Sample records for 31ar deduced beta

  1. The {beta}2p decay mechanism of {sup 31}Ar[23.40.Hc; 27.30.+t; Radioactivity 31Ar({beta}+p) [from Ca(p,3pxn) reaction]; Measured {beta}-delayed protons Ep, E2p; pp energy and angular correlations; 31Ar deduced {beta}1p and {beta}2p decay channels; 30S, 31Cl deduced levels, T, {pi}, branching ratios; CaO target; On-line mass separation; Double sided Si strip detector; Si p-i-n detectors; Surface barrier Si detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U.; Borge, M.J.G.; Axelsson, L.; Aeystoe, J.; Bergmann, U.C.; Fraile, L.M.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshoej, P.; Jading, Y.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Piqueras, I.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M.H.; Tengblad, O.; Thaysen, J.; Wenander, F


    We have measured the beta-decay of {sup 31}Ar with a high granularity setup sensitive to multiparticle decay branches. Two-proton emission is observed from the isobaric analog state in {sup 31}Cl to the four lowest states in {sup 29}P and furthermore from a large number of states fed in Gamow-Teller transitions. The mechanism of two-proton emission is studied via energy and angular correlations between the two protons. In all cases the mechanism is found to be sequential yielding information about states in {sup 30}S up to 8 MeV excitation energy. Improved data on the {beta}-delayed one-proton branches together with the two-proton data provide precise information about the beta-strength distribution up to 15 MeV excitation energy.

  2. $\\beta$3$p$-spectroscopy and proton-$\\gamma$ width determination in the decay of $^{31}$Ar

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to perform a detailed study of the $\\beta$-decay of the dripline nucleus $^{31}$Ar. This will allow a detailed study of the $\\beta$-delayed 3$p$-decay as well as provide important information on the resonances of $^{30}$S and $^{29}$P, in particular the ratio between the $p$- and $\\gamma$- partial widths relevant for astrophysics.

  3. Studies of $\\beta$-delayed two-proton emission : The cases of $^{31}$Ar and $^{35}$Ca

    CERN Multimedia

    Riisager, K; Jokinen, A; Canchel, G; Heinz, A M; Jonson, B N G; Dominguez reyes, R R; Koldste, G T; Fraile prieto, L M; Nilsson, T; Audirac, L L


    We propose to perform detailed studies of the decays of the two dripline nuclei $^{31}$Ar and $^{35}$Ca. This will allow an in-depth study in the process of $\\beta$-delayed two-proton emission ($\\beta$2p); as well as provide important information on resonances in $^{30}$S and $^{34}$Ar relevant for the astrophysical rp-process.

  4. Sizeable beta-strength in {sup 31}Ar (β3p) decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koldste, G.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Blank, B. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Fraile, L.M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fynbo, H.O.U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Johansen, J.G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jokinen, A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40351 Jyväskylä (Finland); Jonson, B. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Kurturkian-Nieto, T. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Nilsson, T. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Perea, A.; Pesudo, V. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); and others


    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode β-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow–Teller strength distribution from the decay of {sup 31}Ar revealing that as much as 30% of the strength resides in the β3p-decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in {sup 31}Cl is provided.

  5. Proton and $\\gamma$- partial widths of astrophysically important states of $^{30}$S studied by the $\\beta$-delayed decay of $^{31}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Koldste, G T; Borge, M J G; Briz, J A; Carmona-Gallardo, M; Fraile, L M; Fynbo, H O U; Giovinazzo, J; Johansen, J G; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Kurturkian-Nieto, T; Kusk, J H; Nilsson, T; Perea, A; Pesudo, V; Picado, E; Riisager, K; Saastamoinen, A; Tengblad, O; Thomas, J -C; Van de Walle, J


    Resonances just above the proton threshold in $^{30}$S affect the $^{29}$P$(p,\\gamma)^{30}$S reaction under astrophysical conditions. The ($p,\\gamma$)-reaction rate is currently determined indirectly and depends on the properties of the relevant resonances. We present here a method for finding the ratio between the proton- and $\\gamma$- partial widths of resonances in $^{30}$S. The widths are determined from the $\\beta -2p$ and $\\beta -p-\\gamma$-decay of $^{31}$Ar, which is produced at ISOLDE, CERN. Experimental limits on the ratio between the proton- and $\\gamma$- partial widths for astrophysical relevant levels in $^{30}$S have been found for the first time. A level at 4689.2(24)keV is identified in the $\\gamma$-spectrum, and an upper limit on the $\\Gamma_{p}/\\Gamma_{\\gamma}$ ratio of 0.26 (95% C.L.) is found. In the two-proton spectrum two levels at 5227(3)keV and 5847(4)keV are identified. These levels were previously seen to $\\gamma$-decay and upper limits on the $\\Gamma_{\\gamma}/\\Gamma_{p}$ ratio of 0.5...

  6. Multi-particle emission in the decay of $^{31}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Koldste, G T; Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Fraile, L.M.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grann, B.D.; Johansen, J.G.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Kurturkian-Nieto, T.; Kusk, J.H.; Nilsson, T.; Perea, A.; Pesudo, V.; Picado, E.; Riisager, K.; Saastamoinen, A.; Tengblad, O.; Thomas, J.C.; Van de Walle, J.


    A multi-hit capacity setup was used to study the decay of the dripline nucleus 31Ar, produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. A spectroscopic analysis of the beta-delayed three-proton decay of 31Ar is presented for the first time together with a quantitative analysis of the beta-delayed two-proton-gamma-decay. A new method for determination of the spin of low-lying levels in the beta-proton-daughter 30S using proton-proton angular correlations is presented and used for the level at 5.2 MeV, which is found to be either a 3+ or 4+ level, with the data pointing towards the 3+. The half-life of 31Ar is found to be 15.1(3) ms. An improved analysis of the Fermi beta-strength gives a total measured branching for the beta-3p-decay of 3.60(44) %, which is lower than the theoretical value found to be 4.24(43) %. Finally the strongest gamma-transitions in the decay of 33Ar are shown including a line at 4734(3) keV associated to the decay of the IAS, which has not previously been identified.

  7. Proton dripline studies at ISOLDE: {sup 31}Ar and {sup 9}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borge, M.J.G.; Fraile, L.M.; Tengblad, O.; Bergmann, U.O.C.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Mukha, I.; Riisager, K.; Axelsson, L.; Jonson, B.; Nyman, G.; Markenroth, K.; Aeystoe, J.; Honkanen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Oinonen, M.; Jading, Y.; Martel, I.; Nilsson, T.; Wenander, F


    In this contribution examples of the application of new technologies to disentangle the mechanism of beta-delayed multiparticle emission are given. In particular the mechanism of {beta}-delayed two-proton emission from {sup 31}Ar has been resolved and proved to be sequential, a preview of {sup 9}C-decay data is discussed.

  8. β-delayed Multi-particle Emission From 31Ar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. A. Ciemny; J. Du´enas-Daz; V. Dunin; J. M. Espino; A. Estrade; F. Farinon; A. Fomichev; H. Geisse; A. Gorshkov; G. Kami´nski; O. Kiselev; C. Mazzocchi; R. Kn¨obe; S. Krupko; M. Kuich; Yu. A. Litvinov; G. Marquinez-Dur´an; I. Martel; I. Mukha; C. Nociforo; A. K. Ord´uz; S. Pietri; W. Dominik; A. Prochazka; A. M. S´anchez-Ben´ıtez; H. Simon; B. Sitar; R. Slepnev; M. Stanoiu; P. Strmen; I. Szarka; M. Takechi; Y. Tanaka; Z. Janas; H. Weick; J. S. Winfield; M. Pf¨utzner; M. Pomorski; L. Acosta; S. Baraeva; E. Casarejos


    The β+ decay of 31Ar was investigated in an experiment at the GSI-FRS spectrometer. The ions of interest have been produced in the fragmentation of a 36Ar beam at 880 MeV/nucleon and implanted in a time projection chamber with optical readout. In addition to β-delayed one and two proton emission, for the first time the emission ofβ-delayed 3 protons has been observed. The branching ratio for this decay mode is found to be (0.07 ± 0.02)%.

  9. Molecular cloning of a beta-glucan pattern-recognition lipoprotein from the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei: correlations between the deduced amino acid sequence and the native protein structure. (United States)

    Romo-Figueroa, María Gabriela; Vargas-Requena, Claudia; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria


    The hemolymph pattern-recognition beta-glucan binding protein from the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei is also a high density lipoprotein (betaGBP-HDL) involved in innate immunity. The betaGBP-HDL full length cDNA sequence determined was 6.3 kb long, and contains a long 3'UTR region with a polyadenylation signal and a poly-A+ tail. The open reading frame is 1454 amino acids long and the N-terminal residue of the mature protein is localized in position 198 of the ORF. Comparison of the betaGBP-HDL amino acid sequence against GenBank detected only significant similarity to betaGBP from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. betaGBP-HDL is expressed in hepatopancreas, muscle, pleopods and gills, but not in hemocytes as determined by RT-PCR. We discuss the analysis of the deduced primary sequence in terms of the predicted secondary structure, glucanase-like and RGD motives relevant to its dual roles in defence and lipid transport.

  10. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.


    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as ...

  11. Spectroscopy with {beta}2p and {beta}-{nu} recoil shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U. E-mail:; Axelsson, L.; Aeystoe, J.; Bergmann, U.C.; Borge, M.J.G.; Fraile, L.M.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshoej, P.; Jading, Y.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M.H.; Thaysen, J.; Tengblad, O.; Wenander, F


    The beta-delayed proton emission from the lightest Ar-isotopes has been measured with a high-granularity, large solid-angle Si-detector setup. Although designed for the detection of beta-delayed two-proton and three-proton events, the setup also permitted measurement of proton energy shifts due to the beta-neutrino recoil. We discuss how spectroscopic information can be extracted from such measurements, even at the drip line. For the case of {sup 31}Ar, the ground-state spin could be determined as 5/2.

  12. The Mechanism of $\\beta$-Delayed Two-Proton Emission

    CERN Multimedia


    The nucleus $^{31}$Ar seems to be the most prolific ${\\beta}$-2p precursor known to date and is at the same time the one with the largest production yields at ISOLDE, where the most sensitive experiments can be done. Our purpose with this experiment is to study the ${\\beta}$-2p branches in detail, search for ${\\beta}$-3p events, place them in the decay scheme and obtain information on the decay mechanism for ${\\beta}$-2p via the energy distribution and the angular correlation between the two protons. As a by product we shall also resolve existing inconsistencies in the level scheme.\\\\ \\\\ The nucleus $^{31}$Ar, produced in a cold plasma ion source unit by the impact of a 1 GeV proton beam of 0.5 Hz frequency, had an average yield over one week of 1.5 $^{31}$Ar atoms/s. The beam passed through the central hole of an annular Si detector ($\\Omega$ = 4.3~\\%) and stopped in a thin carbon foil tilted 45$^o$ with respect to the beam direction. A 70~\\% coaxial HPGe-detector ($\\Omega$~=~7.4~\\%) was located opposite to ...

  13. Advance of the perihelion of Mercury deduced from QFT (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G m M / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation, Eq. (1) is a new version of GR and can be solved exactly. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., the nonlinearity of Einstein equation had been replaced by the nonlinearity caused by the variable mass in Eq.(1). Einstein equation can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. In my paper ‘QFT’S advance of the perihelion of Mercury, China Science &Technology Overview 125 88-90 (2011)’ QFT gravitational potential U = - G M /r is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux, from SR we again get that: f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c (2), f _{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f _{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. According to Eq.(2) the circular motion is instability and elliptic motion is in the auto-stability state. In the fluctuation vacuum a particle with mass M neighbor another particle with mass m, the renormalization mass M and m will be less than that when

  14. News on $\\beta$-delayed particle emission from $^{14}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Jeppesen, H; Borge, M J G; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Fedoseyev, V N; Hansper, V Y; Jonson, B; Markenroth, K; Mishin, V I; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O; Wilhelmsen Rolander, K


    $\\beta$-delayed charged particles from $^{14}$Be have been measured and give an upper limit on $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$-particles of B($\\beta\\alpha$) < $\\,6.7\\times\\!10^{-5}$ and a tentative branching ratio on $\\beta$-delayed tritons of $7.5\\times\\!10^{-5}$ < B($\\beta$t) < $\\,3.9\\times\\!10^{-4}$. We combine the knowledge on $\\beta$-delayed particles from $^{14}$Be to deduce information on the $\\beta$-strength distribution.

  15. Beta Thalassemia (United States)

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  16. Applying generalized non deducibility on compositions (GNDC) approach in dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, Stefania; Lenzini, Gabriele; Martinelli, Fabio


    This paper presents a framework where dependable systems can be uniformly modeled and dependable properties analyzed within the Generalized Non Deducibility on Compositions (GNDC), a scheme that has been profitably used in definition and analysis of security properties. Precisely, our framework requ

  17. Reinvestigation of the beta-decay of {sup 110}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.C.; Dendooven, P.; Hankonen, S.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Lhersonneau, G.; Nieminen, A.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    The beta-decay of the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 110}Mo, separated by the IGISOL on-line mass separator from other fission products, has been investigated by using beta-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence techniques. The decay scheme of {sup 110}Mo has been revised, including 3 new excited states and 7 new {gamma} transitions in {sup 110}Tc. The {beta}-feedings were measured and log ft values and B(GT) values were deduced based on a Q{sub {beta}}-value from systematics. Three excited 1{sup +} states in {sup 110}Tc fed by spin-flip allowed-unhindered beta transitions were identified. The deduced beta-decay strengths are compared with the Gamow-Teller strength distribution obtained from a macroscopic-microscopic calculation. The role of the asymptotic quantum numbers in the context of the allowed beta-decay is discussed. (orig.)

  18. A new evolutionary theory deduced mathematically from entropy amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new evolutionary theory which is able to unite the present evolutionary debates is deduced mathematically from the principle of entropy amplification.It suggests that the extensive evolution is driven by the amplification of entropy,or microscopic diversity,and the biological evolution is driven by the amplification of biodiversity.Forming high hierarchies is the most important way for the amplification and brings out spontaneously three kinds of selection.This theory has some positive cultural meanings.

  19. Photon strength function deduced from photon scattering and neutron capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic A.


    Full Text Available The dipole strength function of 78Se and 196Pt are investigated by two different experimental methods, capture of cold neutrons in 77Se and 195Pt and photon scattering experiments on 78Se and 196Pt. Considering the different ways of excitation, the strength function deduced from the results are expected to agree. The report shows the status of the data analysis and presents first preliminary results.

  20. Asteroid Sufaces/Regoliths Deduced by Remote Sensing (United States)

    Price, S.

    Resolved imagery on a small number of asteroids provides information about the size, density and surface relief from which inferences may be made regarding their regoliths; Eros Eros is the best studied asteroid in this regard However, remote sensing is necessary to deduce properties for the large majority of objects. These techniques include: spectroscopy and multi-spectral band photometry, which provide clues as to the chemical composition of the surface, infrared (plus visible) radiometry, from which physical bulk and surface properties may be inferred through the derived albedo and thermal inertia, and radar, which permits one to deduce the near surface bulk density. This article reviews what these techniques have revealed about the surface characteristics of asteroids. Asteroids have been classified by the broad emissive properties of the surface as indicated by filter band photometry. Recently, observations from large scale surveys - 2MASS (Denis to a lesser extent) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - provided taxonomic classifications for thousands of asteroids. The mineralogy is more secure at higher spectral resolution. Silicates on the surface of asteroids have been inferred from IRAS, ISO and Kuiper Airborne infrared spectra. Infrared radiometry has been used to derive the albedos and diameters of ~2300 asteroids observed by IRAS and MSX. The simplified Standard Thermal Model (STM) works well for main belt asteroids. The model assumes that the asteroid does not rotate and is in instantaneous thermal equilibrium between absorbed sunlight and emitted radiation. Empirical factors for flux enhancement (beaming) and phase function are adopted. There is a dichotomy between large and small asteroids in this database. About 20% of the asteroids with diameters inertia, rotation rate, orientation of the rotation pole, surface roughness and degree of cratering. A complex model is required to account for all the variables. Such a model was developed using full

  1. Development of Deduced Protein Database Using Variable Bit Binary Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parvathavarthini


    Full Text Available A large amount of biological data is semi-structured and stored in any one the following file formats such as flat, XML and relational files. These databases must be integrated with the structured data available in relational or object-oriented databases. The sequence matching process is difficult in such file format, because string comparison takes more computation cost and time. To reduce the memory storage size of amino acid sequence in protein database, a novel probability-based variable bit length encoding technique has been introduced. The number of mapping of triplet CODON for every amino acid evaluates the probability value. Then, a binary tree has been constructed to assign unique bits of binary codes to each amino acid. This derived unique bit pattern of amino acid replaces the existing fixed byte representation. The proof of reduced protein database space has been discussed and it is found to be reduced between 42.86 to 87.17%. To validate our method, we have collected few amino acid sequences of major organisms like Sheep, Lambda phage and etc from NCBI and represented them using proposed method. The comparison shows that of minimum and maximum reduction in storage space are 43.30% and 72.86% respectively. In future the biological data can further be reduced by applying lossless compression on this deduced data.

  2. Inequalities of extended beta and extended hypergeometric functions. (United States)

    Mondal, Saiful R


    We study the log-convexity of the extended beta functions. As a consequence, we establish Turán-type inequalities. The monotonicity, log-convexity, log-concavity of extended hypergeometric functions are deduced by using the inequalities on extended beta functions. The particular cases of those results also give the Turán-type inequalities for extended confluent and extended Gaussian hypergeometric functions. Some reverses of Turán-type inequalities are also derived.

  3. Isolation of novel human cDNA (hGMF-gamma) homologous to Glia Maturation Factor-beta gene. (United States)

    Asai, K; Fujita, K; Yamamoto, M; Hotta, T; Morikawa, M; Kokubo, M; Moriyama, A; Kato, T


    A novel full-length human cDNA homologous to Glia Maturation Factor-beta (GMF-beta) gene was isolated. Sequence analysis of the entire cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 426 nucleotides with a deduced protein sequence of 142 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of its putative product is highly homologous to human GMF-beta (82% identity) and named for GMF-gamma. Northern blot analysis indicated that a message of 0.9 kb long, but not 4.1 kb of GMF-beta, is predominantly expressed in human lung, heart, and placenta.

  4. Studies on the metabolism of beta-hydroxy- aspartic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The content of beta-hydroxyaspartic acid was measured in the urine of man and several species of animals. The configuration of urinary beta-hydroxyaspartic acid was deduced to be L-erythro in form by chromatographic comparisons with authentic samples. An increased excretion of urinary beta-hydroxyaspartic acid was observed in cats when serine or thiamine was administered with glycine. Glycine-1-14C administered to rats was incorporated into the urinary beta-hydroxyaspartic acid. The formation of beta-hydroxyaspartic acid in pig-liver homogenate increased in the presence of glutamate and thiamine pyrophosphate. These results were discussed in relation to the author's working hypothesis on the biosynthesis of beta-hydroxyaspartic acid.

  5. beta -delayed charged particles from /sup 9/Li and /sup 11/Li

    CERN Document Server

    Langevin, M; Détraz, C; Epherre-Rey-Campagnolle, Marcelle; Guillemaud, D; Klapisch, Robert; Mark, S K T; Naulin, F; Thibault, C; Touchard, F


    beta -delayed emission of alpha particles rom /sup 9/Li and of both alpha and /sup 6/He particles from /sup 11/Li is observed. New beta branches are reported which populate high-energy levels in the daughter nuclei. The branching ratios are measured and the beta delayed neutron emission probabilities P/sub n/ for /sup 9/Li and P /sub 3n/ for /sup 11/Li are deduced. (14 refs).

  6. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)


    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Two novel C29-5beta-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii. (United States)

    Jiang, Jianqin; Li, Yanfang; Chen, Zhen; Min, Zhida; Lou, Fengchang


    Two novel C29-5beta-sterols, opuntisterol [(24R)-24-ethyl-5beta-cholest-9-ene-6beta,12alpha-diol] (1) and opuntisteroside [(24R)-24-ethyl-6beta-[(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5beta-cholest-9-ene-12alpha-ol] (2), together with nine known compounds, beta-sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), friedelin (5), methyl linoleate (6), 7-oxositosterol (7), 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (8), daucosterol (9), methyl eucomate (10) and eucomic acid (11), were isolated from the stems of Opuntia dillenii collected in Guizhou Province, China. Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 were deduced from comparative 1H NMR data of the (S)- and (R)-methoxyphenyl acetate derivatives. Compounds 6-8, 10 and 11 were isolated from O. dillenii for the first time.

  8. New Route to Deducing Integration Formulas by Virtue of the IWOP Technique*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; LI Hong-Qi; XU Xing-Lei


    We point out a new route to deducing integration formulas, i.e., using the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we derive some new integration formulas, which seems concise. As a by-product,some new operator identities also appear.


    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  10. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M;


    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250-555 p...

  11. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  12. Two New Types of Conserved Quantities Deduced from Noether Symmetry for Nonholonomic Mechanical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Ni; FANG Jian-Hui; PANG Ting; LIN Peng


    For a nonholonomic mechanical system, the generalized Mei conserved quantity and the new generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced from Noether symmetry of the system are studied.The criterion equation of the Noether symmetry for the system is got.The conditions under which the Noether symmetry can lead to the two new conserved quantities are presented and the forms of the conserved quantities are obtained.Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  13. Hojman conserved quantity deduced by weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jia-Fang; Gang Tie-Qiang; Mei Feng-Xiang


    This paper studies the Hojman conserved quantity,a non-Noether conserved quantity,deduced by special weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems.Under special infinitesimal transformations in which the time is not variable,its criterion is given and a method of how to seek the Hojman conserved quantity is presented.A Hojman conserved quantity can be found by using the special weak Noether symmetry.

  14. Beta-carotene (United States)

    ... patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia. Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent ...

  15. Lysosomal {beta}-mannosidase: cDNA cloning and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Leipprandt, J.R.; Traviss, C.E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others


    Lysosomal {beta}-mannosidase is an exoglycosidase that cleaves the single {beta}-linked mannose residue from the non-reducing end of all N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharides. Deficiency of this enzyme results in {beta}-mannosidosis, a severe neurodegenerative disease in goats and cattle. The human cases described have a milder, highly variable presentation. Study of the molecular pathology of this disease in ruminants and humans and development of the animal model for gene therapy studies required cloning of the gene for {beta}-mannosidase has been cloned. {beta}-Mannosidase cDNA were obtained from a bovine thyroid cDNA library by screening with mixed oligonucleotides derived from peptide sequences resulting from microsequencing of bovine {beta}-mannosidase peptides. A total of six independent positive clones were identified from 5 x 10{sup 5} plaques, covering about 80% of the C-terminal region. The missing 5{prime} region was obtained using 5{prime} RACE. The full-length construct contains 3852-bp nucleotides, encoding 879 amino acids. The initiation codon is followed by 17 amino acids containing the characteristics of a typical signal peptide sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence is colinear with all peptide sequences determined by protein microsequencing. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.2 kb single transcript in various tissues from both normal and affected goats and calves. The mRNA level was decreased in affected {beta}-mannosidosis animals. The gene encoding {beta}-mannosidase was localized on human chromosome 4 by Southern analysis of rodent/human somatic cell hybrids. The mutation in bovine {beta}-mannosidosis has been identified. This is the first report of cloning of the {beta}-mannosidase gene.

  16. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  17. Novel plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase (MOX-2) in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Greece. (United States)

    Raskine, Laurent; Borrel, Isabelle; Barnaud, Guilène; Boyer, Sophie; Hanau-Berçot, Béatrice; Gravisse, Jérome; Labia, Roger; Arlet, Guillaume; Sanson-Le-Pors, Marie-José


    Klebsiella pneumoniae KOL, a clinical strain resistant to various beta-lactams, was isolated from the stools of a patient from Greece. This strain harbored a new pI 9.1 plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase with unusually high levels of hydrolytic activity for cefoxitin and cefotetan that we named MOX-2. Sequencing of bla(MOX-2) revealed 93.2, 92.9, 92.7, and 73.1% identities with the deduced amino acid sequences of CMY-8, MOX-1, CMY-1, and the AmpC beta-lactamase of Aeromonas sobria, respectively.

  18. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, M., E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ebata, S.; Imai, S. [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)


    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the {sup nat}Cu({sup 12}C,X){sup 24}Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the {sup 137}Cs + {sup 12}C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement.

  19. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres (United States)

    Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael


    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire's theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer.

  20. Rabbit serum amyloid protein A: expression and primary structure deduced from cDNA sequences. (United States)

    Rygg, M; Marhaug, G; Husby, G; Dowton, S B


    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), the precursor of amyloid protein A (AA) in deposits of secondary amyloidosis, is an acute phase plasma apolipoprotein produced by hepatocytes. The primary structure of SAA demonstrates high interspecies homology. Several isoforms exist in individual species, probably with different amyloidogenic potential. The nucleotide sequences of two different rabbit serum amyloid A cDNA clones have been analysed, one (corresponding to SAA1) 569 base pairs (bp) long and the other (corresponding to SAA2) 513 bp long. Their deduced amino acid sequences differ at five amino acid positions, four of which are located in the NH2-terminal region of the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of SAA2 corresponds to rabbit protein AA previously described except for one amino acid in position 22. Eighteen hours after turpentine stimulation, rabbit SAA mRNA is abundant in liver, while lower levels are present in spleen. None of the other extrahepatic organs studied showed any SAA mRNA expression. A third mRNA species (1.9 kb) hybridizing with a single-stranded RNA probe transcribed from the rabbit SAA cDNA, was identified. SAA1 and SAA2 mRNA were found in approximately equal amounts in turpentine-stimulated rabbit liver, but seem to be coordinately decreased after repeated inflammatory stimulation.

  1. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  2. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  3. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B


    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  4. Beta-delayed proton emission in the 100Sn region

    CERN Document Server

    Lorusso, G; Amthor, A; Baumann, T; Bazin, D; Berryman, J S; Brown, B A; Cyburt, R H; Crawford, H L; Estrade, A; Gade, A; Ginter, T; Guess, C J; Hausmann, M; Hitt, G W; Mantica, P F; Matos, M; Meharchand, R; Minamisono, K; Montes, F; Perdikakis, G; Pereira, J; Portillo, M; Schatz, H; Smith, K; Stoker, J; Stolz, A; Zegers, R G T


    Beta-delayed proton emission from nuclides in the neighborhood of 100Sn was studied at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The nuclei were produced by fragmentation of a 120 MeV/nucleon 112Sn primary beam on a Be target. Beam purification was provided by the A1900 Fragment Separator and the Radio Frequency Fragment Separator. The fragments of interest were identified and their decay was studied with the NSCL Beta Counting System (BCS) in conjunction with the Segmented Germanium Array (SeGA). The nuclei 96Cd, 98Ing, 98Inm and 99In were identified as beta-delayed proton emitters, with branching ratios bp = 5.5(40)%, 5.5+3 -2%, 19(2)% and 0.9(4)%, respectively. The bp for 89Ru, 91,92Rh, 93Pd and 95Ag were deduced for the first time with bp = 3+1.9 -1.7%, 1.3(5)%, 1.9(1)%, 7.5(5)% and 2.5(3)%, respectively. The bp = 22(1)% for 101Sn was deduced with higher precision than previously reported. The impact of the newly measured bp values on the composition of the type-I X-ray burst ashes was studied.

  5. Atmospheric phenomena deduced from radiosonde and GPS occultation measurements for various application related studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C J Johny; S K Sarkar; D Punyasesudu


    The tropopause height and tropopause temperature are sensitive to temperature changes in troposphere and stratosphere. These are the measures of global climatic variability. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, refractivity and water vapour are always needed for communication, navigation and atmospheric modeling studies. The tropopause characteristics over the Indian region have been studied using radio occultation measurements (CHAMP) on the basis of cold point criterion. Tropopause height shows large variation in the latitude range ∼30° –40°N during winter. Tropopause temperature less than −82°C, assumed to facilitate troposphere to stratosphere air transport, is observed at a number of tropical Indian locations and no seasonal pattern is observed in its occurrence. The bias in temperature and refractivity deduced from radiosonde and radio occultation measurements is also presented.

  6. An asymmetric color image encryption method by using deduced gyrator transform (United States)

    Yao, Lili; Yuan, Caojin; Qiang, Junjie; Feng, Shaotong; Nie, Shouping


    An encryption algorithm is proposed by using the properties of deduced gyrator transform (GT). After being transformed by the GT algorithm and multiplied by a phase distribution p*, the spectrum modulus of the input image is considered to be the encrypted image by further performing Fourier transformation. To resist the attack from iterative phase retrieval, the red, green and blue components of the input image is modulated by a random phase mask and then combined using convolution. The encryption result is real-valued, which is convenient for display, transmission and storage. In the decryption process, the three original color components can be recovered with decryption keys which are different from the encryption keys. An optoelectronic hybrid system for the encryption process is also presented. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate its performance, and the security of the proposed system is analyzed as well.

  7. New values of gravitational moments J2 and J4 deduced from helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Redouane, Mecheri; Irbah, Abdanour; Provost, Janine; Berthomieu, Gabrielle; 10.1023/B:SOLA.0000043563.96766.21


    By applying the theory of slowly rotating stars to the Sun, the solar quadrupole and octopole moments J2 and J4 were computed using a solar model obtained from CESAM stellar evolution code (Morel, 1997) combined with a recent model of solar differential rotation deduced from helioseismology (Corbard et al., 2002). This model takes into account a near-surface radial gradient of rotation which was inferred and quantified from MDI f-mode observations by Corbard and Thompson (2002). The effect of this observational near-surface gradient on the theoretical values of the surface parameters J2, J4 is investigated. The results show that the octopole moment J4 is much more sensitive than the quadrupole moment J2 to the subsurface radial gradient of rotation.

  8. Hydrodynamic properties of gamma-ray bursts outflows deduced from thermal component

    CERN Document Server

    Pe'er, Asaf; O'Mahony, Shane; Margutti, Raffaella; Ryde, Felix; Larsson, Josefin; Lazzatti, Davide; Livio, Mario


    We study the properties of a significant thermal emission component that was identified in 47 GRBs observed by different instruments. Within the framework of the "fireball" model, we deduce the values of the Lorentz factor Gamma, and the acceleration radius, r_0, for these bursts. We find that all the values of Gamma in our sample are in the range 10^2 = 310. We find a very weak dependence of Gamma on the acceleration radius r_0, Gamma ~ r_0^alpha with alpha = -0.10 +- 0.09 at sigma = 2.1 confidence level. The values of r_0 span a wide range, 10^7 ~10^{8.5} cm. This is higher than the gravitational radius of a 10 M_sun black hole by a factor ~100. We argue that this result provides indirect evidence for jet propagation inside a massive star, and suggests the existence of recollimation shocks that take place close to this radius.

  9. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jacosky, Bruce


    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission for the first time make regular particle and field measurements down to ~150 km altitude. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) instrument provides 3-D measurements of the electron energy and angular distributions. This study presents the pitch angle-resolved shape parameters that can separate photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, therefore used to deduce the Martian magnetic topology. The three-dimensional view of the magnetic topology is manifested for the first time. The northern hemisphere is found to be dominated by the crustal closed field lines, instead of draped interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF), on the dayside and more day-night connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. This study can also single out open field lines attached to the dayside ionosphere, which provide possible passage for ion outflow. Magnetic topology governs energetic electrons' movement, thus necessary to understand nightside ionosphere, and aurora.

  10. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.


    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  11. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance. (United States)

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H


    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors.

  12. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki


    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  13. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions beta thalassemia beta thalassemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  15. Amyloid-beta(29-42) dimer formations studied by a multicanonical-multioverlap molecular dynamics simulation. (United States)

    Itoh, Satoru G; Okamoto, Yuko


    Amyloid-beta peptides are known to form amyloid fibrils and are considered to play an important role in Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-beta(29-42) is a fragment of the amyloid-beta peptide and also has a tendency to form amyloid fibrils. In order to study the mechanism of amyloidogenesis of this fragment, we applied one of the generalized-ensemble algorithms, the multicanonical-multioverlap algorithm, to amyloid-beta(29-42) dimer in aqueous solution. We obtained a detailed free-energy landscape of the dimer system. From the detailed free-energy landscape, we examined monomer and dimer formations of amyloid-beta(29-42) and deduced dimerization processes, which correspond to seeding processes in the amyloidogenesis of amyloid-beta(29-42).

  16. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng


    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  17. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber


    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  18. Progress with large N{sub f} {beta}-functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracey, J.A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Math. Sci.


    We report on the progress in the computation of the {beta}-functions of {phi}{sup 4} theory and QCD in the large N expansion. For the former we give an analytic formula for the critical exponent which encodes higher order coefficients in the series beyond those currently known in the MS scheme at O(1/N{sup 2}) in a large N expansion. This allows us to deduce new coefficients in the field anomalous dimension which relate to Kreimer`s knot theory of the divergences of a quantum field theory. A similar exponent is computed for the {beta}-function of QCD at O(1/N{sub f}). (orig.).

  19. Beta-decay studies near {sup 100}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karny, M.; Janas, Z.; Miernik, K.; Plochocki, A.; Zylicz, J. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Batist, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Banu, A.; Becker, F.; Burkard, K.; Bruechle, W.; Doering, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Kirchner, R.; Mandal, S.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mukha, I.; Plettner, C.; Roeckl, E.; Schaedel, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Blazhev, A. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria); Faestermann, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Jungclaus, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Kavatsyuk, M.; Kavatsyuk, O. [GSI, Darmstadft (Germany); Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University, Kiev (Ukraine); La Commara, M.; Romoli, M. [Universita ' ' Federico II' ' and INFN Napoli, Dipartimento Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); Muralithar, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Science Center, New Delhi (India); Rykaczewski, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schmidt, K. [Continental Teves AG and Co., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Schwengner, R. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)


    The {beta}-decay of {sup 102}Sn was studied by using high-resolution germanium detectors as well as a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). A decay scheme has been constructed based on the {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence data. The total experimental Gamow-Teller strength B{sub GT}{sup exp} of {sup 102}Sn was deduced from the TAS data to be 4.2(9). A search for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays of {sup 100}Sn decay remained unsuccessful. However, a Gamow-Teller hindrance factor h = 2.2(3), and a cross-section of about 3nb for the production of {sup 100}Sn in fusion-evaporation reaction between {sup 58}Ni beam and {sup 50}Cr target have been estimated from the data on heavier tin isotopes. The estimated hindrance factor is similar to the values derived for lower shell nuclei. (orig.)

  20. Radiation pressure on a submerged absorptive partial reflector deduced from the Doppler shift

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud


    When a light pulse is reflected from a mirror, energy and momentum are exchanged between the electromagnetic field and the material medium. The resulting change in the energy of the reflected photons is directly related to their Doppler shift arising from the change in the state of motion of the mirror. Similarly, the Doppler shift of photons that enter an absorber is intimately tied to the kinetic energy and momentum acquired by the absorber in its interaction with the incident light. The argument from the Doppler shift yields expressions for the exchanged energy and momentum that are identical with those obtained from Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz law of force, despite the fact that the physical bases of the two methods are fundamentally different. Here we apply the Doppler shift argument to a submerged partial reflector (one that absorbs a fraction of the incident light), deducing in the process the magnitude of the photon momentum within the submerging medium. We also discuss the case of the submerg...

  1. PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein mediates the interaction with NifA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Ran; CUI Yanhua; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun


    NifA in Azospirillum brasilense plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of nitrogenase in response to ammonia and oxygen available. Recently,our laboratory has identified four clones, whose gene prodcuts interact with NifA, from A. brasilense Sp7genomic libraries by using the yeast two-hybrid system with NifA as bait. We are interested in clone S35,one of the four clones, because it contains a PAS-domain coding region. The entire open reading frame (ORF) for the PAS domain-containing protein was isolated and designated as org35 here. org35gene is 2211-bp long and encodes a protein of 736aa with a predicted molecular weight of about 78.4 kD.The predicted amino acid sequence of org35 has similarity to some two-component sensor kinase/response regulator hybrids of bacteria. Structural analyses showed that Org35 comprises at least three discrete conserved domains: the N-terminal PAS, the central histidine protein kinase (HPK) and the C-terminal response regulator (RR). The PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein was found to interact directly with NifA, but the central HPK and the C-terminal RR domains of Org35 were not. These results indicated that interaction between NifA and Org35 was mediated by PAS domain.

  2. Optimizing Network Routing by Deducing a QoS Metric Using Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The routing within networks, must satisfy the QoS metrics. In traditional data networks, routing is concerned on connectivity or cost. Routing protocols usually characterize the network with one or more metric(s. However, in order to support a wide range of QoS requirements, routing protocols need to have a more complex model. Thenetwork is characterized with multiple metrics such as bandwidth, delay, jitters, loss rate, authentication, security,…etc. This complex model necessitates a long time to proceed. The Rough Set Theory (RST is applied to reduce these metrics successfully and decide the most effective ones. In this paper, RST is applied to reduce the online metrics that are reported by Routing Information Protocols (RIP. The paper represents information about network elements (links, or nodes to obtain the Quality of Service (QoS core [1]. ROSETTA software is applied to deduce a QoS metric as a substitution for all routing metrics. This metric is used to select the optimal routes. The results confirm that the proposed metric is adequately suit for selecting the proper routes.

  3. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Deleplanque, M A; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S; Ai, H; Beausang, C; Cridder, B


    The authors have deduced the cross section for {sup 237}U(n,f) over an equivalent neutron energy range from 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions: {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). Scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} and 131{sup o}.

  4. Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE 2 and NMC temperature data (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; Wang, P.-H.; Chiou, E. W.


    Water vapor concentrations obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and collocated temperatures provided by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) from 1986 to 1990 are used to deduce seasonally and zonally averaged acidity, density, and refractive index of stratospheric aerosols. It is found that the weight percentage of sulfuric acid in the aerosols increases from about 60 just above the tropopause to about 86 at 35 km. The density increases from about 1.55 to 1.85 g/cu cm between the same altitude limits. Some seasonal variations of composition and density are evident at high latitudes. The refractive indices at 1.02, 0.694, and 0.532 micrometers increase, respectively, from about 1.425, 1.430, and 1.435 just above the tropopause to about 1.445, 1.455, and 1.458 at altitudes above 27 km, depending on the season and latitude. The aerosol properties presented can be used in models to study the effectiveness of heterogeneous chemistry, the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols, and the extinction and backscatter of aerosols at different wavelengths. Computed aerosol surface areas, rate coefficients for the heterogeneous reaction ClONO2 + H2O yields HOCl + HNO3 and aerosol mass concentrations before and after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 are shown as sample applications.

  5. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S


    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  6. Hysteresis Loop for a No-loaded, Delta-connected Transformer Model Deduced from Measurements (United States)

    Corrodi, Yves; Kamei, Kenji; Kohyama, Haruhiko; Ito, Hiroki

    At a transformer's steady-state condition, whereby a transformer and its load are constantly supplied by a sinusoidal source, the current-flux pair within the transformer core and its windings will cycle along a hysteresis loop. This nonlinear current-flux characteristic becomes important while at transformer gets reenergized. A remaining residual flux and the fact that a transformer is typically used up to its saturation level can lead to high-amplitude magnetizing inrush currents and associated voltage disturbances. These disturbances can be reduced by controlled transformer switching. In order to pre-evaluate the effect of a specific controlled transformer energization, pre-simulations can be applied. In that case the hysteresis loop and its saturation characteristic will become the most important model parameter. If the corresponding manufacturer specifications are not available a standard hysteresis loops can be used, but might come up with an inaccurate simulation result. Therefore, this paper analyses the measured 3-phase currents from two delta-connected power transformers by “Fourier Series” in order to deduce a single-phase hysteresis loop, which can be implemented into a typical 3-phase transformer model. Additionally, the saturation behavior of a power-transformer will be estimated and a comparison of ATP/EMTP simulations will conclude this paper.

  7. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jakosky, Bruce


    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission has obtained comprehensive particle and magnetic field measurements. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer provides electron energy-pitch angle distributions along the spacecraft trajectory that can be used to infer magnetic topology. This study presents pitch angle-resolved electron energy shape parameters that can distinguish photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, which we use to deduce the Martian magnetic topology and connectivity to the dayside ionosphere. Magnetic topology in the Mars environment is mapped in three dimensions for the first time. At low altitudes (connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. Although draped field lines with 100 km amplitude vertical fluctuations that intersect the electron exobase ( 160-220 km) in two locations could appear to be closed at the spacecraft, a more likely explanation is provided by crustal magnetic fields, which naturally have the required geometry. Around 30% of the time, we observe open field lines from 200 to 400 km, which implies three distinct topological layers over the northern hemisphere: closed field lines below 200 km, open field lines with foot points at lower latitudes that pass over the northern hemisphere from 200 to 400 km, and draped interplanetary magnetic field above 400 km. This study also identifies open field lines with one end attached to the dayside ionosphere and the other end connected with the solar wind, providing a path for ion outflow.

  8. Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James G Brasseur; Mark A Nicosia; Anupam Pal; Larr S Miller


    We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest.However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology.

  9. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  10. Relations between aliphatics and silicate components in 12 stratospheric particles deduced from vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; Le Sergeant d' Hendecourt, L., E-mail: [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, UMR-8617, Université Paris Sud, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are among the most pristine extraterrestrial samples available in the laboratory for analyses with moderate to high spatial- and spectral-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Their composition can provide precious information on the early stages of the solar nebula as well as on the processes on the surfaces of different small bodies in the solar system from which IDPs originate. In this work, we have analyzed six anhydrous IDPs and six stratospheric particles possibly of cosmic origin through infrared (IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy to study and investigate their silicate and organic components. We find that the length/ramification of the aliphatic organics given by the CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios in the IDPs is closely linked to the silicate family (pyroxene or olivine) present in the samples. Both IR and Raman data suggest that this relation is not correlated with either aqueous (as evidenced by the absence of aqueous related minerals) or thermal processes (as deduced from Raman measurements). Therefore, this observation might be related to the initial path of formation of the organics on the silicate surfaces, thus tracing a possible catalytic role that silicates would play in the formation and/or ramification of organic matter in the primitive nebula.

  11. Some results on the upper atmosphere deduced from satellite occultation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felske, D.; Knuth, R.; Martini, L.; Ohle, K.H.; Sonnemann, G.; Stark, B.


    Measurements of neutral gas densities in the upper atmosphere deduced from extinction profiles from the Intercosmos 1, 4, 7, 11 and 16 and SOLRAD 9 and 10 solar radiation satellites at sunrise and sunset are presented. Occultation measurements in the Lyman alpha range have revealed the presence of an anomalously high absorption above 110 km in winter, which may be explained by high densities of water in the thermosphere. Calculations of oxygen densities based on extinction profiles measured in Lyman alpha and the Schumann-Runge range also indicate the presence of high densities of NO, and an unknown Lyman alpha absorber of molecular weight corresponding to that of water. Observations obtained for the D-region winter anomaly indicate that the wavelike ionization variations have counterparts in similar neutral thermosphere density variations, which may influence the ion production and/or loss processes. Finally, short-term neutral density fluctuations between 90 and 300 km measured during a strong F-region disturbance are presented which demonstrate sharp rises in O density and decreases in O2 density accompanied by increases in electron concentration during the first phase of the disturbance, the opposite changes during the second phase, and complex mixing variations between O and O2 and their plasma counterparts in the recovery phase.

  12. On the strength of the hydrogen-carbon interaction as deduced from physisorption. (United States)

    Nguyen, T X; Bae, J-S; Wang, Y; Bhatia, S K


    We deduce a new value for the potential well depth for the C-H2 interaction on the basis of experimental validations of isotherms of H2 and D2 predicted using independently characterized microstructural parameters. We use two carbons, one an activated carbon fiber whose structure has been recently characterized by us (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912) using hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulation (HRMC) and the other the commercial Takeda 3A carbon molecular sieve whose pore size distribution is determined here from the 273 K CO2 adsorption isotherm. The conventional grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation technique incorporating a semiclassical Feynman and Hibbs (FH) potential approximation (FHGCMC) as well as path integral Monte Carlo calculations is employed to determine theoretical adsorption isotherms. It is found that curvature enhances the well depth for the LJ C-H2 interaction by a factor of 1.134 over that for a flat graphite surface, consistent with our recent study (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912). A value of the C-C well depth of 37.26 K, used for estimating the C-H2 well depth in conjunction with the Berthelot rules, with the Steele C-C well depth used for interaction with heavier gases (Ar, CO2 and CH4), leads to excellent agreement with experimental isotherms in all cases.

  13. Alpha and Beta Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard


    Because the Bd -> J/psi Ks asymmetry determines only sin(2 beta), a discrete ambiguity in the true value of beta remains. This note reviews how the ambiguity can be removed. Extractions of the CKM angle alpha are discussed next. Some of the methods require very large data samples and will not be feasible in the near future. In the near future, semi-inclusive CP-violating searches could be undertaken, which are reviewed last.

  14. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  15. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes. (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E


    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the beta-glucosidase gene from Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 23769. (United States)

    Tajima, K; Nakajima, K; Yamashita, H; Shiba, T; Munekata, M; Takai, M


    The beta-glucosidase gene (bglxA) was cloned from the genomic DNA of Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 23769 and its nucleotide sequence (2200 bp) was determined. This bglxA gene was present downstream of the cellulose synthase operon and coded for a polypeptide of molecular mass 79 kDa. The overexpression of the beta-glucosidase in A. xylinum caused a tenfold increase in activity compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, the action pattern of the enzyme was identified as G3ase activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the bglxA gene showed 72.3%, 49.6%, and 45.1% identity with the beta-glucosidases from A. xylinum subsp. sucrofermentans, Cellvibrio gilvus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Based on amino acid sequence similarities, the beta-glucosidase (BglxA) was assigned to family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases.

  17. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan


    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  18. Structure of La Primavera caldera, Jalisco, Mexico, deduced from gravity anomalies and drilling results (United States)

    Yokoyama, I.; Mena, M.


    Previous studies of La Primavera caldera have mostly been based on surface geology and topography. Since 1980, many wells, exploring for geothermal energy, have reached depths of about 2 to 3 km at the center of the caldera. The results of the drillings, together with those of the gravity surveys, provide information about the subsurface structure of the caldera, and shed light on its formation. The drilling results and gravity anomalies at La Primavera caldera and San Marcos, located at about 40 km distance from the caldera, suggest that regional gravity anomalies can be interpreted in terms of depths of the granitic basements: the basement beneath La Primavera caldera is about 3 km deep and consists of roughly the same horizon as that beneath San Marcos. The drilling results within the caldera reveal that the depth of the caldera fills ranges from 0.3 to 1 km at the drilling sites. The andesite basement, about 1 km deep, remains approximately horizontal, and the granitic basement has a depth of about 3 km. The surface topographies, such as the postcaldera domes, scarcely disturb the subsurface strata. The local gravity anomalies show two lows within the caldera reflecting the configuration of caldera bottom, two funnel-shaped depressions, one of which corresponds to a vent of the Tala tuff deduced from geological observations. The mass deficiency within the caldera estimated from the gravity anomaly, satisfies the general relationship that the mass deficiency is proportional to the caldera diameter cubed. This means that caldera structure is three-dimensional: the larger the diameter, the deeper the funnel-shape. At present this argument may be limited to funnel-shaped calderas.

  19. Deducing growth mechanisms for minerals from the shapes of crystal size distributions (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Drits, V.A.; Srodon, J.


    Crystal size distributions (CSDs) of natural and synthetic samples are observed to have several distinct and different shapes. We have simulated these CSDs using three simple equations: the Law of Proportionate Effect (LPE), a mass balance equation, and equations for Ostwald ripening. The following crystal growth mechanisms are simulated using these equations and their modifications: (1) continuous nucleation and growth in an open system, during which crystals nucleate at either a constant, decaying, or accelerating nucleation rate, and then grow according to the LPE; (2) surface-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with an essentially unlimited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (3) supply-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with a specified, limited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (4) supply- or surface-controlled Ostwald ripening in a closed system, during which the relative rate of crystal dissolution and growth is controlled by differences in specific surface area and by diffusion rate; and (5) supply-controlled random ripening in a closed system, during which the rate of crystal dissolution and growth is random with respect to specific surface area. Each of these mechanisms affects the shapes of CSDs. For example, mechanism (1) above with a constant nucleation rate yields asymptotically-shaped CSDs for which the variance of the natural logarithms of the crystal sizes (??2) increases exponentially with the mean of the natural logarithms of the sizes (??). Mechanism (2) yields lognormally-shaped CSDs, for which ??2 increases linearly with ??, whereas mechanisms (3) and (5) do not change the shapes of CSDs, with ??2 remaining constant with increasing ??. During supply-controlled Ostwald ripening (4), initial lognormally-shaped CSDs become more symmetric, with ??2 decreasing with increasing ??. Thus, crystal growth mechanisms often can be deduced by noting trends in ?? versus ??2 of CSDs for

  20. A model for carbohydrate metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum deduced from comparative whole genome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Kroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to the whole genome sequence of a second diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana. Protein localization to mitochondria was predicted based on identified similarities to mitochondrial localization motifs in other eukaryotes, whereas protein localization to plastids was based on the presence of signal peptide motifs in combination with plastid localization motifs previously shown to be required in diatoms. We identified genes potentially involved in a C4-like photosynthesis in P. tricornutum and, on the basis of sequence-based putative localization of relevant proteins, discuss possible differences in carbon concentrating mechanisms and CO(2 fixation between the two diatoms. We also identified genes encoding enzymes involved in photorespiration with one interesting exception: glycerate kinase was not found in either P. tricornutum or T. pseudonana. Various Calvin cycle enzymes were found in up to five different isoforms, distributed between plastids, mitochondria and the cytosol. Diatoms store energy either as lipids or as chrysolaminaran (a beta-1,3-glucan outside of the plastids. We identified various beta-glucanases and large membrane-bound glucan synthases. Interestingly most of the glucanases appear to contain C-terminal anchor domains that may attach the enzymes to membranes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present a detailed synthesis of carbohydrate metabolism in diatoms based on the genome sequences of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The architecture of alcohol oxidase crystalloids occurring in vivo in the peroxisomes of methylotrophic yeasts was deduced from electron micrographs of similar crystals of the Hansenula polymorpha enzyme grown in vitro. Three characteristic views of the crystal are observed, as well as single layers

  2. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  3. Dynamin-association with agonist-mediated sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptor in single-cell eukaryote Paramecium. (United States)

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta


    Evidence that dynamin is associated with the sequestration of the Paramecium beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) immunoanalogue is presented. We previously reported a dramatic change in the distribution of betaAR analogue in the subcellular fractions upon isoproterenol treatment: it is redistributed from the membraneous to the cytosolic fraction, as revealed by quantitative image analysis of western blots. Here we confirm and extend this observation by laser scanning confocal and immunogold electron microscopy. In the presence of isoproterenol (10 micro mol l(-1)) betaAR translocated from the cell surface into dynamin-positive vesicles in the cytoplasmic compartment, as observed by dual fluorochrome immunolabeling in a series of the confocal optical sections. Colocalization of betaAR and dynamin in the tiny endocytic vesicles was detected by further electron microscopic studies. Generally receptor sequestration follows its desensitization, which is initiated by receptor phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinase. We cloned and sequenced the gene fragment of 407 nucleotides homologous to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (betaARK): its deduced amino acid sequence shows 51.6% homology in 126 amino acids that overlap with the human betaARK2 (GRK3), and may participate in Paramecium betaAR desensitization. These results suggest that the molecular machinery for the desensitization/sequestration of the receptor immunorelated to vertebrate betaAR exists in unicellular PARAMECIUM:

  4. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;


    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  5. Tropospheric CO vertical profiles deduced from total columns using data assimilation: methodology and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. El Amraoui


    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation of a method to derive the vertical profile of carbon monoxide (CO from its total column using data assimilation. The main motivation of this study is twofold. First, to deduce both the vertical CO profiles and the assimilated CO fields with good confidence. Second, for chemical species that can be measured only as the total column, this method provides an attractive alternative for estimating their vertical profiles in the troposphere. We choose version 3 (V3 of MOPITT CO total columns to validate the proposed method. MOPITT has the advantage of providing both the vertical profiles and the total columns of CO. Furthermore, this version has been extensively validated by comparison with many independent datasets, and has been used in many scientific studies. The first step of the paper consists in the specification of the observation errors based on the Chi-square (χ2 test. The observations have been binned according to day, night, land and sea (LAND_DAY, LAND_NIGHT and SEA, respectively. The respective optimal observation error values for which the χ2 metric is the closest to 1 are: 7%, 8% and 11% for SEA, LAND_DAY and LAND_NIGHT, respectively. In a second step, the CO total column, with its specified errors, is used within the assimilation system to estimate the vertical profiles. These are validated by comparison with vertical profiles of MOPITT V3 retrievals at global and regional scales. Generally, both datasets show similar patterns and good agreement at both global and regional scales. Nevertheless, the total column analyses (TOTCOL_ANALYSES slightly overestimate CO concentrations compared to MOPITT observations. In a third step, vertical profiles calculated from TOTCOL_ANALYSES have been compared to those calculated from the assimilation of MOPITT V3 vertical profiles (PROFILE_ANALYSES. Both datasets shows very good agreement, but TOTCOL_ANALYSES tend to slightly overestimate CO concentrations. The mean

  6. Tropospheric CO vertical profiles deduced from total columns using data assimilation: methodology and validation (United States)

    El Amraoui, L.; Attié, J.-L.; Ricaud, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; Piacentini, A.; Peuch, V.-H.; Warner, J. X.; Abida, R.; Barré, J.


    This paper presents a validation of a method to derive the vertical profile of carbon monoxide (CO) from its total column using data assimilation. The main motivation of this study is twofold. First, to deduce both the vertical CO profiles and the assimilated CO fields with good confidence. Second, for chemical species that can be measured only as the total column, this method provides an attractive alternative for estimating their vertical profiles in the troposphere. We choose version 3 (V3) of MOPITT CO total columns to validate the proposed method. MOPITT has the advantage of providing both the vertical profiles and the total columns of CO. Furthermore, this version has been extensively validated by comparison with many independent datasets, and has been used in many scientific studies. The first step of the paper consists in the specification of the observation errors based on the Chi-square (χ2) test. The observations have been binned according to day, night, land and sea (LAND_DAY, LAND_NIGHT and SEA, respectively). The respective optimal observation error values for which the χ2 metric is the closest to 1 are: 7%, 8% and 11% for SEA, LAND_DAY and LAND_NIGHT, respectively. In a second step, the CO total column, with its specified errors, is used within the assimilation system to estimate the vertical profiles. These are validated by comparison with vertical profiles of MOPITT V3 retrievals at global and regional scales. Generally, both datasets show similar patterns and good agreement at both global and regional scales. Nevertheless, the total column analyses (TOTCOL_ANALYSES) slightly overestimate CO concentrations compared to MOPITT observations. In a third step, vertical profiles calculated from TOTCOL_ANALYSES have been compared to those calculated from the assimilation of MOPITT V3 vertical profiles (PROFILE_ANALYSES). Both datasets shows very good agreement, but TOTCOL_ANALYSES tend to slightly overestimate CO concentrations. The mean bias between

  7. scsB, a cDNA encoding the hydrogenosomal beta subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, THC; Durand, R; vanderGiezen, M; Gottschal, JC; Prins, RA; Fevre, M


    A clone containing a Neocallimastix frontalis cDNA assumed to encode the beta subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCSB) was identified by sequence homology with prokaryotic and eukaryotic counterparts. An open reading frame of 1311 bp was found. The deduced 437 amino acid sequence showed a high degr

  8. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.


    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  9. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents) (United States)

    ... had their spleens removed. Slower growth rates. The anemia resulting from beta thalassemia can cause children to grow more slowly and also can lead ... boost production of new red blood cells. Some children with moderate anemia may require an occasional blood transfusion , particularly after ...

  10. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian


    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  11. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  12. beta-Keratins in crocodiles reveal amino acid homology with avian keratins. (United States)

    Ye, Changjiang; Wu, Xiaobing; Yan, Peng; Amato, George


    The DNA sequences encoding beta-keratin have been obtained from Marsh Mugger (Crocodylus palustris) and Orinoco Crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius). Through the deduced amino acid sequence, these proteins are rich in glycine, proline and serine. The central region of the proteins are composed of two beta-folded regions and show a high degree of identity with beta-keratins of aves and squamates. This central part is thought to be the site of polymerization to build the framework of beta-keratin filaments. It is believed that the beta-keratins in reptiles and birds share a common ancestry. Near the C-terminal, these beta-keratins contain a peptide rich in glycine-X and glycine-X-X, and the distinctive feature of the region is some 12-amino acid repeats, which are similar to the 13-amino acid repeats in chick scale keratin but absent from avian feather keratin. From our phylogenetic analysis, the beta-keratins in crocodile have a closer relationship with avian keratins than the other keratins in reptiles.

  13. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den


    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  14. Approximate formulae (deduced from a mathematical model) for the characteristics of the interepidemic and epidemic periods of some virus diseases. (United States)

    Cristea, A L; Deutsch, I; Copelovici, Y


    By a qualitative analysis of the solutions of the mathematical model equations (describing the morbidity and susceptibility evolution in a viral epidemics), approximate formulae for the extreme values of the variables and for the duration of the main phases of a multiannual cycle are deduced. These formulae were validated by numerical simulation of the solutions, leading to the exact values of the mentioned essential characteristics of the diseases propagation.

  15. Differential regulation of chemoattractant-stimulated beta 2, beta 3, and beta 7 integrin activity. (United States)

    Sadhu, C; Masinovsky, B; Staunton, D E


    Leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and extravasation are dynamic processes that require activation of integrins. Chemoattractants such as IL-8 and FMLP are potent activators of leukocyte integrins. To compare the chemoattractant-stimulated activation of three integrins, alpha 4 beta 7, alpha L beta 2, and alpha V beta 3, in the same cellular context, we expressed an IL-8 receptor (IL-8RA) and FMLP receptor (FPR) in the lymphoid cell line JY. Chemoattractants induced a rapid increase in alpha L beta 2- and alpha V beta 3-dependent JY adhesion within 5 min, and it was sustained for 30 min. In contrast, stimulation of alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was transient, returning to basal levels by 30 min. The activation profiles of the integrins were similar regardless of whether IL-8 or FMLP was used for induction. We also demonstrate that alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was uniquely responsive to the F actin-disrupting agent cytochalasin D and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrin. While alpha V beta 3- and alpha L beta 2-mediated cell adhesion was significantly reduced by cytochalasin D, alpha 4 beta 7-mediated adhesion was enhanced. Chelerythrin inhibited both the IL-8 and PMA activation of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3. In contrast, inducible alpha 4 beta 7 activity was unaffected, and basal activity was increased. These findings demonstrate that the mechanism of alpha 4 beta 7 regulation by chemoattractants is different from that of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3 and that it appears to involve distinct cytoskeletal and PKC dependencies. In addition, PKC activity may be a positive or negative regulator of integrin-dependent adhesion.

  16. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella


    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  17. Beta-thalassemia. (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella


    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  18. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.


    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  19. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov


    We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which...... is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...

  20. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  1. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava


    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  2. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  3. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  4. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G


    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  5. Shapes of the $^{192,190}$Pb ground states from beta decay studies using the total absorption technique

    CERN Document Server

    Estevez Aguado, M.E.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Jordan, D.; Fraile, L.M.; Gelletly, W.; Frank, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Dombradi, Zs.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Nacher, E.; Sarriguren, P.; Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Tengblad, O.; Molina, F.; Moreno, O.; Kowalska, M.; Fedosseev, V.N.; Marsh, B.A.; Fedorov, D.V.; Molkanov, P.L.; Andreyev, A.N.; Seliverstov, M.D.; Burkard, K.; Huller, W.


    The beta decay of $^{192,190}$Pb has been studied using the total absorption technique at the ISOLDE(CERN) facility. The beta-decay strength deduced from the measurements, combined with QRPA theoretical calculations, allow us to infer that the ground states of the $^{192,190}$Pb isotopes are spherical. These results represent the first application of the shape determination method using the total absorption technique for heavy nuclei and in a region where there is considerable interest in nuclear shapes and shape effects.

  6. Oscillatory electron phonon coupling in Pb/Si(111) deduced by temperature-dependent quantum well states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Feng; Jia Jin-Feng; Han Tie-Zhu; Tang Zhe; Shen Quan-Tong; Guo Yang; Xue Qi-Kun


    Photoemission study of atomically flat Pb films with a thickness from 15 to 24 monolayers (ML) have been performed within a temperature range 75-270K. Well-defined quantum well states (QWSs) are observed, which exhibit interesting temperature-dependent behaviours. The peak position of the QWSs shifts towards higher binding energy with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the peak width broadens linearly due to enhanced electron-phonon coupling strength (λ). An oscillatory λ with a period of 2ML is deduced. Preliminary analysis shows that the oscillation can be explained in terms of the interface induced phase variations, and is thus a manifestation of the quantum size effects.

  7. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.


    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of complement component C8 beta in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. (United States)

    Luo, Shengwei; Xie, Fuxing; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na


    Complement component C8 beta was a key molecule in the complement system, mediating the MAC formation and the bacterial lysis. In this study, the full-length C8 beta (EcC8 beta) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 25 bp, an ORF of 1764 bp and a 3'UTR of 198 bp. The EcC8 beta gene encoded a protein of 587 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 65.87 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.35. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that EcC8 beta consisted of the conserved residues and the domains known to be critical for C8 beta function. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EcC8 beta transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues, while the strong expression was observed in the liver. In addition, complement C3 was the central molecule in the complement system, converging the upstream complement signals and mediating the MAC assembly pathway, while C8 beta was indispensable for active MAC formation. Following the Vibrio challenge, the increased expression of EcC3 transcript and EcC8 beta transcript was observed in the liver and kidney. These results indicated that EcC8 beta may be an important immune-related gene, playing an important role in the immune defense against the bacterial infection via the complement pathway.

  9. Adult Opisthorchis felineus major protein fractions deduced from transcripts: comparison with liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis. (United States)

    Pomaznoy, Mikhail; Tatkov, Sergey; Katokhin, Alexey; Afonnikov, Dmitry; Babenko, Vladimir; Furman, Dagmara; Brusentsov, Ilya; Belavin, Pavel; Najakshin, Alexandr; Guselnikov, Sergey; Vasiliev, Gennady; Sivkov, Anton; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav


    The epidemiologically important liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, and Clonorchis sinensis are of interest to health professionals, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists. Recently the transcriptomes of the latter two species were intensively investigated. However our knowledge on molecular biology of O. felineus is scarce. We report the first results of the O. felineus transcriptome analysis. We isolated and annotated a total of 2560 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from adult O. felineus (deposited within the database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST), under accession numbers GenBank: JK624271-JK626790, JK006511-JK006547, JK649790-JK649792). Clustering and analysis resulted in the detection of 267 contigs. Of the protein sequences deduced from these, 82% had homologs in the NCBI (nr) protein database and 63% contained conserved domains, allowing the functions to be interpreted using the Gene Ontology terms. Comprehensive analysis of Opisthorchiidae- and Trematoda-specific substitutions within amino acid sequences deduced for the proteins myoglobin, vitelline precursor protein, cathepsin F, and 28kDa glutathione transferase was carried out. The gene set of the 32 ribosomal proteins for the three Opisthorchiidae species with the addition of available Schistosoma and Fasciola orthologs was created and is provided in the supplementary. The orthologous gene set created was used for inferring phylogeny within the Trematoda with special attention to interrelations within the Opisthorchiidae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer relationship between C. sinensis and O. viverrini and some divergence of O. felineus from either O. viverrini or C. sinensis.

  10. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.


    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  11. Cyclic modular beta-sheets. (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S


    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  12. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger


    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  13. Measurements of sin 2 $\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, A


    A review of the most recent measurements of the CP violating parameter sin 2 beta from LEP and CDF is reported. These yield an average value of sin 2 beta =0.91+or-0.35, giving a confidence level that CP violation in the B system has been observed of almost 99%. (10 refs).

  14. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M


    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the p

  15. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco


    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalou...

  16. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  17. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation]. (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B


    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  18. Submarine paleoseismology of the northern Hikurangi subduction margin of New Zealand as deduced from Turbidite record since 16 ka (United States)

    Pouderoux, Hugo; Proust, Jean-Noël; Lamarche, Geoffroy


    Paleoseismic studies seek to characterise the signature of pre-historical earthquakes by deriving quantitative information from the geological record such as the source, magnitude and recurrence of moderate to large earthquakes. In this study, we provide a ˜16,000 yr-long paleo-earthquake record of the 200 km-long northern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand, using cm-thick deep-sea turbidites identified in sediment cores. Cores were collected in strategic locations across the margin within three distinct morphological re-entrants - the Poverty, Ruatoria and Matakaoa re-entrants. The turbidite facies vary from muddy to sandy with evidence for rare hyperpycnites interbedded with hemipelagites and tephra. We use the Oxal probabilistic software to model the age of each turbidite, using the sedimentation rate of hemipelagite deduced from well-dated tephra layers and radiocarbon ages measurements on planktonic foraminifera.

  19. Intra-plasmaspheric wave power density deduced from long-term DEMETER measurements of terrestrial VLF transmitter wave amplitudes (United States)

    Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.


    We deduce the 3d intra-plasmaspheric distribution of VLF wave power between conjugate regions of strong VLF wave amplitudes as measured by DEMETER for high-power terrestrial VLF transmitters during its ~6-yr lifetime. We employ a mixed WKB/full-wave technique to solve for the primary and secondary electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are transmitted and reflected from strong cold-plasma density gradients and posited irregularities, in order to match the respective end-point measured amplitude distributions. Energy arriving in the conjugate region and also escaping to other regions of the magnetosphere is note. The resulting 3d distribution allows improved estimates for the long-term average particle scattering induced by terrestrial VLF transmitters.

  20. The {sup 34,35}Al Beta Decay to {sup 34,35}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Nummela; P. Baumann; E. Caurier; Ph. Dessagne; A. Jokinen; A. Knipper; Ch. Miehe; F. Nowacki; M. Oinonen; Z. Radivojevic; M. Ramdhane; G. Walter; J. Aysto


    The {sup 34,35}Al beta decay was studied at the CERN on-line mass-separator ISOLDE by {beta}-{gamma},{beta}-{gamma}-{gamma} and {beta}-n measurements. In the {sup 34}Al decay, the new data confirm the previous results and complement the level scheme in {sup 34}Si and {sup 33}Si. An intruder (2p-2h)0{sub 2}{sup +} state is proposed at 2.1 MeV in {sup 34}Si in agreement with different shell-model predictions but its decay is still unobserved. A {sup 35}Al {beta}-decay scheme to {sup 35}Si bound and unbound states is established. The {sup 35}Al half life (41.6(22) ms) was measured with a good precision. The first {sup 35}Si level scheme including three levels at 911, 974 and 2169 keV with respectively J{pi} = (3/2){sup -}, (3/2){sup +} and (5/2){sup +} was obtained. The spin and parity values are consistent with a (5/2){sup +} assignment for the {sup 35}Al ground state. The value P{sub n}=0.41(13) was also deduced. New information on the proton-neutron interaction in the (sd-fp) space is obtained.

  1. $\\beta$-Decay Half-Life of the $rp$-Process Waiting Point Nuclide $^{84}$Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Stoker, J B; Bazin, D; Becerril, A; Berryman, J S; Crawford, H L; Estrade, A; Guess, C J; Hitt, G W; Lorusso, G; Matos, M; Minamisono, K; Montes, F; Pereira, J; Perdikakis, G; Schatz, H; Smith, K; Zegers, R G T


    A half-life of 2.2 $\\pm$ 0.2 s has been deduced for the ground-state $\\beta$ decay of $^{84}$Mo, more than 1$\\sigma$ shorter than the previously adopted value. $^{84}$Mo is an even-even N = Z nucleus lying on the proton dripline, created during explosive hydrogen burning in Type I X-ray bursts in the rapid proton capture ($rp$) process. The effect of the measured half-life on $rp$-process reaction flow is explored. Implications on theoretical treatments of nuclear deformation in $^{84}$Mo are also discussed.

  2. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique


    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  3. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob


    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  4. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  5. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin. (United States)

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J


    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  6. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay. (United States)

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth


    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  7. Electron capture decay of {sup 116}In and nuclear structure of double {beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Garcia, A.; Ortiz, C.E.; Kaloskamis, N.I. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Hindi, M.M. [Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States); Norman, E.B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Davids, C.N. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Civitarese, O. [Department of Physics, University of La Plata, C. C. 67, 1900-La Plata (Argentina); Suhonen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, SF-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    Quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation (QRPA) calculations of double {beta} decays have not been able to reproduce data in the A=100 system. We propose the A=116 system{emdash}because of its smaller deformation{emdash}as a simpler system to test QRPA calculations. We present results of two experiments we performed, which determine the electron-capture-decay branch of {sup 116}In to be (2.27{plus_minus}0.63){times}10{sup {minus}2}{percent}, from which we deduce logft=4.39{sub {minus}0.15}{sup +0.10}. We present QRPA calculations and compare their predictions to experimental data. Finally we use these calculations to predict the 2{nu} double-{beta}-decay rate of {sup 116}Cd to the ground and excited states of {sup 116}Sn. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Claudio


    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  9. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc


    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. Deducing the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate ratio method (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K. B.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.


    The short half-lives associated with certain minor actinide nuclei that are relevant to stockpile stewardship pursuits and the development of next-generation nuclear reactors make direct neutron measurements very challenging. In certain cases, a stable beam and target ``surrogate reaction'' can be used in lieu of the neutron-induced reaction, and the (n,f) cross section can then be deduced indirectly. Agreement between surrogate and direct measurements for (n,f) cross sections in actinide nuclei is usually within 10%. The present work reports on the measurement of the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via 239Pu(p,tf) and 239Pu(p,df) surrogate reactions, respectively. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Facility using a 28.5 MeV proton beam to bombard 239Pu and 235U targets. Outgoing light ions were detected in coincidence with fission fragments using the STAR-LiTe detector array. Results of the analysis will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05ER41379 (Richmond), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-FG52-09NA29467 (TAMU).

  11. Compressive stress field in the crust deduced from shear-wave anisotropy: an example in capital area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; WU Jing


    The rocks in the crust are pervaded by stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks, and the complex fault tectonics and stress control the configuration of the microcracks, however shear-wave splitting could indicate this kind of characteristics. In this paper, Capital Area Seismograph Network (CASN), the widest scope and highest density of regional seismograph network presently in China, is adopted to deduce the principal compressive stress field distribution pattern from polarizations of fast shear-waves, based on shear-wave splitting analysis. The principal compressive stress in capital area of China is at NE85.7°±41.0° in this study. Compared with the results of principal compressive stress field in North China obtained from other methods, the results in this study are reliable in the principal com-pressive stress field distribution in capital area. The results show that it is an effective way, although it is the first time to directly obtain crustal stress field from seismic anisotropy. It is effectively applied to the zones with dense seismograph stations.

  12. New prospects for deducing the evolutionary history of metabolic pathways in prokaryotes: Aromatic biosynthesis as a case-in-point (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Jensen, Roy A.


    Metabolic pathways of prokaryotes are more biochemically diverse than is generally recognized. Distinctive biochemical features are shared by phylogenetic clusters. The hierarchical levels of characterstate clustering depends upon evolutionary events which fortuitously became fixed in the genome of a common ancestor. Prokaryotes can now be ordered on a phylogenetic tree. This allows the evolutionary steps that underlie the construction and regulation of appropriately complex biochemical pathways to be traced in an evolutionary progression of prokaryote types that house these pathways. Essentially the approach is to deduce ancestral character states at ever deeper phylogenetic levels, utilizing logical principles of maximum parsimony. The current perspective on the evolution of the biochemical pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids is developed as a case-in-point model for analyses that should be feasible with many major metabolic systems. Phenylalanine biosynthesis probably arose prior to the addition of branches leading to tyrosine and tryptophan. An evolutionary scenario is developed that begins with non-enzymatic reactions which may have operated in primitive systems, followed by the evolution of an enzymatic system that pre-dated the divergence of major lineages of modern eubacteria (Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative purple bacteria, and cyanobacteria).

  13. Geomechanical log deduced from porosity and mineralogical content; Diagraphie geomecanique deduite de la porosite et de la composition mineralogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, E.; Vincke, O.; Longuemare, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)


    The 'geomechanical log' research project aims at estimating rock mechanical properties from a set of models, whose input data can be deduced from drilling logs and measurements on core samples (if these are available). The key point is to focus on defining relatively general and easy to handle models. In this paper, we propose various analytical models allowing one to estimate poroelastic and failure properties of limestones and sandstones directly from their porosity and, in the specific case of sandstone poroelastic characteristics, their mineralogical content. The properties obtained are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The second step of the project will be to actually infer the input data for the models (here porosity and mineral content) from drilling logs and to compare the results obtained to tests on core samples. A geomechanical log could then be automatically created from standard logs and help to optimize drilling. We also intend to test the same approaches on rock plastic properties and shale behavior. (authors)

  14. Neutron spectrum and yield of the Hiroshima A-bomb deduced from radionuclide measurements at one location. (United States)

    Rühm, W; Kato, K; Korschinek, G; Morinaga, H; Nolte, E


    In this paper measurements of the radionuclides of 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu in samples from Hiroshima, which were exposed to neutrons of the A-bomb explosion, are interpreted. In order to calculate the neutron spectrum at the sample site, neutron transport calculations using Monte Carlo techniques were carried out. Activation profiles in a granite mock-up irradiated with reactor neutrons could be reproduced by this method using DS86 input parameters. The calculated neutron spectrum at the sample site for non-thermal neutrons is identical to that obtained in DS86, but contains some 50% more thermal neutrons. The influence of parameters like soil composition, source terms and air humidity on the activation of these radioisotopes is discussed. The granite-covered earth at the sample site, for example, hardens the spectrum in comparison with DS86 values. Even when using a fission spectrum pointing downward and neglecting air humidity one cannot explain our 36Cl measurements. If the effective thermal neutron fluences, that have a similar ratio of resonance integral to thermal neutron capture cross sections obtained from 36Cl, 41Ca and 152Eu, are averaged, a bomb yield of about 16 kt is deduced in agreement with a bomb yield of (15 +/- 3) kt estimated in DS86.

  15. Beta decay of the exotic $T_z$ = -2 nuclei $^{48}$Fe, $^{52}$Ni and $^{56}$Zn

    CERN Document Server

    Orrigo, S E A; Fujita, Y; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Blank, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Ganioğlu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C


    The results of a study of the beta decays of three proton-rich nuclei having $T_z$ = -2, namely $^{48}$Fe, $^{52}$Ni and $^{56}$Zn, produced in an experiment carried out at GANIL, are reported. In all the cases we have extracted the half-lives and the total $\\beta$-delayed proton emission branching ratios. We have measured the individual $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ rays with their branching ratios. Decay schemes have been determined for the three nuclei, and new energy levels are identified in the corresponding daughter nuclei. Competition between $\\beta$-delayed protons and gammas is observed in the de-excitation of the $T$ = 2 Isobaric Analogue States in all three cases. Absolute Fermi and Gamow-Teller transition strengths have been determined. The mass excesses of the nuclei under study have been deduced. In addition, we discuss in detail the data analysis taking as a test case $^{56}$Zn, where the exotic $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay has been observed.

  16. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration


    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  17. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas


    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  18. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots. (United States)

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha


    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  19. Meson-Exchange Enhancement of First-Forbidden $\\beta$-Transitions in the Lead Region

    CERN Multimedia

    Delaure, B J P; Severijns, N


    Both on-line and off-line low temperature nuclear orientation is used to measure the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter for the first-forbidden g.s. $\\rightarrow$~g.s. $\\beta$-transitions of $^{205}$Hg, $^{207,209}$Tl, $^{209}$Pb and $^{213}$Bi. From this, the ratio of the rank-zero and the rank-one strengths in these decays can be deduced, with the rank of a $\\beta$-transition being defined as the total angular momentum of the lepton system. Combining this result with the experimental ${ft}$-values yields for the first time a purely experimental determination of the rank-zero contribution in these $\\Delta$ J = 0 first-forbidden transitions. This provides an independent check of the large enhancement (of about 100% over the impulse approximation) of the rank-zero matrix element of $\\gamma_{5} $, caused by meson exchange currents (MEC), which was recently obtained from a comparison of calculated first-forbidden $\\beta$-decay rates with experimentally observed values for nuclei in the lead region (A = 205-212). Measur...

  20. Beta-delayed particle decay of sup 1 sup 7 Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, A C; King, J D; Boyd, R N; Bateman, N P T; Buchmann, L; D'Auria, J M; Davinson, T; Dombsky, M; Galster, W; Gete, E; Giesen, U; Iliadis, C; Jackson, K P; Powell, J; Roy, G; Shotter, A


    The beta-delayed particle decay of sup 1 sup 7 Ne has been studied via proton-gamma coincidences, time-of-flight measurements and the ''ratio-cut technique'', allowing cleanly-separated proton and alpha-particle spectra to be obtained. A complete set of proton and alpha branching ratios for the decay of 14 excited states in sup 1 sup 7 F to the ground and excited states of sup 1 sup 6 O and sup 1 sup 3 N has been determined and branching ratios for the beta decay of sup 1 sup 7 Ne to these states have been deduced. From the branching ratios, f sub A t values and reduced Gamow-Teller matrix elements were calculated; no indication of isospin mixing in the isobaric analog state in sup 1 sup 7 F was observed. From the measurement of proton-gamma angular correlations, combined with the selection rules for an allowed beta decay, we obtain J suppi=((1)/(2)) sup - for states at 8.436 and 9.450 MeV and ((3)/(2)) sup - for the state at 10.030 MeV in sup 1 sup 7 F. Probabilities for the beta-delayed p alpha decay to sup...

  1. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis. (United States)

    Del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R; Bernardi, F; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F


    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in a beta(+), homozygote and in a beta (+), beta(0) 39 (nonsense mutation at codon 39) double heterozygote is approximately 20% and 10% respectively of total non-alpha globin synthesis. Despite some overlapping of the results, similar beta globin synthesis levels have been obtained in 43 beta(+)-thalassaemia patients. This suggests that in the Po river delta region the most common thalassaemic genes are beta(0) 39 and beta(+) IVS I. Images PMID:2580095

  2. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen


    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented...... that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  3. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea. (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih


    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  4. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, K


    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is of outmost importance for neutrino physics. It is considered to be the gold plated channel to probe the fundamental character of neutrinos and to determine the neutrino mass. From the experimental point about nine different isotopes are explored for the search. After a general introduction follows a short discussion on nuclear matrix element calculations and supportive measurements. The current experimental status of double beta searches is presented followed by a short discussion of the ideas and proposals for large scale experiments.

  5. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.


    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots. (United States)

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; Figus, A; Loi, A; Pirastu, M; Cao, A


    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation of a large scale prevention programme based on fetal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia by DNA analysis in the Turkish population. PMID:3236356

  7. A liver X receptor (LXR)-{beta} alternative splicing variant (LXRBSV) acts as an RNA co-activator of LXR-{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Koshi, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Ishida, Emi; Matsumoto, Shunichi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Okada, Shuichi [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Monden, Tsuyoshi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dokkyo Medical College, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Satoh, Tetsurou; Yamada, Masanobu; Mori, Masatomo [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)


    We report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel transcriptional co-activator, termed LXRBSV. LXRBSV is an alternative splicing variant of liver X receptor (LXR)-{beta} LXRBSV has an intronic sequence between exons 2 and 3 in the mouse LXR-{beta} gene. The LXRBSV gene is expressed in various tissues including the liver and brain. We sub-cloned LXRBSV into pSG5, a mammalian expression vector, and LXRBSV in pSG5 augmented human Sterol Response Element Binding Protein (SREBP)-1c promoter activity in HepG2 cells in a ligand (TO901317) dependent manner. The transactivation mediated by LXRBSV is selective for LXR-{beta}. The LXRBSV protein was deduced to be 64 amino acids in length; however, a GAL4-LXRBSV fusion protein was not able to induce transactivation. Serial deletion constructs of LXRBSV demonstrated that the intronic sequence inserted in LXRBSV is required for its transactivation activity. An ATG mutant of LXRBSV was able to induce transactivation as wild type. Furthermore, LXRBSV functions in the presence of cycloheximide. Taken together, we have concluded that LXRBSV acts as an RNA transcript not as a protein. In the current study, we have demonstrated for the first time that an alternative splicing variant of a nuclear receptor acts as an RNA co-activator.

  8. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  9. Estimating $\\beta$-mixing coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark


    The literature on statistical learning for time series assumes the asymptotic independence or ``mixing' of the data-generating process. These mixing assumptions are never tested, nor are there methods for estimating mixing rates from data. We give an estimator for the $\\beta$-mixing rate based on a single stationary sample path and show it is $L_1$-risk consistent.

  10. Beta-carotene as antioxidant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Plas, R.M. van der; Berg, H. van den; Haenen, G.R.M.M.


    Objective: Beta-carotene has been shown to exhibit a good radical-trapping antioxidant activity in vitro. We were interested to see if dietary β-carotene in combination with various intake levels for vitamin A would also inhibit lipid peroxidation. Design: Sixty male Wistar rats received vitamin A (

  11. Current deformation in Central Afar and triple junction kinematics deduced from GPS and InSAR measurements (United States)

    Doubre, Cécile; Déprez, Aline; Masson, Frédéric; Socquet, Anne; Lewi, Elias; Grandin, Raphaël; Nercessian, Alexandre; Ulrich, Patrice; De Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Saad, Ibrahim; Abayazid, Ahmadine; Peltzer, Gilles; Delorme, Arthur; Calais, Eric; Wright, Tim


    Kinematics of divergent boundaries and Rift-Rift-Rift junctions are classically studied using long-term geodetic observations. Since significant magma-related displacements are expected, short-term deformation provides important constraints on the crustal mechanisms involved both in active rifting and in transfer of extensional deformation between spreading axes. Using InSAR and GPS data, we analyse the surface deformation in the whole Central Afar region in detail, focusing on both the extensional deformation across the Quaternary magmato-tectonic rift segments, and on the zones of deformation transfer between active segments and spreading axes. The largest deformation occurs across the two recently activated Asal-Ghoubbet (AG) and Manda Hararo-Dabbahu (MH-D) magmato-tectonic segments with very high strain rates, whereas the other Quaternary active segments do not concentrate any large strain, suggesting that these rifts are either sealed during interdyking periods or not mature enough to remain a plate boundary. Outside of these segments, the GPS horizontal velocity field shows a regular gradient following a clockwise rotation of the displacements from the Southeast to the East of Afar, with respect to Nubia. Very few shallow creeping structures can be identified as well in the InSAR data. However, using these data together with the strain rate tensor and the rotations rates deduced from GPS baselines, the present-day strain field over Central Afar is consistent with the main tectonic structures, and therefore with the long-term deformation. We investigate the current kinematics of the triple junction included in our GPS data set by building simple block models. The deformation in Central Afar can be described by adding a central microblock evolving separately from the three surrounding plates. In this model, the northern block boundary corresponds to a deep EW-trending trans-tensional dislocation, locked from the surface to 10-13 km and joining at depth the

  12. SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surface temperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments (United States)

    Pflaumann, Uwe; Duprat, Josette; Pujol, Claude; Labeyrie, Laurent D.


    leave the system.) (Paper 95PA01743,SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surfacetemperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments, UwePflaumann, Josette Duprat, Claude Pujol, and Laurent D. Labeyrie).Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; Payment mustaccompany order.

  13. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Alonzi, L P; Balascuta, S; Barrón-Palos, L; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Chupp, T; Vianciolo, T V; Crawford, C; Frlež, E; Gericke, M T; Glück, F; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Harrison, D; Hersman, F W; Ito, T; Makela, M; Martin, J; McGaughey, P L; McGovern, S; Page, S; Penttilä, S I; Počanić, D; Rykaczewski, K P; Salas-Bacci, A; Tompkins, Z; Wagner, D; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R


    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  14. The beta-decay of Al-22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouri, NL; Santos, FDO; Lewitowicz, M; Blank, B; Aysto, J; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Emsallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Jokinen, A; Larid, AM; Longour, C; Perajarvi, K; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M


    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of Al-22 produced by the fragmentation of a Ar-36 primary beam. A beta-decay half-life of T-1/2 = 91.1 +/- 0.5ms was measured. The beta-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as beta-alpha and beta-delayed gamma-de

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury, Microglia, and Beta Amyloid


    Mannix, Rebekah C.; Whalen, Michael J


    Recently, there has been growing interest in the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). TBI and AD share many pathologic features including chronic inflammation and the accumulation of beta amyloid (A\\(\\beta\\)). Data from both AD and TBI studies suggest that microglia play a central role in A\\(\\beta\\) accumulation after TBI. This paper focuses on the current research on the role of microglia response to A\\(\\beta\\) after TBI.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  17. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.


    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  18. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian


    up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  19. Distribution of star formation rates during the rapid assembly of NGC 1399 as deduced from its globular cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, C; Kroupa, P; Pflamm-Altenburg, J


    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) share many properties with globular clusters (GCs) and are found in similar environments. A large sample of UCDs and GCs around NGC 1399, the central giant elliptical of the Fornax galaxy cluster, is used to infer their formation history and also that of NGC 1399. We assumed that all GCs and UCDs in our sample are star clusters (SCs) and used them as tracers of past star formation activities. After correcting our GC/UCD sample for mass loss, we interpreted their overall mass function to be a superposition of SC populations that formed coevally during different times. The SC masses of each population were distributed according to the embedded cluster mass function (ECMF), a pure power law with the slope $-\\beta$ and a stellar upper mass limit, $M_{\\mathrm{max}}$, which depended on the star formation rate (SFR). We decomposed the observed GC/UCD mass function into individual SC populations and converted $M_{\\mathrm{max}}$ of each SC population to an SFR. The overall distribut...

  20. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.


    del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R.; De Bernardi, F.; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G.; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F


    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in...

  1. Deducing the magma chamber processes of middle Eocene volcanics, Sivas and Tokat regions; NE Turkey: Insights from clinopyroxene chemistry (United States)

    Göçmengil, Gönenç; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelevic, Dejan


    Middle Eocene Tokat and Sivas volcanic successions occur within the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Different models are suggested for the development of the middle Eocene volcanism such as post-collisional, delamination and slab-breakoff models as well as the arc magmatism. In both areas, volcanic units cover all the basement units with a regional disconformity and comprise lavas spanning a compositional range from mainly basalt-basaltic andesite to a lesser amount trachyte. Here, we report mineral chemistry of different basaltic lavas through transect from northern continent (Tokat region, Pontides) to southern continent (Sivas region, Kırşehir block) to deduce the characteristics of the magma chamber processes which are active during the middle Eocene. Basaltic lavas include olivine bearing basalts (Ol-basalt: ± olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase); amphibole bearing basaltic andesite (Amp-basaltic andesite: amphibole + clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± biotite) and pyroxene bearing basaltic andesite (Px-basaltic andesite: clinopyroxene + plagioclase). Microlitic, glomeroporphyric and pilotaxitic texture are common. Clinopyroxene phenocrystals (macro ≥ 750 μm and micro ≤300 μm) are common in all three lava series which are investigated by transecting core to rim compositional profiles. They are generally augite and diopside; euhedral to subhedral in shape with oscillatory, normal and reverse zoning patterns. Also, all clinopyroxene phenocrystals are marked by moderately high Mg# (for Ol-basalt: 67-91; avg. 80; Amp-basaltic andesite: 76-83, avg: 80; Px -basaltic andesite 68-95, avg: 81). In Ol-basalt, clinopyroxene phenocrystals show normal zonation (high Mg# cores and low Mg# rims). In Amp-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxenes are generally homogenous in composition with minor variation of Mg# towards the rims. On the contrary, in Px-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxene macro phenocrystals show reverse zonation with the core with low Mg# and the rims with

  2. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations (United States)

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.


    an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

  3. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaub


    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively. The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns is −7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a

  4. Specific Triazine Herbicides Induce Amyloid-beta(42) Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portelius, Erik; Durieu, Emilie; Bodin, Marion; Cam, Morgane; Pannee, Josef; Leuxe, Charlotte; Mabondzo, Aloise; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Herve; Lee, Jung Yeol; Chang, Young-Tae; Stuber, Kathrin; Koch, Philipp; Fontaine, Gaelle; Potier, Marie-Claude; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garbis, Spiros D.; Covaci, Adrian; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter; Karg, Frank; Flajolet, Marc; Omori, Chiori; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Meijer, Laurent


    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) ecretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides. Increased production of A beta(42) over A beta(40) and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark. Identifyin

  5. Future double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, Modane (France); Centre d' Etudes Nucleaire, Bordeaux-Gradignan (France)


    The search of neutrinoless double beta decay is very challenging because of the expected half-life of the process and the backgrounds from the natural radioactivity. Many projects exist to try to reach a sensitivity of ∼50 meV on the effective neutrino mass corresponding to a mass of isotopes of ∼100 kg. In this article some of the futur projects are presented.

  6. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G


    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  7. Computer Simulations to Study Diffraction Effects of Stacking Faults in Beta-SiC: II. Experimental Verification. 2; Experimental Verification (United States)

    Pujar, Vijay V.; Cawley, James D.; Levine, S. (Technical Monitor)


    Earlier results from computer simulation studies suggest a correlation between the spatial distribution of stacking errors in the Beta-SiC structure and features observed in X-ray diffraction patterns of the material. Reported here are experimental results obtained from two types of nominally Beta-SiC specimens, which yield distinct XRD data. These samples were analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the stacking error distribution was directly determined. The HRTEM results compare well to those deduced by matching the XRD data with simulated spectra, confirming the hypothesis that the XRD data is indicative not only of the presence and density of stacking errors, but also that it can yield information regarding their distribution. In addition, the stacking error population in both specimens is related to their synthesis conditions and it appears that it is similar to the relation developed by others to explain the formation of the corresponding polytypes.

  8. Studies on synthetic pathway of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides deduced from substrate specificities of the processing enzymes in sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). (United States)

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Akazawa, T; Takahashi, N


    We measured the activities of alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, alpha-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, beta-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-xylosyltransferase and glycoprotein 3-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase in the Golgi fraction of suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) using fluorescence-labelled oligosaccharides as acceptor substrates for these transferase reactions. The structures of the pyridylaminated oligosaccharides produced by these reactions were analyzed by two-dimensional sugar mapping using high-performance liquid chromatography. We demonstrated that (formula; see text) was processed to produce by these in vitro reactions. On the basis of these results, we discuss a biosynthetic pathway for xylose containing N-linked oligosaccharides in plant glycoproteins.

  9. Beta-Delayed Multiparticle Emission Studies at ISOL-type Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borge, M.J.G. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Bergmann, U.C. [Institut for fysik og astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); EP Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Boutami, R. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Cederkaell, J. [EP Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dendooven, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaaeskylae, FIN-40351 Jyvaaeskylae (Finland); Fraile, L.M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Fynbo, H.O.U. [Institut for fysik og astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Huang, W.X. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaaeskylae, FIN-40351 Jyvaaeskylae (Finland); Huikari, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaaeskylae, FIN-40351 Jyvaaeskylae (Finland); Jading, Y. [EP Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Jeppesen, H. [Institut for fysik og astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jokinen, A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaaeskylae, FIN-40351 Jyvaaeskylae (Finland); Jonson, B. [Experimentell Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Martel, I. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Meister, M. [Experimentell Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, T. [Experimentell Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Nyman, G. [Experimentell Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Prezado, Y. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Riisager, K. [Institut for fysik og astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [and others


    We report here on the recent {beta}-decay studies made at ISOL-type Facilities to determine the multiparticle breakup mechanism of excited states in light nuclei by studying them in full kinematics. In particular the results obtained for the A = 9 isobars and the breakup of the 12.7 MeV state in {sup 12}C of unnatural parity are discussed. The breakup of the latter has been debated since more than a decade. Mirror beta transitions in the A=9 chain are compared and a large asymmetry factor is deduced for the transitions to high excitation energy in {sup 9}Be (11.8 MeV) and {sup 9}B (12.2 MeV) fed in the {beta}-decay of {sup 9}Li and {sup 9}C respectively. It is shown that the asymmetry is not due to experimental problems or differences in the mechanisms of breakup or in the spin of the states. As no asymmetry is found in the gs to gs transition it must be due to the particular structure of these excited states. The controversy on the breakup mechanism of the 12.7 MeV state is resolved.

  10. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. (United States)

    Ohnishi, K


    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen beta and alpha chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both beta and alpha) gene products, respectively, all of which being approximately 90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to beta2-microglobulin (beta2M). The membrane-embedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II alpha chains than to class II beta chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a beta2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  11. $\\beta$-particle energy-summing correction for $\\beta$-delayed proton emission measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Meisel, Z; Crawford, H L; Cyburt, R H; Grinyer, G F; Langer, C; Montes, F; Schatz, H; Smith, K


    A common approach to studying $\\beta$-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the $\\beta$-delayed proton emitting ($\\beta$p) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the $\\beta$-particle emitted from the $\\beta$p nucleus, an effect referred to here as $\\beta$-summing. We present an approach to determine an accurate correction for $\\beta$-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the $\\beta$p nucleus within the DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + $\\beta$) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.

  12. Isolation of a human anti-haemophilic factor IX cDNA clone using a unique 52-base synthetic oligonucleotide probe deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine factor IX. (United States)

    Jaye, M; de la Salle, H; Schamber, F; Balland, A; Kohli, V; Findeli, A; Tolstoshev, P; Lecocq, J P


    A unique 52mer oligonucleotide deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine Factor IX was synthesized and used as a probe to screen a human liver cDNA bank. The Factor IX clone isolated shows 5 differences in nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence as compared to a previously isolated clone. In addition, precisely one codon has been deleted.Images

  13. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi


    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  14. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger


    ]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...

  15. Beta-delayed deuteron emission from 11Li: decay of the halo

    CERN Document Server

    Raabe, R; García-Borge, M J; Buchmann, L; Capel, P; Fynbo, H O U; Huyse, M; Kanungo, R; Kirchner, T; Mattoon, C; Morton, A C; Mukha, I; Pearson, J; Ponsaers, J; Ressler, J J; Riisager, K; Ruiz, C; Ruprecht, G; Sarazin, F; Tengblad, O; Van Duppen, P; Walden, P


    The deuteron-emission channel in the beta-decay of the halo-nucleus 11Li was measured at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF by implanting post-accelerated 11Li ions into a segmented silicon detector. The events of interest were identified by correlating the decays of 11Li with those of the daughter nuclei. This method allowed the energy spectrum of the emitted deuterons to be extracted, free from contributions from other channels, and a precise value for the branching ratio B_d = 1.30(13) x 10-4 to be deduced for E(c.m.) > 200 keV. The results provide the first unambiguous experimental evidence that the decay takes place essentially in the halo of 11Li, and that it proceeds mainly to the 9Li + d continuum, opening up a new means to study of the halo wave function of 11Li.

  16. Molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of (E)-beta farnesene synthase from Citrus junos. (United States)

    Maruyama, T; Ito, M; Honda, G


    We cloned the gene of the acyclic sesquiterpene synthase, (E)-beta-farnesene synthase (CJFS) from Yuzu (Citrus junos, Rutaceae). The function of CJFS was elucidated by the preparation of recombinant protein and subsequent enzyme assay. CJFS consisted of 1867 nucleotides including 1680 bp of coding sequence encoding a protein of 560 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence possessed characteristic amino acid residues, such as the DDxxD motif, which are highly conserved among terpene synthases. This is the first report of the cloning of a terpene synthase from a Rutaceous plant. A possible reaction mechanism for terpene biosynthesis is also discussed on the basis of sequence comparison of CJFS with known sesquiterpene synthase genes.

  17. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose. (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen


    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  18. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico


    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal


    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  20. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi


    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  1. Concentrations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in the free upper troposphere and lower stratosphere deduced from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 infrared solar occultation spectra (United States)

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.


    This paper presents the results on the volume mixing ratio profiles of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, deduced from the spectroscopic analysis of IR solar absorption spectra obtained in the occultation mode with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during its mission aboard Spacelab 3. A comparison of the ATMOS measurements for both northern and southern latitudes with previous field investigations at low midlatitudes shows a relatively good agreement. Southern Hemisphere volume mixing ratio profiles for both molecules were obtained for the first time, as were the profiles for the Northern Hemisphere covering the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere simultaneously.

  2. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Visser, J; Hefting, N R; Oosting, R; Meijer, D K; Lerk, C F


    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed by HPLC using postcolumn complexation with phenolphthalein and negative colorimetric detection, with a detection limit of 20 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were studied after intravenous adm

  3. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui


    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  4. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi


    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  5. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)


    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  6. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC


    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  7. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander


    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  8. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.


    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  9. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems. (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio


    RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  10. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Kawamura


    Full Text Available RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  11. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach). (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji


    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event-the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids-as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  12. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ikehara


    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  13. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani


    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  14. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne


    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  15. Nebivolol : third-generation beta-blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Rudolf A.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.


    Nebivolol is a third generation beta-blocker. It is highly selective for the beta 1-adrenoceptor, and has additional nitric oxide-mediated vasodilating and antioxidant properties, along with a favourable metabolic profile. Nebivolol is well tolerated by patients with hypertension and heart failure.

  16. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;


    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  17. Venus: Geology of Beta Regio rift system (United States)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Borozdin, V. K.; Bobina, N. N.


    Beta Regio is characterized by the existence of rift structures. We compiled new geologic maps of Beta Regio according to Magellan data. There are many large uplifted tesserae on beta upland. These tesserae are partly buried by younger volcanic cover. We can conclude, using these observations, that Beta upland formed mainly due to lithospheric tectonic uplifting and was only partly constructed by volcanism. Theia Mons is the center of the Beta rift system. Many rift belts are distributed radially to Theia Mons. Typical widths of rifts are 40-160 km. Rift valleys are structurally represented by crustal grabens or half-grabens. There are symmetrical and asymmetrical rifts. Many rifts have shoulder uplifts up to 0.5-1 km high and 40-60 km wide. Preliminary analysis for rift valley structural cross sections lead to the conclusion that rifts originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extension. Many rifts traverse Beta upland and spread to the surrounding lowlands. We can assume because of these data that Beta rift system has an active-passive origin. It formed due to regional tectonic lithospheric extension. Rifting was accelerated by upper-mantle hot spot origination under the center of passive extension (under the Beta Regio).

  18. Beta-agonists and animal welfare (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  19. Shielding for beta-gamma radiation. (United States)

    Fletcher, J J


    The build-up factor, B, for lead was expressed as a polynominal cubic function of the relaxation length, mu x, and incorporated in a "general beta-gamma shielding equation." A computer program was written to determine shielding thickness for polyenergetic beta-gamma sources without resorting to the conventional "add-one-HVL" method.

  20. Beta-glucuronidase in physiology and disease. (United States)

    Basińska, Agnieszka; Floriańczyk, Bolesław


    beta-glucoronidase (EC is a lysosomal enzyme catylysing the decomposition of beta-D-glucoronides--compounds arising as a result of the combination of beta-D-glucoronic acid and a number of compounds both exo- and endogenous, containing hydroxylic, carboxylic, amine, imine or thiol groups. The most common test evaluating the activity of the enzyme is that using phenolphtalein glucoronide as a biosynthetic substrate. The freed aglycons are colorimetrically assayed. The activity of beta-glucoronidase increases in many pathological conditions: liver infammations, cirrhosis of the liver, inflammations of other organs, cholestatic jaundice, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and also in neoplasms. Many authors point to beta-glucoronidase as a sensitive indicator signalling cell damage.

  1. Precision measurements in 20F beta decay (United States)

    Hughes, Maximilian; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Paulauskas, Stan; Huyan, Xueying


    Precision measurements of the shape of the beta particle energy spectrum provide a sensitive window to search for new interactions beyond the standard model. The decay of 20F offers an attractive system due to the simple decay scheme for a coincidence measurement. A beam of 20F ions, produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, was implanted into a beta-detector. A gamma-ray detection system surrounded the beta detector to detect the beta-delayed gammas in coincidence to reduce the background. Preliminary analysis of these data focus on the half-life of 20F due to the statistical inconsistency of previous work. Monte Carlo simulations are ongoing to analyze the shape of the beta energy spectrum. Results of the analysis of the half-life will be presented. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1102511.

  2. Ranking Beta Sheet Topologies of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel


    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids.  To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein.  We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  3. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Mezzetto, M; Monrabal, F; Sorel, M


    In the last few years the search for neutrinoless double beta decay has evolved from being almost a marginal activity in neutrino physics to one of the highest priorities for understanding neutrinos and the origin of mass. There are two main reasons for this paradigm shift: the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which clearly established the existence of massive neutrinos; and the existence of an unconfirmed, but not refuted, claim of evidence for neutrinoless double decay in 76Ge. As a consequence, a new generation of experiments, employing different detection techniques and {\\beta}{\\beta} isotopes, is being actively promoted by experimental groups across the world. In addition, nuclear theorists are making remarkable progress in the calculation of the neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear matrix elements, thus eliminating a substantial part of the theoretical uncertainties affecting the particle physics interpretation of this process. In this report, we review the main aspects of the double beta decay pro...

  4. Experimental beta-alaninuria induced by (aminooxyacetate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurozumi Y


    Full Text Available Experimental beta-alaninuria was induced in rats by injection of (aminooxyacetate (AOA, a potent inhibitor of aminotransferases, in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of hyper-beta-alaninemia. A 27-fold increase of beta-alanine (BALA excretion was induced by subcutaneous injection of 1 5 mg of AOA per kg of body weight. A 13-fold and a 9-fold increase of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, respectively, were also induced simultaneously by the AOA injection. Identification of BALA and BAIBA isolated from the rat urine was performed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses. The effects of AOA injection on the tissue levels of these amino acids were also studied. Contents of BALA in the liver and kidney and GABA in the brain increased significantly in response to AOA injection. The present study indicates that BALA transaminase is involved in hyper-beta-alaninemia.

  5. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E


    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing soluble...... protein, protofilaments and some fibrils or only fibrils in a solid phase system (ELISA) was modest with a slow kinetics compared to the positive delta IgG control. Soluble A beta induced no detectable CA in a liquid phase system (complement consumption assay) while fibrillar A beta caused CA at 200 mg....../ml and higher concentrations. Soluble beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) purified from peritoneal dialysates was found to be as potent a complement activator as A beta in both solid and liquid phase systems while beta 2M purified from urine exhibited lower activity, a difference which may be explained...

  6. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;


    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  7. Painlev\\'e representation of Tracy-Widom$_\\beta$ distribution for $\\beta = 6$

    CERN Document Server

    Rumanov, Igor


    In \\cite{betaFP1}, we found explicit Lax pairs for the soft edge of beta ensembles with even integer values of $\\beta$. Using this general result, the case $\\beta=6$ is further considered here. This is the smallest even $\\beta$, when the corresponding Lax pair and its relation to Painlev\\'e II (PII) have not been known before, unlike cases $\\beta=2$ and $4$. It turns out that again everything can be expressed in terms of the Hastings-McLeod solution of PII. In particular, a second order nonlinear ODE for the logarithmic derivative of Tracy-Widom distribution for $\\beta=6$ involving the PII function in the coefficients, is found, which allows one to compute asymptotics for the distribution function. The ODE is a consequence of a linear system of three ODEs for which the local Painlev\\'e analysis yields series solutions with exponents in the set $4/3$, $1/3$ and $-2/3$.

  8. Expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated and nuclear transfer derived bovine pregnancies. (United States)

    Ravelich, S R; Shelling, A N; Wells, D N; Peterson, A J; Lee, R S F; Ramachandran, A; Keelan, J A


    Bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies are characterized by a high incidence of placental abnormalities, notably, increased placentome size and deficiencies in trophoblast cell function and establishment of placental vasculature. Alterations in gene expression during placental growth and development may contribute to the appearance of large placentomes in pregnancies derived from nuclear transfer. The placenta synthesizes a number of cytokines and growth factors, including the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) that are involved in the establishment, maintenance and/or regulation of pregnancy. All forms of TGF-beta and their receptors are present at the fetal-maternal interface of the bovine placentome, where they are thought to play an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and function of the placenta. Using real-time RT-PCR, we have examined the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated (AI) and nuclear transfer (NT)-derived bovine pregnancies at days 50, 100 and 150 of gestation. TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA expression increased by 2.0-2.8-fold, while TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII mRNA expression decreased by 1.7-2.0-fold in NT placentomes compared to AI controls at all gestational ages examined. These findings indicate that NT placentomes may be resistant to the growth suppressive effects of TGF-betas and could contribute to the placental proliferative abnormalities observed in NT-derived placentas. Alternatively, deficiencies in placentation may provide a mechanism whereby TGF-betas are dysregulated in NT pregnancies.

  9. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;


    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators.......The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...

  10. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  11. Determination of the Electron Neutrino Mass from Experiments on Electron-Capture Beta-Decay (EC)

    CERN Multimedia


    The aim of the programme is to measure the electron-neutrino mass, for which at present an upper limit of 500~eV is known. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment studies the shape of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum in electron-capture near its upper end-point and deduces a mass from small shape changes completely analogous to those in the well-known determination of the electron antineutrino mass in the tritium beta-minus decay. \\\\ \\\\ In a low-energy bremsstrahlung process, the capture takes place from a virtual S state associated with a radiative P~@A~S electromagnetic transition, and the resonant nature of the process leads to important enhancements of the photon intensities at low energy, in particular near the resonance energies co (X-rays). This effect gives this type of experiment a chance to compete with experiments on continuous beta spectra. \\\\ \\\\ The programme concentrates on two long-lived isotopes: \\\\ \\\\ 1)~~|1|6|3Ho. The Q value for this isotope has been found to be 2.6-2.7 keV. A detector specially construct...

  12. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.; (IIT); (NIH); (UC)


    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  13. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  14. Scintillating bolometers for Double Beta Decay search

    CERN Document Server

    Gironi, Luca


    In the field of Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, the use of high resolution detectors in which background can be actively discriminated is very appealing. Scintillating bolometers containing a Double Beta Decay emitter can largely fulfill this very interesting possibility. In this paper we present the latest results obtained with CdWO4 and CaMoO4 crystals. Moreover we report, for the first time, a very interesting feature of CaMoO4 bolometers: the possibility to discriminate beta-gamma events from those induced by alpha particles thanks to different thermal pulse shape.

  15. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal


    -interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... must be presumed to be of value not only in the diagnosis of cerebral AIDS and other (latent) CNS infections but also to demonstrate complicating cerebral malignant lymphomata at an early stage....

  16. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K


    and should also be directed at the other coronary artery risk factors of the patients. The effects of beta-blockers, which reduce the duration and frequency of silent ischemic episodes, is well described. The effect is most pronounced in the morning, when the frequency of ischemia is highest......, and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers...

  17. Statistical γ -decay properties of 64Ni and deduced (n ,γ ) cross section of the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni (United States)

    Crespo Campo, L.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Springer, A.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.


    Particle-γ coincidence data have been analyzed to obtain the nuclear level density and the γ -strength function of 64Ni by means of the Oslo method. The level density found in this work is in very good agreement with known energy levels at low excitation energies as well as with data deduced from particle-evaporation measurements at excitation energies above Ex≈5.5 MeV. The experimental γ -strength function presents an enhancement at γ energies below Eγ≈3 MeV and possibly a resonancelike structure centered at Eγ≈9.2 MeV. The obtained nuclear level density and γ -strength function have been used to estimate the (n ,γ ) cross section for the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni, of particular interest for astrophysical calculations of elemental abundances.

  18. Exchangeability of the b subunit of the Cl(-)-translocating ATPase of Acetabularia acetabulum with the beta subunit of E. coli F1-ATPase: construction of the chimeric beta subunits and complementation studies. (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Kadowaki, H; Ikeda, H; Moritani, C; Kanazawa, H


    The gene encoding the b subunit of the Cl(-)-translocating ATPase (aclB) was isolated from total RNA and poly(A)+ RNA of Acetabularia acetabulum and sequenced (total nucleotides of 3038 bp and an open reading frame with 478 amino acids). The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to the beta subunit of the F type ATPases, but was different in the N-terminal 120 amino acids. The role of the N-terminal region was investigated using an F -ATPase beta-less mutant of E. coli, JP17. The JP17 strain expressing the aclB could not grow under conditions permitting oxidative phosphorylation, although ACLB was detected in the membrane fraction. The beta subunit was divided into three portions: amino acid position from 1 to 95 (portion A), 96 to 161 (portion B) and 162 to the C-terminus (portion C). The corresponding regions of ACLB were designated as portions A' (from 1 to 106), B' (from 107 to 172) and C' (from 173 to 478). Chimeric proteins with combinations of A-B'-C', A-B-C' and A'-B-C restored the function as the beta subunit in E. coli F0F1-complex, but those with combinations of A'-B'-C and A-B'-C had no function as the beta subunit. These findings suggested that portion B plays an important role in the assembly and function of the beta subunit in the F0F1-complex, while portion B' of ACLB exhibited inhibitory effects on assembly and function. In addition, portion A was also important for interaction of the beta subunit with the alpha subunit in E. coli F0F1-complex. These findings also suggested that the b subunit of the Cl(-)-translocating ATPase of A. acetabulum has a different function in the Cl(-)-translocating ATPase complex, although the primary structure resembled to the beta subunit of the F1-ATPase.

  19. New constraints on the rupture process of the 1999 August 17 Izmit earthquake deduced from estimates of stress glut rate moments (United States)

    Clévédé, E.; Bouin, M.-P.; Bukchin, B.; Mostinskiy, A.; Patau, G.


    This paper illustrates the use of integral estimates given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 for constraining the rupture scenario of a large earthquake in the particular case of the 1999 Izmit mainshock. We determine the integral estimates of the geometry, source duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 by inverting long-period surface wave (LPSW) amplitude spectra. Kinematic and static models of the Izmit earthquake published in the literature are quite different from one another. In order to extract the characteristic features of this event, we calculate the same integral estimates directly from those models and compare them with those deduced from our inversion. While the equivalent rupture zone and the eastward directivity are consistent among all models, the LPSW solution displays a strong unilateral character of the rupture associated with a short rupture duration that is not compatible with the solutions deduced from the published models. With the aim of understand this discrepancy, we use simple equivalent kinematic models to reproduce the integral estimates of the considered rupture processes (including ours) by adjusting a few free parameters controlling the western and eastern parts of the rupture. We show that the joint analysis of the LPSW solution and source tomographies allows us to elucidate the scattering of source processes published for this earthquake and to discriminate between the models. Our results strongly suggest that (1) there was significant moment released on the eastern segment of the activated fault system during the Izmit earthquake; (2) the apparent rupture velocity decreases on this segment.

  20. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  1. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)


    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  2. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  3. Synthesis of mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta zeolites and their catalytic performances. (United States)

    Jin, Junjiang; Ye, Xinxin; Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Yanqin; Li, Liang; Gu, Jinlou; Zhao, Wenru; Shi, Jianlin


    Mesoporous Beta zeolite has been successfully prepared through hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of cationic ammonium-modified chitosan as the meso-template. Through a subsequent solid-gas reaction between highly dealuminated mesoporous Beta zeolite and SnCl4 steam at an elevated temperature, mesoporous Sn-Beta has been facilely obtained. It was revealed that the addition of cationic chitosan induced the nanocrystal aggregation to particle sizes of ∼300 nm, giving rise to the intercrystalline/interparticle mesoporosity. In the Sn-implanting procedure, Sn species were demonstrated to be doped into the framework of the resulting mesoporous Beta zeolite in a tetrahedral environment without structural collapse. Due to the micro/mesoporous structures, both mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta exhibited superior performances in α-pinene isomerization, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-adamantanone by hydrogen peroxide and the isomerization of glucose in water, respectively.

  4. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M;


    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis...... of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...

  5. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test (United States)

    ... Beta 2 Microglobulin, Serum or Urine Related tests: Albumin , Creatinine , BUN , Heavy Metals Were you looking for ... monitor persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Excess B2M can accumulate in joint spaces ( synovitis ) in ...

  6. Probing neutrinoless double beta decay with SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Arushanova, Evelina


    Probing neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the primary goals for SNO+, SNOLAB's multi-purpose neutrino detector. In order to achieve this goal the SNO detector has been adapted so that it can be filled with Te-loaded liquid scintillator. During the initial double beta phase the target loading is 0.3% natural Te, which equates to $\\sim790$ kg of double beta isotope. Estimating the sensitivity to neutrinoless double beta decay requires a well understood background model. For SNO+ this is provided by a comprehensive study considering all possible background contributions, whether they originate from within the liquid scintillator cocktail, the surrounding parts of the detector or other irreducible backgrounds. Given these considerations, for five years running in the initial phase, the expected sensitivity is $T_{1/2}^{0\

  7. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka


    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  8. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette


    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH......). Receptors for both GH and PRL are expressed in islet cells and are upregulated during pregnancy. By mutational analysis we have identified different functional domains of the cytoplasmic part of the GH receptor. Thus the mitotic signaling only requires the membrane proximal part of the receptor...

  9. Phenomenology of neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Cadenas, J J


    This paper reviews the current status and future outlook of neutrinoless double beta decay searches, which try to provide an answer to the fundamental question of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles.

  10. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia


    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  11. [Beta 3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity]. (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T


    The beta 3-adrenoceptor plays a significant role in the control of lipolysis and thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue of rodents and humans. In human beta 3-adrenoceptor, a Trp to Arg replacement has recently been discovered. This change which occurs at position 64, in the first coding exon, has been correlated with increased weight gain, difficulty in losing weight, insulin resistance syndrome, and worsened diabetic situation. Higher percentages of this mutation are observed in Pima Indians (over 30%) and Japanese (20%). The possible functional mechanism of Trp54Arg is reported using human HEK293 cell line stably expressing the wild type and the [Arg64] beta 3-adrenoceptor type. Beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists available for humans are been also developing. In this paper we describe these points up-to-date.

  12. [Allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics]. (United States)

    Comte, D; Petitpierre, S; Spertini, F; Bart, P-A


    Beta-lactam antibiotics allergies are common. Up to 10% of the population describe a former allergy to penicillins. However only 10 to 15% of these individuals are actually allergic. In most cases, beta-lactam antibiotics will be avoided and replaced by other antibiotics such as quinolones. This fear of a serious allergic reaction has an economic impact and may lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A thorough allergic work-up can accurately determine true allergic patients. Most of the patients with a proven allergy will be able to tolerate other antibiotics belonging to the beta-lactam family. This article focuses on the management of beta-lactam allergic patients.

  13. Metabolic response to various beta-adrenoceptor agonists in beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice: evidence for a new beta-adrenergic receptor in brown adipose tissue. (United States)

    Preitner, F; Muzzin, P; Revelli, J P; Seydoux, J; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Lafontan, M; Giacobino, J P


    The beta3-adrenoceptor plays an important role in the adrenergic response of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT). In this study, in vitro metabolic responses to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation were compared in adipose tissues of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout and wild type mice. The measured parameters were BAT fragment oxygen uptake (MO2) and isolated white adipocyte lipolysis. In BAT of wild type mice (-)-norepinephrine maximally stimulated MO2 4.1+/-0.8 fold. Similar maximal stimulations were obtained with beta1-, beta2- or beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists (dobutamine 5.1+/-0.3, terbutaline 5.3+/-0.3 and CL 316,243 4.8+/-0.9 fold, respectively); in BAT of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, the beta1- and beta2-responses were fully conserved. In BAT of wild type mice, the beta1/beta2-antagonist and beta3-partial agonist CGP 12177 elicited a maximal MO2 response (4.7+/-0.4 fold). In beta3-adrenoceptor knockout BAT, this response was fully conserved despite an absence of response to CL 316,243. This unexpected result suggests that an atypical beta-adrenoceptor, distinct from the beta1-, beta2- and beta3-subtypes and referred to as a putative beta4-adrenoceptor is present in BAT and that it can mediate in vitro a maximal MO2 stimulation. In isolated white adipocytes of wild type mice, (-)-epinephrine maximally stimulated lipolysis 12.1+/-2.6 fold. Similar maximal stimulations were obtained with beta1-, beta2- or beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists (TO509 12+/-2, procaterol 11+/-3, CL 316,243 11+/-3 fold, respectively) or with CGP 12177 (7.1+/-1.5 fold). In isolated white adipocytes of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, the lipolytic responses to (-)epinephrine, to the beta1-, beta2-, beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists and to CGP 12177 were almost or totally depressed, whereas those to ACTH, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were conserved.

  14. Total Absorption Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb Beta-Delayed Neutron Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, E; Algora, A; Agramunt, J; Rubio, B; Rice, S; Gelletly, W; Regan, P; Zakari-Issoufou, A -A; Fallot, M; Porta, A; Rissanen, J; Eronen, T; Aysto, J; Batist, L; Bowry, M; Bui, V M; Caballero-Folch, R; Cano-Ott, D; Elomaa, V -V; Estevez, E; Farrelly, G F; Garcia, A R; Gomez-Hornillos, B; Gorlychev, V; Hakala, J; Jordan, M D; Jokinen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Kondev, F G; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Moore, I; Penttila, H; Podolyak, Zs; Reponen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Sonzogni, A A


    We investigate the decay of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb using total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are beta-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable gamma-intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the beta intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the beta spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component for 235U fission at cooling times in the range 1 to 100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for gamma emission from neutron unbound s...

  15. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.


    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  16. AE activity during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta discharges (United States)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Pan, C. K.; Li, G. Q.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Garofalo, A. M.; McClenaghan, J.


    Enhanced AE activity has been observed during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta DIII-D discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). These drops in beta are believed to be caused by n=1 external kink modes. In some discharges, beta recovers within 200 ms but, in others, beta stays suppressed. A typical discharge has βP 3, qmin 3, and q95 12. The drop in beta affects both fast ions and thermal particles, and a drop is also observed in the density and rotation. The enhanced AE activity follows the instability that causes the beta drop, is largest at the lowest beta, and subsides as beta recovers. MHD stability analysis is planned. A database study of the plasma conditions associated with the collapse will be also presented. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11575249, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China No. 2015GB110005.

  17. Fast Sausage Modes in Magnetic Tubes with Continuous Transverse Profiles: Effects of a Finite Plasma Beta (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xiong, Ming; Yu, Hui; Guo, Ming-Zhe


    While standing fast sausage modes in flare loops are often invoked to interpret quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar flares, it is unclear as to how they are influenced by the combined effects of a continuous transverse structuring and a finite internal plasma beta ({β }{{i}}). We derive a generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage waves in straight magnetic tubes for which plasma pressure is not negligible, and the density and temperature inhomogeneities of essentially arbitrary form take place in a layer of arbitrary width. Focusing on fast modes, we find that {β }{{i}} only weakly influences {k}{{c}}, the critical longitudinal wavenumber separating the leaky from trapped modes. Likewise, for both trapped and leaky modes, the periods P in units of the transverse fast time depend only weakly on {β }{{i}}, which is compatible with the fact that the effective wave vectors of fast sausage modes are largely perpendicular to the background magnetic field. However, a weak {β }{{i}} dependence of the damping times τ is seen only when the length-to-radius ratio L/R is ∼50% larger than some critical value π /({k}{{c}}R), which itself rather sensitively depends on the density contrast, profile steepness, as well as on how the transverse structuring is described. In the context of QPPs, we conclude that the much simpler zero-beta theory can be employed for trapped modes, as long as one sees the deduced internal Alfvén speed as actually being the fast speed. In contrast, effects due to a finite beta in flare loops should be considered when leaky modes are exploited.

  18. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.


    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  19. Estimating Security Betas Using Prior Information Based on Firm Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob


    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates toward firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, unlike standard rolling window betas, hybrid betas carry a

  20. beta(2)-Glycoprotein I : evolution, structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. G.; Meijers, J. C. M.


    beta(2)-Glycoprotein I (beta(2)-GPI) is a protein that circulates in blood at high concentrations. The function of beta(2)-GPI has long been an enigma. More than 20 years ago, it was discovered that beta(2)-GPI is the major antigen for the circulating antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome. How

  1. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Alexeev


    Full Text Available Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart.

  2. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...or S, Abram CL, Lowell CA, Mocsai A. Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Oct;17(10):493-501. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Immunore...ceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-

  3. Des-Lys58-beta 2m and native beta 2m in rheumatoid arthritis serum and synovial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, R C; Malone, C C; Nissen, Mogens Holst;


    OBJECTIVE. Levels of beta 2-microglobulin and modified beta 2-microglobulin (Des-Lys58-beta 2m) were measured in serum and synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint disorders using rabbit antisera prepared against the beta 2m peptide VEHSDLSFS...

  4. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. (United States)

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M


    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  5. Amyloid Beta as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity


    Parihar, Mordhwaj S.; Gregory J. Brewer


    Alzheimer’s disease is associated with synapse loss, memory dysfunction and pathological accumulation of amyloid beta in plaques. However, an exclusively pathological role for amyloid beta is being challenged by new evidence for an essential function of amyloid beta at the synapse. Amyloid beta protein exists in different assembly states in the central nervous system and plays distinct roles ranging from synapse and memory formation to memory loss and neuronal cell death. Amyloid beta is pres...

  6. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  7. Beta-adrenoceptors in obstetrics and gynecology. (United States)

    Modzelewska, Beata


    One hundred and twenty years after the description of extracts from the adrenal medulla, the use of beta-blockers and beta-agonists evolved from antianginal drugs and tocolytics to ligand-directed signaling. Beta-blockers in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology have so far been limited to the consideration of continuing treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system and other dysfunctions that started before pregnancy. Studies in recent years have shown that beta-adrenoceptor signaling might be crucial in carcinogenesis and metastasis, apoptosis and anoikis. On the other hand, the use of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in tocolysis is, as yet, the primary method for inhibiting premature uterine contractions. Unfortunately, the efficacy of current pharmacological treatment for the management of preterm labor is regularly questioned. Moreover, studies related to non-pregnant myometrium performed to date indicate that the rhythmic contractions of the uterus are required for menstruation and have an important role in human reproduction. In turn, abnormal uterine contractility has been linked to dysmenorrhea, a condition associated with painful uterine cramping. The benefits of the use of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in dysmenorrhea are still unclear and should be balanced against a wide range of adverse effects recognized with this class of medication. The ideal tocolytic agent is one which is effective for the pregnant or non-pregnant woman but has no side effects on either the woman or the baby. Looking to the future with both caution and hope, the potential metamorphosis of beta3-adrenoceptor agonists from experimental tools into therapeutic drugs for tocolysis warrants attention.

  8. Beta Gyres in Global Analysis Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A three-component decomposition is applied to global analysis data to show the existence of a beta gyre,which causes Tropical Cyclone (TC) to drift from a large-scale environmental steering current.Analyses from the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA),the Global Forecast System (GFS) of NCEP,and the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) are used in this study.The structure of the beta gyre obtained in our analyses is in good agreement with the theoretical structure,with a cyclonic circulation to the southwest of the TC center,an anticyclonic circulation to the northeast,and a ventilation flow directed northwestward near the center.The circulation of the beta gyre is strongest at the 850-hPa level where the cyclonically swirling primary circulation is strongest,and decreases with height,in a pyramid shape similar to the primary circulation.The individual structure of the beta gyre is case- and model-dependent.At a certain analysis time,one model may clearly reveal a well-defined beta gyre,but the other models may not.Within one model,the beta gyre may be well defined at some analysis times,but not at other times.The structure of the beta gyre in the analysis field is determined by the nature of the vortex initialization scheme and the model behavior during the 6-h forecast in the operational data assimilation cycle.

  9. [Transforming growth factor-beta controls pathogenesis of Crohn disease]. (United States)

    Friess, H; di Mola, F F; Egger, B; Scheuren, A; Kleeff, J; Zimmermann, A; Büchler, M W


    The pathogenetic mechanisms which contribute to the progression of Crohn's disease are still not known. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and its subtypes are multifunctional polypeptides which regulate immunological processes as well as the synthesis of the extracellular matrix and fibrogenesis. In the present study, Crohn's disease tissue samples of 18 patients undergoing intestinal resection were analyzed by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization and immunostaining for TGF-beta 1-3 and the TGF-beta receptors type I-III (T beta R-I, T beta R-II, T beta R-III). There was a marked overexpression of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 3 and T beta R-II in 94% of the Crohn's disease tissue samples. TGF-beta 2 and T beta R-I ALK5 and T beta R-III were enhanced in 72%, 72% and 82% of the Crohn tissue samples, respectively. In situ hybridization and immunostaining revealed that there was frequent coexpression of TGF-beta with its signaling receptors. Our data indicate that TGF-beta and their receptors seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Their enhanced expression might contribute to the increase in extracellular matrix resulting in fibrosis and subsequently in intestinal obstruction.

  10. Detrimental effects of beta-blockers in COPD - A concern for nonselective beta-blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, HJ; Zaagsma, J; Postma, DS; Winter, TH; van Hulst, M; Aalbers, R


    Introduction: beta-Blockers are known to worsen FEV1 and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma. Both characteristics determine the outcome of COPD, a disease with frequent cardiac comorbidity requiring beta-blocker treatment. Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized,

  11. Beta decay of {sup 103}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Kavatsyuk, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); National Taras Shevcjenko Univ. of Kyiv (Australia); Batist, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation); Univ. di Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Banu, A.; Becker, F.; Bruechle, W.; Doering, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Kirchner, R.; Mandal, S.; Mazzocchi, C.; Plettner, C.; Roeckl, E.; Schaedel, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Blazhev, A. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Univ. Sofia (Bulgaria); Faestermann, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Plochocki, A.; Zylicz, J. [University of Warsaw (Poland); Jungclaus, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica (Spain); La Commara, M.; Romoli, M. [INFN, Napoli (Italy); Mukha, I. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Kurchatov Inst. Moscow (Russian Federation); Muralithar, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Schwengner, R. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany)


    The {beta} decay of {sup 103}Sn, a three-neutron-particle nucleus with respect to the {sup 100}Sn core, was investigated at the GSI on-line mass separator using an array of 17 germanium crystals and a total absorption spectrometer. A total of 31 {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays (29 new) of the {sup 103}Sn{yields}{sup 103}In decay were observed and, on the basis of {beta}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidences, the {sup 103}Sn decay scheme was established for the first time. By means of total absorption spectroscopy, {beta} intensities, the Gamow-Teller strength distribution and the summed Gamow-Teller strength value of 3.5{+-}0.5 were determined for this decay. Its half-life and Q{sub EC} value were found to be 7.0{+-}0.2 s and 7.64{+-}0.7 MeV, respectively. The {beta}-delayed proton branching ratio was measured to be 1.2{+-}0.1%. The results are discussed in comparison with shell-model predictions based on realistic and empirical interactions. (orig.)

  12. Thiabendazole resistance and mutations in the beta-tubulin gene of Penicillium expansum strains isolated from apples and pears with blue mold decay. (United States)

    Cabañas, Romualdo; Castellá, Gemma; Abarca, M Lourdes; Bragulat, M Rosa; Cabañes, F Javier


    Penicillium expansum is the causal agent of blue mold rot, a postharvest decay of stored fruits. This fungus also produces the mycotoxins patulin and citrinin. Control of P. expansum still relies mainly on the use of fungicides such as thiabendazole. Since its introduction, resistant strains have been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the thiabendazole resistance and mutations in the beta-tubulin gene of P. expansum strains isolated from apples and pears with blue mold decay from Spain. A total of 71 strains of P. expansum were scored for resistance to thiabendazole and the beta-tubulin gene was sequenced. Out of 71 strains, 37 were sensitive and 34 were resistant to thiabendazole. Regarding the beta-tubulin gene sequence, 10 different genetic types were determined, with a 99.7-100% similarity. When the amino acid sequence was deduced, five different amino acid sequences were found. All except one of the sensitive strains lacked mutations in the region sequenced. Of the 34 resistant strains, only eight had mutations that involved the residues 198 and 240. All the strains with mutations at position 198 always corresponded to resistant isolates. However, a high percentage of resistant strains had no mutations in the region of the beta-tubulin gene sequenced, and so other mechanisms may be involved in thiabendazole resistance.

  13. Beta-thalassemia and beta[A] globin gene haplotypes in Mexican mestizos. (United States)

    Villalobos-Arámbula, A R; Bustos, R; Casas-Castañeda, M; Gutiérrez, E; Perea, F J; Thein, S L; Ibarra, B


    B-globin haplotypes of 20 beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) and 87 beta(A) Mexican mestizo chromosomes were analyzed to ascertain the origin of the beta-thal alleles and the frequencies and distribution of the beta(A) haplotypes among northwestern Mexican mestizos. Sixteen beta-thal chromosomes carried six Mediterranean alleles [five codon 39 C-->T; two IVS1:1 G-->A; two IVS1:5 G-->A; three IVS1:110 G(A; one codon 11 (-T) and three (deltabeta)zero-thal]; the remaining four were linked to three rare alleles (two -28 A-->C and one each: -87 C-->T and initiation codon ATG-->GTG). Among the 87 beta(A) chromosomes, 17 different 5' haplotypes with frequencies for 1, 3, 2 and 5 of 39.0%, 17. 2%, 9.2% and 6.9%, respectively, were observed. The beta-haplotype analysis showed that 13 out of 16 Mediterranean chromosomes could easily be explained by gene migration; however, one codon 39 associated with haplotype 4 (----+ +-), one IVS1:1 with haplotype 1(+----++) and one IVS1:5 G-->A, may represent separate mutational events. Analysis of the rare alleles showed that the -28 A-->C mutation was associated with the commonest beta(A) haplotype in Mexican mestizos, Mediterraneans and the total world population; therefore an independent origin cannot be ruled out. The -87 C-->T and initiation codon ATG-->GTG were found with beta-haplotypes different from the reported ones, suggesting an indigenous origin.

  14. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars. (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos


    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced.

  15. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms. (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris


    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level.

  16. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes


    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  17. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea. (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo


    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  18. Estimating beta-mixing coefficients via histograms

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark


    The literature on statistical learning for time series often assumes asymptotic independence or "mixing" of data sources. Beta-mixing has long been important in establishing the central limit theorem and invariance principle for stochastic processes; recent work has identified it as crucial to extending results from empirical processes and statistical learning theory to dependent data, with quantitative risk bounds involving the actual beta coefficients. There is, however, presently no way to actually estimate those coefficients from data; while general functional forms are known for some common classes of processes (Markov processes, ARMA models, etc.), specific coefficients are generally beyond calculation. We present an l1-risk consistent estimator for the beta-mixing coefficients, based on a single stationary sample path. Since mixing coefficients involve infinite-order dependence, we use an order-d Markov approximation. We prove high-probability concentration results for the Markov approximation and show...

  19. Beta decay of {sup 61}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oinonen, M.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Aeystoe, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Baumann, P.; Knipper, A.; Ramdhane, M.; Walter, G. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Fujita, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Hu, Z.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Liu, W.; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Postfach 110552, D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Janas, Z.; Plochocki, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland)


    The {beta} decay of {sup 61}Ga to its mirror nucleus {sup 61}Zn has been measured for the first time by using on-line mass separation and {beta}-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy. The observed decay strength to the ground state implies superallowed character in accordance with the systematics of the mirror decays in the sd and fp shell. The {beta} feedings observed to four excited states in {sup 61}Zn are consistent with earlier spin-parity assignments based on in-beam experiments. The ground-state spin and parity for {sup 61}Ga were determined to be 3/2{sup -}. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  20. Neutrinoless double beta decay from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Chang, Chia Cheng; Clark, M A; Joo, Balint; Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tiburzi, Brian; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, Andre


    While the discovery of non-zero neutrino masses is one of the most important accomplishments by physicists in the past century, it is still unknown how and in what form these masses arise. Lepton number-violating neutrinoless double beta decay is a natural consequence of Majorana neutrinos and many BSM theories, and many experimental efforts are involved in the search for these processes. Understanding how neutrinoless double beta decay would manifest in nuclear environments is key for understanding any observed signals. In these proceedings we present an overview of a set of one- and two-body matrix elements relevant for experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, describe the role of lattice QCD calculations, and present preliminary lattice QCD results.

  1. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan


    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  2. Synthesis of {beta}-haloacids by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Ciencias y Artes, Chiapas (Mexico). Escuela de Biologia


    Hydrogen halides add to alkenes yielding the corresponding haloalkane. The addition of HX ordinally follows the course of Markownikoff`s rule. In this paper we analyze the HBr addition reaction to unsaturated carboxylic acids. The course of the addition is anti-Markownikoff. This implies that the reaction goes through free radical mechanism and the haloacid formed is in the {beta}-position. The acids under study are fumaric, itaconic, citraconic acids and the methyl ester of fumaric acid. The {beta}-haloacids formed are easily purified from the bulk solutions. (author).

  3. Volume Effects in Discrete beta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuzhi; Zou, Haiyuan


    We calculate discrete beta functions corresponding to the two-lattice matching for the 2D O(N) models and Dyson's hierarchical model. We describe and explain finite-size effects such as the appearance of a nontrivial infrared fixed point that goes to infinity at infinite volume or the merging of an infrared and an ultraviolet fixed point. We present extensions of the RG flows to the complex coupling plane. We discuss the possibility of constructing a continuous beta function from the discrete one by using functional conjugation methods. We briefly discuss the relevance of these findings for the search of nontrivial fixed points in multiflavor lattice gauge theory models.

  4. Population screening for beta-thalassaemia. (United States)

    Flatz, S D; Flatz, G


    The graphic recording of time to 50% haemolysis in a glycerine-saline solution is a simple, reproducible method of determining erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Studies on a normal population yielded an upper limit of normal of 90 s. In 250 healthy males from Northern Thailand all 19 with beta-thalassaemia minor had abnormal osmotic indices, and the value of the test was confirmed in beta-thalassaemia heterozygotes in Europe. Of 23 patients with iron deficiency 18 had abnormal osmotic indices. However, this is not thought likely to be a significant source of false positives in the screening of populations at risk of haemoglobinopathies but in whom iron deficiency is rare.

  5. Detecting Double Beta Decays Using Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Dracos, Marcos


    Neutrino nature and absolute mass scale are major questions in particle physics which cannot be addressed by the present neutrino oscillation program. To answer these two questions, several neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are underway or planed for the near future. These experiments, mainly use bolometric techniques or gaseous counters coupled with scintillator detectors. The energy resolution is better in bolometric experiments but experiments coupling tracking with calorimetry have the advantage of observing the two electron tracks and remove many background sources. Here, we present a proposal of using nuclear emulsions to observe double beta decays. This technique has the advantage of precise tracking and vertexing even for low energy electrons.

  6. American ginseng modulates pancreatic beta cell activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Luguang


    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanism of the beneficial effects of Panax quinquefolius (Xiyangshen, American ginseng on diabetes is yet to be elucidated. Recent studies show that Panax quinquefolius increases insulin production and reduces the death of pancreatic beta cells. Mechanism studies indicate that Panax quinquefolius improves cell's immuno-reactivity and mitochondrial function through various factors. Clinical studies show that Panax quinquefolius improves postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Further studies to identify the component(s of Panax quinquefolius linked with pancreatic islets/beta cells in vitro and in vivo are warranted for better understanding of the full effects of Panax quinquefolius.

  7. The NEXT double beta decay experiment (United States)

    Laing, A.; NEXT Collaboration


    NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) is a neutrinoless double-beta (ββ0v) decay experiment at Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc (LSC). It is an electroluminescent Time Projection Chamber filled with high pressure 136Xe gas with separated function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Energy resolution and background suppression are the two key features of any neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. NEXT has both good energy resolution (review NEXT R&D results, the status of detector commissioning at LSC and the NEXT physics case.

  8. Helicity and nuclear $\\beta$ decay correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Ran; García, Alejandro


    We present simple derivations of nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations with an emphasis on the special role of helicity. This provides a good opportunity to teach students about helicity and chirality in particle physics through exercises using simple aspects of quantum mechanics. In addition, this paper serves as an introduction to nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations from both a theoretical and experimental vantage. This article can be used to introduce students to ongoing experiments searching for hints of new physics in the low-energy precision frontier.

  9. Beta-decay of {sup 56}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhane, M.; Baumann, P.; Knipper, A.; Walter, G. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Janas, Z.; Plochocki, A. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Aeystoe, J.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Oinonen, M.; Pentilae, H. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Liu, W.; Grawe, H.; Hu, Z.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gorska, M. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Brown, B.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    By measuring positrons and {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays emitted from mass-separated sources, the decay of {sup 56}Cu(4{sup +},T{sub z}=-1,T=1) to states in the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 56}Ni was studied for the first time. The half-life of {sup 56}Cu was measured to be 78(15) ms, and four {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays were assigned to its decay. The resulting experimental data on Fermi and Gamow-Teller strength are compared with shell-model predictions. (orig.)

  10. Simulated progress in double-beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, H.S. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Arthur, R.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Avignone, F.T. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Barabash, A.S. (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117 259 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Brodzinski, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Collar, J.I. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Courant, H. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)); Garcia, E. (University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Guerard, C.K. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Hensley, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Kirpichnikov, I.V. (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117 259 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kl


    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete [sup 100]Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9[mu]Bq/g of [sup 210]Pb in lead shielding were obtained. ((orig.))

  11. Simulated progress in double-beta decay (United States)

    Miley, H. S.; Arthur, R. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Collar, J. J.; Courant, H.; Garcia, E.; Guerard, C. K.; Hensley, W. K.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Klimenko, A. A.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Osetrov, S. B.; Pogosov, V. S.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Ruddick, K.; Saenz, C.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M. L.; Smolnikov, A. A.; Starostin, A. S.; Tamanyan, A. G.; Umatov, V. I.; Vasiliev, S. I.; Villar, J. A.


    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete 100Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9 μBq/g of 210Pb in lead shielding were obtained.

  12. Atypical beta(s) haplotypes are generated by diverse genetic mechanisms. (United States)

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Dalle, B; Gualandro, S; Hutz, M H; Lapoumeroulie, C; Tavella, M H; Araujo, A G; Krieger, J E; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R


    The majority of the chromosomes with the beta(S) gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, in every large series of sickle cell patients, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as "atypical" haplotypes. In order to explore the genetic mechanisms that could generate these atypical haplotypes, we extended our analysis to other rarely studied polymorphic markers of the beta(S)-gene cluster, in a total of 40 chromosomes with uncommon haplotypes from Brazil and Cameroon. The following polymorphisms were examined: seven restriction site polymorphisms of the epsilongammadeltabeta-cluster, the pre-(G)gamma framework sequence including the 6-bp deletion/insertion pattern, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta (AT)xTy repeat motifs, the GC/TT polymorphism at -1105-1106 of (G)gamma-globin gene, the C/T polymorphism at -551 of the beta-globin gene, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. Among the Brazilian subjects, the most common atypical structure (7/16) was a Bantu 3'-subhaplotype associated with different 5'-sequences, while in two chromosomes a Benin 3'-subhaplotype was associated with two different 5'-subhaplotypes. A hybrid Benin/Bantu configuration was also observed. In three chromosomes, the atypical haplotype differed from the typical one by the change of a single restriction site. In 2/134 chromosomes identified as having a typical Bantu RFLP-haplotype, a discrepant LCR repeat sequence was observed, probably owing to a crossover 5' to the epsilon-gene. Among 80 beta(S) chromosomes from Cameroon, 22 were associated with an atypical haplotype. The most common structure was represented by a Benin haplotype (from the LCR to the beta-gene) with a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In two cases a Bantu LCR was associated with a Benin haplotype and a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In three other cases, a more complex

  13. Therapeutic haemoglobin synthesis in beta-thalassaemic mice expressing lentivirus-encoded human beta-globin. (United States)

    May, C; Rivella, S; Callegari, J; Heller, G; Gaensler, K M; Luzzatto, L; Sadelain, M


    The stable introduction of a functional beta-globin gene in haematopoietic stem cells could be a powerful approach to treat beta-thalassaemia and sickle-cell disease. Genetic approaches aiming to increase normal beta-globin expression in the progeny of autologous haematopoietic stem cells might circumvent the limitations and risks of allogeneic cell transplants. However, low-level expression, position effects and transcriptional silencing hampered the effectiveness of viral transduction of the human beta-globin gene when it was linked to minimal regulatory sequences. Here we show that the use of recombinant lentiviruses enables efficient transfer and faithful integration of the human beta-globin gene together with large segments of its locus control region. In long-term recipients of unselected transduced bone marrow cells, tetramers of two murine alpha-globin and two human betaA-globin molecules account for up to 13% of total haemoglobin in mature red cells of normal mice. In beta-thalassaemic heterozygous mice higher percentages are obtained (17% to 24%), which are sufficient to ameliorate anaemia and red cell morphology. Such levels should be of therapeutic benefit in patients with severe defects in haemoglobin production.

  14. Nuclear Matrix Elements for the $\\beta\\beta$ Decay of the $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B A; Horoi, M


    The nuclear matrix elements for two-neutrino double-beta (2 n$\\beta\\beta$ ) and zero-neutrino double-beta (0 n$\\beta\\beta$) decay of 76 Ge are evaluated in terms of the configuration interaction (CI), quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and interacting boson model (IBM) methods. We show that the decomposition of the matrix elements in terms of interemediate states in 74 Ge is dominated by ground state of this nucleus. We consider corrections to the CI results that arise from configurations admixtures involving orbitals out-side of the CI configuration space by using results from QRPA, many-body-perturbation theory, and the connections to related observables. The CI two-neutrino matrix element is reduced due to the inclusion of spin-orbit partners, and to many-body correlations connected with Gamow-Teller beta decay. The CI zero-neutrino matrix element for the heavy neutrino is enhanced due to particle-particle correlations that are connected with the odd-even oscillations in the nuclear masse...

  15. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and programmed cell death in the vertebrate retina. (United States)

    Duenker, Nicole


    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a precisely regulated phenomenon essential for the homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Developmental systems, particularly the nervous system, have provided key observations supporting the physiological role of PCD. We have recently shown that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in mediating ontogenetic PCD in the nervous system. As part of the central nervous system the developing retina serves as an ideal model system for investigating apoptotic processes during neurogenesis in vivo as it is easily accessible experimentally and less complex due to its limited number of different neurons. This review summarizes data indicating a pivotal role of TGF-beta in mediating PCD in the vertebrate retina. The following topics are discussed: expression of TGF-beta isoforms and receptors in the vertebrate retina, the TGF-beta signaling pathway, functions and molecular mechanisms of PCD in the nervous system, TGF-beta-mediated retinal apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and interactions of TGF-beta with other pro- and anti-apoptotic factors.

  16. Preliminary work on the measurement of the {beta} - {nu} angular correlation in the {sup 6}He beta decay by means of a Paul's trap; Etudes et tests preliminaires a une mesure de la correlation angulaire {beta} - {nu} dans la desintegration du noyau {sup 6}He a l'aide d'un piege de Paul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P


    The subject of this thesis is the preparation of a measurement of the {beta} - {nu} angular correlation coefficient, in {sup 6}He nuclear {beta} - decay, using a Paul trap. Its principle consists in studying the decay of radioactive ions trapped in a small volume, practically at rest in the center of a transparent electric trap. The trajectories of the particles emitted in the decay are weakly disturbed. The detection in coincidence of the electron and the recoil ion in each decay allows the measurement of 3 observables: the energies of the particles and their relative angle. The {beta} - {nu} angular correlation parameter deduced from the coincidence spectrum is sensitive to the existence of exotic interactions excluded by the V - A theory of the weak interactions. In the case of {sup 6}He decay a deviation observed on the predicted value would imply the existence of tensor type interactions, which might be due to the exchange of leptoquarks. These are gauge bosons present in many extensions of the Standard Model. The work presented here concerns the tests of a transparent Paul trap. The performance of the trap has been tested with ions created in a laser plasma source (Mo{sup +}, Fe{sup +}, Al{sup +}), and also with ions delivered by an ionization source ({sup 4}He{sup +} ions). These experiments were carried out in parallel with their simulations which required the development of a computer code of the electrical potential in various geometries, and of a code of ions transport in the associated fields. These simulations showed a good agreement with the experiment. A Monte Carlo simulation of the experimental setup, for the {beta} - {nu} angular correlation measurement, was then carried out. The distortions of the spectra associated with the varying electric fields in the vicinity of the trap and with the ion cloud size were estimated for various geometries. The statistical needs for the experiment were evaluated in order to reach the required precision. (author)

  17. Macrocyclic beta-sheet peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. (United States)

    Khakshoor, Omid; Demeler, Borries; Nowick, James S


    This paper reports the design, synthesis, and characterization of a family of cyclic peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through beta-sheet interactions. These peptides are 54-membered-ring macrocycles comprising an extended heptapeptide beta-strand, two Hao beta-strand mimics [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] joined by one additional alpha-amino acid, and two delta-linked ornithine beta-turn mimics [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Peptide 3a, as the representative of these cyclic peptides, contains a heptapeptide sequence (TSFTYTS) adapted from the dimerization interface of protein NuG2 [PDB ID: 1mio]. 1H NMR studies of aqueous solutions of peptide 3a show a partially folded monomer in slow exchange with a strongly folded oligomer. NOE studies clearly show that the peptide self-associates through edge-to-edge beta-sheet dimerization. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion coefficient measurements and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies establish that the oligomer is a tetramer. Collectively, these experiments suggest a model in which cyclic peptide 3a oligomerizes to form a dimer of beta-sheet dimers. In this tetrameric beta-sheet sandwich, the macrocyclic peptide 3a is folded to form a beta-sheet, the beta-sheet is dimerized through edge-to-edge interactions, and this dimer is further dimerized through hydrophobic face-to-face interactions involving the Phe and Tyr groups. Further studies of peptides 3b-3n, which are homologues of peptide 3a with 1-6 variations in the heptapeptide sequence, elucidate the importance of the heptapeptide sequence in the folding and oligomerization of this family of cyclic peptides. Studies of peptides 3b-3g show that aromatic residues across from Hao improve folding of the peptide, while studies of peptides 3h-3n indicate that hydrophobic residues at positions R3 and R5 of the heptapeptide sequence are important in oligomerization.

  18. beta-Scission of C-3 (beta-carbon) alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, H A; Mortimer, A; Easton, C J


    of new reactive groups, including hydroperoxides. These processes can result in the loss of structural or enzymatic activity. Backbone fragmentation is known to occur via a number of mechanisms, most of which involve hydrogen abstraction from the alpha-carbon site on the backbone. In this study, we...... demonstrate that initial attack at a side chain site, the beta-position (C-3), can give rise to formation of alpha-carbon radicals, and hence backbone cleavage, via the formation and subsequent beta-scission of C-3 alkoxyl radicals. This beta-scission reaction is rapid (k estimated to be >10(7) s(-)(1)) even...

  19. The application of striation analysis and focal mechanism stress inversion in deducing the kinematic history of faults: Examples from the Bristol Channel UK and the Ionian Zone Greece (United States)

    Melis, Nikolaos S.; Miliorizos, Marios N.; Oshoano Aipoh, Hilary


    The present work compliments the application of a methodology, in reviewing and investigating further the kinematic history of faults, based on striation analysis and stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms and combines them to refine tectonic modelling and hence improve further hazard assessment. Two areas are chosen for this application: the Bristol Channel, UK and the Ionian Zone, Greece. Striation analysis is carried out in two complementary fault terranes. The first along the northern margin of the Inner Bristol Channel, UK, offers a natural laboratory to study in detail the reactivation history of the inverted Bristol Channel basin; and, the second along the north western coastline of the Ionian Zone, Greece, presents an opportunity to illustrate the relationship between movement of a framework of faults within the external orogenic zone of the Hellenides and the stress deduced from focal mechanisms of earthquakes in the region. The UK example reveals phases of Mesozoic negative inversion of Late Palaeozoic basement frontal and oblique ramp thrust faults, followed by Caenozoic positive inversions of Mesozoic normal and strike slip faults. The Greek example shows an equally composite history of faulting; Tethyan basement strata contain normal faults that pass up sequence and across unconformities into Mesozoic and Caenozoic strata, with thrusts and positively inverted faults recording typical dextral transpression. The fault framework in older strata and the veneers of Recent strata above them display Neotectonic fault histories of sinistral transtension, in addition to the transpression. Since the Ionian Zone lies suitably in the external zone, deformation favours the reactivation of fault lineaments, rather than the genesis of pristine faults. Both examples are used to demonstrate this structural principle. Focal mechanisms of Greek earthquake data are used in stress inversion and the results are applied upon the inherited fault framework and are

  20. 16s rRNA的保守字和进化树重建%Conserved Words in 16s Ribosomal RNA Deduced from Evolutionary Tree Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗辽复; 贾孟文


    Evolutionary distance is defined by oligonucleotide (n-bases) frequency difference of two sequences.Phylogenetic tree is reconstructed using a set of 16S (18S) rRNA sequences and the definition of distance.The quality of trees generally improves with increasing n and reaches a plateau of best fit at n=7 or 8.So,the 7-mer or 8-mer frequencies provides a basis to describe rRNA evolution.Then,a group of 7-mers are deduced which are correlate well with evolution.Evolution-related conservative words longer than 7 bases for Bacteria and Archaea in 16S rRNA sequences have been found.They are highly conserved in nearly all species of a kingdom (or a sub-kingdom) and are located on nearly same sites of sequences. The structural meaning of these conservative words is discussed briefly.%据寡核苷(n核苷)频数差定义进化距离,由此构成16s rRNA进化树,当n=7,8时和实验资料符合很好,在寻找出全部进化相关的7-核苷的基础上,本文进一步求得了长度大于7的保守字,它们在一个界别中的诸物种中高度保守,并出现于核糖体序列的基本相同的位置上,这些保守字对于核糖体的早期进化至关重要.

  1. Deducing the molecular properties of zwitterionic, protonated, deprotonated, and double-deprotonated forms of L-cysteine from vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman, VCD) and quantum chemical calculations. (United States)

    Quesada-Moreno, María Mar; Avilés-Moreno, Juan Ramón; Márquez-García, A A; López-González, Juan Jesús


    The behavior of L-cysteine (C3H7NO2S, (2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid) in water at different pH values was analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The behavior was studied at pH values of 5.21 (at this pH, L-cysteine is a zwitterionic species), 1.00 (protonated species), 8.84 (monodeprotonated species), and 13.00 (dideprotonated species). We carried out a vibrational study using nonchiroptical (IR-Raman) and chiroptical (VCD) techniques complemented by quantum chemical calculations. We adopted a dual strategy, as follows. (i) The hybrid density functionals B3LYP and M062X and the ab initio MP2 method were employed, with the same 6-311++G (d,p) basis set, in order to characterize the relative energies and structures of an extensive set of conformers of L-cysteine. The presence of water was included by utilizing the IEF-PCM implicit solvation model. (ii) The vibrational analysis was made using a chirality-sensitive using a chirality-sensitive technique (VCD) and chirality-insensitive techniques (IR, including MIR and FIR, and Raman), especially in aqueous solution. The results obtained theoretically and experimentally were compared in order to deduce the most stable structures at each pH. Moreover, for the first time, the monodeprotonated anion of L-cysteine was detected in aqueous solution by means of IR, Raman and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). Finally, analysis of the low-frequency region using the IR and Raman techniques was shown to be a very important way to understanding the conformational preference of the zwitterionic species.

  2. 一种地炮作战效能评估动态推演方法%A Dynamic Deducing Method of Field Artillery Operational Effectiveness Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 俞杰; 赵定烽


    Traditional assessment method cannot fit current needs of information war. As for it,a new dynamic deducing method which based on MAS (Multi-Agent System)and CAS (Complex Adaptative System) technology is used to assess operational effectiveness of field artillery. In this method,from micro viewpoint,agent is bulit in mulit-resolution way, and from macro viewpont, the dynamic confront process of campaign is modeled. The method can solute the problem of the traditional static assessment methods such as not reflecting dynamicly confrontting with enemy .leaving aside a systematic viewpoind of operation and so on, This is a new idea and method for assesment of artillery operational effectiveness.%为了解决传统地炮作战效能评估方法不能适应信息化条件下我军需求的问题,基于复杂适应系统理论和多智能体建模技术提出动态推演方法进行地炮作战效能评估.微观层面对智能体进行多分辨率建模,宏观层面模拟作战动态对抗过程,能有效地解决传统评估方法难以适应复杂环境,难以反映动态对抗,割裂体系逐个评估,割裂人与武器联系的不足.该方法为研究地炮效能评估提供了新思路.

  3. Strain-dependent differences in sensitivity of rat beta-cells to interleukin 1 beta in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether strain-dependent differences in beta-cell sensitivity to interleukin (IL) 1 beta exist in vitro and in vivo and if so, whether these differences correlate to variations in IL-1 beta-induced islet inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression....../kg) or vehicle for 5 days. All the strains investigated were susceptible to IL-1 beta-induced changes in body weight, food intake, temperature, and plasma glucagon and corticosterone. However, IL-1 beta induced hyperglycemia and impairment of beta-cell glucose responsiveness in WK/Mol and LS/Mol rats...

  4. Evidence for electronic and ionic limitations at the origin of the second voltage plateau in nickel electrodes, as deduced from impedance spectroscopy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barde, F.; Tarascon, J.M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, CNRS UMR 6007, F-80039 Amiens (France); Taberna, P.L. [CIRIMAT, CNRS UMR 5085, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Palacin, M.R. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)


    The second plateau occurring during the reduction of the nickel oxyhydroxide electrode (NOE) was studied by impedance spectroscopy on a cell with a pasted electrode prepared from commercial undoped {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}. Measurements were performed at diverse states of reduction and a large variation of impedance upon the transition from the first to the second plateau was observed. This variation mainly takes place at low frequencies and is hence related to ionic diffusion. We observed that the impedance becomes more capacitive on the second plateau meaning that the proton diffusion is limited. These results would be consistent with the gradual formation of an insulating layer of nickel hydroxide at the interface between the NOE and the electrolyte upon reduction. Once this layer becomes compact the ionic diffusion would be hindered and forced to occur through this layer, which could explain the voltage drop observed. (author)

  5. Hereditary and sporadic beta-amyloidoses. (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio


    Cerebral amyloidoses are chronic, progressive neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by the aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins in the central nervous system, and lead to cognitive deficits, stroke, and focal neurological dysfunction including cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs. Among them, beta-amyloidoses are a heterogenous set of conditions characterised by the deposition of beta-amyloid protein in brain parenchyma and/or vessel walls that lead to the development of two main clinico-pathological entities: Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which may be sporadic or familial, and may also co-exist in the same patient. The aim of this review is to describe the most important differences in the pathways leading to parenchymal and cerebrovascular beta-amyloidoses, and the main clinical, neuropathological and biochemical characteristics of the two conditions. It also discusses the phenotypes associated with a series of familial and sporadic beta-amyloidoses in more detail in order to highlight the clinical and neuropathological features that may help to distinguish the different forms of disease.

  6. beta-decay of O-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, HH; Fynbo, HOU; Borge, MJG; Boutami, R; Dendooven, P; Diget, CA; Eronen, T; Fox, S; Fraile, LM; Fulton, B; Huikary, J; Jeppesen, HB; Jokinen, AS; Jonson, B; Kankainen, A; Moore, [No Value; Nieminen, A; Nyman, G; Penttila, H; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Tengblad, O; Wang, Y; Wilhelmsen, K; Aysto, J


    The beta decay of O-13 has been studied at the IGISOL facility of the Jyvaskyla accelerator centre (Finland). By developing a low-energy isotope-separated beam of O-13 and using a modern segmented charged-particle detector array an improved measurement of the delayed proton spectrum was possible. Pr

  7. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayer, Michael F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivels, Ciara B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  8. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.


    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the variou...

  9. Poster: The EURISOL Beta-beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    The beta-beam concept for the generation of an electron (anti-)neutrino beam was proposed by Piero Zucchelli (CERN) in 2002. A first study of the possibility of using the existing CERN machines for the acceleration for radioactive ions to a relativistic gamma of roughly 100, for later storage in a new decay ring of approximately the size of SPS, was made in 2002. The results from this very first short study were very encouraging.In 2004 it was decided to incorporate a design study for the beta-beam within the EURISOL DS proposal. EURISOL is a project name for a next-generation radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL method for the production of intense radioactive beams for nuclear physics, astrophysics and other applications. The proposal was accepted with the beta-beam task as an integral part. The design study officially started 1 February 2005 and will run for 4 years resulting in a conceptual design report for a beta-beam facility.

  10. Graphene oxide strongly inhibits amyloid beta fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Akhavan, Omid; Ghavami, Mahdi; Rezaee, Farhad; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin


    Since amyloid beta fibrillation (AbF) plays an important role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated the effect of graphene oxide (GO) and their protein-coated surfaces on the kinetics of Ab fibrillation in the aqueous solution. We showed that GO and their protein-covered

  11. Topical beta-Blockers and Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Wittenian, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.


    Purpose: To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484

  12. Tests of fundamental symmetries with beta decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanKlinken, J


    Since the fall of parity in electroweak interactions the discrete transformations of parity, charge conjugation and time reversal are under close scrutiny for any sign of deviation from maximality where symmetry breaking seems to be complete (like P violation in beta decay) and for any sign of symme

  13. Beta Bremsstrahlung dose in concrete shielding (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Chandrika, B. M.; Rudraswamy, B.; Sankarshan, B. M.


    In a nuclear reactor, beta nuclides are released during nuclear reactions. These betas interact with shielding concrete and produces external Bremsstrahlung (EB) radiation. To estimate Bremsstrahlung dose and shield efficiency in concrete, it is essential to know Bremsstrahlung distribution or spectra. The present work formulated a new method to evaluate the EB spectrum and hence Bremsstrahlung dose of beta nuclides (32P, 89Sr, 90Sr-90Y, 90Y, 91Y, 208Tl, 210Bi, 234Pa and 40K) in concrete. The Bremsstrahlung yield of these beta nuclides in concrete is also estimated. The Bremsstrahlung yield in concrete due to 90Sr-90Y is higher than those of other given nuclides. This estimated spectrum is accurate because it is based on more accurate modified atomic number (Zmod) and Seltzer's data, where an electron-electron interaction is also included. Presented data in concrete provide a quick and convenient reference for radiation protection. The present methodology can be used to calculate the Bremsstrahlung dose in nuclear shielding materials. It can be quickly employed to give a first pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed experimental study.

  14. Alpha and Beta at the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; /Frascati


    We review recent experimental results on time-dependent CP asymmetries in the B system from the BABAR and Belle experiments. Measurements of the {alpha} and {beta} angles of the Unitarity Triangle of the CKM matrix are discussed. These measurements constitute stringent tests of the Standard Model, and are also used to search for new physics.

  15. Universality in Chiral Random Matrix Theory at $\\beta =1$ and $\\beta =4$

    CERN Document Server

    Sener, M K


    In this paper the kernel for spectral correlation functions of the invariant chiral random matrix ensembles with real ($\\beta =1$) and quaternion real ($\\beta = 4$) matrix elements is expressed in terms of the kernel of the corresponding complex Hermitean random matrix ensembles ($\\beta=2$). Such identities are exact in case of a Gaussian probability distribution and, under certain smoothness assumptions, they are shown to be valid asymptotically for an arbitrary finite polynomial potential. They are proved by means of a construction proposed by Brézin and Neuberger. Microscopic universality for all three chiral ensembles then follows from universal behavior for $\\beta =2$ both at the hard edge (shown by Akemann, Damgaard, Magnea and Nishigaki) and at the soft edge of the spectrum (shown by Kanzieper and Freilikher).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Perković


    Full Text Available The capital asset pricing model (CAPM is one of the most important models in financial economics and it has a long history of theoretical and empirical investigations. The main underlying concept of the CAPM model is that assets with a high risk (high beta should earn a higher return than assets with a low risk (low beta and vice versa. The implication which can be drawn out of this is that all assets with a beta above zero bear some risk and therefore their expected return is above the return of the risk-free rate. In this research observation on monthly stock prices on Croatian stock market from January 1st 2005 until December 31st 2009 is used to form our sample. CROBEX index is used as proxy of the market portfolio. The results demonstrate that beta can not be trusted in making investment decisions and rejects the validity of the whole CAPM model on Croatian stock market.

  17. Conformation, molecular packing and field effect mobility of regioregular beta,beta'-dihexylsexithiophiophene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiriy, N.; Kiriy, A.; Bocharova, V.


    by the pulse-radiolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (PR-TRMC) technique was found to be Sigmamu(min) = 3.9 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1), which is comparable with the PR-TRMC mobility found for alpha,omega-DH6T. The field-effect mobility (FEM) of beta,beta'-DH6T was found to be on the order of 10(-5) cm(2......) V-1 s(-1), which is considerably less than the FEM of alpha,omega-DH6T. To understand the reason for such poor macroscopic electrical properties, the conformation and the molecular packing of beta,beta'-DH6T were systematically studied by means of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy...

  18. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces thrombocytosis in mice: Possible implication of IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Shikama, Y.; Okano, A.; Akiyama, Y.; Uchida, T.; Maruyama, Y. (Fukushima Medical College (Japan))


    We administered recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), the common mediator of inflammation process, to C57B1/6 male mice (0.5 microgram, every 12 hours over five times) intraperitoneally and consequently induced a remarkable thrombocytosis. Day 1 was designated as the following day of the last injection in the morning. A significant thrombocytosis was observed on days 1 through 5 with a peak on day 2 (162 +/- 9 x 10(4)/mm3) compared with the control mice injected with heated IL-1 beta (101 +/- 11 x 10(4)/mm3). A striking increase in mean size of marrow megakaryocytes was noted on days 1 and 2. The incorporation of 75Se-selenomethionine into circulating platelets as a measure of platelet production was about 2.3 times higher in IL-1 beta-treated mice than in control mice. To determine which factor(s) is responsible for elicited thrombocytosis, the in vitro studies and bioassays for several hematopoietic factors were performed. IL-1 beta by itself did not stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro, suggesting that the thrombocytosis is attributed to other factor(s) via IL-1 beta stimulation. Serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) activity after a single IL-1 beta (0.5 microgram) injection, monitored by colony assay with 10% tested serum, peaked at 3 hours. Formed colonies were mostly granulocyte (G) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-types, and studies using rabbit anti-mouse GM-CSF serum or using human marrow as target cells showed that the CSF activity of the tested serum consisted of, at least, GM-CSF and G-CSF. Addition of IL-3 concomitantly with the tested serum gave rise to a greater number of megakaryocytic colonies. Serum IL-3, monitored by IL-3-dependent cell line 32D clone 5, and erythropoietin activities were not detected at serum level in IL-1 beta-treated mice.

  19. Effect of heating rate on temperature of titanium alloy (. cap alpha. +. beta. ). -->. beta. transformaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskij, P.E. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)


    The effect of doping of two-phase titaniums alloys and morphology of initial structure on the Tsub(t) temperature shift value of (..cap alpha..+..beta..)..--> beta.. transformation depending on heating rate is investigated. It has been found that the Tsub(t) shift occurs in the strictly determined temperature range depending on chemical alloy composition. The Tsub(t) shift is directly proportional to the Ksub(..beta..) coefficient applied as a quantitative alloying characteristic as well as a dimensional factor equal either to the plate thickness or the ..cap alpha..-phase globule diameter depending on the type of initial structure. In the limits of this temperature range the (..cap alpha..+..beta..)..--> beta..-transformation occurs completely according to the diffusion mechanism. The critical heating rate at which maximum permissible Tsub(t) value is attained and above which its stabilization is observed is determined by the same parameters - the alloy doping degree characterized by the Ksub(..beta..) coefficient and the ..cap alpha..-phase crystal dimensions in the initial structure.

  20. TGF-beta and BMP in breast cancer cell invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Hildegonda Petronella Henriëtte


    TGF-beta and BMPs are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines which play an important role in a multitude of processes. In cancer, TGF-beta is known for its dual role: in early stages it inhibits cancer cell proliferation, whereas in later stages it promotes invasion and metastasis. In this

  1. First forbidden beta decay of some strongly deformed nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, Siebren Ysbrand van der


    In this thesis we present measurements of the shape factors of the first forbidden beta decays of the nuclei Tm^170, Re^186, Re^188 and Lu^176m. For Lu^176m, also the beta gamma directionalcorrelation was measured. In chapter I formulas for the observable quantities in first forbidden beta decay and

  2. Partial beta-amylolysis retards starch retrogradation in rice products. (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Jingmin; Ding, Xiaolin


    Starch retrogradation is the main cause of quality deterioration of starch-containing foods during storage. The current work investigated the effect of partial beta-amylolysis on the retrogradation of rice starch and the potential of beta-amylase in preparing rice products with extended shelf life. Isolated amylopectin, whole rice starch, and rice flour from a regular rice cultivar were partially hydrolyzed by either reagent-grade or food-grade beta-amylase. The degree of beta-amylolysis was expressed as average external chain length () for isolated amylopectin or the degree of hydrolysis (%) for other starch systems. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used to monitor starch retrogradation during storage at 4 degrees C. The results indicated that partial beta-amylolysis using reagent-grade beta-amylase retarded amylopectin retrogradation by shortening the of amylopectin. When was below DP 11.6, the amylopectin retrogradation was essentially inhibited. Partial beta-amylolysis had a similar effect on the amylopectin retrogradation in the whole starch system. The maltose produced in beta-amylolysis might slightly attenuate the retrogradation-retarding effect of partial beta-amylolysis. The effect of food-grade beta-amylase on starch retrogradation was also evident, although less effective than that of reagent-grade beta-amylase. The retrogradation-retarding effect of food-grade beta-amylase was also demonstrated in rice flour system, indicating a potential method for controlling the starch retrogradation of rice products.

  3. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob


    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates towards firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, hybrid betas carry a significant price of risk in the cros

  4. Mechanisms of beta-amyloid neurotoxicity : Perspectives of pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, T; Abraham, [No Value; Konya, C; Nyakas, C; Zarandi, M; Penke, B; Luiten, PGM


    One of the characteristic neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the extracellular accumulation of beta -amyloid peptides (A beta) in neuritic plaques, Experimental data indicate that different molecular forms of A beta affect a wide array of neuronal and glial functions and ther

  5. Comparative seric TGF({beta}1, {beta}2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons; Evolution comparee des taux seriques des TGF ({beta}1, {beta}2) et de la numeration plaquettaire chez le babouin irradie globalement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.


    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-{beta} falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author). 5 refs.

  6. Induction of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Jensen, E T; Høiby, N;


    Imipenem induced high levels of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Piperacillin also induced beta-lactamase production in these biofilms but to a lesser degree. The combination of beta-lactamase production with other protective properties of the biofilm mode of growth...

  7. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M


    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...

  8. Stereoselective synthesis of nicotinamide beta-riboside and nucleoside analogs. (United States)

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vita, Patrizia; Cappellacci, Loredana


    The beta-anomers of N-ribofuranosylnicotine-3-carboxamide (beta-NAR) and its nicotinic acid analog (beta-NaR) were obtained by stereoselective synthesis via glycosylation of the presilylated bases under Vorbruggen's protocol. A NAR analog, methylated in position 3 of the ribosylic moiety, is also reported.

  9. Right tail expansion of Tracy-Widom beta laws

    CERN Document Server

    Borot, Gaëtan


    Using loop equations, we compute the large deviation function of the maximum eigenvalue to the right of the spectrum in the Gaussian beta matrix ensembles, to all orders in 1/N. We then give a physical derivation of the all order asymptotic expansion of the right tail Tracy-Widom beta laws, for all positive beta, by studying the double scaling limit.

  10. Evidence of different ocean responses to atmospheric pressurevariations in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Basins as deduced fromERS-2 altimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gómez-Enri


    Full Text Available The exponential increase in the use of altimeter data in oceanographic studies in the past two decades has improved the knowledge of the processes that govern the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere. One of these processes is the response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure variations, which has been deeply analysed in the past. That response is based on the isostatic assumption used to establish a standard correction for altimetric purposes, the Inverse Barometer Correction (IBC. As a general rule, the ocean goes up/down 1cm when the atmospheric pressure goes down/up 1mbar. However, in light of recent works in some oceanic regions, discrepancies arise when the real response is compared to the hypothetical one. It is important to quantify this discrepancy, in order to improve the accuracy of the correction, which is one of the most significant geophysical corrections applied to altimeter records. Some aspects of this response remain unclear, such as the real space-temporal scales where IBC can be applied, the influence of wind, non-isostatic atmospheric pressure-driven signals, and the effect of aliasing from high frequency signals. This paper is an attempt to gain insight into this phenomenon. The data used are the residuals obtained between sea surface heights from the ERS-2 altimeter and the outputs of a global barotropic ocean model. Significant departures from the hypothetical isostatic response in all data series (spatial and temporal domain have been found, especially in the case of altimeter records. By applying the collinear track method, we observe that the estimated Atlantic Ocean response is quite similar to the one deduced from the isostatic assumption at all latitudinal bands. Nonetheless, the Indian and Pacific Oceans show important departures from the hypothetical value at low latitudes. Results obtained with the crossover track method show important deviations at low latitudes in the three basins. In

  11. Deducing corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 signaling networks from gene expression data by usage of genetic algorithms and graphical Gaussian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holsboer Florian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a hallmark of complex and multifactorial psychiatric diseases such as anxiety and mood disorders. About 50-60% of patients with major depression show HPA axis dysfunction, i.e. hyperactivity and impaired negative feedback regulation. The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and its receptor type 1 (CRHR1 are key regulators of this neuroendocrine stress axis. Therefore, we analyzed CRH/CRHR1-dependent gene expression data obtained from the pituitary corticotrope cell line AtT-20, a well-established in vitro model for CRHR1-mediated signal transduction. To extract significantly regulated genes from a genome-wide microarray data set and to deduce underlying CRHR1-dependent signaling networks, we combined supervised and unsupervised algorithms. Results We present an efficient variable selection strategy by consecutively applying univariate as well as multivariate methods followed by graphical models. First, feature preselection was used to exclude genes not differentially regulated over time from the dataset. For multivariate variable selection a maximum likelihood (MLHD discriminant function within GALGO, an R package based on a genetic algorithm (GA, was chosen. The topmost genes representing major nodes in the expression network were ranked to find highly separating candidate genes. By using groups of five genes (chromosome size in the discriminant function and repeating the genetic algorithm separately four times we found eleven genes occurring at least in three of the top ranked result lists of the four repetitions. In addition, we compared the results of GA/MLHD with the alternative optimization algorithms greedy selection and simulated annealing as well as with the state-of-the-art method random forest. In every case we obtained a clear overlap of the selected genes independently confirming the results of MLHD in combination with a genetic

  12. Metabolic and evolutionary insights into the closely-related species Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans deduced from high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Marcus


    deduce that S. lividans 66 and TK24, both deficient in the glyoxylate bypass, possess an alternative metabolic mechanism for the assimilation of C2 compounds. Given that streptomycetes generally display high genetic instability it is envisaged that these high-density arrays will find application for rapid assessment of genome content (particularly amplifications/deletions in mutational studies of S. coelicolor and related species.

  13. Meiotic recombination in the beta globin gene cluster causing an error in prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia.


    Camaschella, C.; Serra, A.; Saglio, G; Bertero, M T; Mazza, U; Terzoli, S; Brambati, B; Cremonesi, L.; Travi, M; Ferrari, M


    In the course of a prenatal diagnosis for beta thalassaemia by linkage analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, a homozygous beta thalassaemia fetus was misdiagnosed as beta thalassaemia trait. Extensive studies of the polymorphic sites within the beta globin gene cluster in all the members of the family resulted in the conclusion that the paternal chromosome 11 of the newborn was different from that expected. Paternity was confirmed by HLA typing and blood group studies. The an...

  14. Beta Decay of the Proton-Rich Nuclei 102Sn and 104Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Batist, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute; Banu, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Becker, F. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Blazhev, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Brown, B. A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bruchle, W. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Doring, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Faestermann, T. [Technische Universitat Munchen; Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Grawe, H. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Jungclaus, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Kavatsyuk, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kavatsyuk, O. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; La Commara, M. [Universita Federico II and INFN Napoli; Mandal, S. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Mazzocchi, C. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Mukha, I. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Muralithar, S. [University of Warsaw; Plettner, C. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Plochocki, A. [University of Warsaw; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Romoli, M. [Universita Federico II and INFN Napoli; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Schadel, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schmidt, K. [University of Warsaw; Schwengner, R. [University of Warsaw; Zylicz, J. [University of Warsaw


    The {beta} decays of {sup 102}Sn and {sup 104}Sn were studied by using high-resolution germanium detectors as well as a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). For {sup 104}Sn, with three new {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays identified, the total Gamow-Teller strength (BGT) value of 2.7(3) was obtained. For {sup 102}Sn, the {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence data were collected for the first time, allowing us to considerably extend the decay scheme. This scheme was used to unfold the TAS data and to deduce a BGT value of 4.2(8) for this decay. This result is compared to shell model predictions, yielding a hindrance factor of 3.6(7) in agreement with those obtained previously for {sup 98}Cd and {sup 100}In. Together with the latter two, {sup 102}Sn completes the triplet of Z {le} 50, N {ge} 50 nuclei with two proton holes, one proton hole and one neutron particle, and two neutron particles with respect to the doubly magic {sup 100}Sn core.

  15. Molecular cloning of hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase, a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus niger. (United States)

    Matsuda, J; Okabe, S; Hashimoto, T; Yamada, Y


    Roots of several solanaceous plants produce anticholinergic alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase, a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (EC, catalyzes hydroxylation of hyoscyamine in the biosynthetic pathway leading to scopolamine. We report here on the isolation of cDNA clones encoding the hydroxylase from a cDNA library made from mRNA of the cultured roots of Hyoscyamus niger. The library was screened with three synthetic oligonucleotides that encode amino acid sequences of internal peptide fragments of the purified hydroxylase. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA revealed an open reading frame that encodes 344 amino acids (Mr = 38,999). All 12 internal peptide fragments determined in the purified enzyme were found in the amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA. With computer-aided comparison to other proteins we found that the hydroxylase is homologous to two synthases involved in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics in some microorganisms and the gene products of tomato pTOM13 cDNA and maize A2 locus which had been proposed to catalyze oxidative reactions in the biosynthesis of ethylene and anthocyan, respectively. RNA blotting hybridization showed that mRNA of the hydroxylase is abundant in cultured roots and present in plant roots, but absent in leaves, stems, and cultured cells of H. niger.

  16. Wind-Forced Baroclinic Beta-Plumes (United States)

    Belmadani, A.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.; Schneider, N.; Di Lorenzo, E.


    A planetary beta-plume is a classical example of oceanic circulation induced by a localized vorticity source or sink that allows an analytical description in simplistic cases. Its barotropic structure is a zonally-elongated, gyre-like cell governed by the Sverdrup circulation on the beta-plane. The dominant zonal currents, found west of the source/sink, are often referred to as zonal jets. This simple picture describes the depth-integrated flow. Previous studies have investigated beta-plumes in a reduced-gravity framework or using other simple models with a small number of vertical layers, thereby lacking representation of the vertical structure. In addition, most previous studies use a purely linear regime without considering the role of eddies. However, these jets are often associated with strong lateral shear that makes them unstable under increased forcing. The circulation in such a nonlinear regime may involve eddy-mean flow interactions, which modify the time-averaged circulation. Here, the baroclinic structures of linear and nonlinear wind-forced beta-plumes are studied using a continuously-stratified, primitive equation, eddy-permitting ocean model (ROMS). The model is configured in an idealized rectangular domain for the subtropical ocean with a flat bottom. The surface wind forcing is a steady anticyclonic Gaussian wind vortex, which provides a localized vorticity source in the center of the domain. The associated wind stress curl and Ekman pumping comprise downwelling in the vortex center surrounded by a ring of weaker upwelling. Under weak forcing, the simulated steady-state circulation corresponds well with a theoretical linear beta-plume. While its depth-integrated transport exhibits a set of zonal jets, consistent with Sverdrup theory, the baroclinic structure of the plume is remarkably complex. Relatively fast westward decay of the surface currents occurs simultaneously with the deepening of the lower boundary of the plume. This deepening suggests

  17. Distinct down-regulation of cardiac beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in different human heart diseases. (United States)

    Steinfath, M; Geertz, B; Schmitz, W; Scholz, H; Haverich, A; Breil, I; Hanrath, P; Reupcke, C; Sigmund, M; Lo, H B


    Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor density and beta 1- and beta 2-subtype distribution were examined in human left ventricular myocardium from transplant donors serving as controls and from patients with mitral valve stenosis, aortic valve stenosis, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and ischaemic cardiomyopathy respectively. The total beta-adrenoceptor density was similar in transplant donors and patients with moderate heart failure (NYHA II-III) due to mitral valve stenosis, but was markedly reduced in all forms of severe heart failure (NYHA III-IV) studied. A reduction of both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors was found in patients with severe heart failure due to mitral valve stenosis or ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In contrast, a selective down-regulation of beta 1-adrenoceptors with unchanged beta 2-adrenoceptors and hence a relative increase in the latter was observed in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and aortic valve stenosis. It is concluded that the extent of total beta-adrenoceptor down-regulation is related to the degree of heart failure. Selective loss of beta 1-adrenoceptors is not specific for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy but also occurs in aortic valve stenosis. Changes in beta 1- and beta 2-subtype distribution are rather related to the aetiology than to the clinical degree of heart failure.

  18. Rheumatoid factors from patients with rheumatoid arthritis react with Des-Lys58-beta 2m, modified beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, R C; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Malone, C C


    Ten polyclonal IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) preparations, affinity-purified from IgG columns, from patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied for their ELISA reactivity with native beta 2m in parallel with Lys58-cleaved beta 2m and Des-Lys58-beta 2m, the latter representing cleavage products...

  19. GraXe, graphene and xenon for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.; Vidal, J. Muñoz [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Valencia (Spain); Guinea, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), CSIC, Calle Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fogler, M.M. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    We propose a new detector concept, GraXe (to be pronounced as grace), to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}XE. GraXe combines a popular detection medium in rare-event searches, liquid xenon, with a new, background-free material, graphene. In our baseline design of GraXe, a sphere made of graphene-coated titanium mesh and filled with liquid xenon (LXe) enriched in the {sup 136}XE isotope is immersed in a large volume of natural LXe instrumented with photodetectors. Liquid xenon is an excellent scintillator, reasonably transparent to its own light. Graphene is transparent over a large frequency range, and impermeable to the xenon. Event position could be deduced from the light pattern detected in the photosensors. External backgrounds would be shielded by the buffer of natural LXe, leaving the ultra-radiopure internal volume virtually free of background. Industrial graphene can be manufactured at a competitive cost to produce the sphere. Enriching xenon in the isotope {sup 136}XE is easy and relatively cheap, and there is already near one ton of enriched xenon available in the world (currently being used by the EXO, KamLAND-Zen and NEXT experiments). All the cryogenic know-how is readily available from the numerous experiments using liquid xenon. An experiment using the GraXe concept appears realistic and affordable in a short time scale, and its physics potential is enormous.

  20. The measurement of the beta asymmetry in the decay of polarized neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaud, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy (France); Schreckenbach, K. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kossakowski, R. [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, 74 -Annecy (France); Nastoll, H. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bussiere, A. [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy (France); Guillaud, J.P. [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy (France); Beck, L. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    The beta-decay asymmetry parameter A was measured for the free neutron with high precision. A time projection chamber (TPC) and plastic scintillators were used as a track and energy detector for the decay electrons. Thus the decay volume was well defined. Electron tracks with different angle {theta} between the electron momentum and the neutron spin could be selected and compared with the expected cos {theta} distribution. A deviation from this distribution was observed and remains unexplained. Using the electron track detector only to delimit the fiducial volume and adopting the theoretically predicted cos {theta} distribution a value of A{sub 0}=-0.1160{+-}0.0015 was determined including corrections for recoil and weak magnetism. To our best knowledge this result is not influenced by the observed deviation from the cos {theta} distribution of the asymmetry. From this result the ratio g{sub A}/g{sub V}=-1.266{+-}0.004 can be deduced within the Standard Model. Using the recent neutron lifetime value leads to g{sub V}=1.4172 (34).10{sup -62} J m{sup 3}. This value is in good agreement with g{sub V} from ft(0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}) and {mu} decay. (orig.).

  1. Beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii. (United States)

    Segura, C; Salvadó, M


    Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.

  2. Anxiolytics not acting at the benzodiazepine receptor: beta blockers. (United States)

    Tyrer, P


    1. Although there is clear evidence for many controlled trials in the past 25 years that beta blockers are effective in anxiety disorders clear indications for their use are lacking. 2. The balance of evidence suggests that the mechanism of action of beta-blocking drugs is through peripheral blockade of beta-mediated symptoms. 3. Most evidence to the efficacy of beta-blockers comes from study of their use in generalized anxiety and in acute stress. 4. Because beta-blockers carry no risks of pharmacological dependence they may be preferred to many other anti-anxiety drugs.

  3. Probing the N = Z Line via {beta} Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markku Oinonen


    This contribution reports several beta-decay studies performed at ISOLDE On-Line Mass Separator at CERN recently for nuclei close to N = Z line. Beta decay of {sup 58}Zn provides a possibility to compare Gamow-Teller strength extracted from complementary beta-decay studies and charge-exchange reactions. Measurement on beta-decay half-life of {sup 70}Kr shows importance of experimental information in modeling the path of the astrophysical rp process. Decay of {sup 71}Kr is an example of a mirror beta decay and extends the systematics of these particular decays towards highly deformed region close to A = 80.

  4. Factors affecting drug adsorption on beta zeolites. (United States)

    Pasti, Luisa; Sarti, Elena; Cavazzini, Alberto; Marchetti, Nicola; Dondi, Francesco; Martucci, Annalisa


    The adsorption behaviour of three commonly used drugs, namely ketoprofen, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol, from diluted aqueous solutions on beta zeolites with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (i.e. 25, 38 and 360) was investigated by changing the ionic strength and the pH, before and after thermal treatment of the adsorbents. The selective adsorption of drugs was confirmed by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption capacity of beta zeolites was strongly dependent on both the solution pH and the alumina content of the adsorbent. Such a remarkable difference was interpreted as a function of the interactions between drug molecules and zeolite surface functional groups. Atenolol was readily adsorbed on the less hydrophobic zeolite, under pH conditions in which electrostatic interactions were predominant. On the other hand, ketoprofen adsorption was mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. For undissociated molecules the adsorption capability increased with the increase of hydrophobicity.

  5. Beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis. (United States)

    Boukadida, J; Hannechi, N; Boukadida, N; Ben Said, H; Elmherbech, H; Errai, S


    To determine the role and importance of beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis and its relative susceptibility to antibiotics, we cultured samples from 143 patients (age range: 3-72 years) who presented over a 5-month period in 2001 at three primary health care centres in Sousse, Tunisia. The cultures yielded 80 beta-haemolytic streptococci (59 group A streptococci and 21 non-group A streptococci). All strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and pristinamycin. Susceptibility was variable in erythromycin, tetracycline, fosfomycin, telithromycin and levofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by E-test for penicillin, erythromycin and levofloxacin. Our results confirm that penicillin is still the reference treatment for acute pharyngitis. However, to minimize the potential for complications arising from its use, continued vigilance is required.

  6. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  7. Autoradiographic localization of beta-adrenoreceptors in rat uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolszczuk, M.; Pelletier, G.


    The inhibitory effects of catecholamines on uterine smooth muscle are known to be mediated through beta-adrenergic receptors. To investigate further the distribution of these receptors in the rat uterus, we utilized in vitro autoradiography using ( SVI)-cyanopindolol (CYP), a specific beta-receptor ligand that has equal activity for both beta 1- and beta 2-receptor subtypes. The specificity of the labeling and the characterization of receptor subtypes in different cell types were achieved by displacement of radioligand with increasing concentrations of zinterol, a beta-adrenergic agonist with preferential affinity for the beta 2-adrenoreceptor subtype, and practolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist that binds preferentially to the beta 1-subtype. Quantitative estimation of ligand binding was performed by densitometry. It was shown that the vast majority of beta-adrenoreceptors were of the beta 2-subtype and were found in high concentration not only in the myometrium but also in the endometrial and serosal epithelia. Specific labeling was also observed in glandular elements. These results suggest that beta-adrenoreceptors might be involved in different functions in the uterus.

  8. Beta Testing of Persistent Passive Acoustic Monitors (United States)


    solution. This translates into longer deployments on platforms such as gliders with limited hotel load. 2. the DMON is specifically designed for low...filter or filter bank may improve performance • Glider and Profiler motors and pumps are noisy , however duty cycle of noise is low. Therefore they are...power making it ideal for low hotel load autonomous vehicles like gliders. The format shown here was provided to beta-test clients working on gliders and

  9. SPL and Beta Beams to the Frejus

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzetto, M


    Physics potential of a conventional neutrino beam generated by the 2.2 GeV, 4MW, Superconducting Proton Linac and of a Beta Beam fired to a gigantic water Ccaronerenkov detector hosted below Frejus, 130 km away from CERN, are briefly summarized. theta/sub 13/ sensitivity could be improved by up to 3 orders of magnitude with respect to the present experimental limit and a first sensitive search for leptonic CP violation could be performed.

  10. Beta-decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdhane, M; Baumann, P; Knipper, A; Walter, G; Janas, Z; Plochocki, A; Aysto, J; Dendooven, P; Jokinen, A; Oinonen, M; Pentila, H; Liu, W; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hu, Z; Kirchner, R; Klepper, O; Roeckl, E; Fujita, Y; Brown, BA


    By measuring positrons and P-delayed gamma-rays emitted from mass-separated sources, the decay of Cu-56 (4(+),T-z = -1,T = 1) to states in the doubly-magic nucleus Ni-56 was Studied for the first time. The half-life of Cu-56 was measured to be 78(15) ms, and four beta-delayed gamma-rays were assigne

  11. A background free double beta decay experiment


    Giomataris, Ioannis


    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this conc...

  12. Alpha-beta bidirectional associative memories


    María Elena Acevedo Mosqueda; Cornelio Yáñez Márquez


    Most models of Bidirectional associative memories intend to achieve that all trained pattern correspond to stable states; however, this has not been possible. Also, none of the former models has been able to recall all the trained patterns. In this work we introduce a new model of bidirectional associative memory which is not iterative and has no stability problems. It is based on the Alpha-Beta associative memories. This model allows perfect recall of all trained patterns, with no ambiguity ...

  13. Precision mass measurements utilizing beta endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Moltz, D M; Kern, B D; Noma, H; Ritchie, B G; Toth, K S


    A technique for precise determination of beta endpoints with an intrinsic germanium detector has been developed. The energy calibration is derived from gamma -ray photopeak measurements. This analysis procedure has been checked with a /sup 27/Si source produced in a (p, n) reaction on a /sup 27/Al target and subsequently applied to mass separated samples of /sup 76/Rb, /sup 77/Rb and /sup 78/Rb. Results indicate errors <50 keV are obtainable. (29 refs).

  14. High-{beta} disruption in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Janos, A. [and others


    Three dimensional MHD simulations of high-{beta} plasmas show that toroidally localized high-n ballooning modes can be driven unstable by the local pressure steepening which arises from the evolution of low-n modes. Nonlinearly, the high-n mode becomes even more localized and produces a strong local pressure bulge which destroys the flux surfaces resulting in a thermal quench. The flux surfaces then recover temporarily but now contain large magnetic islands. This scenario is supported by experimental data.

  15. Inhibition of human and rat 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives. (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L


    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) plays an important role in regulating the cortisol availability to bind to corticosteroid receptors within specific tissue. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome indicate that elevation of cortisol levels within specific tissues through the action of 11beta-HSD1 could contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, selective inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 have been investigated as potential treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of some 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) derivatives (2-5) and their inhibitory activities against rat hepatic11beta-HSD1 and rat renal 11beta-HSD2. Once the selectivity over the rat type 2 enzyme was established, these compounds' ability to inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 was also evaluated using both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) methods. The 11-modified 18beta-GA derivatives 2 and 3 with apparent selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 showed a high percentage inhibition for human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 at 10 microM and exhibited IC50 values of 400 and 1100 nM, respectively. The side chain modified 18beta-GA derivatives 4 and 5, although showing selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 inhibited human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  16. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers. (United States)

    Piscator, M


    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  17. Beta Beams for Precision Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Damjanovic, S; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, V; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; Mezzetto, M; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Burt, G; Dexter, A; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Moro, R; De Rosa, G; Palladino, V


    Neutrino oscillations have implications for the Standard Model of particle physics. The CERN Beta Beam has outstanding capabilities to contribute to precision measurements of the parameters governing neutrino oscillations. The FP7 collaboration EUROnu (2008-2012) is a design study that will review three facilities (Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make decisions on future European neutrino oscillation facilities. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrinos by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a storage ring. Using existing machines and infrastructure is an advantage for the cost evaluation; however, this choice is also constraining the Beta Beams. Recent work to make the Beta Beam facility a solid option will be described: production of Beta Beam isotopes, the 60 GHz pulsed ECR source development, integratio...

  18. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R


    tails, leading to tail separation and integrin activation. We analyzed mice in which we mutated the tyrosines of the beta1 tail and the membrane-proximal aspartic acid required for the salt bridge. Tyrosine-to-alanine substitutions abolished beta1 integrin functions and led to a beta1 integrin......-null phenotype in vivo. Surprisingly, neither the substitution of the tyrosines with phenylalanine nor the aspartic acid with alanine resulted in an obvious defect. These data suggest that the NPXY motifs of the beta1 integrin tail are essential for beta1 integrin function, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation......Akey feature of integrins is their ability to regulate the affinity for ligands, a process termed integrin activation. The final step in integrin activation is talin binding to the NPXY motif of the integrin beta cytoplasmic domains. Talin binding disrupts the salt bridge between the alpha/beta...

  19. Scintillation spectroscopy for beta ray dose measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vapirev, E.I.; Jordanov, T.; Amin, S.; Stoilov, N.; Georgieva, K. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet


    Two methods have been developed and tested for the measurement of beta ray dose with a scintillation probe. According to the first method the energy absorbed in plastic filters is calculated from the difference between the energy E of the incident and filtered beta spectrum with an expression of the type E {approx} c{Sigma}iN(i)/{Delta}m, where c is a calibration constant (keV per channel), i is the channel number, N(i) is the detected beta spectrum, and {Delta}m is the filter thickness. According to the second `dE/dx` method the energy deposited in the surface layer of the scintillator is calculated by E {approx} c{Sigma}dE/dx(i)N(i), where dE/dx is the specific energy loss for tissue-equivalent media. The methods were tested for the cases of normally incident electrons and surface contamination. The scintillation probe used is stillbene and the test sources are thin {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs. The results are close to the expected doses as calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. (Author).

  20. The Dust and Gas Around beta Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H; Bohac, C; Kim, K H; Watson, D M; van Cleve, J; Houck, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Werner, M W; Rieke, G; Su, K; Marengo, M; Backman, D; Beichman, C; Fazio, G


    We have obtained Spitzer IRS 5.5 - 35 micron spectroscopy of the debris disk around beta Pictoris. In addition to the 10 micron silicate emission feature originally observed from the ground, we also detect the crystalline silicate emission bands at 28 micron and 33.5 micron. This is the first time that the silicate bands at wavelengths longer than 10 micron have ever been seen in the beta Pictoris disk. The observed dust emission is well reproduced by a dust model consisting of fluffy cometary and crystalline olivine aggregates. We searched for line emission from molecular hydrogen and atomic [S I], Fe II, and Si II gas but detected none. We place a 3 sigma upper limit of <17 Earth masses on the H2 S(1) gas mass, assuming an excitation temperature of Tex = 100 K. This suggests that there is less gas in this system than is required to form the envelope of Jupiter. We hypothesize that some of the atomic Na I gas observed in Keplerian rotation around beta Pictoris may be produced by photon-stimulated desorpti...

  1. Beta decay of {sup 101}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Kavatsyuk, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Damrstadt (Germany); National Taras Shevchenko Univ. of Kyiv (Ukraine); Mazzocchi, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Damrstadt (Germany); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Miernik, K.; Plochocki, A.; Zylicz, J. [University of Warsaw (Poland); Banu, A.; Becker, F.; Bruechle, W.; Doering, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Klepper, O.; Kirchner, R.; Plettner, C.; Roeckl, E.; Schaedel, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Batist, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Blazhev, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Damrstadt (Germany); Univ. of Sofia (Bulgaria); Faestermann, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Jungclaus, A. [Instituto Estructura de la Materia, CSIC (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, UAM, Madrid (Spain); La Commara, M.; Romoli, M. [Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Mukha, I. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Damrstadt (Germany); Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Rykaczewski, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Schmidt, K. [Continental Teves AG and Co., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Schwengner, R. [Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)


    The {beta} decay of the very neutron-deficient isotope {sup 101}Sn was studied at the GSI on-line mass separator using silicon detectors for recording charged particles and germanium detectors for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Based on the {beta}-delayed proton data the production cross-section of {sup 101}Sn in the {sup 50}Cr+{sup 58}Ni fusion-evaporation reaction was determined to be about 60nb. The half-life of {sup 101}Sn was measured to be 1.9(3)s. For the first time {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays of {sup 101}Sn were tentatively identified, yielding weak evidence for a cascade of 352 and 1065keV transitions in {sup 101}In. The results for the {sup 101}Sn decay as well as those from previous work on the {sup 103}Sn decay are discussed by comparing them to predictions obtained from shell model calculations employing a new interaction in the {sup 88}Sr to {sup 132}Sn model space. (orig.)

  2. Molecular characterization of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases. Consensus sequence, comparison with related enzymes and the role of conserved histidine residues. (United States)

    Britsch, L; Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G


    A heterologous cDNA probe from Petunia hybrida was used to isolate flavanone-3 beta-hydroxylase-encoding cDNA clones from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), china aster (Callistephus chinensis) and stock (Matthiola incana). The deduced protein sequences together with the known sequences of the enzyme from P. hybrida, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) enabled the determination of a consensus sequence which revealed an overall 84% similarity (53% identity) of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases from the different sources. Alignment with the sequences of other known enzymes of the same class and to related non-heme iron-(II) enzymes demonstrated the strict genetic conservation of 14 amino acids, in particular, of three histidines and an aspartic acid. The conservation of the histidine motifs provides strong support for the possible conservation of structurally similar iron-binding sites in these enzymes. The putative role of histidines as chelators of ferrous ions in the active site of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases was corroborated by diethyl-pyrocarbonate modification of the partially purified recombinant Petunia enzyme.

  3. Membrane-embedded C-terminal segment of rat mitochondrial TOM40 constitutes protein-conducting pore with enriched beta-structure. (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Maeda, Maki; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Nabekura, Junichi; Sakaguchi, Masao; Mihara, Katsuyoshi


    TOM40 is the central component of the preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM complex). We purified recombinant rat TOM40 (rTOM40), which was refolded in Brij35 after solubilization from inclusion bodies by guanidine HCl. rTOM40 (i) consisted of a 63% beta-sheet structure and (ii) bound a matrix-targeted preprotein with high affinity and partially translocated it into the rTOM40 pore. This partial translocation was inhibited by stabilization of the mature domain of the precursor. (iii) rTOM40 bound preprotein initially through ionic interactions, followed by salt-resistant non-ionic interactions, and (iv) exhibited presequence-sensitive, cation-specific channel activity in reconstituted liposomes. Based on the domain structure of rTOM40 deduced by protease treatment, we purified the elastase-resistant and membrane-embedded C-terminal segment (rTOM40(DeltaN165)) as a recombinant protein with 62% beta-structure that exhibited properties comparable with those of full-size rTOM40. We concluded that the membrane-embedded C-terminal half of rTOM40 constitutes the preprotein recognition domain with an enriched beta-structure, which forms the preprotein conducting pore containing a salt-sensitive cis-binding site and a salt-resistant trans-binding site.

  4. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey. (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L


    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  5. Inclusion complexation behavior of dyestuff guest molecules by a bridged bis(cyclomaltoheptaose)[bis(beta-cyclodextrin)] with a pyromellitic acid diamide tether. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Li; Zhang, Heng-Yi; Liang, Peng; Wang, Hao


    A novel bridged bis(beta-cyclodextrin) with a pyromellitic acid 2,5-diamide tether (2) has been synthesized by reaction of 6(I)-(2-aminoethyleneamino)-6-deoxycyclomaltoheptaose [mono 6-(2-aminoethyleneamino)-6-deoxy-beta-cyclodextrin] with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic dianhydride. Its inclusion complexation behavior with some representative dyestuffs, i.e., Acridine Red (AR), Rhodamine B (RhB), Neutral Red (NR), Brilliant Green (BG), was studied by using UV-absorption, fluorescence, and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Fluorescence titrations have been performed at 25 degrees C in pH 7.2 buffer solution to calculate the binding constants of resulting complexes. These results obtained indicated that bis(beta-cyclodextrin) 2 exhibits the strongly enhanced binding ability with all dye molecules examined compared with natural cyclodextrins. The binding modes of 2 with dye molecules have been deduced by 2D NMR experiments to establish the correlations between molecular conformations and binding constants of inclusion complexation. It is found that the improved binding ability and molecular selectivity of 2 could be attributed to double-cavity cooperative inclusion interaction and the size/shape matching between the host and guest.

  6. Impact delivery of organic matter on the acapulcoite-lodranite parent-body deduced from C, N isotopes and nanostructures of carbon phases in Acapulco and Lodran (United States)

    Charon, E.; Aléon, J.; Rouzaud, J.-N.


    Lodran. Carbon phases in Lodran would have been formed by the secondary carbonization of hydrocarbon fluids released during the primary carbonization of IOM. In the framework of this model, the C isotopic compositions can be reproduced using Rayleigh distillation at each carbonization step and the N isotopic compositions can be understood as resulting from the variable loss and preservation of 15N-rich nitriles (δ15N ∼ +800‰) and 15N-poor pyrroles (δ15N = -140‰) during carbonization. The combined interpretation of the temperatures deduced from this model, petrographic cooling rates, and thermochronological indicators suggest that the CI-CM IOM could have been introduced in the parent-body by an impact, about 10 Myr after solar system formation.

  7. Effects of calcium impurity on phase relationship, ionic conductivity and microstructure of Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina solid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Ca-doped Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina was synthesized using a solid-state reaction. The changes in the properties of Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina resulting from the presence of Ca impurity were studied. Ca (0–5 wt%) was added to the respective samples, which were then sintered. The specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanningelectron microscopy, densimetry and impedance analysis. In the sintered specimens, the $\\beta"$-alumina phase fraction decreased as Ca content increased, whereas the relative sintered density increased. The surface morphology of Cadoped Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina specimens showed a Ca-rich layer, which was the main cause of increase in the specificresistance.

  8. Beta-blockers and heart failure. (United States)

    Cruickshank, John M


    The life-time risk of developing HF is about 20% (40% if hypertension present). With increasing longevity in the developed world the burden of HF (hospitalisation) is set to increase over the next 10-20 years. CAD and hypertension are the two main causes of HF; CAD (and obesity) in the case of systolic HF and hypertension in the case of diastolic HF (mainly in the elderly). BB have become the corner-stone (alongside ACE-inhibitors) in the treatment of systolic HF. Bisoprolol, metoprolol and carvedilol (on an ACE-inhibitor background) have reduced all-cause death by 34-5%. The presence of intrinsic sympathomemetic activity (xamoterol, bucindolol, nebivolol) diminishes efficacy in the treatment of systolic HF. First-line bisoprolol has proved "non-inferior" to first-line enalapril in reducing all-cause death and is probably superior in reducing sudden death. The main mode of action of BB in treating systolic HF is inhibition of chronic beta-1 stimulation-induced myocardial apoptosis/necrosis/inflammation. The combination of pure beta-1 blockade (low-dose bisoprolol) and pure beta-2 blockade (clenbuterol) may prove invaluable in the treatment of end-stage systolic HF (thus avoiding cardiac transplantation). The appropriate treatment of diastolic HF has yet to be determined. Beta-blockade is effective in the prevention of HF i) in the post-MI period and ii) as first-line agents in the treatment of young/middle-aged hypertension and as second-line agents (to first-line diuretics) in the treatment of elderly systolic hypertension. BB are highly effective in reversing LVH in young/middle-aged hypertensives (LVH pre-disposes to HF in young/middle-aged hypertension) and are (bisoprolol) at least as good as ACE-inhibitors. Choice of BB is important as benefit is not a class-effect. ISA (xamoterol, bucindolol, nebivolol) markedly diminishes efficacy. The choice is between bisoprolol, metoprolol succinate and carvedilol for optimal efficacy. Adverse reactions are associated

  9. Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f), and Pu238(n,f) cross sections deduced from (p,t), (p,d), and (p,p') surrogate reactions (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; McCleskey, M.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.; Thompson, I. J.


    The Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f) and Pu238(n,f) cross sections have been inferred by utilizing the surrogate ratio method. Targets of Pu239 and U235 were bombarded with 28.5-MeV protons, and the light ion recoils, as well as fission fragments, were detected using the STARS detector array at the K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. The (p, tf) reaction on Pu239 and U235 targets was used to deduce the σ (Pu236(n ,f))/σ(U232(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu236(n,f) cross section was subsequently determined for En=0.5-7.5 MeV. Similarly, the (p,df) reaction on the same two targets was used to deduce the σ(Pu237(n ,f))/σ(U233(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu237(n,f) cross section was extracted in the energy range En=0.5-7 MeV. The Pu238(n,f) cross section was also deduced by utilizing the (p,p') reaction channel on the same targets. There is good agreement with the recent ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section data for Pu238(n,f) in the range En=0.5-10.5 MeV and for Pu237(n,f) in the range En=0.5-7 MeV; however, the Pu236(n,f) cross section deduced in the present work is higher than the evaluation between 2 and 7 MeV.

  10. A new dedicated {beta}-NMR/{beta}-NQR setup for LISE-GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rydt, M., E-mail: marieke.derydt@fys.kuleuven.b [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lozeva, R.; Vermeulen, N. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Oliveira Santos, F. de; Grevy, S. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Himpe, P. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Stoedel, C.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Vingerhoets, P.; Neyens, G. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    A new {beta}-NMR/{beta}-NQR setup is developed to study nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments at the LISE fragment separator at GANIL. Two key elements make the new design very powerful: the homogeneous magnet and the strong radio-frequency amplifier. The combination of both makes it possible to examine a broad spectrum of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Several factors have an influence on the detection efficiency and on the sensitivity of the setup to observe a resonant change in the {beta}-asymmetry: the thickness and the tilting angle of the implantation crystal, the material in the vacuum chamber, the applied magnetic field and the Q{sub b}eta-value of the decaying nuclei. A detailed study of these effects is made using a dedicated GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code.

  11. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki


    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  12. A Novel Dimeric Inhibitor Targeting Beta2GPI in Beta2GPI/Antibody Complexes Implicated in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Kolyada; C Lee; A De Biasio; N Beglova


    {beta}2GPI is a major antigen for autoantibodies associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. Only the dimeric form of {beta}2GPI generated by anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies is pathologically important, in contrast to monomeric {beta}2GPI which is abundant in plasma. We created a dimeric inhibitor, A1-A1, to selectively target {beta}2GPI in {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes. To make this inhibitor, we isolated the first ligand-binding module from ApoER2 (A1) and connected two A1 modules with a flexible linker. A1-A1 interferes with two pathologically important interactions in APS, the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes with anionic phospholipids and ApoER2. We compared the efficiency of A1-A1 to monomeric A1 for inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes to anionic phospholipids. We tested the inhibition of {beta}2GPI present in human serum, {beta}2GPI purified from human plasma and the individual domain V of {beta}2GPI. We demonstrated that when {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes are formed, A1-A1 is much more effective than A1 in inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin, regardless of the source of {beta}2GPI. Similarly, A1-A1 strongly inhibits the binding of dimerized domain V of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin compared to the monomeric A1 inhibitor. In the absence of anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies, both A1-A1 and A1 only weakly inhibit the binding of pathologically inactive monomeric {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin. Our results suggest that the approach of using a dimeric inhibitor to block {beta}2GPI in the pathological multivalent {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes holds significant promise. The novel inhibitor A1-A1 may be a starting point in the development of an effective therapeutic for antiphospholipid syndrome.

  13. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  14. Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (United States)

    Theunissen, W.; Fanni, D.; Nemolato, S.; Di Felice, E.; Cabras, T.; Gerosa, C.; Van Eyken, P.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.


    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30%) and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (96%) cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression. PMID:24704991

  15. Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Theunissen


    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30% and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (97% cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression.

  16. 21beta-Hydroxy-oleanane-type triterpenes from Hippocratea excelsa. (United States)

    Cáceres-Castillo, David; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Quijano, Leovigildo


    Stem bark of Hippocratea excelsa afforded six pentacyclic triterpenes, five oleanane and one ursane types. They were identified as 11beta,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene-3-one (2), 3alpha,11alpha,21beta-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene (3), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-9(11),12-diene (5), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (6) and 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-urs-12-ene, isolated as its diacetate derivative (7), as well as 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (1) previously isolated from the root bark. The known alpha- and beta-amyrin, oleanoic and ursolic acids, trans-polyisoprene, and the ubiquitous beta-sitosterol were also isolated. Structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with literature data. The antigiardial activity of compounds 2-5 was not significant.

  17. Metabolic Stress and Compromised Identity of Pancreatic Beta Cells (United States)

    Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval


    Beta cell failure is a central feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the molecular underpinnings of the process remain only partly understood. It has been suggested that beta cell failure in T2D involves massive cell death. Other studies ascribe beta cell failure to cell exhaustion, due to chronic oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to cellular dysfunction. More recently it was proposed that beta cells in T2D may lose their differentiated identity, possibly even gaining features of other islet cell types. The loss of beta cell identity appears to be driven by glucotoxicity inhibiting the activity of key beta cell transcription factors including Pdx1, Nkx6.1, MafA and Pax6, thereby silencing beta cell genes and derepressing alternative islet cell genes. The loss of beta cell identity is at least partly reversible upon normalization of glycemia, with implications for the reversibility of T2D, although it is not known if beta cell failure reaches eventually a point of no return. In this review we discuss current evidence for metabolism-driven compromised beta cell identity, key knowledge gaps and opportunities for utility in the treatment of T2D.

  18. BETA. A code for {beta}{sub eff} measurement and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yuichi; Okajima, Shigeaki; Sakurai, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The code BETA has been developed to calculate the following reactor physics parameters which are used for the {beta}{sub eff} measurement and analysis; Diven factor, Spatial correction factor (g-factor) for neutron correlation experiment, Adjoint weighted g-factor, Fission rate integrated in whole reactor and Adjoint weighted fission rate integrated in whole reactor: The code also calculates the effective delayed neutron fraction with different evaluated delayed neutron data. These parameters are calculated with using the forward and adjoint fluxes given by SLAROM, POPLARS or TWOTRAN-II. This report describes the input data and job control statements instructions, file requirements and sample input output data. (author)

  19. beta. -. gamma. directional correlations in the. beta. -decay of /sup 208/Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, O.A.; Krmpotic, F.; Szybisz, L.


    The relevance of the quenching effects induced by charge-exchange collective fields and excitations is discussed in the case of the ..beta..-..gamma.. angular correlations in the decay of /sup 208/Tl to the 5/sup -//sub 1/, 4/sup -//sub 1/ and 5/sup -//sub 2/ levels in /sup 208/Pb. It is found that, although these effects give rise to a large hindrance of the ..beta..-moments, they influence the anisotropy factor only very weakly. Satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental data is obtained for all the transitions.

  20. Production of beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase by the extremely halophilic archaeon Halorhabdus utahensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M.; Ingvorsen, K.


    The extremely halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis, isolated from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, produced beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities. Both enzymes were active over a broad NaCl range from near zero to 30% NaCl when tested with culture broth. A broad NaCl optimum was observed......-xylosidase activity was optimal at 65degreesC. SDS-PAGE and zymogram techniques revealed the presence of two xylan-degrading proteins of approximately 45 and 67 kDa in culture supernatants. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on hemicellulose-degrading enzymes produced by an extremely halophilic archaeon....

  1. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  2. Role of beta-adrenoceptors in memory consolidation: beta3-adrenoceptors act on glucose uptake and beta2-adrenoceptors on glycogenolysis. (United States)

    Gibbs, Marie E; Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J


    Noradrenaline, acting via beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptors (AR), enhances memory formation in single trial-discriminated avoidance learning in day-old chicks by mechanisms involving changes in metabolism of glucose and/or glycogen. Earlier studies of memory consolidation in chicks implicated beta(3)- rather than beta(2)-ARs in enhancement of memory consolidation by glucose, but did not elucidate whether stimulation of glucose uptake or of glycolysis was responsible. This study examines the role of glucose transport in memory formation using central injection of the nonselective facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitor cytochalasin B, the endothelial/astrocytic GLUT-1 inhibitor phloretin and the Na(+)/energy-dependent endothelial glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor phlorizin. Cytochalasin B inhibited memory when injected into the mesopallium (avian cortex) either close to or between 25 and 45 min after training, whereas phloretin and phlorizin only inhibited memory at 30 min. This suggested that astrocytic/endothelial (GLUT-1) transport is critical at the time of consolidation, whereas a different transporter, probably the neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT-3), is important at the time of training. Inhibition of glucose transport by cytochalasin B, phloretin, or phlorizin also interfered with beta(3)-AR-mediated memory enhancement 20 min posttraining, whereas inhibition of glycogenolysis interfered with beta(2)-AR agonist enhancement of memory. We conclude that in astrocytes (1) activities of both GLUT-1 and SGLT are essential for memory consolidation 30 min posttraining; (2) neuronal GLUT-3 is essential at the time of training; and (3) beta(2)- and beta(3)-ARs consolidate memory by different mechanisms; beta(3)-ARs stimulate central glucose transport, whereas beta(2)-ARs stimulate central glycogenolysis.

  3. Microbial degradation of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates. (United States)

    Mas-Castellà, J; Lafuente, R; Urmeneta, J; Goodwin, S; Guerrero, R


    The search for new materials that are not hazardous to the environment has become a major issue in our society, engaged as it is in the attainment of sustainable development. Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA), produced exclusively by prokaryotes, can be used as thermoplastics and are fully biodegradable and innocuous to the environment. Biodegradability testing has quantified the capacity of microorganisms to degrade such new chemical compounds, particularly polyhydroxyalkanoates. Standardized tests may also discover new microorganisms and environmental conditions that accelerate biodegradation. We evaluate various techniques used to assess the biodegradability of PHA, and which may also be applied to test other kinds of polymers.

  4. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi Kai; Wu, Yuan Kui [Nan fang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tamrakar, Karuna [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)


    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  5. Perioperative Beta Blockade - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha K. Zachariah


    Full Text Available Continuation of antihypertensives preoperatively and their influence on intraoperative hemodynamics is a big concern among anesthesiologists. The Peri Operative Ischaemia Study Evaluation (POISE trial showed a significant reduction of myocardial infarction, need for coronary revascularization and the incidence of atrial fibrillation with metoprolol started 2-4 hours prior to surgery but a significant increase in total mortality and clinically significant hypotension and bradycardia. This is a case report of intraoperative severe bradycardia in a young patient on recently started beta blocker.

  6. Imaging the Beta-cell mass: why and how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Brogren, Carl-Henrik; Manohar, Srirang


    of the native beta-cell mass is still limited to autopsy studies. Endeavors to find a biological structure specific for beta-cells led to the discovery of potential candidates that have been tested for noninvasive imaging. Among them are the ligand to the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT-2), which......Diabetes is a disorder characterized by beta-cell loss or exhaustion and insulin deficiency. At present, knowledge is lacking on the underlying causes and for the therapeutic recovery of the beta-cell mass. A better understanding of diabetes pathogenesis could be obtained through exact monitoring...... of the fate of beta-cells under disease and therapy conditions. This could pave the way for a new era of intervention by islet replacement and regeneration regimens. Monitoring the beta-cell mass requires a reliable method for noninvasive in vivo imaging. Such a method is not available at present due...

  7. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans. (United States)

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F


    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  8. Conversion of rice husk ash to zeolite beta. (United States)

    Prasetyoko, Didik; Ramli, Zainab; Endud, Salasiah; Hamdan, Halimaton; Sulikowski, Bogdan


    White rice husk ash (RHA), an agriculture waste containing crystalline tridymite and alpha-cristobalite, was used as a silica source for zeolite Beta synthesis. The crystallization of zeolite Beta from RHA at 150 degrees C in the presence of tetraethylammonium hydroxide was monitored by XRD, FTIR and (29)Si MAS NMR techniques. It was found that zeolite Beta started to form after 12h and the complete crystallization of zeolite Beta phase was achieved after 2d. XRD, (29)Si MAS NMR and solid yield studies indicate that the transformation mechanism of silica present in RHA to zeolite Beta involves dissolution of the ash, formation of an amorphous aluminosilicate after 6h of crystallization, followed by dissolution in the mother liquor and final transformation to pure zeolite Beta crystals.

  9. Fracture risk in perimenopausal women treated with beta-blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Kassem, Moustapha


    beta2-Adrenergic receptors have been identified on human osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells, raising the question of a sympathetic regulation of bone metabolism. We investigated effects of treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta-blockers) on bone turnover, bone mineral density...... (BMD), and fracture risk. Within the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS) a population based, comprehensive cohort study of 2016 perimenopausal women, associations between treatment with beta-blockers and bone turnover and BMD were assessed in a cross-sectional design at the start of study....... Moreover, in a nested case-control design, fracture risk during the subsequent 5 years was assessed in relation to treatment with beta-blockers at baseline. Multiple regression- and logistic regression-analyses were performed. Treatment with beta-blockers was associated with a threefold increased fracture...

  10. Dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic effects on gastric antral motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F


    of bethanechol or pentagastrin inducing motor activity patterns as in the phase III of the MMC and the digestive state respectively. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by dopamine. The effect was significantly blocked by specifically acting dopaminergic blockers, while alpha- and beta......-adrenergic blockers were without any significant effects. Dose-response experiments with bethanechol and dopamine showed inhibition of a non-competitive type. Isoprenaline was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors during infusion of bethanechol which induces a pattern...... similar to phase III in the migrating myoelectric complex. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by isoprenaline. The effect could be significantly blocked by propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) and by using in conjunction the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol...

  11. Threonine 788 in integrin subunit beta1 regulates integrin activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Stina; Kaniowska, Dorota; Brakebusch, Cord


    was identified as a site with major influence on integrin function. The mutation to A788 strongly reduced beta1-dependent cell attachment and exposure of the extracellular 9EG7 epitope, whereas replacement of T789 with alanine did not interfere with the ligand-binding ability. Talin has been shown to mediate......In the present study, the functional role of suggested phosphorylation of the conserved threonines in the cytoplasmic domain of integrin subunit beta1 was investigated. Mutants mimicking phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of beta1 were expressed in beta1 deficient GD25 cells. T788 in beta1...... integrin activation, but the talin head domain bound equally well to the wild-type beta1 and the mutants indicating that the T788A mutation caused defect integrin activation by another mechanism. The phosphorylation-mimicking mutation T788D was fully active in promoting cell adhesion. GD25 cells expressing...

  12. Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the rabbit heart: quantitative analysis of the regional distribution by (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodde, O.E.; Leifert, F.J.; Krehl, H.J.


    We determined the amount of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in right and left atria and ventricles of rabbits. For this purpose inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol ((-)-/sup 3/H-DHA) binding (5 nM) by beta 1-selective (practolol, metoprolol) and beta 2-selective (zinterol, IPS 339) adrenergic drugs was determined and analyzed by pseudo-Scatchard (Hofstee) plots. For both atria, inhibition of binding by the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs resulted in non-linear Hofstee plots, suggesting the coexistence of both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. From these plots we calculated a beta 1:beta 2-adrenoceptor ratio of 72:28 for the right atrium and of 82:18 for the left. In contrast, only a very small amount of beta 2-adrenoceptors (approximately 5-7% of the total beta-adrenoceptor population) could be detected in the ventricles. For comparison we analyzed the inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-DHA binding in tissues with homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors (beta 1:guinea pig left ventricle; beta 2: cerebellum of mature rats). For both tissues the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs showed linear Hofstee plots, demonstrating that in tissues with homogeneous beta-receptor population interaction of each drug with the receptor followed simple mass-action kinetics. We conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors coexist in rabbit atria while the ventricles are predominantly endowed the beta 1-adrenoceptors.

  13. Antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase inpatients with cystic fibrosis are markers of the development of resistance of P. aeruginosa to beta-lactams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Giwercman, B; Walter-Rasmussen, J


    Chromosomal beta-lactamase production is considered to be the most important resistance mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against beta-lactams. Recently we have detected serum and sputum antibodies against P. aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase (a beta ab), using immunoblotting techniques...... infection and was significantly higher (P beta-lactam courses. A 14 fold increase in a beta ab...... levels occurred during the 14 year period covered by the longitudinal study. The results of this study show that a beta ab to P. aeruginosa is a specific marker for resistance development of P. aeruginosa to beta-lactams....

  14. Studies to confirm the source of 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione. (United States)

    Holownia, P; Owen, E J; Conway, G S; Round, J; Honour, J W


    In a longitudinal study of 82 children we found a gradual rise in median plasma concentrations of 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione (11 beta-OH-A4) from 2.5 to 6.4 nmol/l during childhood which was similar in both sexes. This could reflect changes in adrenal function during the adrenarche and sexual maturation. Plasma concentrations of 11 beta-OH-A4 in adults follow the patterns of cortisol secretion. In patients with diseases of the adrenal cortex, the plasma concentrations of 11 beta-OH-A4 were consistent with the pathology of each condition. In women with polycystic ovaries (PCO) undergoing gonadotrophic stimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, 11 beta-OH-A4 (median = 3.8 nmol/l), testosterone and androstenedione, were raised when compared to women with normal ovaries (11 beta-OH-A4 median = 2.6 nmol/l). Follicular fluid has concentrations of 11 beta-OH-A4 six to twelve times greater than plasma levels and in women with PCO, 11 beta-OH-A4 concentrations were lower than in women with normal ovaries, which is consistent with an inhibition of ovarian 11 beta-hydroxylase. Granulosa cells in vitro demonstrated the production of 11 beta-OH-A4 by side chain cleavage of cortisol. These data support an adrenal source for 11 beta-OH-A4 but the raised plasma concentrations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may reflect the excess androgen output from the ovary. 11 beta-OH-A4 may therefore be an additional marker for ovarian dysfunction.

  15. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India


    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya


    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  16. New exotics in the double beta decay contributions zoo

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V; Sarkar, U


    We discuss the potential of neutrinoless double beta decay for testingLorentz invariance and the weak equivalence principle as well as contributionsfrom dilaton exchange gravity in the neutrino sector. While neutrinooscillation bounds constrain the region of large mixing of the weak andgravitational eigenstates, we obtain new constraints on violations of Lorentzinvariance and the equivalence principle from neutrinoless double beta decay,applying even in the case of no mixing. Double beta decay thus probes a totallyunconstrained region in the parameter space.

  17. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.


    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements.

  18. Influence of. beta. -phase unhomogeneity on titanium martensite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskij, P.E.; Oshkaderov, S.P.; Svechnikov, V.L. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    Martensite structure is studied, formed by the hardening of unhomogeneous ..beta..-solid solution, its concentration unhomogeneity being formed under accelerated heating while hardening. It is established that changes in morphology and crystal geometry of martensite are observed with hardening temperature increasing. The concentration unhomogeneity of ..beta..-phase may lead to the simultaneous existence of various types of martensite together with the increased quantity of the residual ..beta..-phase.

  19. Determination of the macroscopic elastic constants of a phase embedded in a multiphase polycrystal-application to the {beta}-phase of a Ti-17 titanium based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freour, S.; Gloaguen, D.; Guillen, R.; Girard, E. [Lab. d' Applications des Materiaux a la Mecanique (LAMM), L.A.M.M. - C.R.T.T., Saint Nazaire (France); Francois, M. [Lab. des Systemes Mecaniques et d' Ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS), Univ. De Technologie de Troyes, Troyes (France); Bouillo, J. [Dept. Genie Civil - IUT de Saint Nazaire (France)


    A one-site elastic self-consistent model following the mathematical formalism introduced by Kroener and Eshelby (KE) has been developed in order to solve the case of multiphase materials. This model has been applied to duplex steels and aluminium - silicium carbide metal matrix composites (MMC) in the aim to study the evolution of their stiffness at pseudomacroscopic scale. Simulations justify the usually implicit hypothesis of the identity of the elastic moduli of a given phase, at macroscopic and pseudomacroscopic scales. The implementation of KE model by this hypothesis yields a new implicit formulation for the stiffness of a given unknown phase embedded in a two-phases material. This original characterization method will be applied to the {beta}-phase of Ti-17 alloy. The singular behaviour in terms of residual pseudomacrostress of each phase after uniaxial loadings will be deduced from these data. (orig.)

  20. Identification and cloning of a novel isoform of mouse secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, mSLPI-beta, overexpressed in murine leukemias and a highly liver metastatic tumor, IMC-HA1 cells. (United States)

    Morita, M; Arakawa, H; Nishimura, S


    Several genes showing transcriptional alteration in a highly liver metastatic murine carcinoma cell line, IMC-HA1, were identified by mRNA differential display system. Among them, a gene identical to mSLPI was isolated as mSLPI-alpha and -beta. They were produced through an alternative splicing. Their full-length cDNA sequences were determined, and their expression in various murine tumors and normal tissues was analysed. The deduced translation product of mSLPI-alpha showed 59% identity to hSLPI. Although mSLPI-beta had the same 103-amino-acid sequence from the carboxyl terminus, the amino terminus showed hydrophilicity opposite mSLPI-alpha or hSLPI. The mSLPI-alpha was expressed ubiquitously in various tumor cell lines. Interestingly, however, mSLPI-beta expression was only observed in P388 and L1210 leukemias and IMC-HA1 cells, and in lower amounts in three normal tissues (thymus, lung and spleen), suggesting that mSLPI, and in particular the unusual splicing product, mSLPI-beta, plays a specific role in these cells, including malignant processes of tumor cells.

  1. Noncovalent Interaction Energies in Covalent Complexes: TEM-1 beta-Lactamase and beta-Lactams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)


    The class A {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 is a key bacterial resistance enzyme against {beta}-lactam antibiotics, but little is known about the energetic bases for complementarity between TEM-1 and its inhibitors. Most inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the catalytic Ser70, making the measurement of equilibriumconstants, and hence interaction energies, technically difficult. This study evaluates noncovalent interactions withincovalent complexes by examining the differential stability of TEM-1 and its inhibitor adducts. The thermal denaturation of TEM-1 follows a two-state, reversible model with a melting temperature (T{sub m}) of 51.6 C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding ({Delta}H{sub VH}) of 146.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The stability of the enzyme changes on forming an inhibitor adduct. As expected, some inhibitors stabilize TEM-1; transition-state analogues increase the T{sub m} by up to 3.7 C(1.7 kcal/mol). Surprisingly, all {beta}-lactam covalent acyl-enzyme complexes tested destabilize TEM-1 significantly relative to the apoenzyme. For instance, the clinically used inhibitor clavulanic acid and the {beta}-lactamase-resistant {beta}-lactams moxalactam and imipenem destabilize TEM-1 by over 2.6 C (1.2 kcal/mol) in their covalent adducts. Based on the structure of the TEM-1/imipenem complex (Maveyraud et al., J Am Chem Soc 1998;120:9748-52), destabilization by moxalactam and imipenem is thought to be caused by a steric clash between the side-chain of Asn132 and the 6(7)-{alpha} group of these {beta}-lactams. To test this hypothesis, the mutant enzyme N132A was made. In contrast with wild-type, the covalent complexes between N132A and both imipenem and moxalactam stabilize the enzyme, consistent with the hypothesis. To investigate the structural bases of this dramatic change instability, the structure of N132A/imipenem was determined by X-ray crystallography. In the complex with N132A, imipenemadopts a very different conformation from that observed in the wild

  2. Latency and activation in the control of TGF-beta (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)


    The biological activity of the transforming growth factor-beta's (TGF-beta)3 is tightly controlled by their persistence in the extracellular compartment as latent complexes. Each of the three mammalian isoform genes encodes a product that is cleaved intracellularly to form two polypeptides, each of which dimerizes. Mature TGF-beta, a 24 kD homodimer, is noncovalently associated with the 80 kD latency-associated peptide (LAP). LAP is a fundamental component of TGF-beta that is required for its efficient secretion, prevents it from binding to ubiquitous cell surface receptors, and maintains its availability in a large extracellular reservoir that is readily accessed by activation. This latent TGF-beta complex (LTGF-beta) is secreted by all cells and is abundant both in circulating forms and bound to the extracellular matrix. Activation describes the collective events leading to the release of TGF-beta. Despite the importance of TGF-beta regulation of growth and differentiation in physiological and malignant tissue processes, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms of activation in situ. Recent studies of irradiated mammary gland reveal certain features of TGF-beta 1 activation that may shed light on its regulation and potential roles in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland.

  3. Ubuntu 6.10 Edgy Beta 1发布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    近日,Ubuntu项目发布Ubuntu 6.10 Edgy Eft Beta 1版本,Edgy Eft Beta 1包含新的2.6.17版本内核、Xorg 7.1、GNOME 2.16正式版、新的Firefox浏览器Firefox2.0 Beta2、OpenOffice.org2.0.4RC2版本、聊天软件Gaim的新版本2.0 Beta3.1和新的init系统。

  4. Management of pregnancy in a patient with beta thalassaemia major. (United States)

    Butwick, A; Findley, I; Wonke, B


    beta thalassaemia is one of the world's most wide-spread monogenetic disorders. Advances in the management of beta thalassaemia major by extensive blood transfusions and chelation therapy have improved survival of patients into adult life. Due to the prolonged life expectancy and improvements in quality of life, pregnancy has now become an important issue for patients and clinicians. We report a case of a pregnant patient with beta thalassaemia major who underwent a successful caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. The multidisciplinary approach to management of beta thalassaemia major and pregnancy is discussed.

  5. A new ultrasensitive bioluminogenic enzyme substrate for beta-galactosidase. (United States)

    Geiger, R; Schneider, E; Wallenfels, K; Miska, W


    A derivative of D-luciferin, D-luciferin-O-beta-galactoside, was synthesized and used as highly sensitive substrate for beta-galactosidase. The substrate was physicochemically characterized. Enzymatic cleavage of the new compound by beta-galactosidase was demonstrated and kinetic constants Km, Vmax, kcat and kcat/Km have been determined. The compound has been proved to be a highly sensitive substrate for beta-galactosidase, permitting a limit of detection of 3.7 x 10(-19) mol of enzyme per assay.

  6. Interaction between {beta}-Lapachone and Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Song, Si Yeol; Shin, Seong Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon [College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heon Joo [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Won [University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (United States)


    {beta}-Lapachone (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2Hnaphtho[ 1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione)({beta}-lap) was originally isolated from the bark of the Lapacho tree growing in South America (1). This drug has attracted considerable interest in recent years because of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines through a mechanism that works independent of the cell cycle of p53 status. Interestingly, {beta}-lap has been reported to react synergistically with Taxol, mitomycin C, genistein, and ionizing radiation (IR) (2-3) in vitro against cultured cancer cells. It has also been reported that {beta}-lap inhibits the repair of potentially lethal radiation damage by converting repairable single-stranded DNA breaks into repair-resistant, double-stranded DNA breaks. Thus {beta}- lap has been thought to act as a radiation sensitizer by inhibiting DNA damage repair. In the present study, we observed that IR sensitizes cancer cells to {beta}-lap. It thus appeared that the synergistic interaction of IR and {beta}-lap in killing cancer cells was due to an increase in cellular susceptibility to {beta}-lap, probably in addition to {beta}-lap. induced radiosensitization.

  7. Aluminium, beta-amyloid and non-enzymatic glycosylation. (United States)

    Exley, C; Schley, L; Murray, S; Hackney, C M; Birchall, J D


    The non-enzymatic glycosylation of beta-amyloid is implicated in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. However, controversy surrounds the nature of any involvement and a potential mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We present evidence of an aluminium-induced aggregation of the A beta P(25-35) peptide and speculate that the mechanism of formation of our ordered beta-amyloid aggregates might involve non-enzymatic glycosylation and/or site-specific crosslinking of beta-amyloid fibrils by atomic aluminium.

  8. Beta 2-Microglobulin clearance as measured by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.


    We describe a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 mu) in serum and urine. We incubated aliquots of diluted samples at room temperature for 1 h with /sup 125/I-labeled beta 2 mu and a rabbit antiserum monospecific for human beta 2 mu, and separated the phases by the double-antibody technique. The logit-log transformed dose-response curve was linear in the range 2 to 64 ng, equivalent to 0.5 to 16 mg/L of serum and 0.5 to 320 mg/L of urine. Assay sensitivity was 2.4 ng of beta 2 mu. Validation studies included tests of precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 25 normal individuals, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 mg/L and 40 to 360 micrograms/24 h; the clearance of beta 2 mu was 8 to 130 microL/min. In 21 renal allograft recipients tested one to five weeks after transplantation, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 3.9 to 15.6 mg/L and 7.2 to 611 mg/24 h; beta 2 mu clearance was 0.60 to 33.3 mL/min. Values for both serum and urine correlated well with severity of allograft rejection.

  9. High beta-Lactamase Levels Change the Pharmacodynamics of beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hengzhuang; Ciofu, Oana; Yang, Liang


    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is a frequent problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This resistance is mainly due to the hyperproduction of chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase and biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the role of beta-lactamase in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of ceftazidime and imipenem on P. aeruginosa biofilms. P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its corresponding beta-lactamase-overproducing mutant, PA Delta DDh2Dh3, were used in this study. Biofilms of these two strains in flow chambers...... activity of ceftazidime was observed for beta-lactamase-overproducing biofilms of P. aeruginosa in all three models. Ceftazidime showed time-dependent killing on planktonic PAO1 and PA Delta DDh2Dh3. This difference is probably due to the special distribution and accumulation in the biofilm matrix of beta...

  10. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 2 beta-alkenyl penam sulfone acids as inhibitors of beta-lactamases. (United States)

    Richter, H G; Angehrn, P; Hubschwerlen, C; Kania, M; Page, M G; Specklin, J L; Winkler, F K


    A general method for synthesis of 2 beta-alkenyl penam sulfones has been developed. The new compounds inhibited most of the common types of beta-lactamase. The level of activity depended very strongly on the nature of the substituent in the 2 beta-alkenyl group. The inhibited species formed with the beta-lactamase from Citrobacter freundii 1205 was sufficiently stable for X-ray crystallographic studies. These, together with UV absorption spectroscopy and studies of chemical degradation, suggested a novel reaction mechanism for the new inhibitors that might account for their broad spectrum of action. The (Z)-2 beta-acrylonitrile penam sulfone Ro 48-1220 was the most active inhibitor from this class of compound. The inhibitor enhanced the action of, for example, ceftriaxone against a broad selection of organisms producing beta-lactamases. The organisms included strains of Enterobacteriaceae that produce cephalosporinases, which is an exceptional activity for penam sulfones.

  11. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing an 11-kilodalton beta-galactosidase fusion protein incorporate active beta-galactosidase in virus particles. (United States)

    Huang, C; Samsonoff, W A; Grzelecki, A


    Recombinant plasmids in which vaccinia virus transcriptional regulatory sequences were fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene were constructed for insertion of the lacZ gene into the vaccinia virus genome. beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) was found in some purified recombinant vaccinia virions. By enzyme activity, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and microscopic techniques, the evidence suggested that beta-gal accounted for 5% of the total protein in the virion. These recombinant viruses were constructed so that a portion of the coding sequences of a late vaccinia virus structural polypeptide was fused to the amino terminus of beta-gal to produce the fusion protein. Removal of the coding sequences resulted in the complete loss of beta-gal activity. This demonstrated that a vaccinia virus DNA segment from a late structural gene is responsible for the incorporation of beta-gal into the virion.

  12. Intravenous desensitization to beta-lactam antibiotics. (United States)

    Borish, L; Tamir, R; Rosenwasser, L J


    Patients allergic to penicillin (PCN) often require treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics for life-threatening bacterial infections. In this article, we review our experience with rapid intravenous desensitization for patients who gave a history of PCN allergy and who had hypersensitivity demonstrated by skin tests. Skin testing was performed with both prick and intradermal techniques and with the recommended antibiotic as well as PCN G, penicilloyl polylysine, and a minor determinant mixture. Patients were transferred to the intensive care unit, and desensitization was performed with a buret technique that required minimal preparation and was easily applied to any antibiotic. Fifteen desensitizations in 12 patients were associated with no immediate reactions. One patient developed a delayed reaction consisting of a pruritic rash and angioedema. A second patient developed a more serious delayed serum sickness-like illness with fever, rash, eosinophilia, abnormal liver function tests, and urinary abnormalities. These reactions did not necessitate stopping the antibiotic, although the latter patient required corticosteroids to suppress his symptoms. Rapid intravenous desensitization is a rapid, safe, and effective technique for patients demonstrating hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics who require therapy with these medications.

  13. Apoptosis of beta cells in diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Anuradha, Rachakatla; Saraswati, Mudigonda; Kumar, Kishore G; Rani, Surekha H


    Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Apoptosis in beta cells has been observed in response to diverse stimuli, such as glucose, cytokines, free fatty acids, leptin, and sulfonylureas, leading to the activation of polyol, hexosamine, and diacylglycerol/protein kinase-C (DAG/PKC) pathways that mediate oxidative and nitrosative stress causing the release of different cytokines. Cytokines induce the expression of Fas and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by activating the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κb, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) in the β cells in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Cytokines produced in beta cells also induce proapoptotic members of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The genetic alterations in apoptosis signaling machinery and the pathogenesis of diabetes include Fas, FasL, Akt, caspases, calpain-10, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten). The other gene products that are involved in diabetes are nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2), small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), and Kruppel-like zinc finger protein Gli-similar 3 (GLIS3). The gene products having antiapoptotic nature are Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in type I and type II diabetes. Further studies on the apoptotic genes and gene products in diabetics may be helpful in pharmacogenomics and individualized treatment along with antioxidants targeting apoptosis in diabetes.

  14. Oscillations in Beta UMi - Observations with SMEI

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrant, N J; Elsworth, Y; Spreckley, S A; Stevens, I R


    Aims: From observations of the K4III star Beta UMi we attempt to determine whether oscillations or any other form of variability is present. Methods: A high-quality photometric time series of approximately 1000 days in length obtained from the SMEI instrument on the Coriolis satellite is analysed. Various statistical tests were performed to determine the significance of features seen in the power density spectrum of the light curve. Results: Two oscillations with frequencies 2.44 and 2.92 microhertz have been identified. We interpret these oscillations as consecutive overtones of an acoustic spectrum, implying a large frequency spacing of 0.48 microhertz. Using derived asteroseismic parameters in combination with known astrophysical parameters, we estimate the mass of Beta UMi to be 1.3 +/- 0.3 solar masses. Peaks of the oscillations in the power density spectrum show width, implying that modes are stochastically excited and damped by convection. The mode lifetime is estimated at 18 +/- 9 days.

  15. Neutrinoless double beta decay search with SNO+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozza V.


    Full Text Available The SNO+ experiment is the follow up of SNO. The detector is located 2 km underground in the Vale Canada Ltd.’s Creighton Mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The active volume of the detector consists of 780 tonnes of Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB in an acrylic vessel of 12 m diameter, surrounded by about 9500 PMTs. The main goal of the SNO+ experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. With an initial loading of 0.3% of natural tellurium (nearly 800 kg of 130Te, it is expected to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of about 100 meV after several years of data taking. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, other exciting physical goals can be explored, like the measurement of reactor neutrino oscillations and geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch of supernova neutrinos and studies of solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with water filled detector will start at the end of 2013, while the double beta decay phase will start in 2015.

  16. A background free double beta decay experiment (United States)

    Giomataris, I.


    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is the high-pressure 136Xe emitter where the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is the use of the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides, using a single read-out channel, two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of its higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An escape will be the fabrication of double decay emitters having lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a technology used for particle identification in high-energy physics becomes a powerful tool for rejecting backgrounds in such low-energy experiments.

  17. A background free double beta decay experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioannis


    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is to use the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of their higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An alternative solution could be the development of double decay emitters with lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a te...

  18. 1-(beta-D-Erythrofuranosyl)adenosine. (United States)

    Kline, Paul C; Zhao, Hongqiu; Noll, Bruce C; Oliver, Allen G; Serianni, Anthony S


    The title compound, also known as beta-erythroadenosine, C(9)H(11)N(5)O(3), (I), a derivative of beta-adenosine, (II), that lacks the C5' exocyclic hydroxymethyl (-CH(2)OH) substituent, crystallizes from hot ethanol with two independent molecules having different conformations, denoted (IA) and (IB). In (IA), the furanose conformation is (O)T(1)-E(1) (C1'-exo, east), with pseudorotational parameters P and tau(m) of 114.4 and 42 degrees, respectively. In contrast, the P and tau(m) values are 170.1 and 46 degrees, respectively, in (IB), consistent with a (2)E-(2)T(3) (C2'-endo, south) conformation. The N-glycoside conformation is syn (+sc) in (IA) and anti (-ac) in (IB). The crystal structure, determined to a resolution of 2.0 A, of a cocrystal of (I) bound to the enzyme 5'-fluorodeoxyadenosine synthase from Streptomyces cattleya shows the furanose ring in a near-ideal (O)E (east) conformation (P = 90 degrees and tau(m) = 42 degrees) and the base in an anti (-ac) conformation.

  19. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzichini Daniele


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  20. Effects of the perfusion of beta-, beta2-, or beta3-adrenergic agonists or epinephrine on in situ adipose tissue lipolysis measured by microdialysis in underfed ewes. (United States)

    Ferlay, A; Charret, C; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Chilliard, Y


    The effects of isoproterenol (ISO, a non-selective beta-agonist), terbutaline (TER, a selective beta2-agonist), CL316243 (CL, a selective beta3-agonist), and epinephrine (EPI, beta- and alpha2-agonist) on in situ lipolytic response of s.c. adipose tissue were investigated in vivo, using a microdialysis method to measure glycerol release, in 12 adult nonlactating and ovariectomized, underfed Lacaune ewes. All the adrenergic compounds were perfused for 120 min at 10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M. They had no lipolytic effect at 10(-6) M. Isoproterenol and EPI at 10(-5) and 10(-4) M enhanced, in the same way, maximal response and area under the concentration curve (AUC) of dialysate glycerol, thus suggesting that involvement of alpha2-adrenoceptors in the control of in situ lipolysis is of minor importance in underfed ewes. Terbutaline had only a slight lipolytic effect at 10(-5) M. This low effect could be due to a lower affinity of TER than of ISO for the beta2-adrenoceptors. The beta3-agonist, CL, had no lipolytic effect whatever the concentration perfused. Further studies are needed to prove the putative presence of beta3-adrenoceptors and their possible role in the ovine adipose tissue.

  1. Endocrine expression of the active form of TGF-beta1 in the TGF-beta1 null mice fails to ameliorate lethal phenotype. (United States)

    Longenecker, Glenn; Thyagarajan, Tamizchelvi; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; Flanders, Kathleen C; Factor, Valentina; Miller, Georgina; Ward, Jerrold M; Nalca, Aysegul; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri; Kulkarni, Ashok B


    TGF-beta1 null mice die by 3 to 4 weeks of age due to a severe autoimmune-mediated multifocal inflammation resulting in multi-organ failure. To assess the therapeutic potential of circulating levels of active TGF-beta1, we generated mice with endocrine expression of active TGF-beta1 on a TGF-beta1 null background (TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG)) by crossing TGF-beta1(+/-) mice with transgenic mice (TG) that express recombinant TGF-beta1 specifically in the liver and secrete it in the blood. The TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice exhibit a survival profile similar to the TGF-beta1 (-/-) mice indicating a failure to rescue the lethal phenotype. However, serum TGF-beta1 levels in the TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice were restored to near normal levels with expression in all the tissues, notably in the kidney and spleen. Histopathology showed reduced inflammation in the target tissues, especially in the heart. Interestingly, unlike TGF-beta1 (-/-) mice, the TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice have glomerulonephritis in their kidneys similar to the TG mice. Thus, the phenotype of TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) animal model indicates the potential role of circulating active-TGF-beta1 in reducing inflammation, but its failure to rescue lethality in TGF-beta1 null mice indicates a critical autocrine role of TGF-beta1.

  2. Molecular analysis of the beta-globin gene cluster in the Niokholo Mandenka population reveals a recent origin of the beta(S) Senegal mutation. (United States)

    Currat, Mathias; Trabuchet, Guy; Rees, David; Perrin, Pascale; Harding, Rosalind M; Clegg, John B; Langaney, André; Excoffier, Laurent


    A large and ethnically well-defined Mandenka sample from eastern Senegal was analyzed for the polymorphism of the beta-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11. Five RFLP sites of the 5' region were investigated in 193 individuals revealing the presence of 10 different haplotypes. The frequency of the sickle-cell anemia causing mutation (beta(S)) in the Mandenka estimated from this sample is 11.7%. This mutation was found strictly associated with the single Senegal haplotype. Approximately 600 bp of the upstream region of the beta-globin gene were sequenced for a subset of 94 chromosomes, showing the presence of four transversions, five transitions, and a composite microsatellite polymorphism. The sequence of 22 beta(S) chromosomes was also identical to the previously defined Senegal haplotype, suggesting that this mutation is very recent. Monte Carlo simulations (allowing for a specific balancing selection model, a logistic growth of the population, and variable initial frequencies of the Senegal haplotype) were used to estimate the age of the beta(S) mutation. Resulting maximum-likelihood estimates are 45-70 generations (1,350-2,100 years) for very different demographic scenarios. Smallest confidence intervals (25-690 generations) are obtained under the hypothesis that the Mandenka population is large (N(e) >5,000) and stationary or that it has undergone a rapid demographic expansion to a current size of >5,000 reproducing individuals, which is quite likely in view of the great diversity found on beta(A) chromosomes.

  3. Micellisation and immunoreactivities of dimeric beta-caseins. (United States)

    Yousefi, Reza; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Haertle, Thomas


    Bovine beta-casein (beta-CN) is a highly amphiphilic micellising phospho-protein showing chaperone-like activity in vitro. Recently, existence of multiple sequential epitopes on beta-CN polypeptide chain in both hydrophilic-polar (psi) and hydrophobic-apolar domains (phi) has been evidenced. In order to clarify specific contribution of polar and apolar domains in micellisation process and in shaping immunoreactivity of beta-CN, its dimeric/bi-amphiphilic "quasi palindromic" forms covalently connected by a disulfide bond linking either N-terminal (C4 beta-CND) or C-terminal domain (C208 beta-CND) were produced and studied. Depending on the C- or N-terminal position of inserted cysteine, each dimeric beta-CN contains one polar/apolar region at the centre and two external hydrophobic/hydrophilic ends. Consequently, such casein dimers have radically different polarities/hydrophobicities on their outside surfaces. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements indicate that these dimeric casein molecules form micelles of different sizes depending on arrangement of polar fragments of the beta-CN mutants in their constrained dimers. Non-aggregated dimers have different hydrodynamic diameters that could be explained by their different geometries. Measurements of fluorescence showed more hydrophobic environment of Trp residues of C208 beta-CND, while in similar experimental conditions Trp residues of C4 beta-CND and native beta-CN were more exposed to the polar medium. Both fluorescence and DLS studies showed greater propensity for micellisation of the dimeric beta-CNs, suggesting that the factors inducing the formation of micelles are stronger in the bi-amphiphilic dimers. 1-anilino-naphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) binding studies showed different binding of ANS by these dimers as well as different exposition of ANS binding (hydrophobic) regions in the micellar states. The differences in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) profiles of C4 beta-CND and C208 beta-CND can

  4. Expression in Escherichia coli of cDNA encoding barley beta-amylase and properties of recombinant beta-amylase. (United States)

    Yoshigi, N; Okada, Y; Sahara, H; Koshino, S


    To express the cloned beta-amylase cDNA in Escherichia coli under control of the tac promoter, a plasmid pBETA92 was constructed. The plasmid consisted of 6312 bp. An extract of E. coli JM109 harboring pBETA92 had beta-amylase activity that produced beta-maltose from soluble starch. The enzyme production started in the logarithmic phase, increased linearly, and reached a maximum after 12 h. The recombinant barley beta-amylase gave two major (pI 5.43 and 5.63) and four minor (pI 5.20, 5.36, 5.80, and 6.13) activity bands on isoelectric focusing, and their pIs didn't change throughout the incubation. But Western blot analysis found that one beta-amylase having a molecular weight of about 56,000 was synthesized. The recombinant beta-amylase was purified from the cells by consecutive column chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band of protein on SDS-PAGE but showed heterogeneity on isoelectric focusing. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed that the recombinant beta-amylase lacked four amino acids at positions 2-5 (Glu-Val-Asn-Val) when compared with the presumed amino acid sequence of barley beta-amylase. Therefore, the recombinant beta-amylase consisted of 531 amino acids, and its molecular weight was calculated to be 59,169. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant beta-amylase and the nucleotide sequence of the junction position in plasmid pBETA92 indicated that GTG (Val-5 in the case of barley beta-amylase) at positions 27-29 from the SD sequence (AGGA) was the translation initiation codon. The properties of the recombinant beta-amylase were almost the same as those of barley beta-amylase except for the pI and the Km values for maltohexaose and maltoheptaose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei (UC)


    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  6. Molecular analysis of beta-globin gene mutations among Thai beta-thalassemia children: results from a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyawat B


    Full Text Available Boonchai Boonyawat,1 Chalinee Monsereenusorn,2 Chanchai Traivaree2 1Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders in Thailand. Clinical phenotype ranges from silent carrier to clinically manifested conditions including severe beta-thalassemia major and mild beta-thalassemia intermedia. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in pediatric patients who were followed-up in Phramongkutklao Hospital. Patients and methods: Eighty unrelated beta-thalassemia patients were enrolled in this study including 57 with beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E, eight with homozygous beta-thalassemia, and 15 with heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Mutation analysis was performed by multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (M-ARMS, direct DNA sequencing of beta-globin gene, and gap polymerase chain reaction for 3.4 kb deletion detection, respectively. Results: A total of 13 different beta-thalassemia mutations were identified among 88 alleles. The most common mutation was codon 41/42 (-TCTT (37.5%, followed by codon 17 (A>T (26.1%, IVS-I-5 (G>C (8%, IVS-II-654 (C>T (6.8%, IVS-I-1 (G>T (4.5%, and codon 71/72 (+A (2.3%, and all these six common mutations (85.2% were detected by M-ARMS. Six uncommon mutations (10.2% were identified by DNA sequencing including 4.5% for codon 35 (C>A and 1.1% initiation codon mutation (ATG>AGG, codon 15 (G>A, codon 19 (A>G, codon 27/28 (+C, and codon 123/124/125 (-ACCCCACC, respectively. The 3.4 kb deletion was detected at 4.5%. The most common genotype of beta-thalassemia major patients was codon 41/42 (-TCTT/codon 26 (G>A or betaE accounting for 40%. Conclusion: All of the beta-thalassemia alleles have been characterized by

  7. Effects of amphetamine and beta-endorphin fragments on maze performance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B; de Boer, S.F.


    Fragments of beta-endorphin and amphetamine cause similar effects in some tests of maze behavior in rats. The present study served to compare the influence of amphetamine and two beta-endorphin fragments [beta-endorphin (beta E)-(2-9) and beta E-(2-16)] on maze behavior in more detail. In Experiment

  8. Interactions of protein kinase CK2beta subunit within the holoenzyme and with other proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M; Ahmed, R; Thomsen, B;


    in alpha-beta and beta-beta interactions. We also detected an intramolecular beta interaction within the amino acid stretch 132-165. Using CK2beta as a bait in a two-hybrid library screening several new putative cellular partners have been identified, among them the S6 kinase p90rsk, the putative tumor...

  9. Tandem beta-enamino ester formation and cyclization with o-alkynyl anilines catalyzed by InBr3: efficient synthesis of beta-(N-indolyl)-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters. (United States)

    Murai, Kenichi; Hayashi, Shoko; Takaichi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Yasuyuki; Fujioka, Hiromichi


    A tandem reaction providing beta-(N-indolyl)-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters from beta-keto esters and o-alkynyl anilines was developed. Z-Alkenes were selectively formed due to the stability of the beta-enamino ester as an intermediate of the reaction. This reaction includes the intermolecular beta-enamino ester formation and intramolecular cyclization catalyzed by InBr(3).

  10. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding a major allergenic protein in rice seeds. Homology of the deduced amino acid sequence with members of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family. (United States)

    Izumi, H; Adachi, T; Fujii, N; Matsuda, T; Nakamura, R; Tanaka, K; Urisu, A; Kurosawa, Y


    A cDNA clone of rice major allergenic protein (RAP) was isolated from a cDNA library of maturing rice seeds. The cDNA had an open reading frame (486 nucleotides) which coded a 162 amino acid residue polypeptide comprising a 27-residue signal peptide and a 135-residue mature protein of M(r) 14,764. The deduced amino acid sequence of RAP showed a considerable similarity to barley trypsin inhibitor [1983, J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7998-8003] and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor [1981, Phytochemistry 20, 1781-1784].

  11. Plasma transforming growth factor beta levels in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P; Barten, AD; Van Waarde, MAWH; Vujaskovic, Z; Van Tienhoven, G


    We investigated whether the concentration of circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) yields diagnostic value in breast cancer. Blood was collected from twenty stage I and II breast cancer patients both prior to treatment and after surgical excision of the tumour. Both latent and activ

  12. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (United States)

    ... lysosomes, including mucolipidosis II alpha/beta , are called lysosomal storage disorders. The signs and symptoms of mucolipidosis II alpha/beta are most likely caused by the lack of digestive enzymes within lysosomes and the effects these enzymes have outside the cell. Mutations in ...

  13. Beta-agonisten : stand van zaken en prognoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilt, R.; Haasnoot, W.; Huf, F.A.


    Op dit moment zijn de Beta-agonisten clenbuterol, mabuterol, salbutamol, cimalerol en terbutaline zowel met een multi-screeningsmethode als met een multi-bevestigingsmethode te bepalen. Op korte termijn is te verwachten dat de Beta-agonisten bamethaan, orciprenaline (= metaproterenol) en isoproteren

  14. Monitoring of beta-receptor sensitivity in cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yndgaard, S; Lippert, F K; Bigler, Dennis Richard


    To determine the repeatability of the hemodynamic response to repeated isoproterenol challenge doses to validate the standardized isoproterenol sensitivity test as an index of cardiovascular beta-receptor function.......To determine the repeatability of the hemodynamic response to repeated isoproterenol challenge doses to validate the standardized isoproterenol sensitivity test as an index of cardiovascular beta-receptor function....

  15. AGS vertical beta function measurements for Run 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ahrens, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    One key parameter for running the AGS efficiently is by maintaining a low emittance. To measure emittance, one needs to measure the beta function throughout the cycle. This can be done by measuring the beta function at the ionization profile monitors (IPM) in the AGS. This tech note delves into the motivation, the measurement, and some strides that were made throughout Run15.

  16. Synthesis of conformationally restricted beta-turn mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselstijn, Maarten


    This thesis aims at developing methods for introducing conformational restriction in Beta-turns, the turn elements present in Beta-sheets. A conformationally restricted peptide might either be formed via incorporation of a bridging diamino acids in a growing peptide chain, or via covalent bond formi

  17. Role of IL-1beta in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinarello, Charles A; Donath, Marc Y; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas


    To understand the role of inflammation as the fundamental cause of type 2 diabetes and specifically to examine the contribution of IL-1beta.......To understand the role of inflammation as the fundamental cause of type 2 diabetes and specifically to examine the contribution of IL-1beta....

  18. Facile synthesis of (S)-beta-hydroxy-beta-trichloromethylated aromatic ketones by the regioselective ring cleavage of chiral beta-trichloromethyl-beta-propiolactone under the Friedel-Crafts conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, T; Ito, T; Fujimoto, K; Shimizu, M; Wynberg, H; Staring, EGJ


    The reaction of enantiomerically pure beta-trichloromethyl-beta-propiolactone (1) as a chiral building block with an aromatic compound in the presence of Lewis acid provided an acylated product with a chiral trichloromethyl carbinol moiety. The acylated product was used as an effective chiral syntho

  19. Response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeter to beta radiation. (United States)

    Kumar, Munish; Gupta, Anil; Pradhan, S M; Bakshi, A K; Chougaonkar, M P; Babu, D A R


    Quantitative estimate of the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters (DRDs) to various beta sources was performed. It has been established that the ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters do not respond to beta particles having energy (Emax)1 MeV, the DRDs exhibit measureable response and the values are ~8%, ~14% and ~27% per mSv for natural uranium, (90)Sr/(90)Y and (106)Ru/(106)Rh beta sources respectively. As the energy of the beta particles increases, the response also increases. The response of DRDs to beta particles having energy>1 MeV arises due to the fact that the thickness of the chamber walls is less than the maximum range of beta particles. This may also be one of the reasons for disparity between doses measured with passive/legal dosimeters (TLDs) and DRDs in those situations in which radiation workers are exposed to mixed field of gamma photons and beta particles especially at uranium processing plants, nuclear (power and research) reactors, waste management facilities and fuel reprocessing plants etc. The paper provides the reason (technical) for disparity between the doses recorded by TLDs and DRDs in mixed field of photons and beta particles.

  20. Role for DNA polymerase beta in response to ionizing radiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.; Verwijs-Janssen, M.; Cramers, P.; Begg, A.C.; Vens, C.


    Evidence for a role of DNA polymerase beta in determining radiosensitivity is conflicting. In vitro assays show an involvement of DNA polymerase beta in single strand break repair and base excision repair of oxidative damages, both products of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless the lack of DNA polymer

  1. Geographical patterns in the beta diversity of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao


    Beta diversity (i.e. species turnover rate across space) is fundamental for understanding mechanisms controlling large-scale species richness patterns. However, the influences on beta diversity are still a matter of debate. In particular, the relative role of environmental and spatial processes (...

  2. Interleukin-1 beta targeted therapy for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maedler, K.; Dharmadhikari, G.; Schumann, D.M.


    Since having been cloned in 1984, IL-1beta has been the subject of over 22,000 citations in Pubmed, among them over 800 reviews. This is because of its numerous effects. IL-1beta is a regulator of the body's inflammatory response and is produced after infection, injury, and antigenic challenge...

  3. Perioperative beta blockers in patients having non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pranesh, Shruthi


    American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on perioperative assessment recommend perioperative beta blockers for non-cardiac surgery, although results of some clinical trials seem not to support this recommendation. We aimed to critically review the evidence...... to assess the use of perioperative beta blockers in patients having non-cardiac surgery....

  4. beta-Catenin regulates airway smooth muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Sepp R.; Van Ziel, Anna M.; Baarsma, Hoeke A.; Gosens, Reinoud


    Jansen SR, Van Ziel AM, Baarsma HA, Gosens R. beta-Catenin regulates airway smooth muscle contraction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299: L204-L214, 2010. First published May 14, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00020.2010.-beta-Catenin is an 88-kDa member of the armadillo family of proteins that is a

  5. Proliferation of sorted human and rat beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnaud, G; Bosco, D; Berney, T;


    The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors.......The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors....

  6. Gastrointestinal hyperplasia with altered expression of DNA polymerase beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Yoshizawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered expression of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol beta over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol beta. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol beta over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol beta expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol beta in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol beta expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation.

  7. Bayesian Analysis for Binomial Models with Generalized Beta Prior Distributions. (United States)

    Chen, James J.; Novick, Melvin, R.


    The Libby-Novick class of three-parameter generalized beta distributions is shown to provide a rich class of prior distributions for the binomial model that removes some restrictions of the standard beta class. A numerical example indicates the desirability of using these wider classes of densities for binomial models. (Author/BW)

  8. Library Book Circulation and the Beta-Binomial Distribution. (United States)

    Gelman, E.; Sichel, H. S.


    Argues that library book circulation is a binomial rather than a Poisson process, and that individual book popularities are continuous beta distributions. Three examples demonstrate the superiority of beta over negative binomial distribution, and it is suggested that a bivariate-binomial process would be helpful in predicting future book…

  9. Beta-glucosidases and nucleic acids encoding same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    and pharmaceuticals. Several enzymes of the newly identified strain are efficient in degradation of lignocellulosic biomasses. In particular one enzyme has been identified and characterised as having improved beta-glucosidase activity. The identified beta-glucosidase has improved thermal stability, while maintaining...

  10. High harmonic fast waves in high beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki


    High harmonic fast magnetosonic wave in high beta/high dielectric plasmas is investigated. including the finite-Larmor-radius effects. In this regime, due to the combination of group velocity slow down and the high beta enhancement, the electron absorption via electron Landau and electron magnetic pumping becomes significant enough that one can expect a strong ({approximately} 100%) single pass absorption. By controlling the wave spectrum, the prospect of some localized electron heating and current drive appears to be feasible in high beta low-aspect-ratio tokamak regimes. Inclusion of finite-Larmor-radius terms shows an accessibility limit in the high ion beta regime ({beta}{sub i} = 50% for a deuterium plasma) due to mode-conversion into an ion Bernstein-wave-like mode while no beta limit is expected for electrons. With increasing ion beta, the ion damping can increase significantly particularly near the beta limits. The presence of energetic ion component expected during intense NBI and {alpha}-heating does not appear to modify the accessibility condition nor cause excessive wave absorption.

  11. Symmetry violations in nuclear and neutron beta decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, K. K.; Wilschut, H. W.; Timmermans, R. G. E.


    The role of beta decay as a low-energy probe of physics beyond the standard model is reviewed. Traditional searches for deviations from the standard model structure of the weak interaction in beta decay are discussed in light of constraints from the Large Hadron Collider and the neutrino mass. Limit

  12. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  13. Lithium and neuropsychiatric therapeutics: neuroplasticity via glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, beta-catenin, and neurotrophin cascades. (United States)

    Wada, Akihiko


    Mood disorders are not merely attributed to the functional defect of neurotransmission, but also are due to the structural impairment of neuroplasticity. Chronic stress decreases neurotrophin levels, precipitating or exacerbating depression; conversely, antidepressants increase expression of various neurotrophins (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor), thereby blocking or reversing structural and functional pathologies via promoting neurogenesis. Since the worldwide approval of lithium therapy in 1970, lithium has been used for its anti-manic, antidepressant, and anti-suicidal effects, yet the therapeutic mechanisms at the cellular level remain not-fully defined. During the last five years, multiple lines of evidence have shown that the mood stabilization and neurogenesis by lithium are due to the lithium-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), allowing accumulation of beta-catenin and beta-catenin-dependent gene transcriptional events. Altered levels of GSK-3beta and beta-catenin are associated with various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, while various classical neuropsychiatric drugs inhibit GSK-3beta and up-regulate beta-catenin expression. In addition, evidence has emerged that insulin-like growth factor-I enhances antidepression, anti-anxiety, memory, neurogenesis, and angiogenesis; antidepressants up-regulate expression of insulin-like growth factor-I, while insulin-like growth factor-I up-regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and its receptor TrkB level, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced synaptic protein levels. More importantly, physical exercise and healthy diet raise transport of peripheral circulating insulin-like growth factor I into the brain, reinforcing the expression of neurotrophins (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and the strength of cell survival signalings (e.g., phosphoinositide 3-kinase / Akt / GSK-3beta pathway

  14. DNA polymerase-beta is expressed early in neurons of Alzheimer's disease brain and is loaded into DNA replication forks in neurons challenged with beta-amyloid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Copani; J.J.M. Hoozemans; F. Caraci; M. Calafiore; E.S. van Haastert; R. Veerhuis; A.J.M. Rozemuller; E. Aronica; M.A. Sortino; F. Nicoletti


    Cultured neurons exposed to synthetic beta-amyloid (A beta) fragments reenter the cell cycle and initiate a pathway of DNA replication that involves the repair enzyme DNA polymerase-beta (DNA pol-beta) before undergoing apoptotic death. In this study, by performing coimmunoprecipitation experiments

  15. Weak decays and double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, H.W.


    Work to measure the ..sigma../sup +/ 0 degree differential cross section in the reaction K/sup -/p ..-->.. ..sigma../sup +/..pi../sup -/ at several incident K/sup -/ momenta between 600 and 800 MeV/c as well as the asymmetries in the decays of polarized ..sigma../sup +/'s into protons and neutral pions and of polarized ..sigma../sup -/'s into neutrons and negative pions in collaboration with experimenters from Yale, Brookhaven, and the University of Pittsburgh (Brookhaven experiment 702) has been completed. Data from this experiment is currently being analyzed at Yale. Work is currently underway to develop and construct an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in thin foils of Mo/sup 100/ in collaboration with experimenters from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Development work on the solid state silicon detectors should be complete in the next six months and construction should e well underway within the next year.

  16. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnell, J


    SNO+ will search for neutrinoless double beta decay by loading 780 tonnes of linear alkylbenzene liquid scintillator with O(tonne) of neodymium. Using natural Nd at 0.1% loading will provide 43.7 kg of 150Nd given its 5.6% abundance and allow the experiment to reach a sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass of 100-200 meV at 90% C.L in a 3 year run. The SNO+ detector has ultra low backgrounds with 7000 tonnes of water shielding and self-shielding of the scintillator. Distillation and several other purification techniques will be used with the aim of achieving Borexino levels of backgrounds. The experiment is fully funded and data taking with light-water will commence in 2012 with scintillator data following in 2013.

  17. Fluxon Modeling of Low-Beta Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    DeForest, C E; Forest, Craig E. De; Kankelborg, Charles C.


    We have developed a new, quasi-Lagrangian approach for numerical modeling of magnetohydrodynamics in low to moderate $\\beta$ plasmas such as the solar corona. We introduce the concept of a ``fluxon'', a discretized field line. Fluxon models represent the magnetic field as a skeleton of such discrete field lines, and interpolate field values from the geometry of the skeleton where needed, reversing the usual direction of the field line transform. The fluxon skeleton forms the grid for a collection of 1-D Eulerian models of plasma along individual flux tubes. Fluxon models have no numerical resistivity, because they preserve topology explicitly. Our prototype code, \\emph{FLUX}, is currently able to find 3-D nonlinear force-free field solutions with a specified field topology, and work is ongoing to validate and extend the code to full magnetohydrodynamics. FLUX has significant scaling advantages over conventional models: for ``magnetic carpet'' models, with photospheric line-tied boundary conditions, FLUX simul...

  18. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris. (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele


    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  19. An essay on Bion's beta function. (United States)

    Oliner, Marion M


    Among the major theorists studying the effect of the external world on the individual, none had a more ambiguous relationship to the psychic manifestations of the environment than Wilfred Bion. On the one hand his theory of the mind contained a new concept, beta elements, to depict the intrusion of the material world into the mental sphere, while on the other he radically opposed the use of sensory perception as a source for clinical insight. The author examines this dichotomy as an outgrowth of her interest in the place of external reality in psychoanalytic theory. As a result, this essay is an attempt to clarify the source for Bion's theorizing, in order to be more specific about the applicability of his concepts and his precepts.

  20. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay: 2015 Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dell’Oro


    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino masses through the observation of oscillations boosted the importance of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ. In this paper, we review the main features of this process, underlining its key role from both the experimental and theoretical point of view. In particular, we contextualize the 0νββ in the panorama of lepton number violating processes, also assessing some possible particle physics mechanisms mediating the process. Since the 0νββ existence is correlated with neutrino masses, we also review the state of the art of the theoretical understanding of neutrino masses. In the final part, the status of current 0νββ experiments is presented and the prospects for the future hunt for 0νββ are discussed. Also, experimental data coming from cosmological surveys are considered and their impact on 0νββ expectations is examined.

  1. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse


    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  2. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse R.


    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  3. Gauge vectors and double beta decay (United States)

    Fonseca, Renato M.; Hirsch, Martin


    We discuss contributions to neutrinoless double beta (0 ν β β ) decay involving vector bosons. The starting point is a list of all possible vector representations that may contribute to 0 ν β β decay via d =9 or d =11 operators at tree level. We then identify gauge groups which contain these vectors in the adjoint representation. Even though the complete list of vector fields that can contribute to 0 ν β β up to d =11 is large (a total of 46 vectors), only a few of them can be gauge bosons of phenomenologically realistic groups. These latter cases are discussed in some more detail, and lower (upper) limits on gauge boson masses (mixing angles) are derived from the absence of 0 ν β β decay.

  4. The C-terminal region of laminin beta chains modulates the integrin binding affinities of laminins. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi


    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins. Because alpha3beta1 contains the "X2-type" variable region in the alpha3 subunit and alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 contain the "X1-type" region in the alpha6 subunit, we hypothesized that only integrins containing the X2-type region were capable of discriminating between beta1-laminins and beta2-laminins. In support of this possibility, a putative X2-type variant of alpha6beta1 was produced and found to bind preferentially to beta2-laminins. Production of a series of swap mutants between the beta1 and beta2 chains revealed that the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the coiled-coil domain were responsible for the enhanced integrin binding by beta2-laminins. Taken together, the results provide evidence that the C-terminal region of beta chains is involved in laminin recognition by integrins and modulates the binding affinities of laminins toward X2-type integrins.

  5. [Functional analysis of transforming growth factor-beta type II dominant negative receptor]. (United States)

    Takarada, M


    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional homodimeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 25 KDa. TGF-beta transduces signals by forming heteromeric complexes of their type-I (T beta R-I) and type-II (T beta R-II) serin/threonine kinase receptors. TGF-beta binds first to T beta R-II receptor, and then the ligand in this complex is recognized by T beta R-I, resulting in formation of a heteromeric receptor complex composed of T beta R-I and T beta R-II. Once received, T beta R-I becomes phosphorylated in the GS domain by the associated constitutively active T beta R-II and transmits the downstream signal. It has been reported that formation of the heteromeric complex is indispensible at least in epithelial cells for growth inhibition and extracellular matrix production induced by TGF-beta. In this study, the functional role of T beta R-II for the TGF-beta-induced signals in osteoblastic cells was investigated by using a dominant negative type of T beta R-II mutant receptors (T beta RIIDNR). ROS 17/2.8 and MG 63 cells were found to express T beta R-I, T beta R-II, and T beta R-III, and their cell growth was inhibited by TGF-beta, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity was stimulated. Cells that were stably transfected with the T beta RIIDNR plasmid showed decreased response to TGF-beta during growth and alkaline phosphatase activity. These results indicate that the intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain of T beta R-II is essential for signal transduction of the TGF-beta-induced alkaline phosphatase activity as well as growth inhibition.

  6. Two new beta-chain variants: Hb Tripoli [beta26(B8)Glu-->Ala] and Hb Tizi-Ouzou [beta29(B11)Gly-->Ser]. (United States)

    Lacan, Philippe; Becchi, Michel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Aubry, Martine; Ffrench, Martine; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain


    Two new beta-globin chain variants: Hb Tripoli: codon 26, GAG-->GCG [beta26(B8)Glu-->Ala] and Hb Tizi-Ouzou: codon 29, GGC-->AGC [beta29(B11)Gly-->Ser] are described on the first exon of the beta-globin gene. The two variants are characterized by DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). Hematological abnormalities were found in the two carriers. The presence of microcytosis and hypochromia is explained by an additional homozygous 3.7 kb alpha(+) thalassemic deletion for the carrier of Hb Tizi-Ouzou. Hb Tizi-Ouzou showed a slight instability in vitro. The same hematological abnormalities associated with anemia are difficult to explain for Hb Tripoli's carrier in the absence of an alpha-globin genes abnormality and could suggest a possible abnormal splicing.

  7. Resistive MHD studies of high-beta tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, V.E.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.


    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity in high-beta tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations have been built on earlier low-beta techniques, but the beta effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an x-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current-driven modes at low beta to predominantly pressure-driven modes at high beta is described. The nonlinear studies yield x-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  8. Resistive MHD studies of high-. beta. -tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Garcia, L.


    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the MHD activity in high-..beta.. tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations built on earlier low ..beta.. techniques, but the ..beta.. effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes at low ..beta.. to predominantly pressure driven modes at high ..beta.. is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  9. Rational numbers with purely periodic $\\beta$-expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczewski, Boris; Siegel, Anne; Steiner, Wolfgang


    We study real numbers $\\beta$ with the curious property that the $\\beta$-expansion of all sufficiently small positive rational numbers is purely periodic. It is known that such real numbers have to be Pisot numbers which are units of the number field they generate. We complete known results due to Akiyama to characterize algebraic numbers of degree 3 that enjoy this property. This extends results previously obtained in the case of degree 2 by K. Schmidt, Hama and Imahashi. Let $\\gamma(\\beta)$ denote the supremum of the real numbers $c$ in $(0,1)$ such that all positive rational numbers less than $c$ have a purely periodic $\\beta$-expansion. We prove that $\\gamma(\\beta)$ is irrational for a class of cubic Pisot units that contains the smallest Pisot number $\\eta$. This result is motivated by the observation of Akiyama and Scheicher that $\\gamma(\\eta)=0.666 666 666 086 ...$ is surprisingly close to 2/3.

  10. Mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in beta-cells. (United States)

    Stiles, Linsey; Shirihai, Orian S


    Mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the regulation of mitochondrial shape as well as various mitochondrial functions and quality control. This is of particular interest in the beta-cell because of the key role mitochondria play in the regulation of beta-cell insulin secretion function. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the development of Type 2 Diabetes. Genetic tools that shift the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission result in alterations to beta-cell function and viability. Additionally, conditions that induce beta-cell dysfunction, such as exposure to a high nutrient environment, disrupt mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. While it has been shown that mitochondria display a fragmented morphology in islets of diabetic patients and animal models, the mechanism behind this is currently unknown. Here, we review the current literature on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in the beta-cell as well as some of the unanswered question in this field.

  11. Transient oxidation of single-crystal beta-NiAl (United States)

    Doychak, J.; Smialek, J. L.; Mitchell, T. E.


    The transient oxidation of beta-NiAl in air at 800 C and 1100 C has been studied using electron microscopy. The oxide scale consists predominantly of metastable Al2O3 phases. Theta-Al2O3 is the major oxide phase within 10.0 hr of oxidation at 800 C and 0.1 hr at 1100 C. The scales form epitaxially on (001) sub beta and (012) sub beta specimens throughout the transient stage, whereas the degree of preferred oxide orientation decreases with oxidation time on (011) sub beta and (111) sub beta specimens. The orientation relationships reflect the small mismatch between parallel close-packed directions in the metal and in the cation sublattice of the oxides. The correlation of distinctive oxide surface morphologies with internal structural defects indicates the strong tendency of the Al2O3 scale to grow via short-circuit diffusion paths.

  12. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H


    OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative......-1988. SUBJECTS: Nonpregnant and nonlactating women aged 18-44 (n = 610). RESULTS: Overall, the use of OC was negatively associated with serum beta-carotene concentration in bi- and multivariable analyses after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary intake of beta-carotene, use of vitamin...... supplements, body mass index, pregnancies, and serum concentrations of total triglyceride and cholesterol. A strong interaction between OC use and age on beta-carotene concentration was observed. While no relationship between OC use and serum beta-carotene was seen in the youngest age-group (18-24 y...

  13. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuguo Shen; Ying Zhang; Chao Jin; Ying Cao; Wei Gao; Lishan Cui


    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster nucleation rate. Furthermore, the emulsion system could stabilize the beta product and retarded its further transformation to ZSM-5 even under the high crystallization temperature at 453 K. Additionally, the beta particle size could be tuned by the adoption of different lengths of alkyl chain in the surfactant and cosurfactant. Control experiments showed each emulsion component played a crucial role in the zeolite beta growth. The approach proposed in this paper might be extended to apply for the syntheses of other types of zeolites with particle size under control.

  14. Levels of Beta-2 Microglobulin and Cystatin C in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kacar


    Full Text Available Aim: Thalassemia is accepted to be the most common genetic disease in the world. This study was performed to establish whether there was a glomerular renal damage, which was usually a less mentioned subject in patients with Beta Thalassemia Major, and to compare urea, creatinine and creatinine clearance with early indicators of kidney damage as Cystatin-C and %u03B2-2 microglobulin as on determining the glomerular damage. Material and Method: This study was prospectively performed in patients, who were regularly followed in the children hematology outpatient clinic with a diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Major. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between urea and levels of creatinine clearance and Cystatin-C. There was a statistically negative relationship between creatinine and creatinine clearance at an advanced level as 53.7% (p: 0.002, p

  15. Characterization of resistance mechanisms to powdery mildew (Erysiphe betae) in beet (Beta vulgaris). (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Prats, Elena; Emeran, Amero A; Rubiales, Diego


    Beet powdery mildew incited by Erysiphe betae is a serious foliar fungal disease of worldwide distribution causing losses of up to 30%. In the present work, we searched for resistance in a germplasm collection of 184 genotypes of Beta vulgaris including fodder (51 genotypes), garden (60 genotypes), leaf (51 genotypes), and sugar (22 genotypes) beet types. Resistant genotypes were identified in the four beet types under study. In addition, mechanisms underlying resistance were dissected through histological studies. These revealed different resistance mechanisms acting at different fungal developmental stages, i.e., penetration resistance, early and late cell death, or posthaustorial resistance. Most genotypes were able to hamper fungal development at several stages. The later are interesting for breeding aiming to resistance durability. Furthermore, characterization of defense mechanisms will be useful for further cellular and molecular studies to unravel the bases of resistance in this species.

  16. Shell Model description of the {beta}{beta} decay of {sup 136}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F. [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Poves, A., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UAM/CSIC, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)


    We study in this Letter the double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe with emission of two neutrinos which has been recently measured by the EXO-200 Collaboration. We use the same shell model framework, valence space, and effective interaction that we have already employed in our calculation of the nuclear matrix element (NME) of its neutrinoless double beta decay. Using the quenching factor of the Gamow-Teller operator which is needed to reproduce the very recent high resolution {sup 136}Xe ({sup 3}He, t) {sup 136}Cs data, we obtain a nuclear matrix element M{sup 2{nu}}=0.025 MeV{sup -1} compared with the experimental value M{sup 2{nu}}=0.019(2) MeV{sup -1}.

  17. Confirmation of the observation of 2. nu. beta. beta. decay of sup 76 Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avignone, F.T. III; Guerard, C.K. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia (USA)); Brodzinski, R.L.; Miley, H.S.; Reeves, J.H. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)); Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Starostin, A.S. (Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki, Moscow (USSR)); Pogosov, V.S.; Tamanyan, A.G. (Erevanskij Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR))


    Two previous independent reports of 2v {beta}{beta} decay by the ITEP-YPI Collaboration, T{sub 1/2}{sup 2v}=(9+-1)x10{sup 20} yr (1{sigma}), and the PNL-USC Collaboration, T{sub 1/2}{sup 2v}=(1.12(+0.48-0.26))x10{sup 21} yr (2{sigma}), are confirmed. A 0.25 kg Ge(Li) detector, isotopically enriched to 85% in {sup 76}Ge, was operated in the PNL-USC ultralow-background facility in the Homestake gold mine. Following a single correction to the data, a spectrum resembling that observed in the earlier PNL-USC experiment, with about the same intensity per {sup 76}Ge atom per year, was observed. The measured half-life is T{sub 1/2}{sup 2v}=(9.2(+0.7-0.4))x10{sup 20} yr (2{sigma}). (orig.).

  18. Differential Regulation of Human Thymosin Beta 15 Isoforms by Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (United States)

    Banyard, Jacqueline; Barrows, Courtney; Zetter, Bruce R.


    We recently identified an additional isoform of human thymosin beta 15 (also known as NB-thymosin beta, gene name TMSB15A) transcribed from an independent gene, and designated TMSB15B. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these isoforms were differentially expressed and functional. Our data show that the TMSB15A and TMSB15B isoforms have distinct expression patterns in different tumor cell lines and tissues. TMSB15A was expressed at higher levels in HCT116, DU145, LNCaP and LNCaP-LN3 cancer cells. In MCF-7, SKOV-3, HT1080 and PC-3MLN4 cells, TMSB15A and TMSB15B showed approximately equivalent levels of expression, while TMSB15B was the predominant isoform expressed in PC-3, MDA-MB-231, NCI-H322 and Caco-2 cancer cells. In normal human prostate and prostate cancer tissues, TMSB15A was the predominant isoform expressed. In contrast, normal colon and colon cancer tissue expressed predominantly TMSB15B. The two gene isoforms are also subject to different transcriptional regulation. Treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with transforming growth factor beta 1 repressed TMSB15A expression but had no effect on TMSB15B. siRNA specific to the TMSB15B isoform suppressed cell migration of prostate cancer cells to epidermal growth factor, suggesting a functional role for this second isoform. In summary, our data reveal different expression patterns and regulation of a new thymosin beta 15 gene paralog. This may have important consequences in both tumor and neuronal cell motility. PMID:19296525

  19. An effective method to accurately calculate the phase space factors for $\\beta^- \\beta^-$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Andrei


    Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates, and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.

  20. Evidence for novel beta-sheet structures in Iowa mutant beta-amyloid fibrils. (United States)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Meredith, Stephen C


    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of beta-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-Abeta40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) and 1.07 x 10(-4) min(-1) for D23N-Abeta40 and the wild-type peptide WT-Abeta40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-beta pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 A and a broad reflection at 9.4 A, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-Abeta40 fibrils (10.4 A). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel beta-sheet structure commonly found in WT-Abeta40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel beta-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through (13)C-(13)C and (15)N-(13)C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  1. Use of beta blockers in various clinical states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Vesna V.


    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the convincing evidence, a decline in mortality rate has been achieved with beta-blockers in patients with an acute myocardial infarction and in post-infarction follow-up. In fact, there has been a clear reduction of sudden coronary death. The necessary condition for the efficiency of beta-blockers is an early use. They are also a medication of choice for angina after an infarction. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of beta-blockers after a myocardial infarction in various clinical states and to eliminate doubts concerning their prescription. Beta blockers Even in conditions considered contraindications for administration of beta blockers such as old age, diabetes, non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, arterial disease, heart insufficiency, ventricular arrhythmias, renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and depression, patients benefit from beta blockers when they are given along with a right choice of the medication and a regular follow-up of the patient. Preference is given to cardioselective beta blockers in patients with diabetes or lung disease. Beta-blockers do not cause long-term lipid alterations. Therefore, the matter of clinically significant alterations of lipids or blood glucose levels should not need further consideration as a problem of the treatment of diabetics. Discussion and conclusion. Investigations have proved that the use of beta-blockers reduces the development of cerebrovascular accidents, heart insufficiency and hypertension. Despite strong arguments and numerous recommendations, beta-blockers have not been accepted to a sufficient extent as an integral part of treatment of acute coronary syndrome and related diseases, to the detriment of many lost lives and in spite of favourable pharmaco-economic aspect.

  2. Beta adrenoreceptors in the rabbit bladder detrusor muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.F.; Marks, B.H.


    This study examines the beta adrenergic receptors of the rabbit detrusor smooth muscle, employing (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) as a ligand for the binding of beta adrenergic receptors. Saturation binding experiments on the isolated membrane fraction yielded a KD for ICYP of 14.7 pM and a maximum binding of 147.6 fmol/mg of protein. Displacement of labeled ICYP by a series of beta adrenergic agents yielded the following KD values for the combined high and low affinity binding sites: I-propranolol, 0.76 nM; ICI 118,551, 1.7 nM; zinterol, 38.0 nM; metoprolol, 3.5 microM; and practolol, 61.4 microM. When these displacement experimental results were compared to KD values from other reported binding studies with ICYP for beta adrenoreceptors, both the order of potency and the KD values indicated primarily beta-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes. Computer program Scatfit analysis of the displacement curves indicated a single slope and affinity constant for all five beta adrenergic agents. Hofstee plots for zinterol, ICI 118,551 and metoprolol, however, were not linear and indicated that minor populations of beta-1 adrenoreceptors were also present as both high and low affinity binding sites could be defined. It is concluded that the primary receptor population is beta-2 and that this tissue is heterogenous with a small population of beta-1 adrenoreceptors representing approximately 13 to 23% of the total beta adrenoreceptor population.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (United States)

    ... due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency Enable Javascript ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency is ...

  4. Thermodynamics in $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta},\\phi)$ theory of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zubair, M; Bahamonde, Sebastian


    First and second laws of black hole thermodynamics are examined at the apparent horizon of FRW spacetime in $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta} ,\\phi)$ gravity, where $R$, $R_{\\alpha\\beta}$ and $\\phi$ are the Ricci scalar, Ricci invariant and the scalar field respectively. In this modified theory, Friedmann equations are formulated for any spatial curvature. These equations can be presented into the form of first law of thermodynamics $T_{h}d\\hat{S}_{h}+ T_{h}d_{i}\\hat{S}_{h}+W dV=dE$, where $d_{i}\\hat{S}_{h}$ is an extra entropy term because of the non-equilibrium presentation of the equations. The generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) is expressed in an inclusive form where these results can be represented, in GR, $f(R)$ and $f(R, \\phi)$ gravities. Finally to check the validity of GSLT, we take some particular models and produce constraints of the parameters.

  5. Planetary companions in K giants beta Cancri, mu Leonis, and beta Ursae Minoris

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B -C; Park, M -G; Mkrtichian, D E; Hatzes, A P; Kim, K -M


    Auns. The aim of our paper is to investigate the low-amplitude and long-period variations in evolved stars with a precise radial velocity (RV) survey. Methods. The high-resolution, the fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) was used from 2003 to 2013 for a radial velocity survey of giant stars as part of the exoplanet search program at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO). Results. We report the detection of three new planetary companions orbiting the K giants beta Cnc, mu Leo, and beta UMi. The planetary nature of the radial velocity variations is supported by analyzes of ancillary data. The HIPPARCOS photometry shows no variations with periods close to those in RV variations and there is no strong correlation between the bisector velocity span (BVS) and the radial velocities for each star. Furthermore, the stars show weak or no core reversal in Ca II H lines indicating that they are inactive stars. The companion to beta Cnc has a minimum mass of 7.8 M_Jup in a 605-day orbit wi...

  6. $\\beta$ Pictoris' inner disk in polarized light and new orbital parameters for $\\beta$ Pictoris b

    CERN Document Server

    Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Pueyo, Laurent; Kalas, Paul; Dawson, Rebekah I; Wang, Jason; Perrin, Marshall; Moon, Dae-Sik; Macintosh, Bruce; Ammons, S Mark; Barman, Travis; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine H; Chiang, Eugene; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; De Rosa, Robert J; Draper, Zachary H; Dunn, Jennifer; Duchêne, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Follette, Katherine B; Goodsell, Stephen J; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Ingraham, Patrick; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E; Long, Douglas; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; Marois, Christian; Morzinski, Katie M; Nielsen, Eric L; Palmer, David W; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Schneider, Adam C; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Vasisht, Gautam; Vega, David; Wallace, J Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Wolff, Schuyler G


    We present $H$-band observations of $\\beta$ Pic with the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI's) polarimetry mode that reveal the debris disk between ~0.3" (~6 AU) and ~1.7" (~33 AU), while simultaneously detecting $\\beta$ Pic $b$. The polarized disk image was fit with a dust density model combined with a Henyey-Greenstein scattering phase function. The best fit model indicates a disk inclined to the line of sight ($\\phi=85.27{\\deg}^{+0.26}_{-0.19}$) with a position angle $\\theta_{PA}=30.35{\\deg}^{+0.29}_{-0.28}$ (slightly offset from the main outer disk, $\\theta_{PA}\\approx29{\\deg}$), that extends from an inner disk radius of $23.6^{+0.9}_{-0.6}$ AU to well outside GPI's field of view. In addition, we present an updated orbit for $\\beta$ Pic $b$ based on new astrometric measurements taken in GPI's spectroscopic mode spanning 14 months. The planet has a semi-major axis of $a=9.2^{+1.5}_{-0.4}$AU, with an eccentricity $e\\leq 0.26$. The position angle of the ascending node is $\\Omega=31.75{\\deg}\\pm0.15$, offset from bot...

  7. mRNA expression of iron regulatory genes in beta-thalassemia intermedia and beta-thalassemia major mouse models. (United States)

    Weizer-Stern, Orly; Adamsky, Konstantin; Amariglio, Ninette; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Rechavi, Gideon


    beta-Thalassemia is an inherited anemia in which synthesis of the hemoglobin beta-chain is decreased. The excess unmatched alpha-globin chains accumulate in the growing erythroid precursors, causing their premature death (ineffective erythropoiesis). Clinical features of beta-thalassemia include variably severe anemia and iron accumulation due to increased intestinal iron absorption. The most anemic patients require regular blood transfusions, which exacerbate their iron overload and result in damage to vital organs. The hepatic peptide hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism in mammals, was recently found to be low in the urine of beta-thalassemia patients, compared with healthy controls, despite their iron overload. In our work, we measured by RQ-PCR the liver mRNA expression of hepcidin and other iron regulatory genes in beta-thalassemia major mouse model (C57Bl/6 Hbb(th3/th3)), and compared it with beta-thalassemia intermedia mouse model (C57Bl/6 Hbb(th3/+)) and control mice. We found decreased expression of hepcidin and TfR2 and increased expression of TfR1 and NGAL in the beta-thalassemia mouse models, compared with the control mice. Significant down-regulation of hepcidin expression in beta-thalassemia major, despite iron overload, might explain the increased iron absorption typically observed in thalassemia.

  8. beta-Catenin signaling is required for TGF-beta(1)-induced extracellular matrix production by airway smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, Hoeke A.; Menzen, Mark H.; Halayko, Andrew J.; Meurs, Herman; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Gosens, Reinoud


    Baarsma HA, Menzen MH, Halayko AJ, Meurs H, Kerstjens HA, Gosens R. beta-Catenin signaling is required for TGF-beta(1)-induced extracellular matrix production by airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 301: L956-L965, 2011. First published September 9, 2011; doi: 10.1152/ajplu

  9. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D


    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after...

  10. Interactions between beta subunits of the KCNMB family and Slo3: beta4 selectively modulates Slo3 expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pH and voltage-regulated Slo3 K(+ channel, a homologue of the Ca(2+- and voltage-regulated Slo1 K(+ channel, is thought to be primarily expressed in sperm, but the properties of Slo3 studied in heterologous systems differ somewhat from the native sperm KSper pH-regulated current. There is the possibility that critical partners that regulate Slo3 function remain unidentified. The extensive amino acid identity between Slo3 and Slo1 suggests that auxiliary beta subunits regulating Slo1 channels might coassemble with and modulate Slo3 channels. Four distinct beta subunits composing the KCNMB family are known to regulate the function and expression of Slo1 Channels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the ability of the KCNMB family of auxiliary beta subunits to regulate Slo3 function, we co-expressed Slo3 and each beta subunit in heterologous expression systems and investigated the functional consequences by electrophysiological and biochemical analyses. The beta4 subunit produced an 8-10 fold enhancement of Slo3 current expression in Xenopus oocytes and a similar enhancement of Slo3 surface expression as monitored by YFP-tagged Slo3 or biotin labeled Slo3. Neither beta1, beta2, nor beta3 mimicked the ability of beta4 to increase surface expression, although biochemical tests suggested that all four beta subunits are competent to coassemble with Slo3. Fluorescence microscopy from beta4 KO mice, in which an eGFP tag replaced the deleted exon, revealed that beta4 gene promoter is active in spermatocytes. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that beta4 and Slo3 exhibit comparable mRNA abundance in both testes and sperm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results argue that, for native mouse Slo3 channels, the beta4 subunit must be considered as a potential interaction partner and, furthermore, that KCNMB subunits may have functions unrelated to regulation of the Slo1 alpha subunit.

  11. Peculiarities of high-temperature. beta. -phase formation during rapid heating of titanium-molybdenum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Zhuravlev, A.F.; Zhuravlev, B.F.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Oshkaderov, S.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)


    In the framework of the diffusion mechanism of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation the model for calculating interface location determining the degree of transformation and concentration of the formed ..beta..-phase during continuous heating under different rates in titanium alloys with ..beta..-isomorphous alloying elements is suggested. On the example of Ti-10% Mo alloy the comparison of calculation and experimental results of determining parameters of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation is performed.

  12. Characterization of the inclusion complex ropivacaine: {beta}-cyclodextrin; Caracterizacao do complexo de inclusso ropivacaina: {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail:; Goncalves, Marcos Moises [Universidade de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Carolina Morales; Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro de; Zanella, Luciana; Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Pertinhez, Thelma de Aguiar [Universidade de Parma (Italy). Dept. de Medicina Experimental


    Ropivacaine (RVC) is a widely used local anesthetic. The complexation of RVC with {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) is of great interest for the development of more efficient local anesthetic formulations. The present work focuses on the characterization of the RVC:{beta}-CD complex by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The stoichiometry of the complex is 1:2 RVC:{beta}-CD. DOSY-NMR shows that the association constant is 55.5 M{sup -1}. Longitudinal relaxation time results show that RVC changes its mobility in the presence of {beta}-CD. This study is focused on the physicochemical characterization of inclusion complexes that are potentials options for pain treatment. (author)

  13. Deduced amino acid sequence of the small hydrophobic protein of US avian pneumovirus has greater identity with that of human metapneumovirus than those of non-US avian pneumoviruses. (United States)

    Yunus, Abdul S; Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Huang, Zhuhui; Samal, Siba K


    We report here the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus strain Colorado (APV/CO). The SH gene of APV/CO is 628 nucleotides in length from gene-start to gene-end. The longest ORF of the SH gene encoded a protein of 177 aas in length. Comparison of the deduced aa sequence of the SH protein of APV/CO with the corresponding published sequences of other members of genera metapneumovirus showed 28% identity with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV), but no discernable identity with the APV subgroup A or B. Collectively, this data supports the hypothesis that: (i) APV/CO is distinct from European APV subgroups and belongs to the novel subgroup APV/C (APV/US); (ii) APV/CO is more closely related to hMPV, a mammalian metapneumovirus, than to either APV subgroup A or B. The SH gene of APV/CO was cloned using a genomic walk strategy which initiated cDNA synthesis from genomic RNA that traversed the genes in the order 3'-M-F-M2-SH-G-5', thus confirming that gene-order of APV/CO conforms in the genus Metapneumovirus. We also provide the sequences of transcription-signals and the M-F, F-M2, M2-SH and SH-G intergenic regions of APV/CO.

  14. Clearance of beta-2-microglobulin and middle molecules in haemodiafiltration. (United States)

    Tattersall, James


    Middle molecules, consisting mostly of peptides and small proteins with molecular weight the range of 500-60,000 Da, accumulate in renal failure and contribute to the uraemic toxic state. Beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) with a molecular weight of 11,000 is considered representative of these middle molecules. These solutes are not well cleared by low-flux dialysis. High-flux dialysis will clear middle molecules, partly by internal filtration. This convective component of high-flux dialysis can be enhanced in a predictable way by haemodiafiltration (HDF). The convective and diffusive clearance rates of any middle molecule across any haemodiafilter can be predicted from known or measurable factors such as its sieving coefficient, bound fraction and molecular weight. The removal of middle molecules is also influenced by factors within the patient. Beta2-MG is distributed within the extracellular fluid. During HDF, beta2-MG must transfer into the intravascular compartment across the capillary walls. This transcapillary transfer at a rate of approximately 100 ml/min slows beta2-MG removal from the body. Continuing transfer after the end of a treatment session results in a significant rebound of beta2-MG levels. This intercompartment transfer and its effect on beta2-MG clearance and concentration can be predicted by a 2-compartment model. By extrapolation, the behaviour of other middle molecules can be predicted. The 2-compartment model, which takes non-dialytic beta2-MG clearance at a rate of 3 ml/min and beta2-MG generation at a rate of 0.1 mg/min into account, can predict the effect of any HDF schedule on beta2-MG levels. Low-flux dialysis results in a beta2-MG level of around 40 mg/l. Three times weekly, 4-hour HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 20 mg/l. Long (nocturnal) HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 10 mg/l, compared to physiological levels of less than 5 mg/l.

  15. Sequencing of a 9.9 kb segment on the right arm of yeast chromosome VII reveals four open reading frames, including PFK1, the gene coding for succinyl-CoA synthetase (beta-chain) and two ORFs sharing homology with ORFs of the yeast chromosome VIII. (United States)

    Guerreiro, P; Azevedo, D; Barreiros, T; Rodrigues-Pousada, C


    A 9.9 kb DNA fragment from the right arm of chromosome VII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been sequenced and analysed. The sequence contains four open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 100 amino acids. One gene, PFK1, has already been cloned and sequenced and the other one is the probable yeast gene coding for the beta-subunit of the succinyl-CoA synthetase. The two remaining ORFs share homology with the deduced amino acid sequence (and their physical arrangement is similar to that) of the YHR161c and YHR162w ORFs from chromosome VIII.

  16. Biochemical and molecular characterization of three new variants of AmpC beta-lactamases from Morganella morganii. (United States)

    Power, Pablo; Galleni, Moreno; Ayala, Juan A; Gutkind, Gabriel


    Morganella morganii produces an inducible, chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase. We describe in this study three new variants of AmpC within this species with apparent pIs of 6.6 (M19 from M. morganii strain PP19), 7.4 (M29 from M. morganii strain PP29), and 7.8 (M37 from M. morganii strain PP37). After gene sequencing, deduced amino acid sequences displayed one to six substitutions when compared to the available Morganella AmpC sequences. An AmpR-encoding gene was also found upstream of ampC, including the LysR regulators' helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and the putative T-N11-A-protected region in the ampR-ampC intercistronic sequence. All three AmpC variants were purified from in vitro-generated derepressed mutants and showed overall similar kinetic parameters. None of the observed amino acid changes, occurring at the surface of the protein, appear to have a major influence in their catalytic properties. Morganella AmpCs exhibit the highest catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on classical penicillins, cefoxitin, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefotaxime. Cefotaxime was more effectively hydrolyzed than other oxyimino-cephalosporins, whereas cefepime was 3 log-fold less efficiently hydrolyzed than other cephalosporins such as cephalothin. Several differences with other AmpC beta-lactamases were found. Ampicillin was more efficiently hydrolyzed than benzylpenicillin. High k(cat)/K(m) values were observed for oxacillin and piperacillin, which are usually poor substrates for AmpC. A fairly efficient hydrolysis of imipenem was detected as well. Aztreonam, carbenicillin, and tazobactam were effective transient inactivators of these variants.

  17. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin


    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  18. First direct observation of bound-state beta-decay. Measurements of branching and lifetime of {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+} fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, D.


    The first experimental observation of bound-state beta-decay showed, that due solely to the electron stripping, a stable nuclide, e.g. {sup 163}Dy, became unstable. Also a drastic modification of the half-life of bare {sup 187}Re, from 4.12(2) x 10{sup 10} years down to 32.9(20) years, could be observed. It was mainly due to the possibility for the mother nuclide to decay into a previously inaccessible nuclear level of the daughter nuclide. It was proposed to study a nuclide where this decay mode was competing with continuum-state beta-decay, in order to measure their respective branchings. The ratio {beta}{sub b}/{beta}{sub c} could also be evaluated for the first time. {sup 207}Tl was chosen due to its high atomic number, and Q-value of about 1.4 MeV, small enough to enhance the {beta}{sub b} probability and large enough to allow the use of time-resolved Schottky Mass Spectrometry (SMS) to study the evolution of mother and bound-state beta-decay daughter ions. The decay properties of the ground state and isomeric state of {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+} have been investigated at the GSI accelerator facility in two separate experiments. For the first time {beta}-decay where the electron could go either to a bound state (atomic orbitals) and lead to {sup 207}Pb{sup 81+} as a daughter nuclide, or to a continuum state and lead to {sup 207}Pb{sup 82+}, has been observed. The respective branchings of these two processes could be measured as well. The deduced total nuclear half-life of 255(17) s for {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+}, was slightly modified with respect to the half-life of the neutral atom of 286(2) s. It was nevertheless in very good agreement with calculations based on the assumption that the beta-decay was following an allowed type of transition. The branching {beta}{sub b}/{beta}{sub c}=0.192(20), was also in very good agreement with the same calculations. The application of stochastic precooling allowed to observe in addition the 1348 keV short-lived isomeric state of {sup

  19. Acute administration of interleukin-1beta disrupts motor learning. (United States)

    Larson, Susan J; Hartle, Kelly D; Ivanco, Tammy L


    Proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to disrupt the normal transfer of short-term memory to long-term storage sites. Previous research has focused predominantly on the effect of cytokines on hippocampus-mediated spatial learning. To further understand the effects of cytokines on learning and memory, the authors evaluated the effects of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) on a motor learning task. Male Long-Evans rats were rewarded with food pellets after they traversed a runway. The runway was either flat (control condition) or had up-ended dowels (motor learning condition). Subjects traversed the flat runway or dowel task for 5 days, 10 trials per day, and were treated with either saline or with 4 microg/kg IL-1beta immediately after training on the first 2 days. Rats in the motor learning task treated with IL-1beta were consistently slower at traversing the runway. IL-1beta did not impair performance in the control condition; rats in the flat condition performed similarly regardless of whether they were treated with saline or IL-1beta. These data are the first evidence demonstrating IL-1beta can disrupt performance in a motor learning task.

  20. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering


    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  1. A preclinical approach for gene therapy of beta-thalassemia. (United States)

    Breda, Laura; Kleinert, Dorothy A; Casu, Carla; Casula, Laura; Cartegni, Luca; Fibach, Eitan; Mancini, Irene; Giardina, Patricia J; Gambari, Roberto; Rivella, Stefano


    Lentiviral-mediated beta-globin gene transfer successfully treated beta-thalassemic mice. Based on this result, clinical trials were initiated. To date, however, no study has investigated the efficacy of gene therapy in relation to the nature of the different beta-globin mutations found in patients. Most mutations can be classified as beta(0) or beta(+), based on the amount of beta-globin protein produced. Therefore, we propose that a screening in vitro is necessary to verify the efficacy of gene transfer prior to treatment of individual patients. We used a two-phase liquid culture system to expand and differentiate erythroid progenitor cells (ErPCs) transduced with lentiviral vectors. We propose the use of this system to test the efficiency of lentiviral vectors carrying the human beta-globin gene, to correct the phenotype of ErPCs from patients preparing for gene therapy. This new approach might have profound implications for designing gene therapy and for understanding the genotype/phenotype variability observed in Cooley's anemia patients.

  2. Increased production of beta2-microglobulin after heart transplantation. (United States)

    Erez, E; Aravot, D; Erman, A; Sharoni, E; van Oyk, D J; Raanani, E; Abramov, D; Sulkes, J; Vidne, B A


    Serum beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) levels were measured to evaluate the state of immunoactivation in stable heart transplant recipients. Serum beta2m and renal function of 29 heart transplant recipients were compared with 16 control subjects, who were age and sex matched, and 11 patients with chronic kidney failure. Serum creatinine and 24-hour urine collection for albuminuria were used as markers of renal impairment. Heart transplant recipients with normal renal function (n = 7) had significantly elevated beta2m levels compared with control subjects: 2.6 +/- 0.9 vs 1.66 +/- 0.32 microg/ml, p < or = 0.05. Heart transplant recipients with impaired renal function (n = 22) had significantly elevated beta2m compared with the chronic kidney failure group: 4.42 +/- 1.3 vs 3.49 +/- 0.66 microg/ml (p < or = 0.05); although there was no significant difference in serum creatinine levels. Albuminuria excretion was significantly elevated in the chronic kidney failure group compared with the heart transplant recipients with impaired renal function (p < or = 0.05). Elevated serum beta2m in heart transplant recipients suggests increased beta2m production, reflecting increased immunoactivation. This observation could be useful in monitoring long-term immunosuppressive therapy.

  3. Deletion of the mitochondrial flavoprotein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF induces beta-cell apoptosis and impairs beta-cell mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne T Schulthess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is a hallmark of beta-cell death in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding how apoptosis contributes to beta-cell turnover may lead to strategies to prevent progression of diabetes. A key mediator of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and cell survival is apoptosis inducing factor (AIF. In the present study, we investigated the role of AIF on beta-cell mass and survival using the Harlequin (Hq mutant mice, which are hypomorphic for AIF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical evaluation of pancreata from Hq mutant mice displayed much smaller islets compared to wild-type mice (WT. Analysis of beta-cell mass in these mice revealed a greater than 4-fold reduction in beta-cell mass together with an 8-fold increase in beta-cell apoptosis. Analysis of cell cycle dynamics, using BrdU pulse as a marker for cells in S-phase, did not detect significant differences in the frequency of beta-cells in S-phase. In contrast, double staining for phosphorylated Histone H3 and insulin showed a 3-fold increase in beta-cells in the G2 phase in Hq mutant mice, but no differences in M-phase compared to WT mice. This suggests that the beta-cells from Hq mutant mice are arrested in the G2 phase and are unlikely to complete the cell cycle. beta-cells from Hq mutant mice display increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis, which was confirmed in human islets in which AIF was depleted by siRNA. AIF deficiency had no effect on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, but the impaired effect of hydrogen peroxide on beta-cell function was potentiated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that AIF is essential for maintaining beta-cell mass and for oxidative stress response. A decrease in the oxidative phosphorylation capacity may counteract the development of diabetes, despite its deleterious effects on beta-cell survival.

  4. Beta-nerve growth factor levels in newborn cord sera. (United States)

    Haddad, J; Vilge, V; Juif, J G; Maitre, M; Donato, L; Messer, J; Mark, J


    This study was designed to examine beta-nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in human cord blood by a two-site enzyme immunoassay using MAb 27/21 to mouse NGF and to determine whether beta-NGF levels show developmental changes. Blood was collected at delivery from 61 newborns, 55 neonates appropriate for gestational age (46 term infants and 9 premature infants), 5 neonates small for gestational age, and 1 neonate with congenital hydrocephalus. In addition, samples were collected from 2 microcephalic children (microcephaly vera) aged 15 and 18 mo, 2 control children, and 4 healthy adults. Mean levels of NGF in preterm infants (n = 9; 13.7 +/- 8 pg/mL) were significantly lower than levels in term infants (n = 47; 21.2 +/- 8.8 pg/mL; p = 0.034 by Mann-Whitney U test). There was no correlation between birth weight, length, head circumference, and beta-NGF levels. In microcephalic children, NGF levels were low (8 pg/mL) compared with control infants' values (22 pg/mL). In adults, beta-NGF levels were higher and ranged between 238 and 292 pg/mL. Our study demonstrates that beta-NGF levels can be assessed in human newborn sera using a two-site enzyme immunoassay with MAb 27/21 to mouse beta-NGF, that beta-NGF levels are extremely low in newborns compared with adults, that beta-NGF levels seems to show developmental changes, and that beta-NGF levels may be used to assess NGF utilization under normal and pathologic conditions such as cerebral malformations.

  5. The Kπ = 0+ bands of 178Hf and the allowed unhindered beta transformations of 9.3 min 178Ta and 22 d 178W

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.L.; Wilsky, K.; Zylicz, J.


    The decay of 22 d 178W and 9.3 min 178Ta (1+) has been investigated by means of direct and coincidence spectrometry with Ge(Li) and scintillation detectors. The Q-value of the electron-capture decay of 178W was determined to be 89±2 keV from the K-capture-to-total capture ratio. The corresponding...... log ft value is 4.65. The ground-state-to-ground-state beta decay rates were analysed in light of the pair correlation scheme. Capture-to-positon ratios were deduced for 178Ta and found to agree with theory. Excited states in 178Hf (characterized by their energy in keV, spin and parity) were...... established at 1199(0+), 1276(2+), 1434(0+), 1444(0+), 1496(2+), 1514(2+, 1+ or 1−) and 1561(2+). The 1199 keV state is interpreted as a beta vibration, the 1434 and 1444 keV 0+ states contain probably large amplitudes of the View the MathML source [514] neutron pair of the View the MathML source[514] proton...

  6. Radioligands for imaging myocardial {alpha}- and &beta;-adrenoceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemann, B.; Schaefers, M.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Law, M.P. [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial Coll. School of Science, Technology and Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Wichter, T. [Dept. of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster Univ. (Germany)


    Alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors play an important role in the control of heart function. According to their molecular, biological, and pharmacological characteristics, they are subdivided into {alpha}{sub 1}-, {alpha}{sub 2}- and &beta;{sub 1}-, &beta;{sub 2}-, &beta;{sub 3}-, &beta;{sub 4}- adrenoceptors. In cardiac disease, there is often a selective downregulation of &beta;{sub 1}-adrenoceptors associated with a relative increase in &beta;{sub 2}- and {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors. Functional imaging techniques like single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) provide the unique capability for non-invasive assessment of cardiac adrenoceptors. Radioligands with high specific binding to cardiac {alpha}- and &beta;-adrenoceptors suitable for radiolabelling are required for clinical studies. The non-selective &beta;-adrenoceptor antagonist [{sup 11}C]CGP-12177 was used to quantify &beta;-adrenoceptor density using PET in patients with heart disease. New non-selective ligands (e. g. [{sup 11}C]CGP-12388, [{sup 18}F]CGP-12388, [{sup 11}C]carazolol and [{sup 18}F]fluorocarazolol) are currently evaluated; &beta;{sub 1}-selective radioligands (e. g. [{sup 11}C]CGP-26505, [{sup 11}C]bisoprolol, [{sup 11}C]HX-CH 44) and &beta;{sub 2}-selective radioligands (e. g. [{sup 11}C]formoterol, [{sup 11}C]ICI-118551) were assessed in animals. None of them turned out as suitable for cardiac PET. Potential radioligands for imaging cardiac {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors are based on prazosin. Whereas [{sup 11}C]prazosin shows low specific binding to myocardium, its derivative [{sup 11}C]GB67 looks more promising. The putative {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor radioligand [{sup 11}C]MK-912 shows high uptake in rodent myocardium but has not yet been evaluated in man. A number of radioligands were evaluated for assessing cardiac adrenoceptors using PET. New radioligands are needed to provide more insight into cardiac pathophysiology which may influence the

  7. Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, M V; Briz, J A; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Jensen, J H; Jonson, B; Laursen, K L; Nilsson, T; Perea, A; Pesudo, V; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O


    Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with a detection setup including particle identification capabilities. $\\beta$-delayed protons with center of mass energies between 0.39$\\,$MeV and 7.2$\\,$MeV were measured and used to determine the half life of $^{21}$Mg as $118.6\\pm 0.5\\,$ms. From a line shape fit of the $\\beta p$ branches we extract spectroscopic information about the resonances of $^{21}$Na. Finally an improved interpretation of the decay scheme in accordance with the results obtained in reaction studies is presented.

  8. Conceptual design report for a Beta-Beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, M; Borgnolutti, F; Bouquerel, E; Bozyk, L; Bruer, J; Chance, A; Delahaye, P; Fabich, A; Hancock, S; Hansen, C; Jensen, E; Kallberg, A; Kirk, M; Lachaize, A; Lindroos, M; Loiselet, M; Magistris, M; Mitrofanov, S; Mueller, A C; Payet, J; Podlech, H; Puppel, P; Silari, M; Simonsson, A; Spiller, P; Stadlmann, J; Stora, T; Tkatchenko, A; Trovati, S; Vlachoudis, V; Wildner, E


    The Beta-Beam is a concept of large-scale facility that aims at providing pure electronic neutrino and antineutrino beams for the measurement of v(e) -> v(mu) oscillations. Beta-decaying nuclides are produced in large amounts in a facility of the scale of EURISOL, and are then post-accelerated and stored at large gamma in a racetrack decay ring. We present here a conceptual design of the accelerator chain of a Beta-Beam based at CERN.

  9. Implementing GoF Design Patterns in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Ellen; Cornils, Aino


    In this paper it is investigated how well the Beta supports the Design Patterns presented in [GoF 95]. We go through the language constructs in Beta to show which prove especially useful when implementing these Design Patterns. It is a fact that several of the Design Patterns found in [GoF 95] can...... be implemented in a simpler and more straightforward way in Beta than in ordinary OO-languages. This leads us to consider whether it is true that the more advanced OO-language one uses, the more of these Design Patterns are included directly in the language constructs....

  10. Mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cell growth and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Information about the mechanism of beta-cell growth and regeneration may be obtained by studies of insulinoma cells. In the present study the growth and function of the rat insulinoma cell lines RINm5F and 5AH were evaluated by addition of serum, hormones, and growth factors. It was found...... of insulin mRNA content showed that the insulinoma cells only contained about 2% of that of normal rat beta-cells. These results are discussed in relation to the role of growth factors, oncogenes, and differentiation in the growth and regeneration of beta-cells....

  11. Atualizações sobre beta-hidroxi-beta-metilbutirato: suplementação e efeitos sobre o catabolismo de proteínas New findings on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyirate: supplementation and effects on the protein catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson Araújo Nunes


    Full Text Available O beta-hidroxi-beta-metilbutirato, metabólito do aminoácido leucina, vem sendo utilizado como suplemento alimentar, em situações específicas, com o intuito de aumentar ou manter a massa isenta de gordura. Os relatos dos efeitos do beta-hidroxi-beta-metilbutirato em estudos recentes fizeram crescer as expectativas sobre sua utilização em casos patológicos. Também foram demonstrados melhores resultados, quando da sua ingestão, no treinamento de força em indivíduos iniciantes e em idosos. Em humanos o beta-hidroxi-beta-metilbutirato tem sido usado como agente anti-catabólico, e em modelos animais foi demonstrado ser eficaz em inibir a atividade de vias proteolíticas em células musculares de indivíduos caquéticos in vitro e in vivo. Os mecanismos participantes desses processos envolvem: a inibição da atividade do sistema ubiquitina proteossoma ATP-dependente, a inibição de vias de sinalização com participação da proteína quinase C-alfa e a diminuição da concentração citoplasmática do fator nuclear - kappa B livre, eventos relacionados ao decréscimo da proteólise em células musculares.The leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate has been used as a nutritional supplement in specific situations to prevent losing or to increase lean mass. Recent studies showed interesting results of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation in certain disease states. Better results have also been demonstrated when it is taken by starters or old individuals doing strength training. In humans, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate has been used as an anticatabolic agent and in animal models it has been demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting the activity of the proteolytic pathways in muscle cells of extremely weak individuals in vivo and in vitro. The mechanisms that participate in this process involve: inhibition of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, inhibition of the signalization pathways involving protein kinase C

  12. Release of salusin-beta from human monocytes/macrophages. (United States)

    Sato, Kengo; Fujimoto, Kazumi; Koyama, Takatoshi; Shichiri, Masayoshi


    Salusin-alpha and salusin-beta are related bioactive peptides biosynthesized from the same precursor, prosalusin. Despite the potent hemodynamic and proatherosclerotic activities of salusin-beta, its exact distribution and biological functions remain largely undetermined because of technical difficulties associated with its unique physicochemical characteristics, such as marked adhesiveness to polypropylene and polystyrene. By circumventing these problems, we recently established a specific radioimmunoassay for detecting immunoreactive human salusin-beta. In the current study, we demonstrated the release of salusin-beta from the human monoblastic leukemia cell lines, THP-1 and U937. Dilution curves of extracted conditioned media from both cells were parallel with those of standard human salusin-beta by radioimmunoassay. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with radioimmunoassay detection of the culture supernatants revealed a major immunoreactive component that co-eluted with authentic salusin-beta. Both cell lines secreted salusin-beta-like immunoreactivity (LI) into serum-free media as a function of time (1234.3 + or - 122.7 and 186.7 + or - 9.1 fmol/10(5) cells per 24h). When THP-1 and U937 cells differentiated into macrophages after incubation with 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), they secreted far greater amounts of salusin-beta-LI into the culture supernatant (3351.9 + or - 899.3 and 1545.8 + or - 183.3 fmol/10(5) cells per 24h). TPA treatment accelerated the processing of prosalusin into its cleaved fragments, suggesting that the increased secretion of salusin-beta-LI in THP-1-derived macrophages was caused by the enhanced intracellular processing of prosalusin. Stimulation with the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resulted in increased secretion of salusin-beta without inducing expression of the gene for preprosalusin, suggesting that TNF-alpha and LPS stimulated

  13. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.


    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas.

  14. Design of a superconducting low beta niobium resonator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash Potukuchi; Amit Roy


    The proposed high current injector for the superconducting Linac at the InterUniversity Accelerator Centre will have several accelerating structures, including a superconducting module which will contain low beta niobium resonators. A prototype resonator for the low beta module has been designed. The resonator has been carefully modelled to optimize the electromagnetic parameters. In order to validate them, a room-temperature copper model has been built and tested. In this paper we present details of the electromagnetic design of the low beta resonator, briefly discuss the mechanical and engineering design, and present results from the measurements on the room-temperature copper model.

  15. Scalar-mediated double beta decay and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzales, L; Hirsch, M; Kovalenko, S G


    The decay rate of neutrinoless double beta decay could be dominated by short-range diagrams involving heavy scalar particles ("topology-II" diagrams). Examples are diagrams with diquarks, leptoquarks or charged scalars. Here, we compare the discovery potential for lepton number violating signals at the LHC with constraints from dijet and leptoquark searches and the sensitivity of double beta decay experiments, using three example models. We note that already with 20/fb the LHC will test interesting parts of the parameter space of these models, not excluded by current limits on double beta decay.

  16. Beta 1 integrin is essential for teratoma growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, W; Forsberg, E; Lentini, S


    Teratomas are benign tumors that form after ectopic injection of embryonic stem (ES) cells into mice and contain derivatives of all primitive germ layers. To study the role of beta 1 integrin during teratoma formation, we compared teratomas induced by normal and beta1-null ES cells. Injection of ...... embryoid bodies. Moreover, while vascular endothelial growth factor induced proliferation of endothelial cells as well as an extensive branching of blood vessels in normal embryoid bodies, it had no effect in beta 1-null embryoid bodies....

  17. Role of the beta1-integrin cytoplasmic tail in mediating invasin-promoted internalization of Yersinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Anna; Armulik, Annika; Brakebusch, Cord


    Invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis binds to beta1-integrins on host cells and triggers internalization of the bacterium. To elucidate the mechanism behind the beta1-integrin-mediated internalization of Yersinia, a beta1-integrin-deficient cell line, GD25, transfected with wild-type beta1A, beta......1B or different mutants of the beta1A subunit was used. Both beta1A and beta1B bound to invasin-expressing bacteria, but only beta1A was able to mediate internalization of the bacteria. The cytoplasmic region of beta1A, differing from beta1B, contains two NPXY motifs surrounding a double threonine...... site. Exchanging the tyrosines of the two NPXYs to phenylalanines did not inhibit the uptake, whereas a marked reduction was seen when the first tyrosine (Y783) was exchanged to alanine. A similar reduction was seen when the two nearby threonines (TT788-9) were exchanged with alanines. It was also...

  18. Deformed shell model results for neutrinoless double beta decay of nuclei in A=60-90 region

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, R


    Nuclear transition matrix elements (NTME) for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{70}$Zn, $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se nuclei are calculated within the framework of the deformed shell model based on Hartree-Fock states. For $^{70}$Zn, jj44b interaction in $^{2}p_{3/2}$, $^{1}f_{5/2}$, $^{2}p_{1/2}$ and $^{1}g_{9/2}$ space with $^{56}$Ni as the core is employed. However, for $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se nuclei, a modified Kuo interaction with the above core and model space are employed. Most of our calculations in this region were performed with this effective interaction. However, jj44b interaction has been found to be better for $^{70}$Zn. After ensuring that DSM gives good description of the spectroscopic properties of low-lying levels in these three nuclei considered, the NTME are calculated. The deduced half-lives with these NTME, assuming neutrino mass is 1 eV, are $9.6 \\times 10^{25}$yr, $1.9 \\times 10^{27}$yr and $1.95 \\times 10^{24}$yr for $^{70}$Zn, $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se, respectively.

  19. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding for Ascorbate Peroxidase and Responsive to Salt Stress in Beet (Beta vulgaris). (United States)

    Dunajska-Ordak, Kamila; Skorupa-Kłaput, Monika; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław


    BvpAPX is a full-length cDNA-encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase isolated from leaves of salt-stressed beet (Beta vulgaris) plants. A high level of identity has been reported between the deduced amino acid sequence of BvpAPX and other known ascorbate peroxidases. The genomic sequence of BvpAPX revealed a gene composed of 5 exons and 4 introns. Several sequence motifs revealed in the 5'UTR region of the gene confer to BvpAPX a putative responsiveness to various abiotic stresses. We determined the effect of salt stress on BvpAPX expression in leaves of the cultivated beet varieties, Huzar and Janosik, and their wild salt-tolerant relative B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Plants were subjected to salt stress during a 32-day culture period (long-term salt treatment). An alternative salinization protocol consisted of an 18-h incubation of detached beet leaves in media supplemented with toxic salt concentrations (short-term salt treatment). RT-Q-PCR analysis revealed that BvpAPX expression markedly increased in leaves of plants subjected to conditions of long-term treatment with salinity, whereas BvpAPX transcript levels remained unaffected in detached leaves during short-term salt treatment. In addition, several leaf redox system parameters, such as ascorbate peroxidase activity or ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide concentration, were determined in the leaves of beet plants subjected to salt stress conditions.

  20. Discovery of adamantyl ethanone derivatives as potent 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) inhibitors. (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Thomas, Mark P; Szeto, Michelle W Y; Halem, Heather A; Culler, Michael D; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L


    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) are key enzymes regulating the pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoid hormones. The modulation of 11beta-HSD type 1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Inhibition of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action by regulating 11beta-HSD1 constitutes a promising treatment for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. A series of novel adamantyl ethanone compounds was identified as potent inhibitors of human 11beta-HSD1. The most active compounds identified (52, 62, 72, 92, 103 and 104) display potent inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 with IC(50) values in the 50-70 nM range. Compound 72 also proved to be metabolically stable when incubated with human liver microsomes. Furthermore, compound 72 showed very weak inhibitory activity for human cytochrome P450 enzymes and is therefore a candidate for in vivo studies. Comparison of the publicly available X-ray crystal structures of human 11beta-HSD1 led to docking studies of the potent compounds, revealing how these molecules may interact with the enzyme and cofactor.