and operating the ride. The sound level meter was programmed to measure noise as recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and with no threshold. 18% of rides measured had projected noise levels greater than American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendation of 85 dB. A repeated measures model was used to analyze the complete ride cycle decibel levels. The model found that traveling carnival rides had significantly higher levels compared to the stationary amusement park rides (p levels than those without midway music (p amusement ride operators would be at risk for noise induced hearing loss and would require a hearing conservation program if the 8-hr time weighted averages were to follow the same trends as the complete ride cycle levels.

  19. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  20. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)