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Sample records for 316l stainless steel

  1. Ion nitriding in 316=L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion nitriding is a glow discharge process that is used to induce surface modification in metals. It has been applied to 316-L austenitic stainless steel looking for similar benefits already obtained in other steels. An austenitic stainless steel was selected because is not hardenable by heat treatment and is not easy to nitride by gas nitriding. The samples were plastically deformed to 10, 20, 40, 50 AND 70% of their original thickness in order to obtain bulk hardening and to observe nitrogen penetration dependence on it. The results were: an increase of one to two rockwell hardness number (except in 70% deformed sample because of its thickness); an increase of even several hundreds per cent in microhardness knoop number in nitrided surface. The later surely modifies waste resistance which would be worth to quantify in further studies. Microhardness measured in an internal transversal face to nitrided surface had a gradual diminish in its value with depth. Auger microanalysis showed a higher relative concentration rate CN/CFe near the surface giving evidence of nitrogen presence till 250 microns deep. The color metallography etchant used, produced faster corrosion in nitrited regions. Therefore, corrosion studies have to be done before using ion nitrited 316-L under these chemicals. (Author)

  2. Study of Ce-modified antibacterial 316L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Junping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 316L stainless steel is widely used for fashion jewelry, but it can carry a large number of bacteria and bring the risk of infection since the steel has no antimicrobial performance. In this paper, the effects of Ce on the antibacterial property, corrosion resistance and processability of 316L were studied by microscopic observation, thin-film adhering quantitative bacteriostasis, and electrochemical and mechanical tests. The results show that a trace of Ce can distribute uniformly in the matrix of 316L and slightly improve its corrosion resistance in artificial sweat. With an increase in Ce content, the Ce is prone to form clustering, which degrades the corrosion resistance and the processability. The Ce-containing 316L exhibits Hormesis effect against S. aureus. A small Ce addition stimulates the growth of S. aureus. As the Ce content increases, the modified 316L exhibits an improved antibacterial efficacy. The more Ce is added, the better antibacterial capability is achieved. Overall, if the 316L is modified with Ce alone, it is difficult to obtain the optimal combination of corrosion resistance, antibacterial performance and processability. In spite of that, 0.15 wt.%-0.20 wt.% Ce around is inferred to be the best trade-off.

  3. Biomaterial Studies on AISI 316L Stainless Steel after Magnetoelectropolishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Filippi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The polarisation characteristics of the electropolishing process in a magnetic field (MEP – magnetoelectropolishing, in comparison with those obtained under standard/conventional process (EP conditions, have been obtained. The occurrence of an EP plateau has been observed in view of the optimization of MEP process. Up-to-date stainless steel surface studies always indicated some amount of free-metal atoms apart from the detected oxides and hydroxides. Such a morphology of the surface film usually affects the thermodynamic stability and corrosion resistance of surface oxide layer and is one of the most important features of stainless steels. With this new MEP process we can improve metal surface properties by making the stainless steel more resistant to halides encountered in a variety of environments. Furthermore, in this paper the stainless steel surface film study results have been presented. The results of the corrosion research carried out by the authors on the behaviour of the most commonly used material - medical grade AISI 316L stainless steel both in Ringer’s body fluid and in aqueous 3% NaCl solution have been investigated and presented earlier elsewhere, though some of these results, concerning the EIS Nyquist plots and polarization curves are also revealed herein. In this paper an attempt to explain this peculiar performance of 316L stainless steel has been undertaken. The SEM studies, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were performed on 316L samples after three treatments: MP – abrasive polishing (800 grit size, EP – conventional electrolytic polishing, and MEP – magnetoelectropolishing. It has been found that the proposed magnetoelectropolishing (MEP process considerably modifies the morphology and the composition of the surface film, thus leading to improved corrosion resistance of the studied 316L SS.

  4. Corrosion of 316L stainless steels MAVL wastes containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long lived and medium activity wastes are conditioned or could be re-conditioned in primary drums of 316L stainless steels. In the framework of wastes storage, these drums will be placed in concrete containers; each containers would contain one or more drums. This document recalls global information on the corrosion of stainless steels, analyzes specific conditions bond to the drums conditioning in concrete containers and the nature of the wastes, and details the consequences on the possible risks of external and internal corrosion of the drums. (A.L.B.)

  5. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on stainless steel 316L using functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Kruszewski, Kristen M; Nistico, Laura; Mark J Longwell; Hynes, Matthew J; Maurer, Joshua A; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2013-01-01

    Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) is a common material used in orthopedic implants. Bacterial colonization of the surface and subsequent biofilm development can lead to refractory infection of the implant. Since the greatest risk of infection occurs perioperatively, strategies that reduce bacterial adhesion during this time are important. As a strategy to limit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on SS316L, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to modify the SS316L surface. SAMs with lo...

  6. A Study on Stainless Steel 316L Annealed Ultrasonic Consolidation and Linear Welding Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Raelvim

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic Consolidation of stainless steel structures is being investigated for potential applications. This study investigates the suitability of Stainless Steel 316L annealed (SS316L annealed) as a building material for Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC), including research on Linear Welding Density (LWD) estimation on micrographs of samples. Experiment results are presented that include the effect of UC process parameters on SS316L annealed UC, optimum levels of these parameters, and bond qual...

  7. Perfluorocarbon thin films and polymer brushes on stainless steel 316L for control of interfacial properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kruszewski, Kristen M; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon thin films and polymer brushes were formed on stainless steel 316L (SS316L) to control the surface properties of the metal oxide. Substrates modified with the films were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), contact angle analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOA) was used to form thin films by self-assembly on the surface of SS316L. Polypentafluorostyrene (PFS) poly...

  8. Development of Pack Cementation Aluminizing Process on Inner Surface of 316L Stainless Steel Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In order to form the FeAl coatings on the inner surface of the 316L stainless steel tube,the pack cementation aluminizing process is introduced in this paper. The outside diameter,wall thickness and

  9. Linear friction welding of AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Linear friction welding is a feasible process for joining AISI316L. → Most welds had tensile strengths superior to the parent material. → Welding parameters had a significant impact on weld microstructure. → Control of microstructure by controlling welding parameters is a process benefit. - Abstract: Linear friction welding is a solid state joining process established as a niche technology for the joining of aeroengine bladed disks. However, the process is not limited to this application, and therefore the feasibility of joining a common engineering austenitic steel, AISI 316L, has been explored. It was found that mechanically sound linear friction welds could be produced in 316L, with tensile properties in most welds exceeding those of the parent material. The mechanical properties of the welds were also found to be insensitive to relatively large changes in welding parameters. Texture was investigated in one weld using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Results showed a strong {1 1 1} type texture at the centre of the weld, which is a typical shear texture in face centre cubic materials. Variations in welding parameters were seen to have a significant impact on the microstructures of welds. This was particularly evident in the variation of the fraction of delta ferrite, in the thermo-mechanically affected zone of the welds, with different process parameters. Analysis of the variation in delta ferrite, with different welding parameters, has produced some interesting insights into heat generation and dissipation during the process. It is hoped that a greater understanding of the process could help to make the parameter optimisation process, when welding 316L as well as other materials, more efficient.

  10. Linear friction welding of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhamji, Imran, E-mail: imran.bhamji@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [Manchester Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Preuss, Michael [Manchester Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Threadgill, Philip L. [Formerly with TWI Ltd., Cambridge, UK (now retired) (United Kingdom); Moat, Richard J. [Manchester Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Addison, Adrian C. [TWI Ltd., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Peel, Matthew J. [University of Bristol, Queens Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Linear friction welding is a feasible process for joining AISI316L. {yields} Most welds had tensile strengths superior to the parent material. {yields} Welding parameters had a significant impact on weld microstructure. {yields} Control of microstructure by controlling welding parameters is a process benefit. - Abstract: Linear friction welding is a solid state joining process established as a niche technology for the joining of aeroengine bladed disks. However, the process is not limited to this application, and therefore the feasibility of joining a common engineering austenitic steel, AISI 316L, has been explored. It was found that mechanically sound linear friction welds could be produced in 316L, with tensile properties in most welds exceeding those of the parent material. The mechanical properties of the welds were also found to be insensitive to relatively large changes in welding parameters. Texture was investigated in one weld using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Results showed a strong {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}< 1 1 2 > type texture at the centre of the weld, which is a typical shear texture in face centre cubic materials. Variations in welding parameters were seen to have a significant impact on the microstructures of welds. This was particularly evident in the variation of the fraction of delta ferrite, in the thermo-mechanically affected zone of the welds, with different process parameters. Analysis of the variation in delta ferrite, with different welding parameters, has produced some interesting insights into heat generation and dissipation during the process. It is hoped that a greater understanding of the process could help to make the parameter optimisation process, when welding 316L as well as other materials, more efficient.

  11. Long-term stability of self-assembled monolayers on 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, C R; Mani, G; Marton, D; Johnson, D M; Agrawal, C M, E-mail: Mauli.Agrawal@utsa.ed [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    316L stainless steel (316L SS) has been extensively used for making orthopedic, dental and cardiovascular implants. The use of phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on 316L SS has been previously explored for potential biomedical applications. In this study, we have investigated the long-term stability of methyl (-CH{sub 3}) and carboxylic acid (-COOH)-terminated phosphonic acid SAMs on 316L under physiological conditions. The stability of SAMs on mechanically polished and electropolished 316L SS was also investigated as a part of this study. Well-ordered and uniform -CH{sub 3}- and -COOH-terminated SAMs were coated on mechanically polished and electropolished 316L SS surfaces. The long-term stability of SAMs on 316L SS was investigated for up to 28 days in Tris-buffered saline (TBS) at 37 deg. C using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometry. A significant amount of phosphonic acid molecules was desorbed from the 316L SS surfaces within 1 to 7 days of TBS immersion followed by a slow desorption of molecules over the remaining days. The -COOH-terminated SAM was found to be more stable than the -CH{sub 3}-terminated SAM on both mechanically and electropolished surfaces. No significant differences in the desorption behavior of SAMs were observed between mechanically and electropolished 316L SS surfaces.

  12. Corrosion protection performance of porous strontium hydroxyapatite coating on polypyrrole coated 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Ramya, S; Rajeswari, D; Kavitha, L

    2013-07-01

    Polypyrrole/strontium hydroxyapatite bilayer coatings were achieved on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) by the electropolymerisation of pyrrole from sodium salicylate solution followed by the electrodeposition of porous strontium hydroxyapatite. The formation and the morphology of the bilayer coatings were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the coated 316L SS specimens was investigated in Ringer's solution by electrochemical techniques and the results were substantiated with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The passive film underneath the polypyrrole layer is effective in protecting 316L SS against corrosion in Ringer's solution. Moreover, we believe that the top porous strontium hydroxyapatite layer can provide potential bioactivity to the 316L SS. PMID:23475060

  13. Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, Markéta; Fousová, Michaela; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Fojt, Jaroslav; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    Recently, porous metallic materials have been extensively studied as candidates for use in the fabrication of scaffolds and augmentations to repair trabecular bone defects, e.g. in surroundings of joint replacements. Fabricating these complex structures by using common approaches (e.g., casting and machining) is very challenging. Therefore, rapid prototyping techniques, such as selective laser melting (SLM), have been investigated for these applications. In this study, we characterized a highly porous (87 vol.%) 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by SLM. 316L steel was chosen because it presents a biomaterial still widely used for fabrication of joint replacements and, from the practical point of view, use of the same material for fabrication of an augmentation and a joint replacement is beneficial for corrosion prevention. The results are compared to the reported properties of two representative nonporous 316L stainless steels prepared either by SLM or casting and subsequent hot forging. The microstructural and mechanical properties and the surface chemical composition and interaction with the cells were investigated. The studied material exhibited mechanical properties that were similar to those of trabecular bone (compressive modulus of elasticity ~0.15GPa, compressive yield strength ~3MPa) and cytocompatibility after one day that was similar to that of wrought 316L stainless steel, which is a commonly used biomaterial. Based on the obtained results, SLM is a suitable method for the fabrication of porous 316L stainless steel scaffolds with highly porous structures. PMID:27612756

  14. Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, Markéta; Fousová, Michaela; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Fojt, Jaroslav; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    Recently, porous metallic materials have been extensively studied as candidates for use in the fabrication of scaffolds and augmentations to repair trabecular bone defects, e.g. in surroundings of joint replacements. Fabricating these complex structures by using common approaches (e.g., casting and machining) is very challenging. Therefore, rapid prototyping techniques, such as selective laser melting (SLM), have been investigated for these applications. In this study, we characterized a highly porous (87 vol.%) 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by SLM. 316L steel was chosen because it presents a biomaterial still widely used for fabrication of joint replacements and, from the practical point of view, use of the same material for fabrication of an augmentation and a joint replacement is beneficial for corrosion prevention. The results are compared to the reported properties of two representative nonporous 316L stainless steels prepared either by SLM or casting and subsequent hot forging. The microstructural and mechanical properties and the surface chemical composition and interaction with the cells were investigated. The studied material exhibited mechanical properties that were similar to those of trabecular bone (compressive modulus of elasticity ~0.15GPa, compressive yield strength ~3MPa) and cytocompatibility after one day that was similar to that of wrought 316L stainless steel, which is a commonly used biomaterial. Based on the obtained results, SLM is a suitable method for the fabrication of porous 316L stainless steel scaffolds with highly porous structures.

  15. Processing and mechanical properties of porous 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montasser M.DEWIDAR; Khalil A.KHALIL; J. K. LIM

    2007-01-01

    Highly porous 316L stainless steel parts were produced by using a powder metallurgy process, which includes the selective laser sintering(SLS) and traditional sintering. Porous 316L stainless steel suitable for medical applications was successfully fabricated in the porosity range of 40%-50% (volume fraction) by controlling the SLS parameters and sintering behaviour. The porosity of the sintered compacts was investigated as a function of the SLS parameters and the furnace cycle. Compressive stress and elastic modulus of the 316L stainless steel material were determined. The compressive strength was found to be ranging from 21 to 32 MPa and corresponding elastic modulus ranging from 26 to 43 GPa. The present parts are promising for biomedical applications since the optimal porosity of implant materials for ingrowths of new-bone tissues is in the range of 20%-59% (volume fraction) and mechanical properties are matching with human bone.

  16. Resistance microwelding of 316L stainless steel wire to block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Khan, M.I.; Bay, Niels;

    2011-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of low carbon vacuum melted 316 stainless steel coupled with its non-magnetic properties makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The typical joint geometry for microcomponents, such as medical implants, includes joining of fine wire to a larger block. However...

  17. Nanosized controlled surface pretreatment of biometallic alloy 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Loftis, Derek; Mahapatro, Anil

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel (AISI 316L) is a medical grade stainless steel alloy used extensively in medical devices and in the biomedical field. 316L stainless steel was successfully electropolished via an ecologically friendly and biocompatible ionic liquid (IL) medium based on Vitamin B4 (NB4) and resulting in nanosized surface roughness and topography. Voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests determined optimum polishing conditions for the stainless steel alloy while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided surface morphology comparisons to benchmark success of each electropolishing condition. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) combined with SEM revealed significantly smoother surfaces for each alloy surface while indicating that the constituent metals comprising each alloy effectively electropolished at uniform rates. PMID:22416578

  18. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on stainless steel 316L using functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszewski, Kristen M., E-mail: kruszewskik@duq.edu [Duquesne University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Nistico, Laura, E-mail: lnistico@wpahs.org [Allegheny General Hospital, Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, 320 East North Avenue, 11th floor, South Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States); Longwell, Mark J., E-mail: mlongwel@wpahs.org [Allegheny General Hospital, Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, 320 East North Avenue, 11th floor, South Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States); Hynes, Matthew J., E-mail: mjhynes@go.wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Chemistry, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Maurer, Joshua A., E-mail: maurer@wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Chemistry, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Hall-Stoodley, Luanne, E-mail: L.Hall-Stoodley@soton.ac.uk [Southampton Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility/NIHR Respiratory BRU, University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Gawalt, Ellen S., E-mail: gawalte@duq.edu [Duquesne University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) is a common material used in orthopedic implants. Bacterial colonization of the surface and subsequent biofilm development can lead to refractory infection of the implant. Since the greatest risk of infection occurs perioperatively, strategies that reduce bacterial adhesion during this time are important. As a strategy to limit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on SS316L, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to modify the SS316L surface. SAMs with long alkyl chains terminated with hydrophobic (− CH{sub 3}) or hydrophilic (oligoethylene glycol) tail groups were used to form coatings and in an orthogonal approach, SAMs were used to immobilize gentamicin or vancomycin on SS316L for the first time to form an “active” antimicrobial coating to inhibit early biofilm development. Modified SS316L surfaces were characterized using surface infrared spectroscopy, contact angles, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. The ability of SAM-modified SS316L to retard biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus was functionally tested using confocal scanning laser microscopy with COMSTAT image analysis, scanning electron microscopy and colony forming unit analysis. Neither hydrophobic nor hydrophilic SAMs reduced biofilm development. However, gentamicin-linked and vancomycin-linked SAMs significantly reduced S. aureus biofilm formation for up to 24 and 48 h, respectively. - Highlights: ► SS316L was modified with glycol terminated SAMs in order to reduce biofilm growth. ► Antibiotics gentamicin and vancomycin were immobilized on SS316L via SAMs. ► Only the antibiotic modifications reduced biofilm development on SS316L.

  19. Inlfuence of Marine Aerobic Bioiflms on Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ling XU; Ji-zhou DUAN; Cun-guo LIN; Bao-rong HOU

    2015-01-01

    The inlfuence of marine aerobic bioiflms on the corrosion of 316L stainless steel (SS) in aerated and deaerated seawater was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarisation curves, current-potential curves and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). EIS and SEM-EDS results showed that the aero-bic bioiflms inhibited 316L SS corrosion within the test duration. Comparison of results under aerated and deaerated conditions revealed that O2 enhanced the inhibition efifciency of the aerobic bioiflms. This result indicated that living cells were necessary for the aerobic bioiflms to inhibit the corrosion of 316L SS. Polarization curves indicated that the bioiflms mainly inhibited anode ac-tion. Current-potential curves under deaerated conditions showed that electron transfer processes occurred between microorganisms and electrodes. Moreover, 316L SS as an electron acceptor was protected from corrosion.

  20. Intragranular cellular segregation network structure strengthening 316L stainless steel prepared by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng; Wikman, Stefan; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2016-03-01

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). Almost fully dense 316L stainless steel (SS316L) components were prepared from gas-atomized powder and with optimized SLM processing parameters. Tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C and 250 °C and the results showed that SLM SS316L fulfill the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterization reveals the presence of hierarchical macro-, micro- and nano-structures in as-built samples that were very different from SS316L microstructures prepared by other established methods. The formation of a characteristic intragranular cellular segregation network microstructure appears to contribute to the increase of yield strength without losing ductility. Silicon oxide nano-inclusions were formed during the SLM process that generated a micro-hardness fluctuation in the building direction. The combined influence of a cellular microstructure and the nano-inclusions constraints the size of ductile dimples to nano-scale. The crack propagation is hindered by a pinning effect that improves the defect-tolerance of the SLM SS316L. This work proves that it was possible to manufacture SS316L with properties suitable for ITER First Wall panels. Further studies on irradiation properties of SLM SS316L and manufacturing of larger real-size components are needed.

  1. Electrochemical behavior of SUS316L stainless steel after surface modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁成浩; 郭亮; 陈婉; 刘敬肖

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification for SUS316L stainless steel was carried out by electroplating Rh, ion beam assisted deposition Ta2O5 and sol-gel-derived TiO2. In Tyrodes stimulated body fluid, the surface modified samples were investigated with electrochemical techniques. The results indicate that the electrochemical stability and dissolution are improved significantly after surface modification. Moreover, as to ion beam assisted deposition Ta2O5 and sol-gel-derived TiO2 film, the metals d orbit electron holes filled up by the oxygen electrons make against the adsorption of hydrogen. Thus the cathode process, which is controlled by the hydrogen reduction, is held back. X-ray diffraction analysis of SUS316L stainless steel after surface modification reveal that each method forms the uniform and compact film on SUS316L stainless steel. These films prevent the dissolving of elements and improve passivation property of the SUS316L stainless steel.

  2. Production of Ti-containing 316L stainless steel in a crucible induction furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of type 316L stainless steel with titanium was studied. The stainless steel was produced in an induction furnace using 1010 steel as starting material. The carbon and impurities contents of the steel were lowered by means of the addition of iron oxide and lime respectively. Finally, the last slag was removed before adding nickel and ferroalloys. Experimental results showed the wear resistance of the crucibles with different contents of magnamix 363 and the corrosion resistance of the steel obtained caused by a solution of sulfuric acid. (author)

  3. Improved corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel by nanocrystalline and electrochemical nitridation in artificial saliva solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinlong; Liang, Tongxiang

    2015-12-01

    The fluoride ion in artificial saliva significantly changed semiconductor characteristic of the passive film formed on the surface of 316L stainless steels. The electrochemical results showed that nanocrystalline α‧-martensite improved corrosion resistance of the stainless steel in a typical artificial saliva compared with coarse grained stainless steel. Moreover, comparing with nitrided coarse grained stainless steel, corrosion resistance of the nitrided nanocrystalline stainless steel was also improved significantly, even in artificial saliva solution containing fluoride ion. The present study showed that the cryogenic cold rolling and electrochemical nitridation improved corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel for the dental application.

  4. Effect of in site strain on passivated property of the 316L stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Ting, Guo

    2016-04-01

    The effect of the strain of 316L stainless steel on its corrosion resistance in borate buffer solution was investigated by in site tensile test and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. It was found that the corrosion resistance of the 316L stainless steel decreased with the increasing of in site strain. The lower corrosion resistance of the stainless steel during in site strain was mainly attributed to the higher doping concentration in passive film. Especially, with the increasing of in site strain, the concentrations of acceptor (i.e., cation vacancies) in the passive films significantly increased. More acceptor concentrations reduced the compactness of the passive film and its corrosion resistance. Moreover, two exponential relationships were found between in site strain and the charge transfer resistance of the passive film and between in site strain and total doping concentrations in passive film, respectively. PMID:26838820

  5. [Corrosion of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L in the simulated sewage pipes reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guo-Dong; Zuo, Jian-E; Wang, Ya-Jiao; Gan, Li-Li

    2014-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L which would be used as sewer in-situ rehabilitation materials was studied in the simulated sewage pipes reactor. The corrosion potential and corrosion rate of these three materials were studied by potentiodynamic method on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 56th day under two different conditions which were full immersion condition or batch immersion condition with a 2-day cycle. The electrode process was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on the 56th day. The microstructure and composition of the corrosion pitting were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) on the 56th day. The results showed that 304 and 316L had much better corrosion resistance than 201 under both conditions. 304 and 316L had much smaller corrosion rate than 201 under both conditions. The corrosion resistance of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much better than those under the full immersion condition. The corrosion rate of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much smaller than those under the full immersion condition. Point pitting corrosion was formed on the surfaces of 304 and 316L. In comparison, a large area of corrosion was formed in the surface of 201.

  6. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Laser Additively Manufactured 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelewicz, Jason R.; Halada, Gary P.; Donaldson, Olivia K.; Manogharan, Guha

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of metal alloys to produce complex part designs via powder bed fusion methods such as laser melting promises to be a transformative technology for advanced materials processing. However, effective implementation of AM processes requires a clear understanding of the processing-structure-properties-performance relationships in fabricated components. In this study, we report on the formation of micro and nanoscale structures in 316L stainless steel samples printed by laser AM and their implications for general corrosion resistance. A variety of techniques including x-ray diffraction, optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray fluorescence, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure and chemistry of the laser additively manufactured 316L stainless steel, which are compared with wrought 316L coupons via electrochemical polarization. Apparent segregation of Mo has been found to contribute to a loss of passivity and an increased anodic current density. While porosity will also likely impact the environmental performance (e.g., facilitating crevice corrosion) of AM alloys, this work demonstrates the critical influence of microstructure and heterogeneous solute distributions on the corrosion resistance of laser additively manufactured 316L stainless steel.

  7. New route to form micro-pores on 316L stainless steel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xinxin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)], E-mail: maxin@hit.edu.cn; Wang Yujiang; Tang Guangze [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Chen Qingfu [Jiangyin Fasten-PLT Materials Science Co., Ltd (Peier), 998 Changjiang Donglu, Jiangyin, 214434 (China)

    2008-11-15

    In order to seek an effective way for preventing restenosis after coronary stent implantation, a proposal of increasing the amount of loaded drug without changing the size of struts was given. Thereafter, a process of fabricating in-situ formed sub-micro-pores on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) was demonstrated. An aluminum thin film was deposited by magnetron sputtering on a 316L substrate. The aluminum film was then anodized in different acids (0.3 M oxalic and 10 vol.% sulfuric) by regulating direct current power supply. Through an appropriate chemical dissolution, the anodic alumina film was removed and the underlying porous 316L was obtained. The morphology of the porous 316L surface was examined by scanning electron microscope and the composition of the pores was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The corrosion behavior of the porous 316L was evaluated by the polarization measurement. The results indicate that the shape and size of pores could be affected evidently by the acids used in anodization. The pores density is found to change with variation of the applied voltage in anodization. The corrosion current of the anodized specimens decrease and the corrosion voltage increase, compared with the untreated specimens.

  8. Experimental Study on Uniaxial and Multiaxial Strain Cyclic Characteristics and Ratcheting of 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on the strain cycliccharacteristics and ratcheting of 316Lstainless steel subjected to uniaxial and multiaxial cyclic loading. The strain cyclic characteristics were researched under the strain-controlled uniaxial tension-compression and multiaxial circular paths of loading. The ratcheting tests were conducted for the stress-controlled uniaxial tensioncompression and multiaxial circular, rhombic and linear paths of loading with different mean stresses, stress amplitudes and histories. The experiment results show that 316L stainless steel features the cyclic hardening, and its strain cyclic characteristics depend on the strain amplitude and its history apparently. The ratcheting of 316L stainless steel depends greatly on the values of mean stress, stress amplitude and their histories. In the meantime, the shape of load path and its history also apparently influence the ratcheting.

  9. Pitting Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel under Low Stress below Yield Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Shengjie; CHENG Xuequn; LI Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Pitting corrosion of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) under various stress was studied by potentiodynamic polarization,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results of polarization curves show that,with the increase of the stress,the pitting potentials and the passive current density markedly decrease firstly (180 MPa),and then increase greatly (200 MPa).The corresponding surface morphologies of the samples after the polarization test well correspond to the results.Mott-Schottky analysis proved the least Cl- adsorbed to the surface of passive film with more positive flat potential,indicating that a moderate stress could increase the pitting corrosion resistance of 316L SS in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  10. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Surface Characteristics of AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Selvaduray, Guna

    2005-01-01

    The ability of 316L stainless steel to maintain biocompatibility, which is dependent upon the surface characteristics, is critical to its effectiveness as an implant material. The surfaces of mechanically polished (MP), electropolished (EP) and plasma treated 316L stainless steel coupons were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) for chemical composition, Atomic Force Microscopy for surface roughness, and contact angle measurements for critical surface tension. All surfaces had a Ni concentration that was significantly lower than the bulk concentration of -43%. The Cr content of the surface was increased significantly by electropolishing. The surface roughness was also improved significantly by electropolishing. Plasma treatment had the reverse effect - the surface Cr content was decreased. It was also found that the Cr and Fe in the surface exist in both the oxide and hydroxide states, with the ratios varying according to surface treatment.

  11. Niobium coatings on 316L stainless steel for improving corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium coatings were deposited onto 316L stainless steel substrates by ion-beam-assisted deposition. The coatings, deposited under 250 eV ion bombardment with [Ar+]/[Nb] ratios ranging from 0.68 to 0.8, were dense and showed no sign of pitting corrosion in a 3% NaCl solution. Also, based on the result of scratch tests, niobium coatings may act as sacrificial anodes and protect substrates. (orig.)

  12. Cytotoxicity difference of 316L stainless steel and titanium reconstruction plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Mira Sumarta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pure titanium is the most biocompatible material today and used as a gold standard for metallic implants. However, stainless steel is still being used as implants because of its strength, ductility, lower price, corrosion resistant and biocompatibility. Purpose: This study was done to revealed the cytotoxicity difference between reconstruction plate made of 316L stainless steel and of commercially pure (CP titanium in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21 fibroblast culture through MTT assay. Methods: Eight samples were prepared from reconstruction plates made of stainless steel type 316L grade 2 (Coen’s reconstruction plate® that had been cut into cylindrical form of 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm long. The other one were made of CP titanium (STEMA Gmbh® of 2 mm in diameter and 2,2 mm long; and had been cleaned with silica paper and ultrasonic cleaner, and sterilized in autoclave at 121° C for 20 minutes.9 Both samples were bathed into microplate well containing 50 μl of fibroblast cells with 2 x 105 density in Rosewell Park Memorial Institute-1640 (RPMI-1640 media, spinned at 30 rpm for 5 minutes. Microplate well was incubated for 24 and 48 hours in 37° C. After 24 hours, each well that will be read at 24 hour were added with 50 μl solution containing 5mg/ml MTT reagent in phosphate buffer saline (PBS solutions, then reincubated for 4 hours in CO2 10% and 37° C. Colorometric assay with MTT was used to evaluate viability of the cells population after 24 hours. Then, each well were added with 50 μl dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and reincubated for 5 minutes in 37° C. the wells were read using Elisa reader in 620 nm wave length. Same steps were done for the wells that will be read in 48 hours. Each data were tabulated and analyzed using independent T-test with significance of 5%. Results: This study showed that the percentage of living fibroblast after exposure to 316L stainless steel reconstruction plate was 61.58% after 24 hours and 62

  13. Fabrication of antibacterial and hydrophilic electroless Ni-B coating on 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülbül, Ferhat; Bülbül, Leman Elif

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated bacterial infection is one of the most common complications with medical vehicles and implants made of stainless steel. A surface coating treatment like electroless Ni-B deposition, a new candidate to be used in a broad range of engineering applications owing to many advantages such as low cost, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, may improve the antibacterial activity and physical properties of biomedical devices made of stainless steel. In this study, the antibacterial property of the electroless Ni-B film coated on AISI 316L (UNS S31603) stainless steel is basically investigated. Inhibition halo diameter measurement after incubation at 37 °C and 24 h demonstrates the existence of antimicrobial activity of the electroless Ni-B coating deposited on 316L stainless steel over the Escherichia coli test bacteria. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and microhardness measurement studies confirms that the coating deposited on the substrate has an uniform amorphous and a harder structure. Besides, the wettability property of the uncoated substrate and the coating was measured as the contact angle of water. The water contact angle reduced about from 97.7 to 69.25°.

  14. Parylene coatings on stainless steel 316L surface for medical applications — Mechanical and protective properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical and protective properties of parylene N and C coatings (2–20 μm) on stainless steel 316L implant materials were investigated. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron and confocal microscopes, microindentation and scratch tests, whereas their protective properties were evaluated in terms of quenching metal ion release from stainless steel to simulated body fluid (Hanks solution). The obtained results revealed that for parylene C coatings, the critical load for initial cracks is 3–5 times higher and the total metal ions release is reduced 3 times more efficiently compared to parylene N. It was thus concluded that parylene C exhibits superior mechanical and protective properties for application as a micrometer coating material for stainless steel implants. - Highlights: ► Parylene biocompatible coating was applied for steel implant surfaces by CVD method. ► Mechanical and protective properties of polymer layers were determined. ► Rival discrimination between parylene N and C on steel 316L was performed. ► Total metal ions release was reduced more efficiently by parylene C coating. ► Critical load for initial cracks was 3–5 times higher for parylene C coating.

  15. Effect of Starch Binders in Alumina Coatings on Aisi 316 L Stainless Steel for Medical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M. J.; Pauzi, A. A.; Azhari, C. H.; Ghani, J. A.; Sulong, A. B.; Mustafa, R.

    A slurry immersion technique of alumina coatings was carried out on several AISI 316 L stainless steels using two types of binding agents; commercial starch and Sarawakian starch (sago), which were also mixed with polyvinylchloride (PVA) for strengthening purposes. The sintering temperatures in this work were varied from 500 to 1000°C. Prior to sintering process, all stainless steels were metallographically ground and polished to approximately 0.6 µm of average roughness. Detailed characterisations on the sintered specimens were carried out with the aid of the secondary electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness and a profilometer. The results revealed that coated steels using sago binder showed improved adhesion and homogenous microstructures with greater hardness of 2642 HV than those found in coated steel with commercial starch after sintering process.

  16. Creep rupture strength of activated-TIG welded 316L(N) stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, T.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Mathew, M. D.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2011-06-01

    316L(N) stainless steel plates were joined using activated-tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding and conventional TIG welding process. Creep rupture behavior of 316L(N) base metal, and weld joints made by A-TIG and conventional TIG welding process were investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 160-280 MPa. Creep test results showed that the enhancement in creep rupture strength of weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process over conventional TIG welding process. Both the weld joints fractured in the weld metal. Microstructural observation showed lower δ-ferrite content, alignment of columnar grain with δ-ferrite along applied stress direction and less strength disparity between columnar and equiaxed grains of weld metal in A-TIG joint than in MP-TIG joint. These had been attributed to initiate less creep cavitation in weld metal of A-TIG joint leading to improvement in creep rupture strength.

  17. Effects of Admixed Titanium on Densification of 316L Stainless Steel Powder during Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of admixed titanium on powder water atomized (PWA and powder gas atomized (PGA 316L stainless steel (SS have been investigated in terms of densification. PGA and PWA powders, having different shapes and sizes, were cold pressed and sintered in argon atmosphere at 1300°C. The admixed titanium compacts of PGA and PWA have shown significant effect on densification through formation of intermetallic compound and reducing porosity during sintering process. PWA, having particle size 8 μm, blended with 1wt% titanium has exhibited higher sintered density and shrinkage as compared to gas atomized powder compacts. Improved densification of titanium blended PGA and PWA 316L SS at sintering temperature 1300°C is probably due to enhanced diffusion kinetics resulting from stresses induced by concentration gradient in powder compacts.

  18. Damage mechanism at different transpassive potentials of solution-annealed 316 and 316l stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed Behbahani, K.; Pakshir, M.; Abbasi, Z.; Najafisayar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), anodic polarization and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate the damage mechanism in the transpassive potential region of AISI 316 and AISI 316L solution-annealed stainless steels (SS) with different degrees of sensitization. Depending on the DC potential applied during EIS tests, the AC responses in the transpassive region included three different regions: the first one associated with anodic dissolution of the passive layer, the second one contributed to the dissolution at the area near grain boundaries, and the last one attributed to pitting corrosion. In addition, the fitting results to experimental data showed that as the DC bias during the EIS test increases the charge transfer resistance ( R ct) decreases. Moreover, the R ct values decreased as the sensitization temperature increases but the AISI 316L SS samples exhibited a higher resistance to intergranular corrosion than 316 SS samples.

  19. Preparation and characterization of stainless steel 316L/HA biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The austenitic stainless steel 316L is the most used metallic biomaterials in orthopedics applications, especially in the manufacture of articulated prostheses and as structural elements in fracture fixation, since it has high mechanical strength. However, because it is biologically inactive, it does not form chemical bond with bone tissue, it is fixed only by morphology. The development of biocomposites of stainless steel with a bioactive material, such as hydroxyapatite - HA, is presented as an alternative to improve the response in the tissue-implant interface. However significant reductions in mechanical properties of the biocomposite can occur. Different compositions of the biocomposite stainless steel 316L/HA (5, 20 and 50 wt. (% HA were prepared by mechanical alloying. After milling the powders for 10 hours, the different compositions of the biocomposite were compacted isostatically and sintered at 1200 ºC for 2 hours. The mechanical properties of the biocomposites were analyzed by compression tests. The powders and the sintered composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  20. Solute segregation on Σ3 and random grain boundaries in type 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solute segregation and impurity segregation on random and Σ3 grain boundaries in a type 316L stainless steel were investigated by means of atom probe tomography (APT). Segregation of Mo, P, B, and C was observed on random grain boundaries, irrespective of grain boundary misorientation. Two-dimensional concentration maps along the grain boundary plane revealed that the concentrations of all segregated elements were not homogeneous and no co-segregation was observed. In contrast, no segregation was observed on Σ3 grain boundaries

  1. Surface Nanostructure Formations in an AISI 316L Stainless Steel Induced by Pulsed Electron Beam Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB is an efficient technique for surface modifications of metallic materials. In the present work, the formations of surface nanostructures in an AISI 316L stainless steel induced by direct HCPEB treatment and HCPEB alloying have been investigated. After HCPEB Ti alloying, the sample surface contained a mixture of the ferrite and austenite phases with an average grain size of about 90 nm, because the addition of Ti favors the formation of ferrite. In contrast, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD analyses revealed no structural refinement on the direct HCPEB treated sample. However, transmission electron microscope (TEM observations showed that fine cells having an average size of 150 nm without misorientations, as well as nanosized carbide particles, were formed in the surface layer after the direct HCPEB treatment. The formation of nanostructures in the 316L stainless steel is therefore attributed to the rapid solidification and the generation of different phases other than the steel substrate in the melted layer.

  2. Study of TiC+TiN Multiple Films On Type of 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Qi; JIN Yong; HU Dong-ping; HUANG Ben-sheng; DENG Bai-quan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis process of TiC+TiN multiple films on super-low-carbon stainless steels is reported.The TiC layer is coated as the first layer in the multiple film, the change of growth rate of the film on the 316L Stainless steel is not same as the one on carbides substrates, while the mole ratio of CH4 to TiCl4 (mCH4/TiCl4) is changed from 1.2to 2.0. The Ti [C, N], as a kind of inter-layer between TiC and TiN layers, is helpful to improve the adhesion between the TiC and TiN layer. The cooling rate greatly influences the quality of the adhesion between the TiC+TiN film and substrates.

  3. Acoustic emission detection of 316L stainless steel welded joints during intergranular corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-yu Chai; Quan Duan; Wen-jie Bai; Zao-xiao Zhang; Xu-meng Xie

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes acoustic emission (AE) signals during the intergranular corrosion (IGC) process of 316L stainless steel welded joints under different welding currents in boiling nitric acid. IGC generates several AE signals with high AE activity. The AE tech-nique could hardly distinguish IGC in stainless steel welded joints with different welding heat inputs. However, AE signals can effectively distinguish IGC characteristics in different corrosion stages. The IGC resistance of a heat-affected zone is lower than that of a weld zone. The initiation and rapid corrosion stages can be distinguished using AE results and microstructural analysis. Moreover, energy count rate and am-plitude are considered to be ideal parameters for characterizing different IGC processes. Two types of signals are detected in the rapid corro-sion stage. It can be concluded that grain boundary corrosion and grain separation are the AE sources of type 1 and type 2, respectively.

  4. The surface cleanliness of 316 L + N stainless steel studied by SIMS and AES

    CERN Document Server

    Mathewson, A G

    1974-01-01

    Some cleaning methods for 316 L+N stainless steel including solvent cleaning, high temperature treatment in vacuo and gas discharge cleaning have been studied by SIMS and AES with a view to providing a clean vacuum chamber surface with low gas desorption under ion bombardment. After solvent cleaning the main surface contaminant was found to be C and its associated compounds. Laboratory investigations on small samples of stainless steel showed that clean surfaces could be obtained by heating in vacuo to 800 degrees C followed by exposure to air and by argon or argon/10% oxygen discharge cleaning. Due to a cross contamination within the vacuum system, the 800 degrees C treated chamber gave positive desorption coefficients under ion bombardment. The pure argon discharge cleaned chambers proved stable giving negative desorption coefficients up to 2200 eV ion energy even after several weeks storage discharge treatment and installation. (10 refs).

  5. Stability of passivated 316L stainless steel oxide films for cardiovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Chou, Kuang-Yi; Lin, Shing-Jong; Su, Yea-Yang

    2007-03-15

    Passivated 316L stainless steel is used extensively in cardiovascular stents. The degree of chloride ion attack might increase as the oxide film on the implant degrades from exposure to physiological fluid. Stability of 316L stainless steel stent is a function of the concentration of hydrated and hydrolyated oxide concentration inside the passivated film. A high concentration of hydrated and hydrolyated oxide inside the passivated oxide film is required to maintain the integrity of the passivated oxide film, reduce the chance of chloride ion attack, and prevent any possible leaching of positively charged ions into the surrounding tissue that accelerate the inflammatory process. Leaching of metallic ions from corroded implant surface into surrounding tissue was confirmed by the X-ray mapping technique. The degree of thrombi weight percentage [W(ao): (2.1 +/- 0.9)%; W(ep): (12.5 +/- 4.9)%, p electropolishing (EP) treatment groups was statistically significant in ex-vivo extracorporeal thrombosis experiment of mongrel dog. The thickness of neointima (T(ao): 100 +/- 20 microm; T(ep): 500 +/- 150 microm, p < 0.01) and the area ratio of intimal response at 4 weeks (AR(ao): 0.62 +/- 0.22; AR(ep): 1.15 +/- 0.42, p < 0.001) on the implanted iliac stents of New Zealand rabbit could be a function of the oxide properties. PMID:17072844

  6. Passivation Mechanism of 316L Stainless Steel in Oxidizing Acid Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The compositions and the chemical valence states of elements of 316L stainless steel passive film formed in the oxidizing acid solution were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The electrochemical polarization curve was measured. The passivation process in the oxidizing acid solution was studied by AC impedance technology. The results indicated that the stable compounds layer was formed on the surface of the sample and the adsorption was the main step in the nitrite solution during passivation process. The catalysis passivation mechanism was put forward according to the experimental results. During passivation process, the water molecule was adsorbed on the surface of the sample at first in the oxidizing acid solution. The oxidizer in the solution played a role as catalyst. The oxide and hydroxide, which could be changed each other and finally formed stable passive film, were generated from adsorbing intermediate under the catalytic action. The mathematical models for predicting the steady polarization curve and the AC impedance spectra at certain conditions have been obtained. The passivation mechanism of 316L stainless steel in the oxidizing acid solution can be interpreted by the catalysis passivation mechanism.

  7. Strain rate dependence of impact properties of sintered 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woei-Shyan; Lin, Chi-Feng; Liu, Tsung-Ju

    2006-12-01

    This paper uses a material testing system (MTS) and a compressive split-Hopkinson bar to investigate the impact behaviour of sintered 316L stainless steel at strain rates ranging from 10 -3 s -1 to 7.5 × 10 3 s -1. It is found that the true stress, the rate of work hardening and the strain rate sensitivity vary significantly as the strain rate increases. The flow behaviour of the sintered 316L stainless steel can be accurately predicted using a constitutive law based on Gurson's yield criterion and the flow rule proposed by Khan, Huang and Liang (KHL). Microstructural observations reveal that the degree of localized grain deformation increases, but the pore density and the grain size decrease, with increasing strain rate. Adiabatic shear bands associated with cracking are developed at strain rates higher than 5.6 × 10 3 s -1. The fracture surfaces exhibit ductile dimples. The depth and density of these dimples decrease with increasing strain rate.

  8. Strain rate dependence of impact properties of sintered 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wslee@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, C.-F. [National Center for High-Performance Computing, Hsin-Shi Tainan County 744, Taiwan (China); Liu, T.-J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2006-12-15

    This paper uses a material testing system (MTS) and a compressive split-Hopkinson bar to investigate the impact behaviour of sintered 316L stainless steel at strain rates ranging from 10{sup -3} s{sup -1} to 7.5 x 10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. It is found that the true stress, the rate of work hardening and the strain rate sensitivity vary significantly as the strain rate increases. The flow behaviour of the sintered 316L stainless steel can be accurately predicted using a constitutive law based on Gurson's yield criterion and the flow rule proposed by Khan, Huang and Liang (KHL). Microstructural observations reveal that the degree of localized grain deformation increases, but the pore density and the grain size decrease, with increasing strain rate. Adiabatic shear bands associated with cracking are developed at strain rates higher than 5.6 x 10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. The fracture surfaces exhibit ductile dimples. The depth and density of these dimples decrease with increasing strain rate.

  9. Corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in a mercury thermal convection loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Pawel, S.J.

    1999-04-01

    Two thermal convection loops fabricated from 316L stainless steel containing mercury (Hg) and Hg with 1000 wppm gallium (Ga), respectively, were operated continuously for about 5000 h. In each case, the maximum loop temperature was constant at about 305 degrees C and the minimum temperature was constant at about 242 degrees C. Coupons in the hot leg of the Hg-loop developed a posous surface layer substantially depleted of nickel and chromium, which resulted in a transformation to ferrite. The coupon exposed at the top of the hot leg in the Hg-loop experienced the maximum degradation, exhibiting a surface layer extending an average of 9-10 mu m after almost 5000 h. Analysis of the corrosion rate data as a function of temperature (position) in the Hg-loop suggests wetting by the mer cury occurred only above about 255 degrees C and that the rate limiting step in the corrosion process above 255 degrees C is solute diffusion through the saturated liquid boundary layer adjacent to the corroding surface. The latter factor suggests that the corrosion of 316L stainless steel in a mercury loop may be velocity dependent. No wetting and no corrosion were observed on the coupons and wall specimens removed from the Hg/Ga loop after 5000 h of operation.

  10. Phase transformation of 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, quantitative crystalline phase analysis of 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber using a multi-pass cold drawing process was studied using the Rietveld whole XRD profile fitting technique. The different diameters of the fibers: 179, 112, 75, 50, 34, 20, and 8 μm, were produced from an as-received wire with a diameter of 190 μm. The crystalline phases were identified using MDI Jade 5.0 software. The volume fractions of crystalline phases were estimated using a Materials Analysis Using Diffraction software. XRD analysis revealed that the crystal structure of as-received wire is essentially a γ-austenite crystalline phase. The phase transformation occurred during the 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber. Three crystalline phases such as γ-austenite, α'-martensite, and sigma phase of the fine fiber were observed. A cold drawing accelerates the sigma phase precipitates, particularly during the heat treatment of the fiber.

  11. Dislocation evolution in 316L stainless steel subjected to uniaxial ratchetting deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dislocation patterns and their evolution in 316L stainless steel subjected to uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic loading with occurrence of ratchetting deformation were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopic observations show that the dislocation patterns change from low density patterns such as dislocation lines and pile-ups to those with higher dislocation density such as dislocation tangles, veins, walls, and cells, when the macroscopic ratchetting strain progressively increases with the number of cycles. Although one or two kinds of dislocation patterns mentioned above are prevailing in most of the grains at certain stage of ratchetting deformation, other patterns can be also observed in some grains at the same time. The features of dislocation evolution presented during the uniaxial ratchetting deformation are summarized by comparing with the dislocation patterns observed during monotonic tension and symmetrical uniaxial strain-controlled cyclic loading. The uniaxial ratchetting of 316L stainless steel can be qualitatively explained by the observed dislocation patterns and their variation with the number of cycles.

  12. Surface characterization of stainless steel AISI 316 L in contact with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are often used in orthopedic surgery. In the more developed countries, stainless steel is used only for temporary implants since it does not hold up as well as other alloys to corrosion in a physiological medium. Nevertheless, stainless steel alloys are frequently used for permanent implants in developing countries. Therefore, more knowledge about its reaction to corrosion is needed as well as the characteristics of the surface layer generated in a physiological medium in order to control potential toxicity from the release of metallic ions into the organism. The surface films usually have a different composition and chemical state from the base material. The surface characterization of alloys used in orthopedic surgery should not be underestimated, since it heavily influences the behavior of the implant through the relationship of the surface film-tissue and the possible migration of metallic ions from the base metal to the surrounding tissue. This work presents a study of the surface composition and resistance to the corrosion of stainless steel AISI 316L in simulated body fluid (SBF) aired at pH 7.25 and 37oC. The resistance to the corrosion was studied with an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves (CW)

  13. Effect of Cold-Rolling on Precipitation Phenomena in Sensitized Type 316L and 340L Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Tsubakino; A.Yamamoto; T. Yamada; L.Liu; M.Terasawa; S.Nakahigashi; H.Harada

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation phenomena in Type 316L and 304L stainless steels were studied mainly by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations after cold-rolling ranging from 0% (as solution annealed) to 80% reduction in thickness,and then by sensitization treatment. Precipitates were identified by electron diffraction analysis and EDS analysis.Precipitates observed in sensitized 316L stainless steel were sigma and chi phases, whereas carbide and sigma were observed in sensitized 304L stainless steel. Recrystallized grains were formed in 30% cold-rolled and sensitized 304L.However, the tendency toward recrystallization in sensitized 316L was much lower than in 304L. Precipitation of sigma and chi phases was accelerated by cold-rolling and they were observed at grain boundaries in lower cold-rolling; they were also seen, in grain interiors in higher cold-rolling. Higher deformation induced partially recrystallization combined with precipitation, resulting in the formation of heterogeneous microstructures.

  14. A Shear Strain Route Dependency of Martensite Formation in 316L Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu; Jang, Jinsung; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of simple shearing on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Two different shear strain routes were obtained by twisting cylindrical specimens in the forward and backward directions. The strain-induced martensite phase was effectively obtained by alteration of the routes. Formation of the martensite phase clearly resulted in significant hardening of the steel. Grain-size reduction and strain-induced martensitic transformation within the deformed structures of the strained specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy - electron back-scattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and the TEM-ASTAR (transmission electron microscopy - analytical scanning transmission atomic resolution, automatic crystal orientation/phase mapping for TEM) system. Significant numbers of twin networks were formed by alteration of the shear strain routes, and the martensite phases were nucleated at the twin interfaces.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of a bioactive Si, Ca-rich glass coating on 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work consisted in the development and characterization of a vitroceramic coating on 316L stainless steel bymeans of electrophoretic deposition (EPD. This vitroceramic coating was obtained through a Si-, Ca-rich glas coating crystallization. The electrophoretic deposition tests were performed on 316L stainless steel mechanically polished substrates. The results suggest that the electrophoretic coatings adhered well to the metallic surfaces. Theresults demonstrate that the crystallized coatings are potentially bioactive, because a dense and homogeneous apatite layer, similar to a bone, makes up.

  16. Study of TiC+TiN Multiple Films On Type of 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEQi; JINYong; HUDong-ping; HUANGBen-sheng; DENGBai-quan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis process of TiC+TiN multiple films on super-low-carbon stainless steels is reported. The TiC layer is coated as the first layer in the multiple film, the change of growth rate of the film on the 316L Stainlesss teel is not same as the one on carbides substrates, while the mole ratio of CH4 to TiCl4 (mCH4/TiCl4) is changed from 1.2 to 2.0. The Ti [C,N], as a kind of inter-layer between TiC and TiN layers, is helpful to improve the adhesion hetween the TiC and TiN layer. The cooling rate greatly influences the quality of the adhesion between the TiC+TiN film and substrates.

  17. An investigation of the aseptic loosening of an AISI 316L stainless steel hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total replacement of joints by the implantation of permanently indwelling prosthetic components has been one of the major successes of modern surgery in terms of relieving pain and correcting deformity. However, the aseptic loosening of a prosthetic-joint component is the most common reason for joint-revision surgery. Furthermore, it is thought that wear particles are one of the major contributors to the development and perpetuation of aseptic loosening. The aim of the present study was to identify the factors related to the aseptic loosening of an AISI 316L stainless steel total hip prosthesis. The stem was evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, with polished and rough regions being analyzed in order to establish the differences in the chemical compositions of both regions. Specific areas were examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy.

  18. Cyclic deformation behavior of a 316L austenitic stainless steel processed by high pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the fatigue behavior of a modified 316L austenitic stainless steel is investigated. Different ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline microstructures are obtained by changing the processing parameters and applying a post heat treatment procedure. Samples are fatigued using both, load and strain controlled experiments. High pressure torsion processing makes it possible to reach a saturation microstructure, which is cyclically stable up to a stress level three times higher than the stress level of the coarse-grained structure. Fracture surface investigations and surface damage clearly show that the failure behavior of the SPD states under cyclic loading is different to their coarse-grained counterparts. For these microstructures, localized deformation in shear bands seems to play a major role for crack initiation and propagation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. The effect of internal hydrogen on surface slip localisation on polycrystalline AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical analysis of the effect of internal hydrogen on the surface slip morphology of relatively high nickel content AISI 316L type austenitic stainless steel was carried out on high resolution data obtained by atomic force microscopy. Surface plastic strain localisation was studied for different hydrogen contents, two grain sizes, and two plastic strain levels. The height and spacing of approximately 8000 slip bands, observed on 12 specimens, are shown to follow log-normal distributions. Hydrogen increased the mean slip-band height and the mean slip-band spacing for the two macroscopic plastic strain levels considered, and for the two hydrogen concentrations in coarse-grained specimens. The hydrogen effect was also observed for fine-grained specimens, but only for the highest hydrogen concentration. In addition, the emerging dislocation velocity increased by a factor 3 for high hydrogen content.

  20. Analysis of deformation induced martensite in AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagarinec, Darko; Kirbis, Peter; Predan, Jozef; Vuherer, Tomaz; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-08-01

    Metastable austenite stainless steel AISI 316L is sensitive to cold deformation, where transformation from austenite to martensite occurred. The bending deformation as the formation process leads to tensile and compression throughout the thickness of the billet. Tensile testing of the specimen causes differences in the true stress-strain along the contraction neck prior to fracture as well. The aim of the paper is to find correlation between microhardness as brief inspection parameters and extension of martensitic transformation. The total equivalent plastic strain extend diagram obtained by numerical simulation of bending was compared with tensile true stress-strain diagram. Results show very good correlation between hardness, true strain and martesite content. Therefore, one can conclude that by hardness measurement, it is possible to measure the level of equivalent plastic strain until ultimate tensile stress as a linear correlation between hardness, true strain and martesite content.

  1. Cytocompatibility and mechanical properties of novel porous 316 L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Komei; Yamamoto, Akiko; Ochiai, Shojiro; Wada, Masahiro; Daigo, Yuzo; Kita, Koichi; Omori, Kenichi

    2013-07-01

    Novel 316 L stainless steel (SS) foam with 85% porosity and an open pore diameter of 70-440 μm was developed for hard tissue application. The foam sheet with a 200-μm diameter had superior cell proliferation and penetration as identified through in vitro experiments. Calcification of human osteosarcoma cells in the SS foam was observed. Multi-layered foam preparation is a potential alternative technique that satisfies multi-functional requirements such as cell penetration and binding strength to the solid metal. In tensile tests, Young's modulus and the strength of the SS foam were 4.0 GPa and 11.2 MPa respectively, which is comparable with human cancellous bone. PMID:23623090

  2. Anticoagulant surface of 316 L stainless steel modified by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weihua; Zhu, Jian; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhang, Zhengbiao; Zhu, Xiulin

    2011-05-01

    Polished 316 L stainless steel (SS) was first treated with air plasma to enhance surface hydrophilicity and was subsequently allowed to react with 2-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethyltrimethoxysilane to introduce an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator. Accordingly, the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) was carried out on the surface of the modified SS. The grafting progress was monitored by water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The polymer thickness as a function different polymerization times was characterized using a step profiler. The anticoagulative properties of the PEGMA modified SS surface were investigated. The results showed enhanced anticoagulative to acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) blood after grafting PEGMA on the SS surface. PMID:21528878

  3. Stainless steels low temperature nitriding; Nitruration a basse temperature de l`acier inoxydable AISI 316L. Resistance a la corrosion et proprietes tribologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, T.; Darbeida, A.; Von Stebut, J.; Michel, H. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 54 - Nancy (France); Lebrun, J.P. [NITRUVID, 95 - Argenteuil (France); Hertz, D. [Framatome, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1995-12-31

    Nitrogen ions implantation of 316L stainless steel leads to monophasic diffusion layers, which are constituted of a solid solution ({gamma}{sub N}) fcc, metastable, nitrogen sur-saturated, and without order. This article shows that for 316L stainless steels,these layers improve the tribological properties without degradation of the corrosion resistance. (A.B.). 13 refs. 6 figs.

  4. Electrochemical deposition of black nickel solar absorber coatings on stainless steel AISI316L for thermal solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lira-Cantú, Monica; Morales Sabio, Angel; Brustenga, Alex; Gómez-Romero, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report the electrochemical deposition of nanostructured nickel-based solar absorber coatings on stainless steel AISI type 316L. A sol–gel silica-based antireflection coating, from TEOS, was also applied to the solar surface by the dip-coating method. We report our initial results and analyze the influence of the stainless steel substrate on the final total reflectance properties of the solar absorber. The relation between surface morphology, observed by SEM and AFM, the comp...

  5. Corrosion resistance improvement for 316L stainless steel coronary artery stents by trimethylsilane plasma nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Jones, John; Chen, Meng; Yu, Qingsong

    2014-10-01

    To improve their corrosion resistance and thus long-term biocompatibility, 316L stainless steel coronary artery stents were coated with trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma coatings of 20-25 nm in thickness. Both direct current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) glow discharges were utilized for TMS plasma coatings and additional NH₃/O₂ plasma treatment to tailor the surface properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the coating surface chemistry. It was found that both DC and RF TMS plasma coatings had Si- and C-rich composition, and the O- and N-contents on the surfaces were substantially increased after NH₃/O₂ plasma treatment. Surface contact angle measurements showed that DC TMS plasma nanocoating with NH₃/O₂ plasma treatment generated very hydrophilic surface. The corrosion resistance of TMS plasma coated stents was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The potentiodynamic polarization demonstrated that the TMS plasma coated stents imparted higher corrosion potential and pitting potential, as well as lower corrosion current densities as compared with uncoated controls. The surface morphology of stents before and after potentiodynamic polarization testing was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, which indicated less corrosion on coated stents than uncoated controls. It was also noted that, from EIS data, the hydrophobic TMS plasma nanocoatings showed stable impedance modulus at 0.1 Hz after 21 day immersion in an electrolyte solution. These results suggest improved corrosion resistance of the 316L stainless steel stents by TMS plasma nanocoatings and great promise in reducing and blocking metallic ions releasing into the bloodstream.

  6. Corrosion resistance improvement for 316L stainless steel coronary artery stents by trimethylsilane plasma nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Jones, John; Chen, Meng; Yu, Qingsong

    2014-10-01

    To improve their corrosion resistance and thus long-term biocompatibility, 316L stainless steel coronary artery stents were coated with trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma coatings of 20-25 nm in thickness. Both direct current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) glow discharges were utilized for TMS plasma coatings and additional NH₃/O₂ plasma treatment to tailor the surface properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the coating surface chemistry. It was found that both DC and RF TMS plasma coatings had Si- and C-rich composition, and the O- and N-contents on the surfaces were substantially increased after NH₃/O₂ plasma treatment. Surface contact angle measurements showed that DC TMS plasma nanocoating with NH₃/O₂ plasma treatment generated very hydrophilic surface. The corrosion resistance of TMS plasma coated stents was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The potentiodynamic polarization demonstrated that the TMS plasma coated stents imparted higher corrosion potential and pitting potential, as well as lower corrosion current densities as compared with uncoated controls. The surface morphology of stents before and after potentiodynamic polarization testing was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, which indicated less corrosion on coated stents than uncoated controls. It was also noted that, from EIS data, the hydrophobic TMS plasma nanocoatings showed stable impedance modulus at 0.1 Hz after 21 day immersion in an electrolyte solution. These results suggest improved corrosion resistance of the 316L stainless steel stents by TMS plasma nanocoatings and great promise in reducing and blocking metallic ions releasing into the bloodstream. PMID:24500866

  7. Corrosion resistance improvement for 316L stainless steel coronary artery stents by trimethylsilane plasma nanocoatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John Eric; Chen, Meng; Yu, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    To improve their corrosion resistance and thus long-term biocompatibility, 316L stainless steel coronary artery stents were coated with trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma coatings of 20–25 nm in thickness. Both direct current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) glow discharges were utilized for TMS plasma coatings and additional NH3/O2 plasma treatment to tailor the surface properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the coating surface chemistry. It was found that both DC and RF TMS plasma coatings had Si- and C-rich composition, and the O-and N-contents on the surfaces were substantially increased after NH3/O2 plasma treatment. Surface contact angle measurements showed that DC TMS plasma nanocoating with NH3/O2 plasma treatment generated very hydrophilic surface. The corrosion resistance of TMS plasma coated stents was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The potentiodynamic polarization demonstrated that the TMS plasma coated stents imparted higher corrosion potential and pitting potential, as well as lower corrosion current densities as compared with uncoated controls. The surface morphology of stents before and after potentiodynamic polarization testing was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, which indicated less corrosion on coated stents than uncoated controls. It was also noted that, from EIS data, the hydrophobic TMS plasma nanocoatings showed stable impedance modulus at 0.1 Hz after 21 day immersion in an electrolyte solution. These results suggest improved corrosion resistance of the 316L stainless steel stents by TMS plasma nanocoatings and great promise in reducing and blocking metallic ions releasing into the bloodstream. PMID:24500866

  8. Super austenitic stainless steels - a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for flue-gas desulphurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S. [University of Madras, Madras (India). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    1996-12-15

    Potentiodynamic anodic cyclic polarization experiments on type 316L stainless steel and 6Mo super austenitic stainless steels were carried out in simulated flue-gas desulphurization (FGD) environment in order to assess the localized corrosion resistance. The pitting corrosion resistance was higher in the case of the super austenitic stainless steel containing 6Mo and a higher amount of nitrogen. The accelerated leaching study conducted for the alloys showed that the super austenitic stainless steels have a little tendency for leaching of metal ions such as iron, chromium and nickel at different impressed potentials. This may be due to surface segregation of nitrogen as CrN, which would, in turn, enrich a chromium and molybdenum mixed oxide film and thus impede the release of metal ions. The present study indicates that the 6Mo super austenitics can be adopted as a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for FGD plants.

  9. Effect of grain refinement and electrochemical nitridation on corrosion resistance of the 316L stainless steel for bipolar plates in PEMFCs environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Hongyun, Luo

    2015-10-01

    The stain-induced nanocrystalline α'-martensite was obtained by cryogenic cold rolling at liquid-nitrogen temperature for 316L stainless steel. The electrochemical results showed nanocrystalline 316L stainless steel deteriorated its corrosion resistance in a typical proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment compared with coarse grained one. However, comparing with electrochemically nitrided coarse grained stainless steel, electrochemically nitrided nanocrystalline stainless steel improved significantly corrosion resistance in the same environment, which was supported further by Mott-Shottky analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the nanocrystalline promoted the enrichment of nitrogen and chromium and inhibited form of NH3 on the surface, which could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the 316L stainless steel. The present study showed that the electrochemically nitrided 316L stainless steel was more suitable for the bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment than the untreated one, especially for nanocrystalline stainless steel.

  10. Dislocation structure evolution and its effects on cyclic deformation response of AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The cyclic deformation response of AISI 316L steel is investigated at 20 deg. C. → The corresponding microstructure evolution is characterised by electron microscopy. → A 3D representation of dislocation evolution is proposed based on the observation. → The 3D representation gives a good explanation of the microstructure complexity. → The cyclic deformation response is discussed based on the microstructure evolution. - Abstract: The cyclic deformation response of an austenitic stainless steel is characterised in terms of its cyclic peak tensile stress properties by three stages of behaviour: a hardening stage followed by a softening stage, and finally a stable stress response stage. A series of tests have been performed and interrupted at selected numbers of cycles in the different stages of mechanical response. At each interruption point, specimens have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with different beam directions by means of the tilting function in order to investigate the formation and the development of dislocation structures from the as-received condition until the end of fatigue life. A new 3D representation of dislocation structure evolution during cyclic loading is proposed on the basis of the microstructural observations. The 3D representation provides a deeper insight into the development of dislocation structures in AISI 316L during low cycle fatigue loading at room temperature. By investigating the dislocation evolution, the study shows that the hardening response is mainly associated with an increase of total dislocation density, whereas the softening stage is a result of the formation of dislocation-free regions. Further development of the dislocation structure into a cellular structure is responsible for the stable stress response stage.

  11. Martensite transformation induced by deformation and its phase electrochemical behavior for stainless steels AISI 304 and 316L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The martensite transformation induced by tensile elongation and its effect on the behavior of phase electrochemistry of AISI 304 and 316L in 3.5% NaCl solution were studied. The results show that the content of ((-martensite in stainless steel 304 increases with the true strain. As ((-martensite content increased, free corrosion potential and pitting potential of stainless steel 304 in 3.5% NaCl solution appeared the change trend of a minimum. It was also found that pitting nucleated preferentially at the phase interfaces between martensite and austenite. There existed apparent difference between electrochemical properties of austenite and of martensite for stainless steel 304 and 316L in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  12. The effect of repeated repair welding on mechanical and corrosion properties of stainless steel 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microstructure and properties of the HAZ were analyzed. • Delta ferrite morphology changed, and ferrite content decreased. • Adverse effect on yield and ultimate tensile strength was negligible. • The absorbed energy and hardness decreases with increasing number of weld-repair. • The sensitivity to pitting corrosion was increased. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in the mechanical, micro structural and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316L under repeated repair welding. The welding and the repair welding were conducted by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). The SMAW welding process was performed using E316L filler metals. Specimen of the base metal and different conditions of shielded metal arc welding repairs were studied by looking in the micro structural changes, the chemical composition of the phases, the grain size (in the heat affected zone) and the effect on the mechanical and corrosion properties. The microstructure was investigated using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition of the phases was determined using energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The corrosion behavior in 1 M H2SO4 + 3.5% NaCl solution was evaluated using a potentiodynamic polarization method. Tensile tests, Charpy-V impact resistance and Brinell hardness tests were conducted. Hardness of the heat affected zone decreased as the number of repairs increased. Generally an increase in the yield strength (YS) and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) occurred with welding. After the first repair, a gradual decrease in YS and UTS occurred but the values of YS and UTS were not less than values of the base metal. Significant reduction in Charpy-V impact resistance with the number of weld repairs were observed when the notch location was in the HAZ. The HAZ of welding repair specimen is more sensitive to pitting corrosion. The sensitivity of HAZ to pitting corrosion was increased by

  13. Effect of rare earth elements on microstructure and oxidation behaviour in TIG weldments of AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of rare earth addition in weld metal, on the microstructure and oxidation behaviour of AISI 316L stainless steel in dry air under isothermal condition at 973 K for 240 h is reported. Rare earth metal (REM) doped weld metal zone exhibits better oxidation resistance during isothermal holding as compared to base metal and undoped weld metal zone of 316L. Presence of both Ce and Nb in weld metal shows superior oxidation resistance than with Ce alone. TIG weld microstructures are presented by optical microscopy. The morphologies of the scales and nature of their adherence to the alloy substrates, and scale spallation have been characterized by SEM and EDAX

  14. The Effect of Constant and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Joint Properties of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel to 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neissi, R.; Shamanian, M.; Hajihashemi, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, dissimilar 316L austenitic stainless steel/2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) joints were fabricated by constant and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding process using ER2209 DSS as a filler metal. Microstructures and joint properties were characterized using optical and electron scanning microscopy, tensile, Charpy V-notch impact and micro-hardness tests, and cyclic polarization measurements. Microstructural observations confirmed the presence of chromium nitride and delta ferrite in the heat-affected zone of DSS and 316L, respectively. In addition, there was some deviation in the austenite/ferrite ratio of the surface welding pass in comparison to the root welding pass. Besides having lower pitting potential, welded joints produced by constant current gas tungsten arc welding process, consisted of some brittle sigma phase precipitates, which resulted in some impact energy reduction. The tensile tests showed high tensile strength for the weld joints in which all the specimens were broken in 316L base metal.

  15. SCC crack growth rate of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; Lu, Hui [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Lefu, E-mail: lfzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.

  16. Electrochemical study of Type 304 and 316L stainless steels in simulated body fluids and cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yee-Chin; Katsuma, Shoji; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hiromoto, Sachiko

    2006-11-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Type 304 and 316L stainless steels was studied in Hanks' solution, Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM), serum containing medium (MEM with 10% of fetal bovine serum) without cells, and serum containing medium with cells over a 1-week period. Polarization resistance measurements indicated that the stainless steels were resistant to Hanks' and MEM solutions. Type 304 was more susceptible to pitting corrosion than Type 316L in Hanks' and MEM solutions. The uniform corrosion resistance of stainless steels, determined by R(p), was lower in culturing medium than in Hanks' and MEM. The low corrosion resistance was due to surface passive film with less protective to reveal high anodic dissolution rate. When cells were present, the initial corrosion resistance was low, but gradually increased after 3 days, consistent with the trend of cell coverage. The presence of cells was found to suppress the cathodic reaction, that is, oxygen reduction, and increase the uniform corrosion resistance as a consequence. On the other hand, both Type 304 and 316L stainless steels became more susceptible to pitting corrosion when they were covered with cells.

  17. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  18. Mechanical properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel 304L and 316L at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuram Karthik Desu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic Stainless Steel grade 304L and 316L are very important alloys used in various high temperature applications, which make it important to study their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. In this work, the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength (UTS, yield strength (YS, % elongation, strain hardening exponent (n and strength coefficient (K are evaluated based on the experimental data obtained from the uniaxial isothermal tensile tests performed at an interval of 50 °C from 50 °C to 650 °C and at three different strain rates (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 s−1. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN are trained to predict these mechanical properties. The trained ANN model gives an excellent correlation coefficient and the error values are also significantly low, which represents a good accuracy of the model. The accuracy of the developed ANN model also conforms to the results of mean paired t-test, F-test and Levene's test.

  19. Laser Surface Alloying of 316L Stainless Steel with Ru and Ni Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Lekala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The surfaces of AISI 316L stainless steel were laser alloyed with ruthenium powder and a mixture of ruthenium and nickel powders using a cw Nd:YAG laser set at fixed operating parameters. The microstructure, elemental composition, and corrosion characteristics of the alloyed zone were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and corrosion potential measurements. The depth of alloyed zone was measured using the AxioVision program and found to be approximately 1.8 mm for all the alloyed specimens. Hardness profile measurements through the surface-substrate interface showed a significant increase from 160 HV for the substrate to a maximum of 247 HV for the alloyed layer. The sample laser alloyed with 80 wt% Ni-20 wt% presented the most noble corrosion potential (Ecorr of −0.18 V and the lowest corrosion current density (icorr.

  20. Microstructure characterisation and process optimization of laser assisted rapid fabrication of 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, laser assisted fabrication of 316L stainless steel has been attempted using a high power (1.5 kW) continuous wave diode laser. The main process variables for the present study were applied power density, scan speed and powder feed rate. A detailed microstructural study of the surface and cross-section of the fabricated layer were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy to understand the influence of laser parameters on microstructure of the surface and interface between the successive layers. The microstructure of the top layer was equiaxed, the near substrate region was fine dendritic, however, at the interface between two successive layers, it was coarsened. The morphology and degree of fineness of the microstructure was found to vary with laser parameters. The range of grain size (maximum grain size-minimum grain size) was taken as a measure of homogeneity. It was found that with increasing the scan speed, the range of grain size was minimized. Micro-porosities were present in the microstructure that reduced with increasing scan speed and found to be minimum at a medium powder feed rate. The optimum processing conditions have been established by correlating the characteristics of the fabricated layer with process parameters

  1. Low-temperature plasma nitriding of sintered PIM 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Aecio Fernando; Scheuer, Cristiano Jose; Joanidis, Ioanis Labhardt; Cardoso, Rodrigo Perito; Mafra, Marcio; Klein, Aloisio Nelmo; Brunatto, Silvio Francisco, E-mail: brunatto@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Tecnologia de Fabricacao Assistida pro Plasma e Metalurgia do Po

    2014-08-15

    This work reports experimental results on sintered PIM 316L stainless steel low-temperature plasma nitriding. The effect of treatment temperature and time on process kinetics, microstructure and surface characteristics of the nitrided samples were investigated. Nitriding was carried out at temperatures of 350, 380, 410 and 440 °C , and times of 4, 8 and 16 h, using a gas mixture composed by 60% N2 + 20% H2 + 20% Ar, at a gas flow rate of 5.00 X 10{sup 6} Nm{sup 3-1}, and a pressure of 800 Pa. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and microhardness measurements. Results indicate that low-temperature plasma nitriding is a diffusion controlled process. The calculated activation energy for nitrided layer growth was 111.4 kJmol{sup -1}. Apparently precipitation-free layers were produced in this study. It was also observed that the higher the treatment temperature and time the higher is the obtained surface hardness. Hardness up to 1343 HV{sub 0.025} was verified for samples nitrided at 440 °C. Finally, the characterization of the treated surface indicates the formation of cracks, which were observed in regions adjacent to the original pores after the treatment. (author)

  2. An in vitro investigation of the anodic polarization and capacitance behavior of 316-L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutow, E J; Pollack, S R; Korostoff, E

    1976-09-01

    Determinations were made of how the corrosion-resistant properties of the passive film on 316-L stainless steel are influenced by the material's mechanical and surface states, and the variable pH and PO2 conditions of the interstitial fluid. Cold-rolled and annealed specimens were surface-prepared, commercially and in the laboratory, respectively, as if for orthopedic implantation. Passive film behavior was studied by the anodic polarization and pulse-potentiostatic capacitance methods. The pH and PO2 of the Ringer's test solution were varied to include interstitial fluid values occurring postoperatively and onto recovery. The anodic polarization behavior of all specimens was found to be pH- and PO2-independent. Breakdown potentials of annealed specimens were 800-950 mV (SCE), in contrast to previously reported values of approximately 350 mV. This substantial increase is related to the influence of surface preparation and, in particular, to the optimization of electropolishing time which acts to produce a microscopically smooth surface, free of debris and disarrayed material. Capacitance behavior of annealed material for potentials greater than 400 mV was consistent with a model involving the entry of chloride and metal ions (mostly Fe) into the passive film. This entry is related to the onset of pitting. PMID:10307

  3. The influence of electropolishing on the corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutow, E J

    1980-09-01

    A study was conducted which examined the influence of electropolishing on the corrosion resistance of a cold rolled 316L stainless steel. Test specimens were surface prepared to a final mechanical finish of wetted 600 grit SiC paper, prior to electropolishing. An o-H3PO4/Glycerol/H2O electropolishing solution was employed for times of 15, 20, and 25 min. Control specimens were surface prepared only to the final mechanical finish. Anodic polarization tests were performed in a deaerated Ringer's solution (37 degrees C) which was acidified to pH 1, with HCl. The electropolished specimens demonstrated increased corrosion resistance, when compared to the control specimens. This was evidenced for the former by more anodic corrosion and breakdown potentials, and the absence of a dissolution peak which was observed for the control specimens at the initial polarization potentials. Surface hardness measurements indicated that this increase in corrosion resistance was produced, in part, by the removal of the cold worked surface layer produced by the mechanical finish. In terms of increasing corrosion resistance, no optimum electropolishing time was found within the 15-25 min treatment period. PMID:7349665

  4. Low-temperature plasma nitriding of sintered PIM 316L austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports experimental results on sintered PIM 316L stainless steel low-temperature plasma nitriding. The effect of treatment temperature and time on process kinetics, microstructure and surface characteristics of the nitrided samples were investigated. Nitriding was carried out at temperatures of 350, 380, 410 and 440 °C , and times of 4, 8 and 16 h, using a gas mixture composed by 60% N2 + 20% H2 + 20% Ar, at a gas flow rate of 5.00 X 106 Nm3-1, and a pressure of 800 Pa. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and microhardness measurements. Results indicate that low-temperature plasma nitriding is a diffusion controlled process. The calculated activation energy for nitrided layer growth was 111.4 kJmol-1. Apparently precipitation-free layers were produced in this study. It was also observed that the higher the treatment temperature and time the higher is the obtained surface hardness. Hardness up to 1343 HV0.025 was verified for samples nitrided at 440 °C. Finally, the characterization of the treated surface indicates the formation of cracks, which were observed in regions adjacent to the original pores after the treatment. (author)

  5. Galvanic deposition and characterization of brushite/hydroxyapatite coatings on 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanda, Giuseppe; Brucato, Valerio; Pavia, Francesco Carfì; Greco, Silvia; Piazza, Salvatore; Sunseri, Carmelo; Inguanta, Rosalinda

    2016-07-01

    In this work, brushite and brushite/hydroxyapatite (BS, CaHPO4·H2O; HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316LSS) from a solution containing Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and NH4H2PO4 by a displacement reaction based on a galvanic contact, where zinc acts as sacrificial anode. Driving force for the cementation reaction arises from the difference in the electrochemical standard potentials of two different metallic materials (316LSS and Zn) immersed in an electrolyte, so forming a galvanic contact leading to the deposition of BS/HA on nobler metal. We found that temperature and deposition time affect coating features (morphology, structure, and composition). Deposits were characterized by means of several techniques. The morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, the elemental composition was obtained by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, whilst the structure was identified by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. BS was deposited at all investigated temperatures covering the 316LSS surface. At low and moderate temperature, BS coatings were compact, uniform and with good crystalline degree. On BS layers, HA crystals were obtained at 50°C for all deposition times, while at 25°C, its presence was revealed only after long deposition time. Electrochemical studies show remarkable improvement in corrosion resistance. PMID:27127032

  6. Study of the Mechanical Properties of a Nanostructured Surface Layer on 316L Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A nanostructured surface layer (NSSL was generated on a 316L stainless steel plate through surface nanocrystallization (SNC. The grains of the surface layer were refined to nanoscale after SNC treatment. Moreover, the microstructure and mechanical properties of NSSL were analyzed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM, through nanoindentation, and through reverse analysis of finite element method (FEM. TEM results showed that the grains in the NSSL measured 8 nm. In addition, these nanocrystalline grains took the form of random crystallographic orientation and were roughly equiaxed in shape. In situ SEM observations of the tensile process confirmed that the motions of the dislocations were determined from within the material and that the motions were blocked by the NSSL, thus improving overall yielding stress. Meanwhile, the nanohardness and the elastic modulus of the NSSL, as well as those of the matrix, were obtained with nanoindentation technology. The reverse analysis of FEM was conducted with MARC software, and the process of nanoindentation on the NSSL and the matrix was simulated. The plastic mechanical properties of NSSL can be derived from the simulation by comparing the results of the simulation and of actual nanoindentation.

  7. Boron content in type 316 L stainless steel by neutron induced autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron is effective to the improvement of various properties of alloys, but it is difficult to characterize its behavior during the alloy processing. Neutron induced autoradiography (or called as F.T.E: Fission Track Etching) technique was attempted to quantitatively analyze boron content in type 316 L austenitic stainless steel. Reference samples with nine different boron contents were prepared and analyzed by conventional analysis method as well as by autoradiography technique using 'HANARO', a 30 MW research reactor in K.A.E.R.I. (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Cd ratio of the neutron flux was about 200 and thermal neutron flux was around 2x1013/cm2/sec. A Kodak CN-85TM detector with an alloy sample was irradiated with two different thermal neutron fluences of 1013 and 1014/cm2. Track densities on the autoradiographs were measured using image analyzer. Within the range of 10 to 50 ppm of boron, track densities from autoradiography showed the linear relationship with results from conventional analyses. When complementarily applied with other analysis technique like E.B.S.D. (Electron Backscattered Diffraction) or E.D.S. (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) neutron induced autoradiography technique was found very useful in distinguishing and identifying phases with the different distribution coefficient of boron. (author)

  8. Effect of Mercury Velocity on Corrosion of Type 316L Stainless Steel in a Thermal Convection Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, SJ

    2001-03-23

    Two 316L thermal convection loops (TCLs) containing several types of 316L specimens circulated mercury continuously for 2000 h at a maximum temperature of 300 C. Each TCL was fitted with a venturi-shaped reduced section near the top of the hot leg for the purpose of locally increasing the Hg velocity. Results suggest that an increase in velocity from about 1.2 m/min (bulk flow) to about 5 mmin (reduced section) had no significant impact on compatibility of 316L with Hg. In addition, various surface treatments such as gold-plating, chemical etching, polishing, and steam cleaning resulted in little or no influence on compatibility of 316L with Hg when compared to nominal mill-annealed/surface-ground material. A sensitizing heat treatment also had little/no effect on compatibility of 316L with Hg for the bulk specimen, although intergranular attack was observed around the specimen holes in each case. It was determined that carburization of the hole area had occurred as a result of the specimen fabrication process potentially rendering the specimens susceptible to corrosion by Hg at these locations. To avoid sensitization-related compatibility issues for SNS components, selection of low carbon grades of stainless steel and control of the fabrication process is recommended.

  9. Effect of forming technique BixSiyOz coatings obtained by sol- gel and supported on 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Ruiz, J.; Olaya Flórez, J.; Aperador, W.

    2016-02-01

    BixSiyOz type coatings via sol-gel synthesized from bismuth nitrate pentahydrate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursors; glacial acetic acid and 2-ethoxyethanol as solvents, and ethanolamine as complexing. The coatings were supported on AISI 316L stainless steel substrate through dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The study showed that the spin-coating technique is efficient than dip-coating because it allows more dense and homogeneous films.

  10. Microstructure Evolution and Cracking Control of 316L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Multi-layer Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJian-li; DENGQi-lin; HUDe-jin; SUNKang-kai; ZHOUGuang-cai

    2004-01-01

    Multi-layer laser cladding manufacturing is a newly developed rapid manufacturing technology. It is a powerful tool for direct fabrication of three-dimensional fully dense metal components and part repairing. In this paper, the microstructure evolution and properties of 316L stainless steel deposited with this technology was investigated, compact components with properties similar to the as-cast and wrought annealed material was obtained. Cracking was eliminated by introducing of supersonic vibration and application of parameter adjustment technologies.

  11. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on uranium oxide films on 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbraham, Richard J.; Boxall, Colin; Goddard, David T.; Taylor, Robin J.; Woodbury, Simon E.

    2015-09-01

    For the first time the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the dissolution of electrodeposited uranium oxide films on 316L stainless steel planchets (acting as simulant uranium-contaminated metal surfaces) has been studied. Analysis of the H2O2-mediated film dissolution processes via open circuit potentiometry, alpha counting and SEM/EDX imaging has shown that in near-neutral solutions of pH 6.1 and at [H2O2] ⩽ 100 μmol dm-3 the electrodeposited uranium oxide layer is freely dissolving, the associated rate of film dissolution being significantly increased over leaching of similar films in pH 6.1 peroxide-free water. At H2O2 concentrations between 1 mmol dm-3 and 0.1 mol dm-3, formation of an insoluble studtite product layer occurs at the surface of the uranium oxide film. In analogy to corrosion processes on common metal substrates such as steel, the studtite layer effectively passivates the underlying uranium oxide layer against subsequent dissolution. Finally, at [H2O2] > 0.1 mol dm-3 the uranium oxide film, again in analogy to common corrosion processes, behaves as if in a transpassive state and begins to dissolve. This transition from passive to transpassive behaviour in the effect of peroxide concentration on UO2 films has not hitherto been observed or explored, either in terms of corrosion processes or otherwise. Through consideration of thermodynamic solubility product and complex formation constant data, we attribute the transition to the formation of soluble uranyl-peroxide complexes under mildly alkaline, high [H2O2] conditions - a conclusion that has implications for the design of both acid minimal, metal ion oxidant-free decontamination strategies with low secondary waste arisings, and single step processes for spent nuclear fuel dissolution such as the Carbonate-based Oxidative Leaching (COL) process.

  12. Prediction of microcracking in laser overly welds of alloy 690 to type 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of ductility-dip crack in the laser overlay welds of alloy 690 to type 316L stainless steel was predicted by the mechanical and metallurgical approaches. Ductility-dip temperature ranges (DTRs) of alloy 690 laser overlay welds were estimated by Varestraint test during GTA welding. The grain boundary segregation of impurity elements such as P and S was numerically analyzed based on the non-equilibrium cosegregation theory when the welding speed and the amounts of P and S in the weld metal were varied. In accordance with the repression approximation between the DTR and the calculated grain boundary concentrations of P and S, the DTRs of alloy 690 were computed in laser overlay welding. The estimated DTR in laser overlay welds was reduced with an increase in welding speed and with a decrease in the amounts of P and S in the weld metal. Ductility-dip cracking in laser overlay welds was predicted by the plastic strain-temperature curve intersected the DTR. The plastic strain in laser overlay welding was numerically analyzed using the thermo elasto-plastic finite element method. The plastic strain-temperature curve in laser overlay welds intersected the DTR at decreased welding speed and increased (P+S) content in the weld metal. The predicted results of ductility-dip cracking in laser overlay welds were approximately consistent with experiment results. It follows that ductility-dip cracking in laser overlay welds could be successfully predicted based on the estimated DTR from grain boundary segregation analysis combined with the computed plastic strain by FEM analysis. (author)

  13. Hydrophilic property of 316L stainless steel after treatment by atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma using surface-sensitive analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim, E-mail: hamarnehibrahim@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan); Pedrow, Patrick [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal [Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface hydrophilic property of surgical-grade 316L stainless steel was enhanced by Ar-O{sub 2} corona streamer plasma treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophilicity, surface morphology, roughness, and chemical composition before and after plasma treatment were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements and surface-sensitive analyses techniques, including XPS and AFM, were carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum plasma treatment conditions of the SS 316L surface were determined. - Abstract: Surgical-grade 316L stainless steel (SS 316L) had its surface hydrophilic property enhanced by processing in a corona streamer plasma reactor using O{sub 2} gas mixed with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Reactor excitation was 60 Hz ac high-voltage (0-10 kV{sub RMS}) applied to a multi-needle-to-grounded screen electrode configuration. The treated surface was characterized with a contact angle tester. Surface free energy (SFE) for the treated stainless steel increased measurably compared to the untreated surface. The Ar-O{sub 2} plasma was more effective in enhancing the SFE than Ar-only plasma. Optimum conditions for the plasma treatment system used in this study were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the chemical composition of the treated surfaces confirms the existence of new oxygen-containing functional groups contributing to the change in the hydrophilic nature of the surface. These new functional groups were generated by surface reactions caused by reactive oxidation of substrate species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were generated to investigate morphological and roughness changes on the plasma treated surfaces. The aging effect in air after treatment was also studied.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel and anti-corrosion materials in a high acidified chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.H. [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Colleges and Universities for Corrosion Control in Electric Power System and Applied Electrochemistry, 2103 Pingliang Road, Shanghai 200090 (China); Ge, H.H., E-mail: gehonghua@shiep.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Colleges and Universities for Corrosion Control in Electric Power System and Applied Electrochemistry, 2103 Pingliang Road, Shanghai 200090 (China); Lin, W.W. [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Colleges and Universities for Corrosion Control in Electric Power System and Applied Electrochemistry, 2103 Pingliang Road, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zong, Y.W.; Liu, S.J. [Power Plant of Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Tieli Road, Shanghai 200941 (China); Shi, J.M. [Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Severe general corrosion accompanied by localized pitting occurred on 316L SS surface in a high acidified chloride solution. • Surface roughness, surface potential difference and the electrochemical non-homogeneity of 316L SS in the test solution were investigated. • TA2, type 2507 SS and type 254SMo SS exhibit good corrosion resistance in the test solution. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviour of a type 316L (UNS S31603) stainless steel (SS) expansion joint in a simulated leaching solution of sediment on blast furnace gas pipeline in a power plant is investigated by using dynamic potential polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), optical microscope, atomic force microscope (AFM) and Scan Kelvin Probe (SKP). Severe general corrosion accompanied by pitting corrosion occurs on the type 316L SS surface in this solution. As the immersion period increases, the charge transfer resistance R{sub ct} decreases, the dissolution rate accelerates, the surface roughness increases and the surface potential difference enhances significantly. Then eight corrosion-resistant materials are tested, the corrosion rates of type 254SMo SS, type 2507 SS and TA2 are relatively minor in the solution. The corrosion resistance properties of TA2 is most excellent, indicating it would be the superior material choice for blast furnace gas pipeline.

  15. Resistance spot welding joints of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel sheets: Phase transformations, mechanical properties and microstructure characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Resistance spot welding of AISI 316L stainless steel sheets. • Microstructure prediction by the use of Schaeffler and Pseudo-binary diagrams. • Non-equilibrium phases including skeletal, acicular and lathy delta ferrite formed. • Mechanical characterization of weld nuggets including peak load and failure energy. • Different failure modes were found at various welding currents. - Abstract: In this paper, we aim to optimize welding parameters namely welding current and time in resistance spot welding (RSW) of the austenitic stainless steel sheets grade AISI 316L. Afterward, effect of optimum welding parameters on the resistance spot welding properties and microstructure of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel sheets has been investigated. Effect of welding current at constant welding time was considered on the weld properties such as weld nugget size, tensile–shear load bearing capacity of welded materials, failure modes, failure energy, ductility, and microstructure of weld nuggets as well. Phase transformations that took place during weld thermal cycle were analyzed in more details including metallographic studies of welding of the austenitic stainless steels. Metallographic images, mechanical properties, electron microscopy photographs and micro-hardness measurements showed that the region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. Backscattered electron scanning microscopic images (BE-SEM) showed various types of delta ferrite in weld nuggets. Three delta ferrite morphologies consist of skeletal, acicular and lathy delta ferrite morphologies formed in resistance spot welded regions as a result of non-equilibrium phases which can be attributed to the fast cooling rate in RSW process and consequently, prediction and explanation of the obtained morphologies based on Schaeffler, WRC-1992 and Pseudo-binary phase diagrams would be a difficult task

  16. Microstructural, Micro-hardness and Sensitization Evaluation in HAZ of Type 316L Stainless Steel Joint with Narrow Gap Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Faisal Shafiqul; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shi Chull [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    From Micro-hardness measurement HAZ zone was found approximately 1-1.5 mm in NGW and DL-EPR test confirmed that 316L NGW HAZ was not susceptible to sensitization as DOS <1% according to sensitization criteria based on reference. In nuclear power plants 316L stainless steels are commonly used material for their metallurgical stability, high corrosion resistance, and good creep and ductility properties at elevated temperatures. Welding zone considered as the weakest and failure initiation source of the components. For safety and economy of nuclear power plants accurate and dependable structural integrity assessment of main components like pressure vessels and piping are need as it joined by different welding process. In similar and dissimilar metal weld it has been observed that weld microstructure cause the variation of mechanical properties through the thickness direction. In the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) relative to the fusion line face a unique thermal experience during welding.

  17. Analysis of a premature failure of welded AISI316L stainless steel pipes originated by microbial induced corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, E.; Bastidas, J.M.; Lopez, V. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-07-01

    This paper analyses the causes of the premature failure of welded AISI 316L stainless steel (ss) pipes which formed part of a sea water cooling circuit. The service time of the pipes was 8 months. The laboratory tests carried out consisted of metallography tests, {delta}-ferrite determination, intergranular corrosion susceptibility, cyclic anodic polarization curves, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The study presents typical forms of microbial induced corrosion (MIC) in AISI 308L and 316L ss in contact with natural sea water. The research is completed with the performance of bacteriological tests which demonstrate that the bacteria which cause the localized corrosion are of the sulphate-reducing genus ``desulfovibrio`` and the sulphide-oxidizing genus ``thiocapsa``. (orig.) 17 refs.

  18. Effects of grain size and specimen size on small punch test of type 316L austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature specimen test technique has been extensively studied for quantifying the properties of bulk materials. In this paper small punch test (SPT) is used to clarify the effects of specimen thickness (t), grain size (d) and ratio of thickness to grain size (t/d) on mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS). Five sheet of 316L SS with the same texture but different thicknesses and grain sizes were prepared using rolling and heating treatment technique. Effective SPT yield strength was measured, and then used to correlate with conventional tensile test by empirical equation. The results show that the SPT is sensitive not only to differences in the thickness, but also to changes in the grain size and value of t/d. The present work provides information that enhance the understanding of reliability of SPT in analysis of the mechanical properties of small specimens and bulk materials. (author)

  19. Characteristics of sulfide corrosion products on 316L stainless steel surfaces in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found that microbial communities play a significant role in the corrosion process of steels exposed in aquatic and soil environments. Biomineralization influenced by microorganisms is believed to be responsible for the formation of corrosion products via complicated pathways of electron transfer between microbial cells and the metal. In this study, sulfide corrosion products were investigated for 316L stainless steel exposed to media with sulfate-reducing bacteria media for 7 weeks. The species of inorganic and organic sulfides in the passive film on the stainless steel were observed by epifluorescence microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The transformation from metal oxides to metal sulfides influenced by sulfate-reducing bacteria is emphasized in this paper

  20. Improving the oxidation resistance of 316L stainless steel in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water by electropolishing treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangdong; Lu, Zhanpeng; Ru, Xiangkun; Chen, Junjie; Xiao, Qian; Tian, Yongwu

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation behavior of 316L stainless steel specimens after emery paper grounding, mechanical polishing, and electropolishing were investigated in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water at 310 °C for 120 and 500 h. Electropolishing afforded improved oxidation resistance especially during the early immersion stages. Duplex oxide films comprising a coarse Fe-rich outer layer and a fine Cr-rich inner layer formed on all specimens after 500 h of immersion. Only a compact layer was observed on the electropolished specimen after 120 h of immersion. The enrichment of chromium in the electropolished layer contributed to the passivity and protectiveness of the specimen.

  1. Mechanical properties of type 316L stainless steel welded joint for ITER vacuum vessel (1). Experiment of unirradiated welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Kouichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    In design activity of ITER, the vacuum vessel (VV) is ranked as one of the most important components in core reactor from the view point of first barrier to tritium release from the reactor. The VV of ITER is designed as double walled structure so that some parts of them are not qualified in the conventional design standards. So it is necessary to prepare the new design standards to be applied them. JAERI has executed the preparation activity of the new design standards and the technical data to support them. In this study, the results of metallographic observation and mechanical properties of unirradiated type 316L stainless steel welded joint were reported. (author)

  2. Evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel 316L pipe using guided wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel is a popular structural materials for liquid-hydrogen storage containers and piping components for transporting high-temperature fluids because of its superior material properties such as high strength and high corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. In general, tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding is used for bonding stainless steel. However, it is often reported that the thermal fatigue cracks or initial defects in stainless steel after welding decreases the reliability of the material. The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in relation to a change in the initial crack length in the welding zone of stainless steel. For this purpose, three specimens with different artificial defects of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm in stainless steel welds were prepared. By considering the thickness of s stainless steel pipe, special attention was given to both the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode in this study. It was clearly found that the L(0,2) mode was more sensitive to defects than the L(0,1) mode. Based on the results of the L(0,1) and L(0,2) mode analyses, the magnitude ratio of the two modes was more effective than studying each mode when evaluating defects near the welded zone of stainless steel because of its linear relationship with the length of the artificial defect.

  3. Evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel 316L pipe using guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Stainless steel is a popular structural materials for liquid-hydrogen storage containers and piping components for transporting high-temperature fluids because of its superior material properties such as high strength and high corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. In general, tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding is used for bonding stainless steel. However, it is often reported that the thermal fatigue cracks or initial defects in stainless steel after welding decreases the reliability of the material. The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in relation to a change in the initial crack length in the welding zone of stainless steel. For this purpose, three specimens with different artificial defects of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm in stainless steel welds were prepared. By considering the thickness of s stainless steel pipe, special attention was given to both the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode in this study. It was clearly found that the L(0,2) mode was more sensitive to defects than the L(0,1) mode. Based on the results of the L(0,1) and L(0,2) mode analyses, the magnitude ratio of the two modes was more effective than studying each mode when evaluating defects near the welded zone of stainless steel because of its linear relationship with the length of the artificial defect.

  4. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Joints Between AISI 316L Austenitic/UNS S32750 Dual-Phase Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanian, Morteza; Mohammadnezhad, Mahyar; Amini, Mahdi; Zabolian, Azam; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steels are among the most economical and highly practicable materials widely used in industrial areas due to their mechanical and corrosion resistances. In this study, a dissimilar weld joint consisting of an AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (ASS) and a UNS S32750 dual-phase stainless steel was obtained under optimized welding conditions by gas tungsten arc welding technique using AWS A5.4:ER2594 filler metal. The effect of welding on the evolution of the microstructure, crystallographic texture, and micro-hardness distribution was also studied. The weld metal (WM) was found to be dual-phased; the microstructure is obtained by a fully ferritic solidification mode followed by austenite precipitation at both ferrite boundaries and ferrite grains through solid-state transformation. It is found that welding process can affect the ferrite content and grain growth phenomenon. The strong textures were found in the base metals for both steels. The AISI 316L ASS texture is composed of strong cube component. In the UNS S32750 dual-phase stainless steel, an important difference between the two phases can be seen in the texture evolution. Austenite phase is composed of a major cube component, whereas the ferrite texture mainly contains a major rotated cube component. The texture of the ferrite is stronger than that of austenite. In the WM, Kurdjumov-Sachs crystallographic orientation relationship is found in the solidification microstructure. The analysis of the Kernel average misorientation distribution shows that the residual strain is more concentrated in the austenite phase than in the other phase. The welding resulted in a significant hardness increase in the WM compared to initial ASS.

  5. Creep deformation and fracture behavior of types 316 and 316L(N) stainless steels and their weld metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, G.; Mannan, S. L.; Mathew, M. D.; Rao, K. Bhanu

    2000-04-01

    The creep properties of a nuclear-grade type 316(L) stainless steel (SS) alloyed with nitrogen (316L(N) SS) and its weld metal were studied at 873 and 923 K in the range of applied stresses from 100 to 335 MPa. The results were compared with those obtained on a nuclear-grade type 316 SS, which is lean in nitrogen. The creep rupture lives of the weld metals were found to be lower than those of the respective base metals by a factor of 5 to 10. Both the base and weld metals of 316L(N) SS exhibited better resistance to creep deformation compared to their 316 SS counterparts at identical test conditions. A power-law relationship between the minimum creep rate and applied stress was found to be obeyed for both the base and weld metals. Both the weld metals generally exhibited lower rupture elongation than the respective base metals; however, at 873 K, the 316 SS base and weld metals had similar rupture elongation at identical applied stresses. Comparison of the rupture lives of the two steels to the ASME curves for the expected minimum stress to rupture for 316 SS base and weld metals showed that, for 316L(N) SS, the specifications for maximum allowable stresses based on data for 316 SS could prove overconservative. The influence of nitrogen on the creep deformation and fracture behavior, especially in terms of its modifying the precipitation kinetics, is discussed in light of the microstructural observations. In welds containing δ ferrite, the kinetics of its transformation and the nature of the transformation products control the deformation and fracture behavior. The influence of nitrogen on the δ ferrite transformation behavior and coarsening kinetics is also discussed, on the basis of extensive characterization by metallographic techniques.

  6. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on uranium oxide films on 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbraham, Richard J., E-mail: r.wilbraham@lancaster.ac.uk [The Lloyd’s Register Foundation Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancashire LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Boxall, Colin, E-mail: c.boxall@lancaster.ac.uk [The Lloyd’s Register Foundation Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancashire LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Goddard, David T., E-mail: dave.t.goddard@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Preston Laboratory, Springfields, Preston, Lancashire PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom); Taylor, Robin J., E-mail: robin.j.taylor@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Woodbury, Simon E., E-mail: simon.woodbury@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The first report of the presence of both UO{sub 2} and polymeric UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in the same electrodeposited U oxide sample. • The action of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on electrodeposited U oxides is described using corrosion based concepts. • Electrodeposited U oxide freely dissolves at hydrogen peroxide concentrations <100 μmol dm{sup −3}. • At [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] > 0.1 mmol dm{sup −3} dissolution is inhibited by formation of a studtite passivation layer. • At [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] ⩾ 1 mol dm{sup −3} studtite formation competes with uranyl–peroxide complex formation. - Abstract: For the first time the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the dissolution of electrodeposited uranium oxide films on 316L stainless steel planchets (acting as simulant uranium-contaminated metal surfaces) has been studied. Analysis of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated film dissolution processes via open circuit potentiometry, alpha counting and SEM/EDX imaging has shown that in near-neutral solutions of pH 6.1 and at [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] ⩽ 100 μmol dm{sup −3} the electrodeposited uranium oxide layer is freely dissolving, the associated rate of film dissolution being significantly increased over leaching of similar films in pH 6.1 peroxide-free water. At H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations between 1 mmol dm{sup −3} and 0.1 mol dm{sup −3}, formation of an insoluble studtite product layer occurs at the surface of the uranium oxide film. In analogy to corrosion processes on common metal substrates such as steel, the studtite layer effectively passivates the underlying uranium oxide layer against subsequent dissolution. Finally, at [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] > 0.1 mol dm{sup −3} the uranium oxide film, again in analogy to common corrosion processes, behaves as if in a transpassive state and begins to dissolve. This transition from passive to transpassive behaviour in the effect of peroxide concentration on UO{sub 2} films has not hitherto been observed or explored, either in terms

  7. Comparative study of mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel between traditional production methods and selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Alton Dale

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is a technology which has recently seen expanding use, as well as expansion of the materials and methods able to be used. This thesis looks at the comparison of mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel manufactured by both traditional methods and selective laser melting found by tensile testing. The traditional method used here involved cold rolled 316L steel being machined to the desired part geometry. Selective laser melting used additive manufacturing to produce the parts from powdered 316L stainless steel, doing so in two different build orientations, flat and on edge with regards to the build plate. Solid test specimens, as well as specimens containing a circular stress concentration in the center of the parts, were manufactured and tensile tested. The tensile tests of the specimens were used to find the mechanical properties of the material; including yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and Young's modulus of elasticity; where statistical analyses were performed to determine if the different manufacturing processes caused significant differences in the mechanical properties of the material. These analysis consisting of f-tests, to test for variance, and t-test, testing for significant difference of means. Through this study it was found that there were statistically significant differences existing between the mechanical properties of selective laser melting, and its orientations, and cold roll forming of production of parts. Even with a statistical difference, it was found that the results were reasonably close between flat oriented SLM parts and purchased parts. So it can be concluded that, with regards to strength, SLM methods produce parts similar to traditional production methods.

  8. Repassivation behavior of 316L stainless steel in borate buffer solution: Kinetics analysis of anodic dissolution and film formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haisong; Sun, Dongbai; Yu, Hongying

    2015-12-01

    The repassivation behavior of metals or alloys after oxide film damage determines the development of local corrosion and corrosion resistance. In this work, the repassivation kinetics of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) are investigated in borate buffer solution (pH 9.1) by using the abrading electrode technique. The current densities flowing from bare 316L SS surface are measured by potentiostatic method and analyzed to characterize repassivation kinetics. The initial stages of current decay (t Avrami kinetics. Then the two independent components are analyzed individually. The film formation rate and the thickness of film are compared in different applied potential. It is shown that anodic dissolution dominates the repassivation for a short time during the early times, and a higher applied potential will promote the anodic dissolution of metal. The film growth rate increases slightly with increasing in potential. Correspondingly, increase in applied potential from 0 VSCE to 0.8 VSCE results in thicker monolayer, which covers the whole bare surface at the time of θ = 1. The electric field strengths through the thin passive film could reach 3.97 × 106 V cm-1.

  9. Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Afrooz, E-mail: afroozlatifi@yahoo.com [Department of Biomaterials, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, Mohammad [Novel Drug Delivery Systems Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi [Biomaterials Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/159, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daliri Joupari, Morteza [Animal and Marine Biotechnology Dept., National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 14965/161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Stainless steel 316L was surface modified by plasma surface oxidation (PSO) and silicone rubber (SR) coating. • On the PSO substrates, concentration of oxide species was increased ca. 2.5 times comparing to non-PSO substrates. • The surface wettability was improved to 12.5°, in terms of water contact angle, after PSO. • Adhesion strength of SR coating on the PSO substrates was improved by more than two times comparing to non-PSO ones. • After pull-off test, the fractured area patterns for SR coating were dependent on the type of surface modifications received. - Abstract: Stainless steel 316L is one of the most widely used materials for fabricating of biomedical devices hence, improving its surface properties is still of great interest and challenging in biomaterial sciences. Plasma oxidation, in comparison to the conventional chemical or mechanical methods, is one of the most efficient methods recently used for surface treatment of biomaterials. Here, stainless steel specimens were surface oxidized by radio-frequency plasma irradiation operating at 34 MHz under pure oxygen atmosphere. Surface chemical composition of the samples was significantly changed after plasma oxidation by appearance of the chromium and iron oxides on the plasma-oxidized surface. A wettable surface, possessing high surface energy (83.19 mN m{sup −1}), was observed after plasma oxidation. Upon completion of the surface modification process, silicone rubber was spray coated on the plasma-treated stainless steel surface. Morphology of the silicone rubber coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A uniform coating was formed on the oxidized surface with no delamination at polymer–metal interface. Pull-off tests showed the lowest adhesion strength of coating to substrate (0.12 MPa) for untreated specimens and the highest (0.89 MPa) for plasma-oxidized ones.

  10. Low temperature plasma carburizing of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel and AISI F51 duplex stainless steel Cementação sob plasma à baixa temperatura do aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 316L e do aço inoxidável duplex AISI F51

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Pinedo; André Paulo Tschiptschin

    2013-01-01

    In this work an austenitic AISI 316L and a duplex AISI F51 (EN 1.4462) stainless steel were DC-Plasma carburized at 480ºC, using CH4 as carbon carrier gas. For the austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel, low temperature plasma carburizing induced a strong carbon supersaturation in the austenitic lattice and the formation of carbon expanded austenite (γC) without any precipitation of carbides. The hardness of the carburized AISI 316L steel reached a maximum of 1000 HV due to ∼13 at% c...

  11. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of ultra-fine wires of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. S.; Wei, R. C.; Huang, C. Y.; Yang, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Starting with 190?µm diameter wire of 316L stainless steel, ultra-thin wire just 8?µm in diameter has been made and characterized. There was no intermediate heat treatment used in the process of drawing, and the amount of true stain was about 6.3. A specimen preparation method for the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of ultra-fine wires of 316L stainless steel has been developed. The ultra-fine wire was sandwiched between silicon chips and the bonded assembly then sliced to produce longitudinal and transverse sections of the wire in a form suitable for further processing into electron transparent samples. TEM reveals that the heavily deformed wire consists of nanoscale fine elongated structures along the drawing direction. The diffraction patterns indicate that a substantial amount of austenite has transformed into martensite. The TEM dark field images show nanosized patches of martensite distributed among the debris of austenite along the drawing direction. The evidence strongly suggests that severe deformation leads to mechanical stabilization of austenite against the growth of martensite.

  12. Preliminary studies of the welding zone of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel capsules, for Cs137 sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the treatment for cervix, endometrium and vaginal cancer, uses radioactive seeds, shaped like spheres, seeds or threads, with the brachytherapy technique. The brachytherapy sources are encased in surgical grade stainless steel cylinders. This geometry aims to contain the radioactive material, by providing safe barriers, thereby reducing other undesirable radiations from the radioisotopes during their disintegration and by providing rigidity to the source. The properties of the stainless steels are greatly influenced by their chemical composition, which also determines the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. AISI 316L steel is one of the raw materials used most frequently for surgical use, due to its stability and inert character when in contact with the human organism. Small stainless steel cylindrical capsules (about 10 mm long, 2mm diameter) were prepared for this work, with caps welded at both ends using the TIG process, producing an airtight closure. The welds are described by cut, surface, grain-revealing chemical attack, and chemical analysis using dispersive energy spectroscopy and metallographic analysis. Vickers hardness measurements are also presented in the zones affected by the welding. The dendritic-granular interface of the welded stainless matrix under the TIG process, shows resistance to corrosion from human plasma at 36.5oC

  13. STUDIES ON WETTABILITY OF STAINLESS STEEL 316L POWDER IN LASER MELTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURIAN ANTONY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser sintering is one of the techniques used in additive manufacturing processes. The main objective of the work is to study the effects of process parameters on wetting phenomenon and interfacial energy during laser melting of stainless steel powder. This paper reports wetting of laser melted powder particles and its use for the determination of surface energy of stainless steel powder under laser beam exposure. Process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and beam diameter are considered for study. This study also identifies the process parameters for better wettability which produces smooth surfaces.

  14. Vacuum brazing of OFE Copper-316L stainless steel transition joints without electroplating stainless steel part for application in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazed transition Joints between OFE copper and type 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS) find extensive applications in particle accelerators all over the world. In contrast to excellent wettability of OFE copper, austenitic SS is well known for its poor wettability for BVAg-8 (72Ag/28Cu; melting point: 1052 K) braze filler metal (BFM). High surface wettability is believed to be necessary to drag molten BFM into the capillary gap between mating metallic surfaces. Therefore, the widely accepted practice for vacuum brazing of such transition joints involves electroplating of SS parts with nickel or copper to enhance its wettability. A recently concluded in-house study, involving Nb to Ni-plated 316L SS brazing, has demonstrated that satisfactory ingress of BFM into a capillary joint between two dissimilar metals is possible if the poor wettability of one of the mating surfaces is compensated by good wettability of its counterpart. In the light of these observations, the present study was undertaken to explicitly evaluate the requirement of electroplating the SS part for establishment of sound OFE copper-316L SS brazed joints suitable for service in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) of particle accelerators

  15. Transformation of austenite to duplex austenite-ferrite assembly in annealed stainless steel 316L consolidated by laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidi, K.; Gao, X. [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Lofaj, F. [Institute of Materials Research of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, Košice (Slovakia); Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, 916 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Kvetková, L. [Institute of Materials Research of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, Košice (Slovakia); Shen, Z.J. [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Mechanical properties, phase and microstructure stability of laser melted steel was studied. • Duplex austenite-ferrite assembly with improved mechanical properties was formed. • Dissolution of Mo in the steel matrix resulted in ferrite stabilization and stress relief. • Enhanced mechanical properties were achieved compared to conventionally casted and annealed steel. - Abstract: Laser melting (LM), with a focused Nd:YAG laser beam, was used to form solid bodies from 316L austenite stainless steel powder and the laser melted samples were heat treated at various temperatures. The phase changes in heat treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples heat treated at 800 °C and 900 °C remained single austenite while in samples heat treated at 1100 °C and 1400 °C a dual austenite-ferrite phase assembly was formed. The ferrite formation was further verified by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) and selective area diffraction (SAD). Microstructural changes were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). In samples heat treated up to 900 °C, coalescence of the cellular-sub grains was noticed, whereas in sample heat treated at and above 1100 °C the formation of ferrite phase was observed. The correlation between the microstructure/phase assembly and the measured strength/microhardness were investigated, which indicated that the tensile strength of the laser melted material was significantly higher than that of the conventional 316L steel even after heat treatment whereas caution has to be taken when laser melted material will be exposed to an application temperature above 900 °C.

  16. Transformation of austenite to duplex austenite-ferrite assembly in annealed stainless steel 316L consolidated by laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mechanical properties, phase and microstructure stability of laser melted steel was studied. • Duplex austenite-ferrite assembly with improved mechanical properties was formed. • Dissolution of Mo in the steel matrix resulted in ferrite stabilization and stress relief. • Enhanced mechanical properties were achieved compared to conventionally casted and annealed steel. - Abstract: Laser melting (LM), with a focused Nd:YAG laser beam, was used to form solid bodies from 316L austenite stainless steel powder and the laser melted samples were heat treated at various temperatures. The phase changes in heat treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples heat treated at 800 °C and 900 °C remained single austenite while in samples heat treated at 1100 °C and 1400 °C a dual austenite-ferrite phase assembly was formed. The ferrite formation was further verified by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) and selective area diffraction (SAD). Microstructural changes were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). In samples heat treated up to 900 °C, coalescence of the cellular-sub grains was noticed, whereas in sample heat treated at and above 1100 °C the formation of ferrite phase was observed. The correlation between the microstructure/phase assembly and the measured strength/microhardness were investigated, which indicated that the tensile strength of the laser melted material was significantly higher than that of the conventional 316L steel even after heat treatment whereas caution has to be taken when laser melted material will be exposed to an application temperature above 900 °C

  17. Characterization of passive film formed on AISI 316L stainless steel after magnetoelectropolishing in a broad range of polarization parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokosz, Krzysztof; Hryniewicz, Tadeusz [Politechnika Koszalinska, Division of Surface Electrochemistry, Raclawicka 15-17, PL 75-620 Koszalin (Poland); Raaen, Steiner [NTNU Trondheim, Institute of Physics, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the paper is to present the changes in the surface film composition on AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) after electropolishing (EP) and magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) in a broad range of the process conditions. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analyses were performed to reveal the effect of MEP. The EP process has been performed under natural convection (in a stagnant electrolyte), much above the polarization plateau. A series of experiments were carried out on AISI 316L SS samples in accordance with the five-level composite rotary statistical plan with the variables being the magnetic field intensity B (mT), and the anodic current density i (A dm{sup -2}). XP high resolution spectra have been obtained on AISI 316L SS surface concerning Fe 2p, Cr 2p, O 1s, S 2p, P 2p, and C 1s, respectively. The Cr:Fe ratio regarding both metallic M and compound X was also studied and calculated. At the end, the summary results of Cr/Fe = f(B, i) in relation to the corrosion potential, have been compared. The conclusions, concerning the selection of MEP process conditions, regarding the optimum Cr/Fe ratio and corrosion behavior, have been formulated. It was found the Cr:Fe ratio well correlates with the pitting corrosion potential. MEP process can modify not only the rate of dissolution to a determined extent, but also control the corrosion behavior and Cr:Fe ratio results. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Effect of temperature, chloride ions and sulfide ions on the electrochemical properties of 316L stainless steel in simulated cooling water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinbo; Zhai Wen; Zheng Maosheng; Zhu Jiewu

    2008-01-01

    The influence of temperature, chloride ions and sulfide ions on the anticorrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel in simulated cooling water was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic polarization curves. The results show that the film resistance increases with the solution temperature but decreases after 8 days' immersion, which indicates that the film formed at higher temperature has inferior anticorrosion behavior; Chloride ions and sulfide ions have remarkable effects on the electrochemical property of 316L stainless steel in simulated cooling water and the pitting potential declines with the concentration of chloride ions; the passivation current has no obvious effect; the rise of the concentration of sulfide ions obviously increases the passivation current, but the pitting potential changes little, which indicates that the two types of ions may have different effects on destructing passive film of stainless steel. The critical concentration of chloride ions causing anodic potential curve's change in simulated cooling water is 250 mg/L for 316 L stainless. The effect of sulfide ions on the corrosion resistance behavior of stainless steel is increasing the passivation current density Ip. The addition of 6mg/L sulfide ions to the solution makes Ip of 316 L increase by 0.5 times.

  19. Effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting of molten multi-component oxides ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin, E-mail: wangjinustb@gmail.com [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 808-0196 (Japan); Matsuda, Nozomu [Bar and Wire Product Unit, Nippon steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Fukuoka, 802-8686 (Japan); Shinozaki, Nobuya [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 808-0196 (Japan); Miyoshi, Noriko [The Center for Instrumental Analysis, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 804-8550 (Japan); Shiraishi, Takanobu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 852-8588 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Multi-component oxides had a good wetting on stainless substrates with pretreatments. • Various substrates surface roughness caused the difference of final contact angles. • The wetting rate was slow on polished substrate due to the slow surface oxidation. - Abstract: A study on the effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting behavior of molten multi-component oxides ceramic was performed and aimed to contribute to the further understanding of the application of oxides ceramic in penetration treatment of stainless steel coatings and the deposition of stainless steel cermet coatings. The results show that at 1273 K, different surface pre-treatments (polishing and heating) had an important effect on the wetting behavior. The molten multi-component oxides showed good wettability on both stainless steel substrates, however, the wetting process on the polished substrate was significantly slower than that on the heated substrates. The mechanism of the interfacial reactions was discussed based on the microscopic and thermodynamic analysis, the substrates reacted with oxygen generated from the decomposition of the molten multi-component oxides and oxygen contained in the argon atmosphere, and the oxide film caused the molten multi-component oxides ceramic to spread on the substrates surfaces. For the polished substrate, more time was required for the surface oxidation to reach the surface composition of Heated-S, which resulted in relatively slow spreading and wetting rates. Moreover, the variance of the surface roughness drove the final contact angles to slightly different values following the sequence Polished-S > Heated-S.

  20. The Effect of Surface Finish on Low-Temperature Acetylene-Based Carburization of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yindong; Ernst, Frank; Kahn, Harold; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2014-12-01

    We observed a strong influence of surface finish on the efficacy of low-temperature acetylene-based carburization of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel. Steel coupons were prepared with different surface finishes prior to carburization, from P400 SiC grit paper to 1- µm-diameter-diamond-paste. The samples with the finer surface finish developed a thicker "case" (a carbon-rich hardened surface layer) and a larger surface carbon concentration. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the differences arose mainly from the nature of the deformation-induced disturbed layer on the steel surface. A thick (>400 nm) disturbed layer consisting of nano-crystalline grains (≈10 nm diameter) inhibits acetylene-based carburization. The experimental observations can be explained by assuming that during machining or coarse polishing, the surface oxide layer is broken up and becomes incorporated into the deformation-induced disturbed layer. The incorporated oxide-rich films retard or completely prevent the ingress of carbon into the stainless steel.

  1. Surface modification of 316L stainless steel with magnetron sputtered TiN/VN nanoscale multilayers for bio implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B; Ananthakumar, R; Kobayashi, Akira; Jayachandran, M

    2012-02-01

    Nanoscale multilayered TiN/VN coatings were developed by reactive dc magnetron sputtering on 316L stainless steel substrates. The coatings showed a polycrystalline cubic structure with (111) preferential growth. XPS analysis indicated the presence of peaks corresponding to Ti2p, V2p, N1s, O1s, and C1s. Raman spectra exhibited the characteristic peaks in the acoustic range of 160-320 cm(-1) and in the optic range between 480 and 695 cm(-1). Columnar structure of the coatings was observed from TEM analysis. The number of adherent platelets on the surface of the TiN/VN multilayer, VN, TiN single layer coating exhibit fewer aggregation and pseudopodium than on substrates. The wear resistance of the multilayer coatings increases obviously as a result of their high hardness. Tafel plots in simulated bodily fluid showed lower corrosion rate for the TiN/VN nanoscale multilayer coatings compared to single layer and bare 316L SS substrate.

  2. Effect of Zr, Nb and Ti addition on injection molded 316L stainless steel for bio-applications: Mechanical, electrochemical and biocompatibility properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsoy, H Ozkan; Pazarlioglu, Serdar; Gulsoy, Nagihan; Gundede, Busra; Mutlu, Ozal

    2015-11-01

    The research investigated the effect of Zr, Nb and Ti additions on mechanical, electrochemical properties and biocompatibility of injection molded 316L stainless steel. Addition of elemental powder is promoted to get high performance of sintered 316L stainless steels. The amount of additive powder plays a role in determining the sintered microstructure and all properties. In this study, 316L stainless steel powders used with the elemental Zr, Nb and Ti powders. A feedstock containing 62.5 wt% powders loading was molded at different injection molded temperature. The binders were completely removed from molded components by solvent and thermal debinding at different temperatures. The debinded samples were sintered at 1350°C for 60 min. Mechanical, electrochemical property and biocompatibility of the sintered samples were performed mechanical, electrochemical, SBF immersion tests and cell culture experiments. Results of study showed that sintered 316L and 316L with additives samples exhibited high corrosion properties and biocompatibility in a physiological environment. PMID:26275484

  3. Effect of tool geometry on tool wear characterization and weld formation in friction stir welding of 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    316L stainless steel plate was friction stir welded using PCBN tools. The effect of tool shoulder profile and tool probe profile on tool wear characterization and weld formation was investigated. Two different shoulder profiles (screw with different pitches) with four different tool probe profiles (two different probe end shapes and two different probe lengths) have been used to fabricate FSW zone. Experimental results show that the tools with narrow pitch screw shoulder profile produce deeper FSW zone compared to the tools with wide pitch. The tools with spiral probe profile produce deeper FSW zone compared to the tools with chamber probe profile. The tools with wide pitch screw shoulder profile is apt to produce lower working loads. The wear resistant of tools with chamber probe profile is significantly higher than that of tools with spiral probe profile. The relation between tool geometries and tool wear and weld formation is discussed. (author)

  4. Methodology for optimizing the electropolishing of stainless steel AISI 316L combining criteria of surface finish and dimensional precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, P. J.; García-Plaza, E.; Martín, A. R.; Trujillo, R.; De la Cruz, C.

    2009-11-01

    This work examines a methodology for optimizing electrochemical polishing conditions bearing in mind the criteria that enhance minimum surface roughness and dimensional precision (minimum loss of thickness). The study consisted in electrochemically polishing stainless steel AISI 316L (ISO 4954 X2CrNiMo17133E) under a combination of different temperatures (T) baths and current densities (J), and application times (t). The surface finish (ΔRa) and dimensional variations (Δh) of the electrochemically polished workpieces were assessed, and the experimental data of the variables was correlated as can be seen by the response surfaces. This methodology enables optimum working areas to be specified using the sole criteria of surface finish, or by using a combination of both criteria (minimum roughness and maximum precision). The methodology has proven to be an optimum method for selecting electrochemical polishing conditions using the combined criteria of surface finish and dimensional precision in accordance with design requirements.

  5. Full 3D spatially resolved mapping of residual strain in a 316L austenitic stainless steel weld specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-pass slot weld specimen in austenitic stainless steel 316L, manufactured for the purpose of benchmarking Finite Element weld residual stress simulation codes, is currently undergoing extensive characterization within a research network. A comprehensive data set from non-destructive full three-dimensional spatially resolved macro-strain mapping in this specimen is presented here. Focussed high-energy synchrotron radiation together with the spiral slit technique was used to obtain depth-resolved information about the variation of lattice parameters. A novel full-pattern analysis approach, based on the evaluation of distinct diffraction spots from individual grains, was developed. The results show high tensile transverse stresses within the bead deposited first. The maximum longitudinal stresses were found beneath the slot. Furthermore significant weld start- and stop-effects were observed. The validity of the results is discussed with respect to the possible impact of intergranular strains due to plastic deformation.

  6. Effects of Thermocapillary Forces during Welding of 316L-Type Wrought, Cast and Powder Metallurgy Austenitic Stainless Steels

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). This 27 km long accelerator requires 1248 superconducting dipole magnets operating at 1.9 K. The cold mass of the dipole magnets is closed by a shrinking cylinder with two longitudinal welds and two end covers at both extremities of the cylinder. The end covers, for which fabrication by welding, casting or Powder Metallurgy (PM) was considered, are dished-heads equipped with a number of protruding nozzles for the passage of the different cryogenic lines. Structural materials and welds must retain high strength and toughness at cryogenic temperature. AISI 316L-type austenitic stainless steel grades have been selected because of their mechanical properties, ductility, weldability and stability of the austenitic phase against low-temperature spontaneous martensitic transformation. 316LN is chosen for the fabrication of the end covers, while the interconnection components to be welded on the protrud...

  7. Re-weldability tests of irradiated 316L(N) stainless steel using laser welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SS316L(N)-IG is the candidate material for the in-vessel and ex-vessel components of fusion reactors such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This paper describes a study on re-weldability of un-irradiated and/or irradiated SS316L(N)-IG and the effect of helium generation on the mechanical properties of the weld joint. The laser welding process is used for re-welding of the water cooling branch pipeline repairs. It is clarified that re-welding of SS316L(N)-IG irradiated up to about 0.2 dpa (3.3 appm He) can be carried out without a serious deterioration of tensile properties due to helium accumulation. Therefore, repair of the ITER blanket cooling pipes can be performed by the laser welding process

  8. Biofilm initiation and growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on 316L stainless steel in low gravity in orbital space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Pierson, Duane L.; Allen, Britt; Silverstein, JoAnn

    The formation of biofilms by water microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in spacecraft water systems has been a matter of concern for long-duration space flight. Crewed spacecraft plumbing includes internal surfaces made of 316L stainless steel. Experiments were therefore undertaken to compare the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in suspension, attach to stainless steel and to grow on stainless steel in low gravity on the space shuttle. Four categories of cultures were studied during two space shuttle flights (STS-69 and STS-77). Cultures on the ground were held in static horizontal or vertical cylindrical containers or were tumbled on a clinostat and activated under conditions identical to those for the flown cultures. The containers used on the ground and in flight were BioServe Space Technologies’ Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA), an open-ended test tube with rubber septa that allows robotic addition of bacteria to culture media to initiate experiments and the addition of fixative to conclude experiments. Planktonic growth was monitored by spectrophotometry, and biofilms were characterized quantitatively by epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. In these experiments it was found that: (1) Planktonic growth in flown cultures was more extensive than in static cultures, as seen repeatedly in the history of space microbiology, and closely resembled the growth of tumbled cultures. (2) Conversely, the attachment of cells in flown cultures was as much as 8 times that in tumbled cultures but not significantly different from that in static horizontal and vertical cultures, consistent with the notion that flowing fluid reduces microbial attachment. (3) The final surface coverage in 8 days was the same for flown and static cultures but less by a factor of 15 in tumbled cultures, where coverage declined during the preceding 4 days. It is concluded that cell attachment to 316L stainless steel in the low gravity of orbital space flight is similar to that

  9. Radiation-induced stress relaxation in high temperature water of type 316L stainless steel evaluated by neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Y.; Rogge, R. B.; Obata, M.

    2011-01-01

    Weld beads on plate specimens made of type 316L stainless steel were neutron-irradiated up to about 2.5 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV) at 561 K in the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR). Residual stresses of the specimens were measured by the neutron diffraction method, and the radiation-induced stress relaxation was evaluated. The values of σ x residual stress (transverse to the weld bead) and σ y residual stress (longitudinal to the weld bead) decreased with increasing neutron dose. The tendency of the stress relaxation was almost the same as previously published data, which were obtained for type 304 stainless steel. From this result, it was considered that there was no steel type dependence on radiation-induced stress relaxation. The neutron irradiation dose dependence of the stress relaxation was examined using an equation derived from the irradiation creep equation. The coefficient of the stress relaxation equation was obtained, and the value was 1.4 (×10 -6/MPa/dpa). This value was smaller than that of nickel alloy.

  10. Diffusion Bonding Behavior and Characterization of Joints Made Between 316L Stainless Steel Alloy and AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elthalabawy, Waled Mohamed

    The 316L austenitic stainless steel and AZ31 magnesium alloy have physical and mechanical properties which makes these alloys suitable in a number of high technology based industries such as the aerospace and automotive sectors. However, for these alloys to be used in engineering applications, components must be fabricated and joined successfully. The differences in the physical and metallurgical properties between these two alloys prevents the use of conventional fusion welding processes commonly employed in aerospace and transport industry. Therefore, alternative techniques need to be developed and diffusion bonding technology is a process that has considerable potential to join these two dissimilar alloys. In this research work both solid-state and transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding processes were applied. The solid-state bonding of 316L steel to AZ31 magnesium alloy was possible at a bonding temperature of 550°C for 120 minutes using a pressure of 1.3 MPa. The interface characterization of the joint showed a thin intermetallic zone rich in Fe-Al was responsible for providing a metallurgical bond. However, low joint shear strengths were recorded and this was attributed to the poor surface to surface contact. The macro-deformation of the AZ31 alloy prevented the use of higher bonding pressures and longer bonding times. In order to overcome these problems, the TLP bonding process was implemented using pure Cu and Ni foils as interlayers which produced a eutectic phase at the bonding temperature. This research identified the bonding mechanism through microstructural and differential scanning calorimetry investigations. The microstructural characterization of the TLP joints identified intermetallics which became concentrated along the 316L steel/AZ31 bond interface due to the "pushing effect" of the solid/liquid interface during isothermal solidification stage of bonding. The size and concentration of the intermetallics had a noticeable effect on the final joint

  11. Effect of thermal treatment on the corrosion resistance of Type 316L stainless steel exposed in supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Zheng, W.; Guzonas, D. A.; Cook, W. G.; Kish, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    There are still unknown aspects about the growth mechanism of oxide scales formed on candidate stainless steel fuel cladding materials during exposure in supercritical water (SCW) under the conditions relevant to the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). The tendency for intermetallic precipitates to form within the grains and on grain boundaries during prolonged exposure at high temperatures represents an unknown factor to corrosion resistance, since they tend to bind alloyed Cr. The objective of this study was to better understand the extent to which intermetallic precipitates affects the mode and extent of corrosion in SCW. Type 316L stainless steel, used as a model Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy, was exposed to 25 MPa SCW at 550 °C for 500 h in a static autoclave for this purpose. Mechanically-abraded samples were tested in the mill-annealed (MA) and a thermally-treated (TT) condition. The thermal treatment was conducted at 815 °C for 1000 h to precipitate the carbide (M23C6), chi (χ), laves (η) and sigma (σ) phases. It was found that although relatively large intermetallic precipitates formed at the scale/alloy interface locally affected the oxide scale formation, their discontinuous formation did not affect the short-term overall apparent corrosion resistance.

  12. Effect of thermal treatment on the corrosion resistance of Type 316L stainless steel exposed in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are still unknown aspects about the growth mechanism of oxide scales formed on candidate stainless steel fuel cladding materials during exposure in supercritical water (SCW) under the conditions relevant to the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). The tendency for intermetallic precipitates to form within the grains and on grain boundaries during prolonged exposure at high temperatures represents an unknown factor to corrosion resistance, since they tend to bind alloyed Cr. The objective of this study was to better understand the extent to which intermetallic precipitates affects the mode and extent of corrosion in SCW. Type 316L stainless steel, used as a model Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo alloy, was exposed to 25 MPa SCW at 550 °C for 500 h in a static autoclave for this purpose. Mechanically-abraded samples were tested in the mill-annealed (MA) and a thermally-treated (TT) condition. The thermal treatment was conducted at 815 °C for 1000 h to precipitate the carbide (M23C6), chi (χ), laves (η) and sigma (σ) phases. It was found that although relatively large intermetallic precipitates formed at the scale/alloy interface locally affected the oxide scale formation, their discontinuous formation did not affect the short-term overall apparent corrosion resistance

  13. Effect of thermal treatment on the corrosion resistance of Type 316L stainless steel exposed in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Y. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, W. [CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Guzonas, D.A. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Chalk River Laboratories, ON (Canada); Cook, W.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Kish, J.R., E-mail: kishjr@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There are still unknown aspects about the growth mechanism of oxide scales formed on candidate stainless steel fuel cladding materials during exposure in supercritical water (SCW) under the conditions relevant to the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). The tendency for intermetallic precipitates to form within the grains and on grain boundaries during prolonged exposure at high temperatures represents an unknown factor to corrosion resistance, since they tend to bind alloyed Cr. The objective of this study was to better understand the extent to which intermetallic precipitates affects the mode and extent of corrosion in SCW. Type 316L stainless steel, used as a model Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo alloy, was exposed to 25 MPa SCW at 550 °C for 500 h in a static autoclave for this purpose. Mechanically-abraded samples were tested in the mill-annealed (MA) and a thermally-treated (TT) condition. The thermal treatment was conducted at 815 °C for 1000 h to precipitate the carbide (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}), chi (χ), laves (η) and sigma (σ) phases. It was found that although relatively large intermetallic precipitates formed at the scale/alloy interface locally affected the oxide scale formation, their discontinuous formation did not affect the short-term overall apparent corrosion resistance.

  14. Sensitization behaviour of modified 316N and 316L stainless steel weld metals after complex annealing and stress relieving cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathavarthini, N. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Materials Characterisation Group, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Dayal, R.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Materials Characterisation Group, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India)]. E-mail: rkd@igcar.gov.in; Khatak, H.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Materials Characterisation Group, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Shankar, V. [Materials Technology Division, Materials Development Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603 102 Tamil Nadu (India); Shanmugam, V. [Materials Technology Division, Materials Development Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603 102 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2006-09-01

    Sensitization behaviour of austenitic stainless steel weld metals prepared using indigenously developed modified 316N (C = 0.05%; N = 0.12%) and 316L (C = 0.02%; N = 0.07%) electrodes was studied. Detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examination was carried out to understand the microstructural changes occurring in the weld metal during isothermal exposure at various temperatures ranging from 500 deg. C to 850 deg. C (773-1123 K). Based on these studies the mechanism of sensitization in the austenite-ferrite weld metal has been explained. Time-temperature-sensitization (TTS) diagrams were established using ASTM A262 Practice E test. From the TTS diagrams, critical cooling rate (CCR) above which there is no risk of sensitization was calculated for both materials. The heating/cooling rates to be followed for avoiding sensitization during heat treatment cycles consisting of solution-annealing and stress-relieving in fabrication of welded components of AISI 316LN stainless steel (SS) were estimated taking into account the soaking time and the number of times the component undergoes thermal excursions in the sensitization regime. The results were validated by performing controlled heating and cooling heat treatment trials on welded specimens.

  15. Sensitization behaviour of modified 316N and 316L stainless steel weld metals after complex annealing and stress relieving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitization behaviour of austenitic stainless steel weld metals prepared using indigenously developed modified 316N (C = 0.05%; N = 0.12%) and 316L (C = 0.02%; N = 0.07%) electrodes was studied. Detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examination was carried out to understand the microstructural changes occurring in the weld metal during isothermal exposure at various temperatures ranging from 500 deg. C to 850 deg. C (773-1123 K). Based on these studies the mechanism of sensitization in the austenite-ferrite weld metal has been explained. Time-temperature-sensitization (TTS) diagrams were established using ASTM A262 Practice E test. From the TTS diagrams, critical cooling rate (CCR) above which there is no risk of sensitization was calculated for both materials. The heating/cooling rates to be followed for avoiding sensitization during heat treatment cycles consisting of solution-annealing and stress-relieving in fabrication of welded components of AISI 316LN stainless steel (SS) were estimated taking into account the soaking time and the number of times the component undergoes thermal excursions in the sensitization regime. The results were validated by performing controlled heating and cooling heat treatment trials on welded specimens

  16. MC3T3-E1 cell response to stainless steel 316L with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Han, Jianmin, E-mail: siyanghan@163.com [Dental Materials Laboratory, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081 (China); Sun, Yulong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Yongling [Jinghang Biomedicine Engineering Division, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Material, Beijing 100095 (China); Zhou, Ming [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, stainless steel 316L samples with polishing, aluminum oxide blasting, and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating were prepared and characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical interferometer (surface roughness, Sq), contact angle, surface composition and phase composition analyses. Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion on the samples was investigated by cell morphology using a SEM (4 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d), and cell proliferation was assessed by MTT method at 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d. In addition, adsorption of bovine serum albumin on the samples was evaluated at 1 h. The polished sample was smooth (Sq: 1.8 nm), and the blasted and HA coated samples were much rougher (Sq: 3.2 μm and 7.8 μm). Within 1 d of incubation, the HA coated samples showed the best cell morphology (e.g., flattened shape and complete spread), but there was no significant difference after 3 d and 7 d of incubation for all the samples. The absorbance value for the HA coated samples was the highest after 1 d and 3 d of incubation, indicating better cell viability. However, it reduced to the lowest value at 7 d. Protein adsorption on the HA coated samples was the highest at 1 h. The results indicate that rough stainless steel surface improves cell adhesion and morphology, and HA coating contributes to superior cell adhesion, but inhibits cell proliferation. - Highlights: • Rough stainless steel surface improves cell adhesion and proliferation. • HA coating results in superior cell morphology and cell attachment. • HA coating inhibits osteoblast cell proliferation after 7 d of incubation.

  17. Improving the corrosion wear resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by particulate reinforced Ni matrix composite alloying layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Jiang; Zhuo Chengzhi; Tao Jie; Liu Linlin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiang Shuyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, 2 Sipailou, Nanjing 210096 (China)], E-mail: xujiang73@nuaa.edu.cn

    2009-01-07

    In order to overcome the problem of corrosion wear of AISI 316L stainless steel (SS), two kinds of composite alloying layers were prepared by a duplex treatment, consisting of Ni/nano-SiC and Ni/nano-SiO{sub 2} predeposited by brush plating, respectively, and subsequent surface alloying with Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu by a double glow process. The microstructure of the two kinds of nanoparticle reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layers was investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of composite alloying layers compared with the Ni-based alloying layer and 316L SS under different conditions was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results showed that under alloying temperature (1000 deg. C) conditions, amorphous nano-SiO{sub 2} particles still retained the amorphous structure, whereas nano-SiC particles were decomposed and Ni, Cr reacted with SiC to form Cr{sub 6.5}Ni{sub 2.5}Si and Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}. In static acidic solution, the corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiO{sub 2} particles interlayer is lower than that of the Ni-based alloying layer. However, the corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiO{sub 2} particles interlayer is prominently superior to that of the Ni-based alloying layer under acidic flow medium condition and acidic slurry flow condition. The corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiC particles interlayer is evidently lower than that of the Ni-based alloying layer, but higher than that of 316L SS under all test conditions. The results show that the highly dispersive nano-SiO{sub 2} particles are helpful in improving the corrosion wear resistance of the Ni-based alloying layer, whereas carbides and silicide phase are deleterious to that of the Ni-based alloying layer due to the fact that the preferential removal of the matrix

  18. Improvement in cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei-Nejad, S.S.; Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, S.M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MA University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chung, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shokouhimehr, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Commercial AISI 316L plates with the initial grain size of 14.8 μm were friction stir processed (FSP) with different processing parameters, resulting in two fine-grained microstructures with the grain sizes of 4.6 and 1.7 μm. The cavitation erosion behavior, before and after FSP, was evaluated in terms of incubation time, cumulative mass loss and mean depth of erosion. A separate cavitation erosion test was performed on the transverse cross section of a FSP sample to reveal the effect of grain structure. It was observed that FSP samples, depending on their grain size, are at least 3–6 times more resistant than the base material against cavitation erosion. The improvement in cavitation erosion resistance is attributed to smaller grain structure, lower fraction of twin boundaries, and favorable crystallographic orientation of grains in FSP samples. The finer the grain size, the more cavitation erosion resistance was achieved. Moreover, the microstructures of eroded surfaces were studied using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EBSD, and an atomic force microscope. The mechanisms controlling the cavitation erosion damage in friction stir processed AISI 316L are also discussed.

  19. Improvement in cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, M.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Rezaei-Nejad, S. S.; Assadi, H.; Hadavi, S. M. M.; Chung, K.; Shokouhimehr, M.

    2014-07-01

    Commercial AISI 316L plates with the initial grain size of 14.8 μm were friction stir processed (FSP) with different processing parameters, resulting in two fine-grained microstructures with the grain sizes of 4.6 and 1.7 μm. The cavitation erosion behavior, before and after FSP, was evaluated in terms of incubation time, cumulative mass loss and mean depth of erosion. A separate cavitation erosion test was performed on the transverse cross section of a FSP sample to reveal the effect of grain structure. It was observed that FSP samples, depending on their grain size, are at least 3-6 times more resistant than the base material against cavitation erosion. The improvement in cavitation erosion resistance is attributed to smaller grain structure, lower fraction of twin boundaries, and favorable crystallographic orientation of grains in FSP samples. The finer the grain size, the more cavitation erosion resistance was achieved. Moreover, the microstructures of eroded surfaces were studied using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EBSD, and an atomic force microscope. The mechanisms controlling the cavitation erosion damage in friction stir processed AISI 316L are also discussed.

  20. HIP of stainless steel 316L considered at the mesoscopic scale: Numerical modelling and experimental characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two and three-dimensional finite element simulation of HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) at mesoscopic scale is proposed, in view of an in-depth understanding of the different physical mechanisms involved in powder densification. The model is formulated in a Eulerian framework, using level set formulation and adaptive meshing and re-meshing strategy to identify particle interactions inside a representative elementary volume (REV). A statistical generator is in charge of the definition of the initial configuration under the constraint of accounting for the real particle size distribution. Mechanical boundary conditions are applied to the REV, resulting in the deformation of particles and densification of the REV. As a first approach, the power-law creep of particles is considered as the unique densification mechanism. Starting from data issued from macroscopic simulations of the HIPping of a part made of 316L powder, mesoscopic simulations in different locations of the part have been carried out (macro-to-meso approach). The results of these simulations are presented and discussed in the light of experimental studies (optical microscopy and SEM, EBSD, EPMA) of the structure and microstructure of the compact, which were obtained from interrupted compactions. Mechanical tests on fully densified 316L were also conducted. (author)

  1. Comportamiento del desgaste del flanco en el torneado en seco de alta velocidad del acero AISI 316L//Flank wear behavior in the dry high‐speed turning of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoandrys Morales-Tamayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio experimental se centra en investigar los efectos de los parámetros corte en el desgaste de flanco con dos insertos recubiertos durante el torneado de acabado en seco a altas velocidades del acero inoxidable AISI 316L. Los efectos de los parámetros de corte fueron determinados utilizando un análisis de varianza y de regresión simple. Como principal resultado se obtuvo el efectosignificativo del avance y del tiempo de maquinado en el desgaste del flanco. El inserto de tres capas no sobrepasó el criterio de fin de vida del desgaste, mientras que el inserto de una capa sufrió un desgaste catastrófico para la mayor velocidad de corte. El desgaste del flanco tuvo mejor comportamiento para el avance de 0,08 mm/rev en todas las velocidades empleadas en este estudio.Palabras claves: torneado de alta velocidad, desgaste de flanco, acero inoxidable AISI 316L, estudio experimental, análisis de varianza y regresión.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe current experimental study is focused on investigating the effects of cutting parameters on flank wear in two coated carbide inserts during dry high speed finish turning of AISI 316L stainless steel. The effects of cutting parameters were determinate using analysis of variance and simple regression. As a main resulta significant effect of cutting feed and the machining time on flank wear was found. The three coating layers insert did not exceed the criterion of end of life of wear while the insert with one layer suffered a catastrophic wear at the highest cutting speed. The flank wear showed the best performance for the cuttingfeed of 0,08 mm/rev at all the speeds used in the study.Key words: high speed turning; flank wear; AISI 316L stainless steel, experimental study; analysis of variance and regression.

  2. Comparative MRI compatibility of 316 L stainless steel alloy and nickel-titanium alloy stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Andrea; Walsh, Edward; Anayiotos, Andreas; Pohost, Gerald; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna

    2002-01-01

    The initial success of coronary stenting is leading to a proliferation in peripheral stenting. A significant portion of the stents used in a clinical setting are made of 316 low carbon stainless steel (SS). Other alloys that have been used for stent manufacture include tantalum, MP35N, and nickel-titanium (NiTi). The ferromagnetic properties of SS cause the production of artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NiTi alloys, in addition to being known for their shape memory or superelastic properties, have been shown to exhibit reduced interference in MRI. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the comparative MRI compatibility of SS and NiTi stents. Both gradient echo and spin-echo images were obtained at 1.5 and 4.1 T field strengths. The imaging of stents of identical geometry but differing compositions permitted the quantification of artifacts produced due to device composition by normalizing the radio frequency shielding effects. These images were analyzed for magnitude and spatial extent of signal loss within the lumen and outside the stent. B1 mapping was used to quantify the attenuation throughout the image. The SS stent caused significant signal loss and did not allow for visibility of the lumen. However, the NiTi stent caused only minor artifacting and even allowed for visualization of the signal from within the lumen. In addition, adjustments to the flip angle of standard imaging protocols were shown to improve the quality of signal from within the lumen. PMID:12549230

  3. An in vitro evaluation of novel NHA/zircon plasma coating on 316L stainless steel dental implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebrahim Karamian; Mahmood Reza Kalantar Motamedi; Amirsalar Khandan; Parisa Soltani; Sahel Maghsoudi

    2014-01-01

    The surface characteristics of an implant that influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include crystal structure and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon) nanobiocomposite coating on 316L stainless steel (SS) dental implants soaking in simulated body fluid. A novel NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 wt%of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 1 h. The composite mixture was coated on SS implants using a plasma spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate surface morphology, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze phase composition and crystallinity (Xc). Further, calcium ion release was measured to evaluate the coated nanobiocomposite samples. The prepared NHA/zircon coating had a nanoscale morphological structure with a mean crystallite size of 30-40 nm in diameter and a bone-like composition, which is similar to that of the biological apatite of a bone. For the prepared NHA powder, high bioactivity was observed owing to the formation of apatite crystals on its surface. Both minimum crystallinity (Xc = 41.1%) and maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt%of zircon because of minimum Xc and maximum biodegradation of the coating sample.

  4. An EBSD investigation on flow localization and microstructure evolution of 316L stainless steel for Gen IV reactor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianglin; Pan, Xiao; Mabon, James C.; Li, Meimei; Stubbins, James F.

    2007-09-01

    Type 316L stainless steel has been selected as a candidate structural material in a series of current accelerator driven systems and Generation IV reactor conceptual designs. The material is sensitive to irradiation damage in the temperature range of 150-400 °C: even low levels of irradiation exposure, as small as 0.1 dpa, can cause severe loss of ductility during tensile loading. This process, where the plastic flow becomes highly localized resulting in extremely low overall ductility, is referred as flow localization. The process controlling this confined flow is related to the difference between the yield and ultimate tensile strengths such that large irradiation-induced increases in the yield strength result in very limited plastic flow leading to necking after very small levels of uniform elongation. In this study, the microstructural evolution controlling flow localization is examined. It is found that twinning is an important deformation mechanism at lower temperatures since it promotes the strain hardening process. At higher temperatures, twinning becomes energetically impossible since the activation of twinning is determined by the critical twinning stress, which increases rapidly with temperature. Mechanical twinning and dislocation-based planar slip are competing mechanisms for plastic deformation.

  5. Effect of Austenitic and Austeno-Ferritic Electrodes on 2205 Duplex and 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Dissimilar Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jagesvar; Taiwade, Ravindra V.

    2016-09-01

    This study addresses the effect of different types of austenitic and austeno-ferritic electrodes (E309L, E309LMo and E2209) on the relationship between weldability, microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of shielded metal arc welded duplex/austenitic (2205/316L) stainless steel dissimilar joints using the combined techniques of optical, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectrometer and electrochemical. The results indicated that the change in electrode composition led to microstructural variations in the welds with the development of different complex phases such as vermicular ferrite, lathy ferrite, widmanstatten and intragranular austenite. Mechanical properties of welded joints were diverged based on compositions and solidification modes; it was observed that ferritic mode solidified weld dominated property wise. However, the pitting corrosion resistance of all welds showed different behavior in chloride solution; moreover, weld with E2209 was superior, whereas E309L exhibited lower resistance. Higher degree of sensitization was observed in E2209 weld, while lesser in E309L weld. Optimum ferrite content was achieved in all welds.

  6. Electrochemical and In Vitro Behavior of Nanostructure Sol-Gel Coated 316L Stainless Steel Incorporated with Rosemary Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motalebi, Abolfazl; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba

    2013-06-01

    The corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications, was significantly enhanced by means of hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel thin films deposited by spin-coating. Thin films of less than 100 nm with different hybrid characters were obtained by incorporating rosemary extract as green corrosion inhibitor. The morphology, composition, and adhesion of hybrid sol-gel coatings have been examined by SEM, EDX, and pull-off test, respectively. Addition of high additive concentrations (0.1%) did not disorganize the sol-gel network. Direct pull-off test recorded a mean coating-substrate bonding strength larger than 21.2 MPa for the hybrid sol-gel coating. The effect of rosemary extract, with various added concentrations from 0.012 to 0.1%, on the anticorrosion properties of sol-gel films have been characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and has been compared to the bare metal. Rosemary extract additions (0.05%) have significantly increased the corrosion protection of the sol-gel thin film to higher than 90%. The in vitro bioactivity of prepared films indicates that hydroxyapatite nuclei can form and grow on the surface of the doped sol-gel thin films. The present study shows that due to their excellent anticorrosion properties, bioactivity and bonding strength to substrate, doped sol-gel thin films are practical hybrid films in biomedical applications.

  7. Effect of strain-induced martensite on the formation of nanocrystalline 316L stainless steel after cold rolling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to study the effects of cold rolling temperature and pre-strain on the volume fraction of strain-induced martensite in order to obtain nanocrystalline structures of 316L stainless steel. Hot rolling and cold rolling followed by annealing treatments were conducted under different conditions. The microstructures and the volume fraction of phases were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and feritscope tests, respectively. The hardness and tensile properties of the specimens were also measured. The results showed that decreasing the rolling temperature while increasing pre-strain leads to increased the volume fraction of martensite accompanied by decreased saturating strain and, further, that this behavior affects the degree of grain refinement. The smallest grain size of about 30-40 nm was obtained via 30% pre-strain at 523 K and subsequent conventional cold rolling at 258 K with a strain and a strain rate of 95% and 0.5 s-1, respectively, followed by annealing at 1023 K for 300 s. Uniaxial tensile tests at room temperature showed that this specimen exhibits very high tensile strength of about 1385 MPa.

  8. Influence of flowing sodium on creep deformation and rupture behaviour of 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M. D.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2012-08-01

    The influence of flowing sodium on creep deformation and rupture behaviour of AISI 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel has been investigated at 873 K over a stress range of 235-305 MPa. The results were compared with those obtained from testing in air environment. The steady state creep rates of the material were not influenced appreciably by the testing environments. The time to onset of tertiary stage of creep deformation was delayed in sodium environment. The creep-rupture lives of the material increased in sodium environment, which became more pronounced at lower applied stresses. The increase in rupture life of the material in flowing sodium was accompanied by an increase in rupture ductility. The creep damage on specimen surface as well as inside the specimen was less in specimen tested in sodium. SEM fractographic investigation revealed predominantly transgranular dimple failure for the specimen tested in sodium, whereas predominantly intergranular creep failure was observed in the air tested specimens. Almost no oxidation was observed in the specimens creep tested in the sodium environment. Absence of oxidation and less creep damage cavitation extended the secondary state in liquid sodium tests and lead to increase in creep rupture life and ductility of the material as compared to in air.

  9. Dynamic strain aging in stress controlled creep-fatigue tests of 316L stainless steel under different loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress controlled fatigue-creep tests were carried out for 316L stainless steel under different loading conditions, i.e. different loading levels at the fixed temperature (loading condition 1, LC1) and different temperatures at the fixed loading level (loading condition 2, LC2). Cyclic deformation behaviors were investigated with respect to the evolutions of strain amplitude and mean strain. Abrupt mean strain jumps were found during cyclic deformation, which was in response to the dynamic strain aging effect. Moreover, as to LC1, when the minimum stress is negative at 550 deg. C, abrupt mean strain jumps occur at the early stage of cyclic deformation and there are many jumps during the whole process. While the minimum stress is positive, mean strain only jumps once at the end of deformation. Similar results were also found in LC2, when the loading level is fixed at -100 to 385 MPa, at higher temperatures (560, 575 deg. C), abrupt mean strain jumps occur at the early stage of cyclic deformation and there are many jumps during the whole process. While at lower temperature (540 deg. C), mean strain only jumps once at the end of deformation.

  10. Study on cerium-doped nano-TiO2 coatings for corrosion protection of 316 L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suning; Wang, Qian; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Zhihua; Wang, Ying; Fu, Jiajun

    2012-04-01

    Many methods have been reported on improving the photogenerated cathodic protection of nano-TiO2 coatings for metals. In this work, nano-TiO2 coatings doped with cerium nitrate have been developed by sol-gel method for corrosion protection of 316 L stainless steel. Surface morphology, structure, and properties of the prepared coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion protection performance of the prepared coatings was evaluated in 3 wt% NaCl solution by using electrochemical techniques in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight illumination. The results indicated that the 1.2% Ce-TiO2 coating with three layers exhibited an excellent photogenerated cathodic protection under illumination attributed to the higher separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs and higher photoelectric conversion efficiency. The results also showed that after doping with an appropriate concentration of cerium nitrate, the anti-corrosion performance of the TiO2 coating was improved even without irradiation due to the self-healing property of cerium ions.

  11. Residual stress and microstructure evolution by manufacturing processes for welded pipe joint in austenitic stainless steel type 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near the heat affected zone (HAZ) of welded pipe joint made of austenitic stainless steel type 316L, even though sensitization is not observed. Therefore, It can be considered that the effect of residual stress on SCC is more important. In the joining process of pipes, butt-welding is conducted after machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes. In case of welding after machining, it can be considered that residual stress due to machining is changed by welding thermal cycle. In this study, residual stress and microstructure evolution due to manufacturing processes is investigated. Change of residual stress distribution caused by processing history is examined by X-ray diffraction method. Residual stress distribution has a local maximum stress in the middle temperature range of the HAZ caused by processing history. Hardness measurement result also has a local maximum hardness in the same range of the HAZ. By using FE-SEM/EBSD, it is clarified that microstructure shows recovery in the high temperature range of HAZ. Therefore, residual stress distribution is determined by microstructure evolution and superposition effect of processing history. In summary, not only any part of manufacturing processes such as welding or machining but also treating all processes as processing history of pipes are important to evaluate SCC. (author)

  12. In situ monitoring the pulse CO2 laser interaction with 316-L stainless steel using acoustical signals and plasma analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most laser material processing, material removal by different mechanisms is involved. Here, application of acoustic signals with thermoelastic (below threshold) and breakdown origin (above threshold) together with plasma plume analysis as a simple monitoring system of interaction process is suggested. In this research the interaction of pulse CO2 laser with 200 ns duration and maximum energy of 1.3 J operating at 1 Hz with austenitic stainless steel (316-L) is reported. The results showed that the non-linear point of the curve can serve as a useful indicator of melting fluence threshold (in this case ∼830 J cm-2) with corresponding temperature calculated using plasma plume analysis. Higher acoustic amplitudes and larger plasma plume volume indicates more intense interaction. Also, analysis showed that a phase explosion process with material removal (ejecta) in the form of non-adiabatic (i.e., dt >> α-1) is at play after laser pulse is ended. Also, SEM photographs show different surface quality medication at different laser intensities, which indicates the importance of recoil momentum pressure and possibly electrons and ions densities in heat transfer. Finally, electrochemical test indicate an improved corrosion resistance for laser treated samples compared to untreated ones.

  13. Shielding gas effects on flux cored arc welding of AISI 316L (N) austenitic stainless steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The effects of shielding gasses are analyzed. ► The impact strength increases with increasing of percentage of CO2 in shielding gas mixtures. ► The ferrite percentage decreases with increasing of percentage of CO2 in shielding gas mixtures. ► Microhardness values increases with increasing of ferrite percentage in the weld metal. -- Abstract: This paper deals with the flux cored arc welding (FCAW) of AISI 316L (N) austenitic stainless steel with 1.2 mm diameter of flux cored 316LT filler wire. The welding was carried out with different shielding gas mixtures like 100% Ar, 95% Ar + 05% CO2, 90% Ar + 10% CO2, 80% Ar + 20% CO2, 75% Ar + 23% CO2 + 2% O2 and 70% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 and 100% CO2. The main aim of the work is to study the effect of various shielding gas mixtures on mechanical properties and metallurgical characters. The microstructures and ferrite content of the welds were analyzed. The mechanical characteristics such as impact test, microhardness and ductility of welds were carried out. The fracture surface impact samples were analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). The fracture surface revealed a ductile rupture at room temperature and ductile rupture with a few cleavages at lower temperatures occurred. The toughness and ferrite percentages of the welds were decreased for increase of the CO2 in shielding gas mixtures.

  14. In situ monitoring the pulse CO 2 laser interaction with 316-L stainless steel using acoustical signals and plasma analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, M. E.; pour, F. Anoosheh; Hadavi, M.; Mahmoodi, M.

    2010-10-01

    In most laser material processing, material removal by different mechanisms is involved. Here, application of acoustic signals with thermoelastic (below threshold) and breakdown origin (above threshold) together with plasma plume analysis as a simple monitoring system of interaction process is suggested. In this research the interaction of pulse CO 2 laser with 200 ns duration and maximum energy of 1.3 J operating at 1 Hz with austenitic stainless steel (316-L) is reported. The results showed that the non-linear point of the curve can serve as a useful indicator of melting fluence threshold (in this case ≈830 J cm -2) with corresponding temperature calculated using plasma plume analysis. Higher acoustic amplitudes and larger plasma plume volume indicates more intense interaction. Also, analysis showed that a phase explosion process with material removal (ejecta) in the form of non-adiabatic (i.e., dt ≫ α-1) is at play after laser pulse is ended. Also, SEM photographs show different surface quality medication at different laser intensities, which indicates the importance of recoil momentum pressure and possibly electrons and ions densities in heat transfer. Finally, electrochemical test indicate an improved corrosion resistance for laser treated samples compared to untreated ones.

  15. TEM study of the nucleation of bubbles induced by He implantation in 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Lescoat, M.-L.; Fortuna, F.; Legras, L.; Li, X.; Gentils, A.

    2015-11-01

    10 keV He ions were implanted in-situ in a TEM into thin foils of 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel at temperatures ranging from 200 to 550 °C. As a result, overpressurized nanometric bubbles are created with density and size depending strongly on both the temperature and fluence of implantation. An investigation on their nucleation and growth is reported through a rigorous statistical analysis whose procedure, including the consideration of free surface effects, is detailed. In the parameter range considered, the results show that an increase of fluence promotes both the nucleation and growth of the bubbles whilst an increase of temperature enhances the growth of the bubbles at the expense of their nucleation. The confrontation of resulting activation energies with existing models for bubble nucleation enables the identification of the underlying mechanisms. In spite of slight differences resulting from different conditions of implantation among which the He concentration, He production rate and He/dpa ratio, it appears that the dominating mechanisms are the same as those obtained in metals in previous studies, which, in addition to corroborating literature results, shows the suitability of in-situ TEM experiments to simulate the production of helium in nuclear materials.

  16. The Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment in Alloy 82/182 Dissimilar Metal Weld between Low Alloy Steel and 316L Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) using an Alloy 82/182 are widely used to join low alloy steel components and stainless steel pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It has been reported that tensile residual stress would be generated within DMWs during the welding processes. It is thought as main reason for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) resulting in deterioration of long-term integrity. The application of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) has been considered to reduce the tensile residual stress after welding process. Meanwhile, the PWHT could affect the changes in microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. Therefore, in this study, the effects of PWHT on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors of base metals of low alloy steel and stainless steel and welding materials of Alloy 82/182 are evaluated. The influence of PWHT in DMW has been investigated. SA 508 and 316L SS exhibited tempered bainite and austenitic grains with a few residual stringer type ferrite. Grain boundary carbides are not precipitated owing to low carbon and insufficient exposure time in 316L SS. The change of mechanicals properties in base metals is not observed. In case of Alloy 182, after PWHT, grain boundaries are covered with film-like continuous Cr-rich carbides

  17. The Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment in Alloy 82/182 Dissimilar Metal Weld between Low Alloy Steel and 316L Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sunghoon; Hong, Jong-Dae; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) using an Alloy 82/182 are widely used to join low alloy steel components and stainless steel pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It has been reported that tensile residual stress would be generated within DMWs during the welding processes. It is thought as main reason for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) resulting in deterioration of long-term integrity. The application of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) has been considered to reduce the tensile residual stress after welding process. Meanwhile, the PWHT could affect the changes in microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. Therefore, in this study, the effects of PWHT on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors of base metals of low alloy steel and stainless steel and welding materials of Alloy 82/182 are evaluated. The influence of PWHT in DMW has been investigated. SA 508 and 316L SS exhibited tempered bainite and austenitic grains with a few residual stringer type ferrite. Grain boundary carbides are not precipitated owing to low carbon and insufficient exposure time in 316L SS. The change of mechanicals properties in base metals is not observed. In case of Alloy 182, after PWHT, grain boundaries are covered with film-like continuous Cr-rich carbides.

  18. The structural and bio-corrosion barrier performance of Mg-substituted fluorapatite coating on 316L stainless steel human body implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifnabi, A., E-mail: sharifnabi@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, M.H. [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eftekhari Yekta, B.; Hossainalipour, M. [Biomaterials Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Mg-substituted fluorapatite coatings were deposited on medical grade AISI 316L stainless steel via sol–gel dip coating method. Phase composition, crystallite size and degree of crystallinity of the obtained coatings were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was also used to evaluate functional groups of the obtained coatings. The surface morphology and cross-section of the final coatings were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy was used to determine elemental chemical composition of the obtained coatings. In order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of uncoated and Mg-substituted fluorapatite coated 316L stainless steel, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed in physiological solutions at 37 ± 1 °C. Moreover, the released metallic ions from uncoated and coated substrates were measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) within 2 months of immersing in Ringer's solution at 36.5 ± 1 °C as an indication of biocompatibility. The results showed that fluoride and magnesium were successfully incorporated into apatite lattice structure and the prepared coatings were nanostructured with crystallinity of about 70%. Obtained coatings were totally crack-free and uniform and led to decrease in corrosion current densities of 316L stainless steel in physiological solutions. In addition, coated sample released much less ions such as Fe, Cr and Ni in physiological media. Therefore, it was concluded that Mg-substituted fluorapatite coatings could improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of 316L stainless steel human body implants.

  19. Local Approach : Numerical Simulations of Creep and Creep-Fatigue Crack Initiation and Crack Growth in 316L SPH Austenitic Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Poquillon, D.; Cabrillat, M.-T.; Pineau, A.; Pineau, André

    1996-01-01

    This study deals with the evaluation of local approach to assess the mechanical integrity of cracked components submitted to cyclic and steady load at elevated temperature. In this approach, a fracture criterion based on calculated intergranular damage ahead of the crack tip is introduce to simulate both crack initiation and crack propagation in 316 L type austenitic stainless steel. This numerical method, based on finite element computations is firstly described. Then numerical results are c...

  20. The structural and bio-corrosion barrier performance of Mg-substituted fluorapatite coating on 316L stainless steel human body implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifnabi, A.; Fathi, M. H.; Eftekhari Yekta, B.; Hossainalipour, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Mg-substituted fluorapatite coatings were deposited on medical grade AISI 316L stainless steel via sol-gel dip coating method. Phase composition, crystallite size and degree of crystallinity of the obtained coatings were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was also used to evaluate functional groups of the obtained coatings. The surface morphology and cross-section of the final coatings were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy was used to determine elemental chemical composition of the obtained coatings. In order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of uncoated and Mg-substituted fluorapatite coated 316L stainless steel, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed in physiological solutions at 37 ± 1 °C. Moreover, the released metallic ions from uncoated and coated substrates were measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) within 2 months of immersing in Ringer's solution at 36.5 ± 1 °C as an indication of biocompatibility. The results showed that fluoride and magnesium were successfully incorporated into apatite lattice structure and the prepared coatings were nanostructured with crystallinity of about 70%. Obtained coatings were totally crack-free and uniform and led to decrease in corrosion current densities of 316L stainless steel in physiological solutions. In addition, coated sample released much less ions such as Fe, Cr and Ni in physiological media. Therefore, it was concluded that Mg-substituted fluorapatite coatings could improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of 316L stainless steel human body implants.

  1. Effect of temperature, chloride ions and sulfide ions on the electrochemical properties of 316L stainless steel in simulated cooling water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The influence of temperature, chloride ions and sulfide ions on the anticorrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel in simulated cooling water was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic polarization curves. The results show that the film resistance increases with the solution temperature but decreases after 8 days' immersion, which indicates that the film formed at higher temperature has inferior anticorrosion behavior; Chloride ions and sulfide ions have remarkable effects on the elect...

  2. Effects of X-rays Radiation on AISI 304 Stainless Steel Weldings with AISI 316L Filler Material: A Study of Resistance and Pitting Corrosion Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Cárcel-Carrasco; Manuel Pascual-Guillamón; Miguel Angel Pérez-Puig

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of low-level ionizing radiation, namely X-rays, on the micro structural characteristics, resistance, and corrosion resistance of TIG-welded joints of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel made using AISI 316L filler rods. The welds were made in two different environments: natural atmospheric conditions and a closed chamber filled with inert argon gas. The influence of different doses of radiation on the resistance and corrosion characteristics of the welds i...

  3. 医用316L不锈钢表面改性的研究进展%Research Progress in Surface Modification of Biomedical 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建华; 刘金龙; 王庆良; 吴高峰

    2011-01-01

    316L不锈钢作为生物医用材料在近20年内被广泛应用在矫形外科植入物、牙种植体和冠状动脉支架等领域.分析了目前医用316L不锈钢在临床应用中存在的主要问题.指出生物相客性、耐腐蚀性和耐磨损性有待提高和表面改性是改善上述问题的有效途径.综述了医用316L不锈钢表面改性的各种途径及研究成果,并展望了316L不锈钢表面改性的研究趋势.%316L stainless steel is an extensively used biomedical material for orthopedic implants, dental implant and cardiovascular stents in the last two decades. Based on the primary problem of biomedical 316L stainless steel in biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and wear resistance properties, it is pointed out that surface modifacation is an effective way to improve these properties. The various approaches and research achievement of surface modification for biomeical 316L stainless steel are reviewed, and the research trend of surface modification is also presented.

  4. Corrosion resistance improvement in Gas Tungsten Arc Welded 316L stainless steel joints through controlled preheat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Though the preheat treatment reduced the cooling rate, no sensitization occurred. → The delta ferrite content of welds reduced due to cooling retardment in welds. → Reduction in δ/γ boundaries was accompanied by decrement of passivation current. → Preheat treatment improved pitting resistance characteristics. → Increment of preheat temperature increased breakdown and repassivation potential. -- Abstract: In the present study, an attempt has been made to improve the corrosion characteristics of 316L stainless steel weldments through preheating at 450 oC and 650 oC. The infrared and Tungsten-Rhenium thermocouples were utilized to probe the cooling trend of heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld pool, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and ferritscope were also used to investigate the effect of preheating on microstructural characteristics within the weld and HAZ. Moreover, cyclic potentiodynamic test was carried out to evaluate the corrosion features of welds such as corrosion current, passivation current (IPP), breakdown potential (EB) and repassivation potential (Ere). Results revealed that preheating reduces the cooling rate of weld pool, accompanied by reduction of delta ferrite content of weldments. Moreover, it was observed that increment of preheat temperature improves corrosion behavior of weldments, including a lower passivation current and a more pitting resistance. These outcomes were mainly ascribed to decrease of austenite/delta ferrite interfaces as vulnerable sites to corrosion attacks, through preheat treatment. Observations showed no evidence of sensitization in preheated samples, which guaranteed the feasibility of suggested heat treatment.

  5. Analysis of bi-layer oxide on austenitic stainless steel, 316L, exposed to Lead–Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koury, D., E-mail: dan@physics.unlv.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, MS 4002, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Johnson, A.L. [Harry Reid Center, MS 4009, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Ho, T. [Dept. of Chemistry, MS 4002, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Farley, J.W. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, MS 4002, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Corrosion of the austenitic stainless steel alloy 316L by Lead–Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) was studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) with Sputter-Depth Profiling (SDP), and compared to data taken by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-rays (EDXs). Exposed and unexposed samples were compared. Annealed 316L samples, exposed to LBE for durations of 1000, 2000 and 3000 h, developed bi-layer oxides up to 30 μm thick. Analysis of the charge-states of the 2p{sub 3/2} peaks of iron, chromium, and nickel in the oxide layers reveal an inner layer consisting of iron and chromium oxides (likely spinel-structured) and an outer layer consisting of iron oxides (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Cold-rolled 316L samples, exposed for the same durations, form a chromium-rich, thin (⩽1 μm) oxide with some oxidized iron in the outermost ∼200 nm of the oxide layer. This is the first experiment to investigate what components of the 316L are oxidized by LBE exposure. It is shown here that nickel is metallic in the inner layer.

  6. Effect of Surface Condition and Heat Treatment on Corrosion of Type 316L Stainless Steel in a Mercury Thermal Convection Loop; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two thermal convection loops (TCLs) fabricated from 316L stainless steel and containing mercury and a variety of 316L coupons representing variable surface conditions and heat treatments have been operated continuously for 2000 h. Surface conditions included surface ground, polished, gold-coated, chemically etched, bombarded with Fe to simulate radiation damage, and oxidized. Heat treatments included solution treated, welded, and sensitized. In addition, a nitrogen doped 316L material, termed 316LN, was also examined in the solution treated condition. Duplicate TCLs were operated in this experiment-both were operated with a 305 C peak temperature, a 65 C temperature gradient, and mercury velocity of 1.2 m/min-but only one included a 36 h soak in Hg at 310 C just prior to operation to encourage wetting. Results indicate that the soak in Hg at 310 C had no lasting effect on wetting or compatibility with Hg. Further, based on examination of post-test wetting and coupon weight loss, only the gold-coated surfaces revealed significant interaction with Hg. In areas wetted significantly by Hg, the extreme surface of the stainless steel (ca 10(micro)m) was depleted in Ni and Cr compared to the bulk composition

  7. Effect of Surface Condition and Heat Treatment on Corrosion of Type 316L Stainless Steel in a Mercury Thermal Convection Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, S J

    2001-09-25

    Two thermal convection loops (TCLs) fabricated from 316L stainless steel and containing mercury and a variety of 316L coupons representing variable surface conditions and heat treatments have been operated continuously for 2000 h. Surface conditions included surface ground, polished, gold-coated, chemically etched, bombarded with Fe to simulate radiation damage, and oxidized. Heat treatments included solution treated, welded, and sensitized. In addition, a nitrogen doped 316L material, termed 316LN, was also examined in the solution treated condition. Duplicate TCLs were operated in this experiment--both were operated with a 305 C peak temperature, a 65 C temperature gradient, and mercury velocity of 1.2 m/min--but only one included a 36 h soak in Hg at 310 C just prior to operation to encourage wetting. Results indicate that the soak in Hg at 310 C had no lasting effect on wetting or compatibility with Hg. Further, based on examination of post-test wetting and coupon weight loss, only the gold-coated surfaces revealed significant interaction with Hg. In areas wetted significantly by Hg, the extreme surface of the stainless steel (ca 10 {micro}m) was depleted in Ni and Cr compared to the bulk composition.

  8. Effect of Surface Condition and Heat Treatment on Corrosion of Type 316L Stainless Steel in a Mercury Thermal Convection Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, S.J.

    2000-10-17

    Two thermal convection loops (TCLs) fabricated from 316L stainless steel and containing mercury and a variety of 316L coupons representing variable surface conditions and heat treatments have been operated continuously for 2000 h. Surface conditions included surface ground, polished, gold-coated, chemically etched, bombarded with Fe to simulate radiation damage, and oxidized. Heat treatments included solution treated, welded, and sensitized. In addition, a nitrogen doped 316L material, termed 316LN, was also examined in the solution treated condition. Duplicate TCLs were operated in this experiment--both were operated with a 305 C peak temperature, a 65 C temperature gradient, and mercury velocity of 1.2 m/min--but only one included a 36 h soak in Hg at 310 C just prior to operation to encourage wetting. Results indicate that the soak in Hg at 310 C had no lasting effect on wetting or compatibility with Hg. Further, based on examination of post-test wetting and coupon weight loss, only the gold-coated surfaces revealed significant interaction with Hg. In areas wetted significantly by Hg, the extreme surface of the stainless steel (ca 10 {micro}m) was depleted in Ni and Cr compared to the bulk composition.

  9. Metallic ions in organs of rats injected with metallic particles of stainless steel 316L and Ti6Al4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Giertz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the interest in identifying systemic effects caused by the metallic particles released from long term metallic implants in the body, few works support reliable conclusions about the effects of those particles in organs. The aim of the present work is to look for damages in tissues of liver, kidney, lung and heart of rats submitted to injection of Hank's solution contained particles of Ti6Al4V alloy and Stainless Steel 316L, obtained by metal friction. The particles size ranges from 50 to 200 µm for the Ti alloy and from 100 to 500 µm for the 316L. Tissues isolated from the organs after the euthanasia were prepared and analyzed in an optical microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS. Lesions caused by an inflammatory response such as strange body epithelioid granuloma and giant cells were found in some of the tissues containing yttrium and aluminum.

  10. Deposition of gold-titanium and gold-nickel coatings on electropolished 316L stainless steel bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young-Hoon [Department of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Tech., Dongshin University, Daeho-dong 253, Jeonnam, Naju 520-714 (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of electropolishing and coating deposition on electrical resistance and chemical stability were studied for the stainless steel bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A series of 316L stainless steel plates, selected as the substrate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) bipolar plate, were electropolished with a solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at temperatures ranging from 70 to 110 C. The surface regions of the two electropolished stainless steel plates were coated with gold and either a titanium or nickel layer using electron beam evaporation. The electropolished stainless steel plates coated in 2-{mu}m thick gold with a 0.1-{mu}m titanium or nickel interlayer showed remarkably smooth and uniform surface morphologies in AFM and FE-SEM images compared to the surfaces of the plates that were coated after mechanical polishing only. The electrical resistance and water contact angle of the deposited stainless steel bipolar plates are strongly dependent on the surface modification treatments (i.e., mechanical polishing versus electropolishing). ICP-MS and XPS results indicate that after electropolishing, the coating layers show excellent chemical stability after exposure to an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution of pH 3. Finally, it was concluded that before coating deposition, the surface modification using electropolishing was very suitable for enhancing the electrical property and chemical stability of the stainless steel bipolar plate. (author)

  11. The hardiness of numerical simulation of TIG welding. Application to stainless steel 316L structures; La robustesse de la simulation numerique du soudage TIG. Application sur des structures en acier 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ahmar, Walid; Jullien, Jean-Francois [INSA-Lyon, LaMCoS, CNRS UMR 551, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne, (France); Gilles, Philippe [AREVA NP, 92084 Paris La Defense, (France); Taheri, Said [EDF, 92141 Clamart, (France); Boitout, Frederic [ESI-GROUP, 69458 Lyon, (France)

    2006-07-01

    The welding numerical simulation is considered as one of the mechanics problems the most un-linear on account of the great number of the parameters required. The analysis of the hardiness of the welding numerical simulation is a current questioning whose expectation is to specify welding numerical simulation procedures allowing to guarantee the reliability of the numerical result. In this work has been quantified the aspect 'uncertainties-sensitivity' imputable to different parameters which occur in the simulation of stainless steel 316L structures welded by the TIG process: that is to say the mechanical and thermophysical parameters, the types of modeling, the adopted behaviour laws, the modeling of the heat contribution.. (O.M.)

  12. Multilayered Zr-C/a-C film on stainless steel 316L as bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Feifei; Peng, Linfa; Yi, Peiyun; Lai, Xinmin

    2016-05-01

    A multilayered zirconium-carbon/amorphous carbon (Zr-C/a-C) coating is synthesized by magnetron sputtering in order to improve the corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity of stainless steel 316L (SS316L) as bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Zr-C/a-C film contains an outmost pure amorphous carbon layer and a sub zirconium containing carbon layer. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) between carbon paper and coated SS316L decreases to 3.63 mΩ cm2 at 1.4 MPa. Potentiodynamic polarization results reveal that the corrosion potential of Zr-C/a-C coated sample is more positive than pure a-C coated sample and the current density is only 0.49 μA cm-2 at the cathode applied potential 0.6 V. Electrochemical impendence spectroscopy also indicates that multilayered Zr-C/a-C film coated SS316L has much higher charge transfer resistance than the bare sample. After potentiostatic polarization, ICR values are 3.92 mΩ cm2 and 3.82 mΩ cm2 in the simulated PEMFCs cathode and anode environment, respectively. Moreover, XPS analysis of the coated samples before and after potential holding tests shows little difference, which disclose the chemical stability of multilayered Zr-C/a-C film. Therefore, the multilayered Zr-C/a-C coating exhibits excellent performance in various aspects and is preferred for the application of stainless steel bipolar plates.

  13. Corrosion and microstructural analysis data for AISI 316L and AISI 347H stainless steels after exposure to a supercritical water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents corrosion data and microstructural analysis data of austenitic stainless steels AISI 316L and AISI 347H exposed to supercritical water (25 MPa, 550 °C with 2000 ppb of dissolved oxygen. The corrosion tests lasted a total of 1200 h but were interrupted at 600 h to allow measurements to be made. The microstructural data have been collected in the grain interior and at grain boundaries of the bulk of the materials and at the superficial oxide layer developed during the corrosion exposure.

  14. Laser surface texturing of 316L stainless steel in air and water: A method for increasing hydrophilicity via direct creation of microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Sepehr; Madanipour, Khosro; Mollabashi, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    Laser processing of materials in water contact is sometimes employed for improving the machining, cutting or welding quality. Here, we demonstrate surface patterning of stainless steel grade 316L by nano-second laser processing in air and water. Suitable adjustments of laser parameters offer a variety of surface patterns on the treated targets. Furthermore alterations of different surface features such as surface chemistry and wettability are investigated in various processing circumstances. More than surface morphology, remarkable differences are observed in the surface oxygen content and wettability of the samples treated in air and water at the same laser processing conditions. Mechanisms of the changes are discussed extensively.

  15. Effects of X-rays Radiation on AISI 304 Stainless Steel Weldings with AISI 316L Filler Material: A Study of Resistance and Pitting Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cárcel-Carrasco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effect of low-level ionizing radiation, namely X-rays, on the micro structural characteristics, resistance, and corrosion resistance of TIG-welded joints of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel made using AISI 316L filler rods. The welds were made in two different environments: natural atmospheric conditions and a closed chamber filled with inert argon gas. The influence of different doses of radiation on the resistance and corrosion characteristics of the welds is analyzed. Welded material from inert Ar gas chamber TIG showed better characteristics and lesser irradiation damage effects.

  16. Corrosion and microstructural analysis data for AISI 316L and AISI 347H stainless steels after exposure to a supercritical water environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A.; Timke, T.; van de Sande, A.; Heftrich, T.; Novotny, R.; Austin, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents corrosion data and microstructural analysis data of austenitic stainless steels AISI 316L and AISI 347H exposed to supercritical water (25 MPa, 550 °C) with 2000 ppb of dissolved oxygen. The corrosion tests lasted a total of 1200 h but were interrupted at 600 h to allow measurements to be made. The microstructural data have been collected in the grain interior and at grain boundaries of the bulk of the materials and at the superficial oxide layer developed during the corrosion exposure. PMID:27158647

  17. Development and Characterization of 316 L Stainless Steel Coated by Melt-derived and Sol-gel derived 45S5 Bioglass for orthopedic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Naghib

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS was coated by 45S5 bioactive glass produced by melting and sol-gel techniques to increase the bioactivity and to provide a high mechanical strength for orthopedic and dental applications. The morphologies of coated specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Then, the coated specimens were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF at 37°C for 14 days, and their microstructures after withdrawal were also investigated by SEM. All the specimens were analyzed by FTIR and XRD in order to survey the formation of hydroxyapatite layer.

  18. Caracterização microestrutural de soldas dissimilares dos aços ASTM A-508 e AISI 316L Characterization of dissimilar metal weld between low alloy steel ASTM A-508 and 316L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Iglésias Lourenço Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As soldas dissimilares (dissimilar metal welds - DMWs são utilizadas em diversos segmentos da indústria. No caso específico de usinas nucleares, tais soldas são necessárias para conectar tubulações de aço inoxidável com componentes fabricados em aços baixa liga. Os materiais de adição mais utilizados neste tipo de solda são as ligas de níquel 82 e 182. Este trabalho consistiu na soldagem de uma junta dissimilar de aço baixa liga ASTM A-508 G3 e aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 316L utilizando as ligas de níquel 82 e 182 como metais de adição. A soldagem foi realizada manualmente empregando os processos de soldagem ao arco SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding e GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Os corpos de prova foram caracterizados microestruturalmente utilizando-se microscópio óptico e microscópio eletrônico de varredura com microanálise por dispersão de energia de raios X (EDS e ensaios de microdureza Vickers. Observou-se uma microestrutura constituída de dendritas de austenita com a presença de precipitados com formas e dimensões definidas pelo aporte térmico e pela direção de soldagem. Não houve variação significativa da dureza ao longo da junta soldada, demonstrando a adequação dos parâmetros de soldagem utilizados.The dissimilar metal welds (DMWs are used in several areas of the industries. In the nuclear power plant, this weld using nickel alloy welding wires is used to connect stainless steel pipes to low alloy steel components on the reactor pressured vessels. The filler materials commonly used in this type of weld are nickel alloys 82 and 182.. In this study, dissimilar metal welds composed of low alloy steel ASTM A-508 G3, nickel alloys 82 e 182 as weld metals, and austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L were prepared by manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW and gas tungsten arc welding techniques (GTAW. Samples were microstructural characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy

  19. The Kinetics of Anodic Dissolution and Repassivation on 316L Stainless Steel in Borate Buffer Solution Studied by Abrading Electrode Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H. S.; Sun, D. B.; Yu, H. Y.; Meng, H. M. [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2015-12-15

    The capacity of passive metal to repassivate after film damage determines the development of local corrosion and the resistance to corrosion failures. In this work, the repassivation kinetics of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) was investigated in borate buffer solution (pH 9.1) using a novel abrading electrode technique. The repassivation kinetics was analyzed in terms of the current density flowing from freshly bare 316L SS surface as measured by a potentiostatic method. During the early phase of decay (t < 2 s), according to the Avrami kinetics-based film growth model, the transient current was separated into anodic dissolution (i{sub diss}) and film formation (i{sub film}) components and analyzed individually. The film reformation rate and thickness were compared according to applied potential. Anodic dissolution initially dominated the repassivation for a short time, and the amount of dissolution increased with increasing applied potential in the passive region. Film growth at higher potentials occurred more rapidly compared to at lower potentials. Increasing the applied potential from 0 V{sub SCE} to 0.8 V{sub SCE} resulted in a thicker passive film (0.12 to 0.52 nm). If the oxide monolayer covered the entire bare surface (θ=1), the electric field strength through the thin passive film reached 1.6 x 10{sup 7} V/cm.

  20. Corrosion and electrical properties of CrN- and TiN-coated 316L stainless steel used as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathode arc ion plating was applied to deposit CrN and TiN coating layers on stainless steel 316L (SS316L) to produce metallic bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The interfacial contact resistance between samples and carbon paper was measured and found to be 10 and 23 mΩ ∗ cm2 for TiN and CrN coating layer respectively under 150 N cm−2 compaction forces. The corrosion properties were investigated in the operating environments of PEMFC. While TiN coating layer was dissolved in the operating environments of PEMFC, the corrosion current density of 0.1 μA cm−2 was obtained for CrN coating layer at anodic condition and its protective efficiency was revealed as 99%. This analysis indicates that the improvement may be attributed to the extremely dense coating and the synergistic function of the CrN layered structure. - Highlights: ► CrN and TiN are deposited on the surface of SS316L by cathode arc ion plating. ► Coating layers of CrN and TiN lead to high electrical conductivity. ► CrN coating layer provides higher corrosion resistance than TiN coating layer

  1. High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance of a Nanoceria Spray-Coated 316L Stainless Steel Under Short-Term Air Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hugo F.; Mendoza, Humberto; Church, Ben

    2013-10-01

    Nanoceria coatings using a spray method were implemented on a 316L stainless steel (SS). Coated and uncoated coupons were exposed to dry air at 1073 K to 1273 K (800 °C to 1000 °C) for short time periods (up to 24 hours) and in situ measurements of oxidation were carried out using a highly sensitive thermogravimetric balance. From the experimental outcome, activation energies were determined in both, coated and uncoated 316 SS coupons. The estimated exhibited activation energies for oxidation in the coated and uncoated conditions were 174 and 356 kJ/mol, respectively. In addition, the developed scales were significantly different. In the coated steel, the dominant oxide was an oxide spinel (Fe, Mn)3O4 and the presence of Fe2O3 was sharply reduced, particularly at 1273 K (1000 °C). In contrast, no spinel was found in the uncoated 316L SS, and Fe2O3 was always present in the scale at all the investigated oxidation temperatures. The coated steels developed a highly adherent fine-grained scale structure. Apparently, the nanoceria particles enhanced nucleation of the newly formed scale while restricting coarsening. Coarse grain structures were found in the uncoated steels with scale growth occurring at grain ledges. Moreover, the oxidation rates for the coated 316L SS were at least an order of magnitude lower than those exhibited by the steel in the uncoated condition. The reduction in oxidation rates is attributed to a shift in the oxidation mechanism from outward cation diffusion to inward oxygen diffusion.

  2. Characterization of deposits build-up on austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L exposed in high purity water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the characterization of deposit layers on AISI 316L surfaces in high purity water systems, operating up to 80 deg C Moessbauer spectroscopy (ME), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used. Austenitic steel particles were identified on the surfaces of systems not properly cleaned before start-up. Long exposition of austenitic surfaces to high purity water promotes the build-up, composed by trivalent iron and chromium oxidehydroxides and oxide. The oxidehydroxide phase is located mainly at the solid-water interface, whereas oxide phase is in direct contact with metal. Spheroid-like morphology of particles in these layers and the lack of metal attack suggest that coagulation and crystallization processes are the way for oxide production from existing dissolved species. (author)

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on Low Temperature Toughness of Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Weld Metal of Type 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, H.; Fujii, H.; Tamura, M.

    2006-03-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are considered to be the candidate materials for liquid hydrogen vessels and the related equipments, and those welding parts that require high toughness at cryogenic temperature. The authors have found that the weld metal of Type 316L stainless steel processed by reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding has high toughness at cryogenic temperature, which is considered to be due to the single-pass welding process without reheating effect accompanied by multi-pass welding process. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on low temperature toughness of the RPEB weld metal of Type 316L was investigated by Charpy impact test at 77K. The absorbed energy decreased with higher temperature and longer holding time of heat treatment. The remarkable drop in the absorbed energy was found with heat treatment at 1073K for 2 hours, which is as low as that of conventional multi-pass weld metal such as tungsten inert gas welding. The observations of fracture surface and microstructure revealed that the decrease in the absorbed energy with heat treatment resulted from the precipitation of intermetallic compounds near delta-ferrite phase.

  4. The passive oxide films growth on 316L stainless steel in borate buffer solution measured by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Haisong; Wang, Lu; Sun, Dongbai [National Center for Materials Service Safety (NCMS), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Hongying, E-mail: hyyu@ustb.edu.cn [Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The optical properties of passive oxide films on 316L stainless steel were studied. • The thickness of the oxide films (1.5–2.6 nm) increased linearly with the potentials. • The growth of passive film followed high electric field ion conduction model. • Selective solubility of oxide induced compositional change of passive film. - Abstract: Passive film growth on 316L stainless steel was investigated in borate buffer electrolyte (pH = 9.1) by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and the composition was estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Anodic passivation of 316L SS was carried out in the potential range from 0 V{sub SCE} to 0.9 V{sub SCE}, after potentiostatic polarization for 1800s, the current density decayed from 10{sup −2} A cm{sup −2} to 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. The passive film thickness was simulated from Frenel and Drude reflection equations, the average complex refractive index was assumed to be N = 2.3 − j0.445. The estimated thickness increased linearly with potential from 1.5 nm at 0 V to 2.6 nm at 0.8 V. The growth of passive film followed high electric field ion conduction model. The passive film mainly contained the oxide/hydroxide of iron and chromium. The selective solubility of oxide in passive film explained the change of iron and chromium content at different potentials. Few nickel and molybdenum also contributed to the passive film with a constant content.

  5. The passive oxide films growth on 316L stainless steel in borate buffer solution measured by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The optical properties of passive oxide films on 316L stainless steel were studied. • The thickness of the oxide films (1.5–2.6 nm) increased linearly with the potentials. • The growth of passive film followed high electric field ion conduction model. • Selective solubility of oxide induced compositional change of passive film. - Abstract: Passive film growth on 316L stainless steel was investigated in borate buffer electrolyte (pH = 9.1) by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and the composition was estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Anodic passivation of 316L SS was carried out in the potential range from 0 VSCE to 0.9 VSCE, after potentiostatic polarization for 1800s, the current density decayed from 10−2 A cm−2 to 10−6 A cm−2. The passive film thickness was simulated from Frenel and Drude reflection equations, the average complex refractive index was assumed to be N = 2.3 − j0.445. The estimated thickness increased linearly with potential from 1.5 nm at 0 V to 2.6 nm at 0.8 V. The growth of passive film followed high electric field ion conduction model. The passive film mainly contained the oxide/hydroxide of iron and chromium. The selective solubility of oxide in passive film explained the change of iron and chromium content at different potentials. Few nickel and molybdenum also contributed to the passive film with a constant content

  6. Surface properties of nitrided layer on AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel produced by high temperature plasma nitriding in short time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang, E-mail: metalytu@163.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yantai University, Qingquan Road 32, Yantai 264005 (China); Wang, Zhuo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yantai University, Qingquan Road 32, Yantai 264005 (China); Wang, Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Linghai Road 1, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The 8 μm nitrided layer was produced on the surface of AISI 316L stainless steel by plasma nitrided at high temperatures (540 °C) within 1 h. • The nitrided layer consisted of nitrogen expanded austenite and possibly a small amount of free-CrN and iron nitrides. • It could critically reduce processing time compared with low temperature nitriding. • High temperature plasma nitriding could improve pitting corrosion resistance of the substrate in 3.5% NaCl solution. - Abstract: It has generally been believed that the formation of the S phase or expanded austenite γ{sub N} with enough thickness depends on the temperature (lower than 480 °C) and duration of the process. In this work, we attempt to produce nitrogen expanded austenite layer at high temperature in short time. Nitriding of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was carried out at high temperatures (>520 °C) for times ranging from 5 to 120 min. The microstructures, chemical composition, the thickness and the morphology of the nitrided layer, as well as its surface hardness, were investigated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness tester. The corrosion properties of the untreated and nitrided samples were evaluated using anodic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results confirmed that nitrided layer was shown to consist of γ{sub N} and a small amount of free-CrN and iron nitrides. High temperature plasma nitriding not only increased the surface hardness but also improved the corrosion resistance of the austenitic stainless steel, and it can critically reduce processing time compared with low temperature nitriding.

  7. Effect of Oxygen Content Upon the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Type 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Manufactured by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Adam J.; Cooper, Norman I.; Dhers, Jean; Sherry, Andrew H.

    2016-09-01

    Although hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has been shown to demonstrate significant advances over more conventional manufacture routes, it is important to appreciate and quantify the detrimental effects of oxygen involvement during the HIP manufacture process on the microstructural and material properties of the resulting component. This paper quantifies the effects of oxygen content on the microstructure and Charpy impact properties of HIP'd austenitic stainless steel, through combination of detailed metallographic examination and mechanical testing on HIP'd Type 316L steel containing different concentrations (100 to 190 ppm) of oxygen. Micron-scale pores were visible in the microstructure of the HIP'd materials postmetallographic preparation, which result from the removal of nonmetallic oxide inclusions during metallographic preparation. The area fraction of the resulting pores is shown to correlate with the oxygen concentration which influences the Charpy impact toughness over the temperature range of 77 K to 573 K (-196 °C to 300 °C), and demonstrates the influence of oxygen involved during the HIP manufacture process on Charpy toughness. The same test procedures and microstructural analyses were performed on commercially available forged 316L. This showed comparatively fewer inclusions and exhibited higher Charpy impact toughness over the tested temperature range.

  8. Low temperature plasma carburizing of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel and AISI F51 duplex stainless steel Cementação sob plasma à baixa temperatura do aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 316L e do aço inoxidável duplex AISI F51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work an austenitic AISI 316L and a duplex AISI F51 (EN 1.4462 stainless steel were DC-Plasma carburized at 480ºC, using CH4 as carbon carrier gas. For the austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel, low temperature plasma carburizing induced a strong carbon supersaturation in the austenitic lattice and the formation of carbon expanded austenite (γC without any precipitation of carbides. The hardness of the carburized AISI 316L steel reached a maximum of 1000 HV due to ∼13 at% carbon supersaturation and expansion of the FCC lattice. For the duplex stainless steel AISI F51, the austenitic grains transformed to carbon expanded austenite (γC, the ferritic grains transformed to carbon expanded ferrite (αC and M23C6 type carbides precipitated in the nitrided case. Hardness of the carburized case of the F51 duplex steel reached 1600 HV due to the combined effects of austenite and ferrite lattice expansion with a fine and dispersed precipitation of M23C6 carbides.O aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 316L e o aço inoxidável duplex AISI F51 (EN 1.4462 foram cementados sob plasma-DC na temperatura de 480ºC, utilizando-se CH4 como gás de arraste. A cementação sob plasma à baixa temperatura conduziu a uma elevada supersaturação do reticulado cristalino em carbono com a formação de austenita expandida(γC, sem a precipitação de carbonetos. A dureza do aço 316L, após a cementação, atingiu um valor máximo de 1000 HV, devido à supersaturação de ∼ 13 at% de carbono e à expansão do reticulado cristalino CFC. Para o aço inoxidável duplex AISI F51, os grãos de austenita se transformaram em austenita expandida pelo carbono e os grãos de ferrita se transformaram para ferrita expandida com a precipitação de carbonetos do tipo M23C6, na camada cementada. A dureza da camada cementada, no aço F51, atingiu 1600HV, devido ao efeito combinado da expansão dos reticulados cristalinos da austenita e da ferrita com a precipitação fina e

  9. Fatigue life of AISI 316L stainless steel welded joints, obtained by GMAW; Vida a la fatiga de juntas soldadas del acero inoxidable AISI 316L obtenidas mediante el proceso GMAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchi-Cabrera, E. S.; Saya-Gamboa, R. A.; Barbera-Sosa, J. G. la; Staia, M. H.; Ignoto-Cardinale, V.; Berrios-Ortiz, J. A.; Mesmacque, G.

    2007-07-01

    An investigation has been conducted in order to determine the effect of both the metallic transfer mode (pulsed arc or short circuit) and the O{sub 2} content in the Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixture, of the gas-metal arc welding process (GMAW), on the fatigue life under uniaxial conditions of welded joints of 316L stainless. it has been concluded that the mixture of the protective gases employed in the process could have an important influence on the fatigue life of the welded joints of such steel in two different ways. firstly, through the modification of the radius of curvature at the joint between the welding tow and the base metal and, secondly, through a more pronounced degree of oxidation of the alloying elements induced by a higher O{sub 2} content in the mixture. As far as the metallic transfer mode is concerned, it has been determined that the welded joints obtained under a pulsed arc mode show a greater fatigue life in comparison with the joints obtained under short circuit for both gas mixtures. (Author) 25 refs.

  10. L2 Milestone 5433: Characterization of Dynamic Behavior of AM and Conventionally Processed Stainless Steel (316L and 304L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, George Thompson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rigg, P. A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. for Shock Physics; Trujillo, Carl Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cady, Carl McElhinney [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Shuh-Rong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carpenter, John S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lienert, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fensin, Saryu Jindal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Knapp, Cameron M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beal, Roberta Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morrow, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dippo, Olivia F. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, David Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Daniel Tito [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valdez, James Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    For additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials, the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there currently exists no broadly accepted “ASTM- or DIN-type” additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, design, manufacture, and thereafter implementation and insertion of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires detailed quantification of the constitutive (strength and damage) properties of these evolving materials, across the spectrum of metallic AM methods, in comparison/contrast to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. This report summarizes the 316L SS research results and presents initial results of the follow-on study of 304L SS. For the AM-316L SS investigation, cylindrical samples of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS was characterized in both the “as-built” Additively Manufactured state and following a heat-treatment designed to obtain full recrystallization to facilitate comparison with annealed wrought 316L SS. The dynamic shock-loading-induced damage evolution and failure response of all three 316L SS materials was quantified using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at peak stresses of 4.5 and 6.35 GPa. The results of these studies are reported in detail in the first section of the report. Publication of the 316L SS results in an archival journal is planned. Following on from the 316L SS completed work, initial results on a study of AM 304L SS are in progress and presented herein. Preliminary results on the structure/dynamic spallation property behavior of AM-304L SS fabricated using both the directed-energy LENS and an EOS powder-bed AM techniques in comparison to wrought 304L SS is detailed in this Level 2 Milestone report.

  11. In-vitro bioactivity, biocorrosion and antibacterial activity of silicon integrated hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite coating on 316 L stainless steel implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutha, S; Kavitha, K; Karunakaran, G; Rajendran, V

    2013-10-01

    A simple and effective ultrasonication method was applied for the preparation of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 wt% silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (HAp) (SH). The Ca/P ratio of the synthesised SH nanoparticles were in the range of 1.58-1.70. Morphological changes were noticed in HAp with respect to the amount of Si from 0 to 1.6 wt%. The morphology of the particles changed from spherical shape to rod-like morphology with respect to the amount of Si which was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of phase pure SH nanoparticles without any secondary phase. Chitosan (CTS) blended SH nanocomposites coating on surgical grade 316 L stainless steel (316 L SS) implant was made by spin coating technique. The surface of the coated implant was characterised using scanning electron microscopy which confirms the uniform coating without cracks and pores. The increased corrosion resistance of the 1.6 wt% of SH/CTS-coated SS implant in the simulated body fluid (SBF) indicates the long-term biostability of SH composite-coated ceramics in vitro than the 0 wt% SH/CTS. The testing of SH/CTS nanocomposites with gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains confirms that the antibacterial ability improves with the higher substitution of Si. In addition, formation of bone-like apatite layer on the SH/CTS-coated implant in SBF was studied through SEM analysis and it confirms the ability to increase the HAp formation on the surface of 1.0 wt% SH/CTS-coated 316 L SS implant.

  12. In-vitro bioactivity, biocorrosion and antibacterial activity of silicon integrated hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite coating on 316 L stainless steel implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutha, S; Kavitha, K; Karunakaran, G; Rajendran, V

    2013-10-01

    A simple and effective ultrasonication method was applied for the preparation of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 wt% silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (HAp) (SH). The Ca/P ratio of the synthesised SH nanoparticles were in the range of 1.58-1.70. Morphological changes were noticed in HAp with respect to the amount of Si from 0 to 1.6 wt%. The morphology of the particles changed from spherical shape to rod-like morphology with respect to the amount of Si which was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of phase pure SH nanoparticles without any secondary phase. Chitosan (CTS) blended SH nanocomposites coating on surgical grade 316 L stainless steel (316 L SS) implant was made by spin coating technique. The surface of the coated implant was characterised using scanning electron microscopy which confirms the uniform coating without cracks and pores. The increased corrosion resistance of the 1.6 wt% of SH/CTS-coated SS implant in the simulated body fluid (SBF) indicates the long-term biostability of SH composite-coated ceramics in vitro than the 0 wt% SH/CTS. The testing of SH/CTS nanocomposites with gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains confirms that the antibacterial ability improves with the higher substitution of Si. In addition, formation of bone-like apatite layer on the SH/CTS-coated implant in SBF was studied through SEM analysis and it confirms the ability to increase the HAp formation on the surface of 1.0 wt% SH/CTS-coated 316 L SS implant. PMID:23910313

  13. Electrochemical behavior of nanocrystalline Ta/TaN multilayer on 316L stainless steel: Novel bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, M.; Mahboubi, F.; Mousavi Khoie, S. M.; Aparicio, M.; Hübner, R.; Soldera, F.; Gago, R.

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient corrosion resistance and surface conductivity are two main issues that plague large-scale application of stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). This study explores the use of nanocrystalline Ta/TaN multilayer coatings to improve the electrical and electrochemical performance of polished 316L SS bipolar plates. The multilayer coatings have been deposited by (reactive) magnetron sputtering and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of bare and coated substrates has been evaluated in simulated PEMFC working environments by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization tests at ambient temperature and 80 °C. The results show that the Ta/TaN multilayer coating increases the polarization resistance of 316L SS by about 30 and 104 times at ambient and elevated temperatures, respectively. The interfacial contact resistance (ICR) shows a low value of 12 mΩ × cm2 before the potentiostatic test. This ICR is significantly lower than for the bare substrate and remains mostly unchanged after potentiostatic polarization for 14 h. In addition, the high contact angle (92°) with water for coated substrates indicates a hydrophobic character, which can improve the water management within the cell in PEMFC stacks.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Dynamic Sodium on the Low Cycle Fatigue Properties of 316L(N) Stainless Steel Base and Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, V.; Kannan, R.; Mariappan, K.; Sukumaran, G.; Sandhya, R.; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara

    2012-06-01

    Low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests on 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel base and weld joints were at 823 K and 873 K at a constant strain rate of 3 × 10 -3 s -1 with strain ranges varying from {±}0.4% to {±}1.0% in a servo-hydraulic fatigue test system under flowing sodium environment. The cyclic stress response exhibited a similar trend as that in air comprising of an initial rapid hardening, followed by a slight softening stage before saturation. The fatigue lives are significantly improved in sodium environment when compared to identical testing conditions in air environment. The lack of oxidation in sodium environment is attributed to the delayed crack initiation, reduced crack propagation rate and consequent increase in fatigue life. Comparison of the data evaluated in sodium with RCC-MR design code, derived on the basis of data obtained from air shows that the design based on air tests is conservative.

  15. Corrosion behavior of TiN, TiAlN, TiAlSiN-coated 316L stainless steel in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Nguyen Dang; Vaka, Mahesh; Tran Hung, Nguyen

    2014-12-01

    To gain high hardness, good thermal stability and corrosion resistance, multicomponent TiAlSiN coating has been developed using different deposition methods. In this study, the influence of Al and Si on the electrochemical properties of TiN-coated 316L stainless steel as bipolar plate (BP) materials has been investigated in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment. The deposited TiN, TiAlN and TiAlSiN possess high hardness of 23.9, 31.7, 35.0 GPa, respectively. The coating performance of the TiN coating is enhanced by Al and Si addition due to lower corrosion current density and higher Rcoating and Rct values. This result could be attributed to the formation of crystalline-refined TiN(200), which improves the surface roughness, surface resistance, corrosion performance, and decreased passive current density.

  16. Electrochemical polishing of 316L stainless steel stent%316L不锈钢血管支架材料的电化学抛光工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季士委; 黄楠; 万国江; 王凯

    2011-01-01

    用直流电化学抛光技术,研究了316L不锈钢血管支架材料电化学抛光液中各成分的作用及操作条件对抛光质量的影响.通过优化,用实验得到的工艺能很快获得光亮平整的抛光表面.%Using direct current-electropolishing technique, the present study investigated the function of components and effects of operating conditions on polishing quality direct current-electropolishing of 316L stainless steel stent materials. Smooth surface was obtained quickly using this technique.

  17. The influence of temperature on low cycle fatigue behavior of prior cold worked 316L stainless steel (II) : life prediction and failure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile and low cycle fatigue tests on prior cold worked 316L stainless steel were carried out at various temperatures from room temperature to 650 deg. C. Fatigue resistance was decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Cyclic plastic deformation, creep, oxidation and interactions with each other are thought to be responsible for the reduction in fatigue resistance. Currently favored life prediction models were examined and it was found that it is important to select a proper life prediction parameter since stress-strain relation strongly depends on temperature. A phenomenological life prediction model was proposed to account for the influence of temperature on fatigue life and assessed by comparing with experimental result. LCF failure mechanism was investigated by observing fracture surfaces of LCF failed specimens with SEM

  18. Narrow Gap Laser Welding of 316L Stainless Steel for Potential Application in the Manufacture of Thick Section Nuclear Components

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesalamy, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Thick-section austenitic stainless steels have widespread industrial applications, especially in nuclear power plants. The joining methods used in the nuclear industry are primarily based on arc welding processes. However, it has recently been shown that the Narrow Gap Laser Welding (NGLW) technique can be used to join materials with thicknesses that are well beyond the capabilities of single pass autogenous laser welding. The heat input for NGLW is much lower than that of arc welding, as are...

  19. Electropolishing of Re-melted SLM Stainless Steel 316L Parts Using Deep Eutectic Solvents: 3 × 3 Full Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrbaey, K.; Wimpenny, D. I.; Al-Barzinjy, A. A.; Moroz, A.

    2016-07-01

    This three-level three-factor full factorial study describes the effects of electropolishing using deep eutectic solvents on the surface roughness of re-melted 316L stainless steel samples produced by the selective laser melting (SLM) powder bed fusion additive manufacturing method. An improvement in the surface finish of re-melted stainless steel 316L parts was achieved by optimizing the processing parameters for a relatively environmentally friendly (`green') electropolishing process using a Choline Chloride ionic electrolyte. The results show that further improvement of the response value-average surface roughness ( Ra) can be obtained by electropolishing after re-melting to yield a 75% improvement compared to the as-built Ra. The best Ra value was less than 0.5 μm, obtained with a potential of 4 V, maintained for 30 min at 40 °C. Electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing the residual oxide film formed during the re-melting process. The material dissolution during the process is not homogenous and is directed preferentially toward the iron and nickel, leaving the surface rich in chromium with potentially enhanced properties. The re-melted and polished surface of the samples gave an approximately 20% improvement in fatigue life at low stresses (approximately 570 MPa). The results of the study demonstrate that a combination of re-melting and electropolishing provides a flexible method for surface texture improvement which is capable of delivering a significant improvement in surface finish while holding the dimensional accuracy of parts within an acceptable range.

  20. Electropolishing of Re-melted SLM Stainless Steel 316L Parts Using Deep Eutectic Solvents: 3 × 3 Full Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrbaey, K.; Wimpenny, D. I.; Al-Barzinjy, A. A.; Moroz, A.

    2016-05-01

    This three-level three-factor full factorial study describes the effects of electropolishing using deep eutectic solvents on the surface roughness of re-melted 316L stainless steel samples produced by the selective laser melting (SLM) powder bed fusion additive manufacturing method. An improvement in the surface finish of re-melted stainless steel 316L parts was achieved by optimizing the processing parameters for a relatively environmentally friendly (`green') electropolishing process using a Choline Chloride ionic electrolyte. The results show that further improvement of the response value-average surface roughness (Ra) can be obtained by electropolishing after re-melting to yield a 75% improvement compared to the as-built Ra. The best Ra value was less than 0.5 μm, obtained with a potential of 4 V, maintained for 30 min at 40 °C. Electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing the residual oxide film formed during the re-melting process. The material dissolution during the process is not homogenous and is directed preferentially toward the iron and nickel, leaving the surface rich in chromium with potentially enhanced properties. The re-melted and polished surface of the samples gave an approximately 20% improvement in fatigue life at low stresses (approximately 570 MPa). The results of the study demonstrate that a combination of re-melting and electropolishing provides a flexible method for surface texture improvement which is capable of delivering a significant improvement in surface finish while holding the dimensional accuracy of parts within an acceptable range.

  1. Effect of surface passivation on corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of Cu-bearing 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Xu, Dake; Shahzad, M. Babar; Kang, Qiang; Sun, Ying; Sun, Ziqing; Zhang, Shuyuan; Ren, Ling; Yang, Chunguang; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    The resistance for pitting corrosion, passive film stability and antibacterial performance of 316L-Cu SS passivated by nitric acid solution containing certain concentration of copper sulfate, were studied by electrochemical cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and co-culture with bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the Cu2+ ions release from 316L-Cu SS surface. XPS analysis proved that the enrichment of CuO, Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3 on the surface of specimen could simultaneously guarantee a better corrosion resistance and stable antibacterial properties. The biocompatibility evaluation determined by RTCA assay also indicated that the 316L-Cu SS after antibacterial passivation was completely biocompatible.

  2. Interfacial characterization of SLM parts in multi-material processing: Metallurgical diffusion between 316L stainless steel and C18400 copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.H., E-mail: AZHLIU@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, D.Q., E-mail: ZHANGDQ@ntu.edu.sg; Sing, S.L., E-mail: SING0011@e.ntu.edu.sg; Chua, C.K., E-mail: MCKCHUA@ntu.edu.sg; Loh, L.E., E-mail: LELOH1@e.ntu.edu.sg

    2014-08-15

    Multi-material processing in selective laser melting using a novel approach, by the separation of two different materials within a single dispensing coating system was investigated. 316L stainless steel and UNS C18400 Cu alloy multi-material samples were produced using selective laser melting and their interfacial characteristics were analyzed using focused ion beam, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron back scattered diffraction techniques. A substantial amount of Fe and Cu element diffusion was observed at the bond interface suggesting good metallurgical bonding. Quantitative evidence of good bonding at the interface was also obtained from the tensile tests where the fracture was initiated at the copper region. Nevertheless, the tensile strength of steel/Cu SLM parts was evaluated to be 310 ± 18 MPa and the variation in microhardness values was found to be gradual along the bonding interface from the steel region (256 ± 7 HV{sub 0.1}) to the copper region (72 ± 3 HV{sub 0.1}). - Highlights: • Multi-material processing was successfully implemented and demonstrated in SLM. • Bi-metallic laminates of steel/Cu were successfully produced with the SLM process. • A substantial amount of Fe and Cu diffusion was observed at the bond interface. • Good metallurgical bonding was obtained at the interface of the steel/Cu laminates. • Highly refined microstructure was obtained due to rapid solidification in SLM.

  3. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/h-BN and Chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 Composite Coatings on Stainless Steel (316L Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namir S. Raddaha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an experimental investigation designed to deposit chitosan/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN and chitosan/h-BN/titania (TiO2 composites on SS316L substrates using electrophoretic deposition (EPD for potential antibacterial applications. The influence of EPD parameters (voltage and deposition time and relative concentrations of chitosan, h-BN and TiO2 in suspension on deposition yield was studied. The composition and structure of deposited coatings were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM. It was observed that h-BN and TiO2 particles were dispersed in the chitosan matrix through simultaneous deposition. The adhesion between the electrophoretic coatings and the stainless steel substrates was tested by using tape test technique, and the results showed that the adhesion strength corresponded to 3B and 4B classes. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization curves, indicating enhanced corrosion resistance of the chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 and chitosan/h-BN coatings compared to the bare stainless steel substrate. In order to investigate the in-vitro inorganic bioactivity, coatings were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF for 28 days. FTIR and XRD results showed no formation of hydroxyapatite on the surface of chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 and chitosan/h-BN coatings, which are therefore non bioactive but potentially useful as antibacterial coatings.

  4. Effect of nitrogen alloying on the semiconducting properties of passive films and metastable pitting susceptibility of 316L and 316LN stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beneficial effect of nitrogen alloying on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels has been attributed to the increase of the local pH within the active sites and the enhanced repassivation of the metastable pits. In order to better understand the effect of nitrogen alloying, in situ capacitance measurements and potentiostatic polarization were conducted for 316L and 316LN stainless steels with different nitrogen contents in deaerated 0.1 M Na2SO4 and 0.1 M NaCl aqueous solutions. The Mott-Schottky plots obtained from the in situ capacitance measurements offered information on the donor concentration and the thickness of the space charge region within the passive film. The metastable pitting susceptibility was investigated by performing potentiostatic polarization tests. The results showed that nitrogen alloying decreased the donor densities and the number of metastable pits, while the absorption of chloride ions on the passive film had the opposite effect. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis demonstrated that nitrogen alloying enriched the chromium within the passive film. The relationship between the semiconducting properties of the passive film and the metastable pitting susceptibility was elucidated.

  5. In-vitro bioactivity, biocorrosion and antibacterial activity of silicon integrated hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite coating on 316 L stainless steel implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutha, S.; Kavitha, K.; Karunakaran, G.; Rajendran, V., E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com

    2013-10-15

    A simple and effective ultrasonication method was applied for the preparation of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 wt% silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (HAp) (SH). The Ca/P ratio of the synthesised SH nanoparticles were in the range of 1.58–1.70. Morphological changes were noticed in HAp with respect to the amount of Si from 0 to 1.6 wt%. The morphology of the particles changed from spherical shape to rod-like morphology with respect to the amount of Si which was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of phase pure SH nanoparticles without any secondary phase. Chitosan (CTS) blended SH nanocomposites coating on surgical grade 316 L stainless steel (316 L SS) implant was made by spin coating technique. The surface of the coated implant was characterised using scanning electron microscopy which confirms the uniform coating without cracks and pores. The increased corrosion resistance of the 1.6 wt% of SH/CTS-coated SS implant in the simulated body fluid (SBF) indicates the long-term biostability of SH composite-coated ceramics in vitro than the 0 wt% SH/CTS. The testing of SH/CTS nanocomposites with gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains confirms that the antibacterial ability improves with the higher substitution of Si. In addition, formation of bone-like apatite layer on the SH/CTS-coated implant in SBF was studied through SEM analysis and it confirms the ability to increase the HAp formation on the surface of 1.0 wt% SH/CTS-coated 316 L SS implant. Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite particles are prepared with various silicon concentration • Prepared composites are blended with chitosan and coated on the implant • Corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid improves its stability • Increase in silicon concentration improves the antibacterial activity • Coated plate exhibit high in-vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid.

  6. Cosintering of Powder Injection Molding Parts Made from Ultrafine WC-Co and 316L Stainless Steel Powders for Fabrication of Novel Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchi, A.; Petzoldt, F.

    2010-01-01

    Sintering response and phase formation during sintering of WC-Co/316L stainless steel composites produced by assembling of powder injection molding (PIM) parts were studied. It is shown that during cosintering a significant mismatch strain (>4 pct) is developed in the temperature range of 1080 °C to 1350 °C. This mismatch strain induces biaxial stresses at the interface, leading to interface delamination. Experimental results revealed that sintering at a heating rate of 20 K/min could be used to decrease the mismatch strain to <2 pct. Meanwhile, WC is decomposed at the contact area and the diffusion of C and Co into the iron lattice results in the formation of a liquid and MC and M6C carbides at 1220 °C. Spreading of the liquid accelerates the reaction, affecting the dimensional stability of the PIM parts. To prevent the reaction, surface oxidation of the cemented carbide followed by hydrogen reduction during sintering was examined. Although the amount of mismatch strain increased, formation of a metallic interface consisting of a W-Co alloy (45 to 50 at. pct Co) and a Co-rich iron alloy (18 at. pct Co) prevented the decomposition of WC and melt formation. It is also shown that the deposition of a thin Ni layer after thermal debinding decreases the mismatch stresses through melt formation, although interlayer diffusion causes pore-band formation close to the steel part.

  7. Plasma nitriding of AISI 304L and AISI 316L stainless steels: effect of time in the formation of S phase and the chromium nitrides; Nitretacao a plasma dos acos inoxidaveis AISI 304L e AISI 316L: efeito do tempo na formacao da fase S e dos nitretos de cromo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.A. de; Barbosa, G.C.; Pinto, F.A.M.; Gontijo, L.C. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo - IFES, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Canal, G.P.; Cunha, A.G., E-mail: disouzam@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Plasma nitriding can improve hardness and wear resistance of austenitic stainless steels without losses in corrosion resistance. This fact relies on a nitrided layer constituted only by S phase, without chromium nitrides precipitation. In this work, the effect of nitriding time on phases formed on nitrided layer was investigated in two austenitic stainless steels: AISI 304L e AISI 316L. The samples were nitrided at 420 deg C, using a mixture of 60 % N{sub 2} and 40% H{sub 2}, during 5, 7 and 9 hours. It was noted that chromium nitrides were formed on samples of AISI 304L, nitrided for 7 e 9 hours, while all nitrided samples of AISI 316L showed only formation of S phase. The nitrided layers were characterized using optical microscope and x-ray diffraction. (author)

  8. Comparative study of the native oxide on 316L stainless steel by XPS and ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardio, Sabrina, E-mail: s.tardio@surrey.ac.uk; Abel, Marie-Laure; Castle, James E.; Watts, John F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Carr, Robert H. [Huntsman PU, Everslaan 45, B-3078 Everberg (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    The very thin native oxide film on stainless steel, of the order of 2 nm, is known to be readily modified by immersion in aqueous media. In this paper, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry are employed to investigate the nature of the air-formed film and modification after water emersion. The film is described in terms of oxide, hydroxide, and water content. The preferential dissolution of iron is shown to occur on immersion. It is shown that a water absorbed layer and a hydroxide layer are present above the oxide-like passive film. The concentrations of water and hydroxide appear to be higher in the case of exposure to water. A secure method for the peak fitting of Fe2p and Cr2p XPS spectra of such films on their metallic substrates is described. The importance of XPS survey spectra is underlined and the feasibility of C{sub 60}{sup +} SIMS depth profiling of a thin oxide layer is shown.

  9. Zircon coatings deposited by electrophoresis on steel 316L; Recubrimientos de circonia depositados por electroforesis sobre acero 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espitia C, I. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, UMSNH, Edificio D, C.U., 58060 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Contreras G, M.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH, Edificio U, C.U., 58060 Morelia , Michoacan (Mexico); Bartolo P, P.; Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Reyes G, J. [IFUNAM, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, L. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The present research involved zirconia coatings prepared using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on 316l stainless steel, via hydrolysis of ZrOCI{sub 2} aqueous solution. Initially, a first zirconia thin film was obtained and treated at 400 C for consolidation. Then a second zirconia film was deposited to obtain a homogeneous and fully covered 316l stainless steel plate. The XPS analyses show that on the first zirconia film, the elements Fe, Cr, O and Zr are present. In this first film the compounds Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} are formed. While in the second film only the Zr and O are observed so that the surface is formed by ZrO{sub 2}. (Author)

  10. Thermodynamic and electrochemistry analysis of the zinc electrodeposition in NH4Cl–NH3 electrolytes on Ti, Glassy Carbon and 316L Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic diagrams, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical analysis are conducted to evaluate the solution chemistry of the Zn(II)–NH4Cl–NH3–H2O system as well as the feasibility of zinc electrorecovery at different pH values. Titanium, Glassy Carbon and 316L Stainless Steel substrates are used as cathode materials. At any region of pH, multiple Zn(II) complexes coexist in solution, but only one predominates. While chloro- (ZnCl42−), ternary (ZnNH3Cl3− and Zn(NH3)3Cl+) and amino-complexes (Zn(NH3)42+) dominate the region of low, neutral and alkaline pH, respectively, the solubility of the system is limited by the formation of two solids, Zn(NH3)1.6Cl0.4(s) and ZnO(s) at neutral and alkaline conditions, respectively. The thermodynamic and electrochemical evaluations reveal that the potential required to deposit Zn(s) becomes more negative as the pH value is increased, whereby the reduction of amino-complexes demand a larger amount of energy compared to the chloro-complexes. This effect is accounted for different ligand substitution mechanisms operating for the chloro- and amino-complexes of Zn(II). The onset of the zinc deposition relies on the cathode material and is accompanied by the HER regardless of the substrate utilized. The surface of Stainless Steel electrode exhibits the smallest overpotential, followed by the Glassy Carbon, and Ti cathodes where the TiO2(s) (native film) plays a determining role during the deposition. Higher current efficiencies are obtained on every substrate as the pH value is increased. Experimental conditions around neutral pHs (5.5 < pH < 8) are potentially suitable to perform the zinc electrodeposition for this system.

  11. Kinetic study of hydrogen-material interactions in nickel base alloy 600 and stainless steel 316L through coupled experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France all of the nuclear power plant facilities in service today are pressurized water reactors (PWR). Some parts of the PWR in contact with the primary circuit medium, such as the steam generator tubes (fabricated in nickel base alloy A600) and some reactor core internal components (fabricated in stainless steel 316L), can fall victim to environmental degradation phenomena such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In the late 1950's, H. Coriou observed experimentally and predicted this type of cracking in alloys traditionally renowned for their SCC resistance (A600). Just some 20 to 30 years later his predictions became a reality. Since then, numerous studies have focused on the description and comprehension of the SCC phenomenon in primary water under reactor operating conditions. In view of reactor lifetime extension, it has become both critical and strategic to be capable of simulating SCC phenomenon in order to optimize construction materials, operating conditions, etc. and to understand the critical parameters in order to limit the damage done by SCC. This study focuses on the role hydrogen plays in SCC phenomenon and in particular H-material interactions. Hydrogen, from primary medium in the form of dissolved H gas or H from the water, can be absorbed by the alloy during the oxidation process taking place under reactor operating conditions. Once absorbed, hydrogen may be transported across the material, diffusing in the interstitial sites of the crystallographic structure and interacting with local defects, such as dislocations, precipitates, vacancies, etc. The presence of these [local defect] sites can slow the hydrogen transport and may provoke local H accumulation in the alloy. This accumulation could modify the local mechanical properties of the material and favor premature rupture. It is therefore essential to identify the nature of these H-material interactions, specifically the rate of H diffusion and hydrogen trapping kinetics at these

  12. Comparison between Palm Oil Derivative and Commercial Thermo-Plastic Binder System on the Properties of the Stainless Steel 316L Sintered Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R.; Azmirruddin, M.; Wei, G. C.; Fong, L. K.; Abdullah, N. I.; Omar, K.; Muhamad, M.; Muhamad, S.

    2010-03-01

    Binder system is one of the most important criteria for the powder injection molding (PIM) process. Failure in the selection of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. The objectives of this studied is to develop a novel binder system based on the local natural resources and environmental friendly binder system from palm oil derivative which is easily available and cheap in our country of Malaysia. The novel binder that has been developed will be replaced the commercial thermo-plastic binder system or as an alternative binder system. The results show that the physical and mechanical properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) standard 35 for PIM parts. The biocompatibility test using cell osteosarcoma (MG63) and vero fibroblastic also shows that the cell was successfully growth on the sintered stainless steel 316L parts indicate that the novel binder was not toxic. Therefore, the novel binder system based on palm oil derivative that has been developed as a binder system fulfills the important criteria for the binder system in PIM process.

  13. Effect of Ringer's Solution on Wear and Friction of Stainless Steel 316L after Plasma Electrolytic Nitrocarburising at Low Voltages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Afsar Kazerooni; M.E. Bahrololoom; M.H. Shariat; F.Mahzoon; T. Jozaghi

    2011-01-01

    A plasma electrolytic nitrocarburising (PEN/C) process was performed on stainless steel 316L to improve the surface properties for using as medical implants. A bath was optimised to reduce the required voltage to 150 volts. Aqueous urea-based solutions with 10% NH4Cl were prepared with slightly different amounts of Na2CO3 to optimise the electrolyte composition. The surface and the cross-section morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure and the chemical composition of samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The microstructure of the outer layer of the coatings was found to be a complex oxide containing Cr and Fe. The wear properties of the samples were examined by using a pin on disk wear test with Ringer's solution and were compared with their wear properties in the ambient atmosphere. The Ringe(s solution acted as a lubricant, reducing friction coefficient. Hardness and roughness were also studied. The bath with the composition of 10% NH4CI and 3% Na2CO3 exhibited the best tribological properties. The results showed that the tribological properties of treated samples were improved and the wear mechanism was abrasion of the pin.

  14. Effects of Ag and Cu ions on the microbial corrosion of 316L stainless steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Tuba; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Arkan, Simge; Cansever, Nurhan

    2016-08-01

    The utilization of Ag and Cu ions to prevent both microbial corrosion and biofilm formation has recently increased. The emphasis of this study lies on the effects of Ag and Cu ions on the microbial corrosion of 316L stainless steel (SS) induced by Desulfovibrio sp. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization were used to analyze the corrosion behavior. The biofilm formation, corrosion products and Ag and Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and elemental mapping. Through circuit modeling, EIS results were used to interpret the physicoelectric interactions between the electrode, biofilm and culture interfaces. EIS results indicated that the metabolic activity of Desulfovibrio sp. accelerated the corrosion rate of SS in both conditions with and without ions. However, due to the retardation in the growth of Desulfovibrio sp. in the presence of Ag and Cu ions, significant decrease in corrosion rate was observed in the culture with the ions. In addition, SEM and EIS analyses revealed that the presence of the ions leads to the formation on the SS of a biofilm with different structure and morphology. Elemental analysis with EDS detected mainly sulfide- and phosphorous-based corrosion products on the surfaces. PMID:27105168

  15. A three dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics modelling of the early cycles of fatigue in an austenitic stainless steel 316L: dislocation microstructure and damage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical code modelling the collective behaviour of dislocations at a mesoscopic scale (Discrete Dislocation Dynamics code) is used to analyse the cyclic plasticity that occurs in surface grains of an AISI 316L stainless steel, in order to understand the plastic mechanism involved in crack initiation in fatigue. Firstly, the analyses of both the formation and the evolution of the dislocation microstructures show the crucial role of cross-slip played in the strain localization in the form of slip bands. As the cycling proceeds, the slip bands exhibit well-organized dislocation arrangements that substitute to dislocation tangles, involving specific interaction mechanisms between primary and deviate systems. Secondly, both the surface displacements generated by plastic slip and the distortion energy induced by the dislocation microstructure have been analysed. We find that an irreversible surface relief in the form of extrusion/intrusion can be induced by cyclic slip of dislocations. The number of cycles for the crack initiation follows a Manson-Coffin type law. The analyses of the concentration of the distortion energy and its repartition in the slip bands show that beneficial energetic zones may be present at the very beginning of the cycling, and that mode-II crack propagation in the surface grains results from a succession of micro-crack initiations along primary slip plane, which is facilitated by various effects (stress concentration due to surface relief, environment effects...). Finally, a dislocation-based model for cyclic plasticity is proposed from Discrete Dislocation Dynamics results. (author)

  16. Effect of Welding Current and Time on the Microstructure, Mechanical Characterizations, and Fracture Studies of Resistance Spot Welding Joints of AISI 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianersi, Danial; Mostafaei, Amir; Mohammadi, Javad

    2014-09-01

    This article aims at investigating the effect of welding parameters, namely, welding current and welding time, on resistance spot welding (RSW) of the AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel sheets. The influence of welding current and welding time on the weld properties including the weld nugget diameter or fusion zone, tensile-shear load-bearing capacity of welded materials, failure modes, energy absorption, and microstructure of welded nuggets was precisely considered. Microstructural studies and mechanical properties showed that the region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. Electron microscopic studies indicated different types of delta ferrite in welded nuggets including skeletal, acicular, and lathy delta ferrite morphologies as a result of nonequilibrium phases, which can be attributed to a fast cooling rate in the RSW process. These morphologies were explained based on Shaeffler, WRC-1992, and pseudo-binary phase diagrams. The optimum microstructure and mechanical properties were achieved with 8-kA welding current and 4-cycle welding time in which maximum tensile-shear load-bearing capacity or peak load of the welded materials was obtained at 8070 N, and the failure mode took place as button pullout with tearing from the base metal. Finally, fracture surface studies indicated that elongated dimples appeared on the surface as a result of ductile fracture in the sample welded in the optimum welding condition.

  17. In situ monitoring the pulse CO{sub 2} laser interaction with 316-L stainless steel using acoustical signals and plasma analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosroshahi, M.E., E-mail: khosro@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Biomedical Eng., Biomaterial Group, Laser and Nanobiophotonics Lab., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anoosheh pour, F. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Biomedical Eng., Biomaterial Group, Laser and Nanobiophotonics Lab., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, M. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Mining and Metallurgical Eng., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, M. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Biomedical Eng., Biomaterial Group, Laser and Nanobiophotonics Lab., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    In most laser material processing, material removal by different mechanisms is involved. Here, application of acoustic signals with thermoelastic (below threshold) and breakdown origin (above threshold) together with plasma plume analysis as a simple monitoring system of interaction process is suggested. In this research the interaction of pulse CO{sub 2} laser with 200 ns duration and maximum energy of 1.3 J operating at 1 Hz with austenitic stainless steel (316-L) is reported. The results showed that the non-linear point of the curve can serve as a useful indicator of melting fluence threshold (in this case {approx}830 J cm{sup -2}) with corresponding temperature calculated using plasma plume analysis. Higher acoustic amplitudes and larger plasma plume volume indicates more intense interaction. Also, analysis showed that a phase explosion process with material removal (ejecta) in the form of non-adiabatic (i.e., d{sub t} >> {alpha}{sup -1}) is at play after laser pulse is ended. Also, SEM photographs show different surface quality medication at different laser intensities, which indicates the importance of recoil momentum pressure and possibly electrons and ions densities in heat transfer. Finally, electrochemical test indicate an improved corrosion resistance for laser treated samples compared to untreated ones.

  18. Influences of deposition strategies and oblique angle on properties of AISI316L stainless steel oblique thin-walled part by direct laser fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlin; Deng, Dewei; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Hongchao

    2016-06-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) developed from laser cladding and rapid prototyping technique has been widely used to fabricate thin-walled parts exhibiting more functions without expending weight and size. Oblique thin-walled parts accompanied with inhomogeneous mechanical properties are common in application. In the present study, a series of AISI316L stainless steel oblique thin-walled parts are successfully produced by DLF, in addition, deposition strategies, microstructure, and mechanical property of the oblique thin-walled parts are investigated. The results show that parallel deposition way is more valuable to fabricate oblique thin-walled part than oblique deposition way, because of the more remarkable properties. The hardness of high side initially increases until the distance to the substrate reaches about 25 mm, and then decreases with the increase of the deposition height. Oblique angle has a positive effect on the tensile property but a negative effect on microstructure, hardness and elongation due to the more tempering time. The maximum average ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation are presented 744.3 MPa and 13.5% when the angle between tensile loading direction and horizontal direction is 45° and 90°, respectively.

  19. Dissimilar laser welding of AISI 316L stainless steel to Ti6–Al4–6V alloy via pure vanadium interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomashchuk, I., E-mail: iryna.tomashchuk@u-bourgogne.fr; Grevey, D.; Sallamand, P.

    2015-01-12

    Successful continuous laser joining of AISI 316L stainless steel with Ti6Al4V titanium alloy through pure vanadium interlayer has been performed. Three welding configurations were tested: one-pass welding involving all three materials and two pass and double spot welding involving creation of two melted zones separated by remaining solid vanadium. For the most relevant welds, the investigation of microstructure, phase content and mechanical properties has been carried out. In case of formation of a single melted zone, the insertion of steel elements into V-based solid solution embrittles the weld. In case of creation of two separated melted zones, the mechanical resistance of the junction is determined by annealing of remaining vanadium interlayer, which can be witnessed by observing the increase of grain size and decrease of UTS. The two pass configuration allows attain highest mechanical resistance: 367 MPa or 92% of UTS of annealed vanadium. Double spot configuration produces excessive heat supply to vanadium interlayer, which results in important decrease of tensile strength down to 72% of UTS of annealed vanadium. It was found that undesirable σ phase which forms between Fe and V is not created during the laser welding process because of high cooling rates. However, the zones whose composition corresponds to σ homogeneity range are crack-susceptible, so the best choice is to reduce the V content in steel/vanadium melted zone below σ phase formation limit. In the same time, the proportion between V and Ti in Ti6Al4V/vanadium melted zones does not influence mechanical properties as these elements form ideal solid solution.

  20. 316L奥氏体不锈钢高温拉伸时的动态应变时效%Dynamic Strain Aging in 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel During Tensile Test at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鹏程; 田荣; 沈寅忠; 李志刚

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic strain aging (DSA) in 316L austenitic stainless steel was examined through tensile test at 300-700 °C under strain rate of 2 x l0-4 S-1 . The results show that the dynamic strain aging in 316L austenitic stainless steel does not accompany with a plateau of yield stress. 316L austenitic stainless steel has both normal and inverse PLC effects at 450-700 'C. The effective activation energy for serrated flow occurrence was calculated to be about 254kJ/mol. The dynamic strain aging caused by the interaction between substitutional solutes, Cr and moving dislocation is considered as the mechanism of serrated flow at the high temperatures in 316L stainless steel.%在300~700℃,以应变速率为2×10-4 s-1对316L不锈钢进行拉伸试验,探索其中的动态应变时效现象及其规律.结果表明,316L奥氏体不锈钢在动态应变时效温度区间并没有出现屈服应力平台,在450~700℃既有正常的Portevien-Le Chatelier effect (PLC)效应,也有反PLC效应;锯齿形成的有效激活能为254k J/mol;扩散着Cr等置换型溶质原子与运动位错之间的交互作用使材料出现动态应变时效,导致锯齿流动行为.

  1. Effects of Mo content on microstructure and corrosion resistance of arc ion plated Ti-Mo-N films on 316L stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Kim, Kwang Ho; Shao, Zhigang; Wang, Feifei; Zhao, Shuang; Suo, Ni

    2014-05-01

    Bipolar plates are one of the most important components in PEMFC stack and have multiple functions, such as separators and current collectors, distributing reactions uniformly, and etc. Stainless steel is ideal candidate for bipolar plates owing to good thermal and electrical conductivity, good mechanical properties etc. However, stainless steel plate still cannot resist the corrosion of working condition. In this work, ternary Ti-Mo-N film was fabricated on 316L stainless steel (SS316L) as a surface modification layer to enhance the corrosion resistance. Effects of Mo content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ti-Mo-N films are systematically investigated by altering sputtering current of the Mo target. XRD results reveal that the preferred orientation changes from [111] to [220] direction as Mo content in the film increases. The synthesized Ti-Mo-N films form a substitutional solid solution of (Ti, Mo)N where larger Mo atoms replace Ti in TiN crystal lattice. The TiN-coated SS316L sample shows the best corrosion resistance. While Mo content in the Ti-Mo-N films increases, the corrosion resistance gradually degrades. Compared with the uncoated samples, all the Ti-Mo-N film coated samples show enhanced corrosion resistance in simulated PEMFC working condition.

  2. The effect of CO2 laser beam welded AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel on the viability of fibroblast cells, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Ceyhun; Kaçar, Ramazan; Zorba, Aslı Pınar; Bağırova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2016-03-01

    It has been determined by the literature research that there is no clinical study on the in vivo and in vitro interaction of the cells with the laser beam welded joints of AISI 316L biomaterial. It is used as a prosthesis and implant material and that has adequate mechanical properties and corrosion resistance characteristics. Therefore, the interaction of the CO2 laser beam welded samples and samples of the base metal of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel with L929 fibroblast cells as an element of connective tissue under in vitro conditions has been studied. To study the effect of the base metal and the laser welded test specimens on the viability of the fibroblast cells that act as an element of connective tissues in the body, they were kept in DMEMF-12 medium for 7, 14, 28 days and 18 months. The viability study was experimentally studied using the MTT method for 7, 14, 28 days. In addition, the direct interaction of the fibroblast cells seeded on 6 different plates with the samples was examined with an inverted microscope. The MTT cell viability experiment was repeated on the cells that were in contact with the samples. The statistical relationship was analyzed using a Tukey test for the variance with the GraphPad statistics software. The data regarding metallic ion release were identified with the ICP-MS method after the laser welded and main material samples were kept in cell culture medium for 18 months. The cell viability of the laser welded sample has been detected to be higher than that of the base metal and the control based on 7th day data. However, the laser welded sample's viability of the fibroblast cells has diminished by time during the test period of 14 and 28 days and base metal shows better viability when compared to the laser welded samples. On the other hand, the base metal and the laser welded sample show better cell viability effect when compared to the control group. According to the ICP-MS results of the main material and laser welded

  3. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Low Cycle Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Interaction on Surface Morphology and Tensile Properties of 316L(N) Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, K.; Shankar, Vani; Sandhya, R.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Laha, Kinkar

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, the deformation and damage evolution in 316L(N) stainless steel during low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (CFI) loadings have been compared by evaluating the residual tensile properties. Towards this, LCF and CFI experiments were carried out at constant strain amplitude of ±0.6 pct, strain rate of 3 × 10-3 s-1 and temperature of 873 K (600 °C). During CFI tests, 30 minutes hold period was introduced at peak tensile strain. Experiments were interrupted up to various levels of fatigue life viz. 5, 10, 30, 50, and 60 pct of the total fatigue life ( N f) under both LCF and CFI conditions. The specimens subjected to interrupted fatigue loadings were subsequently monotonically strained at the same strain rate and temperature up to fracture. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and profilometry were conducted on the untested and tested samples to elucidate the damage evolution during the fatigue cycling under both LCF and CFI conditions. The yield strength (YS) increased sharply with the progress of fatigue damage and attained saturation within 10 pct of N f under LCF condition. On the contrary, under CFI loading condition, the YS continuously increased up to 50 pct of N f, with a sharp increase of YS up to 5 pct of N f followed by a more gradual increase up to 50 pct of N f. The difference in the evolution of remnant tensile properties was correlated with the synergistic effects of the underlying deformation and damage processes such as cyclic hardening/softening, oxidation, and creep. The evolution of tensile properties with prior fatigue damage has been correlated with the change in surface roughness and other surface features estimated by surface replica technique and fractography.

  4. Study of carbonitriding thermochemical treatment by plasma screen in active with pressures main austenitic stainless steels AISI 409 and AISI 316L; Estudo do tratamento termoquimico de carbonitretacao por plasma em tela ativa com pressoes variaveis nos acos inoxidaveis austenitico AISI 316L e ferririco AISI 409

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, M.S.; Oliveira, A.M.; Leal, V.S.; Sousa, R.R.M. de; Alves Junior, C. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao (CEFET/MA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Piaui (CEFET/PI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DF/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Labplasma

    2010-07-01

    The technique called Active Screen Plasma Nitriding (ASPN) is being used as an alternative once it offers several advantages with respect to conventional DC plasma. In this method, the plasma does not form directly in the sample's surface but on a screen, in such a way that undesired effects such as the edge effect is minimized. Stainless steels present not very satisfactory wearing characteristics. However, plasma carbonitriding has been used as to improve its resistance to wearing due to the formation of a fine surface layer with good properties. In this work, samples of stainless steel AISI 316L and AISI 409 were treated at pressures of 2.5 and 5 mbar. After the treatments they were characterized by microhardness, microscopy and Xray diffraction. Microscopy and hardness analysis showed satisfactory layers and toughness in those steels. (author)

  5. THE EFFECT OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF ELEMENTS ON SHAPES OF POTENTIODYNAMIC AND POTENTIOSTATIC CURVES OF AISI 304L AND AISI 316L STAINLESS STEELS IN CHLORIDE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pulino-Sagradi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Samples of high purity grade and commercial purity grade type AISI 304L and AISI 316L steels were studied by the potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques in a naturally aerated 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution at a controlled temperature of (23±2°C. The anodic polarization curves of the potentiodynamic technique showed that not always is it possible to determine pitting potential: most of the curves of commercial purity grade steels displayed a smooth curvature in the region where the current density should increase sharply. The density current versus time potentiostatic curves also showed different shapes according to the purity grade steels: for the commercial purity grade steels, the current density showed large oscillations with time (related to unstable pits, whereas for the high purity grade steels, a regular behavior of current density as a function of time was found (related to stable pits

  6. Research on Welding Process of Marine 20 Steel and 316L Stainless Steel Dissimilar Materials Pipe%船用20钢与316L不锈钢的异种钢管焊接工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许骥; 王鹏; 焦德义

    2016-01-01

    Aim at the problems of material difference , soften mechanism of welded joints , welding quality unstable in the welding process of marine 20 steel and 316L stainless steel dissimilar materials , according the analysis of the chemical composi-tion, physical properties and welding property of the two material , a more reliable welding procedures and methods is put for-ward.%针对船用20钢管与316L不锈钢管的异种钢焊接中存在的材料差异、接头组织软化、焊接质量不稳定等问题,对比两种材料的化学成分、物理性能和焊接性,提出更为可靠焊接工艺和方法.

  7. Effect of the hydrogen absorption on the positioning of the plastic deformation of a stainless steel-316L; Effet de l'absorption d'hydrogene sur la localisation de la deformation plastique d'un acier inoxydable 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, I.; Olive, J.M. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Mecanique Physique, CNRS, 33 (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the absorbed hydrogen effects on the plastic deformation (at the grain scale) of stainless steel-316L polycrystals. Tensile tests in air have been carried out on specimens previously cathodically loaded in hydrogen (135 wt.ppm) and unloaded polycrystals. After the tensile tests, a number statistically representative of gliding bands emergent in surface has been observed. In parallel to this experimental study, the plastic gliding level in each grain has been obtained by a finite element method from the polycrystalline microstructure modeled with the EBSD cartography. The Zebulon code developed by the Ecole des Mines de Paris allows to account for the plastic behaviour of the studied polycrystals using the crystalline plasticity model. The coupled analysis of the numerical and experimental results allows to know the gliding plan having produced the gliding steps observed in each grain by AFM. This allows then to quantify the number of emergent dislocations to create the average gliding band. It is then possible to compare the modifications of the positioning of the plastic deformation of the stainless steel-316L induced by hydrogen absorption. (O.M.)

  8. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYTIC TREATMENT OF BALLAST WATER ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF 316L STAINLESS STEEL%电解法处理压载水对316L不锈钢腐蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光洲; 王建明; 张鉴清; 曹楚南

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by the ballast water of ships has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world's oceans. Many technologies have been developed for ballast water treatment among which electrolytic treatment method has been taken as the most promising one. However, the corrosion problem of metals in treated seawater was seriously concerned by international maritime organization (IMO) and ship owners, especially the corrosion of 316L stainless steel which is widely used in the monitoring equipments of the ballast system of ships. In this study, the variation of environmental parameters of the seawater before and after electrolytic treatment was monitored. The corrosion behaviors of 316L stainless steel in both natural and treated seawater were investigated by electrochemical methods such as open-circuit potential (Eocp) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that the pH value of the seawater increased and the dissolved oxygen content decreased slightly after electrolytic treatment, and the contents of dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon decreased significantly in treated seawater. The corrosion test results showed that the resistance of 316L stainless steel to pitting corrosion was enhanced in treated seawater. Compared to the system in natural seawater, the open-circuit potential of the steel in treated seawater shifted about 0.4 V positively, and charge transfer resistance of the steel greatly increased. The breakdown potential of passivation films in treated seawater positively shifted more than 0.37 V. Our experimental results suggested that the corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel in treated seawater was improved, which was ascribed to the thickening and compactness of the passivation film formed in treated seawater. It is safe for 316L stainless steel to be used in treated ballast water with

  9. Effect of ferric ions in AISI 316L stainless steel pickling using an environmentally-friendly H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HF-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, L. [Metallurgical Institute, UASLP Avda. Sierra Leona 550, 78210 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Cano, E.; Bastidas, J.M. [CENIM-National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CSIC) Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-02-01

    A mixture of hydrogen peroxide, sulphuric and hydrofluoric acids has been used as pickling solution at pH 2.0 for AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS). The stability of the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HF-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture is assessed varying the ferric ions content from 0 to 40 g/L, the temperature from 25 to 60 C, and with and without stirring of the pickling solution. The AISI 316L SS pickling rate at 50 C was 2.6 and 0.2 mg/dm{sup 2} day (mdd) in the absence and presence of 40 g/L ferric ions, respectively. p-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) has been used as stabiliser of hydrogen peroxide. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Es ist ein Gemisch mit einem pH-Wert von 2.0 aus Wasserstoffperoxid, Schwefelsaeure und Fluorwasserstoffsaeure als Beizloesung fuer nichtrostenden Stahl AISI 316L angewandt worden. Die Stabilitaet des Gemisches H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HF-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} haengt vom Gehalt der dreiwertigen Eisenionen, zwischen 0 und 40 g/L, von der Temperatur, zwischen 25 und 60 C, und von der Ruehrintensitaet der Beizloesung ab. Die Beizgeschwindigkeit des nichtrostenden Stahls AISI 316L bei 50 C lag bei 2.6 bzw. 0.2 mg/dm{sup 2} taeglich (mdd), je nachdem, ob 40 g/L dreiwertige Eisenionen enthalten waren oder nicht. Als Stabilisator des Wasserstoffperoxids ist para-Toluensulfonsaeure (PTSA) eingesetzt worden. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Study on compressed thermal deformation behavior and critical damage value of stainless steel 316 L%316 L不锈钢压缩热变形行为及临界损伤值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光辉; 刘华; 王伟钦; 张义帅

    2016-01-01

    The mecheanical properties of materials in Deform-3D material library are quite different from that in actual production. A big error will occur when the mechanical properties were applied directly to the simulation. According to the experimental data, simulation was realized, the results would be more accurate and closer to production. For stainless steel 316L, the compress test at high temperature was carried out by Gleeble-1500D simulation testing machine. The influences of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of stainless steel 316L at high temperature were analyzed. The thermal compression process of stainless steel 316L was simulated by the me-chanical properties data in material library and the experimental data respectively. Under the two cases, the stroke-load curves and stress distributions were analyzed, and the critical damage values of stainless steel 316L were analyzed according to the experimental data. The results show that the thermal deformation resistance decreases with the increase of deformation temperature at a constant of strain rate, and the deformation resistance increases with the increase of strain rate at a constant of deformation temperature. Furthermore, the critical damage value of stainless steel 316L with strain rate of 0. 25 s-1 is within the range of 0. 1604-0. 2369.%Deform-3D材料库中材料的力学性能与实际生产差别较大,直接利用其性能参数进行模拟,误差较大。利用实验数据进行模拟,可以使模拟结果更加准确和接近生产。采用Gleeble-1500D热模拟实验机对316L不锈钢进行高温压缩实验,分析了温度和应变速率对316L不锈钢高温力学性能的影响。并分别利用材料库中316L不锈钢力学性能数据和实验数据进行了压缩热变形模拟,分析了两种情况下的行程-载荷曲线和应力分布云图,并根据实验数据的模拟结果分析了316L不锈钢的临界损伤值。结果表明:应变速率一定时,热变

  11. Improved corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance of 316L stainless-steel for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates by chromizing surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. B.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, W. G.; Jang, H.

    The electrochemical performance and electrical contact resistance of chromized 316 stainless-steel (SS) are investigated under simulated operating condition in a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The corrosion resistance of the chromized stainless steel is assessed by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR) is examined by measuring the electrical contact resistance as a function of the compaction force. The results show that the chromizing surface treatment improves the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel due to the high-chromium concentration in the diffuse coating layer. On the other hand, the excess Chromium content on the surface increases the contact resistance of the steel plate to a level that is excessively high for commercial applications. This study examines the root cause of the high-contact resistance after chromizing and reports the optimum process to improve the corrosion resistance without sacrificing the ICR by obtaining a chrome carbide on the outer layer.

  12. Evaluation of the contact corrosion of the nano structured 316L stainless steel by SMAT process; Comportement en corrosion de contact de l'acier inoxydable 316L nanostructure par procede SMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeva Durmooa [Laboratoire de Mecanique Roberval, FRE CNRS 2833, Universite de Technologie de Compiegne (France); Faculte d' Ingenierie, Universite de Maurice (Mauritius); Caroline Richarda [Laboratoire de Mecanique Roberval, FRE CNRS 2833, Universite de Technologie de Compiegne (France); Jian Lub [Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' Ingenierie Simultanee, FRE CNRS 2719, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (France)

    2005-07-01

    This study was carried out in view to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonic shot peening (Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment: SMAT), on the tribological behaviour of 316L due to fretting effects. The amount of samples to be prepared was based on an experimental plan which account the various parameters incur in our fretting test. These experimental conditions were the: load, sliding velocity, stroke length and temperature. As a first experimental outcome, it is noted that the surface roughness plays a determinant role in the friction mechanism, i.e when the roughness of the surface is more and more damaged, the wear debris are located in the cavities area and contribute to increase the friction coefficient significantly. Hence, the treatment time of the samples is directly link to the surface roughness. The optimum time of SMAT was 12 minutes, and gave the best tribological properties results. Added to this fretting test, an induce vibration analysis was carried out to appreciate wear mechanism. (author)

  13. 316L不锈钢在硫酸盐还原菌与铁氧化菌溶液中的腐蚀及电化学行为%Corrosion and Electrochemical Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel in Sulfate-reducing and Iron-oxidizing Bacteria Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥聪敏; 张耀亨; 程光旭; 朱文胜

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion and electrochemical behavior of 316L stainless steel was investigated in the presence of aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) and anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) isolated from cooling water systems in an oil refinery using electrochemical measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive atom X-ray analysis(EDAX). The results show the corrosion potential and pitting potential of 316L stainless steel decrease distinctly in the presence of bacteria, in comparison with those observed in sterile medium under the same exposure time. SEM morphologies have shown that 316L stainless steel reveals no signs of pitting attack in the sterile medium. However, micrometer-scale corrosion pits were observed on 316L stainless steel surface in the presence of bacteria. The presence of SRB leads to higher corrosion rates than IOB. The interactions between the stainless steel surface, abiotic corrosion products, and bacterial cells and their metabolic products increased the corrosion damage degree of the passive film and accelerated pitting propagation.

  14. 外加极化电位对316L不锈钢微动磨蚀行为的影响%The Effect of Applied Potential on the Fretting Corrosion-we ar Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎建中; 吴荫顺; 李久青; 张琳

    2001-01-01

    采用球-平面接触微动磨损试验机考 察了轧制固溶316L不锈钢在不同极化状态下的微动磨蚀行为.结果表明:在阳极极化状态下 ,随着极化电位的升高,腐蚀疲劳微断裂作用增强,促进了微动损伤过程的发展;在阴极保 护状态下,摩擦系数随微动过程的变化规律及微动损伤形貌与阳极极化态下的存在显著差异 ,在阴极极化态下,微动摩擦副之间的粘着导致较高的微动摩擦应力状态,但与阳极极化态 相比并未产生严重损伤.%The influence of applied potential on the frettin g corrosion-wear behavior of 316L stainless steel in saline solution has been i nvestigated with a test rig of ball-on-plane contact configuration. It has bee n found that under anodic polarization conditions, the friction coefficients and especially the steady-state fretting wear process is dependent on the anodic p olarization parameters. The higher the applied potential, the more severe the fr etting damage will be. This is because 316L stainless steel is of high chemical activity under anodic polarization, which promotes the fretting damage of the st eel. Contrary to the above, the fretting damage of 316L stainless steel is effec tively prevented by cathodic protection. This is because the adhesion between th e contact surfaces of the fretting pair can be abated by cathodic protection, th ough a relatively higher friction coefficient is recorded in this case.

  15. 银离子注入对316L不锈钢导电和耐腐蚀性能的影响%Effect of Silver Ion Implantation on Conductivity and Corrosion Resistance of 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友兴; 蔡殉; 冯凯; 沈耀

    2011-01-01

    Silver ions were implanted into the surface of the 316L austenitic stainless steel by a silver ion source machine. The conductivity and corrosion resistance of the steel surface were investigated. The results show that the surface contact resistance of stainles steel reduced by 81. 25% compared with that of the steel before implantation with the dose of 0. 5× 107 cm-2. A new passive film was formed on surface of the ion implanted steel in the bipolar plate simulated solutions, which retarded corrosion effectively. With the silver ion implantation dose of 2 × 107 cm-2, the stable corrosion current density reduced by 98. 56% and 98. 32% in the bipolar plate simulated cathode and anode environment, respectively.%采用银离子源对316L 奥氏体不锈钢表面进行银离子注入改性,并对其导电和耐腐蚀性能进行了研究.结果表明:注入剂量为0.5×10cm时不锈钢表面接触电阻值比注入前降低了81.25%;在双极板模拟环境中,银注入不锈钢后在表面形成了一层有效阻碍腐蚀的新钝化层,银注入剂量为2×10cm时,不锈钢在模拟双极板阴、阳极环境下的稳定腐蚀电流密度比注入前分别降低了98.56%和98.32%.

  16. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  17. EFFECTS OF Al ELEMENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HOT-ROLLED 316L STAINLESS STEEL%Al元素对热轧316L不锈钢显微组织和力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喇培清; 孟倩; 姚亮; 周毛熊; 魏玉鹏

    2013-01-01

    利用光学显微镜(OM)、电子探针(EPMA)及X射线衍射(XRD),研究了不同Al含量316L不锈钢热轧态显微组织,测试了其力学性能和抗腐蚀性能.结果表明:Al含量小于2%时,基体为γ相,Al含量为4%时,基体转变为α+γ双相组织,Al元素分别以固溶和Al4C3沉淀相的形式存在.合金的抗拉强度、屈服强度随着Al含量的增加,先降低后升高,塑性略有下降.利用SEM分析合金的断口形貌表明,其断裂形式均为延性断裂.含2%Al的316L不锈钢具有最低的均匀腐蚀速率和晶间腐蚀速率,基体中Al2,3钝化膜的形成及Al4C3析出减少了贫Cr区的出现是导致材料耐蚀性提高的主要因素.%316L stainless steel is applied to high-temperature environment because of an attractive combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in various aggressive environment.However,the corrosion resistance of 316L was reduced in a particular environment such as water vapor,aggressive sulfur gas which was attributed to the Cr2O3 protective scales formed in 316L.The Cr2O3 scales are compromised by water vapor due to the formation of volatile Cr oxy-hydroxide species.The Al2O3 is more thermodynamically stable in these enviroment than Cr2O3.In this work,the effects of Al element on the microstructure,mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of hot-rolled 316L were investigated.Microstructure evolution was observed by OM,EPMA and XRD.Mechanical properties were measured by tensile tests.The resistances to intergranular and uniform corrosion of hot rolled 316L with different Al content were investigated by means of soaking method at 65%HNO3 and 5%H2SO4,respectively.The results show that microstructure has changed from single γ to α+γ double phase.With the increase of Al content in 316L,the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased but the ductility decreased.The fracture morphology of tensile was observed by SEM.Which indicated that the fracture

  18. Modelling of microstructural creep damage in welded joints of 316L stainless steel; Modelisation de l'endommagement a haute temperature dans le metal d'apport des joints soudes d'acier inoxydable austenitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouche, G

    2000-07-01

    Welded joints of 316L stainless steel under service conditions at elevated temperature are known to be preferential sites of creep damage, as compared to the base material. This damage results in the formation of cavities and the development of creep cracks which can lead to a premature failure of welded components. The complex two-phase microstructure of 316L welds was simulated by manually filling a mould with longitudinal deposited weld beads. The moulded material was then aged during 2000 hours at 600 deg. C. High resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy was largely used to examine the microstructure of the simulated material before and after ageing. Smooth and notched creep specimens were cut from the mould and tested at 600 deg. C under various stress levels. A comparison of the lifetime versus nominal stress curves for the base and welded materials shows a greater dependence of the welded material to creep phenomena. Observation and EBSD analysis show that damage is preferentially located along the austenite grain boundaries. The stress and strain fields in the notched specimens were calculated by finite element method. A correlation of this field to the observed damage was made in order to propose a predictive law relating the creep damage to the mechanical conditions applied locally. Further mechanical tests and simulation on CT specimens and mode II tubular specimens allowed validating the model under various multiaxial loading conditions. (author)

  19. Microstructural origins of radiation-induced changes in mechanical properties of 316 L and 304 L austenitic stainless steels irradiated with mixed spectra of high-energy protons and spallation neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencer, B. H.; Bond, G. M.; Hamilton, M. L.; Garner, F. A.; Maloy, S. A.; Sommer, W. F.

    2001-07-01

    A number of candidate alloys were exposed to a particle flux and spectrum at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) that closely match the mixed high-energy proton/neutron spectra expected in accelerator production of tritium (APT) window and blanket applications. Austenitic stainless steels 316 L and 304 L are two of these candidate alloys possessing attractive strength and corrosion resistance for APT applications. This paper describes the dose dependence of the irradiation-induced microstructural evolution of SS 316 L and 304 L in the temperature range 30-60°C and consequent changes in mechanical properties. It was observed that the microstructural evolution during irradiation was essentially identical in the two alloys, a behavior mirrored in their changes in mechanical properties. With one expection, it was possible to correlate all changes in mechanical properties with visible microstructural features. A late-term second abrupt decrease in uniform elongation was not associated with visible microstructure, but is postulated to be a consequence of large levels of retained hydrogen measured in the specimens. In spite of large amounts of both helium and hydrogen retained, approaching 1 at.% at the highest exposures, no visible cavities were formed, indicating that the gas atoms were either in solution or in subresolvable clusters.

  20. Constitutive modelling and identification of parameters of the plastic strain-induced martensitic transformation in 316L stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Sgobba, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The present paper is focused on constitutive modelling and identification of parameters of the relevant model of plastic strain- induced martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steels at low temperatures. The model used to describe the FCCrightward arrow BCC phase transformation in austenitic stainless steels is based on the assumption of linearization of the most intensive part of the transformation curve. The kinetics of phase transformation is described by three parameters: transformation threshold (p/sub xi/), slope (A) and saturation level (xi/sub L/). It is assumed that the phase transformation is driven by the accumulated plastic strain p. In addition, the intensity of plastic deformation is strongly coupled to the phase transformation via the description of mixed kinematic /isotropic linear plastic hardening based on the Mori-Tanaka homogenization. The theory of small strains is applied. Small strain fields, corresponding to phase transformation, are decomposed into the volumic and the shea...

  1. A comparison of residual stresses in multi pass narrow gap laser welds and gas-tungsten arc welds in AISI 316L stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesalamy, Ahmed; Francis, John Anthony; LI, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Thick-section austenitic stainless steels have widespread industrial applications, especially in nuclear power plants. The joining methods used in the nuclear industry are primarily based on arc welding processes. However, it has recently been shown that narrow gap laser welding (NGLW) can weld ma- terials with thicknesses that are well beyond the capabilities of single pass autogenous laser welding. The heat input for NGLW is much lower than for arc welding, as are the expected levels of res...

  2. Estudio in vitro de la citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de los productos liberados del acero inoxidable 316L con recubrimientos cerámicos bioactivos Cytotoxic and genotoxic study of in Vitro released products of stainless Steel 316l with bioactive ceramic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Márquez Fernández

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El acero inoxidable AISI 316L es el biomaterial mas utilizado para la fabricación de implantes temporales, pero presenta limitaciones para implantes permanentes debido a la liberación de iones metálicos hacia los tejidos circundantes, produciendo especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO y daño en ADN, factores que aumentan el riesgo de aparición de tumores locales y fallas mecánicas del implante. Una estrategia utilizada para disminuir la liberación de iones es la modificación superficial de los implantes metálicos por medio de recubrimientos inorgánicos, cerámicos o vítreos, aplicados por el método sol-gel, el cual presenta una serie de ventajas comparativas con otras técnicas de deposición, como buena adherencia, aplicación sencilla, mínimos problemas de secado, bajas temperaturas de densificación y posibilidad de agregar partículas y/o grupos orgánicos que mejoran la adherencia celular al implante aumentando su biocompatibilidad. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los efectos citotóxico por medio de la técnica MTT, y genotóxico por electroforesis en gel de células individuales (Ensayo Cometa, sobre células de la línea celular CHO, de los productos liberados en medio MEM por el acero inoxidable 316L sin recubrir, recubierto con una monocapa de vidrio de sílice (MC, o con doble capa que contiene partículas bioactivas de hidroxiapatita (HA, vidrio (V o vitrocerámico (VC, después de un periodo de 30 días. Los resultados muestran que a los 30 días de envejecimiento en medio MEM no se encuentra ningún efecto citotóxico, pero se encontró efecto genotóxico en las probetas de A y MC que no representa un peligro inminente a sistemas celulares. The stainless steel AISI 316L is the must used biomaterial for the making of temporal prosthesis, but it presents severe limitations for permanent implants due to the generation and migration of metallic ions to the surrounding peripheral tissues, which produces oxygen reactive

  3. Rheological Properties of Mixtures of 316L Stainless Stell Powders With Polyproplylen Based Binders

    OpenAIRE

    KARATAŞ, Çetin

    1998-01-01

    The flowabilities of feedstocks for powder injection molding (PIM), of 316L stainless steel powders (mean diameters 5.84, 30.42, 40.35, 67.42 mm) with thermoplastic binders (60% paraffin, 35% polypropylene, 5% stearic acid) were investigated. For this purpose, a capillary rheometer was designed and constructed. The rheometer was heated in 30 minutes to 300 °C with an accuracy of \\pm 1 °C. Its load range was 63-55.000 grams. The best flow measurements were made at 175 °C for all feed...

  4. A three dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics modelling of the early cycles of fatigue in an austenitic stainless steel 316L: dislocation microstructure and damage analysis; Modelisation physique des stades precurseurs de l'endommagement en fatigue dans l'acier inoxydable austenitique 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depres, Ch

    2005-07-01

    A numerical code modelling the collective behaviour of dislocations at a mesoscopic scale (Discrete Dislocation Dynamics code) is used to analyse the cyclic plasticity that occurs in surface grains of an AISI 316L stainless steel, in order to understand the plastic mechanism involved in crack initiation in fatigue. Firstly, the analyses of both the formation and the evolution of the dislocation microstructures show the crucial role of cross-slip played in the strain localization in the form of slip bands. As the cycling proceeds, the slip bands exhibit well-organized dislocation arrangements that substitute to dislocation tangles, involving specific interaction mechanisms between primary and deviate systems. Secondly, both the surface displacements generated by plastic slip and the distortion energy induced by the dislocation microstructure have been analysed. We find that an irreversible surface relief in the form of extrusion/intrusion can be induced by cyclic slip of dislocations. The number of cycles for the crack initiation follows a Manson-Coffin type law. The analyses of the concentration of the distortion energy and its repartition in the slip bands show that beneficial energetic zones may be present at the very beginning of the cycling, and that mode-II crack propagation in the surface grains results from a succession of micro-crack initiations along primary slip plane, which is facilitated by various effects (stress concentration due to surface relief, environment effects...). Finally, a dislocation-based model for cyclic plasticity is proposed from Discrete Dislocation Dynamics results. (author)

  5. 粉末注射成形制备Si_3N_4颗粒增强316L不锈钢%Si_3N_4 particle-reinforced 316L stainless steel prepared by powder injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田常娟; 何新波; 梅敏; 曲选辉

    2011-01-01

    Si3N4 particle-reinforced 316L stainless steel composites were prepared by powder injection molding(PIM) using water-soluble binders.It is shown that a water-soluble binder mainly consisting of polyoxymethylene(PEG),polyvinyl butyral(PVB) and stearic acid(SA) exhibits a better water-soluble degreasing performance.After degreasing injection parts in water for 6 h,the total binder removal rate is 55% and the PEG removal rate is 78.6%.The sintered composites have a uniform microstructure and excellent properties with a relative density of 95.2%,a hardness of HRB 79.8 and a tensile strength of 620 MPa.And the hardness and tensile strength are 5% and 20.4% higher than the Si3N4 particle-reinforced 316L stainless steel produced by PIM with a paraffin wax-based binder,respectively.%以多组元水溶性黏结剂为黏结剂,采用粉末注射成形工艺成功制备出了Si3N4颗粒增强316L不锈钢复合材料.研究表明:以聚乙二醇(PEG)、聚乙烯醇缩丁醛(PVB)和硬脂酸(SA)为主要成分的水溶性黏结剂表现出较好的水溶脱脂性能,注射坯在蒸馏水中脱脂6 h后,黏结剂总脱除率约为55%,其中PEG的脱除率约为78.6%;复合材料经烧结后组织均匀致密,性能良好,其致密度、硬度和拉伸强度分别为97.5%、HRB 81.7和620 MPa,其硬度和拉伸强度分别比采用石蜡基黏结剂制备的PIM--Si3N4增强316L不锈钢复合材料提高5%和20.4%.

  6. On the origin of the tensile flow stress in the stainless steel AISI 316L at 300 K: Back stress and effective stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feaugas, X.

    1999-10-08

    The tensile behavior of a polycrystal austenitic stainless steel at 0.2T{sub m} is discussed in terms of back and effective stresses with the help of qualitative and quantitative TEM observations. Particular attention is given to the transition between stages I and II which occurs at a plastic strain equal to 1.5%. The effective stress evolution can be interpreted as a competition process between the increase of mobile dislocation density and dislocation interactions and an annihilation process. The main purpose of this work is to provide a basis for separating the two different contributions of the back stress, namely the intragranular back stress X{sub intra} arising from the heterogeneous dislocation distribution inside the grains and the intergranular back stress component X{sub inter} resulting from plastic strain incompatibilities between grains. Moreover, it is shown that the latter contribution is dominant at small strains (stage I), whereas the former one is more important subsequently (stages II and III), when cross-slip and multiple slip occur.

  7. A comparison of residual stresses in multi pass narrow gap laser welds and gas-tungsten arc welds in AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick-section austenitic stainless steels have widespread industrial applications, especially in nuclear power plants. The joining methods used in the nuclear industry are primarily based on arc welding processes. However, it has recently been shown that narrow gap laser welding (NGLW) can weld materials with thicknesses that are well beyond the capabilities of single pass autogenous laser welding. The heat input for NGLW is much lower than for arc welding, as are the expected levels of residual stress and distortion. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of the through-thickness 2D residual stresses distributions, distortions, and plastic strain characteristics, for the NGLW process using material thicknesses up to 20 mm. The results are compared with those obtained with gas-tungsten arc (GTA) welding. While further work is required on thicker test pieces, preliminary results suggest that the longitudinal tensile residual stresses in NGLW joints are 30–40% lower than those for GTA welds. -- Highlights: • The magnitude of the residual stresses is 30–40% lower in the Narrow Gap Laser Welds NGLW in comparison to those for GTA welding. • NGLW technique resulted in a very narrow tensile stress region. • The welding strategy has a significant influence on the induced residual stress for the NGLW technique. • The distortion angle of GTA welds is approximately 3 times higher than for NGLW. • The accumulation of plastic strain due to thermo-mechanical cycling in GTA welding is higher than for NGLW

  8. Characterization of Plasma Nitrocarburized Layers Produced on AISI 316L Stainless Steel%AISI 316L不锈钢等离子氮碳共渗层的表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. C. Casteletti; F. A. P. Fernandes; A. Lombardi-Neto; C. A. Picon; G. Tremiliosi-Filho; G. E. Totten

    2009-01-01

    Hardness and consequently wear resistance of austenitic stainless steel can be highly increased, without loosing corrosion resistance by producing plasma nitrocarburizing surface layers. In this work, a AISI 316L stainless steel plasma nitrocarburized at 450℃, and the obtained layers were characterized by optical microscopy, micro-hardness and micro-wear tests. It was verified that the layer is composed by chromium nitrides precipitates and essentially expanded austenite nitrogen rich and with hardness around 850 HV. The total average thickness of the layer was about 45 μm, presenting good uniformity. Its wear resistance was much higher than that of the sub-strate.%奥氏体不锈钢通过等离子氮碳共渗可显著提高其表面硬度,从而提高耐磨性而又不损害其抗腐蚀性能.本文采用光学显微镜、显微硬度和微磨损试验对经于450℃等离子氮碳共渗的AISI 316L不锈钢和所获得的渗层进行了表征.结果证明,等离子氮碳共渗层由氮化铬析出相和富氮奥氏体基体组成,其硬度约850 HV;渗层总深度平均约为45 μm,且很均匀;渗层的耐磨性大大高于基体.

  9. Effect of prior cold work on the degree of sensitisation of welded joints of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel studied by using an electrochemical minicell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tiedra, Pilar [Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento CMeIM/EGI/ICGF/IM/IPF, Universidad de Valladolid, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Paseo del Cauce 59, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Martin, Oscar, E-mail: oml@eis.uva.es [Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento CMeIM/EGI/ICGF/IM/IPF, Universidad de Valladolid, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Paseo del Cauce 59, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Garcia, Cristina; Martin, Fernando; Lopez, Manuel [Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento CMeIM/EGI/ICGF/IM/IPF, Universidad de Valladolid, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Paseo del Cauce 59, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double loop shows greater sensitivity to interdendritic corrosion than single loop. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion line sensitisation is lower than that of weld metal for all prior cold works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat affected zone sensitisation is maximum at a prior cold work of 10%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat affected zone sensitisation Much-Less-Than base material sensitisation for a prior cold work of 20%. - Abstract: This work aims to assess the effect of prior cold work on the degree of sensitisation of each of the four welding zones of welded joints of AISI 316L subjected to post-welding sensitisation. Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests are performed on each of the four zones by using a small-scale electrochemical cell (minicell). The results show that the degree of sensitisation of heat affected zone, which achieves its maximum at a prior cold work level of 10%, is significantly lower than that of base material for a prior cold work of 20%.

  10. Behavior of AISI 316L Steel Subjected to Uniaxial State of Stress at Elevated Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josip Brnic; Jitai Niu; Marko Canadija; Goran Turkalj; Domagoj Lanc

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on an AISI 316L stainless steel regarding mechanical properties and short uniaxial creep tests at elevated temperatures. The short time creep tests were carried out under different but constant stresses. The obtained data of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, creep curves and effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical properties were presented. For a selected rheological model,material parameters were obtained. As a justification, such rheological model is implemented in the finite element procedure for an uniaxially stressed specimen in selected environmental conditions.

  11. 316L不锈钢钨极氩弧焊焊接接头耐点蚀试验%Pitting Resistance Corrosion Test of 316L Stainless Steel TIG Welding Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒欣欣; 徐连勇; 韩永典; 马丽; 张剑利

    2011-01-01

    According to the welding characteristics of 316L stainless steel, a TIG welding technology of non-filling argon in the back has been developed. The microstructure, pitting corrosion tests and electrochemical tests were conducted on the 316L welding joints. The results revealed that the microstructure of HAZ was coarse austenite near base metal side and ferrite distributed in the austenite matrix near the weld metal side, and the microstructure in root weld was ferrite distributed in the austenite matrix. After 72 h pitting corrosion test, the base metal in the upper surface was serious corroded. While for the case of root weld, the corrosion resistance was commensurate to that of the adjacent base metal. The electrochemical tests results were in conformity with the pitting corrosion test ones. Hence, the TIG welding technology of non-filling argon in the back was successful.%根据316L不锈钢的特点,开发了一种钨极氩孤焊背部免充气保护焊接工艺.对焊接接头进行了显微组织分析、点蚀试验和各区的电极电位分析.结果表明:316L焊接接头HAZ的显微组织靠母材一侧为粗大的奥氏体晶粒,靠焊缝一侧为奥氏体基体上分布着铁素体;根部焊缝的显微组织为奥氏体基体上分布着铁素体.经过72 h的点蚀试验后,上表面的焊接接头中母材腐蚀比较严重.对根部焊缝而言,钨极氩弧焊背部免充气保护焊接工艺得到的根部焊缝的耐腐蚀性与相邻的根部母材相当.电极电位试验结果与点蚀试验结果相一致,钨极氩弧焊背部免充气保护焊接工艺是成功的.

  12. Neutron diffraction measurement and finite element analysis of stress distribution in welded 316L stainless pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress distribution in welded AISI 316 L stainless steel pipes (diameter 4'' and 10'') was measured using residual stress instrument installed at 30MWt HANARO reactor of KAERI. The measurements were made along the axial direction transverse to the weld direction from the weld center to the pipe edge. Measurement tracks were repeated at the depth of 1.5mm from the surfaces of the pipes and at the mid-thickness of the pipes wall. As a whole the stress distribution in diameter 4'' and diameter 10'' pipes showed the similar tendency. The stress analysis of the welded pipe was carried out using the finite element method. Reasonable agreement in stress distribution with experimental data was observed. (orig.)

  13. Distribution of soluble and precipitated iron and chromium products generated by anodic dissolution of 316L stainless steel and alloy C-22: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estill, J; Farmer, J; Gordon, S; King, K; Logotetta, L; Silberman, D

    1999-08-11

    At near neutral pH and at applied potentials above the threshold potential for localized breakdown of the passive film, virtually all of the dissolved chromium appeared to be in the hexavalent oxidation state (Cr(VI)). In acidic environments, such as crevice solutions formed during the crevice corrosion of 316L and C-22 samples in 4 M NaCl, virtually all of the dissolved chromium appeared to be in the trivalent oxidation state (Cr(III)). These general observations appear to be consistent with the Pourbaix diagram for chromium (Pourbaix 1974), pp. 307-321. At high pH and high anodic polarization (pH {approximately} 8 and 800 mV vs. SHE), the predominate species is believed to be the soluble chromate anion (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}). At the same pH, but lower polarization (pH {approximately} 8 and 0 mV vs. SHE), the predominate species are believed to be precipitates such as trivalent Cr(OH){sub 3} {center_dot} n(H{sub 2}O) and hexavalent Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In acidified environments such as those found in crevices (pH < 3), soluble Cr{sup 3+} is expected to form over a wide range of potential extending from 400 mV vs. SHE to approximately 1200 mV vs. SHE. Again, this is consistent with the observations from the creviced samples. In earlier studies by the principal investigator, it has been found that low-level chromium contamination in ground water is usually in the hexavalent oxidation state (Farmer et al. 1996). In general, dissolved iron measured during the crevice experiments appears to be Fe(II) in acidic media and Fe(III) in near-neutral and alkaline solutions (table 3). In the case of cyclic polarization measurements, the dissolved iron measured at the end of some cyclic polarization measurements with C-22 appeared to be in the Fe(III) state. This is probably due to the high electrochemical potential at which these species were generated during the potential scan. Note that the reversal potential was approximately 1200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl during these scans. These

  14. Decomposition of Expanded Austenite in AISI 316 L Stainless Steel Nitrided at 450 ℃%450℃渗氮AISI 316 L不锈钢中膨胀奥氏体的分解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.A.P.Fernandes; L.C.Casteletti; G.E.Totten; J.Gallego

    2014-01-01

    Expanded austenite (γN ),which can be produced during plasma nitriding of austenitic stainless steels, provides high levels of strength,toughness and corrosion resistance by comparison with traditional nitride layers. However,expanded austenite properties can be lost due to decomposition caused its thermodynamic metastability. In the present work,austenitic stainless AISI 316L steel was plasma nitrided at 450 ℃ for 5 h at 500 Pa and microstructurally characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD ),and optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)which confirmed the presence of fcc expanded austenite with a lattice parameter up to 9.5% larger than untreated austenite.TEM analyses of thin foils showed that fine nitrides were formed in the N layer and some areas were observed with a singular lamellar morphology very similar to the pearlite colonies found in carbon steels. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED)analysis suggests that these areas are composed of bcc ferrite and cubic chromium nitrides produced after a localised decomposition of the expanded austenite layer.Amorphous expanded austenite was observed in some areas of the investigated samples.The occurrence of N decomposition was associated with microsegregation of ferrite stabilisers (Cr,Mo)and depletion of an austenite stabiliser (Ni)in localised regions of the expanded austenite layer.%奥氏体不锈钢等离子渗氮时会形成膨胀奥氏体(γN),其强度、韧性和耐蚀性均高于传统的氮化物层。然而,膨胀奥氏体在热力学上是亚稳的,其性能会因其发生分解而降低。本文对AISI 316L 不锈钢进行了等离子渗氮,工艺为450℃×5 h,压力500 Pa。对渗氮后试样采用XRD、OM和TEM等进行了显微组织表征。试验结果证明了面心立方膨胀奥氏体的存在,其晶格常数比未经渗氮奥氏体增加多达9.5%。薄片试样的TE M分析表明,N层中有细小的氮化物形成,并且发现一些区域呈奇特的

  15. Effect of the aging treatment in the fractures mechanics of welded joints of steel 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The austenitic stainless steel 316L is widely used in nuclear industry because of its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. These properties must be evaluated in order to prevent failure and extend the life of equipment. The microstructure in the weld fusion zone consists on an austenite matrix with 5-12% of delta ferrite met stable at room temperature. However the pressurized water reactors operate at temperatures in the range 290-325 deg C, thus welds may be susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement after long service life. According to the literature, this occurs due to the spinodal decomposition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel welds by hardness and tensile tests before and after heat treatment. In this regard, two steel plates were welded and part of the material was heat treated at 335 deg C for 1000 hours. The tests after heat treatment showed an increase of only 4% in ultimate tensile strength and an increase of 28% in hardness. No changes were observed in the material microstructure, however according to literature changes can be identified by transmission electron microscopy. The curves of impact energy vs. temperature showed little change but, it was not able to observe a ductile-brittle transition and images of microstructure from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) did not show fragile behavior. (author)

  16. Improvement of the SCC resistance of FCC alloys: influence of pre-fatigue on the SCC resistance of the austenitic stainless steel-316L in a MgCl2 boiling solution at 117 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of pre-fatigue of FCC materials on their mechanical and electrochemical response to better understand and delay the SCC damage. The material/environment couple tested is the 316L polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel in boiling MgCl2 at 30% mass. Samples are pre-strained in low cycle fatigue under plastic strain control, with a p/2 value of 0.4%, for various number of cycles (25%, 75% and at the number of cycles to reach saturation during pre-fatigue). It was found that only pre-fatigue at saturation improves the SCC resistance of the material, both on SSRT and constant load tests. A delayed crack initiation up to 10% of strain. which increases strain to failure by half. mostly accounts for this beneficial effect, during SSRT tests. Furthermore, other pre-straining only resulted in loss of strain to fracture and no delay in crack initiation. We related the crack initiation delay to the surface strain state due to pre-fatigue. It provides fine parallel slip bands. homogeneously located at the surface of the samples. This surface state induces an increasing anodic surface-cathodic surface ratio which lowers the kinetics of localised corrosion. thus that of crack initiation. We also show some experiments implying that pre-fatigue at saturation decreases the SCC crack growth velocity which can be understood through the CEP (Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity) Model. We also show that this beneficial effect is probably available on other fcc material/environment couples, such as OFHC Cu/ 1 M NaNO2 at pH 9. (author)

  17. 工艺参数对激光熔覆成形316L不锈钢形状的影响规律%Influences of Processing Parameters on Geometric Characterizations of Laser Cladding Forming 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小伟; 习俊通; J. L. Lebrun; Elcheikh Hussam; Courant Bruno

    2011-01-01

    激光熔覆技术经多年发展已取得许多成功的工业应用,但如何控制工艺以达到最佳成形效果,需要通过研究工艺参数与成形精度之间的关系才能找到最终的解决方案.借助激光熔覆快速成形法制备316L不锈钢实验试样,研究工艺参数组合对成形试样形状的影响规律.通过定义单涂覆层截面形状特征参数,采用线性相关法处理截面形状数据,建立工艺参数组合与截面形状特征参数的线性关系.此外,激光熔覆成形件易出现两类典型缺陷,即晶界间微裂纹和层间熔合不良缺陷.%After years of development of laser cladding forming technology, it has made many successful industrial applications. However, how to control the process to achieve the best forming results? We need study the relationship between the processing parameters and the forming accuracy to find the ultimate best solution. We prepare the 316L stainless steel specimens using the laser cladding forming to investigate the influences of processing parameters on geometric characterizations. Five parameters are defined to describe the geometric characterization of single layer cross section, and then the measurement data is processed with the linear regression method to establish relations between processing parameters and defined parameters. In addition, the laser cladding parts prone to two types of typical defects: micro-cracks between grain boundaries and poor fusion defects between two layers.

  18. High -temperature Creep Properties of Diffusion Bonding Joints of 316L Stainless Steel%316L不锈钢扩散焊接头高温蠕变性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安子良; 轩福贞; 涂善东

    2011-01-01

    以非标准持久试样进行了316L不锈钢扩散焊接头蠕变与持久试验.采用θ函数法描述和预测了316L不锈钢扩散焊接头蠕变曲线,并由θ函数法计算了最小蠕变应变速率和接头在6MPa,550℃条件下蠕变应变达到0.2%时的使用寿命,并将蠕变应变0.2%作为以316L不锈钢为母材的扩散焊构件高温结构设计标准.由持久试验结果可知,θ函数法与Larson - Miller法外推的316L不锈钢直接扩散焊接头蠕变断裂时间较为一致.%The non - standard specimen is used in the creep and stress rupture test of the 316L stainless steel direct diffusion bonding joint. The creep curve is interpreted in terms of the 6 project concept method , the minimum creep strain rate, creep curve and remain life at 6 Mpa are calculated by using 0 project method,the creep strain of 0.2% is select as the design criterion for the diffusion bonding component at high temperature. As known form the stress rupture experimental results, the remaining life extrapolated by Larsen - Miller equation is relatively consistent with that calculated by the 8 project concept method.

  19. Characterization of 316L steel welded joints irradiated between 15 to 41 dpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution annealed austenitic stainless steel Type 316L has been selected for use in the Next European Torus First Wall. Specimens taken from the European Reference Type 316L steel and welds, including electron beam, manual metal arc and weld deposits, have been irradiated at temperatures between 4120C to 5450C to neutron doses ranging from 15 through 41 dpa. Post irradiation experiments conducted have included density and dimensional measurements, tensile, fracture mechanics, fatigue crack growth rate, low cycle fatigue, and creep-fatigue tests. Irradiated specimens undergo dimensional changes with a maximum swelling (about 5%) occurring in specimens irradiated to 41 dpa at about 4500C. Yield stress and ultimate tensile strength have been found to sharply increase, reaching levels as high as 250% in the temperature range of 400-4500C. A significant decrease has been observed in the tensile elongation with the uniform elongation of some welded specimens attaining values as low as 1%. Fracture toughness of welded materials have also been found to sharply decrease particularly in weld deposits. Fatigue crack growth rate and continuous fatigue resistance of weldments have been found to be particularly affected by irradiation. It is concluded that for NET conditions, where the irradiation doses are significantly lower than the doses used in the present study (<15 dpa) and consequently the mechanical property changes will be less severe, swelling data in the range of 5 to 15 dpa are mostly needed

  20. 输油管道用316L和2205不锈钢低温蠕变模型的选择与验证%Low Temperature Creep Model Selection and Verification of316L and 2205 Stainless Steels for Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李京波; 金学军

    2016-01-01

    分别进行了80℃下316L不锈钢和20℃下2205不锈钢的蠕变试验,对试验数据拟合后分别得到了两种不锈钢的蠕变幂模型和对数模型,并推导得到了应力松驰模型;利用蠕变和应力松驰模型分别模拟了两种不锈钢的拉伸蠕变曲线和应力松驰曲线,并与试验曲线进行了对比分析.结果表明:两种模型都能很好地描述316L和2205不锈钢的低温蠕变行为,但幂模型在蠕变和松弛模拟中都表现得更好.%The creep tests of 316L stainless steel at 80 ℃ and of 2205 stainless steel at 20 ℃ were conducted respectively.The power-law creep model and logarithmic creep model of the two stainless steels were obtained after the tested data fitting and the stress relaxation models were deduced.The tensile creep curves and stress relaxation curves of the two stainless steels were simulated by the creep and stress relaxation models respectively.The simulated results were compared and analysed with the experimental curves.The results show that both models can describe the low temperature creep behaviour of the 316L and 2205 stainless steels well.The power-law model performed better in creep fitting and relaxation simulation.

  1. Processing and properties of sinters prepared from 316L steel nanopowders

    OpenAIRE

    J. Paduch; R. Molenda; D. Kolesnikow; H. Krztoń

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The results of the research work on processing the sinters obtained from nanocrystalline powders of 316L steel are presented.Design/methodology/approach: The 316L steel powder has been mechanically alloyed from a set of elementary powders with use of Fritsch Vario-Planetary Mill Pulverisette 4. The time of 12 hours of milling has been needed for producing the powder. The X-ray diffraction has been used for controlling of the mechanical alloying process. The Rietveld method has been u...

  2. Short-term low-temperature glow discharge nitriding of 316L austenitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Frączek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The AISI 316L austenitic steel after glow discharge nitriding at temperature of T = 673 K and duration of τ=14,4 ks, for two different variants of specimen arrangement in the glow-discharge chamber was investigated. In order to assess the effectiveness of nitriding process, the surface layers profile analysis examination, surface hardness and hardness profile examination, the analysis of surface layer structures and corrosion resistance tests were performed. It has been found that application of a booster screen effects in a nitrogen diffusion depth increment into the 316L austenitic steel surface, what results in the surface layer thickness escalation.

  3. Influence of enzymatic reactions on the electrochemical behavior of EN X2CrNiMo17-11-2 (AISI 316L) stainless steel in bio-corrosion: role of interfacial processes on the modification of the passive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outstanding corrosion behavior of stainless steels (SS) results from the presence of thin oxide layer (some nanometers). In non sterile aqueous media, stainless steels may exhibit a non stable behavior resulting from interactions between microbial species and passive film. In fact, microorganisms can be deeply involved in the corrosion processes usually reported as Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC). They can induce the initiation or the acceleration of this phenomenon and they do so when organized in bio-films. From the electrochemical point of view, stainless steels showed an increase of the free corrosion potential (Ecorr) attributed to the bio-film settlement. The Eco' ennoblement was broadly reported in seawater and seems to be confirmed in fresh water according to recent findings. A considerable progress in the comprehension of MIC processes was related to the role of extracellular species, essentially enzymes. Many enzymatic reactions occurring in bio-films consist on using oxygen as electron acceptor to generate hydrogen peroxide and related species. The aim of this work is to understand the mechanisms involved in the electrochemical behavior of stainless steel according to an enzymatic approach in medium simulating fresh water. To this end, glucose oxidase was chosen to globalize aerobic activities of bio-films. Electrochemical measurements in situ and surface analysis allow the comprehension of the role and the nature of interfacial processes. Surface characterization was performed with the help of a new quantitative utilization of XPS analysis and AFM. Results show a significant evolution in term of morphology (surface organization), (ii) chemical composition (passive layer, adsorbed organic species) and (iii) chemical reaction (oxidation, dissolution, effect of enzyme). Finally, a new enzymatic system is proposed to mimic specific physicochemical conditions at the SS / bio-film interface, in particular enzymatic generation of oxidant species in

  4. Estrutura e propriedades do aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 316L Grau ASTM F138 nitretado sob plasma à baixa temperatura Structure and properties of an austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L grade ASTM F138 after low temperature plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Paulo Tschiptschin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os aços inoxidáveis austeníticos possuem restrições para a nitretação nas temperaturas convencionais, próximas de 550ºC, devido à precipitação intensa de nitretos de cromo na zona de difusão. Essa precipitação eleva a dureza, mas deteriora as propriedades de corrosão. O uso do processo de nitretação sob plasma permite introduzir nitrogênio em temperaturas inferiores a 450ºC, levando à formação de uma fina camada de austenita expandida pelo nitrogênio (gN. Essa fase possui uma estrutura cristalina mais bem representada pelo reticulado triclínico, com elevada concentração de nitrogênio em solução sólida supersaturada, a qual promove um estado de tensões residuais de compressão capaz de elevar a dureza do substrato de 4 GPa para valores próximos de 14 GPa. O Módulo de Elasticidade mantém-se próximo de 200 GPa após a nitretação.Austenitic stainless steels cannot be conventionally nitrided at temperatures near 550°C due to the intense precipitation of chromium nitrides in the diffusion zone. The precipitation of chromium nitrides increases the hardness but severely impairs corrosion resistance. Plasma nitriding allows introducing nitrogen in the steel at temperatures below 450°C, forming pre-dominantly expanded austenite (gN, with a crystalline structure best represented by a special triclinic lattice, with a very high nitrogen atomic concentration promoting high compressive residual stresses at the surface, increasing substrate hardness from 4 GPa up to 14 GPa on the nitrided case.

  5. 植酸在316L不锈钢表面的自组装及缓蚀性能研究%Research on Self-assembly Behavior and Corrosion Inhibition Performance of Phytic Acid on 316L Stainless Steel Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海人; 周洋; 屈钧娥; 王海鹏; 曹志勇

    2013-01-01

    以浸泡法在化学氧化处理前后的316L不锈钢表面制备了植酸自组装膜,通过动电位扫描、SEM观察及FT-IR测试,研究了组装液pH与组装时间对植酸自组装膜吸附行为及耐蚀性能的影响.结果表明:植酸被成功地组装到316L不锈钢表面,并使其耐腐蚀性能大大提高.相比而言,化学氧化处理有利于形成更致密、更耐腐蚀的自组装膜.不经化学氧化处理时,植酸组装的最佳pH为6.90,最佳时间为12 h;而经化学氧化处理时,植酸组装的最佳pH也为6.90,但最佳时间缩短为4h.%The phytic acid self-assembled film (SAM) was prepared on 316L stainless steel surface before and after chemical oxidation by immersion method.The effect of SAM solution pH and SAM time on the adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibition performance of the phytic acid SAM was investigated by potential dynamic scan,SEM (scanning electron microscope) observation and FT-IR (Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy) testing.The experimental results show that phytic acid has been successfully assembled to the surface of 316L stainless steel,which greatly improves the corrosion resistance of the metal.The chemical oxidation pretreatment is beneficial for the formation of a denser SAM with more notable corrosion resistant performance.For the samples without chemical oxidation treatment,the optimum pH for the assembly of phytic acid is 6.90 and the best assembly time is 12 h.And for those with chemical oxidation,the optimum pH is still 6.90 while the best assembly time reduces to 4 h.

  6. Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of Gas Metal Arc-Welded 316L (X2CrNiMo 17-13-2) Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, F.; Ahmad, A.; Farooq, A.; Haider, W.

    2016-10-01

    In the present research work, corrosion behavior of post-weld heat-treated (PWHT) AISI 316L (X2CrNiMo 17-13-2) specimens joined by gas metal arc welding is compared with as-welded samples by using potentiodynamic polarization technique. Welded samples were PWHT at 1323 K for 480 s and quenched. Mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and microstructures of as-welded and PWHT specimens were investigated. Microstructural studies have shown grain size refinement after PWHT. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength were found maximum for PWHT samples. Bend test have shown that PWHT imparted ductility in welded sample. Fractographic analysis has evidenced ductile behavior for samples. Potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out in a solution composed of 1 M H2SO4 and 1 N NaCl. Corrosion rate of weld region was 127.6 mpy, but after PWHT, it was decreased to 13.12 mpy.

  7. Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of Gas Metal Arc-Welded 316L (X2CrNiMo 17-13-2) Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, F.; Ahmad, A.; Farooq, A.; Haider, W.

    2016-08-01

    In the present research work, corrosion behavior of post-weld heat-treated (PWHT) AISI 316L (X2CrNiMo 17-13-2) specimens joined by gas metal arc welding is compared with as-welded samples by using potentiodynamic polarization technique. Welded samples were PWHT at 1323 K for 480 s and quenched. Mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and microstructures of as-welded and PWHT specimens were investigated. Microstructural studies have shown grain size refinement after PWHT. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength were found maximum for PWHT samples. Bend test have shown that PWHT imparted ductility in welded sample. Fractographic analysis has evidenced ductile behavior for samples. Potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out in a solution composed of 1 M H2SO4 and 1 N NaCl. Corrosion rate of weld region was 127.6 mpy, but after PWHT, it was decreased to 13.12 mpy.

  8. Effects of nitrogen and hydrogen in argon shielding gas on bead profile, delta-ferrite and nitrogen contents of the pulsed GTAW welds of AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general effects of 1, 2, 3 and 4 vol.-% nitrogen and 1, 5 and 10 vol.-% hydrogen in argon shielding gas on weld bead profile (depth/width ratio: D/W) and the δ-ferrite content of AISI 316L pulsed GTAW welds were investigated. The limits for imperfections for the quality levels of welds were based on ISO 5817 B. The plates with a thickness of 6 mm were welded at the flat position and the bead on plate. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the D/W ratio. Excessive hydrogen addition to argon shielding gas will result in incompletely filled groove and excessive penetration of weld. Increasing welding speed decreases the weld-metal volume and the D/W ratios. Nitrogen addition to argon shielding gas has no effect on the D/W ratio. The addition of a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to argon shielding gas on the D/W ratio does not show any interaction between them. An effect on the D/W ratio can be exclusively observed as a function of hydrogen content. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. Increasing either nitrogen content in shielding gas or welding speed decreases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. The nitrogen addition increases the weld metal nitrogen content, however, the hydrogen addition leads to a decrease of weld metal nitrogen content.

  9. Effects of nitrogen and hydrogen in argon shielding gas on bead profile, delta-ferrite and nitrogen contents of the pulsed GTAW welds of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyanit, Ekkarut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathaumthani (Thailand). Failure Analysis and Surface Technology Lab; Hartung, Fritz; Lothongkum, Gobboon [Chulalongkom University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering,; Phakpeetinan, Panyasak; Chianpairot, Amnuysak

    2016-08-01

    The general effects of 1, 2, 3 and 4 vol.-% nitrogen and 1, 5 and 10 vol.-% hydrogen in argon shielding gas on weld bead profile (depth/width ratio: D/W) and the δ-ferrite content of AISI 316L pulsed GTAW welds were investigated. The limits for imperfections for the quality levels of welds were based on ISO 5817 B. The plates with a thickness of 6 mm were welded at the flat position and the bead on plate. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the D/W ratio. Excessive hydrogen addition to argon shielding gas will result in incompletely filled groove and excessive penetration of weld. Increasing welding speed decreases the weld-metal volume and the D/W ratios. Nitrogen addition to argon shielding gas has no effect on the D/W ratio. The addition of a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to argon shielding gas on the D/W ratio does not show any interaction between them. An effect on the D/W ratio can be exclusively observed as a function of hydrogen content. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. Increasing either nitrogen content in shielding gas or welding speed decreases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. The nitrogen addition increases the weld metal nitrogen content, however, the hydrogen addition leads to a decrease of weld metal nitrogen content.

  10. L360QS/316L不锈钢复合钢管焊接工艺和性能研究%Welding Process and Performance Study on L360QS/316L Stainless Steel Clad Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付现桥; 徐敬; 卜明哲; 刘志田; 项祖义; 郭旭

    2014-01-01

    This paper described new welding process on the L360QS/316L clad pipe with size of Ø355.6mm ×(10+3) mm. Firstly, it adopted TIG welding to conduct overlaying on the pipe end, and then, using TIG welding process for butt welding with argon gas protection. The tensile strength, charpy impact test, hardness, intergranular corrosion test and SCC were carried out to study the properties of the circumferential weld. The results indicated that the welded joint performance of the circumferential weld is good; it is with resistance to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion. The overlay welding layer plays a good role in isolation function to ensure the weld quality.%介绍了准355.6 mm×(10+3) mm规格L360QS+316L不锈钢复合钢管的新型焊接工艺,即首先采用TIG焊在复合钢管管端进行堆焊预处理,然后再采用氩气保护TIG焊进行对焊操作。为评价环焊缝的性能,焊后对其焊接接头进行了拉伸试验、冲击试验、硬度测试、晶间腐蚀及应力腐蚀试验。试验结果表明,采用该工艺焊接的L360QS+316L不锈钢复合钢管环焊缝焊接接头性能良好,且具备耐晶间腐蚀和应力腐蚀性能;堆焊层起到了很好的隔离作用,保证了焊缝的质量。

  11. Processing and properties of sinters prepared from 316L steel nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paduch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The results of the research work on processing the sinters obtained from nanocrystalline powders of 316L steel are presented.Design/methodology/approach: The 316L steel powder has been mechanically alloyed from a set of elementary powders with use of Fritsch Vario-Planetary Mill Pulverisette 4. The time of 12 hours of milling has been needed for producing the powder. The X-ray diffraction has been used for controlling of the mechanical alloying process. The Rietveld method has been used to calculate the contents of the components of the powder. Cold and hot isostatic pressing have been applied to make the compacts. The pressure of 500 MPa and 900 MPa of cold pressing, and 150 MPa of hot pressing have been used. The green compacts have been pressed isostaticly using liquid aluminum in the temperature of 950°C (1223 K. The X-ray diffraction have been used to identify the phase components of the sinters. The structure of the sinters have been observed using scanning electron microscope. The hardness values have been obtained by Vicker’s test.Findings: The mechanically alloyed powder has consisted of about 94 wt.% of austenite, 5 wt.% of ferrite and not more than 1 wt.% of not alloyed molybdenum. Two kinds of sinters have been produced, one kind made of pure 316L powder, second one obtained with aluminum infiltration within the volume of the sinters. The observed porosity of the sinters has depended on the applied pressing conditions strongly, mainly on the value of cold isostatic pressure. The hardness of the first kind of sinters have achieved a value of 380 HV (98N, the hardness of the second kind - more than 400 HV (98N.Practical implications: The Al infiltrated sinter has been proposed as a material for a part of Diesel engine. As an example, a part of a fuel injection has been produced.Originality/value: The nanocrystalline 316L powder has been obtained using mechanical alloying process. The original method of hot isostatic

  12. Al2O3颗粒对丁腈橡胶/316L不锈钢配副摩擦磨损行为的影响%Influence of Al2O3 particles on the friction and wear behaviors of nitrile rubber against 316L stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-xue SHEN; Jin-peng ZHENG; Xiang-kai MENG; Xiao LI; Xu-dong PENG

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究弹性体/金属配副在硬质颗粒环境下的摩擦磨损行为,分析有无颗粒及颗粒尺寸大小对摩擦学特性的影响,为橡塑密封设计提供参考。创新点:基于橡胶O型圈常见失效机制,模拟橡胶密封圈在颗粒介入时的摩擦磨损行为,探讨硬质颗粒及其颗粒尺寸对橡胶/金属摩擦配副的影响。方法:1.采用球/平面接触方式,开展丁腈橡胶/金属(316L)配副在Al2O3颗粒环境下的摩擦磨损行为,通过考察摩擦系数时变曲线、摩擦副磨损形貌及其损伤机制等特性,揭示 Al2O3颗粒对丁腈橡胶/316L不锈钢配副摩擦磨损行为的影响。结论:1. Al2O3颗粒进入橡胶/金属摩擦配副明显降低摩擦系数、硬质颗粒的犁削作用,加剧金属偶件的磨损;2.大尺寸的Al2O3颗粒能嵌入橡胶基体并加速橡胶的磨损,对金属有微切屑作用;然而随着颗粒尺寸的减小,颗粒反而减缓橡胶的磨损;3.在有无颗粒和不同颗粒尺寸的情况下,橡胶和金属均表现出不同的损伤机制。%The friction and wear properties of nitrile rubber (NBR) against 316L stainless steel pairs were investigated by using a sphere-on-disc test device. The influence of Al2O3 particle sizes and the normal load on the tribological behaviors of the pairs were primarily evaluated. The damage behaviors of worn surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electric microscopy (SEM) and a surface profilometer. The results show that the friction coefficient decreased because of particles coming into contact pairs, while particles also play an important role in increasing the wear loss of stainless steel with many furrows on the steel ball surface due to the ploughing effect of hard particles. Large-sized particles could accelerate the wear of rubber, and the micro-cutting scratches of the stainless steel induced by the Al2O3 particles embedded in the rubber matrix. However, as the particle

  13. Adhesion of composite carbon/hydroxyapatite coatings on AISI 316L medical steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gawroński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are contains the results of studies concerning the problems associated with increased of hydroxyapatite (HAp adhesion, manufactured by using Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD method, to the austenitic steel (AISI 316L through the coating of carbon interlayer on it. Carbon coating was deposited by Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (RF PACVD method.Test results unequivocally showed that the intermediate carbon layer in a determined manner increase the adhesion of hydroxyapatite to the metallic substrate. Obtained results give rise to deal with issues of manufacturing composite bilayer – carbon film/HAp – on ready implants, casted from austenitic cast steel by lost-wax process method as well as in gypsum forms.

  14. Elaboración del plan HACCP para gestión de inocuidad en la línea de proceso de salchichas de una planta de productos cárnicos cárnicos1 Cytotoxic and genotoxic study of in vitro released productos of stainless steel 316L with bioactive ceramic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cortés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La enfermedad transmitida por alimentos (ETA es el síndrome
    originado por la ingestión de alimentos y/o agua con contaminación
    química, física o biológica que puede afectar la salud. La frecuencia de ETA es aproximadamente de mil millones de casos/año en el mundo y está entre las primeras causas de muerte en niños.


    Un alimento inocuo no debe presentar riesgos químicos, físicos
    o biológicos para el consumidor y no genera efectos adversos sobre
    su calidad de vida ni su salud. El Sistema de Análisis de Riesgos y
    Control en Puntos Críticos (HACCP con fundamentos científicos y
    carácter sistemático identifica peligros y medidas para controlarlos,
    para garantizar la inocuidad de los alimentos. El objetivo de este
    trabajo fue aplicar los principios HACCP y elaborar el plan HACCP para
    la línea de proceso de salchichas.

    The stainless steel AISI 316L is the must used biomaterial for the making of temporal prosthesis, but it presents severe limitations for permanent implants due to the generation and migration of metallic ions to the surrounding peripheral tissues, which produces oxygen reactive species (ERO and damages of the ADN, increasing the possibility of local tumors and mechanical failure of the implant. A strategy used to minimize the generation of ions is the superficial modification of the implants by means of inorganic coatings, ceramic or vitreous, applied by the sol-gel process; this method has a series of comparative advantages, compared to other deposition methods, as good adherence, easy application, minimum drying problems, low densification temperatures and the possibility of adding particles and/or organic groups that improve the adhesion of the cell to the implant, increasing the biocompatibility. In the present work, the citotoxic effects were valuated by means of the MTT technique, and the genotoxic ones by electrophoresis of individual cell gels (Cometa

  15. Influence of enzymatic reactions on the electrochemical behavior of EN X2CrNiMo17-11-2 (AISI 316L) stainless steel in bio-corrosion: role of interfacial processes on the modification of the passive layer; Influence des reactions enzymatiques sur le comportement electrochimique de l'acier inoxydable ENX2CrNiMo17-11-2 (AISI 316L) en biocorrosion: role des processus interfaciaux sur la modification du film passif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landoulsi, J

    2008-01-15

    The outstanding corrosion behavior of stainless steels (SS) results from the presence of thin oxide layer (some nanometers). In non sterile aqueous media, stainless steels may exhibit a non stable behavior resulting from interactions between microbial species and passive film. In fact, microorganisms can be deeply involved in the corrosion processes usually reported as Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC). They can induce the initiation or the acceleration of this phenomenon and they do so when organized in bio-films. From the electrochemical point of view, stainless steels showed an increase of the free corrosion potential (Ecorr) attributed to the bio-film settlement. The Eco' ennoblement was broadly reported in seawater and seems to be confirmed in fresh water according to recent findings. A considerable progress in the comprehension of MIC processes was related to the role of extracellular species, essentially enzymes. Many enzymatic reactions occurring in bio-films consist on using oxygen as electron acceptor to generate hydrogen peroxide and related species. The aim of this work is to understand the mechanisms involved in the electrochemical behavior of stainless steel according to an enzymatic approach in medium simulating fresh water. To this end, glucose oxidase was chosen to globalize aerobic activities of bio-films. Electrochemical measurements in situ and surface analysis allow the comprehension of the role and the nature of interfacial processes. Surface characterization was performed with the help of a new quantitative utilization of XPS analysis and AFM. Results show a significant evolution in term of morphology (surface organization), (ii) chemical composition (passive layer, adsorbed organic species) and (iii) chemical reaction (oxidation, dissolution, effect of enzyme). Finally, a new enzymatic system is proposed to mimic specific physicochemical conditions at the SS / bio-film interface, in particular enzymatic generation of oxidant species

  16. Creep fatigue interaction. Hold time effects on low cycle fatigue resistance of 316 L steel at 6000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of hold time effects on the low cycle fatigue properties of 316 L austenitic stainless steel at 6000C in air. Results obtained for different plastic strain levels indicate that a tension hold time at peak strain lead to a reduction in fatigue life. The importance of this effect depend on the length of hold period, and also on the strain amplitude. No saturation had been observed. Metallographic and microstructural analysis of failed specimens indicates mechanisms by which failure is produced. For continuous cycling the fracture occurs by the initiation and the propagation of a transgranular crack. Creep damage in the bulk of material is formed during periods of tensile stress relaxation; it causes a change in the failure mode which became intergranular. It is the interaction between this creep-damage and fatigue cracks which is partly responsable for the reduction in the fatigue life. Several approaches are used for evaluating creep-fatigue interaction damage and estimating the fatigue life. Among those proposed approaches, the linear damage rule and the strain range partitioning method are discussed

  17. Dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puli, Ramesh, E-mail: rameshpuli2000@gmail.com; Janaki Ram, G.D.

    2012-12-15

    Friction surfacing involves complex thermo-mechanical phenomena. In this study, the nature of dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L coatings was investigated using electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the alloy 316L undergoes discontinuous dynamic recrystallization under conditions of moderate Zener-Hollomon parameter during friction surfacing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L friction surfaced coatings is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfacing leads to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain rates in friction surfacing exceed 400 s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated grain size matches well with experimental observations in 316L coatings.

  18. Surface analysis, by SNMS, of 316L steel exposed to simulated BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of 316L steel have been exposed to Boiling Light Water Reactor chemistry for between forty and seven thousand hours. These samples, with three different surface finishes, 'as-delivered', mechanically polished and electro-polished, have been analysed by Sputtered Neutral Mass Spectrometry and profiles of the constituent alloying elements have been obtained. Differences in the oxide that has built-up are compared and discussed in terms of current ideas of corrosion mechanisms. The structure of the oxide changes with exposure time for the experimental conditions. The effect of surface finish and water velocity have a clear marked effect on the oxide structure and growth rate, respectively: samples in a low water velocity stream form the protective oxide, chromia, and some mixed spinels; electro-polished samples have no chromium layer but show possible secondary passivation through the build-up of nickel; and samples in high velocity water form a simple structured oxide that does not reach a saturation thickness after 291 days but steadily increases. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  19. Finite Element Simulation of Bending Fretting and Fatigue Life Prediction for 316L Stainless Steel Component%316L不锈钢构件弯曲微动的有限元模拟及其疲劳寿命预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋春松; 彭金方; 沈明学; 宋川; 朱一林; 朱旻昊

    2013-01-01

    The bending fretting process of 316L stainless steel component was simulated by ABAQUS finite element software.The Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) multiaxial fatigue criterion was applied to predicting bending fretting crack initiation locations and component lifetimes.The 3D simulation results show that the contact pressure stress distribution along the flat width direction on the upper surface of the contact center presented the tendency that the edge value was larger and the central value was small,and the maximum was given near the edge but not at the edge.With the increase of bending load the maximum marginal contact pressure stress increased,while the central pressure stress reduced to zero.That means when the bending load increased,the warping phenomenon would be more severe.The fretting fatigue crack initiated from the subsurface,about 93 μm under the contact surface.The fatigue life prediction results of the SWT parameters were in agreement with experimental results.%利用ABAQUS软件对316L不锈钢构件的弯曲微动过程进行了有限元模拟,采用SWT多轴疲劳准则预测了弯曲微动裂纹萌生的位置和构件的疲劳寿命.结果表明:三维模型模拟显示上表面接触中心沿平板宽度方向的接触压应力分布呈边缘大、中间小的趋势,但最大值并未出现在最边缘,而是在非常靠近边缘的地方;随着弯曲载荷的增大,边缘最大接触压应力随之增大,中间压应力则随之降低直至为零,即随着弯曲载荷的增大,翘曲现象更加严重;疲劳裂纹最易萌生于距接触表面约93μm的次表层,构件疲劳寿命的预测值与试验结果吻合较好.

  20. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Stainless Steel Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lou, Xiaoyuan [General Electric (GE), Wilmington, NC (United States); List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webber, David [General Electric (GE), Wilmington, NC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and General Electric Company aimed to evaluate the mechanical properties, microstructure, and porosity of the additively manufactured 316L stainless steel by ORNL’s Renishaw AM250 machine for nuclear application. The program also evaluated the stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue crack growth rate of the same material in high temperature water environments. Results show the properties of this material to be similar to the properties of 316L stainless steel fabricated additively with equipment from other manufacturers with slightly higher porosity. The stress corrosion crack growth rate is similar to that for wrought 316L stainless steel for an oxygenated high temperature water environment and slightly higher for a hydrogenated high temperature water environment. Optimized heat treatment of this material is expected to improve performance in high temperature water environments.

  1. Improvement of the SCC resistance of FCC alloys: influence of pre-fatigue on the SCC resistance of the austenitic stainless steel-316L in a MgCl{sub 2} boiling solution at 117 deg C; Recherche d'une amelioration du comportement en CSC d'alliages de structure CFC: influence d'une pre-deformation en fatigue oligocyclique sur le comportement en CSC de l'acier inoxydable austenitique 316L dans une solution bouillante de MgCl{sub 2} a 117 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiere, I. de

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of pre-fatigue of FCC materials on their mechanical and electrochemical response to better understand and delay the SCC damage. The material/environment couple tested is the 316L polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel in boiling MgCl{sub 2} at 30% mass. Samples are pre-strained in low cycle fatigue under plastic strain control, with a p/2 value of 0.4%, for various number of cycles (25%, 75% and at the number of cycles to reach saturation during pre-fatigue). It was found that only pre-fatigue at saturation improves the SCC resistance of the material, both on SSRT and constant load tests. A delayed crack initiation up to 10% of strain. which increases strain to failure by half. mostly accounts for this beneficial effect, during SSRT tests. Furthermore, other pre-straining only resulted in loss of strain to fracture and no delay in crack initiation. We related the crack initiation delay to the surface strain state due to pre-fatigue. It provides fine parallel slip bands. homogeneously located at the surface of the samples. This surface state induces an increasing anodic surface-cathodic surface ratio which lowers the kinetics of localised corrosion. thus that of crack initiation. We also show some experiments implying that pre-fatigue at saturation decreases the SCC crack growth velocity which can be understood through the CEP (Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity) Model. We also show that this beneficial effect is probably available on other fcc material/environment couples, such as OFHC Cu/ 1 M NaNO{sub 2} at pH 9. (author)

  2. A simulation study on the multi-pass rolling bond of 316L/Q345R stainless clad plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an investigation into interface bonding research of 316L/Q345R stainless clad plate. A three-dimensional thermal–elastic–plastic model has been established using finite element analysis to model the multi-pass hot rolling process. Results of the model have been compared with those obtained from a rolling experiment of stainless clad plate. The comparisons of temperature and profile of the rolled stainless clad plate have indicated a satisfactory accuracy of finite element analysis simulation. Effects on interface bonding by different parameters including pre-heating temperature, multi-pass thickness reduction rules, rolling speed, covering rate, and different assemble patterns were analyzed systematically. The results show that higher temperature and larger thickness reduction are beneficial to achieve the bonding in vacuum hot rolling process. The critical reduction in the bond at the temperature of 1200 °C is 28%, and the critical thickness reduction reduces by about 2% when the temperature increases by 50 °C during the range from 1000 °C to 1250 °C. And the relationship between the minimum pass number and thickness reduction has been suggested. The results also indicate that large covering rate in the assemble pattern of outer soft and inner hard is beneficial to achieve the bond of stainless clad plate.

  3. Microstructure and properties of laser surface alloyed PM austenitic stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Brytan; M. Bonek; L.A. Dobrzański

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of laser surface alloying with chromium on the microstructural changes and properties of vacuum sintered austenitic stainless steel type AISI 316L (EN 1.4404).Design/methodology/approach: Surface modification of AISI 316L sintered austenitic stainless steel was carried out by laser surface alloying with chromium powder using high power diode laser (HPDL). The influence of laser alloying conditions, both laser beam power (between 0.7 ...

  4. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...... temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed)....

  5. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  6. Electrochemical aspects of stainless steel behaviour in biocorrosive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical measurements have been used to evaluate and follow, to understand and control microbial induced corrosion of stainless steels. Results include seawater loop tests and laboratory-based microbiological experiments. With natural flowing seawater, impedance spectroscopy measurements have been used to evaluate and follow biofilms on stainless steel tube-electrodes. With batch cultures of single bacterial strain (Sulphate Reducing Bacteria), open-circuit potential measurements and polarization curves performed on 316 L and 430 Ti stainless steels, have shown that the corrosion behaviour of these stainless steels is mainly dependent on the sulphide content of the culture media

  7. Corrosion behavior of sensitized duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F J; Panyayong, W; Rogers, W; Velasquez-Plata, D; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1998-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution after various heat-treatments, and compares it to that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. Both stainless steels were heat-treated at 500, 650, and 800 degrees C in air for 1 h, followed by furnace cooling. Each heat-treated sample was examined for their microstructures and Vickers micro-hardness, and subjected to the X-ray diffraction for the phase identification. Using potentiostatic polarization method, each heat-treated sample was corrosion-tested in 37 degrees C 0.9% NaCl solution to estimate its corrosion rate. It was found that simulated sensitization showed an adverse influence on both steels, indicating that corrosion rates increased by increasing the sensitization temperatures. PMID:9713683

  8. Effect of pulsating water jet peening on stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaváček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Effects of action of pulsating water jet on polished surface of the stainless steel AISI 316L are presented. Surface slip bands appeared after this treatment. In the most severe conditions, microcracks were formed. Hardness measurement showed that the affected layer was thinner than 60 μm. Application of the pulsating water jet has beneficial effect on the fatigue life of the material.

  9. Improving the Adhesion Resistance of the Boride Coatings to AISI 316L Steel Substrate by Diffusion Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Bernabé-Molina, S.; Bravo-Bárcenas, D.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Rodríguez-Castro, G.; Meneses-Amador, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, new results about the practical adhesion resistance of boride coating/substrate system formed at the surface of AISI 316 L steel and improved by means of a diffusion annealing process are presented. First, the boriding of AISI 316 L steel was performed by the powder-pack method at 1173 K with different exposure times (4-8 h). The diffusion annealing process was conducted on the borided steels at 1273 K with 2 h of exposure using a diluent atmosphere of boron powder mixture. The mechanical behavior of the boride coating/substrate system developed by both treatments was established using Vickers and Berkovich tests along the depth of the boride coatings, respectively. Finally, for the entire set of experimental conditions, the scratch tests were performed with a continuously increasing normal force, in which the practical adhesion resistance of the boride coating/substrate system was represented by the critical load. The failure mechanisms developed over the surface of the scratch tracks were analyzed; the FeB-Fe2B/substrate system exhibited an adhesive mode, while the Fe2B/substrate system obtained by the diffusion annealing process showed predominantly a cohesive failure mode.

  10. Improving the Adhesion Resistance of the Boride Coatings to AISI 316L Steel Substrate by Diffusion Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Bernabé-Molina, S.; Bravo-Bárcenas, D.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Rodríguez-Castro, G.; Meneses-Amador, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, new results about the practical adhesion resistance of boride coating/substrate system formed at the surface of AISI 316 L steel and improved by means of a diffusion annealing process are presented. First, the boriding of AISI 316 L steel was performed by the powder-pack method at 1173 K with different exposure times (4-8 h). The diffusion annealing process was conducted on the borided steels at 1273 K with 2 h of exposure using a diluent atmosphere of boron powder mixture. The mechanical behavior of the boride coating/substrate system developed by both treatments was established using Vickers and Berkovich tests along the depth of the boride coatings, respectively. Finally, for the entire set of experimental conditions, the scratch tests were performed with a continuously increasing normal force, in which the practical adhesion resistance of the boride coating/substrate system was represented by the critical load. The failure mechanisms developed over the surface of the scratch tracks were analyzed; the FeB-Fe2B/substrate system exhibited an adhesive mode, while the Fe2B/substrate system obtained by the diffusion annealing process showed predominantly a cohesive failure mode.

  11. Duplex stainless steels for osteosynthesis devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigada, A; Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B; Giacomazzi, M; Roos, A

    1989-09-01

    The austenitic stainless steels used today for the manufacture of osteosynthesis devices are sensitive to crevice corrosion. In this study the corrosion properties of some duplex stainless steels were evaluated and compared to traditional austenitic stainless steels. According to our results the following ranking was established: 23Cr-4Ni less than AISI 316L less than ASTM F138 less than 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo less than 27Cr-31Ni-3.5Mo less than 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N. In particular the results showed that the high-performance 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel, with high molybdenum and nitrogen contents, can be considered not susceptible to crevice corrosion in the human body. The duplex stainless steels have also better mechanical properties at the same degree of cold working compared with austenitic stainless steels. Hence the 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel can be considered a convenient substitute of ASTM F138 for orthopedic and osteosynthesis devices. PMID:2777835

  12. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Uğur GÖKMEN; Türker, Mehmet; ÇİNİCİ, Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm) were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG) based and can be dissolved in wate...

  13. Experimental study on the emissivity of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emissivity of material is a very important parameter for thermal radiative heat transfer. The emissivities of stainless steel 316L and 304 were measured as a fuction of surface temperature and heating time of test section by indirect method using the infrared thermometer. The error range of experiment is within 3∼10% and most of errors were occurred in measuring the surface temperature by thermocouple. The range of temperature for the experiment was 50∼540.deg. C and the emissivities of stainless steel 316L and 304 were increased along with the increase of surface temperature, and the increase rates for two materials were approximately the same and the value was about 1.31x10-4(1/.deg. C). The emissivity of stainless steel 316L with surface roughness 4.1μm was between 0.44 and 0.51, and the emissivity of stainless steel 304 with surface roughness 2.0μm was between 0.32 and 0.38 in this temperature range. The emissivity of stainless steel 304 was gradually increased by a value of 0.03 at 395.deg. C for 266 hours

  14. SU-E-T-548: Modeling of Breast IORT Using the Xoft 50 KV Brachytherapy Source and 316L Steel Rigid Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnside, W [Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Xoft provides a set of 316L Stainless Steel Rigid Shields to be used with their 50 kV X-ray source for Breast IORT treatments. Modeling the different shield sizes in MCNP provides information to help make clinical decisions for selecting the appropriate shield size. Methods: The Xoft Axxent 50 kV Electronic Brachytherapy System has several applications in radiation therapy, one of which is treating cancer of the breast intraoperatively by placing the miniaturized X-ray tube inside an applicator balloon that is expanded to fill the lumpectomy bed immediately following tumor removal. The ribs, lung, and muscular chest wall are all regions at risk to receive undesired dose during the treatment. A Xoft 316L Stainless Steel Rigid Shield can be placed between the intracostal muscles of the chest wall and the remaining breast tissue near the balloon to attenuate the beam and protect these organs. These shields are provided in 5 different sizes, and the effects on dose to the surrounding tissues vary with shield size. MCNP was used to model this environment and tally dose rate to certain regions of interest. Results: The average rib dose rate calculated using 0cm (i.e., no shield), 3cm, and 5cm diameter shields were 26.89, 15.43, and 8.91 Gy/hr respectively. The maximum dose rates within the rib reached 94.74 Gy/hr, 53.56 Gy/hr, and 31.44 Gy/hr for the 0cm, 3cm, and 5cm cases respectively. The shadowing effect caused by the steel shields was seen in the 3-D meshes and line profiles. Conclusion: This model predicts a higher dose rate to the underlying rib region with the 3cm shield compared to the 5cm shield; it may be useful to select the largest possible diameter when choosing a shield size for a particular IORT patient. The ability to attenuate the beam to reduce rib dose was also confirmed. Research sponsored by Xoft Inc, a subsidiary of iCAD.

  15. SU-E-T-548: Modeling of Breast IORT Using the Xoft 50 KV Brachytherapy Source and 316L Steel Rigid Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Xoft provides a set of 316L Stainless Steel Rigid Shields to be used with their 50 kV X-ray source for Breast IORT treatments. Modeling the different shield sizes in MCNP provides information to help make clinical decisions for selecting the appropriate shield size. Methods: The Xoft Axxent 50 kV Electronic Brachytherapy System has several applications in radiation therapy, one of which is treating cancer of the breast intraoperatively by placing the miniaturized X-ray tube inside an applicator balloon that is expanded to fill the lumpectomy bed immediately following tumor removal. The ribs, lung, and muscular chest wall are all regions at risk to receive undesired dose during the treatment. A Xoft 316L Stainless Steel Rigid Shield can be placed between the intracostal muscles of the chest wall and the remaining breast tissue near the balloon to attenuate the beam and protect these organs. These shields are provided in 5 different sizes, and the effects on dose to the surrounding tissues vary with shield size. MCNP was used to model this environment and tally dose rate to certain regions of interest. Results: The average rib dose rate calculated using 0cm (i.e., no shield), 3cm, and 5cm diameter shields were 26.89, 15.43, and 8.91 Gy/hr respectively. The maximum dose rates within the rib reached 94.74 Gy/hr, 53.56 Gy/hr, and 31.44 Gy/hr for the 0cm, 3cm, and 5cm cases respectively. The shadowing effect caused by the steel shields was seen in the 3-D meshes and line profiles. Conclusion: This model predicts a higher dose rate to the underlying rib region with the 3cm shield compared to the 5cm shield; it may be useful to select the largest possible diameter when choosing a shield size for a particular IORT patient. The ability to attenuate the beam to reduce rib dose was also confirmed. Research sponsored by Xoft Inc, a subsidiary of iCAD

  16. Austenitic and duplex stainless steels in simulated physiological solution characterized by electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Aleksandra; Conradi, Marjetka; Schön, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    A study of oxide layers grown on 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel in simulated physiological solution is presented here in order to establish the possibility of replacement of AISI 316 L with 2205 DSS in biomedical applications. The results of the potentiodynamic measurements show that the extent of the passive range significantly increased for DSS 2205 compared to AISI 316L stainless steel. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate electrochemical processes taking place on the steel surfaces. Oxide layers formed by electrochemical oxidation at different oxidation potentials were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their compositions were analyzed as a function of depth. The main constituents on both the investigated materials were Cr- and Fe-oxides. Atomic force microscopy topography studies revealed the higher corrosion resistance of the DSS 2205 compared to the AISI 316L under the chosen experimental conditions. PMID:22331841

  17. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  18. NARROW GAP LASER WELDING OF THICK SECTION STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Laser welding of metals typically has a weld penetration of 1-2 mm/kW laser power. Therefore laser welding of thick section materials would require very high power lasers. In this paper we report an investigation into multi-pass laser welding of 316L stainless steel sheets of 5-10 mm thickness, based on narrow gap (1.5 mm) approach using a 1 kW single mode fibre laser. A filler wire of 316L with a 0.8 mm diameter was used in the welding process. The integrity of the weld, microstructure and h...

  19. High density sintered stainless steels with improved properties

    OpenAIRE

    M. Actis Grande; M. Rosso

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is the study of the properties of sintered AISI 316L (1.4404 according to EN 10088. Sintered stainless steels occupy a prominent position in the high alloyed steels, however their properties are limited by the presence of porosity. The improvement of quality and performances of products coupled with a reduction of manufacturing costs calls for high compacting pressures, as well as high sintering temperatures. However, the possibility to fill the open porosity of sintere...

  20. Stress Corrosion Cracking of an Austenitic Stainless Steel in Nitrite-Containing Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Singh Raman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT in 30 wt. % MgCl2 solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to the chloride solution, which is reported to have inhibitive influence on corrosion of stainless steels, was found to increase SCC susceptibility. The susceptibility was also found to increase with nitrite concentration. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the passivation and pitting characteristics of 316L steel in chloride solution.

  1. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of porous niobium oxide coated 316L SS for orthopedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium oxide was prepared using sol-gel process and coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) substrate via dip-coating technique. The surface characterization results after a thermal treatment revealed that the coated surface was porous, uniform and well crystalline on the substrate. The corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the porous niobium oxide coated 316L SS in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was evaluated. The in vitro test revealed a layer of carbonate-containing apatite formation over the coated porous surface. The results indicated that the porous niobium oxide coated 316L SS exhibited a high corrosion resistance and an enhanced biocompatibility in SBF solution.

  2. Welding Characteristics of Nitrogen Added Stainless Steels for Nuclear Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. D. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Characteristics of properties and manufacturing process was evaluated in development of high strength and corrosion resistant stainless steel. The continuous cast structure of STS 316L was similar to that of STS 304. The most of residual {delta}-ferrite of STS 316L was vermicular type. The residual {delta}-ferrite content increased from the surface towards the center of the slab and after reaching a maximum value at about 50mm distance from surface and steeply decreased towards the center itself. Hot ductility of STS 304L and STS 316L stainless steels containing below 1000 ppm N was appeared to be reasonably good in the range of hot rolling temperature. In case of the steels containing over 1000 ppm N, the hot ductility was decreased rapidly when sulfur content of the steel was above 20 ppm. Therefore, to achieve good hot ductility of the high nitrogen containing steel, reduction of sulfur contents is required as low as possible. The inter granular corrosion resistance and impact toughness of STS 316L were increased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Yield strength and tensile strength of 304 and 316 stainless steels are increased linearly with increasing the nitrogen contents but their elongations are decreased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Therefore, the mechanical properties of these stainless steels could be controlled with variation of nitrogen. The effects of nitrogen on the resistance of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be explained by improvement of the load bearing capacity with increasing tensile strength rather than inhibition of trans granular SCC crack generation and propagation. 101 refs., 17 tabs., 105 figs. (author)

  3. Corrosion resistance of the welded AISI 316L after various surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Liptáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to monitor the surface treatment impact on the corrosion resistance of the welded stainless steel AISI 316L to local corrosion forms. The excellent corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel is caused by the existence of stable, thin and well adhering passive layer which quality is strongly influenced by welding. Therefore surface treatment of stainless steel is very important with regard to its local corrosion susceptibility Surfaces of welded stainless steel were treated by various mechanical methods (grinding, garnet blasting. Surface properties were studied by SEM, corrosion resistance was evaluated after exposition tests in chlorides environment using weight and metalographic analysis. The experimental outcomes confirmed that the mechanical finishing has a significant effect on the corrosion behavior of welded stainless steel AISI 316L.

  4. Microstructural Variations Across a Dissimilar 316L Austenitic: 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Karthikeyan, T.; Dasgupta, Arup; Sudha, C.; Hajra, R. N.; Albert, S. K.; Saroja, S.; Jayakumar, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discuss the microstructural variations across a dissimilar weld joint between SS316 and 9Cr-RAFM steel and its modifications on post weld heat treatments (PWHT). Detailed characterization showed a mixed microstructure of austenite and martensite in the weld which is in agreement with the phases predicted using Schaeffler diagram based on composition measurements. The presence of very low volume fraction of δ-ferrite in SS316L has been identified employing state of the art electron back-scattered diffraction technique. PWHT of the ferritic steel did not reduce the hardness in the weld metal. Thermal exposure at 973 K (700 °C) showed a progressive reduction in hardness of weld joint with duration of treatment except in austenitic base metal. However, diffusion annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) for 100 hours resulted in an unexpected increase in hardness of weld metal, which is a manifestation of the dilution effects and enrichment of Ni on the transformation characteristics of the weld zone. Migration of carbon from ferritic steel aided the precipitation of fine carbides in the austenitic base metal on annealing at 973 K (700 °C); but enhanced diffusion at 1073 K (880 °C) resulted in coarsening of carbides and thereby reduction of hardness.

  5. Weldability of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti

    Part size in additive manufacturing is limited by the size of building area of AM equipment. Occasionally, larger constructions that AM machines are able to produce, are needed, and this creates demand for welding AM parts together. However there is very little information on welding of additive manufactured stainless steels. The aim of this study was to investigate the weldability aspects of AM material. In this study, comparison of the bead on plate welds between AM parts and sheet metal parts is done. Used material was 316L stainless steel, AM and sheet metal, and parts were welded with laser welding. Weld quality was evaluated visually from macroscopic images. Results show that there are certain differences in the welds in AM parts compared to the welds in sheet metal parts. Differences were found in penetration depths and in type of welding defects. Nevertheless, this study presents that laser welding is suitable process for welding AM parts.

  6. Warm compacting behavior of stainless steel powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志瑜; 柯美元; 陈维平; 召明; 李元元

    2004-01-01

    The warm compacting behaviors of four different kinds of stainless steel powders, 304L, 316L, 410L and 430L, were studied. The results show that warm compaction can be applied to stainless steel powders. The green densities and strengths of compacts obtained through warm compaction are generally higher than those obtained through cold compaction. The compacting behaviors in warm compaction and cold compaction are similar.Under the compacting pressure of 700 MPa, the warm compacted densities are 0. 10 - 0.22 g/cm3 higher than the cold compacted ones, and the green strengths are 11.5 %-50 % higher. The optimal warm compacting temperature is 100 - 110 ℃. In the die wall lubricated warm compaction, the optimum internal lubricant content is 0.2%.

  7. Nickel-free Stainless Steel for Medical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibin REN; Ke YANG; Bingchun ZHANG; Yaqing WANG; Yong LIANG

    2004-01-01

    BIOSS4 steel is essentially a nickel-free austenitic stainless steel developed by the Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in response to nickel allergy problems associated with nickel-containing stainless steels that are widely used in medical applications. The high nitrogen content of this steel effectively maintains the austenitic stability and also contributes to the high levels of corrosion resistance and strength. BIOSS4 steel possesses a good combination of high strength and toughness, better corrosion resistance, and better blood compatibility, in comparison with the medical 316L stainless steel. Potential applications of BIOSS4 steel can include medical implantation material and orthodontic or orthopedic devices, as well as jewelries and other decorations.

  8. Biological behaviour of human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell grown on nickel-free and nickel-containing stainless steel for stent implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Liming Li; Liwen An; Xiaohang Zhou; Shuang Pan; Xin Meng; Yibin Ren; Ke Yang; Yifu Guan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical potential of high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel (HNNF SS), we have compared the cellular and molecular responses of human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) to HNNF SS and 316L SS (nickel-containing austenitic 316L stainless steel). CCK-8 analysis and flow cytometric analysis were used to assess the cellular responses (proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle), and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the gene expressi...

  9. Influence of Surface Treatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel in Simulated Human Body Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Jafari; Mohammad Jafar Hadianfard

    2009-01-01

    In the present research, the influence of chromium enrichment by surface treatment on corrosion resistance of type 316L stainless steel in body environment was investigated. For this study, weight loss test during 18 months, cyclic and liner polarization tests before and after surface treatment and metallography by electron and light microscopy were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method was used to determine the chromium concentration in the surface layer after surface treatment. Results show that the surface treatment has improved corrosion resistance of the type 316L stainless steel in body environment.

  10. Wear and Corrosion Study of Sputtered Zirconium thin films on SS316L for Windmill Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar N

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aim of this study is to observe the Wear and Corrosion behavior of Zirconium coated 316L stainless steel. After polishing, SS316L was coated with Zirconium employing DC sputtering process (a technique of physical vapor deposition.Structure characterization techniques including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were utilized to investigate the microstructure and crystallinity of the coating. Salt spray test was performed by spraying Sodium chloride in order to determine corrosion resistance behavior of the coated sample. Pin on disc wear test was performed by hardened and tempered EN31 steel pin in order to determine and compare the Wear resistance behavior of Coated and uncoated samples. The Objective is to recommend the zirconium coated Stainless steel SS316L can be a choice for Off-shore wind mills where the shafts undergo Wear and corrosion problems.

  11. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Hot Isostatically Pressed-Produced Stainless Steel/High Alloy Tool Steel Compound Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Greta; Flyg, Jesper; Frisk, Karin; Sandberg, Odd

    2011-05-01

    Consolidation of tool steel powders and simultaneous joining to a stainless 316L steel are performed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Two tool steel grades are considered: a high vanadium alloyed carbon tool steel, and a high vanadium and chromium alloyed nitrogen tool steel. The boundary layer arising during diffusion bonding is in focus and, in particular, the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen over the joint. Measurements of the elemental concentration profiles and corrosion tests by the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) method are performed. Comparative calculations with the DICTRA software are performed and are found to be in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the carbon tool steel grade has a more critical influence on the corrosion resistance of the stainless 316L steel in comparison to the nitrogen tool steel grade.

  12. Fatigue of stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solin, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    The 2009b update of ASME III introduces a new set of fatigue design curves. The new curve for austenitic stainless steels is exactly matching with the one endorsed in 2007 by the US NRC for new designs only. This has a notable effect in usage factor calculation at strain amplitudes below 0.5 %. However, experimental results clearly demonstrate that a new air curve would not be needed for the studied stainless steel grades. Our current results suggest arguments for use of stabilized stainless steels in NPP piping components, where high cycle fatigue (epsilon{sub a}<=0.5%) is a concern. (orig.)

  13. Properties of super stainless steels for orthodontic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Young-Sik; Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2004-05-15

    Orthodontic stainless-steel appliances are considered to be corrosion resistant, but localized corrosion can occur in the oral cavity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the properties of super stainless steels in orthodontic applications. Accordingly, the metallurgical properties, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, amount of the released nickel, cytotoxicity, and characteristics of the passive film were investigated. Corrosion resistances of the specimens were high and in the following order: super austenitic stainless steel (SR-50A) > super ferritic stainless steel (SFSS) = super duplex stainless steel (SR-6DX) > 316L SS > super martensitic stainless steel (SR-3Mo) in artificial saliva, 37 degrees C. At 500 mV (SCE), current densities of SR-50A, SFSS, SR-6DX, 316L SS, and SR-3Mo were 5.96 microA/cm(2), 20.3 microA/cm(2), 31.9 microA/cm(2), 805 microA/cm(2), and 5.36 mA/cm(2), respectively. Open circuit potentials of SR-50A, 316L SS, SR-6DX, SR-3Mo, and SFSS were - 0.2, - 0.22, - 0.24, - 0.43, and - 0.46 V (SCE), respectively. SR-50A, SFSS, and SR-6DX released below 3 ng/ml nickel for 8 weeks, and increased a little with immersion time, and 316L SS released about 3.5 ng/ml nickel, but SR-3Mo released a large amount of nickel, which increased with immersion time. The study demonstrated that SR-50A, SR-6DX, and SFSS have high corrosion resistance and mild or no cytotoxicity, due to the passive film enhanced by synergistic effect of Mo + N or by high addition effect of Cr + W. All super stainless steels showed very low cytotoxicity regardless of their nickel contents, although SR-3Mo was found to be relatively cytotoxic. From these studies, these steels are considered suitable for orthodontic applications. PMID:15116408

  14. Double Step Sintering Behavior Of 316L Nanoparticle Dispersed Micro-Sphere Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon Byoungjun; Sohn Seong Ho; Lee Wonsik; Han Chulwoong; Kim Young Do; Choi Hanshin

    2015-01-01

    316L stainless steel is a well-established engineering material and lots of components are fabricated by either ingot metallurgy or powder metallurgy. From the viewpoints of material properties and process versatility, powder metallurgy has been widely applied in industries. Generally, stainless steel powders are prepared by atomization processes and powder characteristics, compaction ability, and sinterability are quite different according to the powder preparation process. In the present st...

  15. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of dissimilar stainless steels welded joints

    OpenAIRE

    J. Łabanowski

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current study is to reveal the influence of welding conditions on structure and stresscorrosion cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless steels butt welded joints.Design/methodology/approach: Butt joints between duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L steels were performedwith the use of submerged arc welding (SAW) method. The plates 15 mm in thickness were welded with heatinput in the range of 1.15 – 3.2 kJ/mm using duplex steel filler metal. Microstructure examinations an...

  16. Development of corrosion-resistant improved Al-doped austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keietsu; Miwa, Yukio; Okubo, Nariaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsukada, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Aluminum-doped type 316L SS (316L/Al) has been developed for the purpose of suppressing the degradation of corrosion resistance induced by irradiation in austenitic stainless steels (SSs). The electrochemical corrosion properties of this material were estimated after Ni-ion irradiation at a temperature range from 330 °C to 550 °C. When irradiated at 550 °C up to 12 dpa, 316L/Al showed high corrosion resistance in the vicinity of grain boundaries (GBs) and in grains, while severe GB etching and local corrosion in grains were observed in irradiated 316L and 316 SS. It is supposed that aluminum enrichment was enhanced by high-temperature irradiation at GBs and in grains, to compensate for lost corrosion resistance induced by chromium depletion.

  17. Measurement of bulk residual stresses in molybdenum disilicide/stainless steel joints using neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, R.U.; Rangaswamy, P.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1998-03-23

    Neutron diffraction was used to measure the bulk residual strains in molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2})-316L stainless steel joints. The joints were produced by brazing disks of MoSi{sub 2} and 316L stainless steel along with an interlayer, using Cusil{trademark} as the braze. This study explored the physical parameters of the interlayer on the average phase strains in the MoSi{sub 2} and 316L stainless steel. The effect of the coefficient of thermal expansion was explored by using three different interlayer materials: niobium, nickel, and nickel-iron. The residual strains in MoSi{sub 2} decreased significantly in both radial and axial directions with increasing niobium interlayer thickness. Residual strains were relatively insensitive to changes in 500 {micro}m thick interlayer material. Finite element modeling results were corroborated by the neutron measurements on the joints allowing inferences to be drawn concerning the preference of the interlayer material. The results illustrate the importance of the ductile interlayer in the successful fabrication of MoSi{sub 2}-316L stainless steel joints.

  18. Análisis térmico de soldadura GTAW sobre placa de acero AISI 316L empleando el método de elementos finitos GTAW welding thermal analysis on AISI 316L steel plate using the finite elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Pozo-Morejón

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza la modelación térmica de soldadura GTAW sobre placa de acero inoxidable AISI 316L. Se analizan los aspectos teóricos más relevantes a considerar durante la ejecución de un análisis de este tipo. En la simulación se emplea un software de análisis por elementos finitos de uso general y se enriquece una metodología, previamente desarrollada, para la modelación en 3D no lineal transitoria del proceso de soldeo. En dicha metodología se implementa una subrutina en lenguaje APDL, programada con el modelo volumétrico de fuente calor de doble elipsoide, en un sistema de coordenadas cartesiano. Se analiza la influencia del paso de tiempo seleccionado sobre los resultados de la simulación. Finalmente se valida la metodología enriquecida, en base a la correlación de los resultados del modelo respecto a los resultados experimentales.In the present work, thermal modeling of GTAW welding on AISI 316L stainless steel plate is presented. More relevant theoretical aspects to be considered during the implementation of an analysis of this type are discussed. For the simulation a general purpose finite element analysis software has been used. A previously developed methodology for 3D nonlinear transient modeling of welding process has also been improved. In this methodology a subroutine in APDL language is implemented, programmed with the double ellipsoid volumetric heat source model, in a Cartesian coordinated system. The influence of the selected time step on the simulation results is analyzed. The good correlation obtained among the results calculated by means of the model and the experimental data validates this improved methodology.

  19. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  20. Evaluation of the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and surgical steel 316L in vivo: a comparative study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Arne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown the potential suitability of magnesium alloys as biodegradable implants. The aim of the present study was to compare the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and commonly used surgical steel in vivo. Methods A biodegradable magnesium calcium alloy (MgCa0.8 and surgical steel (S316L, as a control, were investigated. Screws of identical geometrical conformation were implanted into the tibiae of 40 rabbits for a postoperative follow up of two, four, six and eight weeks. The tibialis cranialis muscle was in direct vicinity of the screw head and thus embedded in paraffin and histologically and immunohistochemically assessed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify macrophages, giant cells and heterophil granulocytes as well as the extent of tissue fibrosis and necrosis. Mouse anti-CD79α and rat anti-CD3 monoclonal primary antibodies were used for B- and T-lymphocyte detection. Evaluation of all sections was performed by applying a semi-quantitative score. Results Clinically, both implant materials were tolerated well. Histology revealed that a layer of fibrous tissue had formed between implant and overlying muscle in MgCa0.8 and S316L, which was demarcated by a layer of synoviocyte-like cells at its interface to the implant. In MgCa0.8 implants cavities were detected within the fibrous tissue, which were surrounded by the same kind of cell type. The thickness of the fibrous layer and the amount of tissue necrosis and cellular infiltrations gradually decreased in S316L. In contrast, a decrease could only be noted in the first weeks of implantation in MgCa0.8, whereas parameters were increasing again at the end of the observation period. B-lymphocytes were found more often in MgCa0.8 indicating humoral immunity and the presence of soluble antigens. Conversely, S316L displayed a higher quantity of T-lymphocytes. Conclusions Moderate inflammation was detected in both implant materials

  1. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dissimilar stainless steel welds

    OpenAIRE

    J. Łabanowski

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of welding on microstructure, mechanical properties, and stress corrosion cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless steels butt welded joints.Design/methodology/approach: Duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L steels were used. Butt joints of plates 15 mm in thickness were performed with the use of submerged arc welding (SAW) method. The heat input was in the range of 1.15 – 3.2 kJ/mm. Various plates’ edge preparation...

  2. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF FORGED STAINLESS STEELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M

    2008-03-28

    The effect of hydrogen on the fracture toughness properties of Types 304L, 316L and 21-6-9 forged stainless steels was investigated. Fracture toughness samples were fabricated from forward-extruded forgings. Samples were uniformly saturated with hydrogen after exposure to hydrogen gas at 34 MPa or 69 and 623 K prior to testing. The fracture toughness properties were characterized by measuring the J-R behavior at ambient temperature in air. The results show that the hydrogen-charged steels have fracture toughness values that were about 50-60% of the values measured for the unexposed steels. The reduction in fracture toughness was accompanied by a change in fracture appearance. Both uncharged and hydrogen-charged samples failed by microvoid nucleation and coalescence, but the fracture surfaces of the hydrogen-charged steels had smaller microvoids. Type 316L stainless steel had the highest fracture toughness properties and the greatest resistance to hydrogen degradation.

  3. Deformation behavior of open-cell stainless steel foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, A.C., E-mail: a.kaya@campus.tu-berlin.de; Fleck, C.

    2014-10-06

    This study presents the deformation and cell collapse behavior of open-cell stainless steel foams. 316L stainless-steel open-cell foams with two porosities (30 and 45 pores per inch, ppi) were produced with the pressureless powder metallurgical method, and tested in quasi-static compression. As a result of the manufacturing technique, 316L stainless steel open-cell foams have a high amount of microporosity. The deformation behavior was investigated on a macroscopic scale by digital image correlation (DIC) evaluation of light micrographs and on the microscopic scale by in situ loading of cells in the scanning electron microscope. The deformation behavior of the metal foams was highly affected by microstructural features, such as closed pores and their distribution throughout the foam specimen. Moreover, the closed pores made a contribution to the plateau stress of the foams through cell face stretching. Strut buckling and bending are the dominant mechanisms in cell collapse. Although there are edge defects on the struts, the struts have an enormous plastic deformation capability. The cell size of the steel foams had no significant effect on the mechanical properties. Due to the inhomogeneities in the microstructure, the measured plateau stresses of the foams showed about 20% scatter at the same relative density.

  4. Cryogenic material properties of stainless steel tube-to-flange welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, T. A.; McCowan, C. N.; Vigliotti, D. P.

    The mechanical properties of stainless steel tube-to-flange welds for a cryogenic piping application were measured. A planar specimen was developed to duplicate the constraint, loading and heat-sink properties of the circular joint, while reducing preparation time and cost. Specimens were evaluated containing welds between the tube material (21 Cr-6Ni-9Mn) and the three stainless steels being considered for the flange materials: type 304L, type 316L and 21 Cr-6Ni-9Mn. The mechanical property tests consisted of three phases: simple tensile testing to failure, tensile testing of notched specimens (where the notch simulated fabrication flaws) and fatigue testing of notched specimens for the 4 × 10 4 cycle design life of the structure. The type 316L stainless steel flange produced welds with the best combination of strength and ductility at 295 and 4 K in all three phases of testing.

  5. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  6. Nanocomposite coatings on biomedical grade stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Mohana, Marimuthu; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Raman, Vedarajan; Nishimura, Toshiyasu; Kim, Sanghyo; Kang, Yong Soo; Rajendran, Nallaiyan

    2012-10-24

    The 316 L stainless steel is one of the most commonly available commercial implant materials with a few limitations in its ease of biocompatibility and long-standing performance. Hence, porous TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite coated over 316 L stainless steels was studied for their enhanced performance in terms of its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, following a sol-gel process via dip-coating technique. The surface composition and porosity texture was studied to be uniform on the substrate. Biocompatibility studies on the TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite coatings were investigated by placing the coated substrate in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The immersion procedure resulted in the complete coverage of the TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite (coated on the surface of 316 L stainless steel) with the growth of a one-dimensional (1D) rod-like carbonate-containing apatite. The TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite coated specimens showed a higher corrosion resistance in the SBF solution with an enhanced biocompatibility, surpassing the performance of the pure oxide coatings. The cell viability of TiO(2)/ZrO(2) nanocomposite coated implant surface was examined under human dermal fibroblasts culture, and it was observed that the composite coating enhances the proliferation through effective cellular attachment compared to pristine 316 L SS surface. PMID:22967070

  7. In vivo evaluation of a high-strength, high-ductility stainless steel for use in surgical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, B C; Davis, E E

    1979-07-01

    A high-strength, high-ductility, austenitic stainless steel has been evaluated for use in surgical implants by performing in vivo tests in rats, rabbits, dogs, and rhesus monkeys. This stainless steel, a TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steel containing about 4% Mo, was compared with two alloys in current clinical use: Type 316L stainless steel and cast Vitallium. Compared with the other two alloys, cast Vitallium generally had higher resistance to corrosion and superior biocompatibility in all animals. The tests in rats and dogs indicated that the corrosion resistances of the TRIP steel and the Type 316L stainless steel were similar and that the tissue reactions caused by these alloys were also similar. However, in rhesus monkeys, the TRIP steel was shown to be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking and much more susceptible to crevice corrosion than Type 316L stainless steel. Limited tests in rabbits supported the observation that the TRIP steel is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. These inconsistencies in the in vivo tests underline the need for a reevaluation of the popular test techniques and of the animals commonly chosen for assessing the suitability of candidate implant materials. The "worst case" results from the rhesus monkey tests were entirely consistent with previous results obtained from in vitro studies. However, further work must be performed before the behavior of metals in humans, rhesus monkeys, or any other animal, can be predicted with confidence from an in vitro test program. PMID:110810

  8. Surface modification of investment cast-316L implants: microstructure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadad, Shimaa; Khalifa, Waleed; Nofal, Adel

    2015-03-01

    Artificial femur stem of 316L stainless steel was fabricated by investment casting using vacuum induction melting. Different surface treatments: mechanical polishing, thermal oxidation and immersion in alkaline solution were applied. Thicker hydroxyapatite (HAP) layer was formed in the furnace-oxidized samples as compared to the mechanically polished ones. The alkaline treatment enhanced the precipitation of HAP on the samples. It was also observed that the HAP precipitation responded differently to the different phases of the microstructure. The austenite phase was observed to have more homogeneous and smoother layer of HAP. In addition, the growth of HAP was sometimes favored on the austenite phase rather than on ferrite phase. PMID:25579929

  9. Characteristics of residual stresses of water jet peened stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material of the specimen was austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L. The residual stresses in the specimen was introduced by a water jet peening (WJP). The change in the residual stress with thermal aging at 773K was measured by an X-ray stress measurement. The WJP residual stresses were an equi-biaxial stress state, and the compressive residual stress did not decrease against the thermal aging. To investigate dependence of the residual stress on a lattice plane, the WJP residual stresses were measured using hard synchrotron X-rays. (author)

  10. Weldability of dissimilar joint between F82H and SUS316L under fiber laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Hisashi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, Daiki; Shirai, Yuma; Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The microstructure of F82H/SUS316L dissimilar joint can be divided into four regions. • In the case without beam position shift, hardness of WM cannot be reduced by PWHT. • The fiber laser welding would be applicable for constructing the dissimilar joint. -- Abstract: As one of the high beam quality heat sources, 4 kW fiber laser was applied for joining between reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H and SUS316L austenitic stainless steel, and the microstructural analyses and Vickers hardness measurements were carried out before and after post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). The microstructure of joint can be divided into four regions which are base metal of F82H, heat affected zone (HAZ) in F82H, weld metal (WM) and base metal of SUS316L. Also, it is revealed that the high-power fiber laser can be employed for constructing butt joint between F82H and SUS316L by applying PWHT and shifting the laser beam position to SUS316L, where the distance between the contact face and beam should be set as a range from radius to diameter of laser beam.

  11. Resistance of superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces to varied temperature applications on 316L SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza; Saleem, Sajid; Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    316L SS also called Marine Stainless Steel is an important material for structural and marine applications. When superhydrophobic and oleophobic coatings are applied on 316L SS it shows significant resistance to wear and corrosion. This paper aims to validate the coatings manufacturer's information on optimal temperature range and test the viability of coating against multiple oil based cleaning agents. 316L SS was coated with multiple superhydrophic and oleohobic coatings and observed under SEM for validity of adhesion and thickness and then scanned under FFM to validate the tribological information. The samples were then dipped into multiple cleaning agents maintained at the range of operating temperatures specified by the manufacturer. Coating was observed for deterioration over a fixed time intervals through SEM and FFM. A comparison was drawn to validate the most critical cleaning agent and the most critical temperature at which the coating fails to leave the base substrate exposed to the environment.

  12. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic...

  13. High density sintered stainless steels with improved properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Actis Grande

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is the study of the properties of sintered AISI 316L (1.4404 according to EN 10088. Sintered stainless steels occupy a prominent position in the high alloyed steels, however their properties are limited by the presence of porosity. The improvement of quality and performances of products coupled with a reduction of manufacturing costs calls for high compacting pressures, as well as high sintering temperatures. However, the possibility to fill the open porosity of sintered parts by infiltration process with a metal alloy or by the use of reactive sintering techniques can favour the production of stainless steel parts with enhanced mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. Design/methodology/approach: Sintered AISI 316L (1.4404 according to EN 10088 stainless steel samples have been manufactured using different combinations of compacting pressure and sintering parameters (time, temperature, atmosphere, or a modified composition able to allow reactive sintering process, as well as the contact infiltration with bronze.Findings: The studies have been forwarded towards the statical and dynamic mechanical properties, as well as the corrosion behavior. Lowering the porosity level and increasing the sintering degree, by use of higher compacting pressure or sintering temperature, is of great effectiveness, especially from the point of view of mechanical properties and fatigue endurance.Practical implications: the obtained results demonstrate the benefits of contact infiltration and of reactive sintering techniques to sinter stainless steels components having higher density and better mechanical and corrosion resistance properties than the traditional compositions, compacted at high pressure and sintered at elevated temperature.Originality/value: very promising results have been also obtained with a modified composition able to allow reactive sintering process.

  14. A facile electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite onto borate passivated surgical grade stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Successful deposition of hydroxyapatite on 316L SS by a facile electrolytic Method. → Improvement of bio-resistivity of the alloy by increasing the time of borate Passivation. → Evolution of stable, bio-resistive hydroxyapatite coatings on borate passivated 316L SS. - Abstract: This paper reports a successful electrodeposition method for coating hydroxyapatite (HAP) onto surgical grade stainless steel (SS). Pure HAP coatings could be achieved at -1400 mV vs SCE and the coating resistivity was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization and impedance techniques which showed that HAP coatings deposited onto the borate passivated-SS specimens possess maximum bioresistivity in Ringer's solution. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have showed that the borate passivation followed by HAP coating performed on 316L SS could enhance the longevity of the alloy in Ringer's solution.

  15. Influence of high pressure hydrogen environment on tensile and fatigue properties of stainless steels at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, T.

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) of stainless steels in the environment of high pressure and low temperature hydrogen gas was evaluated using a very simple mechanical properties testing procedure. In the method, the high-pressure hydrogen environment is produced just inside the hole in the specimen. In this work, the effects of HEE on fatigue properties for austenitic stainless steels SUS304L and SUS316L were evaluated at 298 and 190 K. The effects of HEE on the tensile properties of higher strength stainless steels, such as strain-hardened 316, SUS630, and other alloys, SUH660 and Alloy 718 were also examined. The less effect of HEE on fatigue properties of SUS316L and tensile properties of strain-hardened 316 were observed compared with SUS304L and other steels at room temperature and 190 K.

  16. Multilayer modelling of stainless steel with a nanocrystallised superficial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J. [Laboratoire Energetique Mecanique Electromagnetisme (LEME), EA4416, Universite Paris Ouest, 92410 Ville d' Avray (France); Waltz, L., E-mail: laurent.waltz@univ-montp2.fr [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Genie Civil de Montpellier (LMGC), University of Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34000 Montpellier (France); Montay, G.; Retraint, D.; Roos, A.; Francois, M. [Institut Charles Delaunay - LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6279, University of Technology of Troyes, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2012-02-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SMAT has been used for nanocrystallisation of an austenitic stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical response of the nano-phase has been obtained by an indirect method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Minimisation of a stress formulated objective function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model predicts the strain at which diffuse necking occurs. - Abstract: In order to obtain the macroscopic mechanical response of a 316L stainless steel, nanocrystallised by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT), a multilayer model is proposed. The constitutive behaviour of each layer is determined from tensile tests or by an inverse method and its thickness is evaluated from Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM) analyses and local hardness measurements. The consistency of the model is verified by its ability to predict the strain at which diffuse necking occurs.

  17. Tribological properties of BixTiyOz films grown via RF sputtering on 316L steel substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Parra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el análisis químico superficial, la caracterización morfológica y evaluación de las propiedades tribológicas de recubrimientos de titanato de bismuto amorfo (BixTiyOz depositados sobre sustratos de acero inoxidable 316L utilizando la técnica de pulverización catódica rf. El análisis químico elemental se realizó por medio de espectroscopia de electrones Auger (EEA, la morfología de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante microscopia de fuerza atómica (MFA. Las medidas del coeficiente de fricción y la tasa de desgaste fueron obtenidas mediante pruebas de bola sobre disco. Los análisis de EEA permitieron establecer que los primeros 10 nm de los recubrimientos están formados probablemente por óxidos de Bi4Ti3O12 y Ti2O3, las medidas de AFM indican que los recubrimientos tienen una rugosidad promedio de 22.28nm y un tamaño de grano de 50nm. Finalmente, las pruebas tribológicas establecieron que el coeficiente de fricción y la tasa de desgaste del acero recubierto tiene valores similares al acero desnudo.

  18. Stainless steel tube-based cell cryopreservation containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Hung; Yu, Zong-Yan; Wu, Wei-Te

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on increasing the freezing rate in cell vitrification cryopreservation by using a cryopreservation container possessing rigid mechanical properties and high heat-transfer efficiency. Applying a fast freezing rate in vitrification cryopreservation causes a rapid temperature change in the cryopreservation container and has a substantial impact on mechanical properties; therefore, a highly rigid cryopreservation container that possesses a fast freezing rate must be developed. To produce a highly rigid cryopreservation container possessing superior heat transfer efficiency, this study applies an electrochemical machining (ECM) method to an ANSI 316L stainless steel tube to treat the surface material by polishing and roughening, thereby increasing the freezing rate and reducing the probability of ice crystal formation. The results indicated that the ECM method provided high-quality surface treatment of the stainless steel tube. This method can reduce internal surface roughness in the stainless steel tube, thereby reducing the probability of ice crystal formation, and increase external surface roughness, consequently raising convection heat-transfer efficiency. In addition, by thinning the stainless steel tube, this method reduces heat capacity and thermal resistance, thereby increasing the freezing rate. The freezing rate (3399 ± 197 °C/min) of a stainless steel tube after interior and exterior polishing and exterior etching by applying ECM compared with the freezing rate (1818 ± 54 °C/min) of an original stainless steel tube was increased by 87%, which also exceeds the freezing rate (2015 ± 49 °C/min) of an original quartz tube that has a 20% lower heat capacity. However, the results indicated that increasing heat-transferring surface areas and reducing heat capacities cannot effectively increase the freezing rate of a stainless steel tube if only one method is applied; instead, both techniques must be implemented concurrently to improve the

  19. The influence of thiosulphate ions on the localized corrosion of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thiosulphate ion (S2O32-) can be formed either by microbial activity or by air-oxidation of metal sulphides, e.g. in blast-furnace slag. Since blast-furnace slag may be added to concrete for nuclear waste containment, information on the corrosion effects of thiosulphate on stainless steels such as are likely to be used for waste canisters in contact with such concrete has been reviewed and areas requiring further study identified. In neutral solutions, thiosulphate is extremely corrosive towards stainless steels. Pitting corrosion has been reported for Type 304 steel in solutions containing less than 10-5 molar thiosulphate ions, provided that an appropriate amount of sulphate is present. Chloride ions are not necessary for pitting of this alloy. Two mitigating circumstances lead to the conclusion that Type 316L steel will probably not suffer from thiosulphate corrosion under disposal conditions. First, the concrete environment has a high pH (≥ 12.5), and this has been shown to inhibit pitting. Second, no pitting of Type 316L steel has so far been detected in solutions where sulphate (rather than chloride) is the predominant anion. Experimental confirmation of the good resistance of Type 316L steel has been achieved using a scratching test. (author)

  20. Process mapping of laser surface modification of AISI 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chikarakara, Evans; Naher, Sumsun; Brabazon, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Due to limited lifetime for biomedical implants, material engineers have strived to improve the surface properties of existing biomaterials. Widely used methods of surface modification include film deposition such as physical vapour deposition (PVD), chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and diamond like carbon coating (DLC). Internal stresses make it difficult to bond such coatings to the substrates thus weakening the structure and limiting the life of implants. Laser glazing can achieve an amorp...

  1. Use of sputter-deposited 316L stainless steel ultrathin films for microbial influenced corrosion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suci, P.A.; Geesey, G.G. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Pedraza, A.J.; Godbole, M.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ultra thin films (12nm) were sputter deposited onto cylindrical germanium internal reflection elements pre-coated with a thin (2 nm) layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Two crystals were inserted into Circle cell flow-through chambers and mounted on the optical bench of an Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. One chamber was maintained as a sterile control while the other was sequentially inoculated with four bacterial species: Psudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillis, Hafnia alvei, and Desulfovibrio gigas, in that order. The water absorption band (1640cm{sup -4}) was monitored and used to follow that deterioration of the ultra thin films. In this respect, the sterile control and inoculated films exhibited only slight differences during the 1000h course of the experiment. Assay of the visible biofilm that has accumulated on the surface of the inoculated crystal after 1000h revealed that the film incorporated viable cells from all four strains.

  2. An extended 316L stainless steel model suitable for industrial rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Abbod, MF; Mahfouf, M; Linkens, DA; Sellars, CM

    2007-01-01

    During hot rolling processes, the material under deformation undergoes different deformation conditions, i.e. temperature changes and strain rates. One particular variable is the change in strain rate which can vary from low to very high values in industrial rolling. Usually empirical models are used for predicting the material characteristics but they are only valid within constrained limits. In this work an extended model has been developed to predict the stress/strain characteristics of 31...

  3. Anisotropic radiation-induced segregation in 316L austenitic stainless steel with grain boundary character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) and subsequent depletion of chromium along grain boundaries has been shown to be an important factor in irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking in austenitic face-centered cubic (fcc)-based alloys used for nuclear energy systems. A full understanding of RIS requires examination of the effect of the grain boundary character on the segregation process. Understanding how specific grain boundary structures respond under irradiation would assist in developing or designing alloys that are more efficient at removing point defects, or reducing the overall rate of deleterious Cr segregation. This study shows that solute segregation is dependent not only on grain boundary misorientation, but also on the grain boundary plane, as highlighted by markedly different segregation behavior for the Σ3 incoherent and coherent grain boundaries. The link between RIS and atomistic modeling is also explored through molecular dynamic simulations of the interaction of vacancies at different grain boundary structures through defect energetics in a simple model system. A key insight from the coupled experimental RIS measurements and corresponding defect–grain boundary modeling is that grain boundary–vacancy formation energy may have a critical threshold value related to the major alloying elements’ solute segregation

  4. Effects of hydrogen charging on surface slip band morphology of a type 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, M.; Olive, J.M.; Aubert, I. [Laboratoire Mecanique Physique - CNRS/Universite Bordeaux I - 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Brass, A.M. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Etat Solide - CNRS/Universite Paris-Sud, Bat.414, 91405 Orsay cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is observed for many metals and alloys whose the behavior is ductile in inert environment. Mechanisms occurring during SCC involve strong interactions between the applied stress and the chemical environment. One of the implied processes in the crack propagation is the influence of the anodic dissolution and the hydrogen absorption on dislocation dynamic near the metal surface. At the microscopic scale, the absorption of hydrogen has been reported to increase the velocity of dislocations in different crystal structures and to promote the slip localization and slip planarity. In this study a description of the effects of the hydrogen concentration, grain size and macroscopic deformation level is given and particularly the experimental results of quantitative slip morphology analyses obtained by atomic force microscopy are presented. The slip morphology of hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated specimens of two grain sizes (140 and 300 {mu}m) are compared after being deformed in tension to 2% and 10% of strain in ambient air (macroscopic strain rates of 10{sup -3} s{sup -1} and 10{sup -6} s{sup -1}). Two cathodic hydrogen charging leading to hydrogen concentrations of 31 wt.ppm and 135 wt.ppm induce a slip localization at 10{sup -3} s{sup -1} at 2% of strain in coarse grained samples. This strain localization is characterized by increases in the mean slip-band spacing value and in the mean slip-band height value of respectively 17% and 40% with 31 wt.ppm and of 100% and 85% with 135 wt.ppm. At 10% of strain and for the two hydrogen concentrations, the hydrogen induces low effects on the slip-band spacings while the slip-band heights increase by 55%. The fine grained specimens show a significant change in the slip morphology at 135 wt.ppm characterized by an increase in the average slip-band height of 60% at 2% of strain and of 56% at 10% of strain in comparison with uncharged samples and present a slip localization at 10% of strain. (authors)

  5. Densification behavior of gas and water atomized 316L stainless steel powder during selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densification during selective laser melting (SLM) process is an important factor determining the final application of SLM-part. In the present work, the densifications under different processing conditions were investigated and the densification mechanisms were elucidated. It was found that the higher laser power, lower scan speed, narrower hatch spacing and thinner layer thickness could enable a much smoother melting surface and consequently a higher densification. The gas atomized powder possessed better densification than water atomized powder, due to the lower oxygen content and higher packing density of gas atomized powder. A large number of regular-shaped pores can be generated at a wider hatch spacing, even if the scanning track is continuous and wetted very well. The densification mechanisms were addressed and the methods for building dense metal parts were also proposed as follows: inhibiting the balling phenomenon, increasing the overlap ratio of scanning tracks and reducing the micro-cracks.

  6. The passivity of Type 316L stainless steel in borate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passivity of Type 316 SS in borate buffer solution (pH 8.35), in the steady-state, has been explored using a variety of electrochemical techniques, including potentiostatic polarization, Mott Schottky analysis, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The study shows that the passive film is an n-type semiconductor with a donor density that is essentially independent of voltage across the passive state. The passive current density is also found to be voltage-independent, but the thickness of the barrier layer depends linearly on the applied voltage. These observations are consistent with the predictions of the Point Defect Model, noting that the point defects within the barrier layer of the passive film are metal interstitials or oxygen vacancies, or both. No evidence for p-type behavior was obtained, indicating that cation vacancies do not have a significant population density in the film compared with the two donors (cation interstitials and oxygen vacancies)

  7. Robustness of numerical TIG welding simulation of 3D structures in stainless steel 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical welding simulation is considered to be one of those mechanical problems that have the great level of nonlinearity and which requires a good knowledge in various scientific fields. The 'Robustness Analysis' is a suitable tool to control the quality and guarantee the reliability of numerical welding results. The robustness of a numerical simulation of welding is related to the sensitivity of the modelling assumptions on the input parameters. A simulation is known as robust if the result that it produces is not very sensitive to uncertainties of the input data. The term 'Robust' was coined in statistics by G.E.P. Box in 1953. Various definitions of greater or lesser mathematical rigor are possible for the term, but in general, referring to a statistical estimator, it means 'insensitive to small deviation from the idealized assumptions for which the estimator is optimized. In order to evaluate the robustness of numerical welding simulation, sensitivity analyses on thermomechanical models and parameters have been conducted. At the first step, we research a reference solution which gives the best agreement with the thermal and mechanical experimental results. The second step consists in determining through numerical simulations which parameters have the largest influence on residual stresses induced by the welding process. The residual stresses were predicted using finite element method performed with Code-Aster of EDF and SYSWELD of ESI-GROUP. An analysis of robustness can prove to be heavy and expensive making it an unjustifiable route. However, only with development such tool of analysis can predictive methods become a useful tool for industry. (author)

  8. Surface nanostructuring of Ni, Ti, and 316L stainless steel using ultrafast laser interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Matt; Perrie, Walter; Fox, Peter; O'Neill, William

    2005-04-01

    The generation of surface periodic structures (SPS) on laser machined surfaces is known to occur when exciting the surface near the ablation threshold using short pulse laser exposure. These effects were first observed in the late 1960s and have remained a laboratory curiosity. Although well studied at nanosecond timescales there have been limited number of studies at ultrafast timescales. We have investigated the conditions necessary to generate short and long-range periodic structures using ultrafast laser pulses at λ =775nm and 387 nm which may find application in the field of surface engineering. This work examines the formation of SPS on a range of materials including Ni, Ti and SS316 and their dependence on fluence and polarisation.

  9. The passivity of Type 316L stainless steel in borate buffer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicic, Igor; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2008-09-01

    The passivity of Type 316 SS in borate buffer solution (pH 8.35), in the steady-state, has been explored using a variety of electrochemical techniques, including potentiostatic polarization, Mott Schottky analysis, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The study shows that the passive film is an n-type semiconductor with a donor density that is essentially independent of voltage across the passive state. The passive current density is also found to be voltage-independent, but the thickness of the barrier layer depends linearly on the applied voltage. These observations are consistent with the predictions of the Point Defect Model, noting that the point defects within the barrier layer of the passive film are metal interstitials or oxygen vacancies, or both. No evidence for p-type behavior was obtained, indicating that cation vacancies do not have a significant population density in the film compared with the two donors (cation interstitials and oxygen vacancies).

  10. Constitutive Modelling and Identification of Parameters of 316L Stainless Steel at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryś Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a macroscopic material model for simulation two distinct dissipative phenomena taking place in FCC metals and alloys at low temperatures: plasticity and phase transformation, is presented. Plastic yielding is the main phenomenon occurring when the yield stress is reached, resulting in nonlinear response of the material during loading. The phase transformation process leads to creation of two-phase continuum, where the parent phase coexists with the inclusions of secondary phase. An identification of the model parameters, based on uniaxial tension test at very low temperature, is also proposed.

  11. Effects of heat treatments on microstructure changes in the interface of Cu/SS316L joint materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation and dispersion strengthened copper alloys joined with 316L austenitic stainless steel are expected to be heat sink materials in the first wall and divertor of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) owing to the good thermal conductivity of Cu alloys. In the present study, the effects of heat treatment on microstructural stability in the interface of CuNiBe/SS316L and CuAl25/SS316L have been investigated. In the as-received CuNiBe/SS316L joints, voids were observed at the interface, and in the stainless steel side near the interface. But in the CuAl25/SS316L joints, voids were observed only in the Cu side near the interface. These voids would have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of joints. The results of annealing experiments showed that the microstructures in the interface of both types of joints were thermally stable during annealing at 573 and 673 K for 100 h

  12. Effect of laser beam position on mechanical properties of F82H/SUS316L butt-joint welded by fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The micro hardness of weld metal in F82H/SUS316L joint partially decreases after PWHT by shifting beam position to SUS316L. • Charpy impact energy of F82H/SUS316L joint obviously increases after PWHT due to the release of residual stress. • The tensile strength of weld metal in F82H/SUS316L joint is higher than that of SUS316L. • The fiber laser welding seems to be one of the most candidate methods to join between F82H and SUS316L pipes practically. - Abstract: A dissimilar butt-joint between reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel F82H and SUS316L austenitic stainless steel was made by 4 kW fiber laser and the influence of laser beam position on its mechanical properties before and after post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was examined at room temperature. From the nano-indentation measurements and the microstructural observations, it is found that the micro hardness of weld metal partially decreases after PWHT by shifting beam position to SUS316L because its phase seems to move from only the martensitic phase to the mixture of austenitic and martensitic phases. In addition, Charpy impact test suggests that the impact energy slightly increases by shifting beam position before PWHT and obviously increases after PWHT due to the release of residual stress. Moreover, the tensile test indicates that the tensile strength of weld metal is higher than that of SUS316L and the fracture occurs at the base metal of SUS316L regardless of laser beam position

  13. Effect of laser beam position on mechanical properties of F82H/SUS316L butt-joint welded by fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Hisashi, E-mail: serizawa@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, Daiki; Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The micro hardness of weld metal in F82H/SUS316L joint partially decreases after PWHT by shifting beam position to SUS316L. • Charpy impact energy of F82H/SUS316L joint obviously increases after PWHT due to the release of residual stress. • The tensile strength of weld metal in F82H/SUS316L joint is higher than that of SUS316L. • The fiber laser welding seems to be one of the most candidate methods to join between F82H and SUS316L pipes practically. - Abstract: A dissimilar butt-joint between reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel F82H and SUS316L austenitic stainless steel was made by 4 kW fiber laser and the influence of laser beam position on its mechanical properties before and after post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was examined at room temperature. From the nano-indentation measurements and the microstructural observations, it is found that the micro hardness of weld metal partially decreases after PWHT by shifting beam position to SUS316L because its phase seems to move from only the martensitic phase to the mixture of austenitic and martensitic phases. In addition, Charpy impact test suggests that the impact energy slightly increases by shifting beam position before PWHT and obviously increases after PWHT due to the release of residual stress. Moreover, the tensile test indicates that the tensile strength of weld metal is higher than that of SUS316L and the fracture occurs at the base metal of SUS316L regardless of laser beam position.

  14. Quantification of metal release from stainless steel electrodes during conventional and pulsed ohmic heating

    OpenAIRE

    Pataro, Gianpiero; Barca, Giuseppe M. J.; Pereira, Ricardo; Vicente, A.A.; Teixeira, J.A.; Ferrari, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical reactions at the electrode-solution interface of an ohmic heater can be avoided or significantly limited by choosing appropriate processing conditions in relation to the food properties. In the present work the effect of the electrical parameters (electric field strength and frequency of the applied current signal) and product factors (halides concentration, electrical conductivity and pH) on metal release from stainless steel (type AISI 316 L) electrodes of a batc...

  15. Chemical, Corrosion and Topographical Analysis of Stainless Steel Implants after Different Implantation Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Armitage, David Andrew; Knowles, Jonathan Campbell; Szade, Jacek; Korlacki, Wojciech; Marciniak, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this work is to examine the corrosion properties, chemical composition, and material?implant interaction after different periods of implantation of plates used to correct funnel chest. The implants are made of 316L stainless steel. Examinations are carried out on three implants: new (nonimplanted) and two implanted for 29 and 35 months. The corrosion study reveals that in the potential range that could occur in the physiological condition the new bar has the low...

  16. Contribution to study and development of PM stainless steels with improved properties

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rosso

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to present the studies performed at Politecnico di Torino aimed to the development of innovative composition of PM duplex stainless steels characterized with very high and unique mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. Previously a base research to attain improvement of quality and performances of sintered AISI 316L has been developed. Moreover the possibility to enhance mechanical and corrosion resistance properties through contact infiltration or through th...

  17. Conductive and corrosion behaviors of silver-doped carbon-coated stainless steel as PEMFC bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Hong-feng; Fu, Jie; Tian, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Cr enrichment on stainless steel SS316L resulting from chemical activation enabled the deposition of carbon by spraying a stable suspension of carbon nanoparticles; trace Ag was deposited in situ to prepare a thin continuous Ag-doped carbon film on a porous carbon-coated SS316L substrate. The corrosion resistance of this film in 0.5 mol·L-1 H2SO4 solution containing 5 ppm F- at 80°C was investigated using polarization tests. The results showed that the surface treatment of the SS316L strongly affected the adhesion of the carbon coating to the stainless steel. Compared to the bare SS316L, the Ag-doped carbon-coated SS316L bipolar plate was remarkably more stable in both the anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the interface contact resistance between the specimen and Toray 060 carbon paper was reduced from 333.0 mΩ·cm2 to 21.6 mΩ·cm2 at a compaction pressure of 1.2 MPa.

  18. Conductive and corrosion behaviors of silver-doped carbon-coated stainless steel as PEMFC bipolar plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liu; Hong-feng Xu; Jie Fu; Ying Tian

    2016-01-01

    Ni–Cr enrichment on stainless steel SS316L resulting from chemical activation enabled the deposition of carbon by spraying a stable suspension of carbon nanoparticles; trace Ag was depositedin situ to prepare a thin continuous Ag-doped carbon film on a porous carbon-coated SS316L substrate. The corrosion resistance of this film in 0.5 mol·L−1 H2SO4 solution containing 5 ppm F− at 80°C was inves-tigated using polarization tests. The results showed that the surface treatment of the SS316L strongly affected the adhesion of the carbon coating to the stainless steel. Compared to the bare SS316L, the Ag-doped carbon-coated SS316L bipolar plate was remarkably more stable in both the anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the interface contact resistance between the specimen and Toray 060 carbon paper was reduced from 333.0 mΩ·cm2 to 21.6 mΩ·cm2 at a compaction pressure of 1.2 MPa.

  19. The corrosion behaviour of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in artificial saliva with the addition of fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocijan, Aleksandra, E-mail: Aleksandra.Kocijan@imt.s [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merl, Darja Kek [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jenko, Monika [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: The corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L and 2205 DSS in orthodontics. The increased passive range for DSS 2205 compared to AISI 316L in artificial saliva. Higher R{sub p} values of DSS compared to AISI 316L in artificial saliva. The main constituent of the passive layers on DSS at the OCP in saliva was Cr-oxide. DSS 2205 is suitable for orthodontic applications in artificial saliva. - Abstract: The evolution of the passive films on 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205 DSS) and AISI 316L stainless steel in artificial saliva, and with the addition of fluoride, was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic measurements. The extent of the passive range increased for the 2205 DSS compared to the AISI 316L in both solutions. The formation of the passive film was studied by EIS at the open-circuit potential (OCP). The passive layers were studied at the OCP by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The passive films on both materials predominantly contained Cr-oxides, whereas the Fe species were markedly depleted.

  20. Corrosion behavior of powder metallurgical stainless steels in urban and marine environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, A.; F. Velasco; S. Guzmán; Fuente, Daniel de la; Cayuela, F.; Morcillo, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the development of corrosive attack on sintered components manufactured from AISI 316L and AISI 304L powders. The stainless steels were sintered in vacuum and in nitrogen-base atmosphere at 1,120 and 1,250ºC, and their corrosion resistance was then analyzed by electrochemical techniques and by atmospheric corrosion testing (two years) at urban and marine test sites. Images are shown of the morphology of the attack on the surface of the stainless steels and the development...

  1. Corrosion behavior of powder metallurgical stainless steels in urban and marine environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, A.; F. Velasco; S. Guzmán; de la Fuente, D.; Cayuela, F.; Morcillo, M.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the development of corrosive attack on sintered components manufactured from AISI 316L and AISI 304L powders. The stainless steels were sintered in vacuum and in nitrogen-base atmosphere at 1,120 and 1,250 ºC, and their corrosion resistance was then analyzed by electrochemical techniques and by atmospheric corrosion testing (two years) at urban and marine test sites. Images are shown of the morphology of the attack on the surface of the stainless steels and the development o...

  2. Improved CuCrZr / 316L Transition for Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma Facing Components used in all advanced nuclear fusion experiments and in particular for ITER consist of heat sinks made of the precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy. This material has been selected due to the requirements regarding thermal and mechanical properties with and without the presence of neutrons. The divertor parts which are highly heat loaded are actively cooled and are assembled onto weld stainless steel pressure vessels of grade 316L. Therefore these plasma facing parts need a transition in the cooling pipes from CuCrZr to 316L which withstands the internal pressure, the fatigue loads and remains leak tight during operation. As direct fusion welding of CuCrZr with 316L is regarded as critical due to metallurgical issues, the current design uses a transition of Ni - sleeve which is welded onto the CuCrZr and 316L, respectively. However, there is still some concern for the mechanically constraint region of the inlet coolant that this intermediate adapter is the weakest point and could fail due to strongly localised plasticity. The aim of this project is to investigate alternative solutions for the transition of CuCrZr / 316L, to down-select the most promising candidate and finally qualify a new improved tubular transition system. Basic EB welding experiments have been carried out on CuCrZr / 316L tubular samples using different adapter and filler materials. The adapter materials, e.g. Inconel 625 and Monel K500, were chosen due to their high temperature strength and good weldability with respect to Cu - alloys and austenitic steels. In case of the investigated filler metals Ni and Ti the intention was to control the dilution and to produce a fine grained weld zone with no formation of detrimental phases. As a further option the use of an explosively welded CuCrZr/316L adapter was evaluated. The application of such an adapter would simplify the issue to the welding of CuCrZr / CuCrZr and 316L / 316L respectively. In the characterisation programme

  3. In vitro Study on a New High Nitrogen Nickel-free Austenitic Stainless Steel for Coronary Stents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibin Ren; Peng Wan; Feng Liu; Bingchun Zhang; Ke Yang

    2011-01-01

    Most commercialized coronary stents are made of 316L stainless steels due to its good combination of properties, and currently some new stents are made of cobalt-based alloy owing to its higher mechanical properties. However, the presence of high quantity of nickel and/or cobalt elements in these materials, which are known to trigger the toxic and allergic responses, has caused many concerns. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels have been developed in order to solve these problems. In this paper, based on the development of a new FeCr-Mn-Mo-N type high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel, properties such as mechanical property, corrosion resistance in Hank′s solution, and in vitro blood compatibility including the kinetic clotting time and the platelets adhesion, were investigated in comparison to the above two conventional materials, a 316L stainless steel and a Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The results showed that the new high nitrogen steel possessed better combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and blood compatibility than those of 316L steel and the Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, and can be a promising alternative material for manufacture of coronary stents.

  4. USE OF A COBALT BASED METALLIC-GLASS IN JOINING MOSI2 TO STAINLESS STEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. VAIDYA; P. RANGASWAMY; ET AL

    2001-04-01

    The successful use of a cobalt-based metallic-glass in joining molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) to stainless steel 316L was demonstrated. Such joints are being investigated for sensor tube applications in glass melting operations. The cobalt-based metallic-glass (METGLAS{trademark} 2714A) was found to wet the MoSi{sub 2} and stainless steel surfaces and provide high quality joints. Joining was completed at 1050 C for 60 minutes in two different ways; either by feeding excess braze into the braze gap upon heating or by constraining the MoSi{sub 2}/stainless steel assembly with an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) fixture during the heating cycle. These steps were necessary to ensure the production of a high quality void free joint. Post-brazing metallographic evaluations coupled with quantitative elemental analysis indicated the presence of a Co-Cr-Si ternary phase with CoSi and CoSi{sub 2} precipitates within the braze. The residual stresses in these molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2})/stainless steel 316 L joints were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and instrumented indentation techniques. These measurements revealed that significant differences are induced in the residual stresses in MoSi{sub 2} and stainless steel depending on the joining technique employed. Push-out tests were carried out on these joints to evaluate the joint strength.

  5. Electromagnetic shielding mechanisms using soft magnetic stainless steel fiber enabled polyester textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studied the effects of conductivity, magnetic loss, and complex permittivity when using blended textiles (SSF/PET) of polyester fibers (PET) with stainless steel fibers (SSF) on electromagnetic wave shielding mechanisms at electromagnetic wave frequencies ranging from 30 MHz to 1500 MHz. The 316L stainless steel fiber used in this study had 38 vol% γ austenite and 62 vol% α′ martensite crystalline phases, which was characterized by an x-ray diffractometer. Due to the magnetic and dielectric loss of soft metallic magnetic stainless steel fiber enabled polyester textiles, the relationship between the reflection/absorption/transmission behaviors of the electromagnetic wave and the electrical/magnetic/dielectric properties of the SSF and SSF/PET fabrics was analyzed. Our results showed that the electromagnetic interference shielding of the SSF/PET textiles show an absorption-dominant mechanism, which attributed to the dielectric loss and the magnetic loss at a lower frequency and attributed to the magnetic loss at a higher frequency, respectively. - Highlights: ► 316L stainless steel wire was drawn to fiber with a 12 μm diameter. ► The stainless steel fiber (SSF) had 62 vol% soft ferromagnetic phases. ► Two kinds of fabrics were woven by SSF and SSF/PET yarns with varied SSF ratio. ► Absorptivity of the soft ferromagnetic SSF dominated the EMI SE of the fabrics. ► The absorption mechanism was mainly attributed to the magnetic loss of SSF.

  6. Characterization of carbon ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L is ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluences of 1.2 × 1017 ions-cm− 2, 2.4 × 1017 ions-cm− 2, and 4.8 × 1017 ions-cm− 2. The ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by potentiodynamic test. It is found that the initial phase is austenite with a small amount of ferrite. After low fluence carbon ion implantation, an amorphous layer and ferrite phase enriched region underneath are formed. Nanophase particles precipitate from the amorphous layer due to energy minimization and irradiation at larger ion implantation fluence. The morphology of the precipitated nanophase particles changes from circular to dumbbell-like with increasing implantation fluence. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is enhanced by the formation of amorphous layer and graphitic solid state carbon after carbon ion implantation. - Highlights: • Carbon implantation leads to phase transformation from austenite to ferrite. • The passive film on SS316L becomes thinner after carbon ion implantation. • An amorphous layer is formed by carbon ion implantation. • Nanophase precipitate from amorphous layer at higher ion implantation fluence. • Corrosion resistance of SS316L is improved by carbon implantation

  7. Stainless Steel Permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenauer, Dean A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  8. Corrosion, haemocompatibility and bacterial adhesion behaviour of TiZrN-coated 316L SS for bioimplants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gobi Saravanan Kaliaraj; Vinita Vishwakarma; Ananthakumar Ramadoss; D Ramachandran; Arul Maximus Rabel

    2015-08-01

    TiZrN coating was deposited on 316L stainless steel (SS) by the reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique. Cubic phase of TiZrN with uniform surface morphology was observed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Bacterial adhesion, haemocompatibility and corrosion behaviour of TiZrN coating were examined in order to evaluate the coating’s compatibility for ideal implant. Results revealed that TiZrN coatings exhibited less bacterial attachment against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, negligible platelets activation and superior corrosion resistance than the uncoated 316L SS.

  9. Stainless steel display evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  10. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.;

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding. Th......This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot...

  11. The corrosion behaviour of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in artificial body fluids: Korozijsko vedenje avstenitnega in dupleksnega nerjavnega jekla v simuliranih telesnih tekočinah:

    OpenAIRE

    Conradi, Marjetka; Kocijan, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the passive film formed on duplex stainless steel 2205 and AISI 316L stainless steel in artificial saliva and a simulated physiological solution was studied using cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic measurements. The extent of the passive range slightly decreased with the increasing chloride concentration from artificial saliva to the simulated physiological solution. The formation of pits during the potentiostatic conditions was studied using atomic force microscopy and t...

  12. Microstructure, corrosion and tribological and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu coated stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaomin; Gao, Lizhen; Liu, Erqiang; Yu, Feifei; Shu, Xuefeng; Wang, Hefeng

    2015-10-01

    A Ti-Cu coated layer on 316L stainless steel (SS) was obtained by using the Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (CFUBMS) system to improve antibacterial activity, corrosion and tribological properties. The microstructure and phase constituents of Ti-Cu coated layer were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). The corrosion and tribological properties of a stainless steel substrate, SS316L, when coated with Ti-Cu were investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The viability of bacteria attached to the antibacterial surface was tested using the spread plate method. The results indicate that the Ti-Cu coated SS316L could achieve a higher corrosion polarization resistance and a more stable corrosion potential in an SBF environment than the uncoated SS316L substrate. The desirable corrosion protection performance of Ti-Cu may be attributable to the formation of a Ti-O passive layer on the coating surface, protecting the coating from further corrosion. The Ti-Cu coated SS316L also exhibited excellent wear resistance and chemical stability during the sliding tests against Si3N4 balls in SBF environment. Moreover, the Ti-Cu coatings exhibited excellent antibacterial abilities, where an effective reduction of 99.9% of Escherichia coli (E.coli) within 12h was achieved by contact with the modified surface, which was attributed to the release of copper ions when the Ti-Cu coatings are in contact with bacterial solution. PMID:26093948

  13. Microstructure, corrosion and tribological and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu coated stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaomin; Gao, Lizhen; Liu, Erqiang; Yu, Feifei; Shu, Xuefeng; Wang, Hefeng

    2015-10-01

    A Ti-Cu coated layer on 316L stainless steel (SS) was obtained by using the Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (CFUBMS) system to improve antibacterial activity, corrosion and tribological properties. The microstructure and phase constituents of Ti-Cu coated layer were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). The corrosion and tribological properties of a stainless steel substrate, SS316L, when coated with Ti-Cu were investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The viability of bacteria attached to the antibacterial surface was tested using the spread plate method. The results indicate that the Ti-Cu coated SS316L could achieve a higher corrosion polarization resistance and a more stable corrosion potential in an SBF environment than the uncoated SS316L substrate. The desirable corrosion protection performance of Ti-Cu may be attributable to the formation of a Ti-O passive layer on the coating surface, protecting the coating from further corrosion. The Ti-Cu coated SS316L also exhibited excellent wear resistance and chemical stability during the sliding tests against Si3N4 balls in SBF environment. Moreover, the Ti-Cu coatings exhibited excellent antibacterial abilities, where an effective reduction of 99.9% of Escherichia coli (E.coli) within 12h was achieved by contact with the modified surface, which was attributed to the release of copper ions when the Ti-Cu coatings are in contact with bacterial solution.

  14. Can the Point Defect Model Explain the Influence of Temperature and Anion Size on Pitting of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwood, Daniel J. [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    The pitting behaviours of 304L and 316L stainless steels were investigated at 3 °C to 90 °C in 1 M solutions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI by potentiodynamic polarization. The temperature dependences of the pitting potential varied according to the anion, being near linear in bromide but exponential in chloride. As a result, at low temperatures grades 304L and 316L steel are most susceptible to pitting by bromide ions, while at high temperatures both stainless steels were more susceptible to pitting by small chloride anions than the larger bromide and iodide. Thus, increasing temperature appears to favour attack by smaller anions. This paper will attempt to rationalise both of the above findings in terms of the point defect model. Initial findings are that qualitatively this approach can be reasonably successful, but not at the quantitative level, possibly due to insufficient data on the mechanical properties of thin passive films.

  15. Tensile and Fracture Properties of Circumferentially Notched Tensile Specimens of Stainless Steel Weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tensile and fracture properties of different types of austenitic stainless steel weldments were determined using round notched tensile specimens. These included 304L, 316L and 6%Mo super austenitic stainless steels and their weld metals. The triaxial state of stress, the plastic constraint and the plane strain conditions developed ahead of the notch root make notched specimens eligible for the evaluation of fracture toughness. This was achieved through the testing procedure: J-evaluation on tensile test (JETT) using circumferentially notched round bar specimens. The JETT index was taken as a measure of the relevant elastic-plastic fracture toughness of the tested materials. In the case of austenitic stainless steels being too ductile at room temperature the resulted JETT were of relatively higher values than the fracture toughness values determined from the standard fracture mechanics test methods. This could be related to the difference in the stress state ahead of the sharp crack of the standard fracture mechanics specimen and that of the blunt notch of the tensile specimen. The results showed that the 6% Mo weld metal ranked highest while the 316L weld metal ranked lowest regarding JETT fracture toughness values. The deformation mechanisms pertinent to austenitic stainless steels (generation of stacking faults and formation of strain induced martensite) were employed for the interpretation of the experimental results.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  17. Effects of silane on the interfacial fracture of a parylene film over a stainless steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parylene can be coated on stainless steel substrates with and without γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) as an adhesion promoter. In order to study the effects of silane (γ-MPS) on the adhesion and mixed-mode interfacial fracture performance between parylene C and 316L stainless steel, this paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to obtain pull-off forces between parylene coated AFM tips with or without γ-MPS and 316L substrates. A combination of adhesion theories and fracture mechanics models was then used to obtain estimates of the fracture energy release rates over a wide range of mode mixities between pure mode I and pure mode II. The trends in the estimates were shown to be in good agreement with experimental measurements of interfacial fracture toughness obtained from Brazil nut tests coated with parylene C in the presence or absence of γ-MPS over the same range of mode mixities. The study determined that the contribution of silane to the adhesion of parylene C to 316L steel was modest. - Highlights: ► An integrated experimental and modeling approach was applied to characterize effects of silane on interfacial fracture behavior of a parylene film over a stainless steel substrate. ► AFM measurements were obtained for the adhesion of parylene over stainless steel in the presence and absence wiht γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane(γ-MPS). ► Brazil nut test was also used to measure interfacial fracture energy release rates over a wide range of mode mixities. ► Good agreement was achieved between these measurements and predictions from both zone and row fracture mechanics models.

  18. Strip casting of stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, D.

    1997-01-01

    FLAT PRODUCTS OF STAINLESS STEELS ARE CONVENTIONALLY MANUFACTURED BY CONTINUOUS CASTING, HOT ROLLING, HOT BAND ANNEALING, PICKLING, COLD ROLLING AND RECRYSTALLISATION. IN THE LAST YEARS STRIP CASTING HAS INCREASINGLY ATTRACTED ATTENTION. IT OFFERS THREE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMPARISON TO THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD.1.) IT ALLOWS TO CAST STEEL SHEETS WITH THE SAME THICKNESS AND WIDTH AS THOSE PRODUCED BY HOT ROLLING. THIS MEANS THAT THE HOT ROLLING PROCESSIS BYPASSED. 2.) THE STRIP CAST STEEL REVEALS A...

  19. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamasaki, T.; Kawai, M.

    2015-11-01

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below Md (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90-270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20-50 nm in grain interior and 70-110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6-21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at -196 °C.

  20. Mathematical Modelling of Nitride Layer Growth of Low Temperature Gas and Plasma Nitriding of AISI 316L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwiyanto A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper present mathematical model which developed to predict the nitrided layer thickness (case depth of gas nitrided and plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel according to Fick’s first law for pure iron by adapting and manipulating the Hosseini’s model to fit the diffusion mechanism where nitrided structure formed by nitrided AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel. The mathematical model later tested against various actual gas nitriding and plasma nitriding experimental results with varying nitriding temperature and nitriding duration to see whether the model managed to successfully predict the nitrided layer thickness. This model predicted the coexistence of ε-Fe2-3N and γ΄-Fe4N under the present nitriding process parameters. After the validation process, it is proven that the mathematical model managed to predict the nitrided layer growth of the gas nitrided and plasma nitrided of AISI 316L SS up to high degree of accuracy.

  1. NONLINEAR FATIGUE CREEP DAMAGE EVOLUTION MODEL OF 316L STEEL UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE AND ITS APPLICATION%高温316L钢非线性疲劳蠕变损伤演化模型及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董杰; 陈学东; 范志超; 江慧丰; 姜恒; 陆守香

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate high temperature 2-step and multi-step fatigue creep life prediction method considering the load history effect, a nonlinear fatigue creep damage evolution model was presented based on the toughness exhaustion theory. The damage exponent was obtained by the high temperature 1-step stress and temperature fatigue creep test of 316L stainless steel. High temperature fatigue creep life under 2-step stress and temperature load was predicted by the damage evolution model and the failure rule under multi-step load. The predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental ones.%为了研究高温两级和多级疲劳蠕变载荷作用下计及载荷历程效应的寿命预测方法,文中首先基于韧性耗竭理论提出一种非线性疲劳蠕变损伤演化模型,并通过316L不锈钢高温单级应力、温度疲劳蠕变试验,确定模型中的损伤指数,以该损伤模型结合多级加载的损伤破坏准则对高温两级应力、温度疲劳蠕变载荷作用下316L钢的寿命进行预测,得出与试验较为一致的结果.

  2. Welding stainless steels for structures operating at liquid helium temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting magnets for fusion energy reactors require massive monolithic stainless steel weldments which must operate at extremely low temperatures under stresses approaching 100 ksi (700 MPa). A three-year study was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing heavy-section welds having usable levels of strength and toughness at 4.20K for fabrication of these structures in Type 304LN plate. Seven welding processes were evaluated. Test weldments in full-thickness plate were made under severe restraint to simulate that of actual structures. Type 316L filler metal was used for most welds. Welds deposited under some conditions and which solidify as primary austenite have exhibited intergranular embrittlement at 4.20K. This is believed to be associated with grain boundary metal carbides or carbonitrides precipitated during reheating of already deposited beads by subsequent passes. Weld deposits which solidify as primary delta ferrite appear immune. Through use of fully austenitic filler metals of low nitrogen content under controlled shielded metal arc welding conditions, and through use of filler metals solidifying as primary delta ferrite where only minimum residuals remain to room temperature, welds of Type 316L composition have been made with 4.2K yield strength matching that of Type 304LN plate and acceptable levels of soundness, ductility and toughness

  3. The Formation of Multipoles during the High-Temperature Creep of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, J.; Nielsson, O.; Horsewell, Andy;

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that multipole dislocation configurations can arise during power-law creep of certain austenitic stainless steels. These multipoles have been analysed in some detail for two particular steels (Alloy 800 and a modified AISI 316L) and it is suggested that they arise either during...... instantaneous loading or during the primary creep stage. Trace analysis has shown that the multipoles are confined to {1 1 1} planes during primary creep but are not necessarily confined to these planes during steady-state creep unless they are pinned by interstitials....

  4. The low pressure injection moulding of stainless steel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegami, R.A.; M. Purquerio, B. de [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanical-LAMAFE, USP-EESC, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The technology of the metallic powder injection (PIM) is being developed in some aspects, particularly those related to the low pressure injection itself, the debinding of the organic vehicle and the sintering improvement. The relevance of the PIM is most certainly due to its actual technological competitiveness, part design and process automation easiness, and mainly to the forming of small dimension parts with complex shapes possibility. This work intends to show, applying similar principles of the polymer injection technology, the results of an investigation on low pressure injection moulding of 316L stainless steel powder, presenting some results and a methodology related to the preparation of the feed stock, the debinding process and the part sintering. (orig.)

  5. Residual stresses of water-jet peened austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specimen material was austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L. The residual stress was induced by water-jet peening. The residual stress was measured using the 311 diffraction with conventional X-rays. The measured residual stress showed the equi-biaxial stress state. To investigate thermal stability of the residual stress, the specimen was aged thermally at 773K in air to 1000h. The residual stress kept the equi-biaxial stress state against the thermal aging. Lattice plane dependency of the residual stress induced by water-jet peening was evaluated using hard synchrotron X-rays. The residual stress measured by the soft lattice plane showed the equi-biaxial stress state, but the residual stress measured by the hard lattice plane did not. In addition, the distributions of the residual stress in the depth direction were measured using a strain scanning method with hard synchrotron X-rays and neutrons. (author)

  6. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  7. EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SS 316 L WELDMENTS USING TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. ABINESH KUMAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at joining of similar grades of stainless steel by TIG welding with the various parameters like current, bevel angle and gas flow rate. The SS 316L is selected over other grades due to its lesser carbon content it is used in pressure vessels for corrosive liquids etc. The rod of SS 316L of 25 mm diameter and 75 mm lengthwas used as the base material for this experiment. The rod was machined in accordance to ASTM-A-370 standards for finding the echanical behaviour like Tensile strength, micro hardness and micro structure. Higher tensile strength achieved with a current of 110A, bevel angle of 600 and a gas flow rate of 0.7 LPM. Non-destructive tests like radiographic tests were performed to find the defects in the joints. The defect incurred was lack of penetration and it was observed in the sample D and sample G.

  8. Comparison of the corrosion behavior and surface morphology of NiTi alloy and stainless steels in sodium chloride solution

    OpenAIRE

    Kožuh S.; Vrsalović L.; Gojić M.; Gudić S.; Kosec B.

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of NiTi alloy and stainless steels (AISI 316L and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3) in 0.9% sodium chloride (0.154 moll-1) solution was investigated using open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Microstructural analyses before and after electrochemical tests were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Th...

  9. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of dissimilar stainless steels welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabanowski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the current study is to reveal the influence of welding conditions on structure and stresscorrosion cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless steels butt welded joints.Design/methodology/approach: Butt joints between duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L steels were performedwith the use of submerged arc welding (SAW method. The plates 15 mm in thickness were welded with heatinput in the range of 1.15 – 3.2 kJ/mm using duplex steel filler metal. Microstructure examinations and corrosiontests were carried out. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT were performed in inert (glycerin and aggressive (boiling35% MgCl2 solution environments.Findings: It was shown that place of the lowest resistance to stress corrosion cracking is heat affected zone atduplex steel side of dissimilar joins. That phenomenon was connected with undesirable structure of that zoneconsisted of great amount of coarse ferrite grains and acicular austenite precipitates. High welding inputs do notdeteriorate stress corrosion cracking resistance of welds.Research limitations/implications: High welding heat inputs should enhance the precipitation process ofintermetallic phases in the HAZ. It is necessary to continue the research to determine the relationship betweenwelding parameters, obtained structures, and corrosion resistance of dissimilar stainless steels welded joints.Practical implications: Application of more productive joining process for dissimilar welds like submerged arcwelding instead of currently employed gas metal arc welding (GMAW method will be profitable in terms ofreduction the welding costs.Originality/value: The stress corrosion cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless steel welded joints wasdetermined. The zone of the weaker resistance to stress corrosion cracking was pointed out.

  10. Biological behaviour of human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell grown on nickel-free and nickel-containing stainless steel for stent implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liming; An, Liwen; Zhou, Xiaohang; Pan, Shuang; Meng, Xin; Ren, Yibin; Yang, Ke; Guan, Yifu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical potential of high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel (HNNF SS), we have compared the cellular and molecular responses of human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) to HNNF SS and 316L SS (nickel-containing austenitic 316L stainless steel). CCK-8 analysis and flow cytometric analysis were used to assess the cellular responses (proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle), and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the gene expression profiles of HUASMCs exposed to HNNF SS and 316L SS, respectively. CCK-8 analysis demonstrated that HUASMCs cultured on HNNF SS proliferated more slowly than those on 316L SS. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that HNNF SS could activate more cellular apoptosis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the genes regulating cell apoptosis and autophagy were up-regulated on HNNF SS. Thus, HNNF SS could reduce the HUASMC proliferation in comparison to 316L SS. The findings furnish valuable information for developing new biomedical materials for stent implantation.

  11. Compatibility of different stainless steels in molten Pb-Bi eutectic at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced nuclear reactors and the accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) system require the structural materials to be in contact with the molten metals/lead-bismuth eutectic at 400 degC and higher temperatures. One of the primary concerns in using the molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant in the primary circuit of these systems is the degradation of structural materials in contact with LBE. An experimental setup has been fabricated to expose the materials in the molten LBE at high temperatures in stagnant condition under inert atmosphere. Samples from five different stainless steels (types 304L, 316L, 403, duplex SS SAF 2205 and super austenitic SS 2RK65) were exposed in this setup at 450 degC for 200h and at 500 degC for 600 and 2100 h under argon atmosphere. A different setup was prepared in which type 316L SS tube in the as-welded condition was exposed in molten LBE at 500 degC for 1200 h in rotating condition. All the samples showed formation of oxide on their surfaces. The thickness and compositional profiles of these oxides analyzed by EPMA confirmed formation of a double layer oxide on type 316L SS. The oxide thickness was highest on SS 403, while it was lowest on 304L and 316L SS. SEM results showed dissolution of materials at the surface in Sandvik 2RK65 and preferential dissolution of austenite phase in duplex SS. None of the stainless steels, except the duplex and the super austenitic stainless steels, showed any localized or selective corrosion. The composition of LBE before and after the exposure tests was analyzed by XRF technique. The result showed presence of Fe, Cr and Ni in the used LBE but these elements were not present in the virgin Pb-Ei alloy. This showed that the corrosion of stainless steels in LBE at temperatures upto 500 degC is due to oxidation and dissolution of alloying elements through the oxide on stainless steels. (author)

  12. Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates for structured catalytic reactors.

    OpenAIRE

    Giornelli, Thierry; Löfberg, Axel; Bordes-Richard, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    1 The parameters to be controlled to coat metallic walls by VOx/TiO2 catalysts which are used in the mild oxidation of hydrocarbons and NOx abatement are studied. Stainless steel (316 L) was chosen because of its large application in industrial catalytic reactors. TiO2 films on stainless steel were obtained by dip-coating in two steps. Superficially oxidized plates were first dipped in Ti-alkoxide sol-gel to be coated by a very thin layer of TiO2. On this anchoring layer was then deposited a ...

  13. A study on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel in liquid metals at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction between austenitic stainless steel, AISI 316L, and gallium liquid metal at a high temperature, for the potential application to advanced fast reactor coolants. Test specimens of AISI 316L were exposed to static gallium at 500 °C for up to 700 h in two different cover-gas conditions, including air and vacuum. Similar experimental tests were conducted in gallium alloy liquid metal environments, including Ga–14Sn–6Zn and Ga–8Sn–6Zn, in order to study the effect of addition of alloying elements. The results have shown that the weight change and metal loss of specimens were generally reduced in Ga–14Sn–6Zn and Ga–8Sn–6Zn compared to those in pure gallium at a high temperature.

  14. Compresibility and sinterability of HCx PM steel diluted with stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available HCx powder metallurgy steel contains in its composition high contents of Cr and C, and significant quantities of alloy elements typical of tool steels (Mo, V, W, to provide the corrosion resistance of stainless steel with wear resistance of tool steels. HCx appears to be a suitable material for applications in aggressive environments, as valve seat inserts in automotive engines. However, this steel presents a low compressibility leading to high production costs. In this work, some results carried out to improve the compressibility of HCx are presented. The way to attempt this improvement is the dilution of base material with two stainless steels, the ferritic 430LHC and the austenitic 316L. The powder mixes prepared were uniaxially pressed to study the compressibility. The sinterability was study by determining of density, hardness, transverse rupture strength (TRS and microstructural evolution after vacuum sintering at different temperatures. As a result, better compressibility is observed in the mixes although not all of them present the properties required.

  15. Preformed posterior stainless steel crowns: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1999-02-01

    For almost 50 years, dentists have used stainless steel crowns for primary and permanent posterior teeth. No other type of restoration offers the convenience, low cost, durability, and reliability of such crowns when interim full-coronal coverage is required. Preformed stainless steel crowns have improved over the years. Better luting cements have been developed and different methods of crown manipulation have evolved. This article reviews stainless steel crown procedures for primary and permanent posterior teeth. Step-by-step placement of a primary molar stainless steel crown is documented and permanent molar stainless steel crown restoration is described. A method for repairing a worn-through crown also is reviewed.

  16. Use of a cobalt-based metallic glass for joining MoSi{sub 2} to stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, R.U.; Rangaswamy, P.; Misra, A.; Gallegos, D.E.; Castro, R.G.; Petrovic, J.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Butt, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The successful use of a cobalt-based metallic glass in joining molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) to stainless steel 316L was demonstrated. Such joints are being investigated for sensor tube applications in glass melting operations. The cobalt-based metallic-glass (METGLAS{sup TM} 2714A) was found to wet the MoSi{sub 2} and stainless steel surfaces and provide high quality joints. Joining was completed at 1050 C for 60 minutes in two different ways; either by feeding excess braze into the braze gap upon heating or by constraining the MoSi{sub 2}/stainless steel assembly with an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) fixture during the heating cycle. These steps were necessary to ensure the production of a high quality void free joint. Post-brazing metallographic evaluations coupled with quantitative elemental analysis indicated the presence of a Co-Cr-Si ternary phase with CoSi and CoSi{sub 2} precipitates within the braze. The residual stresses in these molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2})/stainless steel 316 L joints were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and instrumented indentation techniques. These measurements revealed that significant differences are induced in the residual stresses in MoSi{sub 2} and stainless steel depending on the joining technique employed. Push-out tests were carried out on these joints to evaluate the joint strength. (orig.)

  17. Double Step Sintering Behavior Of 316L Nanoparticle Dispersed Micro-Sphere Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Byoungjun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 316L stainless steel is a well-established engineering material and lots of components are fabricated by either ingot metallurgy or powder metallurgy. From the viewpoints of material properties and process versatility, powder metallurgy has been widely applied in industries. Generally, stainless steel powders are prepared by atomization processes and powder characteristics, compaction ability, and sinterability are quite different according to the powder preparation process. In the present study, a nanoparticle dispersed micro-sphere powder is synthesized by pulse wire explosion of 316L stainless steel wire in order to facilitate compaction ability and sintering ability. Nanoparticles which are deposited on the surface of micro-powder are advantageous for a rigid die compaction while spherical micro-powder is not to be compacted. Additionally, double step sintering behavior is observed for the powder in the dilatometry of cylindrical compact body. Earlier shrinkage peak comes from the sintering of nanoparticle and later one results from the micro-powder sintering. Microstructure as well as phase composition of the sintered body is investigated.

  18. Low temperature thermal aging of austenitic stainless steel welds: Kinetics and effects on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Embrittlement of 304L and 316L welds after aging up to 20,000 h. ► Spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation in ferrite at 400 °C. Only spinodal decomposition at 335 and 365 °C. ► Charpy impact, microhardness and tensile tests for evaluation of aging embrittlement and its kinetics determined. - Abstract: Austenitic stainless steel welds in components used in light water reactors are susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating temperature of around 300 °C after a long service life. In this study, low temperature aging embrittlement of types 304L and 316L stainless steel welds with 10% ferrite was investigated on the basis of changes in mechanical properties and microstructure after aging up to 20,000 h at 335, 365 and 400 °C. Spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation in the ferrite was observed after aging which lead to embrittlement in the material. In contrast to the small effect on tensile properties, the impact toughness was significantly degraded after aging. Charpy impact test of the aged samples showed decrease in upper-shelf and lower-shelf energy and increase in ductile brittle transition temperature. Large increase in the microhardness of ferrite phase was observed with no change in austenite hardness. The embrittlement in 316L weld was higher compared to 304L weld for similar aging condition. The kinetics of aging embrittlement was established based on Arrhenius relationship. A constant activation energy was determined for 304L weld in the temperature range 335–400 °C, however, 316L weld showed different activation energy values in each temperature range.

  19. Low temperature thermal aging of austenitic stainless steel welds: Kinetics and effects on mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, K., E-mail: kchandra@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kain, Vivekanand [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhutani, Vikas [Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh 160 012 (India); Raja, V.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Embrittlement of 304L and 316L welds after aging up to 20,000 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation in ferrite at 400 Degree-Sign C. Only spinodal decomposition at 335 and 365 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Charpy impact, microhardness and tensile tests for evaluation of aging embrittlement and its kinetics determined. - Abstract: Austenitic stainless steel welds in components used in light water reactors are susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating temperature of around 300 Degree-Sign C after a long service life. In this study, low temperature aging embrittlement of types 304L and 316L stainless steel welds with 10% ferrite was investigated on the basis of changes in mechanical properties and microstructure after aging up to 20,000 h at 335, 365 and 400 Degree-Sign C. Spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation in the ferrite was observed after aging which lead to embrittlement in the material. In contrast to the small effect on tensile properties, the impact toughness was significantly degraded after aging. Charpy impact test of the aged samples showed decrease in upper-shelf and lower-shelf energy and increase in ductile brittle transition temperature. Large increase in the microhardness of ferrite phase was observed with no change in austenite hardness. The embrittlement in 316L weld was higher compared to 304L weld for similar aging condition. The kinetics of aging embrittlement was established based on Arrhenius relationship. A constant activation energy was determined for 304L weld in the temperature range 335-400 Degree-Sign C, however, 316L weld showed different activation energy values in each temperature range.

  20. Stainless steel denitriding with slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation and experimental methods were used to investigate the process of titanium nitride formation when alloying chromium nickel stainless steels with titanium. At common concentrations of titanium and nitrogen, titanium nitrides were observed to be precipitated from the melt into slag in amounts of 0.1% and more. The laboratory study of the slag influence of the process of steel refining from titanium nitrides showed that the slag containing calcium, aluminium and magnesium oxides is favourable to the denitriding of steel. In addition, the possibility of direct transition of dissolved nitrogen from the metal into the slag is revealed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Qualification of electron-beam welded joints between copper and stainless steel for cryogenic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusch, C.; Borsch, M.; Heidt, C.; Magginetti, N.; Sas, J.; Weiss, K.-P.; Grohmann, S.

    2015-12-01

    Joints between copper and stainless steel are commonly applied in cryogenic systems. A relatively new and increasingly important method to combine these materials is electron-beam (EB) welding. Typically, welds in cryogenic applications need to withstand a temperature range from 300K down to 4K, and pressures of several MPa. However, few data are available for classifying EB welds between OFHC copper and 316L stainless steel. A broad test program was conducted in order to qualify this kind of weld. The experiments started with the measurement of the hardness in the weld area. To verify the leak-tightness of the joints, integral helium leak tests at operating pressures of 16 MPa were carried out at room- and at liquid nitrogen temperature. The tests were followed by destructive tensile tests at room temperature, at liquid nitrogen and at liquid helium temperatures, yielding information on the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength of the welds at these temperatures. Moreover, nondestructive tensile tests up to the yield strength, i.e. the range in which the weld can be stressed during operation, were performed. Also, the behavior of the weld upon temperature fluctuations between room- and liquid nitrogen temperature was tested. The results of the qualification indicate that EB welded joints between OFHC copper and 316L stainless steel are reliable and present an interesting alternative to other technologies such as vacuum brazing or friction welding.

  2. Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial corrosion of mild steel, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Mehanna, Maha; Basséguy, Régine; Délia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic corrosion of four different steels: mild steel 1145, ferritic steel 403 and austenitic steels 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (Eoc) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild steel, 403 ferritic steel and 304L austenitic steels and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of Eoc ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended ess...

  3. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Altaf Khalid; Vadivel Kumar; Prithviraj Jayaram

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated ca...

  4. Microbial corrosion of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibars, J R; Moreno, D A; Ranninger, C

    1992-11-01

    Stainless steel, developed because of their greater resistance to corrosion in different aggressive environments, have proved to be affected, however, by various processes and types of corrosion. Some of these types of corrosion, mainly pitting, is activated and developed in the presence of microorganisms, which acting in an isolated or symbiotic way, according to their adaptation to the environment, create a favorable situation for the corrosion of these steel. The microorganisms that are involved, mainly bacteria of both the aerobic and anaerobic type, modify the environment where the stainless steel is found, creating crevices, differential aeration zones or a more aggressive environment with the presence of metabolites. In these circumstances, a local break of the passive and passivating layer is produced, which is proper to these types of steel and impedes the repassivation that is more favorable to corrosion. In the study and research of these types of microbiologically influenced corrosion are found electrochemical techniques, since corrosion is fundamentally an electrochemical process, and microbiological techniques for the identification, culture, and evaluation of the microorganisms involved in the process, as well as in the laboratory or field study of microorganism-metal pairs. Microstructural characterization studies of stainless steel have also been considered important, since it is known that the microstructure of steel can substantially modify their behavior when faced with corrosion. As for surface analysis studies, it is known that corrosion is a process that is generated on and progresses from the surface. The ways of dealing with microbiologically influenced corrosion must necessarily include biocides, which are not always usable or successful, the design of industrial equipment or components that do not favor the adherence of microorganisms, using microstructures in steel less sensitive to corrosion, or protecting the materials. PMID:1492953

  5. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys

  6. Corrosion tests of 316L and Hastelloy C-22 in simulated tank waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Danielson; SG Pitman

    2000-02-23

    Both the 316L stainless steel and Hastelloy{reg_sign} C-22 gave satisfactory corrosion performance in the simulated test environments. They were subjected to 100 day weight loss corrosion tests and electrochemical potentiodynamic evaluation. This activity supports confirmation of the design basis for the materials of construction of process vessels and equipment used to handle the feed to the LAW-melter evaporator. BNFL process and mechanical engineering will use the information derived from this task to select material of construction for process vessels and equipment.

  7. Comparison of the corrosion resistance of DIN W. Nr. 1.4970 (15%Cr-15%Ni-1.2%Mo-Ti) and ASTM F-138 (17%Cr-13%Ni-2.5%Mo) austenitic stainless steels for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maysa Terada; Renato Altobelli Antunes; Angelo Fernando Padilha; Hercílio Gomes de Melo; Isolda Costa

    2006-01-01

    The resistance to localised corrosion of the full austenitic 15%Cr-15%Ni-1.2%Mo titanium stabilized stainless steel (DIN W. Nr. 1.4970) was investigated by electrochemical methods including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic polarization measurements in a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS). The low carbon and non-stabilized austenitic stainless steel, AISI 316L (ASTM F-138), widely used for surgical implants, was also tested for compar...

  8. Effect of heating rate on sintered series 300 stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornmanee Coovattanachai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel powders (303L, 304L, 310L and 316L were formed into tensile test bars using the “press and sinter”process. Most processing parameters, except heating rate, were kept constant. During the heating of the experimental specimensfrom 700°C to the sintering temperature of 1300°C, heating rates were varied, e.g., 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0°C/min. Experimentalresults showed that a material heated with a low heating rate tended to have higher sintered density and tensile strength.However, the low heating rate caused grain growth in the sintered material. These results are in contradiction with the improved densification of some ceramics by ultra rapid heating. The reasons for contradiction are as follows. First, the heatingrates employed in this work are not very different. The second is attributed to small thermal gradients generated in thethin metal powder compacts. Because of these reasons, densification of the sintered stainless steels series 300 is controlled by an isothermal condition. The low heating rate allows longer time for atomic diffusion, which is an important sintering factor. This means more atoms move to points of contact between powder particles to form necking and to cause neckinggrowth. This results in better sintering. However, the low heating rate means that the materials are exposed to heat for longertime and thus their grains have a tendency to grow.

  9. Preliminary Comparison of Properties between Ni-electroplated Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated with Laser Additive Manufacturing and Conventional Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mika; Jauhiainen, Eeva; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Riihimäki, Jaakko; Ritvanen, Jussi; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology, which enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to those of conventionally machined parts. These LAM parts are manufactured via melting metallic powder layer by layer with laser beam. Aim of this study is to define preliminarily the possibilities of using electroplating to supreme surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel and chromium as well as electroless (autocatalytic) deposited nickel was used to enhance laser additive manufactured and machined parts properties, like corrosion resistance, friction and wearing. All test pieces in this study were manufactured with a modified research AM equipment, equal to commercial EOS M series. The laser system used for tests was IPG 200 W CW fiber laser. The material used in this study for additive manufacturing was commercial stainless steel powder grade named SS316L. This SS316L is not equal to AISI 316L grade, but commercial name of this kind of powder is widely known in additive manufacturing as SS316L. Material used for fabrication of comparison test pieces (i.e. conventionally manufactured) was AISI 316L stainless steel bar. Electroplating was done in matrix cell and electroless was done in plastic sink properties of plated parts were tested within acetic acid salt spray corrosion chamber (AASS, SFS-EN-ISO 9227 standard). Adhesion of coating, friction and wearing properties were tested with Pin-On-Rod machine. Results show that in these preliminary tests, LAM parts and machined parts have certain differences due to manufacturing route and surface conditions. These have an effect on electroplated and electroless parts features on adhesion, corrosion, wearing and friction. However, further and more detailed studies are needed to fully understand these phenomena.

  10. Nano-composite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  11. Hot workability of duplex stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Guilhem

    2011-01-01

    The Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) are defined as a family of stainless steels consisting of a two-phase microstructure involving δ-ferrite and γ-austenite. Exceptional combinations of strength and toughness together with good corrosion resistance under critical working conditions designate DSS a suitable alternative to conventional austenitic stainless steels. Unfortunately, the relatively poor hot workability of these alloys makes the industrial processing of flat products particularly criti...

  12. The resistance of austenitic stainless steels to pitting corrosion in simulated BFS/OPC pore waters containing thiosulphate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current plans for the disposal of intermediate-level nuclear waste involve the use of austenitic stainless steel drums. The immediate environment seen by both the inner and outer surfaces of these drums will be alkaline, as a consequence of the encasement of both the drum and its contents in concrete. Normally there would be no risk of localized corrosion of the steel in this situation, but a possible complication is introduced by the use of blast-furnace slag (BFS) to decrease the permeability of the concrete. Metal sulphides in the BFS react with air and water to yield thiosulphate ions, which are known to be corrosive towards stainless steels in environments of near-neutral pH. This research was carried out to study the effects of thiosulphate at alkaline pH, simulating the concrete environment. Types 304L and 316L stainless steel have been tested for pitting corrosion resistance in simulated BFS/Ordinary Portland Cement pore waters of pH 10-13, at 20oC and 50oC. The results show that the 316L steel is essentially immune to pitting. The 304L steel shows some pitting at the higher temperature, especially at the higher chloride concentrations, but only at pH values of less than 12, which would require serious deterioration of the cement matrix. (author)

  13. Fine structure analysis of biocompatible ceramic materials based hydroxyapatite and metallic biomaterials 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghelina, F.V.; Ungureanu, D.N.; Bratu, V. [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Mechanics, Valahia University of Targoviste, 18-24 Unirii Bd., 130082 (Romania); Popescu, I.N., E-mail: pinicoleta24@yahoo.com [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Mechanics, Valahia University of Targoviste, 18-24 Unirii Bd., 130082 (Romania); Rusanescu, C.O. [Politehnica University, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this paper was to obtain and characterize (surface morphology and fine structure) two types of materials: Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} hydroxyapatite powder (HAp) as biocompatible ceramic materials and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels as metallic biomaterials, which are the components of the metal–ceramic composites used for medical implants in reconstructive surgery and prosthetic treatment. The HAp was synthesized by coprecipitation method, heat treated at 200 °C, 800 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stainless steel 316L type was made by casting, annealing and machined with a low speed (100 mm/s) in order to obtain a smooth surface and after that has been studied from residual stresses point of view in three polishing regimes conditions: at low speed polishing (150 rpm), at high speed polishing (1500 rpm) and high speed-vibration contact polishing (1500 rpm) using wide angle X-ray diffractions (WAXD). The chemical compositions of AISI 316 steel samples were measured using a Foundry Master Spectrometer equipped with CCD detector for spectral lines and the sparking spots of AISI 316L samples were analyzed using SEM. By XRD the phases of HAp powders have been identified and also the degree of crystallinity and average size of crystallites, and with SEM, we studied the morphology of the HAp. It has been found from XRD analysis that we obtained HAp with a high degree of crystallinity at 800 °C and 1200 °C, no presence of impurity and from SEM analysis we noticed the influence of heat treatment on the ceramic particles morphology. From the study of residual stress profiles of 316L samples were observed that it differs substantially for different machining regimes and from the SEM analysis of sparking spots we revealed the rough surfaces of stainless steel rods necessary for a better adhesion of HAp on it.

  14. Fine structure analysis of biocompatible ceramic materials based hydroxyapatite and metallic biomaterials 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to obtain and characterize (surface morphology and fine structure) two types of materials: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 hydroxyapatite powder (HAp) as biocompatible ceramic materials and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels as metallic biomaterials, which are the components of the metal–ceramic composites used for medical implants in reconstructive surgery and prosthetic treatment. The HAp was synthesized by coprecipitation method, heat treated at 200 °C, 800 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stainless steel 316L type was made by casting, annealing and machined with a low speed (100 mm/s) in order to obtain a smooth surface and after that has been studied from residual stresses point of view in three polishing regimes conditions: at low speed polishing (150 rpm), at high speed polishing (1500 rpm) and high speed-vibration contact polishing (1500 rpm) using wide angle X-ray diffractions (WAXD). The chemical compositions of AISI 316 steel samples were measured using a Foundry Master Spectrometer equipped with CCD detector for spectral lines and the sparking spots of AISI 316L samples were analyzed using SEM. By XRD the phases of HAp powders have been identified and also the degree of crystallinity and average size of crystallites, and with SEM, we studied the morphology of the HAp. It has been found from XRD analysis that we obtained HAp with a high degree of crystallinity at 800 °C and 1200 °C, no presence of impurity and from SEM analysis we noticed the influence of heat treatment on the ceramic particles morphology. From the study of residual stress profiles of 316L samples were observed that it differs substantially for different machining regimes and from the SEM analysis of sparking spots we revealed the rough surfaces of stainless steel rods necessary for a better adhesion of HAp on it.

  15. Influence of plastic strain localization on the stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels; Influence de la localisation de la deformation plastique sur la CSC d'aciers austenitiques inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisse, S.; Tanguy, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN, SEMI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Andrieu, E.; Laffont, L.; Lafont, M.Ch. [Universite de Toulouse. CIRIMAT, UPS/INPT/CNRS, 31 - Toulous (France)

    2010-03-15

    The authors present a research study of the role of strain localization on the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of vessel steel in PWR-type (pressurized water reactor) environment. They study the interaction between plasticity and intergranular corrosion and/or oxidation mechanisms in austenitic stainless steels with respect to sublayer microstructure transformations. The study is performed on three austenitic stainless grades which have not been sensitized by any specific thermal treatment: the A286 structurally hardened steel, and the 304L and 316L austenitic stainless steels

  16. Investigations on structure–property relationships of activated flux TIG weldments of super-duplex/austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K., E-mail: ramdevendranath@gmail.com; Bajpai, Ankur; Raghuvanshi, Shubham; Singh, Anshuman; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Arivarasu, M.; Arivazhagan, N.

    2015-06-25

    This research work articulated the effect of SiO{sub 2} flux assisted tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of marine grade stainless steel weldments, such as super-duplex stainless steel (UNS S32750) and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L). The studies showed that the use of flux decreased the heat input required to obtain complete penetration. Microstructure studies revealed the presence of ferrite at the heat affected zone of AISI 316L and the fusion zone which obviated the hot cracking tendency. Tensile studies corroborated that the joint strength was sufficiently greater than that of the parent metals. Impact toughness slightly impoverished owing to the presence of large platelets of Widmanstätten austenite in the fusion zone. The study also explored the structure–property relationships of the flux assisted weldments using the combined techniques of optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Owing to the better metallurgical and mechanical properties, this study recommends the use of SiO{sub 2} flux for joining the dissimilar metals involving austenitic and super-duplex stainless steels.

  17. A novel silica nanotube reinforced ionic incorporated hydroxyapatite composite coating on polypyrrole coated 316L SS for implant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem Ananth, K; Joseph Nathanael, A; Jose, Sujin P; Oh, Tae Hwan; Mangalaraj, D

    2016-02-01

    An attempt has been made to deposit a novel smart ion (Sr, Zn, Mg) substituted hydroxyapatite (I-HAp) and silica nanotube (SiNTs) composite coatings on polypyrrole (PPy) coated surgical grade 316L stainless steel (316L SS) to improve its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. The I-HAp/SiNTS/PPy bilayer coating on 316L SS was prepared by electrophoretic deposition technique. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were carried out. These results confirmed the significant improvement of the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS alloy by the I-HAp/SiNTs/PPy bilayer composite coating. The adhesion strength and hardness test confirmed the anticipated mechanical properties of the composite. A low contact angle value revealed the hydrophilic nature. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used for the leach out analysis of the samples. Added to this, the bioactivity of the composite was analyzed by observing the apatite formation in the SBF solution for 7, 14, 21 and 28days of incubation. An enhancement of in vitro osteoblast attachment and cell viability was observed, which could lead to the optimistic orthopedic and dental applications.

  18. Isotope effects on desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into stainless steel by glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, M.; Kondo, M.; Noda, N. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    In a fusion device the control of fuel particles implies to know the desorption rate of hydrogen isotopes by the plasma-facing materials. In this paper desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into type 316L stainless steel by glow discharge have been studied by experiment and numerical calculation. The temperature of a maximum desorption rate depends on glow discharge time and heating rate. Desorption spectra observed under various experimental conditions have been successfully reproduced by numerical simulations that are based on a diffusion-limited process. It is suggested, therefore, that desorption rate of a hydrogen isotope implanted into the stainless steel is limited by a diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms in bulk. Furthermore, small isotope effects were observed for the diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms. (authors)

  19. Effects of postweld treatments on corrosion of stainless steel weldments in microbial fresh-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, P.; Buchanan, R.A.; Lundin, C.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Tuthill, A.H. [Tuthill Associates, Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Avery, R.E. [Avery Consulting Associates, Inc., Londonderry, NH (United States); Angell, P. [Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sachs, D.E. [Arizona Public Service Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Corrosion studies of 304L and 316L stainless steel weldments were conducted in natural and simulated fresh-water systems containing microorganisms. Experimental conditions were chosen to simulate microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) conditions in practical applications. Results showed that corrosion, with the formation of nodules, occurred at imposed crevice locations within weldment heat-tint areas. Upon removal of the heat tint, either chemically, electrochemically, or mechanically, corrosion nodules were not formed even under crevice conditions. Follow-up experiments indicated that the stainless steel weldments were less corrosion resistant in the bacterial environments. The results were correlated to the presence of the heat tint, the crevice geometry, the chloride concentration, and the bacterial activities.

  20. Analysis of the influence of electrolyte on surface finish in electropolished stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M.; Núñez, P. J.; García, E.; Trujillo, R.

    2012-04-01

    Electropolishing is a surface finishing process of metals and alloys that enhances brilliant surface finishes with low surface roughness values. The most widely used electrolytes for the electropolishing of stainless steel are varying concentrations of phosphoric and sulphuric acid, and occasionally additives such as chromic acid. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of three commonly used industrial electrolytes in terms of the surface finish of electropolished stainless steel AISI 316L. Each electrolyte had varying sulphuric-phosphoric acid combinations with or without chromic acid. The following electropolishing conditions were assessed: current density, bath temperature, electropolishing time, and initial surface texture. The results revealed that adding chromic acid to the electrolyte did not significantly enhance surface finish, and electropolishing ranges were quite similar for all three electrolytes.

  1. Enhanced mechanical behavior of a nanocrystallised stainless steel and its thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, T. [ICD, LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10010 Troyes (France); Retraint, D. [ICD, LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10010 Troyes (France)]. E-mail: delphine.retraint@utt.fr; Lu, K. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110015 (China); Lu, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-02-15

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of a nanocrystallised stainless steel obtained using surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) and the underlying grain refinement mechanism using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was shown that grain refinement down to the nanometer range has the potential to significantly improve the mechanical properties of a 316L stainless steel which becomes comparable in strength to titanium alloys. Hence, promising structural applications could be considered for such a material. At the same time, the thermal stability of this nanocrystallised material was studied in the temperature range from 100 to 800 deg. C. The results show that the nanometer scaled microstructure is retained up to 600 deg. C and that a controlled annealing treatment could even lead to enhancement of both strength and ductility of this material. All these results are explained in terms of microstructural investigations, X-ray diffraction measurements, tensile and bending tests as well as microhardness measurements.

  2. Brazing of stainless steel; Stainless ko no rozuke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsu, T.

    1996-04-01

    This paper explains brazing of stainless steel as to its processing materials, brazing materials, brazing methods, and brazing works. When performing brazing at higher than 800{degree}C on a martensite-based stainless steel represented by the 13Cr steel, attention is required on cracking caused by quenching. When a ferrite-based stainless steel represented by the 18Cr steel is heated above 900{degree}C, crystalline particles grow coarser, causing their tenacity and corrosion resistance to decline. High-temperature long-time heating in brazing in a furnace demands cautions. Austenite-based stainless steel represented by the 18Cr-8Ni steel has the best brazing performance. However, since the steel has large thermal expansion coefficient and low thermal conductivity, attention is required on strain and deformation due to heating, and on localized overheating. Deposition hardened stainless steel made of the Cr-Ni alloy steel added with aluminum and titanium has poor wettability in a brazing work, hence pretreatment is required for the purpose of activation. 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Recrystallization and modification of the stainless-steel surface relief under photonic heat load in powerful plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru; Martynenko, Yu. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. N. [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation); Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Klimov, N. S. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Pitts, R. A. [ITER Organization (France); Linke, J. [EURATOM Association, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Bazylev, B. [IHM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Belova, N. E.; Karpov, A. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Yaroshevskaya, A. D. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Targets made of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG stainless steel and Russian-grade 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel with a close composition were exposed at the QSPA-T plasma gun to plasma photonic radiation pulses simulating conditions of disruption mitigation in ITER. After a large number of pulses, modification of the stainless-steel surface was observed, such as the formation of a wavy structure, irregular roughness, and cracks on the target surface. X-ray and optic microscopic analyses of targets revealed changes in the orientation and dimensions of crystallites (grains) over a depth of up to 20 μm for 316L(N)-IG stainless steel after 200 pulses and up to 40 μm for 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel after 50 pulses, which is significantly larger than the depth of the layer melted in one pulse (∼10 μm). In a series of 200 tests of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG ITER stainless steel, a linear increase in the height of irregularity (roughness) with increasing number of pulses at a rate of up to ∼1 μm per pulse was observed. No alteration in the chemical composition of the stainless-steel surface in the series of tests was revealed. A model is developed that describes the formation of wavy irregularities on the melted metal surface with allowance for the nonlinear stage of instability of the melted layer with a vapor/plasma flow above it. A decisive factor in this case is the viscous flow of the melted metal from the troughs to tops of the wavy structure. The model predicts saturation of the growth of the wavy structure when its amplitude becomes comparable with its wavelength. Approaches to describing the observed stochastic relief and roughness of the stainless-steel surface formed in the series of tests are considered. The recurrence of the melting-solidification process in which mechanisms of the hill growth compete with the spreading of the material from the hills can result in the formation of a stochastic relief.

  4. Engineered materials as potential geocatalysts in deep geological nuclear waste repositories: A case study of the stainless steel catalytic effect on nitrate reduction by hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We demonstrate that stainless steels (316L and Hastelloy) can catalyse nitrate reduction in the presence of hydrogen. • Hydrogen is the sole electron donor. • The reaction proceeds via nitrate sorption at the steel surface up to pH = 9 following Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism. • The reaction is inhibited by the presence of phosphate anions which compete with nitrate for the steel sorption sites. - Abstract: The reduction of NO3- in natural waters is commonly promoted by biological activity. In the context of deep geological nuclear waste repositories with potentially high H2 pressure, abiotic redox reactions may be envisaged. Here, the catalytic effect of “inert” metallic surfaces, in part used for nuclear waste canisters, on NO3- reduction under H2 pressure is evaluated. The study is focused on stainless steels by testing the 316L and Hastelloy C276 steels. A parametric kinetic study (0 < P(H2) < 10 bar, 0.1 < [NO3-] < 10 mM, 90 < T° < 150 °C, 4 < pHin situ < 9) reveals that NO3- reduction, in the presence of stainless steel 316L and Hastelloy C276, proceeds via a pH-independent reaction requiring H2 as an electron donor. No corrosion of these steels is observed indicating a true catalytic process. The reaction is inhibited in the presence of PO43-. Activation energies assuming a first-order reaction in the 90–150 °C temperature range are found to be 46 kJ/mol for stainless steel 316L and 186 kJ/mol for Hastelloy C276, making the reaction efficient at lower temperature and on a human time scale. Nitrate sorption at the metallic surface being thought to be the limiting step, sorption and competitive sorption isotherms of several oxyanions were performed at 90 °C on 316L. Nitrate and PO43- are more strongly sorbed than SO42-, likely as inner sphere complexes, and in a large pH range, from acidic to pH 9. The Langmuir–Hinshelwood formalism best fits the kinetic data. The nature of the surface complex, and the competition for

  5. Thick-section weldments in 21-6-9 and 316LN stainless steel for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties of several weldments in 21-6-9 and 316LN stainless steel metals have been measured at 77 K and room temperature. Filler metals for the 211-6-9 included Nitronic 35W and 40W, 21-6-9, Inconel 82, 182, 625, and 625 PLUS. For the 316LN base metal, 316L, 316L-T3, 316L-4K-O, and Inconel 82 filler metals were used. At room temperature all of the filler metals had yield strengths that exceeded those of the base metals. At 77K only the Nitronics and the 21-6-9 filler metals exceeded those of the base metals, and the Inconel filler metals were significantly weaker. The impact properties of the weld metals were very good at room temperature, with the exception of Inconel 625. At 77 K the impact toughness was greatly reduced for all of the filler metals, with the dramatic exception of Inconel 82. The 316L-4K-O filler metal showed higher impact energies than the other ferrite-containing filler metals, although the levels were still much lower than for the Inconel filler metals. The Inconel 82 filler had excellent fracture toughness at both temperatures

  6. The deformation response of L-grade stainless steels relative to IGSCC in 288 C water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory testing of L-grade stainless steels in representative boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) core environments has shown that the intergranular (IG) cracking behavior is sensitive to the composition, corrosion potential and cold work. The objective of this study is to explore the deformation response of L-grade stainless steels to better understand its role on the IGSCC behavior. The deformation response was studied as a function of composition to evaluate the phase stability, susceptibility to sensitization and creep relaxation behaviors. The effect of deformation on 304, 304L, 316L and 316NG materials were evaluated metallographically and as a function of thermal treatment using the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) technique. Metallographic results show that 304L is most likely to form deformation induced martensite, consistent with calculations. The DL-EPR response of 304L and 316L/NG materials increases significantly upon thermal treatment of cold worked material. These results are being used to determine the combinations of cold work and thermal treatment that promote IGSCC in 288 C high purity water at ∼ +200mVSHE of 304L weld material obtained from an unirradiated nuclear station core shroud. The creep relaxation response of 304, 304L, 316L and 316NG materials were evaluated as a function of the stress intensity in 288 C air using compact tension specimens. The preliminary results suggest that the lower alloyed 304L exhibits more creep strain in the same period of time than higher alloyed 316L/NG and Alloy 600 materials. These results have implications in terms of the slip-oxidation model for crack advance where higher creep rates are expected to promote a higher crack tip strain rate and faster crack growth rates. Future work will study the crack growth rates of 304W316L/316NG in various states of cold work and thermal treatment to evaluate the roles of phase stability, sensitization and creep relaxation on the

  7. Hardness analysis of welded joints of austenitic and duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.

    2016-08-01

    Stainless steels are widely used in the modern world. The continuous increase in the use of stainless steels is caused by getting greater requirements relating the corrosion resistance of all types of devices. The main property of these steels is the ability to overlap a passive layer of an oxide on their surface. This layer causes that they become resistant to oxidation. One of types of corrosion-resistant steels is ferritic-austenitic steel of the duplex type, which has good strength properties. It is easily formable and weldable as well as resistant to erosion and abrasive wear. It has a low susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking, to stress corrosion, to intercrystalline one, to pitting one and to crevice one. For these reasons they are used, among others, in the construction of devices and facilities designed for chemicals transportation and for petroleum and natural gas extraction. The paper presents the results which shows that the particular specimens of the ][joint representing both heat affected zones (from the side of the 2205 steel and the 316L one) and the weld are characterized by higher hardness values than in the case of the same specimens for the 2Y joint. Probably this is caused by machining of edges of the sections of metal sheets before the welding process, which came to better mixing of native materials and the filler metal. After submerged arc welding the 2205 steel still retains the diphase, austenitic-ferritic structure and the 316L steel retains the austenitic structure with sparse bands of ferrite σ.

  8. Microstructure and properties of laser surface alloyed PM austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brytan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of laser surface alloying with chromium on the microstructural changes and properties of vacuum sintered austenitic stainless steel type AISI 316L (EN 1.4404.Design/methodology/approach: Surface modification of AISI 316L sintered austenitic stainless steel was carried out by laser surface alloying with chromium powder using high power diode laser (HPDL. The influence of laser alloying conditions, both laser beam power (between 0.7 and 2.0 kW and powder feed rate (1.0-4.5 g/min at constant scanning rate of 0.5m/min on the width of alloyed surface layer, penetration depth, microstructure evaluated by LOM, SEM x-ray analysis, surface roughness and microhardness were presented.Findings: The microstructures of Cr laser alloyed surface consist of different zones, starting from the superficial zone rich in alloying powder particles embedded in the surface; these particles protrude from the surface and thus considerably increase the surface roughness. Next is alloyed zone enriched in alloying element where ferrite and austenite coexists. The following transient zone is located between properly alloyed material and the base metal and can be considered as a very narrow HAZ zone. The optimal microstructure homogeneity of Cr alloyed austenitic stainless steel was obtained for powder feed rate of 2.0 and 4.5 g/min and laser beam power of 1.4 kW and 2 kW.Practical implications: Laser surface alloying can be an efficient method of surface layer modification of sintered stainless steel and by this way the surface chromium enrichment can produce microstructural changes affecting mechanical properties.Originality/value: Application of high power diode laser can guarantee uniform heating of treated surface, thus uniform thermal cycle across treated area and uniform penetration depth of chromium alloyed surface layer.

  9. Study of austenitic stainless steel welded with low alloy steel filler metal. [tensile and impact strength tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, F. A.; Dyke, R. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The tensile and impact strength properties of 316L stainless steel plate welded with low alloy steel filler metal were determined. Tests were conducted at room temperature and -100 F on standard test specimens machined from as-welded panels of various chemical compositions. No significant differences were found as the result of variations in percentage chemical composition on the impact and tensile test results. The weldments containing lower chromium and nickel as the result of dilution of parent metal from the use of the low alloy steel filler metal corroded more severely in a marine environment. The use of a protective finish, i.e., a nitrile-based paint containing aluminum powder, prevented the corrosive attack.

  10. Yield stress of duplex stainless steel specimens estimated using a compound Hall–Petch equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Hirota, Fuxing Yin, Tsukasa Azuma and Tadanobu Inoue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 0.2% yield stress of duplex stainless steel was evaluated using a compound Hall–Petch equation. The compound Hall–Petch equation was derived from four types of duplex stainless steel, which contained 0.2–64.4 wt% δ-ferrite phase, had different chemical compositions and were annealed at different temperatures. Intragranular yield stress was measured with an ultra-microhardness tester and evaluated with the yield stress model proposed by Dao et al. Grain size, volume fraction and texture were monitored by electron backscattering diffraction measurement. The kγ constant in the compound equation for duplex stainless steel agrees well with that for γ-phase SUS316L steel in the temperature range of 1323–1473 K. The derived compound Hall–Petch equation predicts that the yield stress will be in good agreement with the experimental results for the Cr, Mn, Si, Ni and N solid-solution states. We find that the intragranular yield stress of the δ-phase of duplex stainless steel is rather sensitive to the chemical composition and annealing conditions, which is attributed to the size misfit parameter.

  11. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  12. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO) from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim; Azriszul Mohd Amin; Rosli Asmawi; Najwa Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO) from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP) copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS31...

  13. Evolution des microstructures et textures locales par nitruration plasma de l'acier 316L. Répercussion sur sa durabilité en fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Stinville, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    The present study concerns the surface and mechanical properties induced by specific low temperature (~400°C) plasma nitriding of an AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel largely used for structural component in nuclear and chemical industries. It focuses especially on its influence on the fatigue durability. The great advantages of this plasma nitriding process are to produce thick nitrided layers with a high concentration of nitrogen atoms in solid solution into the material and to preserve ...

  14. Corrosion behavior of powder metallurgical stainless steels in urban and marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the development of corrosive attack on sintered components manufactured from AISI 316L and AISI 304L powders. The stainless steels were sintered in vacuum and in nitrogen-base atmosphere at 1,120 and 1,250 ºC, and their corrosion resistance was then analyzed by electrochemical techniques and by atmospheric corrosion testing (two years at urban and marine test sites. Images are shown of the morphology of the attack on the surface of the stainless steels and the development of this attack in the interior of the material.

    Este trabajo estudia el desarrollo del proceso corrosivo en componentes sinterizados fabricados a partir de polvos de AISI 316L y AISI 304L. Los aceros inoxidables fueron sinterizados en vacío y en atmósfera base nitrógeno a 1.120 y 1.250 ºC y, su resistencia a corrosión se ha analizado mediante técnicas electroquímicas y mediante ensayos de corrosión atmosférica (dos años en ambientes urbano y marino. Se muestran imágenes de la morfología del ataque en la superficie de los aceros inoxidables y del desarrollo de este ataque en el interior del material.

  15. Immobilization of antibacterial chlorhexidine on stainless steel using crosslinking polydopamine film: Towards infection resistant medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Daud, Nurizzati; Saeful Bahri, Ihda Fithriyana; Nik Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam; Hermawan, Hendra; Saidin, Syafiqah

    2016-09-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is known for its high antibacterial substantivity and is suitable for use to bio-inert medical devices due to its long-term antibacterial efficacy. However, CHX molecules require a crosslinking film to be stably immobilized on bio-inert metal surfaces. Therefore, polydopamine (PDA) was utilized in this study to immobilize CHX on the surface of 316L type stainless steel (SS316L). The SS316L disks were pre-treated, modified with PDA film and immobilized with different concentrations of CHX (10mM-50mM). The disks were then subjected to various surface characterization analyses (ATR-FTIR, XPS, ToF-SIMS, SEM and contact angle measurement) and tested for their cytocompatibility with human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results demonstrated the formation of a thin PDA film on the SS316L surface, which acted as a crosslinking medium between the metal and CHX. CHX was immobilized via a reduction process that covalently linked the CHX molecules with the functional group of PDA. The immobilization of CHX increased the hydrophobicity of the disk surfaces. Despite this property, a low concentration of CHX optimized the viability of HSF cells without disrupting the morphology of adherent cells. The immobilized disks also demonstrated high antibacterial efficacy against both bacteria, even at a low concentration of CHX. This study demonstrates a strong beneficial effect of the crosslinked PDA film in immobilizing CHX on bio-inert metal, and these materials are applicable in medical devices. Specifically, the coating will restrain bacterial proliferation without suffocating nearby tissues. PMID:27153117

  16. Comparison of the corrosion behavior and surface morphology of NiTi alloy and stainless steels in sodium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožuh S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of NiTi alloy and stainless steels (AISI 316L and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 in 0.9% sodium chloride (0.154 moll-1 solution was investigated using open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Microstructural analyses before and after electrochemical tests were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS. The lowest corrosion current density has NiTi alloy and the extent of the passive range increased in the order AISI 316L stainless steel < NiTi alloy < X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 duplex stainless steel. The oxide film formed on all samples has a double-layer structure consisting of a barrier-type inner layer and a porous outer layer. Oxide films formed on the surface of steels mainly contains iron oxides and chromium oxide, while the surface film of the NiTi alloy mainly contains TiO2 oxide.

  17. 09 CuPCrNi-A与316 L异种钢的焊接工艺及接头组织性能研究%Research on welding process and microstructure and properties of welded joint of 09 CuPCrNi-A and 316 L dissimilar steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方明; 程瑞强; 吴兴祥; 朱正祥

    2016-01-01

    The dissimilar steel(09CuPCrNi-A and 316L)of SCR device of the marine diesel engine was welded by FCAW method.When the dissimilar steel is welded,there are the following problems:the welded metal easi-ly produces hot crack during the process of welding because of the different thermal conductivity and linear ex-pansion coefficient;the hardness of the weld increases and the toughness of the weld decreases which is caused by carburization;during the face bend test,the crack appears at the fusion area of low alloy steel due to decar-burization;flux cored wire welding due to the groove design is not appropriate,easy to cause the slag.The inap-propriate groove design is easy to cause the slag problem when it is welded by FCAW.In this paper,a reasona-ble welding process plan which is designed based on the analysis of weldability of weathering steel 09 CuPCrNi-A and stainless steel 316L,has made the joint qualified.The mechanical properties and microstructure analysis show that the welding process can meet the requirements of products and the welding procedure has been applied to practical production.%异种钢焊接时由于热导率和线膨胀系数不同,焊接时容易产生热裂纹;由于焊缝增碳,使焊缝硬度增加,韧性下降;低合金钢熔合区脱碳,面弯时在低合金钢熔合区产生裂纹;药芯焊丝焊接时如坡口设计不合适,则易导致夹渣。为避免以上异常情况,文中采用FCAW焊接方法,对船用柴油机SCR装置用异种钢(09CuPCrNi-A与316L)进行焊接,设计合理的焊接工艺方案,得到合格焊接接头。通过力学性能和显微组织分析,证明该焊接工艺能够满足产品要求,并在实际生产中得到了应用。

  18. Effects of laser power density on static and dynamic mechanical properties of dissimilar stainless steel welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Peng Wei; Mao-Hui Li; Gang Yu; Xian-Qian Wu; Chen-Guang Huang; Zhu-Ping Duan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of laser welded joints under impact loadings such as explosion and car crash etc.are critical for the engineering designs. The hardness,static and dynamic mechanical properties of AISI304 and AISI316L dissimilar stainless steel welded joints by CO2 laser were experimentally studied. The dynamic strain-stress curves at the strain rate around 103 s-1 were obtained by the split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB).The static mechanical properties of the welded joints have little changes with the laser power density and all fracture occurs at 316 L side.However,the strain rate sensitivity has a strong dependence on laser power density.The value of strain rate factor decreases with the increase of laser power density.The welded joint which may be applied for the impact loading can be obtained by reducing the laser power density in the case of welding quality assurance.

  19. Effects of laser power density on static and dynamic mechanical properties of dissimilar stainless steel welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Peng; Li, Mao-Hui; Yu, Gang; Wu, Xian-Qian; Huang, Chen-Guang; Duan, Zhu-Ping

    2012-10-01

    The mechanical properties of laser welded joints under impact loadings such as explosion and car crash etc. are critical for the engineering designs. The hardness, static and dynamic mechanical properties of AISI304 and AISI316 L dissimilar stainless steel welded joints by CO2 laser were experimentally studied. The dynamic strain-stress curves at the strain rate around 103 s-1 were obtained by the split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB). The static mechanical properties of the welded joints have little changes with the laser power density and all fracture occurs at 316 L side. However, the strain rate sensitivity has a strong dependence on laser power density. The value of strain rate factor decreases with the increase of laser power density. The welded joint which may be applied for the impact loading can be obtained by reducing the laser power density in the case of welding quality assurance.

  20. Corrosion of stainless steel sternal wire after long-term implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Yasuko; Hanawa, Takao; Kuroda, Daisuke; Nishida, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    A variety of metallic components have been used in medical devices where lifelong durability and physical strength are demanded. To investigate the in vivo changes of implanted metallic medical devices in humans, stainless steel sternal wires removed from patients were evaluated. Stainless steel (316L) sternal wires removed from four patients after 10, 13, 22, and 30 years of implantation were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Macroscopically, the removed specimens maintained their metallic luster and color. Under SEM, small holes were observed sporadically at 10 years and they tended to connect in the drawing direction. The longer the implanted duration, the more numerous and deeper were the crevices observed. By EDS, sulfur, phosphorus, and calcium were identified in all areas at 10 years, in addition to the component elements of stainless steel, comprising iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese. Corrosion products observed at 30 years were identified as calcium phosphate. In conclusion, stainless steel sternal wires develop corroded pores that grow larger and deeper with time after implantation; however, the pores remain shallow even after decades of implantation and they may not be a cause of mechanical failure. An amount of metal ions equivalent to the corroded volume must have been released into the human body, but the effect of these metal ions on the body is not apparent.

  1. Dynamic strain ageing of deformed nitrogen-alloyed AISI 316 stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrnsten, U.; Toivonen, A. [Materials and Structural Integrity, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Kemistintie 3, P.O. Box 1704, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Ivanchenko, M.; Nevdacha, V.; Yagozinskyy, Y.; Haenninen, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology Puumiehenkuja 3, P.O. Box 4200, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking has occurred in BWR environment in non-sensitized, deformed austenitic stainless steel materials. The affecting parameters are so far not fully known, but deformation mechanisms may be decisive. The effect of deformation and nitrogen content on the behaviour of austenitic stainless steels was investigated. The materials were austenitic stainless steels of AISI 316L type with different amounts of nitrogen (0.03 - 0.18%) and they were mechanically deformed 0, 5 and 20%. The investigations are focused on the dynamic strain ageing (DSA) behaviour. A few crack growth rate measurements are performed on nuclear grade AISI 316NG material with different degrees of deformation (0, 5 and 20%). The effects of DSA on mechanical properties of these materials are evaluated based on peaks in ultimate tensile strength and strain hardening coefficient and minimum in ductility in the DSA temperature range. Additionally, internal friction measurements have been performed in the temperature range of -100 to 600 deg. C for determining nitrogen interactions with other alloying elements and dislocations (cold-worked samples). The results show an effect of nitrogen on the stainless steel behaviour, e.g. clear indications of dynamic strain ageing and changes in the internal friction peaks as a function of nitrogen content and amount of deformation. (authors)

  2. Preparation of precursor for stainless steel foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang-yang; LI Shan-ni; LI Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of polyurethane sponge pretreatment and slurry compositions on the slurry loading in precursor were discussed, and the,performances of stainless steel foams prepared from precursors with different slurry loadings and different particle sizes of the stainless steel powder were also investigated. The experimental results show that the pretreatment of sponge with alkaline solution is effective to reduce the jam of cells in precursor and ensure the slurry to uniformly distribute in sponge, and it is also an effective method for increasing the slurry loading in precursor; the mass fraction of additive A and solid content in slurry greatly affect the slurry loading in precursor, when they are kept in 9%-13% and 52%-75%, respectively, the stainless steel foam may hold excellent 3D open-cell network structure and uniform muscles; the particle size of the stainless steel powder and the slurry loading in precursor have great effects on the bending strength, apparent density and open porosity of stainless steel foam; when the stainless steel powder with particle size of 44 tan and slurry loading of 0.5 g/cm3 in precursor are used, a stainless steel foam can be obtained, which has open porosity of 81.2%, bending strength of about 51.76 MPa and apparent density of about 1.0 g/cm3.

  3. Sub-micron indent induced plastic deformation in copper and irradiated steel; Deformation plastique induite par l'essai d'indentation submicronique, dans le cuivre et l'acier 316L irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Ch

    1999-07-01

    In this work we aim to study the indent induced plastic deformation. For this purpose, we have developed a new approach, whereby the indentation curves provides the mechanical behaviour, while the deformation mechanisms are observed thanks to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In order to better understand how an indent induced dislocation microstructure forms, numerical modeling of the indentation process at the scale of discrete dislocations has been worked out as well. Validation of this modeling has been performed through direct comparison of the computed microstructures with TEM micrographs of actual indents in pure Cu (001]. Irradiation induced modifications of mechanical behaviour of ion irradiated 316L have been investigated, thanks to the mentioned approach. An important hardening effect was reported from indentation data (about 50%), on helium irradiated 316L steel. TEM observations of the damage zone clearly show that this behaviour is associated with the presence of He bubbles. TEM observations of the indent induced plastic zone also showed that the extent of the plastic zone is strongly correlated with hardness, that is to say: harder materials gets a smaller plastic zone. These results thus clearly established that the selected procedure can reveal any irradiation induced hardening in sub-micron thick ion irradiated layers. The behaviour of krypton irradiated 316L steel is somewhat more puzzling. In one hand indeed, a strong correlation between the defect cluster size and densities on the irradiation temperature is observed in the 350 deg. C - 600 deg. C range, thanks to TEM observations of the damage zone. On the other hand, irradiation induced hardening reported from indentation data is relatively small (about 10%) and shows no dependence upon the irradiation temperature (within the mentioned range). In addition, it has been shown that the reported hardening vanishes following appropriate post-irradiation annealing, although most of the TEM

  4. Parameters optimization of hybrid fiber laser-arc butt welding on 316L stainless steel using Kriging model and GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongmei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Cao, Longchao; Zhou, Qi; Yue, Chen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Chunming

    2016-09-01

    It is of great significance to select appropriate welding process parameters for obtaining optimal weld geometry in hybrid laser-arc welding. An integrated optimization approach by combining Kriging model and GA is proposed to optimize process parameters. A four-factor, five-level experiment using Taguchi L25 is conducted considering laser power (P), welding current (A), distance between laser and arc (D) and traveling speed (V). Kriging model is adopted to approximate the relationship between process parameters and weld geometry, namely depth of penetration (DP), bead width (BW) and bead reinforcement (BR). The constructed Kriging model was used for parameters optimization by GA to maximize DP, minimize BW and ensure BR at a desired value. The effects of process parameters on weld geometry are analyzed. Microstructure and micro-hardness are also discussed. Verification experiments demonstrate that the obtained optimum values are in good agreement with experimental results.

  5. Residual stress in nano-structured stainless steel (AISI 316L) prompted by Xe+ ion bombardment at different impinging angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucatti, S.; Droppa, R.; Figueroa, C. A.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Alvarez, F.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of low energy (Plot" methods. The analysis shows the absence of shear stress in the affected material region and the presence of compressive in-plane residual biaxial stress (˜200 MPa) expanding up to ˜1 μm depth for all the studied samples. Samples under oblique bombardment present higher compressive stress values in the direction of the projected ion beam on the bombarded surface. The absolute value of the biaxial surface stress difference (σ11-σ22) increases on ion impinging angles, a phenomenon associated with the momentum transfer by the ions. The highest stress level was measured for ion impinging angles of 45° ( σ 11 = -380 ± 10 MPa and σ 22 = -320 ± 10 MPa). The different stresses obtained in the studied samples do not affect significantly the formation of characteristic surface patterns.

  6. Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides

  7. Electrochemical behaviour of stainless steel under radiation and exposed to representative chemistry in pressurised water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissertation focuses on the behaviour of stainless steel under irradiation and exposed to primary PWR conditions. The electrochemical potential of austenitic 316L stainless steel and the environmental parameters (hydrogen pressure, temperature, etc.,) have been measured continuously at high temperature (HT) and high pressure (HP) under irradiation, using a unique experimental HTHP working cell. Two sources of irradiation, proton and electron beams, have been employed in the study. A high similarity of electrochemical behaviour under both types of irradiations has been observed: (i) an oxidative potential response under irradiation (few tens of milli-volts); (ii) an increase in the hydrogen pressure reduces the oxidative potential response; (iii) a synergetic effect of thermal ageing and fluence leading to a decrease of the oxidative response under irradiation. The observations of the oxide film showed that without irradiation, metallic nickel in the inner and outer oxide films has been observed under a high hydrogen pressure. Under irradiation, um scale cavities (pits) have been observed in the strongly electron irradiated oxide film formed on 316L stainless steel. These defects are induced by the effect of irradiation of the passive film and water radiolysis. It is also shown that water radiolysis influences the PWR water chemistry by making it become a stronger oxidant at the oxide/solution interface. As a result, the release of metallic cations is increased and a-Fe2O3 hematite has been observed on the irradiated outer oxide film where cavities were formed. (author)

  8. Impact Tensile Testing of Stainless Steels at Various Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. Morton

    2008-03-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern (1 to 300 per second) are not well documented. However, research is being performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to quantify these characteristics. The work presented herein discusses tensile impact testing of dual-marked 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens. Both base material and welded material specimens were tested at -20 oF, room temperature, 300 oF, and 600 oF conditions. Utilizing a drop weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch and 1/2-inch thick dog bone-shaped test specimens, a strain rate range of approximately 4 to 40 per second (depending on initial temperature conditions) was achieved. Factors were determined that reflect the amount of increased strain energy the material can absorb due to strain rate effects. Using the factors, elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials at various strain rates and temperatures were generated. By incorporating the strain rate elevated true stress-strain material curves into an inelastic finite element computer program as the defined material input, significant improvement in the accuracy of the computer analyses was attained. However, additional impact testing is necessary to achieve higher strain rates (up to 300 per second) before complete definition of strain rate effects can be made for accidental drop events and other similar energy-limited impulsive loads. This research approach, using impact testing and a total energy analysis methodology to quantify strain rate effects, can be applied to many other materials used in government and industry.

  9. A study of the neutron irradiation effects on the susceptibility to embrittlement of A316L and T91 steels in lead bismuth eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapundjiev, D.; Al Mazouzi, A.; Van Dyck, S.

    2006-09-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the susceptibility to liquid metal embrittlement of two primary selected materials for MYRRHA project an accelerator driven system (ADS), was investigated by means of slow strain rate tests (SSRT). The latter were carried out at 200 °C in nitrogen and in liquid Pb-Bi at a strain rate of 5 × 10 -6 s -1. The small tensile specimens were irradiated at the BR-2 reactor in the MISTRAL irradiation rig at 200 °C for 3 reactor cycles to reach a dose of about 1.50 dpa. The SSR tests were carried out under poor and under dissolved oxygen conditions (˜1.5 × 10 -12 wt% dissolved oxygen) which at this temperature will favour formation of iron and chromium oxides. Although both materials differ in structure (fcc for A316L against bcc for T91), their flow behaviour in contact with liquid lead bismuth eutectic before and after irradiation is very similar. Under these testing conditions none of them was found susceptible to liquid metal embrittlement (LME).

  10. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  11. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  12. Horizontal electron beam welding for stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel samples have been realized by local vacuum apparatus for electron beam welding applications to reactor core shell realizations. The best welding parameters have been determined by a systematic study. The welds have been characterized by mechanical tests

  13. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  14. Studies of stainless steel exposed to sandblasting

    OpenAIRE

    Horodek Paweł; Eseev Marat K.; Kobets Andrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sandblasting on surface and subsurface of stainless steel is investigated using variable energy positron beam (VEP), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Samples of stainless steel were blasted using 110 μm particles of Al2O3 under different pressure and time duration. In the case of sandblasting for 90 s, the reduction of positron diffusion length depending on the applied pressure was observed. Sandb...

  15. Fracture toughness properties of duplex stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Sieurin, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Good toughness properties in base and weld material enable the use of duplex stainless steels (DSS) in critical applications. DSS offer high strength compared to common austenitic stainless steels. The high strength can be utilized to reduce the wall thickness and accordingly accomplish reduction of cost, welding time and transportation weight, contributing to ecological and energy savings. Although DSS have been used successfully in many applications the last decades, the full utilisation in...

  16. Phase transformations in welded supermartensitic stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Carrouge, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steels have recently been introduced in the oil and gas industries to substitute more expensive duplex stainless steels for onshore and offshore tubing applications. Although easily joined by arc welding processes, the service life of the supermartensitic welded joint in corrosive environments relies to a large extent on the behaviour of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The microstructure of the HAZ in these new materials has, until now, received little ...

  17. Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft3) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the Q345/316L dissimilar steel welded joints%Q345/316L异种钢焊接接头显微组织结构与力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄本生; 杨江; 卢东华; 尹文锋; 陈想; 胡晓刚

    2016-01-01

    Q345/316L dissimilar steel welding joints were produced by gas tungsten arc welding using two welding wires of ER309L and ER308,respectively.Microstructure and mechanical properties of the welding joints were investigated by means of optical microscope,SEM and EDS analysis,tensile test,impact and hardness tests.The results show that the microstructure of the welding is composed of austenite and ferrite.The diffusion of carbon element is obvious in the heat effected zone (HAZ) of the Q345 steel side,and no significant diffusion of Cr and Ni elements is observed in the welding seam,and no obvious dilution of the element is found.A complex fusion zone with about 50 μm width is formed at the welding-316L steel interface.Compared to ER308 welded joints,the ER309L welded joints exhibit better performance of tensile strength,plasticity,impact toughness and hardness.All the tensile fracture occurs at the HAZ of the Q345 steel side,the impact toughness and the hardness of the welded joints are higher than that of the base materials.%利用气体保护钨极氩弧焊(GTAW),采用ER309L和ER308两种焊丝对Q345/316L异种钢进行焊接试验,并利用光学显微镜、扫描电镜、万能试验机、冲击试验机、显微硬度仪等对焊接接头的显微组织结构及力学性能进行研究.结果表明:焊缝金属为奥氏体和铁素体组织,在Q345侧热影响区(HAZ)发现有明显的碳元素迁移现象,焊缝中Cr、Ni等合金元素成分迁移很小,稀释不明显;焊缝-316L交界处形成了宽约50 μm的熔合区.ER309L焊接接头在强度、塑性、冲击韧性和显微硬度方面优于ER308焊接接头;同时,两者拉伸断裂均发生在Q345侧HAZ部位,接头焊缝冲击韧性良好,显微硬度高于两侧母材.

  19. Surface-protein interactions on different stainless steel grades: effects of protein adsorption, surface changes and metal release

    OpenAIRE

    Hedberg, Y; Wang, X.; Hedberg, J; Lundin, M.; Blomberg, E.; Odnevall Wallinder, I.

    2013-01-01

    Implantation using stainless steels (SS) is an example where an understanding of protein-induced metal release from SS is important when assessing potential toxicological risks. Here, the protein-induced metal release was investigated for austenitic (AISI 304, 310, and 316L), ferritic (AISI 430), and duplex (AISI 2205) grades in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) solution containing either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or lysozyme (LSZ). The results show that both BSA and LSZ induce a sig...

  20. Effects of thermal oxidation and subsequent pickling on pitting geometry of austenitic stainless steels in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alar, Vesna; Esih, Ivan; Budic, Ivan; Brod, Slavonski [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Materials

    2011-07-01

    Harmful effects of thermal oxides formed on austenitic stainless steels (SS) like AISI 304 and 316L by heating in air or other oxidizing gases on their pitting liability in chloride solutions have been studied by pursuing geometric characteristics of corrosion process (pits density, their depths, and mouth areas, ie. penetrating and superficial detrimental consequences etc.). The possibility of preventing the decay of thermally oxidized austenitic SS by chemical removal (pickling) of oxides before exposure to chloride solutions was successfully applied on simple specimens but serious difficulties arose on welded parts and on parts exposed to other temperature gradients during manufacture or in exploitation. (orig.)

  1. Corrosion testing of type 304L stainless steel in tuff groundwater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, R.E.; Pitman, S.G.; Haberman, J.H.

    1987-11-01

    The stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of Type 304L stainless steel (SS) to elevated temperatures in tuff rock and tuff groundwater environments was determined under irradiated and nonirradiated conditions using U-bend specimens and slow-strain-rate tests. The steel was tested both in the solution-annealed condition and after sensitization heat treatments. The material was found to be susceptible to SCC in both the solution-annealed and solution-annealed-and-sensitized conditions when exposed to an irradiated crushed tuff rock environment containing air and water vapor at 90{sup 0}C. A similar exposure at 50{sup 0}C did not result in failure after a 25-month test duration. Specimens of sensitized 304 SS conditioned with a variety of sensitization heat treatments resisted failure during a test of 1-year duration in which a nonirradiated environment of tuff rock and groundwater held at 200{sup 0}C was allowed to boil to dryness on a cyclical basis. All specimens of sensitized 304 SS exposed to this environment failed. Slow-strain-rate studies were performed on 304L, 304, and 316L SS specimens. The 304L SS was tested in J-13 well water at 150{sup 0}C, and the 316L SS at 95{sup 0}C. Neither material showed evidence of SCC in these tests. Sensitized 304 SS did exhibit SCC in J-13 well water in tests conducted at 150{sup 0}C. 12 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Corrosion testing of type 304L stainless steel in tuff groundwater environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of Type 304L stainless steel (SS) to elevated temperatures in tuff rock and tuff groundwater environments was determined under irradiated and nonirradiated conditions using U-bend specimens and slow-strain-rate tests. The steel was tested both in the solution-annealed condition and after sensitization heat treatments. The material was found to be susceptible to SCC in both the solution-annealed and solution-annealed-and-sensitized conditions when exposed to an irradiated crushed tuff rock environment containing air and water vapor at 900C. A similar exposure at 500C did not result in failure after a 25-month test duration. Specimens of sensitized 304 SS conditioned with a variety of sensitization heat treatments resisted failure during a test of 1-year duration in which a nonirradiated environment of tuff rock and groundwater held at 2000C was allowed to boil to dryness on a cyclical basis. All specimens of sensitized 304 SS exposed to this environment failed. Slow-strain-rate studies were performed on 304L, 304, and 316L SS specimens. The 304L SS was tested in J-13 well water at 1500C, and the 316L SS at 950C. Neither material showed evidence of SCC in these tests. Sensitized 304 SS did exhibit SCC in J-13 well water in tests conducted at 1500C. 12 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dissimilar stainless steel welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabanowski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of welding on microstructure, mechanical properties, and stress corrosion cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless steels butt welded joints.Design/methodology/approach: Duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L steels were used. Butt joints of plates 15 mm in thickness were performed with the use of submerged arc welding (SAW method. The heat input was in the range of 1.15 – 3.2 kJ/mm. Various plates’ edge preparations were applied. Microstructure examinations were carried out. Mechanical properties were evaluated in tensile tests, bending tests and Charpy-V toughness tests. Susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was determined with the use of slow strain rate tests (SSRT performed in inert (glycerin and aggressive (boiling 35% MgCl2 solution environments.Findings: All tested joints showed acceptable mechanical properties. Metallographic examinations did not indicate the excessive ferrite contents in heat affected zones (HAZ of the welds. It was shown that area of the lowest resistance to stress corrosion cracking is heat affected zone at duplex steel side of dissimilar joins. That phenomenon is connected with undesirable structure of that zone consisted of greater amounts of coarse ferrite grains and acicular austenite precipitates. High heat inputs do not deteriorate mechanical properties as well as stress corrosion cracking resistance of welds.Practical implications: All tested joints showed acceptable mechanical properties. Metallographic examinations did not indicate the excessive ferrite contents in heat affected zones (HAZ of the welds. It was shown that area of the lowest resistance to stress corrosion cracking is heat affected zone at duplex steel side of dissimilar joins. That phenomenon is connected with undesirable structure of that zone consisted of greater amounts of coarse ferrite grains and acicular austenite precipitates. High heat inputs do not deteriorate

  4. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  5. Review on research and application of stainless steel reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Li; Meng Xian Hong

    2016-01-01

    For ordinary reinforced under corrosion environment corrosion problems and analysis the main factors affecting ordinary steel corrosion, proposed stainless steel bar rust and corrosion resistance advantages, introduce the related properties of the stainless steel reinforced, combined with the research status of domestic and international stainless steel bar, put forward the research and engineering application of stainless steel rebar for the related problems and direction, the prospects and ...

  6. Radiation-induced sensitisation of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains the proceedings of a symposium on radiation-induced sensitization of stainless steels, which took place at Berkeley, United Kingdom, 1986. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the mechanism leading to inter-granular corrosion of 20%Cr/25% Ni/Nb stainless steel cladding of AGR fuel following irradiation. Nine papers are presented, of which three are theoretical, two papers are based upon corrosion studies of 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb steel, and the remaining are concerned with compositional redistribution and its measurement. (U.K.)

  7. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades using austenitic and martensitic stainless-steel consumables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER 316L austenitic and ER 410 martensitic stainless-steel filler wire. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post-weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microsturctural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT (and preheating when using martensitic stainless-steel filler wire) using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld was found to give the most satisfactory results. These procedures have been developed and/or applied for repair welding of cracked blades in steam turbines

  8. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades using austenitic and martensitic stainless-steel consumables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, A.K. E-mail: bhaduri@igcar.ernet.in; Gill, T.P.S.; Albert, S.K.; Shanmugam, K.; Iyer, D.R

    2001-06-01

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER 316L austenitic and ER 410 martensitic stainless-steel filler wire. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post-weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microsturctural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT (and preheating when using martensitic stainless-steel filler wire) using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld was found to give the most satisfactory results. These procedures have been developed and/or applied for repair welding of cracked blades in steam turbines.

  9. A dual-electrochemical cell to study the biocorrosion of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F A; Perrin, S; Féron, D

    2007-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms on metal surfaces can alter the local physical/chemical conditions and lead to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). The goal of the present work was to study the effect of a mixed aerobic-anaerobic biofilm on the behaviour of stainless steel (316 L) in underground conditions. Rather than testing different bacteria or consortia, investigations were based on the mechanisms of MIC. Mixed biofilms were simulated by the addition of glucose oxidase to reproduce the aerobic conditions and by sulphide or sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the anaerobic conditions. A double thermostated electrochemical cell has been developed to study the coupling between aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Results suggested a transfer of electrons from the stainless steel sample of the anaerobic cell to the stainless steel sample of the aerobic one. Inorganic sulphide was replaced by SRB in the anaerobic cell revealing an increase of the galvanic current which may be explained by an effect of lactate and/or acetate on the anodic reaction or by a high sulphide concentration in the biofilm. The results of this study underline that the dual-electrochemical cell system is representative of phenomena present in natural environments and should be considered as an option when studying MIC.

  10. Effects of Thermal Aging on Material Properties, Stress Corrosion Cracking, and Fracture Toughness of AISI 316L Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy; Forsström, Antti; Saukkonen, Tapio; Ballinger, Ronald; Hänninen, Hannu

    2016-08-01

    Thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels, as well as duplex, and high-Cr ferritic stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well-known "748 K (475 °C) embrittlement" that results in drastic reductions in ductility and toughness in these materials. This process is also operative in welds of either cast or wrought stainless steels where δ-ferrite is present. While the embrittlement can occur after several hundred hours of aging at 748 K (475 °C), the process is also operative at lower temperatures, at the 561 K (288 °C) operating temperature of a boiling water reactor (BWR), for example, where ductility reductions have been observed after several tens of thousands of hours of exposure. An experimental program was carried out in order to understand how spinodal decomposition may affect changes in material properties in Type 316L BWR piping weld metals. The study included material characterization, nanoindentation hardness, double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR), Charpy-V, tensile, SCC crack growth, and in situ fracture toughness testing as a function of δ-ferrite content, aging time, and temperature. SCC crack growth rates of Type 316L stainless steel weld metal under simulated BWR conditions showed an approximate 2 times increase in crack growth rate over that of the unaged as-welded material. In situ fracture toughness measurements indicate that environmental exposure can result in a reduction of toughness by up to 40 pct over the corresponding at-temperature air-tested values. Material characterization results suggest that spinodal decomposition is responsible for the degradation of material properties measured in air, and that degradation of the in situ properties may be a result of hydrogen absorbed during exposure to the high-temperature water environment.

  11. Effects of Thermal Aging on Material Properties, Stress Corrosion Cracking, and Fracture Toughness of AISI 316L Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy; Forsström, Antti; Saukkonen, Tapio; Ballinger, Ronald; Hänninen, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    Thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels, as well as duplex, and high-Cr ferritic stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well-known "748 K (475 °C) embrittlement" that results in drastic reductions in ductility and toughness in these materials. This process is also operative in welds of either cast or wrought stainless steels where δ-ferrite is present. While the embrittlement can occur after several hundred hours of aging at 748 K (475 °C), the process is also operative at lower temperatures, at the 561 K (288 °C) operating temperature of a boiling water reactor (BWR), for example, where ductility reductions have been observed after several tens of thousands of hours of exposure. An experimental program was carried out in order to understand how spinodal decomposition may affect changes in material properties in Type 316L BWR piping weld metals. The study included material characterization, nanoindentation hardness, double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR), Charpy-V, tensile, SCC crack growth, and in situ fracture toughness testing as a function of δ-ferrite content, aging time, and temperature. SCC crack growth rates of Type 316L stainless steel weld metal under simulated BWR conditions showed an approximate 2 times increase in crack growth rate over that of the unaged as-welded material. In situ fracture toughness measurements indicate that environmental exposure can result in a reduction of toughness by up to 40 pct over the corresponding at-temperature air-tested values. Material characterization results suggest that spinodal decomposition is responsible for the degradation of material properties measured in air, and that degradation of the in situ properties may be a result of hydrogen absorbed during exposure to the high-temperature water environment.

  12. Analysis of Materials Science Aspects in Assessing Operational Reliability of Welded Stainless Steel Pipes for NPP Condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents criteria to control quality of welded stainless steel pipes for nuclear power plant condensers and problems of assessing their operational reliability. Based on the integrated approach, welded long thin-walled pipes made of stainless steel TP 316L and its closest analogues were checked for compliance with regulatory requirements of ASTM A249 and EN 10217-7 standards. It was found that quality, geometric dimensions, structure, mechanical and technological properties of pipes produced by various manufacturers in modern production using TIG welding seam correspond to the requirements of stated standards. According to tests, the weld of pipes is resistant to intergranular corrosion, but also tends to pitting corrosion and knife corrosion. Pipes for NPP condensers should additionally be tested in order to optimize corrosion resistance requirements and for proper selection of pipe materials for condensers

  13. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the ..cap alpha..' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450/sup 0/C. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 4500C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the α' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 4500C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 4500C. 18 refs., 13 figs

  15. The influence of passivation and electropolishing on the performance of medical grade stai