Sample records for 30w 1178nm yb-doped

  1. 30W, 1178nm Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirakawa, Akira; Maruyama, Hiroki; Ueda, Ken-ichi


    High-power, high-efficiency ytterbium-doped solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of the Yb gain band is reported. Amplified-spontaneous-emission-free, 30W nonpolarized and 25W linearly-polarized 1178nm outputs have been achieved with

  2. 167 W, 1178 nm Ytterbium-Doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifier with Power Scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, Akira; Chen, Meishin


    We have generated 167 W of output power at 1178 nm using an ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber. Distributed spectral filtering efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at shorter wavelengths and enables power scalable amplification at 1178nm.......We have generated 167 W of output power at 1178 nm using an ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber. Distributed spectral filtering efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at shorter wavelengths and enables power scalable amplification at 1178nm....

  3. Investigations of a Dual Seeded 1178 nm Raman Laser System (United States)


    constructed using slab1-3 or fiber laser technology4-15. Slab technology generally involves sum-frequency mixing of 1064 and 1319 nm in a lithium...triborate crystal to obtain 589 nm. Another way of achieving the desired output wavelength of 589 nm for sodium guidestar laser applications is through...been obtained from an ytterbium-doped photonic band gap fiber laser with a 320 kHz linewidth13. Finally, 85 W of single frequency (1 MHz) 1178 nm was

  4. 167 W, power scalable ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1178nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, A.; Chen, M.


    An ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier operating at the long wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band is investigated for high power amplification. The spectral filtering effect of the photonic bandgap efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at the conventional...... ytterbium gain wavelengths and thus enables high power amplification at 1178 nm. A record output power of 167 W, a slope efficiency of 61% and 15 dB saturated gain at 1178 nm have been demonstrated using the ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber....

  5. Large-mode-area hybrid photonic crystal fiber amplifier at 1178 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Chen, Mingchen; Shirakawa, Akira


    Amplification of 1178 nm light is demonstrated in a large-mode-area single-mode ytterbium-doped hybrid photonic crystal fiber, relying on distributed spectral filtering of spontaneous emission at shorter wavelengths. An output power of 53 W is achieved with 29 dB suppression of parasitic lasing...

  6. Polarizing 50micrometers Core Yb-Doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber (United States)


    properly. Recent reports demonstrate that the birefringence in photonic bandgap fibers (PBFs) can provide single-polarization operation by shifting the...add ref]. Here, we demonstrate a 50µm core Yb-doped polarizing photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for single-polarization operation 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM...19-08-2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Polarizing 50µm core Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber The views, opinions and/or

  7. Coherent combining in an Yb doped double core fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Boullet, Johan; Desfarges-Berthelemot, Agnès; Kermène, Vincent; Pagnoux, Dominique; Roy, Philippe; Dussardier, Bernard; Blanc, Wilfried; 10.1364/OL.30.001962


    Coherent combining is demonstrated in a clad pumped Yb doped double core fiber laser. A slope efficiency of more than 70 % is achieved with 96 % of the total output power on the fundamental mode of one of the two cores. This high combining efficiency is obtained when both cores are coupled via a biconical fused taper in a Michelson interferometer configuration.

  8. Mode instability in a Yb-doped stretched core fiber (United States)

    Xia, N.; Yoo, S.


    In this work we present the theoretical study of transverse mode instability (TMI) in ytterbium (Yb)-doped rectangular core fibers with different core aspect ratios using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) beam propagation method (BPM). As expected, the rectangular core fiber with larger aspect ratio (AR.) offers more efficient heat dissipation than a circular core fiber. However, it is found that the rectangular core fiber does not benefit from the better heat dissipation to suppress the TMI when compared to the circular core counterpart. The temperature building in the rectangular core fiber decreases by up to 24.6% with a 10:1 aspect ratio core, while threshold pump power drops by up to 38.3% when compared with a circular core fiber with the same core area. Our study reveals that a smaller effective refractive index difference between modes and a weaker gain saturation effect compensate the thermal advantage from more efficient heat dissipation.

  9. Detailed characterization of a highly Yb-doped double-clad fiber (United States)

    Vallés, J. A.; Berdejo, V.; Martín, J. C.; Cases, R.; Álvarez, J. M.; Rebolledo, M. Á.


    A characterization method based on the careful measurement of the characteristic parameters and fluorescence emission spectra of a highly Yb-doped double-clad fiber is presented. The method is successfully checked by numerically fitting experimental results of a ring laser based on highly doped double-clad Yb-doped silica fibers with different dopant concentrations, fiber lengths and ring-laser output-coupler rates.

  10. Guided mode gain competition in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, Federica; Passaro, Davide; Cucinotta, Annamaria


    The gain competition among the guided modes in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers with a low refractive index core is investigated with a spatial model to demonstrate the fiber effective single-mode behaviour.......The gain competition among the guided modes in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers with a low refractive index core is investigated with a spatial model to demonstrate the fiber effective single-mode behaviour....

  11. Synthesis and characterization of (Ba,Yb doped ceria nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Matović


    Full Text Available Nanometric size (Ba, Yb doped ceria powders with fluorite-type structure were obtained by applying selfpropagating room temperature methods. Tailored composition was: Ce0.95−xBa0.05YbxO2−δ with fixed amount of Ba − 0.05 and varying Yb content “x” from 0.05 to 0.2. Powder properties such as crystallite and particle size and lattice parameters have been studied. Röntgen diffraction analyses (XRD were used to characterize the samples at room temperature. Also, high temperature treatment (up to 1550°C was used to follow stability of solid solutions. The mean diameters of the nanocrystals are determined from the full width at half maxima (FWHM of the XRD peaks. It was found that average diameter of crystallites is less than 3 nm. WilliamsonHall plots were used to separate the effect of the size and strain in the nanocrystals.

  12. Experimental study on all Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Hou, Zhiyun; Zhou, Guiyao; Zhao, Jingde; Zhang, Wei; Xia, Changming; Cang, Xuelong; Liu, Jiantao


    In this paper, we demonstrated an experiment of the all Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser using free space optical paths method. The experimental setup of all Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser is composed of the seed laser and the amplifier. The laser gain medium of the seed laser and the amplifier are the same Yb-doped photonic crystal fibers that are fabricated by non-chemical vapor deposition (Non-CVD) technology. The seed laser cavity is a Fabry-Perot cavity. The amplifier is pumped by back-end method. They are coupled each other by lens and dichroic mirrors on the optical table. The experimental results have a good reference value for the photonic crystal fiber laser research in the future.

  13. Novel rib structures in Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 for laser applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardillou, F.; Borca, C.N.; Romanyuk, Y.E.; Hibert, C.; Salathé, R.P.; Pollnau, Markus


    We report for the first time, on the fabrication of flexible refractive-index-contrast rib waveguides based on Yb-doped $KY(WO_4)_2$ epilayers. These results pave the way for integrated optical circuits in this promising material.

  14. Power-scalable long-wavelength Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, Akira; Maurayama, Hiroki


    Ytterbium-doped photonic-bandgap fiber sources operationg at the long-wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band are being investigated for high power amplification. Artificial shaping of the gain spectrum by the characteristic distributed filtering effect of the photonic bandgap enables...... spontaneous-emission-free power svaling. As high as 167 W power and 16 dB saturated gain at 1178 nm have been demonstrated...

  15. Yb-doped ZnSe nanoparticles: synthesis, physical properties and photocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Khataee, A R; Hosseini, M; Hanifehpour, Y; Safarpour, M; Joo, S W


    In this study, Yb-doped ZnSe nanoparticles were synthesized by co-reduction method at 150 degrees C and pH = 12 for 24 h. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Powder XRD patterns indicated that the Yb(x)Zn(1-x)Se crystals (x = 0.00-0.10) are isostructural with ZnSe. SEM and TEM images confirmed doping of Yb3+ into the lattice of ZnSe nanoparticles. The UV-Vis diffuse reflectance characteristics of the Yb-doped ZnSe samples were quite similar to that of the undoped sample and showed a strong photoabsorption at visible light range. The electrical conductivity of Yb-doped ZnSe nanomaterials was higher than pure ZnSe at room temperature, and increased with temperature. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles was investigated by the degradation of Orange II solution under visible light irradiation. It was observed that the color removal efficiency of Yb-doped ZnSe catalyst was much higher than that of pure ZnSe (26.28 and 77.10% after 120 min of treatment for ZnSe and Yb(0.06)Zn(0.94)Se, respectively). The results demonstrated the good photocatalytic ability of synthesized nanoparticles under visible light. Also, it was revealed that the decolorization efficiency of Orange II over Yb-doped ZnSe increased with increasing Yb loading up to 6 mol% and then decreased.

  16. Femtosecond pulse generation and amplification in Yb-doped fibre oscillator–amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Mukhopadhyay


    In recent times ytterbium (Yb) doped fibre-based mode-locked master oscillator and power amplifier have attracted a great deal of interest because of their inherent advantages like flexibility, reliability, compactness, high power handling capability and diffraction limited output beam quality as compared to the solid-state counterpart. But, to successfully develope of high-power femtosecond oscillator–amplifier system based on Yb- doped fibre, an appropriate choice of the mode-locking regime and the amplifier geometry are required. Development of an all-fibre integrated high-power Yb-doped fibre oscillator–amplifier system in which the advantages of a fibre-based system can be fully exploited remained a challenge as it requires the careful optimization of dispersion, nonlinearity, gain and ASE contribution. In this article, femto-second pulse generation in Yb-doped fibre oscillator in different mode-locking regimes are reviewed and the details of development and characterization of an all-fibre, high-power, low-noise amplifier system seeded by an all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fibre laser oscillator is described. More than 10 W of average power is obtained from the fibre oscillator–amplifier system at a repetition rate of 43 MHz with diffraction-limited beam quality. Amplified pulses are de-chirped to sub-160 fs duration in a grating compressor. This is the first 10 W-level source of femtosecond pulses with completely fibre-integrated amplification comprised of commercially available components.

  17. High-Power Yb-Doped Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifier at 1150-1200nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruyama, H.; Shirakawa, A.; Ueda, K.


    Solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of ytterbium band is reported. A 32W output at 1156nm with a 66% slope efficiency and 9.1W output at 1178nm were succesfully obtained.......Solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of ytterbium band is reported. A 32W output at 1156nm with a 66% slope efficiency and 9.1W output at 1178nm were succesfully obtained....

  18. Generation of sub-50 fs pulses from a high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifier. (United States)

    Deng, Yujun; Chien, Ching-Yuan; Fidric, Bernard G; Kafka, James D


    We demonstrate the generation of 48 fs pulses with 18 W average power and 226 nJ of pulse energy from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier. The system uses a simple stretcher-free single-stage amplifier configuration operating in the parabolic pulse regime. The gain fiber length and pump wavelength are chosen in order to reduce the gain per unit length and generate both shorter pulses and higher pulse energy.

  19. Power scaling of a picosecond vortex laser based on a stressed Yb-doped fiber amplifier. (United States)

    Koyama, Mio; Hirose, Tetsuya; Okida, Masahito; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige


    Power scaling of a picosecond vortex laser based on a stressed Yb-doped fiber amplifier is analyzed. An output power of 25 W was obtained for 53 W of pumping, with a peak power of 37 kW. Frequency doubling of the vortex output was demonstrated using a nonlinear PPSLT crystal. A second-harmonic output power of up to 1.5 W was measured at a fundamental power of 11.2 W.

  20. Different polarization dynamic states in a vector Yb-doped fiber laser. (United States)

    Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Shumin; Han, Huiyun; Han, Mengmeng; Zhang, Huaxing; Zhao, Luming; Wen, Fang; Yang, Zhenjun


    Different polarization dynamic states in an unidirectional, vector, Yb-doped fiber ring laser have been observed. A rich variety of dynamic states, including group velocity locked polarization domains and their splitting into regularly distributed multiple domains, polarization locked square pulses and their harmonic mode locking counterparts, and dissipative soliton resonances have all been observed with different operating parameters. We have also shown experimentally details of the conditions under which polarization-domain-wall dark pulses and bright square pulses form.

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of transient response of the Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wei; Jianfeng Li; Jianhua Zhu


    Some analysis of the transient response of the Yb-doped fiber amplifier are performed by solving a set of time-dependent rate and power transfer equations based on finite-difference method.Meanwhile,the variation of time to reach the steady state for upper level population distribution,the forward and backward amplified spontaneous emissions (ASEs) and stored energy on the system parameters including pump power,fiber length,Yb-doped concentration,and core area are numerically simulated,respectively.The results show that,by optimizing pump pulse width,stored energy can reach or even exceed the steady state value of continuous wave (CW) pump.By increasing Yb-doped concentration and core area,stored energy is increased,the ASE is suppressed and the ASE built-up time is postponed.In addition,the experimental results show the validity of the theoretical ASE built-up time.The obtained results can provide important guiding for the optimization of pump pulse width and fiber parameters.

  2. Real-time dosimetry with Yb-doped silica optical fibres (United States)

    Veronese, Ivan; Chiodini, Norberto; Cialdi, Simone; d'Ippolito, Eduardo; Fasoli, Mauro; Gallo, Salvatore; La Torre, Stefano; Mones, Eleonora; Vedda, Anna; Loi, Gianfranco


    Over the years, many efforts have been made to develop radiation detectors to handle the complex issues of small field dosimetry and achieve the increasing accuracy, precision and in vivo dose monitoring required by the new advanced treatment modalities. In this context, interest has surged in the development of sensors based on scintillating optical fibres. In this paper, the near-infrared radioluminescence and dosimetric properties of Yb-doped silica optical fibres, coupled with a laboratory prototype based on an avalanche photodiode, were studied by irradiating the fibres with photons and electron beams generated by a Varian Trilogy accelerator. The performance of the system in standard and small field sizes has also been investigated, comparing the output factor, percentage depth dose and off-axis ratio measurements of the prototypal detector with other commercial sensors, including the Exradin W1 scintillator. The results of this study demonstrate that the drawback due to the stem effect in Yb-doped silica optical fibres can be managed in a simple but effective way by optical filtering. The robustness of the system in complex dosimetric scenarios and the accuracy and precision achieved by Yb-doped fibres in relative dose assessments suggest an effective use of the system for real-time in vivo dosimetry applications.

  3. High-power Yb-doped continuous-wave and pulsed fibre lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B N Upadhyaya


    High-power laser generation using Yb-doped double-clad fibres with conversion efficiencies in excess of 80% have attracted much attention during the last decade due to their inherent advantages in terms of very high efficiency, no misalignment due to in-built intracore fibre Bragg gratings, low thermal problems due to large surface to volume ratio, diffraction-limited beam quality, compactness, reliability and fibre-optic beam delivery. Yb-doped fibres can also provide a wide emission band from ∼1010 nm to ∼1170 nm, which makes it a versatile laser medium to realize continuous-wave (CW), Q-switched short pulse, and mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation for various applications. In this article, a review of Yb-doped CW and pulsed fibre lasers along with our study on self-pulsing dynamics in CW fibre lasers to find its role in high-power fibre laser development and the physical mechanisms involved in its generation has been described. A study on the generation of high-power CWfibre laser of 165Woutput power and generation of high peak power nanosecond pulses from acousto-optic Q-switched fibre laser has also been presented.

  4. Compact tunable high power picosecond source based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of gain switch laser diode. (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Cunxiao; Tao, Jintao; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yishan


    A compact tunable high power picosecond source based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of gain switch laser diode is demonstrated. A multi-stage single mode Yb-doped fiber preamplifier was combined with a single mode double-clad Yb-doped fiber main amplifier to construct the amplification system, which is seeded by a gain switch laser diode. By optimizing preamplifier???s parameters to compensate the seed spectrum gain, a "flat top" broadband spectrum is obtained to realize wavelength tunable output with a self-made tunable filter. The tunable pulses were further amplified to 3.5 W average power 90 ps pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate, and the center wavelength was tunable in the ranges from 1053 nm to 1073 nm with excellent beam quality.

  5. Influence of Yb-Doped Nanoporous TiO2 Films on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Wei; DAI Song-Yuan; HU Lin-Hua; LIANG Lin-Yun; WANG Kong-Jia


    @@ Yb-doped TiO2 pastes with different Yb/TiO2 weight ratios are prepared in the sol-gel process to obtain dyesensitized solar cells (DSCs). The nanocrystalline size of Yb-TiO2 becomes smaller and the lattice parameters change. Lattice distortion is observed and dark current is detected. It is found that a part of Yb existing as insulating oxide Yb2Oa state acts as barrier layers at the electrode-electrolyte interface to suppress charge recombination. A Yb-doped TiO2 electrode applied in DSCs leads to a higher open-circuit voltage and a higher fill factor. How the Yb-doped TiO2 films affect the photovoltaic response of DSCs is discussed.

  6. Terahertz generation and detection using femtosecond mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser (United States)

    Kong, Moon Sik; Kim, Ji Su; Han, Sang-Pil; Kim, Namje; Moon, Ki Won; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong


    We successfully demonstrate a THz generation using an ytterbium (Yb)-doped mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser and a home-made low-temperature grown (LTG) InGaAs Photoconductive antenna (PCA) module for THz Time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) systems. The Yb-doped fiber ring laser consists of a pump laser diode (PLD), a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM) coupler, a single-mode fiber (SMF), a 25 cm-long highly Yb-doped fiber, two collimators, two quarter wave plates (QWPs), a half-wave plate (HWP), a 10 nm broadband band pass filter, an isolator, and a polarizing beam splitter (PBS). In order to achieve the passively mode-locked optical short pulse, the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect is used. The achieved center wavelength and the 3 dB bandwidth of the modelocked fiber laser are 1.03 μm and ~ 15.6 nm, respectively. It has 175 fs duration after pulse compression with 66.2 MHz repetition rate. The average output power of mode-locked laser has more than 275 mW. The LTG-InGaAs PCA modules are used as the emitter and receiver in order to achieve the THz radiation. The PCA modules comprise a hyper-hemispherical Si lens and a log-spiral antenna-integrated LTG-InGaAs PCA chip electronically contacted on a printed circuit board (PCB). An excitation optical average pumping and probing power were ~ 6.3 mW and 5 mW, respectively. The free-space distance between the emitter and the receiver in the THz-TDS system was 70 mm. The spectrum of the THz radiation is achieved higher than 1.5 THz.

  7. GHz high power Yb-doped picosecond fiber laser and supercontinuum generation. (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Ge, Tingwu; Li, Wuyi; Kuang, Hongshen; Wang, Zhiyong


    We demonstrated a 97 W all-fiber picosecond master oscillator power amplifier seeding by an actively harmonic mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser. The laser seed pulse duration was 7.7 ps at a 1.223 GHz repetition rate with a central wavelength of 1062 nm. In addition, by launching the amplified pulses into a 5 m long photonic crystal fiber, we obtained a 41.8 W supercontinuum covering the wavelength from 600 to 1700 nm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1040 nm.

  8. Pulsed pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier at low repetition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changgeng Ye; Ping Yan; Mali Gong; Ming Lei


    A pulsed pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber (DCF) master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) at low repetition rate is reported. Seeded by a passive Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip laser, the fiber amplifier can generate 167-kW peak-power and 0.83-ns duration pulses at 200-Hz repetition rate. Because of the pulsed pump approach, the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and the spurious lasing between pulses are well avoided, and the repetition rate can be set freely from single-shot to 1 kHz. Peak power scaling limitations that arise from the fiber facet damage are discussed.

  9. Passive harmonic mode locked all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fibre lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Ling-Jie; Xiao Xiao-Sheng; Yang Chang-Xi


    Passive harmonic mode-locking of dissipative solitons is demonstrated in all-normal dispersion Yb-doped fibre lasers. A difference equation model of the mode-locked fibre lasers is adopted to simulate the intra-cavity nonlinear dynamics. Hysteresis phenomena around the mode-locking threshold, and the effect of introducing linear phase bias are discussed. The passive harmonic mode-locking as one kind of multipulsing operations is revealed. Moreover, the simulation shows the bistability between multipulsing and single-pulse or period multiplication.

  10. Sectioned Core Doping Effect on Higher-Order Mode Amplification in Yb-Doped Rod-Type Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, F.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Passaro, D.


    The amplification properties of guided modes in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers with sectioned core doping have been investigated, evaluating the doped-area radius which provides the effective suppression of both LP 11- and LP02-like modes.......The amplification properties of guided modes in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers with sectioned core doping have been investigated, evaluating the doped-area radius which provides the effective suppression of both LP 11- and LP02-like modes....

  11. [Study on Spectral Characteristics of Two Kinds of Home-Made Novel Yb-Doped Fluoride Laser Crystals]. (United States)

    Xu, Wen-bin; Chai, Lu; Shi, Jun-kai; Song, You-jian; Hu, Ming-lie; Wang, Qing-yue; Su, Liang-bi; Jiang, Da-peng; Xu, Jun


    Yb-doped fluoride crystals are of important another Yb-doped laser materials besides Yb-doped oxide, which are becoming one of interests for developing tunable lasers and ultrafast lasers. In this paper, the systematic and contrastive experiments of the optical spectral characteristics are presented for two types of home-made novel Yb-doped fluoride laser crystals, namely, Yb-doped CaF2-SrF2 mixed crystal and co-doped Yb, Y:CaF2 single crystal. The fluorescent features of Yb-doped CaF2-SrF2 mixed crystal and co-doped Yb, Y:CaF2 single crystal are apparently different by the fluorescence experiment. The physical mechanism of these fluorescence spectra were analyzed and proposed. The influence of doping concentrations of active Yb(3+) ions or co-doping Y ions on the absorption of Yb-doped CaF2-SrF2 mixed crystal and co-doped Yb, Y:CaF2 single crystal was experimentally investigated, and the optimal values of doping concentrations of active Yb(3+) ions or co-doping Y ions in the two types of fluoride laser crystals were obtained. Continuous-wave laser operation for the two novel fluoride laser crystals has been achieved in three-mirror-folded resonator using a laser diode as the pump source. Therein, the laser operation for the co-doped Yb, Y:CaF2 crystal is demonstrated for the first time. For the two types of fluoride laser crystals (four samples), the input-output power relational curves, the optical slope efficiencies and the laser spectra were demonstrated by the laser experiments. By comparisons between the two types of fluoride laser crystals in the absorbability, fluorescence and laser spectra, laser threshold and slope efficiency of the continuous-wave laser operation, the results show that the best one of the four samples in spectral and laser characteristics is co-doped 3at%Yb, 6at% Y:CaF2 single crystal, which has an expected potential in the application. The research results provide available references for improving further laser performance of Yb-doped

  12. Spectroscopic and crystal-field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Gaume, Romain; Antic-Fidancev, Elisabeth; Vivien, Daniel; Viana, Bruno [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee de l' Etat Solide UMR 75 74, ENSCP, Paris (France)]. E-mail:


    Crystal-field effects are very important as far as laser performances of Yb-doped materials are concerned. In order to simplify the interpretation of low-temperature spectra, two tools derived from a careful examination of crystal-field interaction are presented. Both approaches are successfully applied in the case of new Yb-doped materials, namely Ca{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (CYB), Ca{sub 3}Gd{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (CaGB), Sr{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (SrYBO), Ba{sub 3}Lu(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (BLuB), Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (YSO), Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7} (CAS) and SrY{sub 4}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O (SYS). The {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} splitting is particularly large in these materials and favourable to a quasi-three-level laser operating scheme. Calculations performed using the point charge electrostatic model for these compounds and using a consistent set of effective atomic charges confirm the experimental results. This should permit to use this model in a predictive approach. (author)

  13. All-fiber broad-range self-sweeping Yb-doped fiber laser (United States)

    Lobach, Ivan A.; Kablukov, Sergey A.; Podivilov, Evgeniy V.; Babin, Sergey A.


    The effect of broad-range self-sweeping in Yb-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. The self-sweeping effect is observed in an all-fiber laser configuration with a double-clad Yb-doped fiber and a cavity formed by a broad-band fiber loop mirror and Fresnel reflection from one cleaved end. The sweep range is limited by the width of the broad-band reflector and reaches up to 16nm. It is found that the self-sweeping effect is related to selfpulsations. So the sweep rate is increased with an increase in pump power and is decreased with increasing cavity length. RF and optical spectra (linewidth is measured to be not more than 100 MHz) show that during the evolution of a single pulse a small number of longitudinal modes take a part in lasing. Based on these results we propose a model describing dynamics of the laser frequency. The model is based on the spatial hole burning effect and the gain saturation in Yb laser transition, and takes into account self-pulsations of the laser. Theoretical estimation for pulse to pulse change of lasing frequency is in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. The influence of critical current density of Bi-2212 superconductors by defects after Yb-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianni [State key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710014 (China); SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Zhang, Cuiping [SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Guo, Shengwu [State key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710014 (China); Wu, Yifang [State key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710014 (China); SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Li, Chengshan, E-mail: [SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Zhou, Lian [State key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710014 (China); SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China)


    Highlights: • Ca substituting Yb element in Bi-2212 single crystal. • The critical current density of this sample is the highest without the optimal Tc value. • The Cu–O{sub 2} and Ca–O layers in pure and doping samples are observed using HRTEM. • The optimal defect density is calculated. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (Bi-2212) single crystals with x = 0.000, 0.005, 0.010 and 0.020 have been prepared by self-flux method. The influences of Yb doping on the formation of the dislocations in the lattice structures, as well as the related current carrying capability are investigated. Due to the SQUID measurement and the Bean model calculation, the maximum critical current density (Jc) is obtained when the Yb doping content is x = 0.010, though the Tc and the carrier concentration are not in the optimal region. Based on the HRTEM analyses of the Ca–O and Cu–O{sub 2} layers, the optimal dislocation density in the Cu–O{sub 2} layers is deduced according to the number of the dislocations per unit area. Besides, the sizes of the dislocations also prove the effectiveness of Yb substitution on the enhancement of the current carrying capability in Bi-2212 single crystals.

  15. The influence of critical current density of Bi-2212 superconductors by defects after Yb-doping (United States)

    Lu, Tianni; Zhang, Cuiping; Guo, Shengwu; Wu, Yifang; Li, Chengshan; Zhou, Lian


    Bi2Sr2Ca1-xYbxCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) single crystals with x = 0.000, 0.005, 0.010 and 0.020 have been prepared by self-flux method. The influences of Yb doping on the formation of the dislocations in the lattice structures, as well as the related current carrying capability are investigated. Due to the SQUID measurement and the Bean model calculation, the maximum critical current density (Jc) is obtained when the Yb doping content is x = 0.010, though the Tc and the carrier concentration are not in the optimal region. Based on the HRTEM analyses of the Ca-O and Cu-O2 layers, the optimal dislocation density in the Cu-O2 layers is deduced according to the number of the dislocations per unit area. Besides, the sizes of the dislocations also prove the effectiveness of Yb substitution on the enhancement of the current carrying capability in Bi-2212 single crystals.

  16. Single-mode amplification in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers for high brilliance lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, F.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Passaro, D.


    This paper presents the effect of a low refractive index ring in the Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibre core on the guided mode propagation and analyzed through a spatial and spectral amplifier model. The ring provides a higher differential overlap between the fundamental mode (FM...

  17. Measurement of thermal lensing in end-pumped Yb-doped yttrium vanadate crystal and sesquioxide laser ceramics (United States)

    Pestryakov, E. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Merzliakov, M. A.; Laptev, A. V.; Polyakov, K. V.


    The results of theoretical and experimental study of thermal lensing in diode-pumped Yb:YVO4 laser crystal, Yb:Y2O3 and Yb:Sc2O3 laser ceramics are presented. Shown, that influence of thermo-lensing effect is necessary to consider for creation of effective high-intensity femtosecond Yb-doped laser systems.

  18. Ultra-high, broadband gain in a lattice-engineered, Yb-doped double tungstate channel waveguide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geskus, D.; Aravazhi, S.; Bernhardi, E.H.; Agazzi, L.; García-Blanco, S.M.; Pollnau, M.


    150 dB/cm gain over 55 nm wavelength range between 977-1032 nm is obtained in a 47.5% Yb-doped potassium double tungstate waveguide amplifier. The dependence of luminescence lifetime and gain on Yb concentration is investigated.

  19. Comparison of different fiber amplifiers in Yb-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency combs (United States)

    Liu, H.; Cao, S.; Lin, B.; Fang, Z.


    Recently, Yb-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency combs (Yb-FOFCs) have obtained high repetition rates and high power outputs, and the wavelengths can cover the visible region by using a photonic crystal fiber to broaden the spectrum. In this paper, f0 (carrier-envelope offset frequency) with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 40 dB is generated in an Yb-FOFC by adopting a scheme which includes the three processes of amplifying, broadening the spectrum and detecting f0, and optimizing the system parameters. The effects of two types of amplifiers which employ direct optical pulse amplification and self-similar amplification, respectively, on the output parameters of the amplifiers, minimal output power of the octave spectrum meeting f0 detection requirements, and the SNR of f0 are compared and analyzed in detail.

  20. Single-frequency Yb-doped fiber laser with distributed feedback based on a random FBG (United States)

    Abdullina, S. R.; Vlasov, A. A.; Lobach, I. A.; Belai, O. V.; Shapiro, D. A.; Babin, S. A.


    Single-frequency operation of a 1.03 μm fiber laser with random distributed feedback (RDFB) is demonstrated. The laser cavity is based on a 4 cm long fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consisting of 10 homogeneous subgratings with random phase and amplitude of refractive index modulation inscribed in a polarization maintaining (PM) Yb-doped fiber. Such RDFB laser generates single longitudinal mode with output power up to 25 mW, which is 3.5 times higher than that for a DFB laser based on regular π-shifted FBG of the same length in the same fiber. The single-frequency linewidth is measured to be  <100 kHz in both cases. The observed difference of the DFB and RDFB lasers is confirmed by numerical simulation showing different longitudinal distribution of intra-cavity radiation in these cases, analogous to those in the experiment.

  1. Electronic control of nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode locking in Yb-doped fiber lasers. (United States)

    Shen, Xuling; Li, Wenxue; Yan, Ming; Zeng, Heping


    We demonstrate a convenient approach to precisely tune the polarization state of a nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser by using an electronic polarization controller. It is shown to benefit self-starting of mode-locking states, with precise tuning of the spectral profile, pulse width, and carrier-envelope offset frequency. The pulse width changed linearly by 0.78 ps in the time domain, and the carrier-envelope offset frequency shifted ~77.5 MHz in the frequency domain with a slight change of the driving voltage of 30.7 mV applied on the controller, corresponding to a polarization rotation of 0.0135π. This facilitated precise and automatic regeneration of a particular mode-locking state by setting an accurate voltage at the polarization controller with a programmed microprocessor control unit.

  2. Multi-coupler side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Ou(欧攀); Ping Yan(闫平); Mali Gong(巩马理); Wenlou Wei(韦文楼)


    The side-coupler of angle polished method, using angle-polished multimode fiber and optical adhesive, is used to efficiently pump an Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser. The maximum coupling efficiency of 78.6% is achieved by the side-coupler for a multimode fiber with a circular core of 200 μm and a double-clad fiber with a 350/400 μm D-shaped inner cladding. While laser diodes (LDs) with three side-couplers are simultaneously used as pump sources, maximum output power of 1.38 W and slope efficiency of 48.9% are demonstrated in the fiber laser system.

  3. Multi-coupler side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧攀; 闫平; 巩马理; 韦文楼


    The side-coupler of angle polished method, using angle-polished multimode fiber and optical adhesive, is used to efficiently pump an Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser. The maximum coupling efficiency of 78.6%is achieved by the side-coupler for a multimode fiber with a circular core of 200 μm and a double-clad fiber with a 350/400 μm D-shaped inner cladding. While laser diodes (LDs) with three side-couplers are simultaneously used as pump sources, maximum output power of 1.38 W and slope efficiency of 48.9% are demonstrated in the fiber laser system.

  4. Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3: Structure, microstructure, thermal and magnetic behaviour (United States)

    Artini, Cristina; Locardi, Federico; Pani, Marcella; Nelli, Ilaria; Caglieris, Federico; Masini, Roberto; Plaisier, Jasper Rikkert; Costa, Giorgio Andrea


    Structural and microstructural features, as well as thermal and magnetic properties of Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3, were investigated with the aim to clarify the location and the oxidation state of Yb within the structure, and its role in driving the extent of the (Gd1-xYbx)2O2CO3 solid solution. Yb is found in the 3+ oxidation state and it enters the structure only at the rare earth atomic site; the solubility limit results to be located in the close vicinity of x=0.25, and thermal analyses reveal a linear decrease of the decomposition temperature with increasing the Yb amount, in agreement with literature data. The structural analysis allows to exclude long-range clusterization of Yb and Gd, since both rare earths randomly distribute over the 4f atomic position, but relying on the results of the microstructural analysis, the presence of compositional inhomogenities at the local scale cannot be excluded. Not all the structural forms are documented for the pure rare earth dioxycarbonates [1]; in particular, while form I exists for each lanthanide ion, form II is stable only for the largest ones (from La to Dy); moreover, even if II-Ho2O2CO3 (rHo3+ CN8=1.015 Å [6]) is not reported to be stable, the existence of II-Y2O2CO3 (rY3+ CN8=1.019 Å [6]) has been claimed [7]. Based on the described evidence, the stability of hexagonal Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3 is not expected along the whole compositional range. As a general remark, not all the rare earth mixed dioxycarbonates exist: (Ce, Gd)2O2CO3, for instance, could not be obtained at any composition [8]; moreover, all the structural forms can be observed only in some mixed systems, such as for example (Gd, Nd)2O2CO3, by varying temperature and tuning the composition [9]. Rare earth dioxycarbonates are studied mainly for their CO2 sensing properties [10,11], and for their emission when properly doped with a luminescent lanthanide ion [12-17]. Recently, a study of this research group [18] revealed in Gd2O2CO3:4% Yb a phenomenon of

  5. Superconductivity in Yb-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.C. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62199, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, W.H., E-mail: [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62199, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lan, M.D. [Department of Physics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Highlights: • Single crystal of (Ba{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (x = 0–0.2) has been grown. • The grown crystals have pure tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. • (Ba{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (0.05 ≦ x ≦ 0.15) showed a T{sub c,onset} 18–20 K. - Abstract: We report the discovery of superconductivity in Yb-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. Single-crystal specimens of (Ba{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (x = 0–0.2) were grown by using FeAs flux and a slow-cooling method. The superconducting transition temperature for the crystals was determined by dc magnetic susceptibility measurements with a commercial SQUID magnetometer. A clear phase transition from paramagnetic to perfect diamagnetic state was observed around 18–20 K for the samples with nominal composition (Ba{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (0.05 ≦ x ≦ 0.15)

  6. A femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser with generalized vector vortex beams output (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Huo, Tiancheng; Qi, Li; Zhang, Buyun; Chen, Zhongping


    Light carries both spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) and the superpositions of these two dynamical properties have found many applications. Many techniques exist to create such light sources but none allow their creation at the femtosecond fiber laser. Here we report on a novel mode-locked Ytterbium-doped fiber laser that generates femtosecond pulses with generalized vector vortex states. The controlled generation of such pulses such as azimuthally and radially polarized light with definite orbital angular momentum modes are demonstrated. A unidirectional ring cavity constructed with the Yb-doped fiber placed at the end of the fiber section to reduces unnecessary nonlinear effects is employed for self-starting operation. Pairs of diffraction gratings are used for compensating the normal group velocity dispersion of the fiber and other elements. Mode-locked operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization evolution, which is mainly implemented with the single mode fiber, the bulk wave plates and the variable spiral plates (q-plate with topological charge q=0.5). The conversion from spin angular momentum to the OAM and reverse inside the laser cavity are realized by means of a quarter-wave plate and a q-plate so that the polarization control was mapped to OAM mode control. The fiber laser is diode pumped by a wavelength-division multiplexing coupler, which leads to excellent stability and portability.

  7. Structural characterization and EXAFS wavelet analysis of Yb doped ZnO by wet chemistry route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otal, Eugenio H., E-mail: [Division of Porous Materials, UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, S.J.B de la Salle 4397, Villa Martelli (B1603ALO), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratory for Materials Science and Technology, FRSC-UTN, Av. Inmigrantes 555, Río Gallegos 9400 (Argentina); Sileo, Elsa [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aguirre, Myriam H. [Dept. of Physics Condensed Matter, University of Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy (LMA), Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón (INA), University of Zaragoza (Spain); Fabregas, Ismael O. [Division of Porous Materials, UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, S.J.B de la Salle 4397, Villa Martelli (B1603ALO), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kim, Manuela [Division of Porous Materials, UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, S.J.B de la Salle 4397, Villa Martelli (B1603ALO), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratory for Materials Science and Technology, FRSC-UTN, Av. Inmigrantes 555, Río Gallegos 9400 (Argentina)


    Highlights: • Optical and electrical properties of ZnO are influenced by lanthanide doping. • Optical and electrical properties of ZnO are influenced by lanthanide positioning. • Yb is incorporated in the O{sub h} sites of the wurtzite structure. • There is not Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} clustering or segregation for treatments below 800 °C. - Abstract: Lanthanide doped ZnO are interesting materials for optical and electrical applications. The wide band gap of this semiconductor makes it transparent in the visible range (E{sub gap} = 3.2 eV), allowing a sharp emission from intra shell transition from the lanthanides. From the electrical side, ZnO is a widely used material in varistors and its electrical properties can be tailored by the inclusion of lanthanides. Both applications are influenced by the location of the lanthanides, grain boundaries or lattice inclusion. Yb doped ZnO samples obtained by wet chemistry route were annealed at different temperatures and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement of XRD data, and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS). These techniques allowed to follow the changes occurred in the matrix and the Yb environment. The use of the Cauchy continuous wavelet transform allowed identifying a second coordination shell composed of Zn atoms, supporting the observations from XRD Rietveld refinement and XAFS fittings. The information obtained confirmed the incorporation of Yb in O{sub h} sites of the wurtzite structure without Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} clustering in the lattice.

  8. Transparent layered YAG ceramics with structured Yb doping produced via tape casting (United States)

    Hostaša, Jan; Piancastelli, Andreana; Toci, Guido; Vannini, Matteo; Biasini, Valentina


    The flexibility of the ceramic production process, in particular in terms of shaping and spatial control of distribution of active ions, is one of the strong points in favor of transparent ceramics. In high power lasers in particular, where thermal management is a critical issue, the finely controlled design of spatial distribution of the doping ions within the laser gain media can reduce undesired thermally induced effects and large temperature gradients, and thus enhance the efficiency and laser beam quality especially under increased thermal load. In the present work transparent structured YAG ceramics with Yb doping were produced by tape casting followed by thermal compression of assembled tapes and sintered under high vacuum. The thermal compression of variously doped tape cast layers is a very promising method because it allows a high precision and good control over dopant distribution in the sintered material. After sintering, the distribution of Yb across the layers was characterized by SEM-EDX and the thickness of Yb diffusion zones between the layers with different Yb content was measured. Optical homogeneity was assessed by means of optical transmittance mapping of the samples and by 2D scanning of laser output. The effect of structured dopant distribution on laser performance was measured in quasi-CW and CW regime with different duty factors. Slope efficiency values higher than 50% were measured both in quasi-CW and in CW lasing conditions. The results are in good agreement with previously calculated predictions, confirming the beneficial effect of structured doping on laser performances and enlightening the impact of the residual scattering losses. Compared to other processing methods, such as the pressing of granulated powders, tape casting followed by thermal compression leads to straight and narrow interfaces between layers with different composition and allows to build structures composed of extremely thin layers with defined dopant content.

  9. Multiple Dissipative Solitons in a Long-Cavity Normal-Dispersion Mode-Locked Yb-Doped Fiber Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guang-Zhen; XIAO Xiao-Sheng; MEI Jia-Wei; YANG Chang-Xi


    Transitional operations of multiple dissipative solitons in a long-cavity normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser are experimentally investigated.Multiple dissipative solitons,including a stable soliton pair and a soliton triplet are observed by increasing the pump power or adjusting the polarization controllers.Two main boundaries of the stable asymmetric soliton and oscillating soliton are found between steady mode-locking.Moreover,multiple dissipative solitons with greater quantities of solitons are observed with pump power increasing.The experimental results agree well with a previous numerical study of multiple dissipative solitons.

  10. Mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser emitting broadband pulses at ultra-low repetition rates

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, Patrick; Provo, Richard; Harvey, John D; Broderick, Neil G R


    We report on an environmentally stable, Yb-doped, all-normal dispersion, mode-locked fibre laser that is capable of creating broadband pulses with ultra-low repetition rates. Specifically, through careful positioning of fibre sections in an all-PM-fibre cavity mode-locked with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror, we achieve stable pulse trains with repetition rates as low as 506 kHz. The pulses have several nanojules of energy and are compressible down to ultrashort (< 500 fs) durations.

  11. Broad-range self-sweeping of a narrow-line self-pulsing Yb-doped fiber laser (United States)

    Lobach, Ivan A.; Kablukov, Sergey I.; Podivilov, Evgeniy V.; Babin, Sergey A.


    The effect of broad-range (16 nm) self-sweeping of a narrow-line (less than 1 pm) Yb-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated experimentally. It is found that the effect arises from the self-sustained relaxation oscillations. As a result, the sweeping rate increases as square root of the laser power and decreases with increasing cavity length. Based on these results we propose a model describing dynamics of the laser frequency. The model takes into account the effects of gain saturation at the laser transition and spatial hole burning in the self-pulsing regime.

  12. Monolithic all-fiber repetition-rate tunable gain-switched single-frequency Yb-doped fiber laser. (United States)

    Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Qian; Qi, Shuxian; Feng, Xian; Wang, Pu


    We report a monolithic gain-switched single-frequency Yb-doped fiber laser with widely tunable repetition rate. The single-frequency laser operation is realized by using an Yb-doped distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) fiber cavity, which is pumped by a commercial-available laser diode (LD) at 974 nm. The LD is electronically modulated by the driving current and the diode output contains both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed components. The CW component is set just below the threshold of the single-frequency fiber laser for reducing the requirement of the pump pulse energy. Above the threshold, the gain-switched oscillation is trigged by the pulsed component of the diode. Single-frequency pulsed laser output is achieved at 1.063 μm with a pulse duration of ~150 ns and a linewidth of 14 MHz. The repetition rate of the laser output can be tuned between 10 kHz and 400 kHz by tuning the electronic trigger signal. This kind of lasers shows potential for the applications in the area of coherent LIDAR etc.

  13. Gain and Noise Figure of a Double-Pass Waveguide Amplifier Based on Er/Yb-Doped Phosphate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Guo-Liang; SHAO Gong-Wang; Mu Huan; HU Li-Li; LI Qu


    @@ A waveguide amplifier is fabricated by Ag+-Na+ two-step ion exchange on Er/Yb-doped phosphate glass. Thespectroscopic performance of glass and the properties of channel waveguide are characterized. A double-passconfiguration is adopted to measure the gain and noise figure (NF) of the waveguide amplifier, and the comparisonof gain and NF for the single and double-pass configuration of the waveguide amplifier is presented. The resultsshow that the double-pass configuration can make the gain increase from 8.8dB (net gain 2.2dB/cm) of thesingle-pass one to 14.6dB (net gain 3.65dB/cm) for small input power at 1534nm, and the NF are all lower than5.5dB for both the configurations.

  14. Yb-doped SnTe semimetal thin films deposited by thermal evaporation: Structural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties (United States)

    Hmood, A.; Kadhim, A.; Hassam, H. A.


    Sn monochalcogenide and Yb-doped Sn1-xYbxTe (0.0 ⩾ x ⩽ 0.1) semimetals, which are known for their usefulness as efficient thermoelectric (TE) materials, were prepared by solid-state microwave technique. Polycrystalline thin films of Sn1-xYbxTe were deposited onto clean glass substrates by using vacuum evaporation technique at 10-6 bar. The structures of the polycrystalline thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction patterns. A rock salt structure was observed. Grain size increased with increasing Yb content but not according to a sequence. The morphology of the nanosheet structures for these thin films was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. TE properties were measured at a temperature range of 298-523 K. The carrier concentrations of the films were determined by Hall effect measurements at 300 K.

  15. All-fiber 194 W single-frequency single-mode Yb-doped master-oscillator power-amplifier (United States)

    Mermelstein, M. D.; Brar, K.; Andrejco, M. J.; Yablon, A. D.; Fishteyn, M.; Headley, C., III; DiGiovanni, D. J.


    A four-stage all-fiber single-frequency single-mode continuous-wave (cw) master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) at 1083 nm is presented. Small mode area (SMA) and large mode area (LMA) amplifier stages are mode matched with a fiber mode converter (MC) and the signal and pumps are combined with tapered fiber bundles (TFBs). The final power stage uses a LMA Yb doped SBS-suppressing fiber. A single-frequency output power of 194 W is demonstrated with optical net and slope efficiencies of 73% and 80%, respectively. Numerical simulations for the signal output power and the SBS-induced Stokes backscattered power in the 4th stage amplifier agree with the experimental results. Pulse amplifier measurements showed a 400 W peak power output that was limited by the forward output ASE. The SBS reflectivity at 400 W output was only 2.75 x 10 -4.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition and thermoelectric properties of In-and Yb-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.


    In-and Yb-doped CoSb3 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Process optimization studies revealed that a very narrow process window exists for the growth of single-phase skutterudite films. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measured in the temperature range 300-700 K revealed an irreversible change on the first heating cycle in argon ambient, which is attributed to the enhanced surface roughness of the films or trace secondary phases. A power factor of 0.68 W m-1 K-1 was obtained at ∼700 K, which is nearly six times lower than that of bulk samples. This difference is attributed to grain boundary scattering that causes a drop in film conductivity. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2011.

  17. Optimizing high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifier systems in the presence of transverse mode instabilities. (United States)

    Jauregui, Cesar; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Breitkopf, Sven; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A


    The average output power of Yb-doped fiber amplifier systems is currently limited by the onset of transverse mode instabilities. Besides, it has been recently shown that the transverse mode instability threshold can be significantly reduced by the presence of photodarkening in the fiber. Therefore, reducing the photodarkening level of the core material composition is the most straightforward way to increase the output average power of fiber amplifier systems but, unfortunately, this is not always easy or possible. In this paper we present guidelines to optimize the output average power of fiber amplifiers affected by transverse mode instabilities and photodarkening. The guidelines derived from the simulations do not involve changes in the composition of the active material (except for its doping concentration), but can still lead to a significant increase of the transverse mode instability threshold. The dependence of this parameter on the active ion concentration and the core conformation, among others, will be studied and discussed.

  18. Optimization and control of the sweeping range in an Yb-doped self-sweeping fiber laser (United States)

    Lobach, I. A.; Tkachenko, A. Yu; Kablukov, S. I.


    Influence of the laser cavity parameters (an active fiber length and output coupling losses) and the temperature of elements (active fiber and pump laser diode) on the sweeping range in an Yb-doped self-sweeping laser is investigated. The obtained results show that the sweeping spectral region is shifted to shorter wavelengths for shorter active fibers and with increasing absorbed power. This allows one to obtain self-sweeping operation in a broad range within a ytterbium gain bandwidth from 1028 to 1080 nm. At the same time, there are optimal cavity parameters at which the sweeping span is the broadest (>20 nm). Good agreement between the experimental sweeping range and the calculated maximum gain wavelength is demonstrated.

  19. Remote Water Temperature Measurements Based on Brillouin Scattering with a Frequency Doubled Pulsed Yb:doped Fiber Amplifier. (United States)

    Schorstein, Kai; Popescu, Alexandru; Göbel, Marco; Walther, Thomas


    Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative for remote sensing of such water temperature profiles. It makes it possible to deliver cost-effective on-line data covering an extended region of the ocean. The temperature measurement is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering in water. In this contribution, we present the first water temperature measurements using a Yb:doped pulsed fiber amplifier. The fiber amplifier is a custom designed device which can be operated in a vibrational environment while emitting narrow bandwidth laser pulses. The device shows promising performance and demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Furthermore, the current status of the receiver is briefly discussed; it is based on an excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter.

  20. Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers. (United States)

    Poli, F; Coscelli, E; Alkeskjold, T T; Passaro, D; Cucinotta, A; Leick, L; Broeng, J; Selleri, S


    Yb-doped double-cladding large mode area rod-type photonic crystal fibers are a key component for power scaling in fiber laser systems. Recently, designs with 19-cell core defect, that is with 19 missing air-holes in the center of the photonic crystal cladding, have been proposed, with reported core diameter up to 100 μm. In this paper an analysis of the cut-off wavelength of the first high-order mode in such low-NA fibers is reported, accounting for different approaches for the definition of the cladding effective index. Results have shown that taking into account the finite fiber cross-section and considering the first cladding mode of the actual fiber is mandatory to obtain a correct estimate of the cut-off wavelength.

  1. MoS2 saturable absorber for single frequency oscillation of highly Yb-doped fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baole Lu; Limei Yuan; Xinyuan Qi; Lei Hou; Bo Sun; Pan Fu; Jintao Bai


    In this Letter,a single-frequency fiber laser using a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film as a saturable absorber is demonstrated.We use a short length of highly Yb-doped fiber as the gain medium and a fiber ferrule with MoS2 film adhered to it by index matching gel (IMG) that acts as the saturable absorber.The saturable absorber can be used to discriminate and select the single longitudinal modes.The maximum output power of the single-frequency fiber laser is 15.3 mW at a pump power of 130 mW and the slope efficiency is 15.3%.The optical signal-to-noise ratio and the laser linewidths are ~60 dB and 5.89 kHz,respectively.

  2. Intervalence Charge Transfer Luminescence: Interplay between anomalous and 5d-4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barandiaran, Zoila


    We report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorites associated with Yb2+-Yb3+ mixed valence pairs. We show that the very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb2+-doped CaF2 and SrF2, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb2+-Yb3+ mixed valence pairs. It is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the pair moieties very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are substracted from the normal emission. The ab initio IVCT energy diagrams explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and SrCl2: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF2 and SrF2; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF2; its absence in BaF2 and SrCl2; the quenching of all emissions in BaF2; and the prese...

  3. Gain-switched laser diode seeded Yb-doped fiber amplifier delivering 11-ps pulses at repetition rates up to 40-MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Ryser, Manuel; Pilz, Soenke; Burn, Andreas; Romano, Valerio


    Here, we demonstrate all-fiber direct amplification of 11 picosecond pulses from a gain-switched laser diode at 1063nm. The diode was driven at a repetition rate of 40MHz and delivered 13$\\mu$W of fiber-coupled average output power. For the low output pulse energy of 0.33pJ we have designed a multi-stage core pumped preamplifier based on single clad Yb-doped fibers in order to keep the contribution of undesired amplified spontaneous emission as low as possible and to minimize temporal and spectral broadening. After the preamplifier we reduced the 40MHz repetition rate to 1MHz using a fiber coupled pulse-picker. The final amplification was done with a cladding pumped Yb-doped large mode area fiber and a subsequent Yb-doped rod-type fiber. With our setup we achieved amplification of 72dBs to an output pulse energy of 5.7$\\mu$J, pulse duration of 11ps and peak power of >0.6MW.

  4. Lattice dynamics and substrate-dependent transport properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.


    Lattice dynamics, low-temperature electrical transport, and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3thin films on different substrates are reported. Pulsed laser deposition under optimized conditions yielded single-phase polycrystalline skutterudite films. Raman spectroscopy studies suggested that In and Yb dopants occupy the cage sites in the skutterudite lattice. Low-temperature electrical transport studies revealed the n-type semiconducting nature of the films with extrinsic and intrinsic conduction mechanisms, in sharp contrast to the degenerate nature reported for identical bulk samples. Calculations yielded a direct bandgap close to 50 meV with no evidence of an indirect gap. The carrier concentration of the films was identical to that reported for the bulk and increased with temperature beyond 250 K. The higher resistivity exhibited is attributed to the enhanced grain boundary scattering in films with a high concentration of grains. The maximum power factor of ∼0.68 W m−1 K−1 obtained at 660 K for the film on glass is found to be nearly four times smaller compared to that reported for the bulk. The observed difference in the power factors of the films on different substrates is explained on the basis of the diffusion of oxygen from the substrates and the formation of highly conducting CoSb2 phase upon the oxidation of CoSb3.

  5. Thermoelectric Performance of Yb-Doped Ba8Ni0.1Zn0.54Ga13.8Ge31.56 Type-I Clathrate Synthesized by High-Pressure Technique (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Long; Dong, Jianying; Xu, Bo


    Type I clathrates are a promising thermoelectric (TE) material for waste heat recovery applications. However, the TE figure-of-merit of type I clathrates still needs further improvement. In this study, Yb-doped Ba8-x Yb x Ni0.1Zn0.54 Ga13.8Ge31.56 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) type I clathrates were synthesized using a high-pressure technique. Energy dispersive spectrometry confirmed successful Yb doping. An increased Yb doping level reduces electrical resistivity and suppresses lattice thermal conductivity while keeping the Seebeck coefficient almost unchanged. TE figure-of-merit of Ba7.7Yb0.3Ni0.1Zn0.54Ga13.8Ge31.56 type I clathrate was improved by 15% (0.91) at the highest measured temperature (900 K) compared with a Yb-free sample.

  6. Evidence of a quantum critical point in Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 alloys at high Yb doping (United States)

    Singh, Y. P.; Haney, D. J.; Huang, X. Y.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.; Dzero, M.; Almasan, C. C.


    We performed this study on single crystals of Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 alloys with the motivation to further explore some of the previously reported unusual behaviors such as robust coherence and superconductivity, non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior, and the possibility of quantum criticality in higher Yb doping. Our specific heat and electronic magneto-transport measurements on the alloy with x = 0.75 nominal doping down to temperatures (T) as low as 0.5 K and magnetic fields (H) as high as 14 T. Our analysis of both specific heat and resistivity data unveils the presence of a crossover from NFL behavior at high temperatures to Fermi-liquid (FL) behavior at lower temperatures. Our analysis also indicates that the origin of the NFL behavior is a result of quantum fluctuations of unknown origin. The H-T phase diagram extracted from resistivity and specific heat shows that the crossover from NFL to FL behavior at zero temperature occurs at H = 0. This implies that the alloy with x = 0.75 Yb concentration is quantum critical, i.e., xc = 0.75. This result of zero field quantum critical point at x = 0.75 is also confirmed from our analysis of magneto-resistance data. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant NSF DMR-1006606) and Ohio Board of Regents (Grant OBR-RIP-220573) at KSU, and by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG02- 04ER46105) at UCSD.

  7. Studies of central wavelength of high-power all-fiber superfluorescent sources with Yb-doped double-clad fibers (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Sun, Junyi; Li, Dan; Gong, Mali; Xiao, Qirong


    The behavior patterns and dependencies of the central wavelength of high-power all-fiber superfluorescent sources (SFS) were studied based on the steady-state rate equations of Yb-doped fiber lasers. The relationships between the central wavelength and the pumping power as well as the fiber parameters including fiber length, core size, core/clad ratio, and absorption coefficient were analyzed based on the gain coefficient of the gain fiber. Experimental results from ten different fibers are presented, and the results agreed well with the simulations. The central wavelength of the ten SFSs ranged from 1034.75 nm to 1072.4 nm.

  8. Effect of cryogenic temperature on spectroscopic and laser properties of Er, Yb-doped potassium-lanthanum phosphate glass (United States)

    Švejkar, Richard; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Nitsch, Karel; Cihlář, Antonín.; Král, Robert; Nejezchleb, Karel; Nikl, Martin


    Glass matrix doped with rare-earth ions is a promising laser active medium for high power laser systems. Due to amorphous structure of glasses the absorption and emission spectra lines are broader in comparison with crystalline materials thus pumping radiation can be absorbed efficiently, moreover much broader gain bandwidth is suitable for generation of ultra-short pulses. Another advantage of the glass matrix is the possibility to fabricate large volume ingots and simultaneously preservation of sufficient optical quality. The lower thermal conductivity of glasses can be compensated by geometry of the active medium for instance shaped into fibres or discs. We present temperature dependence of spectroscopic and laser properties of newly developed Er, Yb - doped potassium-lanthanum phosphate glass, which is appropriate for generation of radiation at 1.53 μm. The sample of Er,Yb:KLaP glassy mixture was cut into disc shape with dimensions of 2.5 mm (thickness) and 5 mm (diameter) and its faces were polished plan-parallelly without being anti-reflection coated. The temperature dependence of the transmission and emission spectra Er,Yb:KLaP together with the fluorescence decay time were measured the temperature range from 80 to 400 K. The fluorescence lifetime of manifold 4I13/2 (upper laser level) prolonged and the intensity of up-conversion radiation decreased with decreasing temperature. The longitudinal excitation of Er,Yb:KLaP was carried out by a fibre-coupled laser diode (pulse duration 2 ms, repetition rate 10 Hz, pump wavelength 969 nm). Laser resonator was hemispherical, with flat pumping mirror (HR @ 1.5 μm) and spherical output coupler (R = 98 % @ 1.5 - 1.6 μm). The Er,Yb:KLaP glass laser properties were investigated in the temperature range 80 - 300 K. The highest slope efficiency with respect to absorbed pumped power was 6.1 % at 80 K. The maximum output of peak amplitude power was 0.71 W at 80 K, i.e. 1.2 times higher than at 300 K. Tunability of laser

  9. Second Harmonic Generation Using an All-Fiber Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser and MgO:c-PPLN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qing Xu


    Full Text Available We have experimentally demonstrated an efficient all-fiber passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser with Samarium doped fiber as a saturable absorber. Average output power of 3.4 W at a repetition rate of 250 kHz and a pulse width of 1.1 microseconds was obtained at a pump power of 9.0 W. By using this fiber laser system and an MgO-doped congruent periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:c-PPLN, second harmonic generation (SHG output at 532 nm was achieved at room temperature. The conversion efficiency is around 4.2% which agrees well with the theoretical simulation.

  10. Gold nanobipyramids as a saturable absorber for passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser operation at 1.06 µm (United States)

    Zhang, Huanian; Li, Bowen; Liu, Jie


    In this letter, gold nanobipyramids (Au-NBPs) are prepared using a seed-mediated growth method. The longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption peak of the Au-NBPs is located at 1068 nm by controlling the aspect of the materials. To verify the absorption properties of the Au-NBP saturable absorber (SA), a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. The maximum average output power of 3.33 mW is obtained under a pumped power of 340 mW. The minimum pulse width is 2.6 µs at a pulse repetition rate of 66.3 kHz. The results prove that Au-NBP are a promising SA with the potential for important applications in the field of pulse lasers.

  11. Atomic frequency reference at 1033 nm for ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber lasers and applications exploiting a rubidium (Rb) 5S_1/2 to 4D_5/2 one-colour two-photon transition (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C.; Johnathan, Yik Jinen; Hessmo, Björn


    We demonstrate a two-photon transition of rubidium (Rb) atoms from the ground state (5$S_{1/2}$) to the excited state (4$D_{5/2}$), using a home-built ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber amplifier at 1033 nm. This is the first demonstration of an atomic frequency reference at 1033 nm as well as of a one-colour two-photon transition for the above energy levels. A simple optical setup is presented for the two-photon transition fluorescence spectroscopy, which is useful for frequency stabilization for a broad class of lasers. This spectroscopy has potential applications in the fiber laser industry as a frequency reference, particularly for the Yb-doped fiber lasers. This two-photon transition also has applications in atomic physics as a background- free high- resolution atom detection and for quantum communication, which is outlined in this article.

  12. Intervalence charge transfer luminescence: Interplay between anomalous and 5d − 4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barandiarán, Zoila, E-mail:; Seijo, Luis [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    In this paper, we report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals associated with Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} mixed valence pairs. By means of embedded cluster, wave function theory ab initio calculations, we show that the widely studied, very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb{sup 2+}-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} mixed valence pairs. The IVCT luminescence is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism where each photon provokes the same strong 4f{sup 14}–1A{sub 1g}→ 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 7/2})5de{sub g}–1T{sub 1u} absorption in the Yb{sup 2+} part of the pair: the first one, from the pair ground state; the second one, from an excited state of the pair whose Yb{sup 3+} moiety is in the higher 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}) multiplet. The Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} → Yb{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 2+} IVCT emission consists of an Yb{sup 2+} 5de{sub g} → Yb{sup 3+} 4f{sub 7/2} charge transfer accompanied by a 4f{sub 7/2} → 4f{sub 5/2} deexcitation within the Yb{sup 2+} 4f{sup 13} subshell: [{sup 2}F{sub 5/2}5de{sub g},{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}] → [{sup 2}F{sub 7/2},4f{sup 14}]. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the oxidized and reduced moieties of the pair after electron transfer very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are subtracted from the normal emission. The IVCT energy diagrams resulting from the quantum mechanical calculations explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF{sub 2}, SrF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, and SrCl{sub 2}: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF{sub 2}; its absence in BaF{sub 2} and SrCl{sub 2}; the quenching of

  13. Supercontinuum generation based on all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation: Influence of seed's output port (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaosheng; Hua, Yi


    All-normal-dispersion (ANDi) mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser is a promising seed source for supercontinuum (SC) generation, due to its compact structure and broadband output. The influences of output ports of the ANDi laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), on the generated SC are investigated. Two output ports of ANDi laser are considered, one of which is the conventional nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) port and the other is extracted from a coupler after the NPR port. It is found that, the SC originated from the coupler port is much broader than that from the NPR port, which is validated by lots of experiments with different output parameters. Furthermore, the conclusion is verified and generalized to general ANDi lasers by numerical simulations, because the output pulse from coupler port could be cleaner than that from NPR port. Besides, there are no significant differences in the phase coherence and temporal stability between the SCs generated from both ports. Hence for the SC generation based on ANDi laser, it is preferred to use the pulse of coupler port (i.e. pulse after NPR port) serving as the seed source.

  14. Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of rare earth Yb-doped Ba{sub 8−x}Yb{sub x}Si{sub 30}Ga{sub 16} clathrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lihua, E-mail: [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Physics, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Feng [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Physics, Beijing 100083 (China); Wei, Yuping; Chen, Ning; Bi, Shanli [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing 100083 (China); Qiu, Hongmei [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Physics, Beijing 100083 (China); Cao, Guohui [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Yang [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Physics, Beijing 100083 (China); University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Department of Engineering Science and Materials, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9044 (United States)


    Highlights: • Samples with the chemical formula Ba8−{sub x}Yb{sub x}Si{sub 30}Ga{sub 16} (x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, 1 and 1.5) were prepared. • Some Yb atoms enter the clathrate lattice to replace Ba, while other Yb atoms are oxidized as Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The thermal conductivity decreases with Yb-doping. • Thermoelectric figure of merit ZT significantly increased. -- Abstract: The potential thermoelectric and magnetic application of clathrate materials with rare-earth doping is the focus of much of the recent research activity in the synthetic material physics and chemistry. A series of clathrate samples with the chemical formula Ba{sub 8−x}Yb{sub x}Si{sub 30}Ga{sub 16} (x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, 1 and 1.5) were prepared by combining arc melting, ball milling and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed the dominant phase to be the type-I clathrate. Whereas, X-ray structural refinement and EDS analysis indicated that some Yb atoms enter the clathrate lattice to replace Ba at 2a sites, while other Yb atoms are oxidized as Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitated around grain boundaries. The solid solubility of Yb into clathrate lattice yielded x ∼ 0.3. Comparative analysis between Yb-doped and Yb-free clathrates showed that the thermal conductivity decreases with Yb-doping. Consequently, thermoelectric figure of merit ZT significantly increased.

  15. Direct generation of 2  W average-power and 232  nJ picosecond pulses from an ultra-simple Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser. (United States)

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Xiong, Fengfu; Li, Yingyue; Zhong, Min; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Huiying; Fu, Hongyan


    We report the generation of 2.06 W average-power and 232 nJ picosecond mode-locked pulses directly from an ultra-simple Yb-doped fiber laser. A section of Yb-doped double-clad fiber pumped by a 976 nm laser diode provides the large gain, and the linear cavity is simply formed by a 1064 nm highly reflective fiber Bragg grating and a fiber loop mirror (FLM) using a 5/95 optical coupler. The asymmetric FLM not only acts as the output mirror for providing ∼20% optical feedback, but also equivalently behaves as a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) to initiate the mode-locking operation in this cavity. Stable mode-locking is therefore achieved over a pump power of 3.76 W. The mode-locked pulses show the dissipative soliton resonance (DSR), which has the pulse duration of 695 ps to ∼1  ns, and the almost unchanged peak power of ∼200  W as increasing the pump power. In particular, this laser can emit 232 nJ high-energy DSR pulses with an average output power of >2  W. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of such an ultra-simple, mode-locked fiber laser that enables watt-level, high energy, picosecond DSR pulses.

  16. Sol-solvothermal Preparation and Photoactivity of Low Amount Yb-doped TiO2 Nano-photocatalyst%低量镱掺杂TiO2纳米光催化剂的溶胶-溶剂热制备及光活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫盼盼; 姜洪泉; 卢智宇; 李井申; 王庆元


    利用溶胶-溶剂热技术制备了锐钛矿型Yb掺杂和未掺杂TiO2纳米粒子,以亚甲基蓝(MB)溶液在紫外光和可见光照射下的光催化脱色率评价其光活性,考察了溶剂热温度、Yb掺杂量和焙烧温度对样品光活性的影响;结合XRD,BET,XPS,FT-IR,DRS和PL表征手段,探讨了Yb掺杂对TiO2光活性的影响机制.结果表明,低量Yb掺杂不仅显著提高TiO2的紫外光活性,也明显提高其可见光活性.Yb掺杂调整TiO2带隙内部电子分布状态,有效抑制光生e-/h+复合,提高量子效率;并且增加表面羟基,增大比表面积,改善表面织构特性,致使紫外光活性提高.然而Yb掺杂并未引起紫外吸收带边红移,其可见光活性的提高应归因于Yb掺杂强化了表面吸附染料的敏化作用.%The Yb-doped and un-doped anatase-TiO2 nano-photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by sol-solvothermal process. Their photoactivities were e-valuated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl-ene blue ( MB) in aqueous solution under UV light and visible light irradiation, respectively. The influences of solvotherraal temperature, Yb-doping content and calcination temperature on the photoactivities of the samples were investigated. In combination with XRD, BET, XPS, FT-IR, DRS and PL characterization , the effect mechanisms of Yb-doping on the pho-toactivity were discussed. The results revealed that low content Yb-doping could significantly improve both the UV and visible light photoactivities compared to the un-doped sample. The Yb-doping effectively inhibited the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and increased quantum efficiency. In the meantime, the Yb-doping increased the surface hydroxyl group and the specific area, as well as improved the surface texture properties. All above factors resulted in the enhanced photoactivity of TiO2 under UV light irradiation. The Yb-doping did not cause red shift of the UV absorption edge of TiO2. Therefore, the

  17. High power, picosecond green laser based on a frequency-doubled, all-fiber, narrow-bandwidth, linearly polarized, Yb-doped fiber laser (United States)

    Tian, Wenyan; Isyanova, Yelena; Stegeman, Robert; Huang, Ye; Chieffo, Logan R.; Moulton, Peter F.


    We report on the development of an all-fiber, 68-kW-peak-power, 16-ps-pulse-width, narrow-bandwidth, linearly polarized, 1064-nm fiber laser suitable for high-power, picosecond-pulse-width, green-light generation. Our 1064-nm fiber laser delivered an average power of up to 110 W at a repetition of 100- MHz in a narrow bandwidth, with minimal nonlinear distortion. We developed a high-power, picosecond green source at 532 nm through use of single-pass frequency-doubling of our 1064-nm fiber laser in lithium triborate (LBO). Using a 15-mm long LBO crystal, we have generated 30 W of average power in the second harmonic with 73-W of fundamental average power, for a conversion efficiency of 41%.

  18. Experiment study on all-fiberized tandem pump broadband superfluorescent fiber source based on single stage Yb-doped fiber%全光纤同带泵浦宽带掺镱超荧光光纤光源的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄淑琴; 院楚君; 王鑫


    采用自制的1018 nm光纤激光器做泵浦源,建立了全光纤同带泵浦的宽带掺镱超荧光光纤光源实验系统,首次利用同带泵浦对单程前向结构的超荧光产生进行了深入的实验研究。研究结果表明:基于同带泵浦的掺镱超荧光光源的斜率效率高达88%,半极大全宽度(Full Width at Half Maximum,FWHM)最宽可以达到14.81 nm。掺镱光纤长度的改变,将影响超荧光光源的最大输出功率、斜率效率及中心波长,随着掺镱光纤长度的增加,最大输出功率和斜率效率下降,中心波长红移。固定光纤长度,改变泵浦功率,随着泵浦功率的增加,超荧光的最大功率和FWHM增加,光谱中心波长偏移很小。在掺镱光纤长度为5.7 m时,超荧光光源的最宽FWHM为14.81 nm,斜率效率在80.3%以上,输出功率的波动小于1%,没有驰豫振荡出现。%With a homemade 1 018 nm fiber laser, an all-fiberized tandem pump broadband superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) based on single stage Yb-doped fiber was set up experimentally. It is the first time to experimently investigate the generation of forward superfluorescence by utilizing tandem pump in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the highest slope efficiency of 88% and the widest full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 14.81 nm for this all-fiberized tandem pump broadband SFS. The length of Yb-doped fiber would affect the maximum of output power, slope effiency and the central wavelength. With an increase in the length of Yb-doped fiber, the maximum of output power and slope effiency of the SFS are reduced. The central wavelength shifts towards the longer wavelength. With an increase of the pump power at a certain fiber length, the maximum of output power and slope effiency of the SFS increase. The central wavelength of superfluorescent spectrum has a slight shift. When 5.7 m Yb-doped fiber is employed as the active medium, the widest FWHM is 14.81 nm and the

  19. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure, Chemical Stability and Electrical Properties of Transition Metal or Yb-Doped BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1M0.1O3-δ (M = Fe, Ni, Co and Yb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad eMirfakhraei


    Full Text Available Perovskite-type BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1M0.1O3-δ (M = Fe, Ni, Co and Yb (BZCY-M oxides were synthesized using the conventional solid-state reaction method at 1350-1550 oC in air in order to investigate the effect of dopants on sintering, crystal structure, chemical stability under CO2 and H2S, and electrical transport properties. The formation of the single-phase perovskite-type structure with an orthorhombic space group Imam was confirmed by Rietveld refinement using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD for the Fe, Co, Ni and Yb-doped samples. The BZCY-Co and BZCY-Ni oxides show a total electrical conductivity of 0.01 and 8 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 600 oC in wet H2 with an activation energy of 0.36 and 0.41 eV, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX revealed Ba and Co rich secondary phase at the grain-boundaries, which may explain the enhancement in the total conductivity of the BZCY-Co. However, ex-solution of Ni at higher sintering temperatures, especially at 1550 oC, decreases the total conductivity of the BZCY-Ni material. The Co and Ni dopants act as a sintering aid and form dense pellets at a lower sintering temperature of 1250 oC. The Fe, Co and Ni-doped BZCY-M samples synthesized at 1350 oC show stability in 30 ppm H2S/H2 at 800 oC, and increasing the firing temperature to 1550 oC, enhanced the chemical stability in CO2 / N2 (1: 2 at 25-900 oC. The BZCY-Co and Ni compounds with high conductivity in wet H2 could be considered as possible anodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Yb - doped YAG Ceramics



    Rare-earth doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics are among the most widely produced transparent ceramics for laser applications. Yb:YAG ceramics are an interesting IR laser material [1], which allows significantly higher doping compared to the generally more used Nd:YAG [2,3]. This work presents the preparation of polycrystalline Yb:YAG ceramics with dopant concentration from 0 up to 20 at.% via solid state reactive sintering. Samples were prepared via cold isostatic pressing of spray ...

  1. Large Mode Area Yb-Doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber Lasers (United States)


    effective area of 1450 ?m2 was fabricated using the stack and draw technique (Figure 1). The microstructures in the cladding are comprised of germanium...doped silica. A low refractive index polymer coating provides a numerical aperture of 0.46 for pumping purposes. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4...and a calculated effective area of 1450 ?m2 was fabricated using the stack and draw technique (Figure 1). The microstructures in the cladding are

  2. Down conversion luminescence behavior of Er and Yb doped Y2O3 phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Agrawal


    Full Text Available We have studied downconversion luminescence behaviour of Y2O3 phosphor doped with Er 1 mol% and 1 mol% of Yb. The sample was prepared by modified solid state reaction method. Using inorganic material like (Y2O3, Flux Calcium Fluoride (CaF2 and Er2O3 as well as Yb2O3 with molar ratio 1 mol% of dopant. The prepared phosphor sample was characterized using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD, Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEGSEM, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Photoluminescence (PL, Thermoluminescence (TL and CIE techniques. The obtained sample shows an intense greenish-white emission (ranging from 350 to 600 nm, centered at 565 nm under a wide range of UV light excitation (220–400 nm.

  3. Thermal effects in Yb-doped double-cladding Distributed Modal Filtering rod-type fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Jørgensen, Mette Marie;


    element method. A DMF fiber design, which is single-mode in the 1030 nm–1064 nm region, is considered, and the effects of thermal load on the transmission characteristics are evaluated. Results show a blue-shift of the single-mode window and the single-mode bandwidth narrowing as the absorbed pump power...

  4. Electrically tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei


    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate...... an all-spliced laser cavity based on the liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through and an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. The laser cavity produces a single-mode output and is tuned in the range 1040-1065 nm...

  5. High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150-1200 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirakawa, A; Maruyama, H; Ueda, K


    Ytterbium-doped solid-core photonic bandgap fiber amplifiers operating at the long-wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band are reported. The low-loss bandgap transmission window is formed in the very low gain region, whilst outside the bandgap, large attenuation inhibits the exponential growth...... knowledge, these are the highest output powers generating from active photonic bandgap fibers, as well as from ytterbium-doped fiber lasers at these wavelengths. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America...

  6. Power-scalable long-wavelength Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, Akira; Maurayama, Hiroki


    Ytterbium-doped photonic-bandgap fiber sources operationg at the long-wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band are being investigated for high power amplification. Artificial shaping of the gain spectrum by the characteristic distributed filtering effect of the photonic bandgap enables...

  7. Tm-Yb Doped Optical Fiber Performance with Variation of Host-Glass Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Dhar


    Full Text Available The fabrication process of Thulium-Ytterbium doped optical fiber comprising different host glass through the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD coupled with solution doping technique is presented. The material and optical performance of different fibers are compared with special emphasis on their lasing efficiency for 2 µm application.

  8. Efficient ultraviolet-blue to near-infrared downconversion in Bi-Dy-Yb-doped zeolites (United States)

    Bai, Zhenhua; Fujii, Minoru; Hasegawa, Takashi; Imakita, Kenji; Mizuhata, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji


    Ultraviolet-blue to near-infrared (NIR) downconversion is investigated for the Dy3+-Yb3+ couple in zeolites by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and PL excitation spectra. Upon excitation of the 4F9/2 level of Dy3+, NIR quantum cutting could occur through a two-step energy transfer from one Dy3+ ion to two neighbouring Yb3+ ions via an intermediate level. The energy transfer efficiency from the 4F9/2 level is estimated to be 42%, and the intrinsic PL quantum efficiency of Yb3+ emission reaches 54%. The findings may have potential application in enhancing the energy efficiency of silicon-based solar cells.

  9. Yb-doped yttria-alumino-silicate nano-particles based optical fibers: Fabrication and characterization (United States)

    Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Kir'yanov, A. V.; Das, S.; Bhadra, S. K.; Barmenkov, Yu. O.; Martinez-Gamez, A. A.; Lucio-Martínez, J. L.


    An efficient method to fabricate transparent glass ceramic fibers containing in-situ grown Yb 3+ doped oxide nano-particles based on yttria-alumino-silicate glass is presented. These large-mode area Yb 3+ doped fibers having a core diameter around 25.0 μm were drawn by a proper control over the involved process parameters; by this, the size of nano-particles was maintained within 5-10 nm. The main spectroscopic and laser properties of the fabricated fibers along with the nano-structuration results are reported. These results reveal that the developed method offers new scopes for the contemporary Yb 3+ fiber based devices.

  10. Phosphate-core silica-clad Er/Yb-doped optical fiber and cladding pumped laser. (United States)

    Egorova, O N; Semjonov, S L; Velmiskin, V V; Yatsenko, Yu P; Sverchkov, S E; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Dianov, E M


    We present a composite optical fiber with a Er/Yb co-doped phosphate-glass core in a silica glass cladding as well as cladding pumped laser. The fabrication process, optical properties, and lasing parameters are described. The slope efficiency under 980 nm cladding pumping reached 39% with respect to the absorbed pump power and 28% with respect to the coupled pump power. Due to high doping level of the phosphate core optimal length was several times shorter than that of silica core fibers.

  11. Linearly polarized intracavity passive Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fibre laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha Chakravarty; Antony Kuruvilla; Rajpal Singh; B N Upadhyay; K S Bindra; S M Oak


    In this paper we report linearly polarized high average power passive Q-switched ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fibre laser with a Cr4+:YAG crystal as a saturable absorber. An average output power of 9.4 W with pulse duration of 64 ns and pulse repetition rate of 57.4 kHz with a slope efficiency of 52% was achieved. Measured polarization extinction ratio (PER) of the Q-switched laser output was 10.5 dB.

  12. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser operating in the anomalous dispersion regime. (United States)

    Ortaç, Bülend; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas


    We report on high-energy ultrashort pulse generation from a passively mode-locked ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber oscillator operating in the anomalous dispersion regime. In the single-pulse regime, the laser directly generates 880 mW of average power of sub-500 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 53.33 MHz, corresponding to a pulse energy of 16.5 nJ. Stable and self-starting operation is obtained by adapting the spot size at the saturable absorber mirror to the pulse evolution in the low-nonlinearity fiber. The approach presented demonstrates the scaling potential of fiber based short pulse oscillators towards the microJ-level.

  13. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped dispersion compensation free fiber laser. (United States)

    Ortaç, B; Schmidt, O; Schreiber, T; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A; Hideur, A


    We report on a mode-locked high energy fiber laser operating in the dispersion compensation free regime. The sigma cavity is constructed with a saturable absorber mirror and short-length large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. The laser generates positively-chirped pulses with an energy of 265 nJ at a repetition rate of 10.18 MHz in a stable and self-starting operation. The pulses are compressible down to 400 fs leading to a peak power of 500 kW. Numerical simulations accurately reflect the experimental results and reveal the mechanisms for self consistent intracavity pulse evolution. With this performance mode-locked fiber lasers can compete with state-of-the-art bulk femtosecond oscillators for the first time and pulse energy scaling beyond the muJ-level appears to be feasible.

  14. Monolithic Highly Stable Yb-Doped Femtosecond Fiber Lasers for Applications in Practical Biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry


    Operational and environmental stability of ultrafast laser systems is critical for their applications in practical biophotonics. Mode-locked fiber lasers show great promise in applications such as supercontinuum sources or multiphoton microscopy systems. Recently, substantial progress has been made...... in the development of all-fiber nonlinear-optical laser control schemes, which resulted in the demonstration of highly stable monolithic, i.e., not containing any free-space elements, lasers with direct fiber-end delivery of femtosecond pulses. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development...... of such all-fiber mode-locked lasers based on Yb-fiber as gain medium, operating at the wavelength around 1 $\\mu$m, and delivering femtosecond pulses reaching tens of nanojoules of energy....

  15. Electrical and microstructural properties of Yb-doped CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Matović


    Full Text Available Nanopowdered Ce1−xYbxO2−δ solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 were synthesized by a self-propagating room temperature synthesis. XRD and SEM were used to study the properties of these materials as well as the Yb solubility in CeO2 lattice. Results showed that all the obtained powders were solid solutions with a fluorite-type crystal structure and with nanometric particle size. The average size of Ce1−xYbxO2−δ particles was approximately 3 nm. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the sintered pellets depicted that it was possible to separate Rbulk and Rgb in the temperature interval of 550–800 °C. The activation energy for the bulk conduction was 1.03 eV and for grain boundary conduction was 1.14 eV. Grain boundary resistivity dominates over the other resistivities. These measurements confirmed that Yb3+-doped CeO2 material had a potential as electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  16. The all-fiber cladding-pumped Yb-doped gain-switched laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Hansen, K. P.; Mattsson, Kent Erik


    Gain-switching is an alternative pulsing technique of fiber lasers, which is power scalable and has a low complexity. From a linear stability analysis of rate equations the relaxation oscillation period is derived and from it, the pulse duration is defined. Good agreement between the measured pulse...... at longer active fibers length with increased passive length of fiber in the cavity. The peak power is observed to depend linearly on the absorbed pump power and be independent of the passive fiber length. Given these conclusions, the pulse energy, duration, and peak power can be estimated with good...

  17. Thermo-Optical Tuning of Whispering Gallery Modes in Er:Yb Doped Glass Microspheres to Arbitrary Probe Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Amy; Chormaic, Síle Nic


    We present experimental results on an all-optical, thermally-assisted technique for broad range tuning of microsphere cavity resonance modes to arbitrary probe wavelengths. An Er:Yb co-doped phosphate glass (Schott IOG-2) microsphere is pumped at 978 nm via the supporting stem and the heat generated by absorption of the pump light expands the cavity and changes the refractive index. This is a robust tuning method that decouples the pump from the probe and allows fine tuning of the microsphere's whispering gallery modes. Pump/probe experiments were performed to demonstrate thermo-optical tuning to specific probe wavelengths, including the 5S1/2 F = 3 to 5P3/2 F' = 4 laser cooling transition of 85Rb. This is of particular interest for cavity QED-type experiments, while the broad tuning range achievable is useful for integrated photonic devices, including sensors and modulators.

  18. High slope efficiency and high refractive index change in direct-written Yb-doped waveguide lasers with depressed claddings. (United States)

    Palmer, Guido; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Lancaster, David G; Withford, Michael J


    We report the first Yb:ZBLAN and Yb:IOG10 waveguide lasers fabricated by the fs-laser direct-writing technique. Pulses from a Titanium-Sapphire laser oscillator with 5.1 MHz repetition rate were utilized to generate negative refractive index modifications in both glasses. Multiple modifications were aligned in a depressed cladding geometry to create a waveguide. For Yb:ZBLAN we demonstrate high laser slope efficiency of 84% with a maximum output power of 170 mW. By using Yb:IOG10 a laser performance of 25% slope efficiency and 72 mW output power was achieved and we measured a remarkably high refractive index change exceeding Δn = 2.3 × 10(-2).

  19. Utilization of IR laser pumped anti-Stokes emission of Er-Yb doped systems for identification of securities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, A.N.; Ryabtsev, G.I.; Ketko, G.A. [Institute of Physics, Belarussian Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Gorelenko, A.Yu.; Demidovich, A.A. [Science Center `Gosznak` of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Strek, W.; Maruszewicz, K.; Deren, P. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland)


    In this paper we present a utilization of anti-Stokes luminescence of Er-Yb systems for identification of securities. A simple method of detection of an up-conversion phenomenon in such system by means of IR laser operating in the region 960-1010 nm is proposed. (author) 3 refs, 3 figs

  20. Narrow linewidth Yb-doped double-cladding fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg gratings inscribed by femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhinan; Shi Jiawei; Zhang Jihuang; Wang Haiyan; Li Yuhua; Lu Peixiang, E-mail:, E-mail: [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    A narrow-linewidth high power laser in all fiber format at 1064 nm is demonstrated. The resonant cavity is composed of two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber gratings, which were inscribed into the core of the double-cladding fiber by use of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses and a phase mask. The spectrum of the laser exhibited a narrow linewidth of 21 pm at the output power of 0.8 W. The wavelength and power of the laser featured long term stability.

  1. Effect of Yb doping on the refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of YVO4 single crystals. (United States)

    Soharab, M; Bhaumik, Indranil; Bhatt, R; Saxena, A; Karnal, A K; Gupta, P K


    Single crystals of YVO4 with different doping concentrations of Yb (1.5, 3.0, 8.0, and 15.0 at. %) and with good crystalline quality (FWHM ∼43-55 arc sec of rocking curve) were grown by the optical floating zone technique. Refractive index measurements were carried out at four wavelengths as a function of temperature. The measurements show that as the doping concentration of Yb is increased, the refractive index varies marginally for ne whereas there is a significant change in the value of no. The thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) was found to be positive with a value ∼10-5/°C, which is 1 order higher than that for the undoped YVO4 crystal. The thermo-optic coefficient is higher for ne compared to that of no. Also, a set of relations describing the wavelength dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient were established that are useful for calculating the thermo-optic coefficient at any temperature in the range 30°C-150°C and at any wavelength in the range 532-1551 nm.

  2. Mode-Selective Amplification in a Large Mode Area Yb-Doped Fiber Using a Photonic Lantern (United States)


    Figures 2(b) and 2(c) clearly demonstrate that the LP01, LP11a, and LP11b modes can be excited by the photonic lantern with low modal cross -talk...Photonics, the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA * Corresponding author: Received 18 February 2016...investigated. For example, Otto et al. incorporated an acousto- optic deflector to control the spatial- modal content of the seed at the LMA fiber input

  3. Strong broad green UV-excited photoluminescence in rare earth (RE = Ce, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) doped barium zirconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Urby, R. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A., E-mail: [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Ciudad de Mexico, D. F. 07730 (Mexico); Meza, O. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico)


    Highlights: > Trivalent rare earth (RE) substitution on Zr{sup 4+} sites in BaZrO{sub 3} lead to band gap narrowing. > RE substitution lead to enhanced blue-green intrinsic emission of nanocrystalline BaZrO{sub 3} > Blue-green hue of BaZrO3:RE depends on RE dopant and excitation UV wavelength > BaZrO3: Dy{sup 3+} PL chromatic coordinates correspond to pure white color coordinates of CIE 1931 model - Abstract: The wet synthesis hydrothermal method at 100 deg. C was used to elaborate barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}) unpurified with 0.5 mol% of different rare earth ions (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Ce). Morphological, structural and UV-photoluminescence properties depend on the substituted rare earth ionic radii. While the crystalline structure of RE doped BaZrO{sub 3} remains as a cubic perovskite for all substituted RE ions, its band gap changes between 4.65 and 4.93 eV. Under 267 nm excitation the intrinsic green photoluminescence of the as synthesized BaZrO{sub 3}: RE samples is considerably improved by the substitution on RE ions. For 1000 deg. C annealed samples, under 267 nm, the photoluminescence is dominated by the intrinsic BZO emission. It is interesting to notice that Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} doped samples present whitish emissions that might be useful for white light generation under 267 nm excitation. CIE color coordinates are reported for all samples.

  4. 58 mJ burst comprising ultrashort pulses with homogenous energy level from an Yb-doped fiber amplifier. (United States)

    Breitkopf, Sven; Klenke, Arno; Gottschall, Thomas; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas


    We report on a laser system producing a burst comprising femtosecond pulses with a total energy of 58 mJ. Every single pulse within this burst has an energy between 27 and 31 μJ. The pump is able to rebuild the inversion fast enough between the pulses, resulting in an almost constant gain for every pulse during the burst. This causes a very homogenous energy distribution during the burst. The output burst has a repetition frequency of 20 Hz, is 200 μs long and, therefore, contains 2000 pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 10 MHz.

  5. Q-Switched and Mode Locked Short Pulses from a Diode Pumped, YB-Doped Fiber Laser (United States)


    500fs.pdf. 43. H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Hideur, T. Chartier , M. Brunel, F. Sanchez, "Experimental and theoretical study of the passively mode...locked ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser", Physical Review A, Vol. 65 063811 (2002) pp 1-9. 44. B. Ortac, A. Hideur, M. Brunel, T. Chartier , M

  6. MW peak power Er/Yb-doped fiber femtosecond laser amplifier at 1.5 µm center wavelength (United States)

    Han, Seongheum; Jang, Heesuk; Kim, Seungman; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo


    An erbium (Er)/ytterbium (Yb) co-doped double-clad fiber is configured to amplify single-mode pulses with a high average power of 10 W at a 1.5 µm center wavelength. The pulse duration at the exit of the Er/Yb fiber amplifier is measured to be ~440 fs after grating-based compression. The whole single-mode operation of the amplifier system permits the M 2-value of the output beam quality to be evaluated better than 1.05. By tuning the repetition rate from 100 MHz down to 600 kHz, the pulse peak power is scaled up to 19.1 MW to be the highest ever reported using an Er/Yb single-mode fiber. The proposed amplifier system is well suited for strong-power applications such as free-space LIDAR, non-thermal machining and medical surgery.

  7. Thermal effect-resilient design of large mode area double-cladding Yb-doped photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Johansen, Mette Marie;


    The effects of thermally-induced refractive index change on the guiding properties of different large mode area fibers have been numerically analyzed. A simple but accurate model has been applied to obtain the refractive index change in the fiber cross-section, and a full-vector modal solver base...

  8. Superconductivity at 31.3 K in Yb-doped La(O/F)FeAs superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Prakash; S J Singh; S Patnaik; A K Ganguli


    The effect of ytterbium substitution at the lanthanum site on the superconducting properties of La1-YbO0.8F0.2FeAs ( = 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30) oxypnictides has been investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction studies show the presence of Yb2O3 and LaOF as secondary phases. The superconducting transition temperature (c) of 31.3 (± 0.05) K has been observed in = 0.1 composition which is the maximum c so far in the La(O/F)FeAs superconductor family at ambient pressure. Further increase in leads to suppression and broadening of superconducting transition. The resistive transition curves under different magnetic fields were investigated, leading to determination of upper critical field c2 () of this new superconductor. The value of c2 at zero temperature is estimated to be about 46 T corresponding to coherence length ∼ 27 Å.

  9. Spatially selective Er/Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} crystal formation by CO{sub 2} laser exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lim, Ki-Soo, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Oxyfluoride glass–ceramics containing CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals doped with Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions were formed on the glass surface by CO{sub 2} laser and a heat gun exposure. • Most of Er and Yb ions were distributed inside CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals and fluorine loss was observed in the EDS element maps. • IR-to-VIS upconversion emission efficiency of laser annealed glass ceramics was much increased and compared with that of the furnace-annealed glass ceramics. • Distributed volume of the glass ceramics were estimated by a confocal fluorescence microscope imaging. - Abstract: We report the glass–ceramic precipitation on the oxyfluoride glass surface by spatially selective annealing with a CO{sub 2} laser and a heat gun exposure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of major CaF{sub 2} and miner Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanoparticles. We observed ∼100 nm nanoparticle aggregation by tunneling electron microscopy and element distribution in glass and crystal phases. Spatial distribution of glass ceramics near the glass surface was probed by confocal fluorescence microscope by using much enhanced emission from the Er ions in the laser-treated area. Strong emissions at 365 nm excitation and visible up-conversion emissions at 980 nm excitation also indicated well incorporation of Er and Yb ions into a crystalline environment.

  10. Spatially selective Er/Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} crystal formation by CO{sub 2} laser exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lim, Ki-Soo, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Oxyfluoride glass–ceramics containing CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals doped with Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions were formed on the glass surface by CO{sub 2} laser and a heat gun exposure. • Most of Er and Yb ions were distributed inside CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals and fluorine loss was observed in the EDS element maps. • IR-to-VIS upconversion emission efficiency of laser annealed glass ceramics was much increased and compared with that of the furnace-annealed glass ceramics. • Distributed volume of the glass ceramics were estimated by a confocal fluorescence microscope imaging. - Abstract: We report the glass–ceramic precipitation on the oxyfluoride glass surface by spatially selective annealing with a CO{sub 2} laser and a heat gun exposure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of major CaF{sub 2} and miner Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanoparticles. We observed ∼100 nm nanoparticle aggregation by tunneling electron microscopy and element distribution in glass and crystal phases. Spatial distribution of glass ceramics near the glass surface was probed by confocal fluorescence microscope by using much enhanced emission from the Er ions in the laser-treated area. Strong emissions at 365 nm excitation and visible up-conversion emissions at 980 nm excitation also indicated well incorporation of Er and Yb ions into a crystalline environment.

  11. Luminescence and Electroluminescence of Nd, Tm and Yb Doped GaAs and some II-Vi Compounds (United States)


    the Sixth International Workshop on Electroluminescence, El Paso, Texas, 1992 ( Cingo Puntos Press, El Paso, Texas, 1992), and references therein. 2. R...34. impurity seems to be traps (represented by ellipse) with the atomiclike 4f" core ideal . states. (a) Trapping (liberation) "r.(,r) of electron on REI traps...34structured" impurity seems to be ideal . KINETIC MODEL AND COMPUTATION RESULTS The luminescence kinetic model involving RE`3 "structured" isoelectronic

  12. Design of 30W Power Supply for LED Driving Based on FAN7554%基于FAN7554的30W LED驱动电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高家宝; 刘堃


    A principle block diagram of power supply for LED driving based on PWM controller IC was presented. Using the PWM IC FAN7554 as the main microchip to design a fly-back LED drive that is designed with an output power of 120W, an output voltage 33V and an output current 0.9A. The circuit can supply drive power for a LED array with 30 tubes with the power of 1 W by using 10 in series and 3 in parallel. And introduces the operation principles of the designed circuit. The power supply for LED driving of this design has passed a series of related electric tests and it has got some satisfactory results in the actual operation, capable of entering the low power LED lighting market, and can be a reference for high performance, low cost low-power LED power supply design.%提出了一种基于PWM(脉冲宽度调制)控制芯片的小功率LED驱动电源的原理框架。采用FAN7554芯片作为主控制器,设计了一款输出功率达30W的反激式LED驱动电源,其输出电压为33V,输出电流为0.9A,可为30只功率为1W的LED管采用10串3并混联方式组成的LED阵列提供驱动电源,并分析所设计LED驱动电源的基本原理。该LED驱动电源经过一系列的电气测试,并在实际运行中得到比较满意的结果,具有进入小功率LED照明市场的能力,且对设计高性能、低成本的小功率LED驱动电源具有一定的指导意义。

  13. Continuous wave, 30 W Laser-Diode Bar with 10 GHz Linewidth for Rb Laser Pumping (United States)


    Miyajima, H. Fukuoka, S. Matsuoka, M. Niigaki, H. Kubomura, T. Hiruma, and H. Kan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141112 (2006). 14. O. M. Efimov , L. B. Glebov, L...N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, U.S. patent 6,586,141 (July 1, 2003). 15. O. M. Efimov , L. B. Glebov, and V. Smirnov, U.S. patent 6,673,497 (January 6

  14. Self compression and raman soliton generation in a photonic crystal fibre of 100-fs pulses produced by a diode-pumped Yb-doped oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druon, F.; Sanner, N.; Lucas-Leclin, G.


    We present the use of a photonic crystal fiber to straightforwardly compress ultrashort pulses from a diode-pumped ytterbium laser emitting around 1 m. 75-fs pulse generation and a large 11.3-m tunability for sub-100-fs pulses is reported.......We present the use of a photonic crystal fiber to straightforwardly compress ultrashort pulses from a diode-pumped ytterbium laser emitting around 1 m. 75-fs pulse generation and a large 11.3-m tunability for sub-100-fs pulses is reported....

  15. Generation of visible wavelength by the phase-matching four-wave mixing in an Yb-doped V-shape photonic crystal fiber (United States)

    Li, Lixiao; Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Han, Ying; Xia, Changming; Zhou, Guiyao; Wei, Shuai; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jianju; Wang, Shuang; Cheng, Xu; Hou, Lantian


    In this paper, an Ytterbium-doped V-shape photonic crystal fiber (Yb-VPCF) with low dispersion and high nonlinearity is designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Through coupling femtosecond pulses into the fundamental mode of Yb-VPCF, the tunable anti-Stokes signals at the visible wavelength are efficiently generated based on the phase-matching four-wave mixing. When the pump wavelength is changed from 810, to 820, and to 830 nm and the input average power is increased from 0.4, to 0.5, and to 0.6 W, respectively, the anti-Stokes signals are generated within the wavelength range of 562-477 nm. The wavelength-tunable range is over 100 nm, and the maximum power ratio of anti-Stokes signal at 477 nm and the residual pump at 830 nm can be up to 23.9:1. The anti-Stokes signals generated can be used as the ultrashort pulse sources for ultrafast optoelectronics and spectroscopy.

  16. Scaling of Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber to 200 μm core diameter for high beam quality laser output (United States)

    Kuo, Meng; Zhu, Lian-Qing; Luo, Fei


    Not Available Project supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. PCSIRT: 1212), the Key Grant Science and Technology Planning Project of Beijing, China (Grant Nos. PXM2013 014224 000077 and PXM2012 014224 000019), and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Beijing Municipal Commission of Education, China (Grant No. KM201611232008).

  17. Texturing of titanium (Ti6Al4V) medical implant surfaces with MHz-repetition-rate femtosecond and picosecond Yb-doped fiber lasers. (United States)

    Erdoğan, Mutlu; Öktem, Bülent; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Yavaş, Seydi; Mukhopadhyay, Pranab K; Eken, Koray; Ozgören, Kıvanç; Aykaç, Yaşar; Tazebay, Uygar H; Ilday, F Ömer


    We propose and demonstrate the use of short pulsed fiber lasers in surface texturing using MHz-repetition-rate, microjoule- and sub-microjoule-energy pulses. Texturing of titanium-based (Ti6Al4V) dental implant surfaces is achieved using femtosecond, picosecond and (for comparison) nanosecond pulses with the aim of controlling attachment of human cells onto the surface. Femtosecond and picosecond pulses yield similar results in the creation of micron-scale textures with greatly reduced or no thermal heat effects, whereas nanosecond pulses result in strong thermal effects. Various surface textures are created with excellent uniformity and repeatability on a desired portion of the surface. The effects of the surface texturing on the attachment and proliferation of cells are characterized under cell culture conditions. Our data indicate that picosecond-pulsed laser modification can be utilized effectively in low-cost laser surface engineering of medical implants, where different areas on the surface can be made cell-attachment friendly or hostile through the use of different patterns.

  18. Generation of 130 W narrow-linewidth high-peak-power picosecond pulses directly from a compact Yb-doped single-stage fiber amplifier (United States)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xuechun


    We report a compact, 130-W single-stage master oscillator power amplifier with a high peak power of 51.3 kW and a narrow spectral linewidth of 0.1 nm. The seed source is a single-mode, passively mode-locked solid-state laser at 1064 nm with an average power of 2 W. At a repetition rate of 73.5 MHz, the pulse duration is 30 ps. After amplification, it stretches to 34.5 ps. The experiment enables the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency to reach 75%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a high-power, narrow spectral linewidth, high peak power picosecond-pulse fiber amplifier based on a continuous-wave, mode-locked solid-state seeding laser. No amplified spontaneous emission and stimulated Raman scattering were observed when the pump was increased.

  19. Multi-mJ mid-infrared kHz OPCPA and Yb-doped pump lasers for tabletop coherent soft x-ray generation (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Jen; Hong, Kyung-Han; Siqueira, Jonathas P.; Krogen, Peter; Chang, Chun-Lin; Stein, Gregory J.; Liang, Houkun; Keathley, Phillip D.; Laurent, Guillaume; Moses, Jeffrey; Zapata, Luis E.; Kärtner, Franz X.


    We present our recent progress on the development of a mid-infrared (mid-IR), multi-mJ, kHz optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system, pumped by a homebuilt picosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG chirped-pulse amplifier, and its application to soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation. The cryogenic Yb:YAG laser operating at 1 kHz repetition rate delivers 42 mJ, 17 ps, 1.03 μm pulses to pump the OPCPA system. Efficient second and fourth harmonic generations from the Yb:YAG system are demonstrated, which provide the pumping capability for OPCPA at various wavelengths. The mid-IR OPCPA system produces 2.6 mJ, 39 fs, 2.1 μm pulses with good beam quality (M 2 = ∼1.5) at 1 kHz repetition rate. The output pulses of the OPCPA are used to generate high-order harmonics in both gas cell and hollow-core fiber targets. A photon flux of ∼2 × 108 photon/s/1% bandwidth at 160 eV in Ar is measured while the cutoff is 190 eV. The direct measurements of the photon flux from x-ray photodiodes have confirmed the generation of water-window soft x-ray photons with a flux ∼106 photon/s/1% bandwidth at 330 eV in Ne. The demonstrated OPCPA and Yb:YAG pump laser technologies provide an excellent platform of energy and power scalable few-cycle mid-IR sources that are suitable for high-flux tabletop coherent soft x-ray generation.

  20. Metal-to-metal charge transfer between dopant and host ions: Photoconductivity of Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barandiarán, Zoila, E-mail:; Seijo, Luis [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera and Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Dopant-to-host electron transfer is calculated using ab initio wavefunction-based embedded cluster methods for Yb/Ca pairs in CaF{sub 2} and Yb/Sr pairs in SrF{sub 2} crystals to investigate the mechanism of photoconductivity. The results show that, in these crystals, dopant-to-host electron transfer is a two-photon process mediated by the 4f{sup N−1}5d excited states of Y b{sup 2+}: these are reached by the first photon excitation; then, they absorb the second photon, which provokes the Y b{sup 2+} + Ca{sup 2+} (Sr{sup 2+}) → Y b{sup 3+} + Ca{sup +} (Sr{sup +}) electron phototransfer. This mechanism applies to all the observed Y b{sup 2+} 4f–5d absorption bands with the exception of the first one: Electron transfer cannot occur at the first band wavelengths in CaF{sub 2}:Y b{sup 2+} because the Y b{sup 3+}–Ca{sup +} states are not reached by the two-photon absorption. In contrast, Yb-to-host electron transfer is possible in SrF{sub 2}:Y b{sup 2+} at the wavelengths of the first 4f–5d absorption band, but the mechanism is different from that described above: first, the two-photon excitation process occurs within the Y b{sup 2+} active center, then, non-radiative Yb-to-Sr electron transfer can occur. All of these features allow to interpret consistently available photoconductivity experiments in these materials, including the modulation of the photoconductivity by the absorption spectrum, the differences in photoconductivity thresholds observed in both hosts, and the peculiar photosensitivity observed in the SrF{sub 2} host, associated with the lowest 4f–5d band.

  1. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped all-fiber monolithic chirped-pulse amplifier at repetition rate of 1 MHz (United States)

    Lv, Zhi-Guo; Teng, Hao; Wang, Li-Na; Wang, Jun-Li; Wei, Zhi-Yi


    A high-energy femtosecond all ytterbium fiber amplifier based on a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique at a repetition rate of 1 MHz seeded by a dispersion-management mode-locked picosecond broadband oscillator is studied. We find that the compressed pulse duration is dependent on the amplified energy, the pulse duration of 804 fs corresponds to the maximum amplified energy of 10.5 μJ, while the shortest pulse duration of 424 fs corresponds to the amplified energy of 6.75 μJ. The measured energy fluctuation is approximately 0.46% root mean square (RMS) over 2 h. The low-cost femtosecond fiber laser source with super-stability will be widely used in industrial micromachines, medical therapy, and scientific studies. Project supported by the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAC23B03), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922401), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474002).

  2. Fabrication of 16 W all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped rod-type fiber laser with large-mode area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国; 滕浩; 王立娜; 王睿; 王军利; 魏志义


    A mode-locked ytterbium-doped rod-type fiber laser with 85 µm core diameter is developed based on the nonlinear polarization evolution in an all-normal-dispersion ring cavity, in which a uniaxial birefringent plate is used as the spectral filter. Average power up to 16 W is obtained at the repetition rate of 58 MHz, and the pulse duration is compressed to 182 fs with a grating-pair compressor. The output laser pulses show very good beam quality and power stability.

  3. Tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a FBG array and a theta ring resonator ensuring a constant repetition rate (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Tiess, Tobias; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut; Jäger, Matthias L.


    Fiber lasers provide the perfect basis to develop broadly tunable lasers with high efficiency, excellent beam quality and user-friendly operation as they are increasingly demanded by applications in biophotonics and spectroscopy. Recently, a novel tuning scheme has been presented using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) arrays as fiber-integrated spectral filters containing many standard FBGs with different feedback wavelengths. Based on the discrete spectral sampling, these reflective filters uniquely enable tailored tuning ranges and broad bandwidths to be implemented into fiber lasers. Even though the first implementation of FBG arrays in pulsed tunable lasers based on a sigma ring resonators works with good emission properties, the laser wavelength is tuned by a changing repetition rate, which causes problems with applications in synchronized environments. In this work, we present a modified resonator scheme to maintain a constant repetition rate over the tuning range and still benefit from the advantages of FBG arrays as filters. With a theta ring cavity and two counter propagating filter passes, the distributed feedback of the FBG array is compensated resulting in a constant pulse round trip time for each filter wavelength. Together with an adapted gating scheme controlling the emission wavelength with a modulator, the tuning principle has been realized based on a Ytterbium-doped fiber laser. We present first experimental results demonstrating a tuning range of 25nm, high signal contrast and pulse durations of about 10ns. With the prospect of tailored tuning ranges, this pulsed fiber-integrated laser may be the basis to tackle challenging applications in spectroscopy.

  4. Investigation of all-in-fiber Yb doped femtosecond fiber oscillator for generation of parabolic pulses in normal dispersion fiber amplifier (United States)

    Frankinas, S.; Bartulevicius, T.; Michailovas, A.; Rusteika, N.


    In this work femtosecond passively mode-locked environmentally stable Ytterbium fiber oscillator generating pulses with duration of 380 fs is presented. Short pulse duration and smooth spectrum were obtained from the oscillator using chirped fiber Bragg grating with very low anomalous chromatic dispersion (0.15 ps2) and semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. Linearly chirped parabolic pulses were produced after amplification of the oscillator pulses in low concentration ytterbium doped fiber amplifier. Transform limited duration of the generated parabolic pulses was 110 fs.

  5. Investigation on repetition rate and pulse duration influences on ablation efficiency of metals using a high average power Yb-doped ultrafast laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez J.


    Full Text Available Ultrafast lasers provide an outstanding processing quality but their main drawback is the low removal rate per pulse compared to longer pulses. This limitation could be overcome by increasing both average power and repetition rate. In this paper, we report on the influence of high repetition rate and pulse duration on both ablation efficiency and processing quality on metals. All trials have been performed with a single tunable ultrafast laser (350 fs to 10ps.

  6. Continuous Wave 30 W Laser-Diode Bar with 10 Ghz Linewidth for Rb Laser Pumping (Postprint) (United States)


    Niigaki, H. Kubomura, T. Hiruma, and H. Kan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141112 (2006). 14. O. M. Efimov , L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, U.S...patent 6,586,141 (July 1, 2003). 15. O. M. Efimov , L. B. Glebov, and V. Smirnov, U.S. patent 6,673,497 (January 6, 2004). 16. L. B. Glebov, Proc

  7. Cooperative down-conversion of UV light in disordered scheelitelike Yb-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 and NaLa(MoO4)2 crystals (United States)

    Subbotin, K. A.; Osipova, Yu. N.; Lis, D. A.; Smirnov, V. A.; Zharikov, E. V.; Shcherbakov, I. A.


    Concentration series of disordered scheelitelike Yb:NaGd(MoO4)2 and Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2 single crystals are grown by the Czochralski method. The actual concentrations of Yb3+ ions in the crystals are determined by optical-absorption spectroscopy. The luminescence of Yb3+ ions in these crystals in the region of 1 μm is studied under UV and IR excitation. In the case of UV excitation, this luminescence appears as a result of nonradiative excited state energy transfer from donor centers of unknown nature to ytterbium. The character of the concentration dependence of Yb3+ luminescence indicates that the energy transfer at high Yb concentrations occurs with active participation of a cooperative mechanism, according to which the excitation energy of one donor center is transferred simultaneously to two Yb3+ ions. In other words, the quantum yield of this transfer exceeds unity, which can be used to increase the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells.

  8. Flux and dispersion of gases from the “Drachenschlund” hydrothermal vent at 8°18' S, 13°30' W on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Keir, Robin S.; Schmale, Oliver; Walter, Maren; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Seifert, Richard; Rhein, Monika


    Hydrothermal emission of mantle helium appears to be directly related to magma production rate, but other processes can generate methane and hydrogen on mid-ocean ridges. In an on-going effort to characterize these processes in the South Atlantic, the flux and distribution of these gases were investigated in the vicinity of a powerful black smoker recently discovered at 8°17.9' S, 13°30.4' W. The vent lies on the shoulder of an oblique offset in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and discharges high concentrations of methane and hydrogen. Measurements during expeditions in 2004 and 2006 show that the ratio of CH 4 to 3He in the neutrally buoyant plume is quite high, 4 × 10 8. The CTD stations were accompanied by velocity measurements with lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers (LADCP), and from these data we estimate the methane transport to have been 0.5 mol s - 1 in a WSW-trending plume that seems to develop during the ebb tidal phase. This transport is an order of magnitude greater than the source of CH 4 calculated from its concentration in the vent fluid and the rise height of the plume. From this range of methane fluxes, the source of 3He is estimated to be between 0.14 and 1.2 nmol s - 1 . In either case, the 3He source is significantly lower than expected from the spreading rate of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. From the inventory of methane in the rift valley adjacent to the vent, it appears that the average specific rate of oxidation is 2.6 to 23 yr - 1 , corresponding to a turnover time between 140 and 16 days. Vertical profiles of methane in the surrounding region often exhibited Gaussian-like distributions, and the variances appear to increase with distance from the vent. Using a Gaussian plume model, we obtained a range of vertical eddy diffusivities between 0.009 and 0.08 m 2m 2 s - 1 . These high values may be due to tidally driven internal waves across the promontory on which the vent is located.

  9. Ciclos tectónicos, volcánicos y sedimentarios del Cenozoico del sur de Mendoza-Argentina (35°-37°S y 69°30'W Cenozoic tectonic, volcanic and sedimentary cycles in southern Mendoza Province, Argentina (35°-37°S y 69°30'W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Combina


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la estratigrafía sedimentaria y volcánica asociada a los procesos de deformación de las unidades con edades del Cretácico Tardío al Plioceno Tardío aflorantes en el sur de Mendoza, Argentina, entre los ríos Atuel y Barrancas en el ámbito de la Cordillera Principal. Se proponen tres ciclos tectovolcano-sedimentarios, limitados por discordancias regionales generadas por la acción de las Fases Incaica, Quechua, Pehuenche y Diaguita. El primer ciclo comprende las unidades volcánicas y sedimentarias del Cretácico Superior hasta el Oligoceno Superior (Formaciones Roca y Pircala-Coihueco y el Ciclo Eruptivo Molle. El segundo abarca desde el Oligoceno Tardío al Mioceno Tardío (Formación Agua de la Piedra y las Andesitas Huincán. Por último, el tercer ciclo comprende desde el Mioceno Tardío al Plioceno (Formaciones Butaló, Pincheiras, Loma Fiera, Río Diamante y las Andesitas La Brea.This article describes the volcanic and sedimentary stratigraphy and their associated proces-ses with the Andean deformation during the Late Cretaceous to Late Pliocene. The studied área is located between the Atuel and Barrancas rivers and the Main Cordillera, in southern Mendoza, Argentina. Three tectovolcano-sedimentary cycles limited by regional discordances (Inca, Quechua, Pehuenche and Diaguita are proposed. The first comprises Upper Oligocene to Upper Miocene volcanic and sedimentary units (Roca and Pircala-Coihueco formations and the Volcanic Cycle Molle. The second extends from the Late Oligocene to Late Miocene (Agua de la Piedra Formation and the Huincán Andesites volcanic cycle. Finally, the third cycle ranges from the Late Miocene to Pliocene (Butaló, Pincheiras, Loma Fiera and Rio Diamante formations and La Brea Andesites.

  10. 大模场双包层掺镱光子晶体光纤反射式石墨烯被动调Q锁模激光器%Large-Mode-Area Double-Cladding Yb-Doped Photonic Crystal Fiber Q-Switched Mode-Locked Laser with Graphene-Based Saturable Absorber Mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平雪; 赵自强; 张光举; 胡浩伟; 姚毅飞; 池俊杰; 杨春; 陈宇; 赵楚军


    报道了基于石墨烯可饱和吸收镜的被动调Q锁模光纤激光器.激光器以大模场双包层掺镱光子晶体光纤为增益介质,采用线形腔结构.在抽运功率12 W时,得到了最高115 mW的调Q锁模脉冲输出.输出峰值波长1039 nm,光谱的半峰全宽为6 nm.对实验结果及现象进行了详细的讨论和分析.

  11. Optical amplification in photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus


    The recent results in the field of fabrication, characterization, and applications of optical waveguides in doped hard crystalline materials, specifically in Ti-doped sapphire and Yb-doped $KY(WO_4)_2$, are reviewed.

  12. Thermal Effects in High-Power Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Lægsgaard, Jesper


    The effect of temperature gradients in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is studied numerically. We investigate the dependence of the mode area on the signal power, and compare forward and backward pumping schemes.......The effect of temperature gradients in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is studied numerically. We investigate the dependence of the mode area on the signal power, and compare forward and backward pumping schemes....

  13. Theoretical analysis of radiation-balanced double clad fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-xin; SUI Zhan; CHEN Fu-shen; LI Ming-zhong; WANG Jian-jun


    In this letter,a theoretical model of radiation-balanced double clad fiber laser is presented.The characteristic of the laser with Yb doped double clad fiber is analyzed numerically.It is concluded that high output laser power can be obtained by selecting output coupling mirror with lower reflectivity,improving Yb doped concentration and choosing fiber length. This result can help us to design radiation balanced fiber laser.

  14. First-principles study of electronic, elastic, and optical properties of Yb:CaF{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Xiang-Rong [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Key Lab. of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education; Ji, Guang-Fu [Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). National Key Lab. for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research


    The electronic structure, elastic, and optical properties of CaF{sub 2} and Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The obtained lattice parameters, band structure, density of state, elastic constants, and imaginary part of dielectric function ε{sub 2} for CaF{sub 2} agree well with the experimental and other theoretical results. A good comparison of the properties is made between CaF{sub 2} and Yb:CaF{sub 2}, and it is found that: firstly, Yb doping leads to the crystal structure distortion of CaF{sub 2} and reduction of the elastic constants. Secondly, an impurity band is found at the top of valence band in the band structure of Yb:CaF{sub 2} and contributes to the bandgap narrowing. Thirdly, the peaks at about 26 eV in the optical curves disappear after Yb doping, and the remaining two peaks shift towards the longer-wavelength side, with the peak intensities drop down, indicating that Yb doping makes the ultraviolet transmittance of the system improve and the range of light in the UV region widen. Furthermore, Yb doping induces new peaks in the optical curves, which may be caused by 4f electron transitions of Yb atom. Finally, the transmittance of the doped system increases when the Yb-doped proportion decreases.

  15. 30W皮秒脉冲光纤激光器及高功率超连续谱的产生%30 W Picosecond Pulsed Fiber Laser and High Power Supercontinuum Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜平; 谌鸿伟; 侯静; 刘泽金


    采用三级主振荡功率放大(MOPA)结构,建立了一台平均输出功率30 W的皮秒脉冲掺镱光纤激光器.其输出尾纤芯径为30μm,输出激光脉宽约20 ps,重复频率为59.8 MHz,光束质量因子M2小于1.5.将该高功率脉冲激光耦合到芯径7μm的国产光子晶体光纤(PCF)中,实现了近3 W的超连续谱输出.为了增加耦合效率并避免光纤端面损伤,在皮秒激光源与光子晶体光纤之间加上一段芯径15μm的过渡光纤,得到的输出超连续谱具有很好的平坦性.-10 dB谱宽超过1100 nm(其中1064 nm处残留的激光峰除外),超出所用光谱仪600~1700 nm的观测范围.输出光斑为一带有六角形彩色包络的白色基模光斑.

  16. X波段30W固态功率放大模块的设计%Design for 30W X-band Solid State Power Amplifier Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程光伟; 闫燕勤


    Microwave power amplifier is widely used and indispensable in radar,navigation,communications,satellite earth station,electronic warfare equipment .Introduce a x-band solid-state power amplifier module design process.Through the RF simulation software ADS according to the S parameters of microwave solid state power amplifier module design and optimize bias blocking circuit and matching circuit,power amplifier through synthesis of cascade,power allocation,meet the requirements of design index.%微波功率放大器的应用范围广,在雷达、导航、通信、卫星地面收发站、电子对抗仪器设备中不可或缺。介绍一个 X波段固态功率放大器模块的设计过程,通过 ADS射频仿真软件根据 S参数对微波固态功放模块的偏置隔直电路以及匹配电路进行设计优化,功率放大器经过级联、功率分配合成,达到设计的指标要求。

  17. Guiding and amplification properties of rod-type photonic crystal fibers with sectioned core doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selleri, Stefano; Poli, Federica; Passaro, Davide


    been applied to properly design the low refractive index ring in the fiber core, which can provide an increase of the differential overlap between the fundamental and the higher-order mode. Then, the gain competition among the guided modes along the Yb-doped rod-type fibers has been investigated...... with a spatial and spectral amplifier model. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the sectioned core doping in worsening the higher-order mode overlap on the doped area, thus providing an effective single-mode behavior of the Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers....

  18. Revisiting literature observations on photodarkening in Yb3+doped fiber considering the possible presence of Tm impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Peretti, Romain; Jurdyc, Anne-Marie


    Ytterbium (Yb) doped fiber lasers are known to be affected by the creation of color centers during lasing (socalled photodarkening (PD)). In a previous work, this defect creation was investigated from a spectroscopic point of view, showing the presence of traces (ppb) of thulium (Tm) in the Yb doped fiber. It was shown that Tm has a strong impact on the defect creation process involved in PD. In this paper, we compare the results from the literature with our Tm hypothesis, without finding any contradiction. Moreover, this hypothesis can be an explanation for the discrepancies in the literature.

  19. Multielement (P-Yb-Zr-Ce-Al-Ca) fiber for moderate-power laser application with enhanced photodarkening resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Anirban; Paul, Mukul Chandra [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Das, Shyamal; Reddy, Pinninty Harshavardhan; Siddiki, Salim H.; Dutta, Debjit; Pal, Mrinmay [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CGCRI Campus, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Kir' yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, Leon 37150, Guanajuato (Mexico)


    Multielement (ME) (P-Yb-Zr-Ce-Al-Ca) nanophase separated silica-glass-based optical fiber is fabricated through a conventional-modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process, coupled with solution doping technique. The lasing and photodarkening behaviors of this ME fiber have been demonstrated and compared, in terms of its photodarkening (PD) performance at moderate pump powers (tens of Watts), with standard Yb-doped fiber with phospho-alumino-silicate (PAS) glass composition, which clearly reveals that the ME-Yb doped fiber is a promising candidate for laser applications with enhanced PD resistivity. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. 10-W cladding-pumped fiber laser with single transverse mode output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yan(闰平); Mali Gong(巩马理); Pan Ou(欧攀); Wenlou Wei(韦文楼); Ruizhen Cui(崔瑞贞); Qiang Liu(柳强); Weipu Jia(贾维溥)


    A Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser is demonstrated with a measured power output of 10.6 W and a fundamental spatial mode. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 44% and the slope efficiency is 86% closed to quantum efficiency of optical conversion. In our laser system, a D-shape (340 μm/400 μm) inner cladding Yb-doped fiber is used as the gain material within the Fabry-Perot cavity. Multimode diode pump radiation is injected into the cladding through an end facet of the composite fiber.

  1. Rare-earth-ion-doped ultra-narrow-linewidth lasers on a silicon chip and applications to intra-laser-cavity optical sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; de Ridder, R.M.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    We report on diode-pumped distributed-feedback (DFB) and distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) channel waveguide lasers in Er-doped and Yb-doped Al2O3 on standard thermally oxidized silicon substrates. Uniform surface-relief Bragg gratings were patterned by laser-interference lithography and etched into

  2. Thermo-optical effects in high-power Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Broeng, Jes


    We investigate the effect of temperature gradients in high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers by a numerical beam propagation model, which takes thermal effects into account in a self-consistent way. The thermally induced change in the refractive index of the fiber leads to a thermal lensing effect,...

  3. Femtosecond all-polarization-maintaining fiber laser operating at 1028 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, R.K.; Andersen, T.V.; Leick, Lasse;


    We present an effective solution for an all-polarization-maintaining modelocked femtosecond fiber laser operating at the central wavelength of 1028 nm. The laser is based on an Yb-doped active fiber. Modelocking is enabled by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, and the central wavelength...

  4. 7+1 to 1 pump/signal combiner for air-clad fiber with 15 m MFD PM single-mode signal feed-through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Martin D.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.;


    A 7+1 to 1 pump/signal combiner with single-mode (SM) polarization maintaining (PM) 15 µm mode-field-diameter (MFD) signal feed-through is demonstrated. The combiner is designed for pulse amplification in an active Yb-doped airclad fiber operated in backward pumped configuration. Signal coupling ...

  5. Rare-earth-ion-doped ultra-narrow-linewidth lasers on a silicon chip and applications to intra-laser-cavity optical sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, E.H.; Ridder, de R.M.; Wörhoff, K.; Pollnau, M.


    We report on diode-pumped distributed-feedback (DFB) and distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) channel waveguide lasers in Er-doped and Yb-doped Al2O3 on standard thermally oxidized silicon substrates. Uniform surface-relief Bragg gratings were patterned by laser-interference lithography and etched into

  6. Influences of Yb substitution on the intergrain connections and flux pinning properties of Bi-2212 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shengnan, E-mail: [Superconducting Materials Research Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Li, Chengshan; Hao, Qingbin [Superconducting Materials Research Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Lu, Tianni [Superconducting Materials Research Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Pingxiang [Superconducting Materials Research Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China)


    Highlights: • Optimization of intergrain connections has been obtained by Yb doping. • Changes of the grain boundary structures after doping have been observed by HRTEM. • Flux pinning mechanism change with Yb doping has been analyzed and explained. • Improved critical current density has been obtained by proper amount of Yb doping. - Abstract: Polycrystalline bulks Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2−x}Yb{sub x}CaCu{sub 2.0}O{sub 8+δ} (Bi-2212) with Yb doping content of x = 0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05) were fabricated by solid state sintering process. Bi-2212 precursor powders were synthesized by modified co-precipitation process, and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were added into the precursor powders during the calcination process as dopants. The influences of Yb substitution on the lattice parameter, microstructure and related superconducting properties were systematically investigated. The amorphous components within the grain boundaries were observed with HRTEM, which contributed to the formation of weak links. Therefore, both the decreasing number of porosity and better crystallized grain boundary structure after Yb doping obviously enhanced the intergrain connections. Meanwhile, doping of Yb ions into Bi-2212 matrix also contributed to the enhancement of point pining, thus lead to the improvement of in-field critical current density. Based on the enhancements of both intergrain connections and flux pinning properties, improvement of critical current density was obtained with the optimal doping content of x = 0.02.

  7. Based on T5402 with Single Stage of PFC 30 W Flyback Type LED the Design of the Drive Power Supply%基于T5402带单级PFC的30W反激式LED驱动电源的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正平; 凌朝东


    Noadays,the existing multiple LED drive power supply on the market can't give full play to the advantages of LED,so is proposed based on the T5402 flyback type switch power structure.This paper introduces the T5402 chip of the pins function and power circuit of the design,on the power circuit of the composition,working principle and the choice of components.Tests showed that 85% efficiency and power factor 0.99,accord with EMI standards.Design meet the security separate,high current control accuracy,high reliability.%当今市面上存在的多种LED驱动电源并不能充分发挥LED的优点,因此提出一种基于T5402的反激式开关电源结构。该文介绍了芯片T5402的各引脚功能及驱动电路的设计,详述了驱动电路的组成、工作原理和主要元器件的选择。测试得出效率为85%、功率因数为0.99,符合EMI标准。设计满足安全隔离、高电流控制精度和高可靠性的要求。

  8. Andesita Cerro Bola: Nueva unidad vinculada al magmatismo mioceno de la Cordillera de Olivares, San Juan, Argentina (30°35´S; 69°30´O Cerro Bola Andesite: New unit linked to the Miocene magmatism of the Olivares Cordillera, San Juan (30°35' S ; 68°30' W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Wetten


    Full Text Available El área de estudio se halla en la zona de Tocota, inmediatamente al este de la Cordillera de Olivares, en el borde oriental de la Cordillera Frontal, provincia de San Juan. En ella se encuentran unidades ígneas y sedimentarias del ciclo gondwánico, las que fueron intruidas y cubiertas en relación discordante por cuerpos subvolcánicos y volcánicos asignados anteriormente al ciclo ándico en sentido amplio, los cuales constituyen el principal objeto del presente estudio. Estos cuerpos han sido mapeados a fin de poder caracterizarlos adecuadamente, en el contexto estratigráfico de la región. Los afloramientos de interés han sido reconocidos en el cerro Bola y alrededores, donde se observan distribuidos irregularmente, cubriendo un área superior a 5 km². Las rocas, de coloración gris clara y composición andesítica - fenoandesítica, presentan estructuras de domo y colada. Estos afloramientos serían correlacionables con la unidad volcánica Pircas (Mioceno, la que aflora al oeste, y conformarían un evento magmático posterior al de pórfidos de diferente composición situados tanto en el arroyo Chita como en el cerro Divisadero. La extensión del área involucrada, la uniformidad litológica, el bajo grado de alteración y una edad radimétrica obtenida por el método K/Ar, fueron considerados para proponer a estas volcanitas como una unidad litoestratigráfica de edad miocena superior, con la denominación de Andesita Cerro Bola.The study area is located in the region of Tocota Creek, close to the Cordillera Olivares, eastern border of the Frontal Range, San Juan province. In this place, igneous and sedimentary units belonging to the Gondwanic cycle, were recognized. These units were intruded and unconformably covered by subvolcanic and volcanic bodies, which were commonly referred to the Tertiary or Andean cycle. The study of these bodies is the main proposal of this work. These bodies had been mapped in order to characterize them properly in the regional stratigraphic context. The main outcrops were recognized in the Bola Hill and surroundings, where they are irregularly distributed, covering an area greater than 5 km². Dome and lava flow structures are present with the light gray andesite - phenoandesite rock. These outcrops can be correlated with the Pircas volcanic unit (Miocene, to the west, and could be further related to other porphyry bodies of different composition, situated both in Chita Creek and in Divisadero Hill. The extension of the area, lithological uniformity, the low alteration and a K/Ar radiometric age were considered, in order to propose these subvolcanic and volcanic bodies as a new lithostratigraphic unit, Upper Miocene in age, denominated "Cerro Bola Andesite".

  9. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov radiation source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe


    An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave-conversion med......An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave......-conversion medium, we demonstrate milliwatt-level, stable, and tunable Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths 580–630 nm, with pulse duration of sub-160-fs, and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm. Such an all-fiber Cherenkov radiation source is promising for practical applications in biophotonics...

  10. Comparison of Molecular Iodine Spectral Properties at 514.7 and 532 nm Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabina J.


    Full Text Available We present results of investigation and comparison of spectral properties of molecular iodine transitions in the spectral region of 514.7 nm that are suitable for laser frequency stabilization and metrology of length. Eight Doppler-broadened transitions that were not studied in detail before were investigated with the help of frequency doubled Yb-doped fiber laser, and three of the most promising lines were studied in detail with prospect of using them in frequency stabilization of new laser standards. The spectral properties of hyperfine components (linewidths, signal-to-noise ratio were compared with transitions that are well known and traditionally used for stabilization of frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser at the 532 nm region with the same molecular iodine absorption. The external frequency doubling arrangement with waveguide crystal and the Yb-doped fiber laser is also briefly described together with the observed effect of laser aging.

  11. Laser Beam Shaping XIII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8490

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A


    Full Text Available of thermal effects in ultra-fattening Yb-doped fiber lasers [8490-23] G. S?nchez-Guerrero, D. Toral, A. Castillo-Guzm?n, V. Guzm?n-Ramos, D. E. Ceballos-Herrera, R. Selvas-Aguilar, Univ. Aut?noma de Nuevo Le?n (Mexico) 8490 0O Thermal sensor using a... tapered Yb-doped fiber amplifier [8490-24] P. Viera-Gonz?lez, D. Toral, A. Castillo-Guzm?n, V. Guzm?n-Ramos, D. E. Ceballos-Herrera, R. Selvas-Aguilar, Univ. Aut?noma de Nuevo Le?n (Mexico) 8490 0P Visualization of optical fields with ellipsoidal...

  12. Suppression of Higher-Order Modes by Segmented Core Doping in Rod-Type Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, Federica; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Passaro, Davide;


    Abstract—A large mode area Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fiber design with a low refractive index ring in the core is proposed to provide an improved suppression of the first higher-order mode compared to the case of uniform core doping, in a way which is more robust against fluctuations......, a spatial and spectral amplifier model has been considered to study the gain competition among the fundamental and the first higher-order mode guided in the Yb-doped rod-type fibers. Results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the low refractive index ring in suppressing the higher-order mode, thus...... providing an effectively single-mode behavior for the rod-type fibers....

  13. Large-Mode-Area Double-Cladding Photonic Crystal Fiber Laser in the Watt Range at 980 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping-Xue; ZHANG Xue-Xia; LIU Zhi; CHI Jun-Jie


    @@ We report on a quasi-three-level large-mode-area double-clad Yb-doped fiber laser that adopts a linear cavity consisting of a 0°fiber end and a cavity mirror.Two kinds of Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber(PCF) with different inner-clads (170 μm and 200μm) and absorption coefficients (4.5 dB/m and 3 dB/m) are used as the gain media.By optimizing the structure and elements of the cavity, maximum output powers of 1.24 W and 1.1 W were yielded with optical conversion efficiencies of 7.8% and 6.8% when the fiber lengths were 25 cm and 40 cm with 170μm and 200 μm inner-claddings, respectively.

  14. Design and fabrication of triangular inner cladding double-clad ytterbium doped fibre for high power lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yong-Jun; Jian Wei; Zheng Kai; Yan Feng-Ping; Chang De-Yuan; Jian Shui-Sheng


    To improve the performance of double clad high power fibre lasers, inner cladding design plays a significant role.A triangular inner cladding and silica structure second cladding with large air holes to acquire high inner cladding numerical aperture are designed. Single mode and high power output of the fibre lasers need the double clad Yb doped fibre with large core. A fibre with annular refractive index distribution core and low numerical aperture to acquire a large mode area fibre core is designed and fabricated. Furthermore co-doping with aluminium (Al) has been used to improve the solubility of ytterbium (Yb) into silicate network, and the core absorption coefficients of two Yb doped fibres are compared with different Al concentration experimentally.

  15. Theoretical analysis of thermal effects in fiber laser from the moment when pump is turned on to steady-state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilun Chen; Jing Hou; Zongfu Jiang


    A theoretical analysis of the pump-induced temperature change and associated thermal phase shift occurring in a fiber laser is presented. The temperature rise and thermal phase shift from the moment when pump is turned on to steady-state in fiber lasers, such as Yb-doped fiber laser, are numerical calculated.With the same parameters, the numerical solution is in good agreement with the finite-element (ANSYS software) simulation.

  16. Tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper


    We demonstrate electrically-tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser output at the visible range. Using an all-fiber, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and nonlinear photonic crystal fiber link as the wave-conversion medium, ultrafast, milliwatt-level, tunable...... and spectral isolated Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths are reported. Such a femtosecond Cherenkov laser source is promising for practical biophotonics applications....

  17. The dawn of computer-assisted robotic osteotomy with ytterbium-doped fiber laser. (United States)

    Sotsuka, Yohei; Nishimoto, Soh; Tsumano, Tomoko; Kawai, Kenichiro; Ishise, Hisako; Kakibuchi, Masao; Shimokita, Ryo; Yamauchi, Taisuke; Okihara, Shin-ichiro


    Currently, laser radiation is used routinely in medical applications. For infrared lasers, bone ablation and the healing process have been reported, but no laser systems are established and applied in clinical bone surgery. Furthermore, industrial laser applications utilize computer and robot assistance; medical laser radiations are still mostly conducted manually nowadays. The purpose of this study was to compare the histological appearance of bone ablation and healing response in rabbit radial bone osteotomy created by surgical saw and ytterbium-doped fiber laser controlled by a computer with use of nitrogen surface cooling spray. An Ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber laser at a wavelength of 1,070 nm was guided by a computer-aided robotic system, with a spot size of 100 μm at a distance of approximately 80 mm from the surface. The output power of the laser was 60 W at the scanning speed of 20 mm/s scan using continuous wave system with nitrogen spray level 0.5 MPa (energy density, 3.8 × 10(4) W/cm(2)). Rabbits radial bone osteotomy was performed by an Yb-doped fiber laser and a surgical saw. Additionally, histological analyses of the osteotomy site were performed on day 0 and day 21. Yb-doped fiber laser osteotomy revealed a remarkable cutting efficiency. There were little signs of tissue damage to the muscle. Lased specimens have shown no delayed healing compared with the saw osteotomies. Computer-assisted robotic osteotomy with Yb-doped fiber laser was able to perform. In rabbit model, laser-induced osteotomy defects, compared to those by surgical saw, exhibited no delayed healing response.

  18. Millijoule pulse energy picosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yang; Xiaohong Hu; Yishan Wang; Wei Zhang; Wei Zhao


    @@ The efficient generation of a 1.17-mJ laser pul8e with 360 ps duration using an ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber amplifier chain seeded by a homemade mode-locked fiber laser is demonstrated experimentally.A specially designed figure-of-eight fiber laser acts as the seed source of a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system and generates mode-locked pulse8 with hundreds of picosecond widths.Two kinds of large-mode-area (LMA) double-clad Yb-doped fibers are employed to construct the pre-amplifier and main amplifier, All of the adopted instruments help avoid severe nonlinearity in fibers to raise sub-nanosecond pulse energy with acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).The output spectrum of this fiber-based CPA system shows that amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is suppressed to better than 30 dB, and the onset of stimulated Raman scattering is excluded.%The efficient generation of a 1.17-mJ laser pulse with 360 ps duration using an ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber amplifier chain seeded by a homemade mode-locked fiber laser is demonstrated experimentally. A specially designed figure-of-eight fiber laser acts as the seed source of a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system and generates mode-locked pulses with hundreds of picosecond widths. Two kinds of large-mode-area (LMA) double-clad Yb-doped fibers are employed to construct the pre-amplifier and main amplifier. All of the adopted instruments help avoid severe nonlinearity in fibers to raise sub-nanosecond pulse energy with acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The output spectrum of this fiber-based CPA system shows that amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is suppressed to better than 30 dB, and the onset of stimulated Raman scattering is excluded.

  19. Erbium–ytterbium fibre laser emitting more than 13W of power in 1.55 m region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanth Gurram; Antony Kuruvilla; Rajpal Singh; Blacius Ekka; B N Upadhyay; K S Bindra; S M Oak


    We report the work on erbium:ytterbium-doped double clad fibre laser (EYDFL), that is pumped at 976 nm. The maximum output power generated is 13.6Win 1550 nm region with a slope efficiency of about 21%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power reported from an EYDFL, that uses commercially available off-the-shelf large mode area Er:Yb-doped double-clad fibre.

  20. Imaging of Bloch oscillations in erbium-doped curved waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Chiodo, N; Della Valle, G; Osellame, R; Longhi, S; Cerullo, G; Ramponi, R; Laporta, P; Morgner, U


    We report a direct observation of Bloch-like dynamics of light in curved waveguide arrays manufactured in Er:Yb-doped phosphate glass by femtosecond laser writing. The green upconversion fluorescence emitted by excited erbium ions is exploited to image the flow of the guided pump light at approximately 980 nm along the array. Direct and clear evidence of periodic light breathing for single-waveguide excitation, closely related to Bloch oscillations, is reported.

  1. All Solid-State Optical Cryocoolers (United States)


    a specially prepared ZBLAN glass sample doped with 2% Yb in a multi-pass geometry. Care is taken to cut the sample without cracking; all surfaces are...hours and the measured Tim (hwm) temperature immediately drops. A Fig. I Laser cooling of Yb-doped ZBLAN glass by an amount 88 corrected sample...avenues of research: First, we explored new rare-earth-doped glasses and crystals that have improved cooling efficiencies and/or lower operating

  2. Effect of ultrashort pulsed laser on bond strength of Y-TZP zirconia ceramic to tooth surfaces. (United States)

    Unal, Server Mutluay; Nigiz, Remzi; Polat, Zelal Seyfioglu; Usumez, Aslıhan


    There is limited knowledge about the effects of ultrashort pulsed laser on zirconia ceramic surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber laser and other surface treatment methods -namely, sandblasting with 110 µm aluminum oxide or 30 µm silica-coated alumina on shear bond strength (SBS) of zirconia to tooth surface. A total of 128 zirconium oxide disks were made by using CAD-CAM technology. Disk surfaces were sandblasted with Al2O3 particles or silica-coated alumina or irradiated with Yb-doped fiber based nanosecond pulsed laser at 85W output power at 25 kHz. Disks were luted to dentin using two different resin cement. SBS of each specimen was measured. Results were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni and Dunnett tests (p<0.005). Highest bond strength was obtained when zirconia surface was pretreated with Yb-doped fiber-based nanosecond pulsed laser regardless of the resin cement used.

  3. Improved thermal stability and narrowed line width of photoluminescence from InGaN nanorod by ytterbium doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingzhou; Wright, Jason; Kaya, S.; Jadwisienczak, W.M. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Ohio University, Stocker Center, Athens OH 45701 (United States); Dasari, Kiran; Palai, Ratnakar [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Cooper, Kevin; Thota, Venkata R.; Ingram, David C.; Stinaff, Eric A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)


    Nanorod of in situ Yb-doped InGaN and undoped InGaN have been grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Selected regions on Yb-doped InGaN sample show single dominant near band edge emission (NBE) in green, yellow or orange color due to the variation of In content. Temperature dependent PL peak energy of InGaN nanorod shows the characteristic S -shaped behavior indicating the presents of strong exciton localization energy in undoped InGaN nanorod. The exciton localization energy reduced significantly after incorporating Yb into InGaN, giving rise to damping of the S-shape profile amplitude and narrowing of the PL line width from ∝20 meV to ∝12 meV at 11 K. It is proposed that the improved PL thermal stability and the PL line width in Yb-doped InGaN nanorod is affected by the Yb gettering effect. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Recent development on high-power tandem-pumped fiber laser (United States)

    Zhou, Pu; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Zhang, Hanwei; Xu, Jiangmin; Wu, Jian


    High power fiber laser is attracting more and more attention due to its advantage in excellent beam quality, high electricto- optical conversion efficiency and compact system configuration. Power scaling of fiber laser is challenged by the brightness of pump source, nonlinear effect, modal instability and so on. Pumping active fiber by using high-brightness fiber laser instead of common laser diode may be the solution for the brightness limitation. In this paper, we will present the recent development of various kinds of high power fiber laser based on tandem pumping scheme. According to the absorption property of Ytterbium-doped fiber, Thulium-doped fiber and Holmium-doped fiber, we have theoretically studied the fiber lasers that operate at 1018 nm, 1178 nm and 1150 nm, respectively in detail. Consequently, according to the numerical results we have optimized the fiber laser system design, and we have achieved (1) 500 watt level 1018nm Ytterbium-doped fiber laser (2) 100 watt level 1150 nm fiber laser and 100 watt level random fiber laser (3) 30 watt 1178 nm Ytterbium-doped fiber laser, 200 watt-level random fiber laser. All of the above-mentioned are the record power for the corresponded type of fiber laser to the best of our knowledge. By using the high-brightness fiber laser operate at 1018 nm, 1178 nm and 1150 nm that we have developed, we have achieved the following high power fiber laser (1) 3.5 kW 1090 nm Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier (2) 100 watt level Thulium-doped fiber laser and (3) 50 watt level Holmium -doped fiber laser.

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ytterbium-doped titania/diatomite composite photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenjian; Qiu, Kehui; Zhang, Peicong; Yuan, Xiqiang


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Yb-doped TiO{sub 2}/diatomite composite photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. • Yb-doped TiO{sub 2}/diatomite photocatalysts show much higher photocatalytic activity. • The higher photodegradation rate is due to the effect of diatomite and Yb doping. - Abstract: Ytterbium-doped titanium dioxide (Yb-TiO{sub 2})/diatomite composite materials with different Yb concentrations were prepared by sol–gel method. The phase structure, morphology, and chemical composition of the as-prepared composites were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TiO{sub 2} existed in the form of pure anatase in the composites. The SEM images exhibited the well deposition and dispersion of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with little agglomeration on the surfaces of diatoms. The UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed that the band gap of TiO{sub 2} could be narrowed by the introduction of Yb species, which was further affected by doping concentration of Yb. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized samples was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. It was observed that the photocatalytic degradation followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. Compared to TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/diatomite, the Yb-TiO{sub 2}/diatomite composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity toward degradation of MB using UV light irradiation.

  6. Rare-earth-ion-doped ultra-narrow-linewidth lasers on a silicon chip and applications to intra-laser-cavity optical sensing (United States)

    Bernhardi, E. H.; de Ridder, R. M.; Wörhoff, K.; Pollnau, M.


    We report on diode-pumped distributed-feedback (DFB) and distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) channel waveguide lasers in Er-doped and Yb-doped Al2O3 on standard thermally oxidized silicon substrates. Uniform surface-relief Bragg gratings were patterned by laser-interference lithography and etched into the SiO2 top cladding. The maximum grating reflectivity exceeded 99%. Monolithic DFB and DBR cavities with Q-factors of up to 1.35×106 were realized. The Erdoped DFB laser delivered 3 mW of output power with a slope efficiency of 41% versus absorbed pump power. Singlelongitudinal- mode operation at a wavelength of 1545.2 nm was achieved with an emission line width of 1.70 0.58 kHz, corresponding to a laser Q-factor of 1.14×1011. Yb-doped DFB and DBR lasers were demonstrated at wavelengths near 1020 nm with output powers of 55 mW and a slope efficiency of 67% versus launched pump power. An Yb-doped dualwavelength laser was achieved based on the optical resonances induced by two local phase shifts in the DFB structure. A stable microwave signal at ~15 GHz with a -3-dB width of 9 kHz and a long-term frequency stability of +/- 2.5 MHz was created via the heterodyne photo-detection of the two laser wavelengths. By measuring changes in the microwave beat signal as the intra-cavity evanescent laser field interacts with micro-particles on the waveguide surface, we achieved real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single micro-particles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm, which represents the typical size of many fungal and bacterial pathogens. A limit of detection of ~500 nm was deduced.

  7. Tandem-pumped 1120-nm actively Q-switched fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 胡金萌; 张世强; 陈露璐; 房勇; 冯衍


    We report on a tandem-pumped actively Q-switched fiber laser system emitting at 1120 nm. Parasitic oscillation is challenging in Yb-doped Q-switched 1120-nm fiber laser, which is suppressed by pumping with a fiber laser at 1018 nm. At least 4 times improvement in output peak power is demonstrated in a single laser setup with 1018-nm fiber laser pumping instead of 976-nm laser diode pumping. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of a tandem-pumped Q-switched fiber laser.

  8. Refined Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for Li2B4O7 (United States)

    Umemura, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Jun; Matsuda, Daisuke; Kamimura, Tomosumi


    We report the high-accuracy Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for Li2B4O7, which provide an excellent reproduction of the temperature-dependent phase-matching conditions for second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in the 0.2093–1.5352 µm range. In addition, Li2B4O7 was found to be nearly 90° phase-matchable for fifth-harmonic generation (5HG) of an Yb-doped fiber laser at 1.031 µm.

  9. Raman-scattering-assistant broadband noise-like pulse generation in all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daojing; Li, Lei; Chen, Hao; Tang, Dingyuan; Zhao, Luming


    We report on the observation of both stable dissipative solitons and noise-like pulses with the presence of strong Raman scattering in a relatively short all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser. We show that Raman scattering can be filtered out by intracavity filter. Furthermore, by appropriate intracavity polarization control, the Raman effect can be utilized to generate broadband noise-like pulses (NLPs) with bandwidth up to 61.4 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the broadest NLP achieved in all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers

  10. Yb-TiO2光催化剂的制备及性能研究%Preparation and properties of Yb-Ti02 photocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刘君; 燕宁宁; 朱忠其; 柳清菊


    Yb-doping TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by XRD, UVVis, FT-IR et al. Meanwhile, the degradation of methyl blue (MB) was investigated under fluorescent lamp to test the influence of different Yb-doping concentration and sintered temperature on the photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. The results show that all the prepared samples consist of anatase and futile phases. Yb- doping can extend the absorption spectrum of TiO2 to the visible light region and increase the separation of the photoelectron-hole pairs. Thus, the photocatalytic activity is improved. The best preparation condition is as fol- lows: sintered temperature T=650℃, Yb-doping concentration: n(Yb) : n(Ti) = 0.005 and pH value=2.5.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了稀土Yb掺杂纳米Ti02光催化剂(Yb-TiO2),采用XRD、UV-Vis、FT-IR等方法对其进行表征和分析,并以亚甲基蓝(MB)作为目标降解物,考察了热处理温度以及Yb掺杂量对样品性能的影响。实验结果表明,Yb掺杂样品均为金红石相和锐钛矿相的混晶相,Yb的掺入拓展了TiO2对可见光的吸收范围,有效地抑制了光生电子-空穴对的复合,提高了TiO2的光催化活性。当pH值-2.5、n(Yb):n(Ti)-0.005、热处理温度为650℃时,制备的样品其光催化活性明显优于Degussa P25。

  11. LD-pumped solid-state lasers with improved frequency, spatial, and polarization characteristics for precise spectroscopic applications (United States)

    Drakov, A. S.; Kostik, O. E.; Mashko, V. V.; Teplyashin, L. L.; Bogdanovich, M. V.; Enzhyieuski, A. I.; Pozhidaev, A. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Shchemelev, M. A.


    New methods for precise control of main parameters of LD-pumped solid-state lasers assigned for spectroscopic applications have been developed. Tunable lasing in wide range has been achieved. Active elements on the base of crystals (Nd 3+:YAG, Nd 3+:YVO 4) and glasses (Er,Yb doped boro-silico-phosphate glass) were used. The active crystals with uniform and non-uniform distribution of the activator ions were studied. Output beams with high quality and polarization degree have been realized.

  12. Biological oxygen sensing via two-photon absorption by an Ir(III) complex using a femtosecond fiber laser (United States)

    Moritomo, Hiroki; Fujii, Akinari; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Kawamata, Jun


    Near-infrared two-photon absorption of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complex (2,4-pentanedionato-κO 2,κO 4)bis[2-(6-phenanthridinyl-κN)benzo[b]thien-3-yl-κC]iridium (BTPHSA) was characterized. It exhibited a 800-1200 nm two-photon absorption band, and thus could be electronically excited by 1030-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Yb-doped fiber lasers. By using BTPHSA, oxygen concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were imaged. These results demonstrate two-photon oxygen sensing of live tissues via easily operable excitation sources.

  13. Widely tunable, narrow line width and low optical noise continuous-wave all fiber Er:Yb co-doped double-clad ring laser (United States)

    Guesmi, Khmaies; Bahloul, Faouzi; Semaan, Georges; Meng, Yichang; Salhi, Mohamed; Sanchez, François


    In this paper, we report a widely tunable, narrow linewidth, low noise continuous-wave double-clad Er:Yb doped fiber ring laser. Tunability is demonstrated in wide range spanning from 1520 to almost 1620 nm covering the C and L spectral bands. The cavity design is optimized in order to achieve the largest tuning range with very high optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The output coupling ratio greatly influences the tuning range of the laser while the position of the spectral filter determines the SNR. The obtained laser exhibits a tuning range over 98 nm with a nearly constant SNR of about 58.5 dB.

  14. Hybrid mode-locking in pulsed ytterbium fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber (United States)

    Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Borodkin, Andrey A.; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Vartapetov, Sergey K.


    Ultrafast pulse generation in all-normal dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser on 1.04 μm have been reported. Stable self-starting pulse generation in output of the ring fiber laser have been investigated where nonlinear polarization rotation interacted with contribution from the single walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber. Laser pulses with 0.7 nJ pulse energy and 1.7 ps pulse width at 35.6 MHz repetition rate were achieved. The output pulse could be externally compressed to width of 180 fs by pair of gratings.

  15. Self-scanned single-frequency operation of a fiber laser driven by a self-induced phase grating (United States)

    Lobach, I. A.; Kablukov, S. I.; Podivilov, E. V.; Babin, S. A.


    The selector-free single-frequency operation of an Yb-doped fiber laser with scanning in the range of ˜20 nm is demonstrated. The frequency and intensity evolution is shown to be driven by a self-induced phase grating in the active fiber defined by gain saturation in a standing-wave. A theory has been developed that describes well the main features of the experiment and provides possibilities for optimization of laser parameters. Perspectives for utilizing the self-scanned laser in fundamental studies and practical applications are discussed.

  16. Diode-pumped cw and femtosecond laser operations of a hetero-composite crystal YAG||SYS:Yb


    Druon, Frédéric; Chenais, Sébastien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick; Gaume, R.; Viana, Bruno


    International audience; We report cw and femtosecond laser operations under diode pumping of a diffusion-bonding heterocomposite Yb-doped crystal: Yb3+:SrY4sSiO4d3OiY2Al5O12sYAGiSYS:Ybd. To show the advantages of this heterocomposite crystal over classical Yb:SYS crystal, we first investigate the high-power cw regime. A cw power of 4.3 W is demonstrated. The femtosecond regime is also investigated, and 1-W-average-power, 130-fs pulses at 1070 nm are produced, which represents, to our knowledg...

  17. Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers. (United States)

    Fermann, M E; Kruglov, V I; Thomsen, B C; Dudley, J M; Harvey, J D


    Ultrashort pulse propagation in high gain optical fiber amplifiers with normal dispersion is studied by self-similarity analysis of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with gain. An exact asymptotic solution is found, corresponding to a linearly chirped parabolic pulse which propagates self-similarly subject to simple scaling rules. The solution has been confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments studying propagation in a Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Additional experiments show that the pulses remain parabolic after propagation through standard single mode fiber with normal dispersion.

  18. A Fluorescence-Based Determination of Quantum Efficiency (United States)


    Vis)-near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer • 1% ceramic Nd-doped Nd:YAG sample provided by Dr. Larry Merkle • 10% crystal Yb-doped Yb:YAG sample...fluorescence. These data were initially inconclusive since a calibration of the sphere and the sensitivity of the InGaAs detector had not been performed...set could then be divided by this calibration curve to scale the data relative to the system’s highest sensitivity at roughly 1330 nm. Applying

  19. Supermode emission in four-core optical fiber amplifier doped with Yb3+ (United States)

    Liu, Yehui; Wang, Yibo; Liao, Lei; Luo, Xing; Hu, Xiongwei; Zhang, Fangfang; Li, Haiqing; Peng, Jinggang; Yang, Lvyun; Li, Jinyan


    We demonstrate a high power four-core Yb-doped fiber amplifier both theoretically and experimentally. An all-fiber MOPA structure without mode selection components was utilized to amplify the 12 m long four-core fiber. An in-phase supermode laser operation was realized in this fiber. The laser slope efficiency is greater than 56.7% with a maximum output power of 11.47 W. The measured M 2 factor of the amplified beam is 1.58, showing the high potential of the fiber.

  20. Metastable Magnesium fluorescence spectroscopy using a frequency-stabilized 517 nm laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ming; Jensen, Brian B; Therkildsen, Kasper T


    We present a laser operating at 517 nm for our Magnesium laser-cooling and atomic clock project. A two-stage Yb-doped fiber amplifier (YDFA) system generates more than 1.5 W of 1034 nm light when seeded with a 15 mW diode laser. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide, we...... obtained more than 40 mW of 517 nm output power by single pass frequency doubling. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy of metastable magnesium atoms could be used to stabilize the 517 nm laser to an absolute frequency within 1 MHz....

  1. Nearly-octave wavelength tuning of a continuous wave fiber laser (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Yang, Xuezong; Pan, Weiwei; Cui, Shuzhen; Feng, Yan


    The wavelength tunability of conventional fiber lasers are limited by the bandwidth of gain spectrum and the tunability of feedback mechanism. Here a fiber laser which is continuously tunable from 1 to 1.9 μm is reported. It is a random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser, pumped by a tunable Yb doped fiber laser. The ultra-wide wavelength tunability is enabled by the unique property of random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser that both stimulated Raman scattering gain and Rayleigh scattering feedback are available at any wavelength. The dispersion property of the gain fiber is used to control the spectral purity of the laser output. PMID:28198414

  2. LLE Review 119 (April-June 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgell, D.H., editor


    This issue has the following articles: (1) Shock-Ignition Experiments on OMEGA at NIF-Relevant Intensities; (2) Laser-Driven Magnetic-Flux Compression in High-Energy-Density Plasmas; (3) Lorentz Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Hot, Dense Plasmas; (4) Characterization and Optimization of Yb-Doped Photonic-Crystal Fiber Rod Amplifiers Using Spatially Resolved Spectral Interferometry; (5) Optical Differentiation and Multimillijoule {approx}150-ps Pulse Generation in a Regenerative Amplifier with a Temperature-Tuned Intracavity Volume Bragg Grating; (6) Slow Crack Growth During Radiatiave Cooling of LHG8 and BK7 Plates; and (7) Finite Element Simulation of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photoconductor.

  3. Watt-level short-length holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 1.2  μm. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiushan; Zong, Jie; Wiersma, Kort; Norwood, R A; Prasad, Narasimha S; Obland, Michael D; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Peyghambarian, N


    In-band core-pumped Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at the 1.2 μm region were investigated with different gain fiber lengths. A 2.4 W 1190 nm all-fiber laser with a slope efficiency of 42% was achieved by using a 10 cm long gain fiber pumped at a maximum available 1150 nm pump power of 5.9 W. A 1178 nm all-fiber laser was demonstrated with an output power of 350 mW and a slope efficiency of 6.5%. High Ho3+ doping in ZBLAN is shown to be effective in producing single-frequency fiber lasers and short-length fiber amplifiers immune from stimulated Brillouin scattering.

  4. Synthesis–property relationship in thermoelectric Sr 1− x Yb x TiO 3− δ ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Bhattacharya, S


    The electronic transport properties of a series of Sr1-xYbxTiO3-delta (x = 0.05, 0.1) ceramics are investigated as a function of solid-state reaction (SSR) parameters, specifically calcination steps. It was found that the electrical conductivity (sigma) increases almost by a factor of 6, through the optimization of SSR parameters. The enhancement in the electrical conductivity leads to an enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor by a factor of 3. In addition, the lattice thermal conductivity (k(L)) of the Sr1-xYbxTiO3-delta ceramics is suppressed with increasing Yb-doping, supposedly due to heavier atomic mass of Yb substituted at the Sr site and a smaller ionic radii of Yb+3 with respect to Sr+2 ions. However, our model calculations indicate that strain-field effect, which occurs due to the difference in ionic radii, is the more prominent phonon scattering mechanism in the Yb-doped SrTiO3. This work is an extension of our previous study on the underlying phonon scattering mechanisms in the Y-doped SrTiO3, which would provide new insight into thermal transport in doped SrTiO3 and could be used as a guideline for more effective material synthesis.

  5. Visible photoluminescence and room temperature ferromagnetism in high In-content InGaN:Yb nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasari, K.; Palai, R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Wang, J.; Jadwisienczak, W. M. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979 (United States); Guinel, M. J.-F. [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Huhtinen, H. [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland); Mundle, R.; Pradhan, A. K. [Department of Engineering, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)


    We report the growth of high indium content InGaN:Yb nanorods grown on c-plane sapphire (0001) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns recorded during and after the growth revealed crystalline nature of the nanorods. The nanorods were examined using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The photoluminescence studies of the nanorods showed the visible emissions. The In composition was calculated from x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the photoluminescence spectroscopy. The In-concentration was obtained from photoluminescence using modified Vegard's law and found to be around 37% for InGaN and 38% for Yb (5 ± 1%)-doped InGaN with a bowing parameter b = 1.01 eV. The Yb-doped InGaN showed significant enhancement in photoluminescence properties compared to the undoped InGaN. The Yb-doped InGaN nanorods demonstrated the shifting of the photoluminescence band at room temperature, reducing luminescence amplitude temperature dependent fluctuation, and significant narrowing of excitonic emission band as compared to the undoped InGaN. The magnetic properties measured by superconducting quantum interference devices reveals room temperature ferromagnetism, which can be explained by the double exchange mechanism and magnetostriction.

  6. Flow sensor using a hollow whispering gallery mode microlaser (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan M.; Yang, Yong; Chormaic, Síle N.


    Flow sensing using the concept of a hot whispering gallery microlaser is presented. Silica microcapillaries or microbubbles, coated with a layer of erbium:ytterbium (Er:Yb) doped phosphate laser glass, result in a hollow, microbottle-shaped laser geometry. The Er:Yb doped glass outer layer is pumped at 980 nm via a tapered optical fiber and whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing is recorded at 1535 nm. When gas passes through the capillary, the WGMs shift toward shorter wavelengths due to the cooling effect of the fluid flow. In this way, thermal tuning of the lasing modes over 70 GHz can be achieved. The output end of the capillary is connected to a mass flow sensor and the WGM shift rate as a function of flow rate and pump laser power is measured, with the results fitted using hot wire anemometry theory. Flow sensing can also be realized when the cavity is passively probed at 780 nm, with the estimated Q-factor of the WGMs being in excess of 105.

  7. Synthesis of Novel YbxSb2 − xTe3 Hexagonal Nanoplates: Investigation of Their Physical, Structural, and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Hanifehpour


    Full Text Available Yb-doped Sb2Te3 nanomaterials were synthesized by a coreduction method in hydrothermal condition. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the YbxSb2−xTe3 crystals (x=0.00–0.05 are isostructural with Sb2Te3. The cell parameter a decreases for YbxSb2−xTe3 compounds upon increasing the dopant content (x, while c increases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that doping of Yb3+ ions in the lattice of Sb2Te3 produces different morphology. The electrical conductivity of Yb-doped Sb2Te3 is higher than the pure Sb2Te3 and increases with temperature. By increasing concentration of the Yb3+ ions, the absorption spectrum of Sb2Te3 shows red shifts and some intensity changes. In addition to the characteristic red emission peaks of Sb2Te3, emission spectra of doped materials show other emission bands originating from f-f transitions of the Yb3+ ions. The photocatalytic performance of as-synthesized nanoparticles was investigated towards the decolorization of Malachite Green solution under visible light irradiation.

  8. Multi-stage ytterbium fiber-amplifier seeded by a gain-switched laser diode

    CERN Document Server

    Ryser, Manuel; Burn, Andreas; Romano, Valerio


    We demonstrated all-fiber amplification of 11 ps pulses from a gain-switched laser diode at 1064 nm. The diode was driven at a repetition rate of 40 MHz and delivered 13 $\\mu$W of fiber-coupled average output power. For the low output pulse energy of 325 fJ we have designed a multi-stage core pumped pre-amplifier in order to keep the contribution of undesired amplified spontaneous emission as low as possible. By using a novel time-domain approach for determining the power spectral density ratio (PSD) of signal to noise, we identified the optimal working point for our pre-amplifier. After the pre-amplifier we reduced the 40 MHz repetition rate to 1 MHz using a fiber coupled pulse-picker. The final amplification was done with a cladding pumped Yb-doped large mode area fiber and a subsequent Yb-doped rod-type fiber. With our setup we reached a total gain of 73 dB, resulting in pulse energies of >5.6 $\\mu$J and peak powers of >0.5 MW. The average PSD-ratio of signal to noise we determined to be 18/1 at the output...

  9. Blue diode-pumped solid-state-laser based on ytterbium doped laser crystals operating on the resonance zero-phonon transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Marshall, Christopher D. (Livermore, CA)


    The invention provides an efficient, compact means of generating blue laser light at a wavelength near .about.493+/-3 nm, based on the use of a laser diode-pumped Yb-doped laser crystal emitting on its zero phonon line (ZPL) resonance transition at a wavelength near .about.986+/-6 nm, whose fundamental infrared output radiation is harmonically doubled into the blue spectral region. The invention is applied to the excitation of biofluorescent dyes (in the .about.490-496 nm spectral region) utilized in flow cytometry, immunoassay, DNA sequencing, and other biofluorescence instruments. The preferred host crystals have strong ZPL fluorecence (laser) transitions lying in the spectral range from .about.980 to .about.992 nm (so that when frequency-doubled, they produce output radiation in the spectral range from 490 to 496 nm). Alternate preferred Yb doped tungstate crystals, such as Yb:KY(WO.sub.4).sub.2, may be configured to lase on the resonant ZPL transition near 981 nm (in lieu of the normal 1025 nm transition). The laser light is then doubled in the blue at 490.5 nm.

  10. Components for monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification laser systems (United States)

    Swan, Michael Craig

    The first portion of this work develops techniques for generating femtosecond-pulses from conventional fabry-perot laser diodes using nonlinear-spectral-broadening techniques in Yb-doped positive dispersion fiber ampliers. The approach employed an injection-locked fabry-perot laser diode followed by two stages of nonlinear-spectral-broadening to generate sub-200fs pulses. This thesis demonstrated that a 60ps gain-switched fabry-perot laser-diode can be injection-locked to generate a single-longitudinal-mode pulse and compressed by nonlinear spectral broadening to 4ps. Two problems have been identified that must be resolved before moving forward with this approach. First, gain-switched pulses from a standard diode-laser have a number of characteristics not well suited for producing clean self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses, such as an asymmetric temporal shape, which has a long pulse tail. Second, though parabolic pulse formation occurs for any arbitrary temporal input pulse profile, deviation from the optimum parabolic input results in extensively spectrally modulated self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses. In conclusion, the approach of generating self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses from pulsed laser diodes has to be modified from the initial approach explored in this thesis. The first Yb-doped chirally-coupled-core ber based systems are demonstrated and characterized in the second portion of this work. Robust single-mode performance independent of excitation or any other external mode management techniques have been demonstrated in Yb-doped chirally-coupled-core fibers. Gain and power efficiency characteristics are not compromised in any way in this novel fiber structure up to the 87W maximum power achieved. Both the small signal gain at 1064nm of 30.3dB, and the wavelength dependence of the small signal gain were comparable to currently deployed large-mode-area-fiber technology. The efficiencies of the laser and amplifier were measured to be 75% and 54

  11. Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser. (United States)

    Wang, P; Cooper, L J; Sahu, J K; Clarkson, W A


    A novel approach to achieving robust single-spatial-mode operation of cladding-pumped fiber lasers with multimode cores is reported. The approach is based on the use of a fiber geometry in which the core has a helical trajectory within the inner cladding to suppress laser oscillation on higher-order modes. In a preliminary proof-of-principle study, efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser with a 30 microm diameter core and a numerical aperture of 0.087 has been demonstrated. The laser yielded 60.4 W of output at 1043 nm in a beam with M2 diode stack at 976 nm. The slope efficiency at pump powers well above threshold was approximately 84%, which compares favorably with the slope efficiencies achievable with conventional straight-core Yb-doped double-clad fiber lasers.

  12. Theoretical treatment of modal instability in high-power cladding-pumped Raman amplifiers (United States)

    Naderi, Shadi; Dajani, Iyad; Grosek, Jacob; Madden, Timothy


    Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifiers (RFA) have been proposed as gain media to achieve power scaling. It is well-known that the onset of the modal instability (MI) phenomenon is a limiting factor for achieving higher output powers in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers with good beam quality. In this paper, we present an analytical approach to the investigation of the MI phenomenon in high-power, cladding-pumped RFAs. By utilizing the conservation of the number of photons and the conservation of energy in the absence of loss, the nonlinear equations for the propagation of the pump power and the total signal power can be decoupled from one another. Decoupling lead to exact solutions for the pump power and transverse modes signal powers. Further we investigate various MI suppression techniques including increasing the seed power and gain-tailored design.

  13. CW frequency doubling of 1029 nm radiation Using single pass bulk and waveguide PPLN crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodo, Nicola; Hrabina, Jan; Candela, Yves; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre; Acef, Ouali


    Following various works on second harmonic process using periodically poled Lithium Niobate crystals (PPLN), we report on the performances comparison between commercial bulk and waveguide crystals at 1029 nm. We use a continuous wave (CW) amplified Yb doped single fibre laser delivering up to 500mW in single mode regime. In case of bulk crystal we generate 4 mW using 400 mW IR power. The use of waveguide crystal leads to an increase of the harmonic power up to 33mW with input IR power limited to 200mW. Nevertheless, this impressive efficiency was affected by the long term degradation of the non-linear waveguide crystal.

  14. Multi-mJ, 200-fs, cw-pumped, cryogenically cooled, Yb,Na:CaF2 amplifier. (United States)

    Pugzlys, A; Andriukaitis, G; Baltuska, A; Su, L; Xu, J; Li, H; Li, R; Lai, W J; Phua, P B; Marcinkevicius, A; Fermann, M E; Giniūnas, L; Danielius, R; Alisauskas, S


    Using a novel (to our knowledge) broadband Yb-doped Yb3+,Na+:CaF2 crystal cooled in a closed loop to 130 K we demonstrate a chirped pulse regenerative laser amplifier delivering the energy of up to 3 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and an average output power of 6 W at 20 kHz. The gain narrowing in the laser crystal is compensated by shaping the amplitude of the seed pulse spectrum. As the result, at the highest amplified pulse energy we obtain a 12 nm FWHM bandwidth supporting a 130 fs pulse duration, assuming ideal compression. Amplified pulses were recompressed from 250 ps to 195 fs with a 1700 lines/mm transmission grating compressor.

  15. Polarization-dependent angular distribution of the absorption behavior in Ytterbium-doped monoclinic LYB and LGB compounds (United States)

    Gebremichael, W.; Petit, Y.; Rouzet, S.; Fargues, A.; Veber, P.; Velazquez, M.; Jubera, V.; Canioni, L.; Manek-Hönninger, I.


    In this contribution we detail the full characterization of the anisotropy of the absorption properties of two different Yb-doped monoclinic borate compounds under polarized light. The studied crystals are Li6(Gd)0.75Yb0.25(BO3)3 and Li6Y0.75Yb0.25(BO3)3, respectively, grown by the Czochralski method. We focused on the study of their absorption at the zero line transition as a function of the polarization direction of the incident light for two different crystal cuts of each compound. We discuss the different Eigen frames that must be considered in these materials due to their monoclinic character, as well as the optimal crystal orientation for the considered absorption and the potential influences when used as laser materials.

  16. Spectrally tailored supercontinuum generation from single-mode-fiber amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Qiang; Guo, Zhengru; Zhang, Qingshan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System (Ministry of Education), School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093 (China); Liu, Yang; Li, Wenxue [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zeng, Heping, E-mail: [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System (Ministry of Education), School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)


    Spectral filtering of an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser was demonstrated effective for broadband supercontinuum generation in the picosecond time region. The picosecond pump pulses were tailored in spectrum with 1 nm band-pass filter installed between two single-mode fiber amplifiers. By tuning the spectral filter around 1028 nm, four-wave mixing was initiated in a photonic crystal fiber spliced with single-mode fiber, as manifested by the simultaneous generation of Stokes wave at 1076 nm and anti-Stokes wave at 984 nm. Four-wave mixing took place in cascade with the influence of stimulated Raman scattering and eventually extended the output spectrum more than 900 nm of 10 dB bandwidth. This technique allows smooth octave supercontinuum generation by using simple single-mode fiber amplifiers rather than complicated multistage large-mode-area fiber amplifiers.

  17. Nonlinear compression of high energy fiber amplifier pulses in air-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome fiber. (United States)

    Guichard, Florent; Giree, Achut; Zaouter, Yoann; Hanna, Marc; Machinet, Guillaume; Debord, Benoît; Gérôme, Frédéric; Dupriez, Pascal; Druon, Frédéric; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Benabid, Fetah; Georges, Patrick


    We report on the generation of 34 fs and 50 µJ pulses from a high energy fiber amplifier system with nonlinear compression in an air-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome fiber. The unique properties of such fibers allow bridging the gap between solid core fibers-based and hollow capillary-based post-compression setups, thereby operating with pulse energies obtained with current state-of-the-art fiber systems. The overall transmission of the compression setup is over 70%. Together with Yb-doped fiber amplifier technologies, Kagome fibers therefore appear as a promising tool for efficient generation of pulses with durations below 50 fs, energies ranging from 10 to several hundreds of µJ, and high average powers.

  18. 100  kHz Yb-fiber laser pumped 3  μm optical parametric amplifier for probing solid-state systems in the strong field regime. (United States)

    Archipovaite, Giedre Marija; Petit, Stéphane; Delagnes, Jean-Christophe; Cormier, Eric


    We report on a laser source operating at 100 kHz repetition rate and delivering 8 μJ few-cycle mid-IR pulses at 3 μm. The system is based on optical parametric amplification pumped by a high repetition rate Yb-doped femtosecond fiber-chirped amplifier. This high-intensity ultrafast system is a promising tool for strong-field experiments (up to 50 GV/m and 186 T) in low ionization potential atomic and molecular systems, or solid-state physics with coincidence measurements. As a proof of principle, up to the sixth harmonic has been generated in a 1 mm zinc selenide sample.

  19. Design and analysis of spectral beam combining system for fiber lasers based on a concave grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhuo-liang; ZHAO Shang-hong; CHU Xing-chun; ZHANG Xi; ZHAN Sheng-bao; MA Li-hua


    Anovel fiber laser spectral beam combining scheme based on a concave grating is presented.The principle of the presented system is analyzed,and a concave grating with blazed structure for spectral beam combining is designed.The combining potential of the system is analyzed,and the results show that 39 Yb-doped fiber laser can be spectrally beam combined via the designed system.By using scalar diffraction theory,the combining effect of the system is analyzed.The results show that the diffraction efficiency of the designed concave grating is higher than 72% over the whole gain bandwidth,and the combining efficiency is 73.4%.With output power of 1 kW for individual fiber laser,combined power of 28.6 kW can be achieved.

  20. μJ-level, kHz-repetition rate femtosecond fiber-CPA system at 1555 nm (United States)

    Sobon, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawel; Gluszek, Aleksander; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Abramski, Krzysztof M.


    In this work, we demonstrate a high-power, fiber-based chirped pulse amplification (CPA) setup utilizing Er- and Er/Yb-doped fibers, operating at 1555 nm central wavelength. The integrated all-fiber pulse-picker allows to reduce the repetition frequency down to the kHz-range, which enables generation of sub-picosecond pulses with energies above 2 μJ and pulse peak power exceeding 1 MW. The system utilizes an Er/Yb co-doped large mode area fiber in the final amplification stage. Thanks to the used mode-field adapters and fiber-based components, the setup is almost fully fiberized, except the bulk grating pulse compressor. In order to provide compactness and simplicity, the compressor was designed using dense 1100 lines per millimeter gratings, that allow to keep the small grating separation.

  1. Efficient Yb laser fibers with low photodarkening by optimization of the core composition. (United States)

    Jetschke, Sylvia; Unger, Sonja; Schwuchow, Anka; Leich, Martin; Kirchhof, Johannes


    We report on photodarkening (PD) investigations at Yb doped fibers with specific variation of the concentrations of the codopants aluminum and phosphorus, measured during cladding pumping at 915 nm. A core composition with equal content of Al and P is most promising to achieve Yb fibers with low PD, high laser efficiency and low numerical aperture of the laser core despite of high codoping. A laser output power of more than 100 W was demonstrated on such a fiber with a slope efficiency of 72%. The correlation of the PD loss with the NIR-excited cooperative luminescence encourages the supposition that cooperative energy transfer from excited Yb(3+) ions to the atomic defect precursors in the core glass enables the formation of color centers in the pump-induced PD process.

  2. Generation of 30  fs pulses from a diode-pumped graphene mode-locked Yb:CaYAlO4 laser. (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Huang, Haitao; Ning, Kaijie; Xu, Xiaodong; Xie, Guoqiang; Qian, Liejia; Loh, Kian Ping; Tang, Dingyuan


    Stable 30 fs pulses centered at 1068 nm (less than 10 optical cycles) are demonstrated in a diode pumped Yb:CaYAlO4 laser by using high-quality chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene as the saturable absorber. The mode-locked 8.43 optical-cycle pulses have a spectral bandwidth of ∼50  nm and a pulse repetition frequency of ∼113.5  MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the shortest pulse ever reported for graphene mode-locked lasers and mode-locked Yb-doped bulk lasers. Our experimental results demonstrate that graphene mode locking is a very promising practical technique for directly generating few-cycle optical pulses from a laser oscillator.

  3. Generation of 30 fs pulses from a diode-pumped graphene mode-locked Yb:CaYAlO_4 laser (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Huang, Haitao; Ning, Kaijie; Xu, Xiaodong; Xie, Guoqiang; Qian, Liejia; Loh, Kian Ping; Tang, Dingyuan


    Stable 30 fs pulses centered at 1068 nm (less than 10 optical cycles) are demonstrated in a diode pumped Yb:CaYAlO4 laser by using high-quality chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene as the saturable absorber. The mode locked 8.43 optical-cycle pulses have a spectral bandwidth of ~ 50 nm and a pulse repetition frequency of ~ 113.5 MHz. To our knowledge, this is the shortest pulse ever reported for graphene mode-locked lasers and mode-locked Yb-doped bulk lasers. Our experimental results demonstrate that graphene mode locking is a very promising practical technique to generate few-cycle optical pulses directly from a laser oscillator.

  4. Generation of 30-fs pulses from a diode-pumped graphene mode-locked Yb:CaYAlO4 laser

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jie; Ning, Kaijie; Xu, Xiaodong; Xie, Guoqiang; Qian, Liejia; Loh, Kian Ping; Tang, Dingyuan


    Stable 30 fs pulses centered at 1068 nm (less than 10 optical cycles) are demonstrated in a diode pumped Yb:CaYAlO4 laser by using high-quality chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene as the saturable absorber. The mode locked 8.43 optical-cycle pulses have a spectral bandwidth of ~ 50 nm and a pulse repetition frequency of ~ 113.5 MHz. To our knowledge, this is the shortest pulse ever reported for graphene mode-locked lasers and mode-locked Yb-doped bulk lasers. Our experimental results demonstrate that graphene mode locking is a very promising practical technique to generate few-cycle optical pulses directly from a laser oscillator.

  5. Multi-pulse operation of a dissipative soliton fibre laser based on nonlinear polarisation rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H L; Wang, X L; Zhou, P; Chen, J B [College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, 410073 (China)


    We report an experimental observation of multiple dissipative soliton (DS) operation states in an all-normal-dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fibre laser, including DS bound and oscillating states. In the bound state, multiple DSs up to 11 can coexist in the cavity. In the oscillating state, the DSs' movements are not purely random and three typical states are generalised and illustrated. A single-pulse mode-locked state is established at a high pump power by carefully adjusting the polarisation controllers. The broad spectrum indicates that it may be noise-like pulses, which can serve as a pump to generate a supercontinuum. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  6. High power double-scale pulses from a gain-guided double-clad fiber laser (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Gao, Gan; Li, Qinghua; Gong, Mali


    Generation of high power double-scale pulses from a gain-guided double-clad fiber laser is experimentally demonstrated. By employing the Yb-doped 10/130 double-clad fiber as the gain medium, the laser realizes an output power of 5.1 W and pulse energy of 0.175 µJ at repetition rate of 29.14 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this average output power is the highest among the reported double-scale pulse oscillators. The autocorrelation trace of pulses contains the short (98 fs) and long (29.5 ps) components, and the spectral bandwidth of the pulse is 27.3 nm. Such double-scale pulses are well suited for seeding the high power MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier) systems, nonlinear frequency conversion and optical coherence tomography.

  7. A laser ranging system operating at 1036 nm with Geiger-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Ren, Min; Liang, Yan; Wang, Zhiyuan; Pan, Haifeng; Zeng, Heping


    We demonstrated a laser ranging experiment obtained with a Geiger-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (Si GAPD). The Surface-to-surface resolution of 15 cm was achieved with the technique of time-correlated single-photon counting. In the experiment, a mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser at 1036 nm was applied, as the detection efficiency at 1036 nm of Si GAPDs is much higher than that at 1064nm which was widely applied in remote sensing. Due to the single-photon detector, the laser ranging system was able to measure the reflected photon pulses at single-photon level. We realized 32- m laser ranging experiment with a 135-mm diameter Newtonian telescope in daylight. And the system could measure the non-cooperated object longer than 11.3 km far away, which was tested through inserting the optical loss. It presented a potential for hundreds-of-kilometer laser ranging at low-light level.

  8. Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser. (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Xuechao; Sun, Zhipei; Cheng, Xueping; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie


    We study a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite as a saturable absorber (SA) for pulse generation in Yb-doped fiber lasers. The saturable absorption and optical limiting (OL) characteristics of the SWNT device are investigated. By combing these two nonlinear effects, we find out for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that mode-locking can be obtained in the dissipative soliton regime at low pumping followed by Q-switching at high pumping, which is quite different from conventional pulse dynamic evolutions. The Q-switched state operating at higher pump powers is due to the OL effect. The inverted operating fiber laser can be applied in various potential applications such as versatile material processing, optical communication and radar system etc.

  9. Observation of soliton explosions in a passively mode-locked fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Runge, Antoine F J; Erkintalo, Miro


    Soliton explosions are among the most exotic dissipative phenomena studied in mode-locked lasers. In this regime, a dissipative soliton circulating in the laser cavity experiences an abrupt structural collapse, but within a few roundtrips returns to its original quasi-stable state. In this work we report on the first observation of such events in a fiber laser. Specifically, we identify clear explosion signatures in measurements of shot-to-shot spectra of an Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser that is operating in a transition regime between stable and noise-like emission. The comparatively long, all-normal-dispersion cavity used in our experiments also permits direct time-domain measurements, and we show that the explosions manifest themselves as abrupt temporal shifts in the output pulse train. Our experimental results are in good agreement with realistic numerical simulations based on an iterative cavity map.

  10. Single- and dual-wavelength switchable linear polarized Yb(3+)-doped double-clad fiber laser. (United States)

    Liu, Guanxiu; Feng, Dejun


    A single- and dual-wavelength switchable linear polarized Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser is proposed, in which the resonance cavity was composed of a fiber Bragg grating fabricated in a polarization-maintaining fiber and a dichromatic mirror with high reflectivity. The polarization hole burning is enhanced through selective polarization feedback by the polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating. The switchover of single and dual wavelengths is realized by tuning the rotation angle of a cubic polarization beam splitter that is inserted between the dichromatic mirror and the collimator in the cavity. The laser features wavelengths of 1070.08 and 1070.39 nm, output power of 1.0 W, signal to noise ratio of 45 dB, and slope efficiency of 34%, as well as a very narrow linewidth of 0.022 nm. The polarization characteristics are analyzed by measuring the laser power transmitted through a Glan-Thomson polarizer during rotation.

  11. Front-end of the ILE Project: A design study for a 100 mJ sub-10 fs laser (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Ramirez, Patricia; Pellegrina, Alain; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick; Chen, Xiaowei; Canova, Lorenzo; Malvache, Arnaud; Jullien, Aurélie; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo


    Within the development of the ILE French project aiming on the building of a 10 PW, 150 J/15 fs laser chain (named APOLLON), a design study for a sub-10-fs, 100 mJ pilot laser operating at 800 nm have been conceived. This system is based on a non-collinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (NOPCPA) of the spectrally broadened and compressed pulses of a Ti:Sapphire laser system providing 1.5-mJ, 25-fs, pumped at 515 nm by a high-energy diode-pumped Yb-doped-based laser chain. The envisioned system, based on a novel combined architecture of picosecond and nanosecond NOPCPA stages, will finally deliver carrier envelope phased (CEP) stabilized 1 ns pulses (compressible to less than 10 fs) at 800 nm with 100 mJ energy and at a repetition rate in the range of 10-100 Hz.

  12. Mitigating of Modal Instabilities in Linearly-Polarized Fiber Amplifiers by Shifting Pump Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Rumao; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin


    We investigated the effct of pump wavelength on the modal instabilities (MI) in high power linearly-polarized Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. We built a novel semi-analytical model to determine the frequency coupling characteristics and power threshold of MI, which indicates promising MI suppression through pumping at an appropriate wavelength. By pumping at 915nm, the threshold can be enhanced by a factor of 2.36 as compared to that pumped at 976nm. Based on a high power linearly-polarized fiber amplifier platform, we studied the influence of pump wavelength experimentally. The threshold has been increased by a factor of 2 at 915nm, which agrees with the theoretical calculation and verified our theoretical model. Furthermore, we show that MI suppression by detuning the pump wavelength is weakened for fiber with large core-to-cladding ratio.

  13. All-solid very large mode area ytterbium-doped silica microstructured fiber based on accurate control on cladding index. (United States)

    Wei, Huifeng; Chen, Kangkang; Yang, Yucheng; Li, Jinyan


    We have demonstrated a new approach for developing very large mode area silica-based microstructured Ytterbium (Yb)-doped fibers. The microstructured region acting as pump cladding around the core is composed by periodically arranged low-index Fluorine-doped silica inclusions with an extremely low filling ratio of 0.088. To the best of our knowledge, we achieved the most accurate controlling on cladding index by 1 × 10-5 via our passively doped cladding (PDC) method. Two fibers with 127μm and 50μm core diameter respectively were fabricated from the same final preform designed by this approach. It is verified that our 50μm core diameter fiber can maintain robust single mode behavior at 1064nm wavelength. The advantage of an all-solid structure along with a much simpler fabrication process makes our approach very suitable for realizing very large mode area fibers for high power fiber laser application.

  14. Generating 2 micron continuous-wave ytterbium-doped fiber laser-based optical parametric effect (United States)

    Paul, M. C.; Latiff, A. A.; Hisyam, M. B.; Rusdi, M. F. M.; Harun, S. W.


    We report an efficient method for generating a 2 micron laser based on an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). It uses a long piece of a newly developed double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF), which is obtained by doping multi-elements of ZrO2, CeO2 and CaO in a phospho-alumina-silica glass as a gain medium. The efficient 2 micron laser generation is successful due to the presence of partially crystalline Yb-doped ZrO2 nano-particles that serve as a nonlinear material in a linear cavity configuration and high watt-level pump power. Stable self-wavelength double lasing at 2122 nm with an efficiency of 7.15% is successfully recorded. At a maximum pump power of 4.1 W, the output power is about 201 mW.

  15. Efficient tri-wavelength actively Q-switched Yb:GAGG laser (United States)

    Zhao, Ruwei; Zhang, Baitao; Jia, Zhitai; Su, Xiancui; Lou, Fei; Zhang, Haikun; He, Jingliang; Liu, Fengqin


    An efficient acousto-optic Q-switched Yb-doped Gd3AlxGa5-xO12 (GAGG) (x = 0.5) laser is demonstrated. Under the absorbed pump power of 7.4 W, the maximum average output power of 1.4 W is obtained at the pulse repletion rate of 1 kHz , with the slope efficiency as high as 32%. The pulse width of 40 ns is achieved with the pulse energy and peak power of 1.4 mJ and 35 kW, respectively. What' more, the output spectrum shows itself tri-wavelength in either CW or Q-switching mode. To our knowledge, this is the first time for realizing simultaneous tri-wavelength Yb:GAGG laser actively Q-switched operation.

  16. Depolarization effect in rare-earth doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films in blue and UV spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasimov, Naghi; Mammadov, Eldar; Babayev, Sardar; Mamedova, Irada; Mamedov, Nazim [Department of Ellipsometry, Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, H. Javid ave. 33, Baku-1143 (Azerbaijan); Joudrier, Anne L.; Andriamiadamanana, Christian; Naghavi, Negar; Guillemoles, Jean F. [Institute for Research and Development of Photovoltaic Energy, 6 Quai Watier, 78401 Chatou, Paris (France)


    The 200 to 300 nm thick, Er and Er,Yb doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited onto silicon substrate by spin coating have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry over the 192-1680 nm spectral range at room temperature. All samples have been found to be strongly depolarizing in the blue and UV part of the spectrum. Complimentary examination of the sample surfaces, using confocal photoluminescence microscopy has disclosed the non-uniform distribution of the rare-earth dopants. The depolarization effects have then been modeled and found to be best reproduced by taking the thickness non-uniformity as the main source of depolarization. The optical constants of the studied films have been determined after four-step modeling with sequential decrease of the mean square error. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of erbium and ytterbium in zircon, ZrSiO4 (United States)

    Thorpe, A.N.; Briggs, Charles; Tsang, T.; Senftle, F.; Alexander, Corrine


    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made for both Er- and Yb-doped (1̃03ppm) zircon single crystals with the magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the [001] axis. Large susceptibility anisotropies were found in both cases. Our observed anisotropies of ZrSiO4: Yb indicate small populations (1̃9%) of Yb ions at the axial (tetragonal) sites, as the susceptibility of ZrSiO4: Yb would be nearly isotropic if the Yb ions only occupied the orthorhombic sites. For Er3+ in orthorhombic sites of zircon, our data indicate that the first excited state is paramagnetic with gx = 9 and gy 5̃ at 20 cm-1 above the ground state (gx 0̃, gy 1̃5). The first excited state is quite similar to the ground states observed for Er3+ in many host lattices. ?? 1977.

  18. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label (United States)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.


    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  19. An Ultra-Stable Referenced Interrogation System in the Deep Ultraviolet for a Mercury Optical Lattice Clock

    CERN Document Server

    Dawkins, S T; Petersen, M; Millo, J; Magalhães, D V; Mandache, C; Coq, Y Le; Bize, S


    We have developed an ultra-stable source in the deep ultraviolet, suitable to fulfill the interrogation requirements of a future fully-operational lattice clock based on neutral mercury. At the core of the system is a Fabry-P\\'erot cavity which is highly impervious to temperature and vibrational perturbations. The mirror substrate is made of fused silica in order to exploit the comparatively low thermal noise limits associated with this material. By stabilizing the frequency of a 1062.6 nm Yb-doped fiber laser to the cavity, and including an additional link to LNE-SYRTE's fountain primary frequency standards via an optical frequency comb, we produce a signal which is both stable at the 1E-15 level in fractional terms and referenced to primary frequency standards. The signal is subsequently amplified and frequency-doubled twice to produce several milliwatts of interrogation signal at 265.6 nm in the deep ultraviolet.

  20. Efficient generation of linearly polarized Cerenkov radiation in a photonic crystal fiber with suspended rectangle core (United States)

    Luo, Xing; Cheng, Lan; Peng, Jinggang; Yang, Luyun; Dai, Nengli; Li, Haiqing; Li, Jinyan


    We report high efficiency linearly polarized Cerenkov radiation (CR) generation in a photonic crystal fiber with suspended rectangle core. The frequency up-conversion via the Cerenkov radiation upon pumping of Yb-doped femtosecond fiber laser is discussed in details. Experiment results show that the output spectrum contains, besides the infrared supercontinuum, intense green Cerenkov radiation around 536 nm, which carry about 43% of the pump energy at best. The influence of the high birefringence and dispersion character on the Cerenkov radiation generation is discussed. Experiment and simulation results indicate that the rectangle core photonic crystal fiber acts like single-mode single-polarization fiber at the pump wavelength. Only the pulse component along with the slow axis could be confined in the rectangle core well and release Cerenkov radiation efficiently. The Output green Cerenkov radiation is also demonstrated to be linearly polarized. Experiments results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  1. Green and ultraviolet pulse generation with a compact, fiber laser, chirped-pulse amplification system for aerosol fluorescence measurements (United States)

    Lou, Janet W.; Currie, Marc; Sivaprakasam, Vasanthi; Eversole, Jay D.


    We use a compact chirped-pulse amplified system to harmonically generate ultrashort pulses for aerosol fluorescence measurements. The seed laser is a compact, all-normal dispersion, mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser with a 1050 nm center wavelength operating at 41 MHz. Average powers of more than 1.2 W at 525 nm and 350 mW at 262 nm are generated with biofluorescence measurements as it allows faster sampling rates as well as the higher peak powers as compared to previously demonstrated Q-switched systems while maintaining a pulse period that is longer than the typical fluorescence lifetimes. Thus, the fluorescence excitation can be considered to be quasicontinuous and requires no external synchronization and triggering.

  2. Preparation of Yb-substituted α-Ni(OH){sub 2} and its physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingsheng; Zhu, Yanjuan, E-mail:; Han, Quanyong; Zhao, Rudong; Zhuang, Yihuan; Liu, Yonglin; Zhang, Shujie; Miao, Chengcheng


    Highlights: • Yb substituted α-nickel hydroxide was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted precipitation. • The electrode for 1.44 wt.% Yb has the highest capacity of 295.1 mAh/g at 0.2 C. • EDS spectrum was tested to show that Yb distributing in the lattice of α-Ni(OH){sub 2} uniformly. • The FWHM of peaks were marked to show the directional growth of the crystallite. -- Abstract: Nano-sized Yb-substituted α-Ni(OH){sub 2} was synthesized by ultrasonic-assisted precipitation, using nickel sulfate as nickel source and Yb(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅5H{sub 2}O as doping material. The crystal structure, morphology, and particle size distribution of the sample were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and laser particle size analyzer (PSD). The results indicate that the samples are anisotropic polycrystalline α-Ni(OH){sub 2} with particle size of 50–200 nm, and the particle size increases with Yb-doping. The synthesized samples were tested in Ni-MH battery. The specific capacity increases initially and then decreases with increasing Yb-doping ratio with the maximum discharge capacity of 295.1 mAh/g at 0.2 C, which is 60 mAh/g higher than the micro-sized spherical nickel electrode. At the same time, the prepared material has lower charging voltage, higher discharge voltage plateau, and better cycle performance.

  3. The Improved Power of the Central Lobe in the Beam Combination and High Power Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hou-Kang; WEI Yun-Rong; DONG Jing-Xing; LOU Qi-Hong; XUE Yu-Hao; LI Zhen; HE Bing; ZHOU Jun; DING Ya-Qian; JIAO Meng-Li; LIU Chi; QI Yun-Feng


    In order to increase the power fraction of the central lobe in the coherent beam combination of lasers in an array,the effects of the distance factor of near-field distribution on far-field interference patterns are calculated and demonstrated experimentally.An improved beam array of interwoven distribution is demonstrated to enable the power in the central lobe to reach 41%.An optimized mirror array is carefully designed to obtain a high duty ratio,which is up to 53.3% at a high power level.By using these optimized methods and designs,the passive phase locking of eight Yb-doped fiber amplifiers with ring cavities are obtained,and a pleasing interference pattern with 87% visibility is observed.The maximum coherent output power of the system is up to 1066 W.%In order to increase the power fraction of the central lobe in the coherent beam combination of lasers in an array, the effects of the distance factor of near-field distribution on far-field interference patterns are calculated and demonstrated experimentally. An improved beam array of interwoven distribution is demonstrated to enable the power in the central lobe to reach 41%. An optimized mirror array is carefully designed to obtain a high duty ratio, which is up to 53.3% at a high power level. By using these optimized methods and designs, the passive phase locking of eight Yb-doped fiber amplifiers with ring cavities are obtained, and a pleasing interference pattern with 87% visibility is observed. The maximum coherent output power of the system is up to 1066 W.

  4. Influence of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} on electrical and microstructural characteristics of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kai [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Luo, Yun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yu, Renhong; Qi, Jiapeng [Changzhou Ming Errui Ceramics Co., Ltd., Changzhou 213102 (China); Sun, Xiujuan; Yang, Yongtao; Xu, Hongxing [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ma, Jing [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Dong, E-mail: [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Some Yb atoms entered in the lattice of CCTO substituted the Ca sites, the rest of Yb atoms concentrated at grain boundaries decreased the grain size. The dielectric constant was decreased by Yb doping. The dielectric loss of the CCTO could be greatly reduced at low frequency. - Highlights: • Yb atoms may take the place of Ca sites and concentrate at grain boundaries. • Tiny second phase corresponding to Yb may decrease the grain size. • Decrease of the grain size leads to the decrease of dielectric constant. • Yb doping could decrease the dielectric loss of CCTO. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the remarkable effects of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping on the microstructure and dielectric characteristics of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (CCTO). Samples were prepared by the solid phase reaction method and sintered in air at 1030 °C for 12 h. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm that the primary phase is CCTO. Some Yb{sup 3+} ions may substitute into the Ca site at the center or zenith sites of the CCTO lattice hexahedron, while the rest of the Yb atoms may concentrate at grain boundaries. The grain size of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped CCTO ceramics were examined by scanning electron microscopy and demonstrate sharp grain size reduction with Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping. From dielectric property measurements, the Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping reduces the dielectric constant of CCTO, and the dielectric loss is also reduced.

  5. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang


    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  6. High repetition rate passively Q-switched fiber and microchip lasers for optical resolution photoacoustic imaging (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Utkin, Ilya; Ranasinghesagara, Janaka; Pan, Lei; Godwal, Yogesh; Kerr, Shaun; Zemp, Roger J.; Fedosejevs, Robert


    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy is a novel imaging technology for visualizing optically-absorbing superficial structures in vivo with lateral spatial resolution determined by optical focusing rather than acoustic detection. Since scanning of the illumination spot is required, the imaging speed is limited by the scanning speed and the laser pulse repetition rate. Unfortunately, lasers with high-repetition rate and suitable pulse durations and energies are difficult to find. We are developing compact laser sources for this application. Passively Q-switched fiber and microchip lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 300 kHz are demonstrated. Using a diode-pumped microchip laser fiber-coupled to a large mode-area Yb-doped fiber amplifier we obtained 60μJ 1-ns pulses at the frequency-doubled 532-nm wavelength. The pulse-repetition rate was determined by the power of the microchip laser pump source at 808nm and may exceed 10 kHz. Additionally, a passively Q-switched fiber laser utilizing a Yb-doped double-cladding fiber and an external saturable absorber has shown to produce 250ns pulses at repetition rates of 100-300 KHz. A photoacoustic probe enabling flexible scanning of the focused output of these lasers consisted of a 45-degree glass prism in an optical index-matching fluid. Photoacoustic signals exiting the sample are deflected by the prism to an ultrasound transducer. Phantom studies with a 7.5-micron carbon fiber demonstrate the ability to image with optical rather than acoustic resolution. We believe that the high pulse-repetition rates and the potentially compact and fiber-coupled nature of these lasers will prove important for clinical imaging applications where realtime imaging performance is essential.

  7. Effect of sintering temperature on the morphology and mechanical properties of PTFE membranes as a base substrate for proton exchange membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aida Zubir


    Full Text Available This paper reports the development of PTFE membranes as the base substrates for producing proton exchange membrane by using radiation-grafting technique. An aqueous dispersion of PTFE, which includes sodium benzoate, is cast in order to form suitable membranes. The casting was done by usinga pneumatically controlled flat sheet membrane-casting machine. The membrane is then sintered to fuse the polymer particles and cooled. After cooling process, the salt crystals are leached from the membrane by dissolution in hot bath to leave a microporous structure, which is suitable for such uses as a filtration membrane or as a base substrate for radiation grafted membrane in PEMFC. The effects of sintering temperature on the membrane morphology and tensile strength were investigated at 350oC and 385oC by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EX 20, respectively. The pore size and total void space are significantly smaller at higher sintering temperature employed with an average pore diameter of 11.78 nm. The tensile strength and tensile strain of sintered PTFE membrane at 385oC are approximately 19.02 + 1.46 MPa and 351.04 + 23.13 %, respectively. These results were indicated at 385oC, which represents significant improvements in tensile strength and tensile strain, which are nearly twice those at 350oC.

  8. 78 FR 10064 - Safety Zone; Vigor Industrial Roll-Out, West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA (United States)


    ... 35'04'' N, 122 21'50'' W thence northerly to 47 35'19'' N, 122 21'50'' W thence easterly to 47 35'19... thence easterly to 47 35'19'' N, 122 21'30'' W thence southerly to 47 35'04'' N, 122 21'30'' W....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, Robert; Kropf, A.J.


    Optical fibers doped with Ytterbium-3+ have become increasingly common in fiber lasers and amplifiers. Yb-doped fibers provide the capability to produce high power and short pulses at specific wavelengths, resulting in highly effective gain media. However, little is known about the local structure, distribution, and chemical coordination of Yb3+ in the fibers. This information is necessary to improve the manufacturing process and optical qualities of the fibers. Five fibers doped with Yb3+ were studied using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), in addition to Yb3+ mapping. The Yb3+ distribution in each fiber core was mapped with 2D and 1D intensity scans, which measured X-ray fluorescence over the scan areas. Two of the five fibers examined showed highly irregular Yb3+ distributions in the core center. In four of the five fibers Yb3+ was detected outside of the given fiber core dimensions, suggesting possible Yb3+ diffusion from the core, manufacturing error, or both. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis has so far proven inconclusive, but did show that the fibers had differing EXAFS spectra. The Yb3+ distribution mapping proved highly useful, but additional modeling and examination of fiber preforms must be conducted to improve XAS analysis, which has been shown to have great potential for the study of similar optical fi bers.

  10. Layered Yb:YAG ceramics produced by two different methods: processing, characterization, and comparison (United States)

    Hostaša, Jan; Biasini, Valentina; Piancastelli, Andreana; Vannini, Matteo; Toci, Guido


    Yb:YAG ceramic solid-state laser gain media have been of growing interest for high-repetition rate and high-power lasers during the last few years. A great advantage of ceramic technology compared with that of single crystals is the flexibility of shaping methods allowing the production of near-net-shape components with a well-defined internal structure. A favorable dopant distribution can enhance laser efficiency by mitigating thermal effects. The presented work reports on Yb:YAG transparent ceramics composed of layers with different Yb doping produced by two different shaping methods: dry pressing of spray-dried powders and tape casting, all sintered under high vacuum. The selected geometry of materials was based on numerical simulations. Optical quality of produced ceramics was characterized and discussed in connection with the microstructure and laser emission results. Output power of nearly 7 W and slope efficiency of 58.1% were obtained in quasi-continuous wave regime from bilayered 0% to 10% Yb:YAG. In the case of multilayered materials, higher scattering losses were observed. The comparison of the two processing methods highlighted that the tape-cast materials provided higher optical uniformity and the diffusion zone between the single layers with different dopant content was about 150 μm compared to about 250 μm in samples produced by pressing of powders.

  11. Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency. (United States)

    Peters, Rigo; Kränkel, Christian; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter


    We report on efficient laser operation of high quality crystalline Yb(3+):Lu(2)O(3) in thin disk configuration. Using doping concentrations between 1 at.% to 3 at.% and disk thicknesses between 0.08mm and 0.45mm the optimum crystal parameters have been determined. Pumped at 976 nm the laser operates at 1034 nm and 1080 nm. With a 0.25mm thick 3 at.% Yb:Lu(2)O(3) disk 32.6W of output power at 45.3W incident pump power with a slope efficiency of 80% and a resulting optical-to-optical efficiency of 72% have been realized. These are the highest values in terms of slope efficiency as well as optical-to-optical efficiency for an Yb-doped thin disk laser reported so far. Using an 1mm birefringent filter continuous tuning from 987 nm to 1127 nm with more than 10Wof output power over a tuning range of 90 nm has been achieved.

  12. Robust upward dispersion of the neutron spin resonance in the heavy fermion superconductor Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 (United States)

    Song, Yu; van Dyke, John; Lum, I. K.; White, B. D.; Jang, Sooyoung; Yazici, Duygu; Shu, L.; Schneidewind, A.; Čermák, Petr; Qiu, Y.; Maple, M. B.; Morr, Dirk K.; Dai, Pengcheng


    The neutron spin resonance is a collective magnetic excitation that appears in the unconventional copper oxide, iron pnictide and heavy fermion superconductors. Although the resonance is commonly associated with a spin-exciton due to the d(s+/-)-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter, it has also been proposed to be a magnon-like excitation appearing in the superconducting state. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to demonstrate that the resonance in the heavy fermion superconductor Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 with x=0, 0.05 and 0.3 has a ring-like upward dispersion that is robust against Yb-doping. By comparing our experimental data with a random phase approximation calculation using the electronic structure and the momentum dependence of the -wave superconducting gap determined from scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) for CeCoIn5, we conclude that the robust upward-dispersing resonance mode in Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 is inconsistent with the downward dispersion predicted within the spin-exciton scenario.

  13. Influence of the crystal structure on the stability of Ln{sup 2+} in strontium borates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, V.P. [Physico-Chemical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 86 Lustdorfskaya str., 65080 Odesa (Ukraine)], E-mail:; Berezovskaya, I.V.; Efryushina, N.P. [Physico-Chemical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 86 Lustdorfskaya str., 65080 Odesa (Ukraine); Voloshinovskii, A.S.; Stryganyuk, G.B. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya str., 29005 Lviv (Ukraine)


    The results of luminescence measurements on Ln (Eu, Yb) doped alkaline earth (M=Ca,Sr) borates M{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, MB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}X(X=Cl,Br), MB{sub 6}O{sub 10}, MB{sub 4}O{sub 7} after high-temperature annealing in various atmospheres are reported and discussed. The stability of Ln{sup 2+}(Ln=Eu,Yb) is found to increase in the sequence Sr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}

  14. Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator (United States)

    Belke, Steffen; Becker, Frank; Neumann, Benjamin; Ruppik, Stefan; Hefter, Ulrich


    We have demonstrated a linearly polarized cw all-in-fiber oscillator providing 1 kW of output power and a polarization extinction ratio (PER) of up to 21.7 dB. The design of the laser oscillator is simple and consists of an Ytterbium-doped polarization maintaining large mode area (PLMA) fiber and suitable fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) in matching PLMA fibers. The oscillator has nearly diffraction-limited beam quality (M² high power 6+1:1 pump coupler. The slope efficiency of the laser is 75 %. The electro/optical efficiency of the complete laser system is ~30 % and hence in the range of Rofin's cw non-polarized fiber lasers. Choosing an adequate bending diameter for the Yb-doped PLMA fiber, one polarization mode as well as higher order modes are sufficiently supressed1. Resulting in a compact and robust linearly polarized high power single mode laser without external polarizing components. Linearly polarized lasers are well established for one dimensional cutting or welding applications. Using beam shaping optics radially polarized laser light can be generated to be independent from the angle of incident to the processing surface. Furthermore, high power linearly polarized laser light is fundamental for nonlinear frequency conversion of nonlinear materials.

  15. Glass-on-Glass Fabrication of Bottle-Shaped Tunable Micro-Lasers and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Sile Nic


    We describe a novel method for making microbottle-shaped lasers by using a CO$_2$ laser to melt Er:Yb glass onto silica microcapillaries or fibres. This is realised by the fact that the two glasses have different melting points. The CO$_2$ laser power is controlled to flow the doped glass around the silica cylinder. In the case of a capillary, the resulting geometry is a hollow, microbottle-shaped resonator. This is a simple method for fabricating a number of glass WGM lasers with a wide range of sizes on a single, micron-scale structure. The Er:Yb doped glass outer layer is pumped at 980 nm via a tapered optical fibre and whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing is recorded around 1535 nm. This structure facilitates a new way to thermo-optically tune the microlaser modes by passing gas through the capillary. The cooling effect of the gas flow shifts the WGMs towards shorter wavelengths, thus thermal tuning of the lasing modes over 70 GHz is achieved. Results are fitted using the theory of hot wire anemometry, al...

  16. X-ray Excitation Triggers Ytterbium Anomalous Emission in CaF 2 :Yb but Not in SrF 2 :Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes-Currie, Rosa B.; Ivanovskikh, Konstantin V.; Wells, Jon-Paul R.; Reid, Michael F.; Gordon, Robert A.; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila


    Materials that luminesce after excitation with ionizing radiation are extensively applied in physics, medicine, security, and industry. Lanthanide dopants are known to trigger crystal scintillation through their fast d–f emissions; the same is true for other important applications as lasers or phosphors for lighting. However, this ability can be seriously compromised by unwanted anomalous emissions often found with the most common lanthanide activators. We report high-resolution X-ray-excited optical (IR to UV) luminescence spectra of CaF2:Yb and SrF2:Yb samples excited at 8949 eV and 80 K. Ionizing radiation excites the known anomalous emission of ytterbium in the CaF2 host but not in the SrF2 host. Wave function-based ab initio calculations of host-to-dopant electron transfer and Yb2+/Yb3+ intervalence charge transfer explain the difference. The model also explains the lack of anomalous emission in Yb-doped SrF2 excited by VUV radiation.

  17. Reduction of Photoluminescence Quenching by Deuteration of Ytterbium-Doped Amorphous Carbon-Based Photonic Materials. (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Lin; Leong, Keith R; Teng, I-Ju; Halamicek, Michael; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Qian, Li; Kherani, Nazir P


    In situ Yb-doped amorphous carbon thin films were grown on Si substrates at low temperatures (photoluminescence around 1 µm was observed via direct incorporation of optically active Yb(3+) ions from the selected Yb(fod)₃ metal-organic compound. The partially fluorinated Yb(fod)₃ compound assists the suppression of photoluminescence quenching by substitution of C-H with C-F bonds. A four-fold enhancement of Yb photoluminescence was demonstrated via deuteration of the a-C host. The substrate temperature greatly influences the relative deposition rate of the plasma dissociated metal-organic species, and hence the concentration of the various elements. Yb and F incorporation are promoted at lower substrate temperatures, and suppressed at higher substrate temperatures. O concentration is slightly elevated at higher substrate temperatures. Photoluminescence was limited by the concentration of Yb within the film, the concentration of Yb ions in the +3 state, and the relative amount of quenching due to the various de-excitation pathways associated with the vibrational modes of the host a-C network. The observed wide full-width-at-half-maximum photoluminescence signal is a result of the variety of local bonding environments due to the a-C matrix, and the bonding of the Yb(3+) ions to O and/or F ions as observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses.

  18. Growth, structural and spectroscopic properties of Yb{sup 3+}-doped Li{sub 0.75}Gd{sub 0.75}Ba{sub 0.5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cortes, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cascales, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Zaldo, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    Yb-doped Li{sub 0.75}Gd{sub 0.75}Ba{sub 0.5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals were grown in air by the Top Seeded Solution Growth slow cooling method in a Li{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} flux. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the symmetry of monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), with lattice parameters a = 5.2355(3) A, b = 12.7396(8) A, c = 19.1626(11) A, {beta} = 91.170(1) deg., V = 1277.84(13) A{sup 3}, and Z = 8, with one 8f site shared (0.725:0.06:0.215) by Gd{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} and Li{sup +} ions, respectively. The optical absorption and photoluminescence properties are described consistently with the anisotropic character of the monoclinic phase. The relative energies of the Yb{sup 3+} Stark levels have been determined, and in order to make a preliminary evaluation of its laser properties, values of the 300 K absorption and emission cross-sections have been derived.

  19. Thermally induced mode distortion and its limit to power scaling of fiber lasers. (United States)

    Ke, Wei-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Bao, Xian-Feng; Shu, Xiao-Jian


    A general model is proposed to describe thermal-induced mode distortion in the step-index fiber (SIF) high power lasers. Two normalized parameters in the model are able to determine the mode characteristic in the heated SIFs completely. Shrinking of the mode fields and excitation of the high-order modes by the thermal-optic effect are investigated. A simplified power amplification model is used to describe the output power redistribution under various guiding modes. The results suggest that fiber with large mode area is more sensitive on the thermally induced mode distortion and hence is disadvantaged in keeping the beam quality in high power operation. The model is further applied to improve the power scaling analysis of Yb-doped fiber lasers. Here the thermal effect is considered to couple with the optical damage and the stimulated Raman scattering dynamically, whereas direct constraint from the thermal lens is relaxed. The resulting maximal output power is from 67kW to 97kW, depending on power fraction of the fundamental mode.

  20. Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey P. Koplow; Dahv A. V. Kliner; Lew Goldberg


    The authors report a new approach to obtain single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier, in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. They have demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 {micro}m and NA of {minus}0.1 (V {approx} 7.4). When operated as an ASE source, the output beam had an M{sup 2} value of 1.09 {+-} 0.09; when seeded at 1,064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique does not require exotic fiber designs or increase system complexity and is inexpensive to implement. It will allow scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality.

  1. Single-shot spectroscopy of broadband Yb fiber laser (United States)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoneya, Shin; Kuroda, Hiroto


    We have experimentally reported on a real-time single-shot spectroscopy of a broadband Yb-doped fiber (YDF) laser which based on a nonlinear polarization evolution by using a time-stretched dispersive Fourier transformation technique. We have measured an 8000 consecutive single-shot spectra of mode locking and noise-like pulse (NLP), because our developed broadband YDF oscillator can individually operate the mode locking and NLP by controlling a pump LD power and angle of waveplates. A shot-to-shot spectral fluctuation was observed in NLP. For the investigation of pulse formation dynamics, we have measured the spectral evolution in an initial fluctuations of mode locked broadband YDF laser at an intracavity dispersion of 1500 and 6200 fs2 for the first time. In both case, a build-up time between cw and steady-state mode locking was estimated to be 50 us, the dynamics of spectral evolution between cw and mode locking, however, was completely different. A shot-to-shot strong spectral fluctuation, as can be seen in NLP spectra, was observed in the initial timescale of 20 us at the intracavity dispersion of 1500 fs2. These new findings would impact on understanding the birth of the broadband spectral formation in fiber laser oscillator.

  2. Fiber laser pumped burst-mode operated picosecond mid-infrared laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏凯华; 姜培培; 吴波; 陈滔; 沈永行


    We demonstrate a compact periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN)-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO) quasi-synchronously pumped by a fiber laser system with burst-mode operation. The pump source is a peak-power-selectable pulse-multiplied picosecond Yb fiber laser. The chirped pulses from a figure of eight-cavity mode-locked fiber laser seed are narrowed to a duration of less than 50 ps using an FBG refl ector and a circulator. The narrowed pulses are directed to pass through a pulse multiplier and to form pulse bunches, each of which is composed of 13 sub-pulses. The obtained pulse bunches are amplified by two-stage fiber pre-amplifiers:one-stage is core-pumped and the other is cladding-pumped. A fiberized acousto–optic modulator is inserted to control the pulse repetition rate (PRR) of the pulse bunches before they are power-amplified in the final amplifier stage with a large mode area (LMA) PM Yb-doped fiber. The maximum average powers from the final amplifier are 85 W, 60 W, and 45 W respectively, corresponding to the PRR of 2.72 MHz, 1.36 MHz, and 0.68 MHz. The amplified pulses are directed to pump an MgO:PPLN-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO). A maximum peak power at 3.45 µm is obtained approximately to be 8.4 kW. Detailed performance characteristics are presented.

  3. Glass-on-Glass Fabrication of Bottle-Shaped Tunable Microlasers and their Applications (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan M.; Yang, Yong; Nic Chormaic, Síle


    We describe a novel method for making microbottle-shaped lasers by using a CO2 laser to melt Er:Yb glass onto silica microcapillaries or fibres. This is realised by the fact that the two glasses have different melting points. The CO2 laser power is controlled to flow the doped glass around the silica cylinder. In the case of a capillary, the resulting geometry is a hollow, microbottle-shaped resonator. This is a simple method for fabricating a number of glass whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasers with a wide range of sizes on a single, micron-scale structure. The Er:Yb doped glass outer layer is pumped at 980 nm via a tapered optical fibre and WGM lasing is recorded around 1535 nm. This structure facilitates a new way to thermo-optically tune the microlaser modes by passing gas through the capillary. The cooling effect of the gas flow shifts the WGMs towards shorter wavelengths and thermal tuning of the lasing modes over 70 GHz is achieved. Results are fitted using the theory of hot wire anemometry, allowing the flow rate to be calibrated with a flow sensitivity as high as 72 GHz/sccm. Strain tuning of the microlaser modes by up to 60 GHz is also demonstrated.

  4. Glass-on-Glass Fabrication of Bottle-Shaped Tunable Microlasers and their Applications. (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan M; Yang, Yong; Nic Chormaic, Síle


    We describe a novel method for making microbottle-shaped lasers by using a CO2 laser to melt Er:Yb glass onto silica microcapillaries or fibres. This is realised by the fact that the two glasses have different melting points. The CO2 laser power is controlled to flow the doped glass around the silica cylinder. In the case of a capillary, the resulting geometry is a hollow, microbottle-shaped resonator. This is a simple method for fabricating a number of glass whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasers with a wide range of sizes on a single, micron-scale structure. The Er:Yb doped glass outer layer is pumped at 980 nm via a tapered optical fibre and WGM lasing is recorded around 1535 nm. This structure facilitates a new way to thermo-optically tune the microlaser modes by passing gas through the capillary. The cooling effect of the gas flow shifts the WGMs towards shorter wavelengths and thermal tuning of the lasing modes over 70 GHz is achieved. Results are fitted using the theory of hot wire anemometry, allowing the flow rate to be calibrated with a flow sensitivity as high as 72 GHz/sccm. Strain tuning of the microlaser modes by up to 60 GHz is also demonstrated.

  5. Photosensitivity and photoluminescence of Sn/Yb codoped silica optical fiber preform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghui Chen; Yigang Li; Yaoji He; Liying Liu; Lei Xu; Wencheng Wang


    Sn/Yb codoped silica optical fiber preform is prepared by the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) followed by the solution-doping method. Ultraviolet (UV) optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectra under 978-nm laser diode (LD) pumping, and refractive index change after exposure to 266-nm laser pulses are obtained. There is only a little change in the PL spectra while a positive refractive index change up to 2×10-4 is observed after 30-min exposure to 266-nm laser pulses. The results show that both of the peculiar photosensitivity of Sn-doped silica and the gain property of Yb-doped silica fiber are preserved in the Sn/Yb codoped silica optical fiber preform. The experimental data suggest that the photosensitivity of the fiber preform under high energy density laser irradiation should be mainly due to the bond-breaking of oxygen deficient defects, while under relatively low energy density laser irradiation, the refractive index change probably originates from the photoconversion of optically active defects.

  6. Fiber Bragg grating inscription combining DUV sub-picosecond laser pulses and two-beam interferometry. (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Bergmann, Joachim; Brückner, Sven; Franke, Marco; Lindner, Eric; Rothhardt, Manfred W; Bartelt, Hartmut


    The combination of fiber Bragg grating inscription with femtosecond laser sources and the usage of the Talbot interferometer setup not only gives access to the fabrication of Bragg gratings in new types of materials but also allows, at the same time, to keep the high flexibility of an interferometric setup in choosing the Bragg grating wavelength. Since the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the femtosecond laser source differ strongly from those of conventional laser sources, specific limits and tolerances in the interferometric setup have to be considered. Such limits are investigated on the basis of an analytical ray tracing model. The results are applied to tolerance measurements of fiber Bragg grating reflections recorded with a DUV sub-picosecond laser source at 262 nm. Additionally we demonstrate the wavelength versatility of the two-beam interferometer setup for femtosecond inscription over a 40 nm wavelength band. Inscription experiments in Al/Yb doped silica glasses are demonstrated as a prove for the access to non-photosensitive fibers.

  7. Status of the High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser Development at HiLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Novák


    Full Text Available An overview of the latest developments of kilowatt-level diode pumped solid state lasers for advanced applications at the HiLASE Centre is presented. An overview of subcontracted and in-house-developed laser beamlines is presented. The aim of development is to build kW-class beamlines delivering picosecond pulses between 1- and 100-kHz repetition rates and high-energy nanosecond pulses at 10 Hz. The picosecond beamlines are based on Yb:YAG thin-disk amplifiers and chirped pulse amplification. The current status of the beamlines’ performance is reported. The advantages of zero-phonon line and pulsed pumping are demonstrated with respect to efficiency, thin disk temperature and beam quality. New diagnostics methods supporting the high average power lasers’ development, such as the high-resolution spectroscopy of Yb-doped materials, in situ thin disk deformation measurements, single-shot M2 measurement, realization of wavefront correction by a deformable mirror and the laser performance of a new mixed garnet ceramics, are described. The energetic, thermal and fluid-mechanical numerical modeling for the optimization of the multi-slab amplifiers is also described.

  8. 160 W high-power, high-efficiency, near-diffraction-limited beam quality all-fiber picosecond pulse laser (United States)

    Sun, Chang; Ge, Tingwu; An, Na; Cao, Kang; Wang, Zhiyong


    We experimentally demonstrate a high-power, high-efficiency, near-diffraction-limited beam quality all-fiber picosecond pulse laser, which consists of a passively mode-locked seed laser and three-stage master power amplifiers. A repetition frequency multiplier and a high Yb-doped gain fiber with shorter length are utilized in the laser system to suppress the nonlinear effects and reduce the pulse broadening caused by dispersion. Moreover, the homemade light mode controllers based on a coiling and tapering fiber technique and the active fiber of the amplifier with a relatively small mode area are adopted to improve the beam quality. In addition, by experimentally adjusting the active fiber length, the optical conversion efficiency of the overall laser system can be optimized. Eventually, a 160 W high-power, high-efficiency, near-diffraction-limited picosecond pulse fiber laser is obtained, with the beam quality factor M2 at 1.12 and an optical conversion efficiency of the system of 75%.

  9. Water-window soft x-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source (United States)

    Stein, Gregory J.; Keathley, Phillip D.; Krogen, Peter; Liang, Houkun; Siqueira, Jonathas P.; Chang, Chun-Lin; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hong, Kyung-Han; Laurent, Guillaume M.; Kärtner, Franz X.


    We report the generation of coherent water-window soft x-ray harmonics in a neon-filled semi-infinite gas cell driven by a femtosecond multi-mJ mid-infrared optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system at a 1 kHz repetition rate. The cutoff energy was extended to ∼450 eV with a 2.1 μm driver wavelength and a photon flux of ∼ 1.5× {10}6 photons/s/1% bandwidth was obtained at 350 eV. A comparable photon flux of ∼ 1.0× {10}6 photons/s/1% bandwidth was observed at the nitrogen K-edge of 410 eV. This is the first demonstration of water-window harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge from a kHz OPCPA system. Finally, this system is suitable for time-resolved soft x-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy. Further scaling of the driving pulse's energy and repetition rate is feasible due to the availability of high-power picosecond Yb-doped pump laser technologies, thereby enabling ultrafast, tabletop water-window x-ray imaging.

  10. Broadband Continuous-Wave Multi-Harmonic Optical Comb Based on a Frequency Division-by-Three Optical Parametric Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yin Lin


    Full Text Available We report a multi-watt broadband continuous-wave multi-harmonic optical comb based on a frequency division-by-three singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator. This cw optical comb is frequency-stabilized with the help of a beat signal derived from the signal and frequency-doubled idler waves. The measured frequency fluctuation in one standard deviation is ~437 kHz. This is comparable to the linewidth of the pump laser which is a master-oscillator seeded Yb:doped fiber amplifier at ~1064 nm. The measured powers of the fundamental wave and the harmonic waves up to the 6th harmonic wave are 1.64 W, 0.77 W, 3.9 W, 0.78 W, 0.17 W, and 0.11 W, respectively. The total spectral width covered by this multi-harmonic comb is ~470 THz. When properly phased, this multi-harmonic optical comb can be expected to produce by Fourier synthesis a light source consisting of periodic optical field waveforms that have an envelope full-width at half-maximum of 1.59 fs in each period.

  11. X-ray Excitation Triggers Ytterbium Anomalous Emission in CaF2:Yb but Not in SrF2:Yb. (United States)

    Hughes-Currie, Rosa B; Ivanovskikh, Konstantin V; Wells, Jon-Paul R; Reid, Michael F; Gordon, Robert A; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila


    Materials that luminesce after excitation with ionizing radiation are extensively applied in physics, medicine, security, and industry. Lanthanide dopants are known to trigger crystal scintillation through their fast d-f emissions; the same is true for other important applications as lasers or phosphors for lighting. However, this ability can be seriously compromised by unwanted anomalous emissions often found with the most common lanthanide activators. We report high-resolution X-ray-excited optical (IR to UV) luminescence spectra of CaF2:Yb and SrF2:Yb samples excited at 8949 eV and 80 K. Ionizing radiation excites the known anomalous emission of ytterbium in the CaF2 host but not in the SrF2 host. Wave function-based ab initio calculations of host-to-dopant electron transfer and Yb(2+)/Yb(3+) intervalence charge transfer explain the difference. The model also explains the lack of anomalous emission in Yb-doped SrF2 excited by VUV radiation.

  12. Design and characterization of Yb and Nd doped transparent ceramics for high power laser applications: recent advancements (United States)

    Lapucci, A.; Vannini, M.; Ciofini, M.; Pirri, A.; Nikl, M.; Li, J.; Esposito, L.; Biasini, V.; Hostasa, J.; Goto, T.; Boulon, G.; Maksimov, R.; Gizzi, L.; Labate, L.; Toci, G.


    We report a review on our recent developments in Yttebium and Neodymium doped laser ceramics, along two main research lines. The first is the design and development of Yb:YAG ceramics with non uniform doping distribution, for the management of thermo-mechanical stresses and for the mitigation of ASE: layered structures have been produced by solid state reactive sintering, using different forming processes (spray drying and cold press of the homogenized powders, tape cast of the slurry); samples have been characterized and compared to FEM analysis. The second is the investigation of Lutetium based ceramics (such as mixed garnets LuYAG and Lu2O3); this interest is mainly motivated by the favorable thermal properties of these hosts under high doping. We recently obtained for the first time high efficiency laser emission from Yb doped LuYAG ceramics. The investigation on sesquioxides has been focused on Nddoped Lu2O3 ceramics, fabricated with the Spark Plasma Sintering method (SPS). We recently achieved the first laser emission above 1 W from Nd doped Lu2O3 ceramics fabricated by SPS.

  13. Fiber-optic thermometer application of thermal radiation from rare-earth end-doped SiO{sub 2} fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsumata, Toru, E-mail:; Morita, Kentaro; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)


    Visible light thermal radiation from SiO{sub 2} glass doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were studied for the fiber-optic thermometer application based on the temperature dependence of thermal radiation. Thermal radiations according to Planck's law of radiation are observed from the SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu at the temperature above 1100 K. Thermal radiations due to f-f transitions of rare-earth ions are observed from the SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb at the temperature above 900 K. Peak intensities of thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO{sub 2} fibers increase sensitively with temperature. Thermal activation energies of thermal radiations by f-f transitions seen in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb doped SiO{sub 2} fibers are smaller than those from SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu. Thermal radiation due to highly efficient f-f transitions in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb ions emits more easily than usual thermal radiation process. Thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO{sub 2} are potentially applicable for the fiber-optic thermometry above 900 K.

  14. Structure and distortion of lead fluoride nanocrystals in rare earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics. (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Hui; Lan, Zijian; Chang, Lifen; Li, Yiming; Yu, Hua


    A series of rare earth (RE) doped oxyfluoride glasses with the composition of (45-x) SiO2-5Al2O3-40PbF2-10CdF2-xRe2O3 (x = 1, 5, 10, 15) (mol%) were prepared by a traditional melt-quenching method. Glass ceramics (GCs) were obtained after thermal treatment and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the nanocrystal structure and distortion. Both the dopant type and the doping level play an important role in the distortion of the PbF2-RE lattice. It is found that a cubic Pb3REF9 phase forms in low doping GCs, a tetragonal PbREF5 phase forms in middle doping GCs and cubic PbRE3F11 forms in high doping GCs. Accordingly, the site symmetry of RE(3+) dopants in β-PbF2 nanocrystal undergoes a transition of Oh···D4h···Oh with the increase of doping level. The change in the ligands coordinating the RE(3+) ions was further illustrated by the optical changes in Yb-doped GCs. This paper provides insights on the nanocrystal structure of RE at the atomic level and tries to make a complete description of the nanocrystal structure and distortion in these glass-ceramic materials, which will benefit the optimization of optical properties.

  15. Laser refrigeration of rare-earth doped sodium-yttrium-fluoride nanowires (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhe; Roder, Paden B.; Smith, Bennett E.; Pauzauskie, Peter J.


    Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride (β-NaYF4) crystals are currently being studied for a wide range of applications including color displays, solar cells, photocatalysis, and bio-imagβing. β-NaYF4 has also been predicted to be a promising host material for laser refrigeration of solids. However, due to challenges with growing Czochralski β- NaYF4 single-crystals, laser refrigeration of bulk β-NaYF4 has not yet been achieved6. Recently hydrothermal processing has been reported to produce Yb-doped β-NaYF4 nanowires (NWs) that undergo laser refrigeration during single-beam optical trapping experiments in heavy water. The local refrigeration of the individual nanowire is quantified through the analysis of its Brownian motion through the analysis of forward scattered light that is focused onto a quadrant photodiode. The individual β-NaYF4 nanowires show maximum local cooling of 9°C below ambient conditions. Here we present the emission lifetime for the 4S3/2 - 4I15/2 transition for Er(III) ions in Yb/Er-codoped -NaYF4 NW ensembles was measured to be (220 +/- 6) μs using a an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) as a detector with high spatial resolution. This lifetime is consistent with values reported in the literature.

  16. High-temperature diode laser pumps for directed energy fiber lasers (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kanskar, Manoj; Bao, Ling; Chen, Zhigang; DeVito, Mark; Dong, Weimin; Grimshaw, Mike P.; Guan, Xinguo; Hemenway, David M.; Martinsen, Robert; Zhang, Jim; Zhang, Shiguo


    Kilowatt-class fiber lasers and amplifiers are becoming increasingly important building blocks for power-scaling laser systems in various different architectures for directed energy applications. Currently, state-of-the-art Yb-doped fiber lasers operating near 1060 nm operate with optical-to-optical power-conversion efficiency of about 66%. State-of-the-art fiber-coupled pump diodes near 975 nm operate with about 50% electrical-to-fiber-coupled optical power conversion efficiency at 25C heatsink temperature. Therefore, the total system electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency is about 33%. As a result, a 50-kW fiber laser will generate 75 kW of heat at the pump module and 25 kW at the fiber laser module with a total waste heat of 100 kW. It is evident that three times as much waste heat is generated at the pump module. While improving the efficiency of the diodes primarily reduces the input power requirement, increasing the operating temperature primarily reduces the size and weight for thermal management systems. We will discuss improvement in diode laser design, thermal resistance of the package as well as improvement in fiber-coupled optical-to-optical efficiency to achieve high efficiency at higher operating temperature. All of these factors have a far-reaching implication in terms of significantly improving the overall SWAP requirements thus enabling DEW-class fiber lasers on airborne and other platforms.

  17. Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance (United States)

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman


    We present a theoretical scheme for laser cooling of rare-earth-doped solids with optical superradiance (SR), which is the coherent, sharply directed spontaneous emission of photons by a system of laser-excited rare-earth ions in the solid-state host (glass or crystal). We consider an Yb+-doped ZnF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) sample pumped at a wavelength 1015 nm, with a rectangular pulsed source with a power of ˜433 W and a duration of 10 ns. The intensity of the SR is proportional to the square of the number of excited ions. This unique feature of SR permits an increase in the rate of the cooling process in comparison with the traditional laser cooling of the rare-earth-doped solids with anti-Stokes spontaneous incoherent radiation (fluorescence). This scheme overcomes the limitation of using only low phonon energy glasses for laser cooling.

  18. Gigahertz Self-referenceable Frequency Comb from a Semiconductor Disk Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Zaugg, Christian A; Mangold, Mario; Mayer, Aline S; Link, Sandro M; Emaury, Florian; Golling, Matthias; Gini, Emilio; Saraceno, Clara J; Tilma, Bauke W; Keller, Ursula


    We present a 1.75-GHz self-referenceable frequency comb from a vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) passively modelocked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The VECSEL delivers 231-fs pulses with an average power of 100 mW and is optimized for stable and reliable operation. The optical spectrum was centered around 1038 nm and nearly transform-limited with a full width half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of 5.5 nm. The pulses were first amplified to an average power of 5.5 W using a backward-pumped Yb-doped double-clad large mode area (LMA) fiber and then compressed to 85 fs with 2.2 W of average power with a passive LMA fiber and transmission gratings. Subsequently, we launched the pulses into a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and generated a coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum (SC). We then detected the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency (fCEO) beat note using a standard f-to-2f-interferometer. The fCEO exhibits a signal-to-noise ratio of 17 dB in a 10...

  19. Optimization of rare-earth-doped amplifiers for space mission through a hardening-by-system strategy (United States)

    Ladaci, Ayoub; Girard, Sylvain; Mescia, Luciano; Robin, Thierry; Laurent, Arnaud; Cadier, Benoit; Boutillier, Mathieu; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz


    Rare-earth doped optical fibers (REDF, Er or Er/Yb-doped) are a key component in optical laser sources (REDFS) and amplifiers (REDFA). The high performances of these fiber-based systems made them as promising solution part of gyroscopes, telecommunication systems… However, REDFs are very sensitive to space radiations, so their degradation limits their integration in long term space missions. To overcome this issue, several studies were carried out and some innovations at the component level were proposed by our group such as the Cerium co-doping or the hydrogen loading of the REDF. More recently we initiated an original coupled simulation/experiment approach to improve the REDFA performances under irradiation by acting at the system level and not only at the component itself. This procedure optimizes the amplifier properties (gain, noise figure) under irradiation through simulation. The optimization of the system is ensured using a PSO (Particle Swarm optimization) algorithm. Using some experimental inputs, such as the Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) measurements and the spectroscopic features of the fiber, we demonstrate its efficiency to reproduce the amplifier degradation when exposed to radiations in various experimental configurations. This was done by comparing the obtained simulation results to those of dedicated experiments performed on various REDFA architectures. Our results reveal a good agreement between simulations and experimental data (with design in order to get the best performances during the space mission and not on-ground only.

  20. New ytterbium-doped apatite crystals for flexible laser design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.A.; DeLoach, L.D.; Smith, L.K.; Krupke, W.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chai, B.H.T.; Loutts, G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers


    A new class of Yb-lasers is summarized in this article. The apatite family of crystals has been found to impose favorable spectroscopic and laser properties on the Yb{sup 3+} activator ion. Crystals of Yb-doped Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F, Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F, Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 5{minus}x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F, and Sr{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}F have been grown and investigated. Several useful laser crystals have been identified which offer a variety of fundamental laser parameters for designing diode-pumped systems. In general, this class of materials is characterized by high emission cross sections (3.6--13.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2}), useful emission lifetimes (0.59--1.26 msec), a strong pump band ({sigma}{sub abs} = 2.0--10.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2}) and pump and extraction wavelengths near 900 and 1,045 nm, respectively. Efficient lasing has been demonstrated for several of the members of this class of materials, and high optical quality crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method.

  1. Effects of ytterbium on electrical and optical properties of BCP/Ag/WO3 transparent electrode based organic photovoltaic cells (United States)

    Oh, Il Soo; Ji, Chan Hyuk; Oh, Se Young


    This study introduces dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayers based on a WO3/Ag/WO3 (WAW) anode and Yb/BCP/Ag/WO3 (Yb/BAW) cathode for use in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Here, the Yb/BCP hybrid multilayer provides an effective electron transport layer (ETL), while the Yb doping ensures that voltage loss due to interfacial band bending is effectively suppressed. Transparent OPVs produced with a structure of WAW/P3HT:PCBM/Yb/BAW are shown to exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 2.42%, achieving a 65.4% fill factor (FF) under one sun irradiation. These results indicate that the use of Yb in transparent OPVs is vastly superior to other ETLs, as it improves the majority of critical parameters such as short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and PCE. This is attributed to a decrease in the series resistance and increase in the shunt resistance, while an increase in electron mobility also helps to ensure faster sweep out. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Forward to cryogenic temperature: laser cooling of Yb: LuLiF crystal (United States)

    Zhong, Biao; Luo, Hao; Lei, Yongqing; Shi, Yanling; Yin, Jianping


    The high quality Yb-doped fluoride crystals have broad prospects for optical refrigeration. We have laser cooled the Yb:LuLiF crystal to a temperature below the limit of current thermoelectric coolers ( 180 K). The 5% Yb:LuLiF crystal sample has a geometry of 2 mm×2 mm×5 mm and was supported by two fibers of 200 μm in diameter. They were placed in a 2×10-4 Pa vacuum chamber with an environment temperature of 294.5 K. The 1019 nm CW laser of power 38.7 W was adopted to irradiate the sample. The temperature of the sample was measured utilizing the DLT methods. After 20 minutes of laser irradiation, the 5% Yb:LuLiF crystal sample was cooled down to 182.4 K. By further optimizing experimental conditions and increasing the doped Yb concentration, the Yb:LuLiF crystal might be optically cooled below the cryogenic temperature of 123K in the near future.

  3. Understanding the High Ionic Conductivity in Nanostructured Ytterbium Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benítez-Rico


    Full Text Available Recently, high ionic conduction has been reported in nanostructured materials. This increase in conductivity can be important in technological applications, including micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, so the understanding of this phenomenon is essential. In this work, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, EDS maps, and UV-Visible spectroscopy measurements are used to have an insight into the relationship between structural and electrical properties in nanostructured ytterbium stabilized zirconia (YbSZ thin films prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Raman measurements allowed the identification of a mixture of tetragonal and cubic phases at 4% of Yb doping, which cannot be detected by XRD, while the compositional maps suggest that Yb can be located preferentially in the grain boundaries. Changes in the activation energy values in bulk and grain boundaries are related to the small grain sizes (≤10 nm. UV measurements support the ionic nature of the charge transport. These results indicate that the high conductivity is a consequence of different physical parameters in the films such as stress in the materials, different crystalline phases, impurities diffusion to the grain boundaries, and the presence or absence of electronic conduction. A model that explains the increase of conductivity in nanostructured materials must include all these aspects.

  4. Wavelength locking of single emitters and multi-emitter modules: simulation and experiments (United States)

    Yanson, Dan; Rappaport, Noam; Peleg, Ophir; Berk, Yuri; Dahan, Nir; Klumel, Genady; Baskin, Ilya; Levy, Moshe


    Wavelength-stabilized high-brightness single emitters are commonly used in fiber-coupled laser diode modules for pumping Yb-doped lasers at 976 nm, and Nd-doped ones at 808 nm. We investigate the spectral behavior of single emitters under wavelength-selective feedback from a volume Bragg (or hologram) grating (VBG) in a multi-emitter module. By integrating a full VBG model as a multi-layer thin film structure with commercial raytracing software, we simulated wavelength locking conditions as a function of beam divergence and angular alignment tolerances. Good correlation between the simulated VBG feedback strength and experimentally measured locking ranges, in both VBG misalignment angle and laser temperature, is demonstrated. The challenges of assembling multi-emitter modules based on beam-stacked optical architectures are specifically addressed, where the wavelength locking conditions must be achieved simultaneously with high fiber coupling efficiency for each emitter in the module. It is shown that angular misorientation between fast and slow-axis collimating optics can have a dramatic effect on the spectral and power performance of the module. We report the development of our NEON-S wavelength-stabilized fiber laser pump module, which uses a VBG to provide wavelength-selective optical feedback in the collimated portion of the beam. Powered by our purpose-developed high-brightness single emitters, the module delivers 47 W output at 11 A from an 0.15 NA fiber and a 0.3 nm linewidth at 976 nm. Preliminary wavelength-locking results at 808 nm are also presented.

  5. Optical properties of Yb ions in GaN epilayer (United States)

    Jadwisienczak, W. M.; Lozykowski, H. J.


    In recent years, an important effort in semiconductor materials research has been devoted to III-nitrides semiconductors doped with rare earth ions due to the high potential of these materials in light-emitting device applications. Ytterbium (Yb 3+) is one of a few lanthanide ions which have not been investigated as an optically active center in these materials yet. In this paper we report the observation of luminescence from GaN films grown on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and doped by implantation with Yb 3+ ions. The high resolution photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra of GaN:Yb 3+ were studied at different excitation conditions in temperatures ranging from 8 to 330 K and revealed weak thermal quenching. The luminescence emission lines are assigned to transitions between the spin-orbit levels 2F 5/2 → 2F 7/2 of Yb 3+ (4f 13). The analysis of the Yb luminescence spectra allowed us to suggest the energy level diagram of the crystal-field-split 4f 13 levels for the Yb ion center. The most probable lattice location of Yb in GaN is the substitutional Ga site. Furthermore, the luminescence kinetics of internal transitions of Yb 3+ incorporated in GaN was investigated by means of decay and time-resolved luminescence measurements. It was found that the ytterbium decay is non-exponential with dominant exponential term of ˜100 μs with little dependence on the ambient temperature. The results indicate that Yb-doped GaN epilayer may be suitable as a material for near infrared optoelectronic devices.

  6. Visible sup ercontinuum generation in dual-concentric-core-like photonic-crystal fib er%双零色散光子晶体光纤中可见光超连续谱的产生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心贲; 罗兴; 程兰; 李海清; 彭景刚; 戴能利; 李进延


    在掺镱锁模光纤激光器发出的皮秒脉冲的抽运下,本文报道了双零色散的多芯光子晶体光纤中可见光超连续谱的产生。这种光子晶体光纤的类似同轴双芯结构提供了相隔很近的双零色散点。第二个零色散波长的存在阻止了反常色散区内的由脉冲内拉曼散射引起的孤子的频移,形成了稳态孤子,在短波长和长波长方向上的正常色散区均产生了可观的色散波。在2 W的平均功率下得到了550 nm到1700 nm的超连续谱。此外,光纤的同轴双芯特性也导致了入射脉冲的模式转换。实验结果和数值计算十分符合。%We report the visible supercontinuum (SC) generation in the double zero dispersion multi-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF), pumped by picosecond pulses from Yb-doped fiber laser. Such a dual-concentric-core-like PCF provides two closely spaced zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDW). The redshift solitons will be canceled out at the vicinity of the second ZDW, and the steady solitons will cause considerable dispersive waves at the edges of the output SC which spans from 550 to 1700 nm at an average pump power 1 W. Moreover, the optical field is transferred from the inner core to the outer core. Experimental results agree well with the theoretical calculations.

  7. Graded Yb:YAG ceramic structures: design, fabrication and characterization of the laser performances (United States)

    Toci, Guido; Lapucci, Antonio; Ciofini, Marco; Esposito, Laura; Hostaša, Jan; Piancastelli, Andreana; Gizzi, Leonida A.; Labate, Luca; Ferrara, Paolo; Pirri, Angela; Vannini, Matteo


    Significant improvements in efficiency in high power, high repetition rate laser systems should come from the use of ceramic laser active elements suitably designed to mitigate the thermal and thermo-mechanical effects (TEs and TMEs) deriving from the laser pumping process. Laser active media exhibiting a controlled and gradual distribution of the active element(s) could therefore find useful applications in the laser-driven inertial confinement fusion systems, which are considered among the most promising energy source of the future (ultraintense laser pulses), and in medical applications (ultrashort laser pulses) The present work explores the flexibility of the ceramic process for the construction of YAG (Y3Al5O12) ceramic laser elements with a controlled distribution of the Yb doping, in view of the realization of structures modelled to respond to specific application. Two processing techniques are presented to prepare layered structures with a tailored modulation of the doping level, with the goal of reducing the peak temperature, the temperature gradients and also the thermally-induced deformation of the laser material, thus mitigating the overall thermal effects. Tape casting in combination with thermal compression of ceramic tapes with a varying doping level is one of the presented techniques. To make this process as more adaptable as possible, commercial micrometric ceramic powders have been used. The results are compared with those obtained using nanometric powders and a shaping process based on the subsequent pressing of spray dried powders with a different doping level. Laser performance has been characterized in a longitudinally diode pumped laser cavity. The laser efficiency under high thermal load conditions has been compared to those obtained from samples with uniform doping, and for samples obtained with press shaping and tape casting, under the same conditions.

  8. Intensity noise reduction of a high-power nonlinear femtosecond fiber amplifier based on spectral-breathing self-similar parabolic pulse evolution (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Liu, Bowen; Song, Youjian; Hu, Minglie


    We report on a simple passive scheme to reduce the intensity noise of high-power nonlinear fiber amplifiers by use of the spectral-breathing parabolic evolution of the pulse amplification with an optimized negative initial chirp. In this way, the influences of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on the amplifier intensity noise can be efficiently suppressed, owing to the lower overall pulse chirp, shorter spectral broadening distance, as well as the asymptotic attractive nature of self-similar pulse amplification. Systematic characterizations of the relative intensity noise (RIN) of a free-running nonlinear Yb-doped fiber amplifier are performed over a series of initial pulse parameters. Experiments show that the measured amplifier RIN increases respect to the decreased input pulse energy, due to the increased amount of ASE noise. For pulse amplification with a proper negative initial chirp, the increase of RIN is found to be smaller than with a positive initial chirp, confirming the ASE noise tolerance of the proposed spectral-breathing parabolic amplification scheme. At the maximum output average power of 27W (25-dB amplification gain), the incorporation of an optimum negative initial chirp (-0.84 chirp parameter) leads to a considerable amplifier root-mean-square (rms) RIN reduction of ~20.5% (integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz Fourier frequency). The minimum amplifier rms RIN of 0.025% (integrated from 1 kHz to 5 MHz Fourier frequency) is obtained along with the transform-limited compressed pulse duration of 55fs. To our knowledge, the demonstrated intensity noise performance is the lowest RIN level measured from highpower free-running femtosecond fiber amplifiers.

  9. Reduction of Photoluminescence Quenching by Deuteration of Ytterbium-Doped Amorphous Carbon-Based Photonic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lin Hsu


    Full Text Available In situ Yb-doped amorphous carbon thin films were grown on Si substrates at low temperatures (<200 °C by a simple one-step RF-PEMOCVD system as a potential photonic material for direct integration with Si CMOS back end-of-line processing. Room temperature photoluminescence around 1 µm was observed via direct incorporation of optically active Yb3+ ions from the selected Yb(fod3 metal-organic compound. The partially fluorinated Yb(fod3 compound assists the suppression of photoluminescence quenching by substitution of C–H with C–F bonds. A four-fold enhancement of Yb photoluminescence was demonstrated via deuteration of the a-C host. The substrate temperature greatly influences the relative deposition rate of the plasma dissociated metal-organic species, and hence the concentration of the various elements. Yb and F incorporation are promoted at lower substrate temperatures, and suppressed at higher substrate temperatures. O concentration is slightly elevated at higher substrate temperatures. Photoluminescence was limited by the concentration of Yb within the film, the concentration of Yb ions in the +3 state, and the relative amount of quenching due to the various de-excitation pathways associated with the vibrational modes of the host a-C network. The observed wide full-width-at-half-maximum photoluminescence signal is a result of the variety of local bonding environments due to the a-C matrix, and the bonding of the Yb3+ ions to O and/or F ions as observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses.

  10. Genetic algorithm based optimization of pulse profile for MOPA based high power fiber lasers (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Tang, Ming; Shi, Jun; Fu, Songnian; Li, Lihua; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Xueping; Liu, Jian; Shum, Ping


    Although the Master Oscillator Power-Amplifier (MOPA) based fiber laser has received much attention for laser marking process due to its large tunabilty of pulse duration (from 10ns to 1ms), repetition rate (100Hz to 500kHz), high peak power and extraordinary heat dissipating capability, the output pulse deformation due to the saturation effect of fiber amplifier is detrimental for many applications. We proposed and demonstrated that, by utilizing Genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique, the input pulse profile from the master oscillator (current-driven laser diode) could be conveniently optimized to achieve targeted output pulse shape according to real parameters' constraints. In this work, an Yb-doped high power fiber amplifier is considered and a 200ns square shaped pulse profile is the optimization target. Since the input pulse with longer leading edge and shorter trailing edge can compensate the saturation effect, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial functions are used to describe the input pulse with limited number of unknowns(<5). Coefficients of the polynomial functions are the optimization objects. With reasonable cost and hardware limitations, the cubic input pulse with 4 coefficients is found to be the best as the output amplified pulse can achieve excellent flatness within the square shape. Considering the bandwidth constraint of practical electronics, we examined high-frequency component cut-off effect of input pulses and found that the optimized cubic input pulses with 300MHz bandwidth is still quite acceptable to satisfy the requirement for the amplified output pulse and it is feasible to establish such a pulse generator in real applications.

  11. Preparation and electrochemical properties of SrCe0.4Zr0.4Yb0.2O2.9 electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Juan Li; Ruisong Guo; Hong Jiang


    The perovskite Yb-doped strontium cerate–zirconate material, SrCe0.4Zr0.4Yb0.2O2.9, was prepared by solid-state reaction and the structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The calcination process of the powder was investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). The high temperature conductivities were measured by d.c. four-probe technique in the temperature range from 500 to 950°C in wet hydrogen and effect of temperature on conductivity was investigated. The conductivity increased with the elevation of temperature from 500 to 950°C. The highest conductivity of 4.4 × 10-2 was observed for SrCe0.4Zr0.4Yb0.2O2.9 at 950°C. The current–voltage (–) and current–power (–) characteristics of the single cell (H2, Pt/SrCe0.4Zr0.4Yb0.2O2.9/Pt, O2) at temperature range from 600 to 850°C were tested. With the temperature increasing from 600 to 850°C, the open circuit voltage (OCV) decreased from 1.164 to 1.073 V and the ionic transfer number decreased from 0.996 to 0.946. At 850°C, the maximum power density of 25.2 was observed.

  12. Effect of rare earth substitution in cobalt ferrite bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulai, G., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Diamandescu, L. [National Institute of Material Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 07125 Bucharest (Romania); Dumitru, I.; Gurlui, S. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Feder, M. [National Institute of Material Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 07125 Bucharest (Romania); Caltun, O.F. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)


    The study was focused on the influence of small amounts of rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) addition on the microstructure, phase content and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite bulk materials. The X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the spinel structure but also the presence of secondary phases of RE oxides or orthoferrite in small percentages (up to 3%). Density measurements obtained by Archimedes method revealed a ~1 g cm{sup −3} decrease for the RE doped cobalt ferrite samples compared with stoichiometric one. Both the Mössbauer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrocopy analysis results confirmed the formation of the spinel phase. The saturation magnetization and coercive field values of the doped samples obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry were close to those of the pure cobalt ferrite. For magnetostrictive property studies the samples were analyzed using the strain gauge method. Higher maximum magnetostriction coefficients were found for the Ho, Ce, Sm and Yb doped cobalt ferrite bulk materials as related to the stoichiometric CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample. Moreover, improved strain derivative was observed for these samples but at higher magnetic fields due to the low increase of the coercive field values for doped samples. - Highlights: • Substitution by a large number of rare earth elements was investigated. • First reported results on magnetostriction measurements of RE doped cobalt ferrite. • The doped samples presented an increased porosity and a decreased grain size. • Increased magnetostrctive response was observed for several doped samples.

  13. mJ range all-fiber MOPA prototype with hollow-core fiber beam delivery designed for large scale laser facilities seeding (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Scol, Florent; Gouriou, Pierre; Perrin, Arnaud; Gleyze, Jean-François; Valentin, Constance; Bouwmans, Géraud; Hugonnot, Emmanuel


    The Laser megajoule (LMJ) is a French large scale laser facility dedicated to inertial fusion research. Its front-ends are based on fiber laser technology and generate highly controlled beams in the nanojoule range. Scaling the energy of those fiber seeders to the millijoule range is a way explored to upgrade LMJ's architecture. We report on a fully integrated narrow line-width all-fiber MOPA prototype at 1053 nm designed to meet stringent requirements of large-scale laser facilities seeding. We achieve 750 µJ temporally-shaped pulses of few nanoseconds at 1 kHz. Thanks to its original longitudinal geometry and its wide output core (26µm MFD), the Yb-doped tapered fiber used in the power amplifier stage ensures a single-mode operation and negligible spectro-temporal distortions. The transport of 30 kW peak power pulses (from tapered fiber) in a 17 m long large mode area (39µm) hollow-core (HC) fiber is presented and points out frequency modulation to amplitude modulation conversion management issues. A S² measurement of this fiber allows to attribute this conversion to a slightly multimode behavior (< 13dB of extinction between the fundamental mode and higher order modes). Other HC fibers exhibiting a really single-mode behavior (<20 dB) have been tested and the comparison will be presented in the conference. Finally, fiber spatial beam shaping from coherent Gaussian beam to coherent top-hat intensity profile beam in the mJ range with a specifically designed and fabricated fiber will also be presented.

  14. Compact fixed wavelength femtosecond oscillators as an add-on for tunable Ti:sapphire lasers extend the range of applications towards multimodal imaging and optogenetics (United States)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.


    Two-photon (2P) microscopy based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers has become a widespread tool for 3D imaging with sub-cellular resolution in living tissues. In recent years multi-photon microscopy with simpler fixed-wavelength femtosecond oscillators using Yb-doped tungstenates as gain material has raised increasing interest in life-sciences, because these lasers offer one order of magnitude more average power than Ti:sapphire lasers in the wavelength range around 1040 nm: Two-photon (2P) excitation of mainly red or yellow fluorescent dyes and proteins (e.g. YFP, mFruit series) simultaneously has been proven with a single IR laser wavelength. A new approach is to extend the usability of existing tunable Titanium sapphire lasers by adding a fixed IR wavelength with an Yb femtosecond oscillator. By that means a multitude of applications for multimodal imaging and optogenetics can be supported. Furthermore fs Yb-lasers are available with a repetition rate of typically 10 MHz and an average power of typically 5 W resulting in pulse energy of typically 500 nJ, which is comparably high for fs-oscillators. This makes them an ideal tool for two-photon spinning disk laser scanning microscopy and holographic patterning for simultaneous photoactivation of large cell populations. With this work we demonstrate that economical, small-footprint Yb fixed-wavelength lasers can present an interesting add-on to tunable lasers that are commonly used in multiphoton microscopy. The Yb fs-lasers hereby offer higher power for imaging of red fluorescent dyes and proteins, are ideally enhancing existing Ti:sapphire lasers with more power in the IR, and are supporting pulse energy and power hungry applications such as spinning disk microscopy and holographic patterning.

  15. Lipogenesis and lipid peroxidation in rat testes after long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water. (United States)

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K


    We studied the influence of long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water on the fatty acid profile and lipid peroxidation in rat testes. Male Wistar rats were supplemented with sucrose (30% w/v) or with sucrose and tannic acid (sucrose 30% w/v, tannic acid 0.1% w/v) in drinking water. The treatment with sucrose elevated blood glucose levels in the plasma (p stress and hyperglycaemia, but it did not improve pathological changes in the fatty acid composition of the testis.

  16. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing


    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere......This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend...

  17. Effects of Ionic Strength on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Diluted and Concentrated Whey Protein Isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.


    To identify the parameters that affect enzymatic hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, whey protein isolate (1–30% w/v) was hydrolyzed by Alcalase and Neutrase at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. No changes were observed in the solubility and the aggregation state of the proteins. With inc

  18. Recrystallization of amylopectin in concentrated starch gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, CJAM; Oostergetel, GT; vanVliet, T


    The relation between the recrystallization of amylopectin and the increase in stiffness of starch gels during storage was studied by various techniques. From transmission electron microscopy it was concluded that the size of the crystalline domains in retrograded 30% w/w potato starch gels was about

  19. World War II: A Chronology. December 1943 (United States)


    Section I: 1943 .2 Gulf of Mexico: SS Touchet (U.S. tanker, 10,172 tons) presumed sunk by SS at 25-50 N, 86-30 W. b. Vvest Atlantic: SS Libertad ... Argentina : All political cl.issolved by argentine Gover Germant: Hitler issues somber than usual, again w· )ec. Section:. VIII: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC

  20. Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Free-Burning Arc Plasma in Argon (United States)


    7) For the radiative transitions, data recommended by Wiese et al. [30] is used. The transition probabilities Amn (s -1...Atoms and Molecules, Published in the 20th Century: Argon, Rep. NIFS-DATA-72, National Institute for Fusion Science (Jpn), 2003. [30] W. L. Wiese , J

  1. Shear and Rapeseed Oil Addition Affect the Crystal Polymorphic Behavior of Milk Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Niels; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Andersen, Ulf;


    The effect of shear on the crystallization kinetics of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and blends with 20 and 30 % w/w added rapeseed oil (RO) was studied. Pulse 1H NMR was used to follow the a to b0 polymorphic transition. The NMR method was confirmed and supported by SAXS/WAXS experiments. Samples wer...

  2. Microwave-Plasma-Coupled Re-Ignition of Methane-and-Oxygen Mixture Under Auto-Ignition Temperature (United States)


    setup and the components for the microwave power supply , and the measurement system are shown. It consists of a power supply , two directional couplers...dramatically increase through Stage II. Calculations show that, in our configuration, 18% of the total methane undergoes reforming to syngas at 30 W of

  3. Wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. resin. (United States)

    Wani, T A; Chandrashekara, H H; Kumar, D; Prasad, R; Gopal, A; Sardar, K K; Tandan, S K; Kumar, D


    The ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin (10 and 30 % w/w applied locally in excised and incised wounds) produced a dose-dependent acceleration in wound contraction and increased hydroxyproline content and tensile strength of wounds in rats. The results demonstrate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin.

  4. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandeya, G. D.; Klaessens, J. H. G. M.; Greuter, M. J. W.; Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Oudkerk, M.


    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All ti

  5. Gaseous hydrocarbon production by the reaction of coal char with hydrogen plasma at relatively lower microwave power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S.; Nishikubo, K.; Imamura, T. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Tosu (Japan)


    Experimental conditions such as reaction temperature, microwave power and reaction pressure were changed in the reaction of carbon with hydrogen plasma. Methane was major product and other hydrocarbons such as acetylene and C2-C4 hydrocarbons were also produced. Methane production shows its maximum at 700-900 K and at 30W of microwave power. 2 figs.

  6. 76 FR 23076 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast... (United States)


    ... current regulations, each state permit bank developed and submitted an operations plan. Although the... for the following FY. Of the 24 (19 current and 5 newly authorized under FW 45) sectors, a total of 19... power a VMS while at the dock; (15) DSM requirements for vessels fishing west of 72 30' W. long.; (16...

  7. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high...

  8. Coherently-combined two channel femtosecond fiber CPA system producing 3 mJ pulse energy. (United States)

    Klenke, Arno; Seise, Enrico; Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Breitkopf, Sven; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas


    We present a fiber CPA system consisting of two coherently combined fiber amplifiers, which have been arranged in an actively stabilized Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Pulse durations as short as 470 fs and pulse energies of 3 mJ, corresponding to 5.4 GW of peak power, have been achieved at an average power of 30 W.

  9. Impact of sodium dodecyl sulphate on the dissolution of poorly soluble drug into biorelevant medium from drug-surfactant discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Peter; Ostergaard, Jesper; Bertelsen, Poul


    The purpose was to elucidate the mechanism of action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on drug dissolution from discs under physiologically relevant conditions. The effect of incorporating SDS (4-30%, w/w) and drug into discs on the dissolution constant and solubility were evaluated for the poorly...

  10. 78 FR 35135 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England (United States)


    ...'' W. 44 07'38'' N, 068 31'30'' W. 44 12'54'' N, 068 33'46'' W. Lake Champlain Dragon Boat Festival..., 073 21'36'' W. Yarmouth Clam Festival Paddle Race..... Event Type: Rowing and Paddling Boat Race... Pirates Festival Lobster Boat Races.... Event Type: Power Boat Race. Sponsor: Eastport Pirates...

  11. Demonstration of a hybrid Ho:YLF Ho:LuLF slab laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD


    Full Text Available The authors present a continuous-wave slab laser utilising both Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF as laser gain media. 30 W of output power at 2 µm was demonstrated in a stable concave-plane resonator while 13 W was achieved in a hybrid stable...

  12. Parameterized Analysis of Zero Voltage Switching in Resonant Converters for Optimal Electrode Layout of Piezoelectric Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Kaspar Sinding; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.; Jensen, Flemming


    Ring shaped PTs (Piezoelectric Transformers) are an attractive alternative to magnetics in power converters. The achievable energy efficiency is 98% and the power density is up to 30W/cm3. Additionally power supplies based on PTs display low levels of conducted and radiated EMI due to power conve...

  13. Insights into Hemoglobin Assembly through in Vivo Mutagenesis of α-Hemoglobin Stabilizing Protein* (United States)

    Khandros, Eugene; Mollan, Todd L.; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yao, Yu; D'Souza, Janine; Gell, David A.; Olson, John S.; Weiss, Mitchell J.


    α-Hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) is believed to facilitate adult Hemoglobin A assembly and protect against toxic free α-globin subunits. Recombinant AHSP binds multiple forms of free α-globin to stabilize their structures and inhibit precipitation. However, AHSP also stimulates autooxidation of αO2 subunit and its rapid conversion to a partially unfolded bishistidyl hemichrome structure. To investigate these biochemical properties, we altered the evolutionarily conserved AHSP proline 30 in recombinantly expressed proteins and introduced identical mutations into the endogenous murine Ahsp gene. In vitro, the P30W AHSP variant bound oxygenated α chains with 30-fold increased affinity. Both P30W and P30A mutant proteins also caused decreased rates of αO2 autooxidation as compared with wild-type AHSP. Despite these abnormalities, mice harboring P30A or P30W Ahsp mutations exhibited no detectable defects in erythropoiesis at steady state or during induced stresses. Further biochemical studies revealed that the AHSP P30A and P30W substitutions had minimal effects on AHSP interactions with ferric α subunits. Together, our findings indicate that the ability of AHSP to stabilize nascent α chain folding intermediates prior to hemin reduction and incorporation into adult Hemoglobin A is physiologically more important than AHSP interactions with ferrous αO2 subunits. PMID:22287545

  14. Insights into hemoglobin assembly through in vivo mutagenesis of α-hemoglobin stabilizing protein. (United States)

    Khandros, Eugene; Mollan, Todd L; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yao, Yu; D'Souza, Janine; Gell, David A; Olson, John S; Weiss, Mitchell J


    α-Hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) is believed to facilitate adult Hemoglobin A assembly and protect against toxic free α-globin subunits. Recombinant AHSP binds multiple forms of free α-globin to stabilize their structures and inhibit precipitation. However, AHSP also stimulates autooxidation of αO(2) subunit and its rapid conversion to a partially unfolded bishistidyl hemichrome structure. To investigate these biochemical properties, we altered the evolutionarily conserved AHSP proline 30 in recombinantly expressed proteins and introduced identical mutations into the endogenous murine Ahsp gene. In vitro, the P30W AHSP variant bound oxygenated α chains with 30-fold increased affinity. Both P30W and P30A mutant proteins also caused decreased rates of αO(2) autooxidation as compared with wild-type AHSP. Despite these abnormalities, mice harboring P30A or P30W Ahsp mutations exhibited no detectable defects in erythropoiesis at steady state or during induced stresses. Further biochemical studies revealed that the AHSP P30A and P30W substitutions had minimal effects on AHSP interactions with ferric α subunits. Together, our findings indicate that the ability of AHSP to stabilize nascent α chain folding intermediates prior to hemin reduction and incorporation into adult Hemoglobin A is physiologically more important than AHSP interactions with ferrous αO(2) subunits.

  15. Effects of Ionic Strength on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Diluted and Concentrated Whey Protein Isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.


    To identify the parameters that affect enzymatic hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, whey protein isolate (1–30% w/v) was hydrolyzed by Alcalase and Neutrase at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. No changes were observed in the solubility and the aggregation state of the proteins. With

  16. A power-efficient audio amplifier combining switching and linear techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria


    Integrated class-D audio amplifiers are very power efficient but require an external LC reconstruction filter, which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realize, so that the load influences the distortion and transfer characteristics. The 30 W

  17. Light weight digital array SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, M.; Maas, N.; Bolt, R.; Anitori, L.


    A light weight SAR has been designed, suitable for short range tactical UAVs, consisting of a fully digital receive array, and a very compact active transmit antenna. The weight of the complete RF front is expected to be below 3 kg, with a power consumption below 30 W. This X-band system can provide

  18. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA (United States)


    ... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor centered on position 37 15'46.5'' N/076 01'30'' W (NAD 1983... of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related... the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under figure 2-1, paragraph (34)(g),...

  19. A power-efficient audio amplifier combining switching and linear techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria


    Integrated class-D audio amplifiers are very power efficient but require an external LC reconstruction filter, which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realize, so that the load influences the distortion and transfer characteristics. The 30 W am

  20. 76 FR 47566 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and... (United States)


    ... for: (1) 2-10 horsepower, self contained, sensorless, variable speed pumps; (2) bi-directional bicycle... electric drive submersible pump motors (motors only, not pumps themselves); and (8) flush-to-handrail LED... contained, sensorless, variable speed pumps; (2) bi-directional bicycle counters; (3) 28W, 30W, and 60W 360...

  1. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ihn


    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at {lambda}{sub {omega}} = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.5{+-}3.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 {+-} 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, {lambda}-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two

  2. Rare-earth-ion-doped waveguide lasers on a silicon chip (United States)

    Pollnau, Markus


    Rare-earth-ion-doped materials are of high interest as amplifiers and lasers in integrated optics. Their longer excited-state lifetimes and the weaker refractive-index change accompanied with rare-earth-ion excitation compared to electron-hole pairs in III-V semiconductors provide spatially and temporally stable optical gain, allowing for high-speed amplification and narrow-linewidth lasers. Amorphous Al2O3 deposited onto thermally oxidized silicon wafers offers the advantage of integration with silicon photonics and electronics. Layer deposition by RF reactive co-sputtering and micro-structuring by chlorine-based reactive-ion etching provide low-loss channel waveguides. With erbium doping, we improved the gain to 2 dB/cm at 1533 nm and a gain bandwidth of 80 nm. The gain is limited by migration-accelerated energy-transfer upconversion and a fast quenching process. Since stimulated emission is even faster than this quenching process, lasers are only affected in terms of their threshold, allowing us to demonstrate diode-pumped micro-ring, distributed-feedback (DFB), and distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) lasers in Al2O3:Er3+ and Al2O3:Yb3+ on a silicon chip. Surface-relief Bragg gratings were patterned by laser-interference lithography. Monolithic DFB and DBR cavities with Q-factors of 1.35×106 were realized. In an Er-doped DFB laser, single-longitudinal-mode operation at 1545 nm was achieved with a linewidth of 1.7 kHz, corresponding to a laser Q-factor of 1.14×1011. Yb-doped DFB and DBR lasers were demonstrated at 1020 nm with output powers of 55 mW and a slope efficiency of 67% versus launched pump power. A dual-phaseshift, dual-wavelength laser was achieved and a stable microwave signal at ~15 GHz was created via the heterodyne photo-detection of the two laser wavelengths.

  3. Coupling dynamics for a photonic crystal fib er femtosecond laser nonlinear amplification system%光子晶体光纤飞秒激光非线性放大系统的耦合动力学过程研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石俊凯; 柴路; 赵晓薇; 李江; 刘博文; 胡明列; 栗岩锋; 王清月


    构建了掺镱大模场面积单偏振光子晶体光纤飞秒激光非线性放大系统.讨论了腔内净色散量和抽运功率对振荡级输出参数的影响和振荡级参数对放大级输出参数的影响.在本实验条件下,当腔内净色散量取较大负色散时,振荡级直接输出的脉冲更宽,且携带更少的啁啾.当振荡级抽运4.53 W时,选择最接近变换极限的脉冲作为种子脉冲,放大级在60 W抽运时输出压缩后无基底的短脉冲,宽度为45.7 fs,平均功率28 W.振荡级抽运功率增加到5.08 W,放大级抽运70 W时,获得最高输出功率34.5 W,对应脉宽53.5 fs.%A femtosecond laser single-stage nonlinear amplification system composed of Yb-doped large-mode-area single-polarization photonic crystal fibers is demonstrated. Effects of net cavity dispersion and pump power on oscillator output parameters and the evolution dynamics of the amplified pulse after compression are discussed for different seed pulse parameters. Under the experimental conditions in this paper, the longer and less chirped pulses are obtained with a larger negative net intracavity dispersion in the oscillator. When a nearly-transform-limited pulse is chosen as seed pulse nder the condition of oscillator pump power of 4.53 W, the shortest nearly-pedestal-free amplified pulse is achieved under the amplifier pump power of 60 W after the dispersion is compensated by a grating pair, in which the pulse duration is 45.7 fs with an average power of 28 W at a repetition frequency of 42 MHz. When the oscillator pump power is increased to 5.08 W and most nearly-transform-limited pulses under the pump condition are selected as the seed pulses, the maximum average power of 34.5 W with a duration of 53.5 fs is obtained at an amplifier pump power of 70 W.

  4. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications (United States)

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.


    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  5. Laser system for cooling of relativistic C{sup 3+}-ion beams in storage rings; Lasersystem zur Kuehlung relativistischer C{sup 3+}-Ionenstrahlen in Speicherringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Tobias


    Cold ion beams are essential for many precision experiments at storage rings. While spectroscopic experiments gain from the high energy resolution, collision experiments benefit from the increased luminosity. Furthermore, sympathetic cooling of exotic species is conceivable with the aid of cold ion beams. Besides the long established electron cooling, alternative cooling methods are gaining in importance, especially for high energy particles. In the past, experiments to cool ions with lasers were performed. Because of the matching wavelength and output power, frequency doubled Argon-ion lasers at 257 nm were used during these experiments. Due to the strongly limited scanning potential of these systems, it was not possible to cool the full inertia spread of the ion beams. A new laser system was developed in this thesis because of the lack of commercial alternatives. After the characterization of the system, it was tested during a beamtime at the Experimentierspeicherring (ESR) at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI). The completely solid state based system delivers up to 180 mW of output power at 257 nm and is modehop free tunable up to 16 GHz in 10 ms at this wavelength. By using efficient diode lasers, the new system consumes considerably less power than comparable Argon-ion lasers. The fundamental wavelength of 1028 nm is amplified up to 16 W with an Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Subsequently, the target wavelength of 257 nm is realized in two consecutive build-up cavities. Another diode laser, stabilized to a wavelength meter, serves as a frequency reference. This new laser system first came to operation during beamtime in August 2012, when relativistic C{sup 3+} ions with β=0.47 were cooled successfully. For the first time it was possible to access the whole inertia spread of a bunched ion beam without electron precooling. In contrast to prior experiments, only the laser frequency was scanned and not the bunching frequency of the ion beam. The results

  6. 迷迭香(Rosmarinus officinalis)提取残渣栽培糙皮侧耳%Use of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Processing Waste for Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej GREGORI; Bojan PAHOR; Franc POHLEVEN


    食品工业中用迷迭香提取抗氧化物质后的残渣(rosemary processing waste RPW)拌入粉碎的玉米粒可以用作栽培糙皮侧耳的培养料.提取抗氧化剂后的迷迭香残渣RPW-1中所含提取残留的丙酮对栽培有害,RPW-1直接栽培糙皮侧耳所获子实体产量比用RPW-2(废料充分通气,去除残存的丙酮)平均低49%.试验中获得最高生物效率(67%)的培养料配比为RPW-2中加入30%(w/w)粉碎的玉米粒(crushed corn seeds CCS)和2%CaCO3.增加培养料中的麸皮(wheat bran WB)比例(降低C/N比)可加快菌丝生长速度,但通常导致子实体产量降低.试验中菌丝生长最快(23 d生长9.9 cm)的培养料配比为RPW-2中添加30%(w/w) CCS 和30% (w/w) WB,/N比为24.%Rosemary processing waste (RPW) generated after extraction of antioxidant components for the food industry, in combination with crushed corn seeds, represented a suitable growth substrate for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus . On average, fruit body yields were 49% lower on substrate mixtures containing RPW1, containing residual acetone from the antioxidant extraction process, compared to substrates incorporating RPW2 which had been allowed to stand in wellaerated conditions in order to remove residual solvent. The highest Biological Efficiency value (67%) were recorded with a substrate mixture containing 30% (w/w) crushed corn seeds (CCS) mixed with RPW2 and 2% CaCO3. Increasing proportions of wheat bran (WB) in the mixtures decreased the C/N ratio, had a positive effect on mycelial growth rates, but generally resulted in lower fruit body yields. The highest vegetative growth rate (9.9 cm in 23 days) was recorded on substrate mixtures with a C/N ratio of 24 and containing RPW2 supplemented with 30% (w/w) CCS and 30% (w/w) WB.

  7. Effect of peppermint and citronella essential oils on properties of fish skin gelatin edible films (United States)

    Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.


    Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  8. A Lead/graphite accumulator using aqueous hydrofluoric acid (United States)

    Beck, Fritz; Krohn, Holger

    In this paper a new aqueous accumulator is described and its main advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It consists of a lead negative electr More than 1000 cycles were completed in 40% HF while in 60% HF 3000 cycles were exceeded. The conversion of the electrolyte and the graphite was 1% and The cell promises to be cheap with a very good cycle life and, although the theoretical energy density is only 62 W h kg -1, 30 W h kg -1 sho

  9. Effect of Ultrasound on the Compaction of Ibuprofen/Isomalt Systems



    Six mixtures, containing 10, 20 and 30% w/w ibuprofen and isomalt, were compacted by a traditional or ultrasound-assisted machine and analysed by means of thermal (DSC and TGA) and micro-spectrometry (Raman and FT-IR) techniques. Ultrasound discharge causes melting of ibuprofen powder, transforming into a paste that could not assume the shape of a tablet; when in mixture with isomalt, thermal events, occurring during ultrasound compaction, change the appearance of the particles formed by mill...

  10. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise


    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel


    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90–100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) st...

  11. How to build your own green laser (United States)

    Daily, Jared; McLaughlin, Bonnie; Durfee, Dallin; Bergeson, Scott


    We describe a frequency-doubled diode-pumped solid-state laser at 532 nm. Our Z-cavity design uses a 30W fiber-coupled 808 nm pump laser, a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal, and an intracavity LBO doubling crystal. The laser produces more than 2W at 532 nm at a cost of around 3k$/W. Improvements in the design and comparison to other designs in the literature are discussed.

  12. [The implantation of bipolar coagulation to remove endometriosis foci]. (United States)

    Sobkiewicz, S; Palatyński, A; Salata, I


    The paper compares the results of bipolar coagulation bey means of ERBE ICC 300 diatermy coagulator and WISAP endocoagulator. The results of both types of coagulation were assessed with reference to the changes occurring on peritoneum ligamenti sacro-uterini, Douglas pouch and ovary. The best results of endometriosis foci coagulation were obtained with bipolar ball at 20-30 W; no side effects or feelings of malaise were observed in patients just after the operation or over a longer period of convalescence.

  13. Tensile Strength Assessment of Injection-Molded High Yield Sugarcane Bagasse-Reinforced Polypropylene



    Sugarcane bagasse was treated to obtain sawdust, in addition to mechanical, thermomechanical, and chemical-thermomechanical pulps. The obtained fibers were used to obtain reinforced polypropylene composites prepared by injection molding. Coupling agent contents ranging from 2 to 10% w/w were added to the composite to obtain the highest tensile strength. All the composites included 30% w/w of reinforcing fibers. The tensile strength of the different sugarcane bagasse fiber composites were test...

  14. Lipid-nanoemulsions as drug delivery carriers for poorly-water soluble drug


    Veerendra K. Nanjwade; F. V. Manvi; Basavaraj K. Nanjwade; Katare, O P


    To enhance the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug Aceclofenac, a lipidnanoemulsion comprising ethanolic solution of phospholipid 90 G and tween 80 in 1:1 ratio (Smix), triacetin and anseed oil as oil phase and distilled water as aqueous phase, in the ratio of 55:15:30 (% w/w) was developed by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and evaluated for viscosity, % transmittance, and surface morphology of nanoemulsions. In vitro diffusion (release) of Aceclofenac from three diff...

  15. Investigating effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) molecular weight grades on lag time of press-coated ethylcellulose tablets. (United States)

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree


    The research undertaken exemplifies the effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) molecular weight (MW) grades of on lag time of press-coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets. The formulation comprised an immediate release core (containing prednisone as a model drug) surrounded by compression coating with variegated EC-HPMC blends. Five selected HPMC grades (E5, E15, E50, K100LV and K4M) were explored at three different concentrations (10% w/w, 20% w/w and 30% w/w in outer coat) to understand their effects on lag time and drug release. In vitro drug release testing demonstrated that, with increase in concentration of E5 and E15, up to 30% w/w, the mean lag time decreased progressively; whereas with remaining grades, the mean lag time initially decreased up to 20% w/w level and thereafter increased for 30% w/w level. Importantly, with increase in HPMC concentration in the outer coat, the variability in lag time (%RSD; n = 6) was decreased for each of E5, E15 and E50, whereas increased for K100LV and K4M. In general, the variability in lag time was increased with increase in HPMC MW at studied concentration levels. Markedly, tablets with 30% w/w K4M in outer coat exhibited slight premature release (before the rupture of outer coat) along with high variability in lag time. Overall, the study concluded that low MW HPMCs (E5, E15 and E50) were found rather efficient than higher MW HPMCs for developing robust EC-based press-coated pulsatile release formulations where precise lag time followed by sharp burst release is desired.

  16. Proof-of-Concept of a Revolutionary Cooling Shirt with a Thermal Manikin (United States)


    performance of cooling garments in a controlled environment. In this study, an epoxy thermal manikin from Measurement Technology Northwest was used...environments. Traditional cooling technologies are limited by the need for a power supply, the added weight of the product, and the cooling duration. This...the technology . Effective cooling rate was determined to be 30 W for the system. Calculations were based on the manikin zones covered by the shirt

  17. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women


    Preetha R; John Solomon M


    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  18. Design Manual for Impact Damage Tolerant Aircraft Structure. Addendum (United States)


    extensively damaged as a result of delamination and rear surface spallation . Excessive gauges are required to minimise damage. Therefore, increasing skin...Panels. ’ 10 0 129-grain steal tube 0 12ŝ-grai steel spbere 6000 y 3/16-tech diater drilled bole 30W’ 20000 5 , 0 1 000 I t 0 3000 0 120000 J 005 OO6 0


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A gel forming Polysaccharide gum obtained form the bark of Araucaria bidwilli was employed as a matrix sustained release tablet formulation of Diclofenac sodium (a non steroidal anti inflammatory agent. The effect of Araucaria bidwilli gum (Natural and Synthetic polymer Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4 M on the release of Diclofenac sodium was studied. The FT-IR spectroscopic studies of drug, gum and mixture indicated no chemical interaction. Six formulations were prepared by wet granulation method containing Araucaria bidwilli gum powder concentration 10% 20% & 30% w\\w and 10% 20% &30% w\\w of HPMC K4 M with sufficient volume of granulating agent Polyvinyl pyrrolene (PVP K 30, Avicel pH101 as diluents, Magnesium stearate and Aerosil is used lubricant and glidant respectively.This study was carried out to find out the difference between synthetic and natural gum and whether synthetic gum can be replaced by natural gums. Physical and technological studies of granules and tablets were compliance with Pharmacopoial standards.The drug release increased with Araucaria bidwilli gum when compared to synthetics polymer concentration .The value of release exponent were found to be almost straight line and regression coefficient value between 0.938 and 0.998.This implies that the release mechanism is diffusion. Formulation F3 ( contained 30% w\\w Araucaria bidwilli gum met the desired requirements for a sustained release dosage form.

  20. In vitro study of 980nm diode laser in dental implant disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the potential of 980nm diode laser to reduce bacteria after irradiation of three different dental implant surfaces contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis, as well as the possible changes in the irradiated implant surfaces.Methods: Seventy two implants with machined surfaces, airborne particle abraded with titanium oxide and acid-etched surfaces were exposed to Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis cultures and irradiated with 980nm diode laser with power of 2.5 and 3,0W. After laser treatments, the number of remaining colony-forming units was studied and implant surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: The results showed 100% reduction of the bacteria on the implants irradiated with 3.0W. Moreover, 100% reduction of bacteria was also achieved on the implant surfaces contaminated with Porphyromonas gingivalis when irradiated with 2.5W and 3.0W. Bacteria reduction was not complete for the implants contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis, irradiated with 2.5W and surfaces treated with TiO2 airborne particle abrasion (78.6% and acid etching (49.4%.The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that at the power settings used, no implant surface changes were found. Conclusion: The 980nm diode laser was effective in decontaminating the Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis without promoting surface alteration in the implants.

  1. 全光纤结构超短脉冲超连续谱的产生及其特性研究%All- fiber ultra- short super- continuum generation and characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于峰; 孙畅; 高静; 匡鸿深; 张晶; 高鹏坤; 葛廷武; 王智勇


    Super﹣continuum (SC) is widely used in coherent photography technology, optical spectroscopy analysis, interferometry, etc because of its flat and broad spectrum, high spatial coherence and high power. Super﹣continuum generation could be realized on theory by ultra﹣short pulse laser getting through the high nonlinear medium, accompany with self﹣phase modulation (SPM), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), four﹣wave mixing (FWM). With the development of fiber technology, Yb- doped ultra﹣short pulse fiber laser, which has high peak power, high optic﹣to﹣optic efficiency, compact structure and small volume was elected as the pump source, and high nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as the nonlinear medium for SC. In this paper, a self﹣made amplified mode﹣locked pulse was coupled into a 10m PCF, with 1 040 nm zero dispersion point, to generate 8.13W super﹣continuum by fusing method, during which the key parameters like discharge time, discharge interval, splice loss are seriously optimized to keep the fusing quality well.%超连续光谱以其光谱范围宽、平坦度好、空间相干度高和可实现的较高功率,被广泛应用于相干成像技术、光谱分析、干涉测量等诸多领域。理论上超连续光谱可由超短脉冲通过高非线性介质来实现,期间伴随着自相位调制(SPM)、受激拉曼散射(SRS)、四波混频效应(FWM)。随着光纤技术的发展,利用峰值功率高、光光转换效率高、体积小、结构紧凑的掺Yb超短脉冲光纤激光器作为泵浦源,高非线性的光子晶体光纤作为非线性介质来产生超连续光谱。采用主振荡功率放大结构(MOPA),自行搭建了全光纤锁模脉冲放大器,并通过熔接的方式将其耦合进入长为10 m、零色散点为1040 nm的光子晶体光纤,在对熔接过程中放电时间、放电间隔、熔接损耗等参数进行优化后,获得了8.14 W的超连续光谱。

  2. Long range absolute distance measurement based on femtosecond laser balanced optical cross-correlation%基于飞秒激光平衡光学互相关的任意长绝对距离测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦鹏; 陈伟; 宋有建; 胡明列; 柴路; 王清月


    大尺度、高精度的绝对距离测量在卫星编队飞行、自由空间通信、大尺寸工件检测等前沿应用中具有举足轻重的作用.本文利用飞秒激光脉冲的飞行时间方法对一段52m的大气传输路径进行了绝对距离测量.通过平衡光学互相关技术探测目标反射脉冲与参考脉冲之间的时间误差,并利用得到的平衡互相关电压信号反馈控制谐振腔长,将脉冲间隔的整数倍精确锁定至往返距离,最后由飞秒激光的重复频率确定目标反射脉冲的飞行时间.这一测量方案有效地避免了直接光电探测造成的飞行时间分辨率的损失.实验中,采用工作在1.04μm波段的高重复频率掺Yb锁模光纤激光器作为飞秒激光源,在1S的平均时间下获得了12nm的测量精度.%High-precision distance measurement in a long range is critical for many advanced applications, such as satellite formation flying, free space optical communication and large scale machining. A 52 m absolute distance measurement in free space based on time of flight of femtosecond laser is demonstrated. The timing offset between target-reflected and the reference pulses is precisely characterized by balanced optical cross-correlation method. The balanced cross correlation signal is used for the feedback control of the cavity length and tightly locks the distance under test to multiple of pulse separation. As a result, the time of flight of the target-reflected pulse is determined by the repetition rate of the femtosecond laser, which effectively avoids the loss of timing resolution caused by direct access of pulse time-of-flight from photo-detection. In the experiment, a Yb -doped high repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser working at 1.04 μm is used as a femtosecond laser source, and a measurement precision of t2 nm is achieved in an average time of one second.

  3. Heterobothrium lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) from the gills of Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae) from the coast of Yucatán, Mexico Heterobothrium lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) de las branquias de Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae) de la costa de Yucatán, México


    Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M.; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.


    The presence of a member of the genus Heterobothrium is described for the first time from the coast of Yucatán Peninsula, southeastern Mexico. Heterobothrium lamothei n. sp. is recorded parasitizing the gills of the tetraodontid fish Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758) from 4 coastal lagoons in Yucatán: Celestún (20° 52' N, 90° 24' W), Chelem (21°15'N89°45'W), Dzilam (21°35'N 88°35'W) and Río Lagartos (21°22'N 87°30'W). The new species differs from the other species described in the genu...

  4. Monoacyl phosphatidylcholine inhibits the formation of lipid multilamellar structures during in vitro lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Amenitsch, Heinz


    The colloidal structures formed during lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) might affect the solubilisation and possibly the absorption of drugs. The aim of the current study is to elucidate the structures formed during the in vitro lipolysis of four SEDDS containing medium....... However, SEDDS containing 20-30% w/w MAPC did not form MLS during the lipolysis. The cryo-TEM and DLS studies showed that MAPC-free SEDDS formed coarse emulsions while MAPC-containing SEDDS formed nanoemulsions during the dispersion in digestion medium. From the first minute and during the entire...

  5. Laser treatment of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix for adhesive bonding (United States)

    Genna, S.; Leone, C.; Ucciardello, N.; Giuliani, M.


    In the present study, laser surface treatment of CFRP made of PPS thermoplastic matrix by means of a 30 W Q-Switched Yb:YAG fiber laser, is investigated with the aim to improve adhesive bonding. The process parameters pulse power, scanning speed, hatch distance and scanning strategy, were varied to the aim to study the influence of the process condition on the first top resin layer removal and fibre damage. The operating window was experimentally determined. The effectiveness of laser treatment was verified by single lap shear test.

  6. 用连铸薄带生产无取向电工钢板的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1 发明要点及步骤 钢水成分:w(Si)1.0%~3.5%,w(Al)0.5%,w(Cr)0.1%~3.0%,w(Mn)0.1%~1.0%,w(S)0.01%,w(Se)0.01%,w(N)0.005%,w(C)0.01%,此外还含有其它元素残留量,如w(Ti)、w(Nb)和(或)w(V),数量不超过0.005%.

  7. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Extracting Activity of Kid Rennet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-xin; LI Lin-qiang


    Using 2-3 weeks kid abomasums as materials, the ultrasound intensity, extracting time, NaC1 concentration and pH value in extracting solution and ratio of abomasums to extracting solution were studied by ultrasonic method. The results showed that the main factor affecting kid rennet activity during extraction was ultrasound intensity, and then NaC1concentration, extracting time and ratio of abomasums to extracting solution in order. Kid rennet activity reached peak with ultrasound intensity 30 W cm-2, extraction time 40 min, NaC1 concentration 8%, pH value 3.0, ratio of abomasums to extracting solution 1:15.

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Heat Transfer in a Room using Night-Time Coling by Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper; Daniels, Ole


    different air change rates and three different temperature differences between the inlet air and the room temperature resulting in nine different cases where conducted. For all cases the convective and radiation energy exchange was calculated for all the room surfaces. The ceiling was subdivided into 22...... areas and the convective heat transfer coefficient ranged between 5 and 30 W/m2. The ratio of convective to total heat flow from the ceiling depends on the air change rate, ranging from approximately 40% at the low air change rates to approximately 70% at the high air change rate. Even though radiation...

  9. Effect of 2 MHz ultrasound on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in Pisum sativum root meristem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.W.; Ciaravino, V.; Allen, D.; Jensen, S.


    The amounts of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis were determined in Pisum sativum root meristem cells at various times after a 1 min exposure to 1 MHz ultrasound at a power density of 30 W/cm/sup 2/. Immediate depressions in all three macromolecular syntheses occurred after sonication, followed by an apparent recovery several hours later. These events appear to correlate in time with the subsequent reduction and recovery in mitotic index in Pisum sativum root meristem cells exposed to 2 MHz ultrasound.

  10. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.


    A measurement is presented of elastic Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering e^+ + p -> e^+ + photon + p at HERA using data taken with the H1 detector. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, and the invariant mass, W, of the gamma p system, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 20 GeV^2, 30 < W < 120 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t is the squared momentum transfer to the proton. The measurement is compared to QCD based calculations.

  11. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra


    : The results show that the total lipid content of the cholesteatoma matrix is similar to that of stratum corneum from skin and that the cholesteatoma matrix unquestionably contains cholesterol. The cholesterol content in the cholesteatoma matrix is increased by over 30% (w/w dry weight) compared to the control....... The cholesterol sulfate content is below 1% of the total lipids in both the cholesteatoma and the control. Cholesterol ester was reduced by over 30% when compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The content of cholesterol in the cholesteatoma matrix is significantly different from that in stratum corneum from skin...

  12. Primeiro registro de Myriastra purpurea (Ridley, 1884 para a costa brasileira (Porifera, Demospongiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothes de Moraes


    Full Text Available The first record of occurrence of Myriastra purpurea (Ridley, 1884 for the South Atlantic Ocean at shallow areas of the Brazilian coast (State of Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba Bay: 23º04'53"/44º00'34"W and State of Santa Catarina, Porto Belo: 27º09'12"S/48º29'30"W widely enlarges the distribution of the species, known only from the Indo-Pacific region. Detailed descriptions and ilustrations of the specimens are offered. A table of micrometric measurements and camera lucida drawings of spicules is also offered.

  13. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI). Task Order no. 1 (Misc Manufacturing). Book 2. Database Documentation Book for OO-ALC MANPWW. Analysis of the 80/20 Listing (United States)


    ZLL 0 C on xJC) LLO .(1 U o0 ".U .1 w.MI) b" n z MW %D C30 W I- - LL wC/) OLA <LU0. IL. 3 wI - 0 p .Z 0C CC W ot Dom1 0(1I- <w W -ZX 0 Co MI-X x 0 o 0!cr... BOLA ’ is Is. t7 is 9. 20. DISPATCH PERF RCC/OP STATION NO WORK TO 1 ACCDMPLISHED MECHANIC "P.. .. Q.. . 1E’ *ir’ _. .. .... . ..... ... tirE 1


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kuchtová


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine chemical composition and functional properties of legume flours (chickpea, pea and fine wheat flour. The effect of chickpea and pea flour incorporation at different levels (10, 20, 30 % w/w on the qualitative parameters and sensory characteristics of bakery product was also investigated. It can be concluded, that incorporation of leguminous flours led to changes of the investigated qualitative and sensory parameters, especially in samples with higher amount of leguminous flour (20 and 30 %. Results showed, that a proper alternative to standard bakery products  are products with 10 % portion of leguminous flour.doi:10.5219/185

  15. La salinidad y la distribución espacial de la ictiofauna en el estuario del Río de la Plata


    Rico, M.R.


    Los ecosistemas estuariales se caracterizan por su alta productividad, baja diversidad biológica y fluctuaciones impredecibles de salinidad. A su vez, la distribución espacial de su ictiofauna resulta en general suficientemente explicada por los patrones de distribución de la salinidad. En particular, en el estuario del Río de la Plata (35° 00' S y 55° 30' W) que presenta una marcada estratificación vertical de densidad, dominada por la salinidad, se analizó cuantitativamente la relación entr...

  16. Photodiodes integration on a suspended ridge structure VOA using 2-step flip-chip bonding method (United States)

    Kim, Seon Hoon; Kim, Tae Un; Ki, Hyun Chul; Kim, Doo Gun; Kim, Hwe Jong; Lim, Jung Woon; Lee, Dong Yeol; Park, Chul Hee


    In this works, we have demonstrated a VOA integrated with mPDs, based on silica-on-silicon PLC and flip-chip bonding technologies. The suspended ridge structure was applied to reduce the power consumption. It achieves the attenuation of 30dB in open loop operation with the power consumption of below 30W. We have applied two-step flipchip bonding method using passive alignment to perform high density multi-chip integration on a VOA with eutectic AuSn solder bumps. The average bonding strength of the two-step flip-chip bonding method was about 90gf.

  17. Exact Solutions of the Regge-Wheeler Equation and the Basis for the Axial Perturbations of the Schwarzschild Black Hole Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Fiziev, P P


    For the first time we solve exactly the Regge-Wheeler equation for the perturbations of Schwarzschild metric in black hole interior. The Heun functions are shown to be the adequate mathematical tool for study of the basis for axial perturbations of gravitational field both outside the horizon, and in the black hole interior. We give a description of the spectrum and the eigenfunctions in the interior problem. There a novel phenomenon -- an attraction and repulsion of the eigenvalues of gravitational waves is discovered. PACS numbers: 04.70.Bw, 04.30.-w., 04.30 Nx

  18. Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, P.M.W.


    We demonstrate supercontinuum generation in a PCF pumped by a gain-switched high-power continuous wave (CW) fiber laser. The pulses generated by gain-switching have a peak power of more than 700 W, a duration around 200 ns, and a repetition rate of 200 kHz giving a high average power of almost 30 W......W/nm). This is considerably broader than when operating the same system under CW conditions. The presented approach is attractive due to the high power, power scalability, and reduced system complexity compared to picosecond-pumped supercontinuum sources. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  19. Low cryogen inventory, forced flow Ne cooling system with room temperature compression stage and heat recuperation

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A; Wolf, A


    We present design and commissioning results of a forced flow cooling system utilizing neon at 30 K. The cryogen is pumped through the system by a room-temperature compression stage. To decouple the cold zone from the compression stage a recuperating counterflow tube-in-tube heat exchanger is used. Commissioning demonstrated successful condensation of neon and transfer of up to 30 W cooling power to the load at 30 K using only 30 g of the cryogen circulating in the system at pressures below 170 kPa.

  20. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sorghum Grains (Sorghum Vulgare)



    The physical and mechanical properties of sorghum grains (sorghum vulgare) were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 20% and 30% (w.b). The four varieties of sorghum grains studied include; Dura, Guinea, Faterita and Kafir. Results indicate that the size ranges were 3.94mm - 4.83mm for Dura variety; 3.75mm - 4.54mm for Guinea variety; 3.21mm - 4.42mm for Kafir variety and 2.70mm - 4.14mm for Faterita variety. Irregularities in the shapes of the grains were observed but all approximate...

  1. Abstracts: 1984 AFOSR/ONR Contractors Meeting on Airbreathing Combustion Research Held on June 20-21, 1984, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)


    H.L. Beach, NASA Langle Research Center Topic: IGNITION/COMBUSTION ENHANCEMENT 10:30 - 11:00 M. Lavid. ML Energia , Inc. 11:00 - 11:30 W. Braun and...F49620-83-C-0133) Principal Investigator: Moshe Lavid ML ENERGIA , Inc. P.O. Box 1468 Princeton, NJ 08542 SUMMARY/OVERVIEW: The radiative concept indine resonance lamp and a solar -blind PhotomultiPlier. 2 nder- the%,& Cir esm.tanr&e the temPerAtre mod1Jlation CArn he r.qlrujated rom a

  2. High efficiency interdigitated back contact silicon solar cells (United States)

    Verlinden, P.; van de Wiele, F.; Stehelin, G.; Floret, F.; David, J. P.

    Interdigitated back contact (IBC) silicon solar cells with 25.6 percent efficiency at 10 W/sq cm and 24.4 percent at 30 W/ sq cm were fabricated. The authors report on the technological process, which produces a high effective carrier lifetime in the bulk (780 microsec), and on the characterization of the cells. The front side of these cells is textured and has an efficient polka-dot floating tandem junction. IBC and point-contact (PC) cells are fabricated on the same substrate and their efficiencies are compared. The possiblity of reaching 29 percent efficiency at 300X is shown.

  3. Drilling and cutting of thin metal plates in water with radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser (United States)

    Glova, A. F.; Lysikov, A. Yu


    The conditions of drilling and cutting of 0.15-mm-thick titanium and stainless steel plates in water with the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser having the mean power up to 30 W are studied experimentally in the absence of water and gas jets. Dependences of the maximal cutting speed in water on the radiation power are obtained, the cutting efficiency is determined, and the comparison with the conditions of drilling and cutting of plates in air is carried out.

  4. Spin Density Matrix Elements in exclusive production of ω mesons at Hermes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianski B.


    Full Text Available Spin density matrix elements have been determined for exclusive ω meson production on hydrogen and deuterium targets, in the kinematic region of 1.0 < Q2 < 10.0 GeV2, 3.0 < W < 6.3 GeV and –t' < 0.2 GeV2. The data, from which SDMEs are determined, were accumulated with the HERMES forward spectrometer during the running period of 1996 to 2007 using the 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam of HERA. A sizable contribution of unnatural parity exchange amplitudes is found for exclusive ω meson production.

  5. Mapping of a Hydrological Ice Sheet Drainage Basin on the West Greenland Ice Sheet Margin from ERS-1/2 SAR Interferometry, Ice-Radar Measurement, and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, C.E.; Stenseng, L.


    The hydrological ice-sheet basin draining into the Tasersiaq lake, West Greenland (66°13'N, 50°30'W), was delineated, First using standard digital elevation models (DEMs) for ice-sheet surface and bedrock, and subsequently using a new high-resolution dataset, with a surface DEM derived from repeat...... importance of the potential of the ice overburden pressure compared to the bedrock topography. The meltwater run-off for the basin delineations was modelled with an energy-balance model calibrated with observed ice-sheet ablation and compared to a 25 year time series of measured basin run-off. The standard...

  6. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed interesterification for bulky fats modification with FT-IR/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Lai, Xuxin; Zhang, Hong


    This work demonstrates the application of FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for bulky fat modification. The reaction was conducted between palm stearin and coconut oil (70/30, w/w) with the catalysis of Lipozyme TL IM at 70°C in a batch reactor...... (PLS) regression. High correlations (r > 0.96) were obtained from cross validations of the data estimated by FT-IR, FT-NIRand above-mentioned conventional analytical methods, except for correlations (r = 0.90-0,95) between FT-IR and SFC profiles. Overall, FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with transmission...

  7. Reacción posquirúrgica del lecho vascular inducida por el campo magnético de ultra-alta frecuencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Hidalgo de Paz


    Full Text Available En 82 ratas blancas adultas se estudió el efecto posoperatorio del campo magnético de ultra- -alta frecuencia (CMUAF sobre el volumen del lecho intramuscular, durante el período de formación de colaterales. El CMUAF se aplicó con el aparato portátil UVCHE-30, con frecuencia de 40,68 MHz y potencias fijas de salida de 15 y 30 W. Luego de seccionar quirúrgicamente las arterias femorales, se aplicó el campo magnético por 2, 6, 10 y 16 semanas. En estos plazos se inyectó mezcla de tinta china-gelatina en el lecho vascular y se obtuvieron cortes micrométricos que se transparentaron y fueron posteriormente leídos por microfotometría. Se observó un marcado aumento del volumen del lecho vascular intramuscular por acción del CMUAF, particularmente en los períodos de 2 y 6 semanas posteriores al inicio del tratamiento. También se evidenció mayor reacción vascular a la acción del CMUAF con potencia de 15 W, en comparación con los resultados en 30 W

  8. Aktivitas antimikroba ekstrak daun jambu biji dari beberapa kultivar terhadap Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 dengan holeplate diffusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Lanawati Darsono


    Full Text Available A study has been performed on the antimicrobial activities of "jambu biji" (Psidium guajava Linn leaves from several cultivars(red, white and yellow cultivar against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 representing the Gram positive bacteria. The reason for conducting this research is that the leaves of "jambu biji" are frequently used in traditional medicine as a remedy against diarrhea.The hole-plate diffusion method was used for conducting the antimicrobial activity test with antibiotics (Ampicilline trihidrat as reference standards. The extracts of "jambu biji" for each cultivar were obtained by reflux with ethanol 96%. The concentrations of the extracts applied to the holes were 10%, 20%, and 30% w/v, the extracts were reconstituted with tween 80 and ethanol 96%. Based on the result of the study, it can be concluded that the extract of "jambu biji" from each cultivar with the concentration of 10%, 20%, and 30%w/v showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The result obtained statictically evaluated using Anova Factorial 3×3 and furthery tested for significancy (α = 0.05. Based on the results of study, it can be concluded that the extract of jambu biji leaves from red cultivar, white cultivar and yellow cultivar showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.

  9. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts. (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel


    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  10. MR evaluation of pulmonary vein diameter reduction after radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselme, Frederic; Savoure, Arnaud; Mabru, Mikael; Cribier, Alain [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); Gahide, Gerald [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Laboratoire QuantIF, Rouen (France); Gerbaud, Edouard [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Laboratoire QuantIF, Rouen (France); Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Laboratoire QuantIF, Rouen (France); University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen, Cedex (France)


    Fifty consecutive patients aged 52{+-}12 years suffering from drug refractory atrial fibrillation (AF) underwent baseline and post-ablation MR angiography (MRA) at a mean follow-up of 4{+-}3.5 months. Pulmonary vein (PV) disconnection was performed with a maximum energy delivery of 30 W. MRA allowed a two-plane measurement of each PV ostium. After ablation, no significant stenosis was observed, and only 1/194 (0.5%) and 3/194 (2%) PVs had a diameter reduction of 31-40% in the coronal and axial planes, respectively. There was a significant overall post-procedural PV narrowing of 4.9% in the coronal plane and 6.5% in the axial plane (P=ns between both planes). MRA is an efficient technique that can be used in pre- and postoperative evaluation of AF patients. Using a maximal power delivery limited to 30 W, no significant PV stenosis was observed at mid-term follow-up. Late PV anatomical assessment is needed to confirm these results on long-term follow-up. (orig.)

  11. Developing new manufacturing methods for the improvement of AlF3 thin films. (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Liao, Bo-Huei; Liu, Ming-Chung


    In this research, the plasma etching mechanism which is applied to deposit AlF(3) thin films has been discussed in detail. Different ratios of O(2) gas were injected in the sputtering process and then the optical properties and microstructure of the thin films were examined. The best optical quality and smallest surface roughness was obtained when the AlF(3) thin films were coated with O(2):CF(4) (12 sccm:60 sccm) at 30 W sputtering power. To increase the deposition rate for industrial application, the sputtering power was increased to 200 W with the best ratio of O(2)/CF(4) gas. The results show that the deposition rate at 200W sputtering power was 7.43 times faster than that at 30 W sputtering power and the extinction coefficients deposited at 200 W are less than 6.8 x 10(-4) at the wavelength range from 190 nm to 700 nm. To compare the deposition with only CF(4) gas at 200 W sputtering power, the extinction coefficient of the thin films improve from 4.4 x 10(-3) to 6 x 10(-4) at the wavelength of 193 nm. In addition, the structure of the film deposited at 200W was amorphous-like with a surface roughness of 0.8 nm.

  12. Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-heating reactors: monitoring and end product quality. (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida M J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M


    Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-product not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-heating composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end product quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporation of 30% (w/w) ES in a composting mixture did not affect mixture biodegradability, nor its capacity to reach sanitizing temperatures. After 25 days of composting, ES addition caused a nitrogen loss of about 10 g N kg(-1) of initial volatile solids, thus reducing nitrogen nutritional potential of the finished compost. This study showed that a composting mixture with a significant proportion of ES (30% w/w) may be converted into calcium-rich marketable compost to neutralize soil acidity and/or calcium deficiencies.

  13. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by sol–gel with large nanoparticles size for magnetic hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemine, O.M., E-mail: [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Omri, K. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Iglesias, M.; Velasco, V. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC (Spain); Crespo, P.; Presa, P. de la [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC (Spain); Dpto. Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); El Mir, L. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Bouzid, Houcine [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire des Matériaux Ferroélectriques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Route Soukra Km 3 5, B.P. 802, F-3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Yousif, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Code 123, Al Khoud (Oman); Al-Hajry, Ali [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia)


    Highlights: • Iron oxides nanoparticles with different sizes are successfully synthesized using sol–gel method. • The obtained nanoparticles are mainly composed of maghemite phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). • A non-negligible coercive field suggests that the particles are ferromagnetic. • A mean heating efficiency of 30 W/g is obtained for the smallest particles at 110 kHz and 190 Oe. - Abstract: Iron oxides nanoparticles with different sizes are successfully synthesized using sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy show that the obtained nanoparticles are mainly composed of maghemite phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that the nanoparticles have sizes ranging from 14 to 30 nm, which are indeed confirmed by large magnetic saturation and high blocking temperature. At room temperature, the observation of a non-negligible coercive field suggests that the particles are ferro/ferrimagnetic. The specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field is investigated as a function of size, frequency and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. A mean heating efficiency of 30 W/g is obtained for the smallest particles at 110 kHz and 190 Oe, whereas further increase of particle size does not improve significantly the heating efficiency.

  14. Solar photo-Fenton optimisation in treating carbofuran-contaminated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Hernández-Shek


    Full Text Available Box-Benkhen design response-surface methodology was developed to optimise photo-Fenton degradation of carbofuran (C12H15NO3 by using a compound parabolic collector pilot plant. The four variables considered in Box-Benkhen design model included carbofuran degradation percentage, initial carbofuran concentration, hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] concentration and iron [Fe2+] concentration. Degradation was monitored by using total organic carbon concentration and high-performance liquid chromatography. A 93.2 mg l-1 carbofuran concentration was completely degraded in t30W = 15 min with 17.1 mg l-1 Fe2+ and 121.6 mg l-1 H2O2. Photo-Fenton degradation led to 76.7% mineralisation. Biodegradability during optimisation was evaluated by using the BOD5/COD ratio; this value increased from 0.04 at the beginning of the process to 0.52 in t30W = 20 min, thereby showing the effectiveness of using biological treatments.

  15. Gum copal and gum damar: Novel matrix forming materials for sustained drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkhade D


    Full Text Available This study concerns the evaluation of natural gum copal and gum damar as novel sustained release matrix forming materials in tablet formulation. Along with the physicochemical properties, gum copal and gum damar were characterized for molecular weight, polydispersity index and glass transition temperature. Matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using isopropyl alcohol as a granulating agent. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. Tablet weight (250 mg and diameter (9 mm was kept constant. Tablets were evaluated for pharmacotechnical properties, drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release kinetics. Effect of gum concentration (10, 20 and 30% w/w with respect to total tablet weight on in vitro drug release profile was examined. Both the gums produced matrix tablets with good strength and acceptable pharmacotechnical properties. Matrix tablets with 30% w/w gum copal and gum damar showed sustained drug delivery beyond 10 h. Drug release from gum copal matrix tablets followed zero order kinetics while gum damar (10 and 20% w/w was found suitable to formulate the insoluble plastic matrix that releases the drug by diffusion. It is concluded that both gums possess substantial matrix forming property that could be used for sustained drug delivery.

  16. Hydrophobicity, thermal and micro-structural properties of whey protein concentrate-pullulan-beeswax films. (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Khanzadi, Mehrdad; Mirzaei, Habibollah; Dehnad, Danial; Chegini, Faramarz Khodaian; Maghsoudlou, Yayha


    In this research, effects of beeswax (BW) on functional properties of whey protein concentrates (WPC):pullulan (PUL) films were investigated. For this purpose, 0, 10, 20 and 30w/w(glycerol)% BW rates and 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30w/w% WPC:PUL ratios were applied. Films containing 70% WPC:30% PUL (WPC70) and 30% BW (BW30) justified the highest contact angle (92.4°) among all films; SEM micrographs indicated that BW could come toward the surface of films during drying stage and resulted in a higher hydrophobic behavior of bilayer films compared with blend films. WPC70 supplied the lowest T(g) values (36-48 °C) among different proportions of WPC-PUL; the highest melting points were just assured in the absence of BW regardless of combination ratio for WPI:PUL. BW30 films deserved lower roughness rates than BW20 (and even BW10) films, indicating more advantageous microstructure and higher hydrogen connections in BW30 films and justifying similar melting points attained for BW30 films to BW20 or 10 ones. Overall, application of WPC70 and BW30 was recommended to obtain optimum combination of final properties for WPC-PUL-BW bilayer films as SEM exhibited flexible and elastic structures of such films.

  17. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil. (United States)

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro


    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  18. Studies on the starch-water interactions between partially gelatinized corn starch and water during gelatinization. (United States)

    Fu, Zong-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Zou, Hui; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu


    The effect of moisture content on the interactions between water and partially gelatinized starch during gelatinization process was investigated. The interactions were probed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The starch samples were partially gelatinized at 25°C (S25), 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and the moisture contents were varied from 25% to 78% (w/w). The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed in S64, S68 and S70 in the entire moisture content range. The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed at higher peak temperature in S25 when the moisture content was below 30% (w/w). The melting temperature of M2 endotherm in S70 was the highest among all the samples tested in the entire moisture content range. At water content>30% (w/w), S68 and S70 had lower amount of unfreezable water, while S64 had higher amount of unfreezable water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Formulation and characterization of novel composite semi-refined iota carrageenan-based edible film incorporating palmitic acid (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Giovani, Sarah; Manuhara, Godras Jati; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji


    Novel composite films based on semi-refined iota-carrageenan (SRIC) incorporating palmitic acid (PA) were prepared by an emulsification method. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined iota-carrageenan edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. Composite SRIC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (10%, 20%, and 30% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused a significant increase (p water vapor barrier properties of the films. Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the composite semi-refined iota-carrageenan-based edible film decreased significantly (p water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 10% and 20% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 30% w/w palmitic acid promoted films with a highly beneficial to improve water vapor barrier properties and it has the potential for food packaging applications.

  20. Influence of anthropometrics variables on the cardiorespiratory responses of children during exercise. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p378

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Sérgio Denadai


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different body sizes on the cardiorespiratory responses of 10-13-year-old boys during the stages of a maximum-effortincremental test. Twenty boys underwent a continuous maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer at an initial power output of 30 W and subsequent increases of 30 W at intervals of 3 min. Respiratory variables were assessed with a metabolic gas analyzer on a breath-by-breath basis. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the test. The groups were divided a posteriori according to maximal work output in the incremental test (90 or 120 W and according to body weight (> 45 or < 45 kg. The following variables were continuously measured: respiratory frequency, tidal volume, ventilation, absolute and relative oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate, and ventilatory equivalent for oxygen. The anthropometric variables, especially height and body weight, were closely associated with the cardiorespiratory responses. These variables are limiting and determinant factors of performance and need to be included in the prescription and practice of physical exercise for this pediatric population.

  1. Enhancement of hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber by radiofrequency Ar plasma discharge (United States)

    Gogoi, D.; Choudhury, A. J.; Chutia, J.; Pal, A. R.; Dass, N. N.; Devi, D.; Patil, D. S.


    The hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber are investigated using radiofrequency (RF) Ar plasma treatment at various RF powers (10-30 W) and treatment times (5-20 min). The Ar plasma is characterized using self-compensated Langmuir and emissive probe. The ion energy is observed to play an important role in determining the tensile strength and hydrophobicity of the plasma treated fibers. The chemical compositions of the fibers are observed to be affected by the increase in RF power rather than treatment time. XPS study reveals that the ions that are impinging on the substrates are mainly responsible for the cleavage of peptide bond and side chain of amino acid groups at the surface of the fibers. The observed properties (tensile strength and hydrophobicity) of the treated fibers are found to be dependent on their variation in atomic concentration and functional composition at the surfaces. All the treated muga fibers exhibit almost similar thermal behavior as compared to the virgin one. At RF power of 10 W and treatment time range of 5-20 min, the treated fibers exhibit properties similar to that of the virgin one. Higher RF power (30 W) and the increase in treatment time deteriorate the properties of the fibers due to incorporation of more surface roughness caused by sufficiently high energetic ion bombardment. The properties of the plasma treated fibers are attempted to correlate with the XPS analysis and their surface morphologies.

  2. Enhancement of hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber by radiofrequency Ar plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, D.; Choudhury, A.J. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Chutia, J., E-mail: [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Pal, A.R.; Dass, N.N. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Devi, D. [Life Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Patil, D.S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    The hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber are investigated using radiofrequency (RF) Ar plasma treatment at various RF powers (10-30 W) and treatment times (5-20 min). The Ar plasma is characterized using self-compensated Langmuir and emissive probe. The ion energy is observed to play an important role in determining the tensile strength and hydrophobicity of the plasma treated fibers. The chemical compositions of the fibers are observed to be affected by the increase in RF power rather than treatment time. XPS study reveals that the ions that are impinging on the substrates are mainly responsible for the cleavage of peptide bond and side chain of amino acid groups at the surface of the fibers. The observed properties (tensile strength and hydrophobicity) of the treated fibers are found to be dependent on their variation in atomic concentration and functional composition at the surfaces. All the treated muga fibers exhibit almost similar thermal behavior as compared to the virgin one. At RF power of 10 W and treatment time range of 5-20 min, the treated fibers exhibit properties similar to that of the virgin one. Higher RF power (30 W) and the increase in treatment time deteriorate the properties of the fibers due to incorporation of more surface roughness caused by sufficiently high energetic ion bombardment. The properties of the plasma treated fibers are attempted to correlate with the XPS analysis and their surface morphologies.

  3. Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) - evaluation of a miniaturised applicator and implementation in a 1.0-T high-field open MRI applying a porcine liver model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, Florian; Knobloch, Gesine; Rump, J.; Wonneberger, Uta; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgraeber, Ulf [Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Balmert, Dirk [Somatex Medical Technologies GmbH, Teltow (Germany); Chopra, Sascha [Charite, Humboldt-University, Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Philipp, Carsten [Elisabeth Klinik, Department of Laser Medicine, Berlin (Germany)


    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a novel LITT applicator for thermal ablation of liver malignancies in 1.0-T high-field open MRI. A miniaturised 6-F double-tubed protective catheter with a closed cooling circuit was used with a flexible laser fibre, connected to a 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser and evaluated in non-perfused porcine livers (18-30 W for 10-20 min, 2-W and 2-min increments; n = 210/applicator) in reference to an established 9-F system. As a proof of concept, MR-guided LITT was performed in two healthy domestic pigs in high-field open MRI. Ex-vivo, the coagulation volumes induced by the 6-F system with maximum applicable power of 24 W for 20 min (33.0 {+-} 4.4 cm{sup 3}) did not differ significantly from those set with the 9-F system at 30 W for 20 min (35.8 {+-} 4.9 cm{sup 3}) (p = 0.73). A flow-rate of 15 ml/min of the cooling saline solution was sufficient. MR navigation and thermometry were feasible. The miniaturised 6-F applicator can create comparable coagulation sizes to those of the 9-F system. Applicator guidance and online-thermometry in high-field open MRI are feasible. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation and characterization of 30 solar home systems (SHS) Ovonic-Unisolar; Caracterizacion y evaluacion de 30 sistemas FV domiciliarios ovonic-unisolar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. Roberto; Agredano, Jaime; Munguia, Gonzalo; Lagunas, Javier; Huacuz, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Brennan, Steve [Troy, MI (United States)


    In this work the first results of the evaluation and characterization of 30 solar home systems (SHS) Ovonic-Unisolar (16 of 30 W and 14 of 60 W of capacity) are presented. The components of the SHS are: One or two PV modules, a charge controller, a nickel metal-hybride (NiMH) battery with a nominal capacity of 85 Ah rated at 3 hours, two or four 8 W lamps, and a CD/CD converter for connecting a radio or a TV W/B a maximum power of 20W. Of all systems evaluated, 29 were installed in three communities of the Oaxaca State, and the other 2 are installed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the laboratory as prototype systems. Before the systems installation at the rural communities, all of them were tested in laboratory. Eight systems installed in the field are being monitoring with data acquisition systems. The main motivation of this projects is to know the behavior of the NiMH battery in the SHS. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados de la caracterizacion y evaluacion de 30 sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV) domiciliarios Ovonic-Unisolar (16 con capacidad de 30 W y 14 con capacidad de 60 W). Los sistemas estan integrados por uno o dos modulos FV de 30 W (dependiendo de la capacidad del sistema), un controlador de carga con termo-interuptor, una bateria del tipo niquel hidruros metalicos (NiHM) con capacidad de 85 Ah a una razon de descarga de 3 horas, 2 o 4 lamparas compactas de alta eficiencia de 8 W y un convertidor CD/CD que permite a los usuarios utilizar una radiograbadora y/o una television B/N con potencia no mayor a 20 W. De estos 30 sistemas FV, 28 se instalaron en 3 comunidades rurales del Estado de Oaxaca y los dos sistemas restantes se tienen instalados en el laboratorio FV del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) como sistemas testigos. Previo a la instalacion en campo, todos los sistemas fueron evaluados en el laboratorio para garantizar su operacion en las comunidades rurales. De los 28 sistemas instalados en

  5. Low Noise Frequency Comb Sources Based on Synchronously Pumped Doubly Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillators (United States)

    Wan, Chenchen

    coherent laser-like radiations at which frequency the common gain material is not available. It is also a good candidate for extend frequency comb spectral range, for comb generation, the OPO is usually pumped by a comb source thus the OPO cavity needs to be synchronized to the pump pulses. Depending on whether the signal or idle light is in resonance, the OPO could be singly or doubly resonant. The doubly resonant OPO (DOPO) has much lower lasing threshold since both signal and idle are in resonance, but it also requires more cavity stability and was historically considered unstable for operation. However, recent research has proved that the synchronously pumped doubly resonant OPO could operate even without active cavity stabilization. Moreover, when the OPO is in degenerate state where the signal and idler are identical the OPO will remain frequency stabilized because it's acting as a frequency divide-by-2 system. This makes the DOPO an excellent candidate for extending the frequency comb spectral range to mid-IR by pumping with a frequency comb at near IR wavelength. In the dissertation, first a 1 mum Yb-doped fiber oscillator will be frequency stabilized to generate a frequency comb. The repetition rate is locked indirectly by locking the Yb laser to a stabilization single frequency laser and the CEO frequency is locked by f-2f self-reference. The fully locked 1 mum comb is then used to pump a DOPO. The DOPO can operate at either degenerate or non-degenerate states by tuning its cavity length. To characterize the OPO, its output spectral, output power will be measured. More importantly the CEO frequency of the OPO will also need to be simultaneously measured in order to verify and study the self stabilization of DOPO at degeneracy. To quantify the coherence property of the DOPO, the CEO frequency noise transfer function will also be measured, the pump comb is frequency modulated with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and the transfer function could be measured by

  6. 不同组分的钒酸盐混晶Ybt:YxGd1-t-xVO4光谱与激光性质的比较研究%Comparative study on the spectroscopic and laser properties of mixed vanadates Ybt:YxGd1-t-x VO4 with different compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘均海; 韩文娟; 张怀金; 王继扬; Xavier Mateos; Valentin Petrov


    研究了三种掺Yb钒酸盐混晶Yb0.005:Y0.298Gd0.697VO4,Yb0.007:Y0.407Gd0.586VO4和Yb0.009:Y0.575Gd0.416VO4的室温偏振吸收谱和发射谱.结果表明,最强的吸收和发射相应于π偏振,位于波长985 nm;随组分不同,最大吸收截面σabs=4.8-8.5 × 10-20cm2,吸收带宽9.5-9.9 nm;最大受激发射截面σem=5.8-10.3×10-20cm2.利用高亮度半导体激光器纵向抽运实现了室温下的连续波激光运转.研究发现,不同混晶的激光振荡行为存在很大差异:在谐振腔输出耦合透过率T=2%条件下,Yb0.005:Y0.298Gd0.697VO4和Yb0.009:Y0 575 Gd0 416VO4的激光振荡随抽运功率降低而出现σ,π偏振态的共存和转变;而Yb0.007:Y0.407Gd0.586VO4的激光振荡则保持π偏振态不变.在T=5%情形,Yb0.009:Y0.575Gd0.416VO4的激光振荡为单纯的σ偏振;而Yb0 005:Y0.298 Gd0.697 VO4所产生的激光振荡随抽运功率下降仍出现类似的偏振态变化行为.%The room-temperature polarized absorption and emission spectra of Yb doped mixed vanadates Yb0. 005: Y0.298 Gd0.697 VO4, Yb0.007: Y0.407 Gd0. 586 VO4, and Yb0.009: Y0. 575 Gd0.416 VO4 have been studied. The results show that the strongest absorption and emission, occurring at wavelength of 985 nm, correspond to the r polarization, depending on the composition the maximum absorption cross section ranges from 4. 8 to 8.5 x 10-20 cm2' with bandwidths of 9.5-9.9 nm,whereas the maximum stimulated emission cross section varies in the range of 5.8-10. 3 × 10 -20 cm2. Continuous-wave laser operation has been realized at room temperature with the mixed crystals through longitudinal pumping with a diode laser. It was found that the laser oscillation behavior differs significantly from one mixed crystal to another:in the case of T = 2% (T is the output coupling of the resonator), the coexistence and switching of of, π polarization states occur on reducing the pump power in the laser oscillation of Yb0. 005 :Y0.298 Gd0.697 VO4 and Yb0.009 :Y0.575 Gd0

  7. The Kelvin Wave and the Madden-Julian Oscillation in Aqua-Plant Simulations by the Naval Research Laboratory Spectral Element Atmospheric Model (NSEAM) (United States)


    3 305 455 605 605 755 75S 90S 0 .30E 60E 90E 120E 150E 180 150W 120W 90W 60W .30W LONGITUDE (Deg) NSEAM Mox :3000. Min:27 30. Ave:2821...E6rP8L30e --------------0 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 70 80 TIME (Doy) 80 90 70 80 TIME (Doy) 90 100 110 120 Mox :229, Min:O, Ave:33 ----------110 120...130 140 150 90 100 110 120 Mox :252, Min:O, Ave:44 ----------100 110 120 130 140 150 Figure 3 (cont.) ~ 0’ Ql 0 ....... w 0 :::> 1- (3 z 0

  8. 链霉素抗性突变理性筛选avermectin高产菌株%Streptomycin-resistant rational screening for high yield avermectins producing strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶纯长; 谌颉; 郭美锦; 郭元昕; 储炬; 庄英萍; 张嗣良


    为提高菌株avermectin的产量,本文以链霉素抗性为选择压力,对除虫链霉菌Streptomyces avermitilis进行紫外诱变(253.7nm,30w,照射时间45s),得到在摇瓶发酵水平比出发菌株产量提高25%以上的4株突变株,其中2株提高水平达30%以上.实验表明了链霉素抗性突变与产抗生素突变之间的密切联系.同时,对其机理和意义作了一些探讨.

  9. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...... (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes...

  10. Optimization of Fluorine Plasma Treatment for Interface Improvement on HfO2/In0.53Ga0.47As MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Chen


    Full Text Available This paper reports significant improvements in the electrical performance of In0.53Ga0.47As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET by a post-gate CF4/O2 plasma treatment. The optimum condition of CF4/O2 plasma treatment has been systematically studied and found to be 30 W for 3–5 min. Approximately 5× reduction in interface trap density from 2.8 × 1012 to 4.9 × 1011 cm−2eV−1 has been demonstrated with fluorine (F incorporation. Subthreshold swing has been improved from 127 to 109 mV/dec. Effective channel mobility has been enhanced from 826 to 1,144 cm2/Vs.

  11. 3-D loaded scaffolds obtained by supercritical CO2 assisted process (United States)

    Cardea, S.; Reverchon, E.


    In this work, a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) drying process for the formation of 3-D PVDF-HFP loaded scaffolds was tested. Experiments at pressures ranging between 150 and 250 bar and at temperatures ranging between 35 and 55°C were performed. The PVDF-HFP- acetone-ethanol solution at 15% w/w polymer was selected as the base case. The drug (amoxicillin) concentration was varied from 20 to 30% w/w with respect to PVDF-HFP. SC- CO2 drying process was confirmed to be a valid alternative to generate loaded structures; indeed, scaffolds characterized by nanometric networks (with mean pore diameter of about 300 nm) with a homogeneous drug distribution were obtained. Drug controlled release experiments were also performed and a quasi-zero order release kinetic was observed.

  12. Changes of Related Physiological Indexes of Hot Pepper under PEG-induced Water Stress%PEG模拟干旱胁迫下辣椒相关生理指标的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡小东; 郭见林


    以早杂二号辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)为试材,研究了5%、10%、15%、20%、25%及30%(W/V)PEG6000渗透胁迫下辣椒小苗组织相对含水量,渗透调解物质含量、抗氧化特性等指标随处理时间的变化.结果表明:随着PEG6000胁迫时间的延长或PEG6000浓度的升高,辣椒叶片相对含水量下降比较明显,而脯氨酸含量、MDA含量和SOD活性表现出不同程度的增加趋势.

  13. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao


    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying.

  14. Yield effects on 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration in cabernet sauvignon using a solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. (United States)

    Chapman, Dawn M; Thorngate, John H; Matthews, Mark A; Guinard, Jean-Xavier; Ebeler, Susan E


    A rapid and automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) quantification in red wine was developed. Wines with 30% (w/v) NaCl and 2-methoxy-(2)H(3)-3-isobutylpyrazine internal standard were sampled with a 2 cm divinylbenzene/carboxen/poly(dimethylsiloxane) SPME fiber for 30 min at 40 degrees C and analyzed by GC-MS. The method was used to measure MIBP concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon wines that were produced from six winter pruning treatments over two vintages. MIBP concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with buds per vine. In addition, the MIBP concentration was directly related to sensory vegetal intensity ratings obtained by descriptive analysis.

  15. The effectiveness of a high output/short duration radiofrequency current application technique in segmental pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen;


    AIMS: Segmental pulmonary vein (PV) isolation by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation has become a curative therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long procedure time limits the wide application of this procedure. The aim of the current study was to compare a novel ablation technique...... with a high power output and short application time vs. a conventional technique using a low power output and long application time. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 90 consecutive patients (age 53+/-10 years; 66 men). Segmental PV isolation was performed by irrigated RF catheter ablation in both...... groups. In the conventional group (Group 1, 45 patients), the power output was limited to 30 W with a target temperature of 50 degrees C and an RF preset duration of 120 s. In the novel group (Group 2, 45 patients), the maximum power output was preset to 45 W, with a target temperature of 55 degrees C...

  16. Optimization of methane conversion to liquid fuels over W-Cu/ZSM-5 catalysts by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Didi Dwi Anggoro; Istadi


    The conversion of methane to liquid fuels is still in the development process. The modified HZSM-5 by loading with Tungsten (W) enhanced its heat resistant performance, and the high reaction temperature (800 ℃) did not lead to the loss of W component by sublimation. The loading of ZSM-5 with Tungsten and Copper (Cu) resulted in an increment in the methane conversion, CO2, and C5+ selectivities. The high methane conversion and C5+ selectivity, and low H2O selectivity are obtained by using W/3.OCu/ZSM-5. The optimization of methane conversion over 3.0 W/3.0Cu/ZSM-5 under different temperature and oxygen concentration using response surface methodology (RSM) are studied. The optimum point for methane conversion is 19% when temperature is 753 ℃, and oxygen concentration is 12%. The highest C5+ selectivity is 27% when temperature is 751 ℃, and oxygen concentration is 11%.

  17. Effect of Ultrasound on the Compaction of Ibuprofen/Isomalt Systems (United States)

    Fini, Adamo; Cavallari, Cristina; Ospitali, Francesca


    Six mixtures, containing 10, 20 and 30% w/w ibuprofen and isomalt, were compacted by a traditional or ultrasound-assisted machine and analysed by means of thermal (DSC and TGA) and micro-spectrometry (Raman and FT-IR) techniques. Ultrasound discharge causes melting of ibuprofen powder, transforming into a paste that could not assume the shape of a tablet; when in mixture with isomalt, thermal events, occurring during ultrasound compaction, change the appearance of the particles formed by milling the tablets obtained this way and SEM photos reveal a dramatic reduction of the particle size and changes due to a possible ibuprofen re-crystallization. Raman and FT-IR spectra of small portions of the surface and of the bulk, using characteristic peaks for identification, reveal that in ultrasound-compacted tablets ibuprofen partially disappears from the top face of the tablet.

  18. Preservation of corn silage sugars with sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.; Peart, R.M.; Eckhoff, S.R.; Okos, M.R.


    The preservation of corn silage with sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) was studied using SO/sub 2/ dosage levels between 0.0% and 3.0% (w/w), and storage temperatures between 2/sup 0/C and 32/sup 0/C, SO/sub 2/ dosages of 0.3% and above were sufficient to prevent microbial growth in silage during storage in culture tubes for 3 to 6 months at temperatures from 2/sup 0/C and 22/sup 0/C. A dosage of 0.6% was required to preserve silage over 8 months in larger bags at room temperatures. Dry matter losses during ensilement were due to conversion and losses of water soluble sugars in the silage.

  19. A Teflon microreactor with integrated piezoelectric actuator to handle solid forming reactions. (United States)

    Kuhn, Simon; Noël, Timothy; Gu, Lei; Heider, Patrick L; Jensen, Klavs F


    We present a general inexpensive method for realizing a Teflon stack microreactor with an integrated piezoelectric actuator for conducting chemical synthesis with solid products. The microreactors are demonstrated with palladium-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions, which are prone to clogging microchannels by forming insoluble salts as by-products. Investigations of the ultrasonic waveform applied by the piezoelectric actuator reveal an optimal value of 50 kHz at a load power of 30 W. Operating the system at these conditions, the newly developed Teflon microreactor handles the insoluble solids formed and no clogging is observed. The investigated reactions reach full conversion in very short reaction times and high isolated yields are obtained (>95% yield).

  20. High power, continuous-wave, single frequency fiber amplifier at 1091 nm and frequency doubling to 545.5 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Stappel, M; Kolbe, D; Walz, J


    We present a high power single-frequency ytterbium fiber amplifier system with an output power of 30 W at 1091 nm. The amplifier system consists of two stages, a preamplifier stage in which amplified spontaneous emission is efficiently suppressed (>40 dB) and a high power amplifier with an efficiency of 52 %. Two different approaches of frequency doubling are compared. We achieve 8.6 W at 545.5 nm by single-pass frequency doubling in a MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO3 and up to 19.3 W at 545.5 nm by frequency doubling with a lithium-triborate (LBO) crystal in an external enhancement cavity.

  1. Optimization of Production Medium for Mass Culture of Metarhizium anisopliae ARS 2231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seung Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Moon, Ki Hyuk [Kyungwon University Technology Complex, Songnam (Korea); Yoon, Jeong Weon [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea)


    Chemical pesticides which have been commonly used for crop protection have many problems such as high production cost and environmental hazards. Entomogeneous fungi which attack living insects are very powerful means for microbiological insecticide. The purpose of this study is to investigate the culture conditions for mass production of Metarhizium anisopliae ARS 2231 which is a potential microbiological pesticide. The temperature and pH range for optimal cultivation were 28 deg. C and pH 5.0-7.0, respectively. For M. anisopliae ARS 2231, 3.0% (w/v) rice bran, 0.8% (w/v) hydrolyzed casein, and 0.3% (w/v) K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} were found as the proper nutrients, considering cell mass, enzyme activities, and spore concentration. 16 refs., 10 tabs.

  2. Flywheel Energy Storage System Suspended by Hybrid Magnetic Bearing (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Prince; Hu, Yefa; Misbawu, Adam

    This work presents a prototype flywheel energy storage system (FESS) suspended by hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) rotating at a speed of 20000rpm with a maximum storage power capacity of 30W with a maximum tip speed of 300m/s. The design presented is an improvement of most existing FESS, as the design incorporates a unique feature in that the upper and the lower rotor and stator core are tapered which enhances larger thrust and much lower radial force to be exerted on the system. Without any adverse effect being experienced by the model. The work also focuses on the description of developing a prototype FESS suspended by HMB using solid works as a basis of developing in the nearer future a more improved FESS suspended by HMB capable of injecting the ever increasing high energy demand situation in the 21st century and beyond.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, Christian, E-mail: [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Proft, Thomas [School of Medical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Baker, Edward N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)


    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution.

  4. Generation of high energy square-wave pulses in all anomalous dispersion Er:Yb passive mode locked fiber ring laser. (United States)

    Semaan, Georges; Ben Braham, Fatma; Salhi, Mohamed; Meng, Yichang; Bahloul, Faouzi; Sanchez, François


    We have experimentally demonstrated square pulses emission from a co-doped Er:Yb double-clad fiber laser operating in anomalous dispersion DSR regime using the nonlinear polarization evolution technique. Stable mode-locked pulses have a repetition rate of 373 kHz with 2.27 µJ energy per pulse under a pumping power of 30 W in cavity. With the increase of pump power, both the duration and the energy of the output square pulses broaden. The experimental results demonstrate that the passively mode-locked fiber laser operating in the anomalous regime can also realize a high-energy pulse, which is different from the conventional low-energy soliton pulse.

  5. Laser surface alloying of 316L stainless steel coated with a bioactive hydroxyapatite-titanium oxide composite. (United States)

    Ghaith, El-Sayed; Hodgson, Simon; Sharp, Martin


    Laser surface alloying is a powerful technique for improving the mechanical and chemical properties of engineering components. In this study, laser surface irradiation process employed in the surface modification off 316L stainless steel substrate using hydroxyapatite-titanium oxide to provide a composite ceramic layer for the suitability of applying this technology to improve the biocompatibility of medical alloys and implants. Fusion of the metal surface incorporating hydroxyapatite-titania ceramic particles using a 30 W Nd:YAG laser at different laser powers, 40, 50 and 70% power and a scan speed of 40 mm s(-1) was observed to adopt the optimum condition of ceramic deposition. Coatings were evaluated in terms of microstructure, surface morphology, composition biocompatibility using XRD, ATR-FTIR, SEM and EDS. Evaluation of the in vitro bioactivity by soaking the treated metal in SBF for 10 days showed the deposition of biomimetic apatite.

  6. Modeling and measurements of nocturnal drainage flows along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Gudiksen, P.H.


    In support of the DOE ASCOT program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has analyzed the wind, temperature, and net radiation measurements acquired by the network of sensors situated within and outside the Coal Creek Canyon drainage area during 1991. It is shown that strong cooling rates, between 50--80 W/m{sup 2}, generate will defined drainage flows with a maximum speed of approximately 6 m/s. A cooling rate of 15--30 W/m{sup 2}, produces a significantly weaker drainage flow and further reduction of the cooling rate results in the failure of any significant drainage flows to form. In an attempt to further understand these flows researchers conducted numerical simulations of two representative flows.

  7. A Primary Study of the Variations of Vertical Radiation with the Beijing 325-m Meteorological Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuesi; HU Bo; LIU Guangren


    The Beijing 325-m Meteorological Tower (325MT) is used to observe the vertical variation of solar radiation. Results of the experiments indicate that the automatic radiation monitoring system, including a sun tracker and data collection system, works well and all the specifications meet WMO observation standards. The measurement data show that there is a significant radiation decrease from 320 m to the surface, where the difference is only about 30 W m-2 on light air-pollution days, while the maximum reaches about 110 W m-2 when heavy pollution appears near the ground. The global UV radiation decreases on heavy air-pollution days and under poor visibility conditions, and the difference between 300 m and 8 m is larger than on clear days.

  8. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution (United States)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.


    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  9. Sugar production from barley straw biomass pretreated by combined alkali and enzymatic extrusion. (United States)

    Duque, A; Manzanares, P; Ballesteros, I; Negro, M J; Oliva, J M; González, A; Ballesteros, M


    A pretreatment that combines a thermo-mechanical process (extrusion) with chemical and biological catalysts to produce fermentable sugars from barley straw (BS) biomass was investigated. BS was firstly extruded with alkali and then, the pretreated material (extrudate) was submitted to extrusion with hydrolytic enzymes (bioextrusion). The bioextrudate was found to have 35% (w/w dwb) of total solids in soluble form, partly coming from carbohydrate hydrolysis during bioextrusion. About 48% of soluble solids dry weight is comprised by sugars, mostly glucose and xylose. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of bioextrudate could be successfully carried out at high solid loading level of 30% (w/v), with sugar production yield of 32 g glucose and 18 g xylose/100g bioextrudate at 72 h incubation (equivalent to 96 and 52 g/l concentration, respectively). These results, together with the high level of integration of the process, indicate a great potential of this pretreatment technology for sugar production from lignocellulosic substrates.

  10. Liquid Hydrogen Target for the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, J; Duday-Chanat, L; Geyer, R; Mallot, G K; Pirotte, O; Vullierme, B


    A liquid hydrogen target has been developed for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The target has a diameter of 40 mm and a length of 2.5 meter, creating an active volume of about 3 liter of liquid hydrogen. The cylindrical part of the target wall is formed by a Kapton® foil strip, wound and glued to a thickness of 0.125 mm. The Kapton® foil is used to minimize the energy loss of the particles, scattered or created within the target volume, crossing the target boundary. The two end-caps enclosing the target volume have been fabricated from Mylar®. The system is cooled with a 30 W at 20 K cryocooler, delivering the cooling capacity for the cool-down as well as for the continuous operation of the system.

  11. Enhanced performance of a wide-aperture copper vapour laser with hydrogen additive in neon buffer gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijendra Singh; V V Subramaniam; S R Daultabad; Ashim Chakraboty


    A wide-aperture copper vapour laser was demonstrated at ∼ 10 kHz rep-rate with hydrogen additive in its buffer gas. Maximum power in excess of ∼ 50 W (at 10 kHz) was achieved by adding 1.96% hydrogen to the neon buffer gas at 20 mbar total gas pressure. This increase in output power was about 70% as compared to ∼ 30 W achieved with pure neon at 5.5 kHz rep-rate. The 70% enhancement achieved was significantly higher than the maximum reported value of 50% so far in the literature. The enhancement was much higher (about 150%) as compared to its 20 W power at 10 kHz rep-rate using pure neon as the standard CVL operation.

  12. Photoelectrolysis of water at high current density - Use of laser light excitation of semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical cells (United States)

    Wrighton, M. S.; Bocarsley, A. B.; Bolts, J. M.


    In the present paper, some results are given for UV laser light irradiation of the photoanode (SnO2, SrTiO3, or TiO2) in a cell for the light-driven electrolysis of H2O, at radiation intensities of up to 380 W/sq cm. The properties of the anode material are found to be independent of light intensity. Conversion of UV light to stored chemical energy in the form of 2H2/O2 from H2O was driven at a rate of up to 30 W/sq cm. High O2 evolution rates at the irradiated anodes without changes in the current-voltage curves are attributed to the excess oxidizing power associated with photogenerated holes. A test for this sort of hypothesis for H2 evolution at p-type materials is proposed.

  13. [Effect of He-Ne-laser irradiation on plasmid transformation of Escherichia coli bacteria]. (United States)

    Tiflova, O A; Leonov, P G; Karbysheva, E A; Shakhnabatian, L G


    The influence of the of radiation a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 30 W/m2, 5-20 J/m2) on the transformation of Escherichia coli cells with plasmid DNA was studied. The irradiation of a mixture of bacterial cells and plasmid DNA increased the transformation efficiency 2.5-3 times, thus offering an alternative to the heat treatment commonly used. In contrast to the standard techniques, the laser-induced increase in the transformation efficiency was accompanied by a 1.7- to 2-fold increase in cell survival. The effect of the 632.8-nm light, know to be absorbed by membrane porphyrin components, is supposed to be mediated via a modification in the replication and transformation DNA-membrane complexes in E. coli cells.

  14. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta. (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E


    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  15. A 24 keV liquid-metal-jet x-ray source for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, D. H.; Takman, P. A. C.; Lundstroem, U.; Burvall, A.; Hertz, H. M. [Biomedical and X-Ray Physics, Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)


    We present a high-brightness 24-keV electron-impact microfocus x-ray source based on continuous operation of a heated liquid-indium/gallium-jet anode. The 30-70 W electron beam is magnetically focused onto the jet, producing a circular 7-13 {mu}m full width half maximum x-ray spot. The measured spectral brightness at the 24.2 keV In K{sub {alpha}} line is 3 x 10{sup 9} photons/(s x mm{sup 2}x mrad{sup 2}x 0.1% BW) at 30 W electron-beam power. The high photon energy compared to existing liquid-metal-jet sources increases the penetration depth and allows imaging of thicker samples. The applicability of the source in the biomedical field is demonstrated by high-resolution imaging of a mammography phantom and a phase-contrast angiography phantom.

  16. Monoglycerides and Diglycerides Synthesis in a Solvent-Free System by Lipase-Catalyzed Glycerolysis (United States)

    Fregolente, Patricia Bogalhos Lucente; Fregolente, Leonardo Vasconcelos; Pinto, Gláucia Maria F.; Batistella, Benedito César; Wolf-Maciel, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    Five lipases were screened (Thermomyces lanuginosus free and immobilized forms, Candida antarctica B, Candida rugosa, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizomucor miehei) to study their ability to produce monoglycerides (MG) and diglycerides (DG) through enzymatic glycerolysis of soybean oil. Lipase from C. antarctica was further studied to verify the enzyme load (wt% of oil mass), the molar ratio glycerol/oil, and the water content (wt% of glycerol) on the glycerolysis reaction. The best DG and MG productions were in the range 45-48% and 28-30% (w/w, based on the total oil), respectively. Using immobilized lipases, the amount of free fatty acids (FFA) produced was about 5%. However, the amount of FFA produced when using free lipases, with 3.5% extra water in the system, is equivalent to the MG yield, about 23%. The extra water content provides a competition between hydrolysis and glycerolysis reactions, increasing the FFA production.

  17. Black phosphorus based saturable absorber for Nd-ion doped pulsed solid state laser operation (United States)

    Han, S.; Zhang, F.; Wang, M.; Wang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, Z.; Xu, X.


    In this paper, the use of black phosphorus (BP) as a saturable absorber in a Q-switched Nd-ion doped solid state laser is presented. Few layers of BP in isopropyl alcohol are obtained by liquid phase exfoliation. The BP nanosheets with thicknesses in the range of 15-20 nm are deposited onto a K9 glass substrate. By inserting the BP nanosheets into a diode pumped Nd-ion doped solid state laser, stable Q-switched lasing at 0.9, 1.06, 1.3 μm is obtained. Using this approach, we have achieved a short pulse duration down to 219 ns, a high pulse energy of up to 6.5 μJ, and the corresponding peak power of 30 W. Our results show that the BP saturable absorber functions well in a Nd-ion doped solid state laser for pulsed laser generation.

  18. Photoelectrolysis of water at high current density - Use of laser light excitation of semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical cells (United States)

    Wrighton, M. S.; Bocarsley, A. B.; Bolts, J. M.


    In the present paper, some results are given for UV laser light irradiation of the photoanode (SnO2, SrTiO3, or TiO2) in a cell for the light-driven electrolysis of H2O, at radiation intensities of up to 380 W/sq cm. The properties of the anode material are found to be independent of light intensity. Conversion of UV light to stored chemical energy in the form of 2H2/O2 from H2O was driven at a rate of up to 30 W/sq cm. High O2 evolution rates at the irradiated anodes without changes in the current-voltage curves are attributed to the excess oxidizing power associated with photogenerated holes. A test for this sort of hypothesis for H2 evolution at p-type materials is proposed.

  19. Thermal Effect in KTP Crystals During High Power Laser Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jian-Quan; YU Yi-Zhong; CHEN Jin; ZHANG Fan; WANG Peng; WANG Tao; ZHANG Bai-Gang


    We report on the theoretical and experimental studies of the thermal effect of the KTP crystal during high power operation. From the dependence of the refractive index temperature coefficients on wavelength, the dependence of the optimum phase-matching angles on temperature is derived. In the experiment, the angle of the frequency-doubled KTP crystal is tilted to compensate for the thermal effect and to obtain △φ = 0.7° when the green laser output power is 30 W and the KTP crystal temperature is about 80°C. We obtained the highest stable output power greater than 40 W with an L-shaped flat-flat intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The experimental results are very consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of monolaurin. (United States)

    Pereira, Carla C B; da Silva, Mônica A P; Langone, Marta A P


    The aim of this study was to produce monolaurin utilizing a commercial immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM-20; Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) through the direct esterification of lauric acid and glycerol in a solvent-free system. The influence of fatty acid/glycerol molar ratio, temperature, and Lipozyme (IM-20) concentration on the molar fraction of monolaurin were determined using an experimental design. The best conditions employed were 55 degrees C, lauric acid/glycerol molar ratio of 1.0, and 3.0% (w/w) enzyme concentration. The final product, obtained after 6 h of reaction, was 45.5% monolaurin, 26.8% dilaurin, 3.1% trilaurin, and 24.6% lauric acid. The reusability of the enzyme was also studied.

  1. Nd:YAG laser thermal injury on rabbit pharynx mucosa%Nd:YAG激光对兔咽部黏膜热损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 陈明; 王淑芳; 林振石; 唐秀如


    Objective: To assess the relation between the degree of tissue thermal injury and the power density of the Nd:YAG laser. Methods: The tissues of New Zealand breed rabbits was uncontactly irradiated by Nd: YAG laser for 5 seconds at 10W( 221 W/cm2 ), 20W( 442W/cm2 ), 30W (663W/cm2 ), 40W( 884W/cm2 ) of output power of the end of the optical fibre. The depth of thermal injury of tongue and pharyngeal mucosa were examined immediately after irradiated by laser. The pharyngeal mucosa was treated with the same output power. Biopsy taken at. 1,3,7, 14 days after irradiation was examined and analyzed using histopathological methods. Results:The depth of thermal injury was 0.32 ~ 0.53mm at 10W (221W/cm2 ),0.61 ~ 1.27mm at 20W (442W/cm2), 1.22 ~ 1.76mm at 30W (663W/cm2 ), 1.68 ~ 2.29mm at 40W (884W/cm2). Coagulation and inflammation were found in the tissue irradiated by laser. The wound was repaired by the epithelium around the lesion. Conclusion: The Nd: YAG laser uncontact irradiation with appropriate parameter is effective and safe.%目的:探讨Nd:YAG激光功率密度与黏膜组织热损伤程度的关系,以及激光照射后黏膜组织愈合的过程。方法:激光功率密度221W/cm2(10W)、442W/cm2(20W)、663wt/cm2(30W)、884W/cm2(40W),持续时间5s,非接触照射新西兰兔舌和咽后壁黏膜组织,测量急性热损伤的深度;相同剂量照射兔咽后壁,术后1、3、7、14d观察咽后壁愈合情况。结果:221W/cm2(10W)时,组织热损伤深度为0.32~0.53mm;442W/cm2(20W)时,为0.61~1.27mm;663/cm2(30W)时,为1.22~1.76mm;884W/cm2(40W)时,为1.68~2.29km。激光照射后,黏膜组织主要表现为凝固性坏死和继发性炎症反应,创面愈合过程主要是创面炎症渗出和表皮凝固坏死痂皮下直接愈合。组织热损伤深度随激光功率密度增强而增加。结论:在激光治疗中,采用适宜剂量参数的Nd:YAG激光非接触照射安全、有效。

  2. Quality evaluation of tortilla chips made with corn meal dough and cooked bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Ochoa-Martínez


    Full Text Available A mixture of cornmeal dough and cooked bean flour (BF was prepared at different ratios (50/50, 60/40, and 70/30 w/w, and processed to chips. Viscosity profile, temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy, texture, protein content, and in vitro digestibility were measured. Pasting temperature tended to be lower when the flour bean concentration was lower. Maximum viscosity increased significantly in both samples (dough mixture and chips when the BF concentration was lower. In general, gelatinization temperature remains constant, while the heating enthalpy was higher with lower BF concentration. The addition of BF was correlated with greater crispiness, suggesting improved chip texture at higher BF concentrations. The final protein content in the corn-bean chips was very similar, despite the concentration of BF used. Protein digestibility in the chips was affected by the proportion of BF added, being higher when the amount of the BF was lower.

  3. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber Hashem Gaber Ahmed


    Full Text Available Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions, while solely carbon dots (C-dots were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum, under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined.

  4. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions. (United States)

    Ahmed, Gaber Hashem Gaber; Laíño, Rosana Badía; Calzón, Josefa Angela García; García, Marta Elena Díaz


    Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v) NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions), while solely carbon dots (C-dots) were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum), under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined.

  5. Synthesis of milligram quantities of proteins using a reconstituted in vitro protein synthesis system. (United States)

    Kazuta, Yasuaki; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya


    In this study, the amount of protein synthesized using an in vitro protein synthesis system composed of only highly purified components (the PURE system) was optimized. By varying the concentrations of each system component, we determined the component concentrations that result in the synthesis of 0.38 mg/mL green fluorescent protein (GFP) in batch mode and 3.8 mg/mL GFP in dialysis mode. In dialysis mode, protein concentrations of 4.3 and 4.4 mg/mL were synthesized for dihydrofolate reductase and β-galactosidase, respectively. Using the optimized system, the synthesized protein represented 30% (w/w) of the total protein, which is comparable to the level of overexpressed protein in Escherichia coli cells. This optimized reconstituted in vitro protein synthesis system may potentially be useful for various applications, including in vitro directed evolution of proteins, artificial cell assembly, and protein structural studies.

  6. Optimization of a coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma thruster with an analytical model (United States)

    Cannat, F.; Lafleur, T.; Jarrige, J.; Chabert, P.; Elias, P.-Q.; Packan, D.


    A new cathodeless plasma thruster currently under development at Onera is presented and characterized experimentally and analytically. The coaxial thruster consists of a microwave antenna immersed in a magnetic field, which allows electron heating via cyclotron resonance. The magnetic field diverges at the thruster exit and forms a nozzle that accelerates the quasi-neutral plasma to generate a thrust. Different thruster configurations are tested, and in particular, the influence of the source diameter on the thruster performance is investigated. At microwave powers of about 30 W and a xenon flow rate of 0.1 mg/s (1 SCCM), a mass utilization of 60% and a thrust of 1 mN are estimated based on angular electrostatic probe measurements performed downstream of the thruster in the exhaust plume. Results are found to be in fair agreement with a recent analytical helicon thruster model that has been adapted for the coaxial geometry used here.

  7. Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat


    Full Text Available Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc. is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5 /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5 /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

  8. Picosecond high-power 355-nm UV generation in CsLiBsub>6sub>Osub>10sub> crystal. (United States)

    Ueda, Kentaro; Orii, Yosuke; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Okada, George; Mori, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Masashi


    We report third-harmonic generation (THG) at 355 nm in CsLiBsub>6sub>Osub>10sub> (CLBO) by using sum-frequency mixing process. As a fundamental laser source, we employ a hybrid master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system seeded by a gain-switched laser diode (GS-LD) at 1064 nm to produce narrow spectral picosecond pulses. Both CLBO and walk-off compensated prism-coupled CLBO device generate over 30-W output of 355-nm UV lights, which means walk-off effect in CLBO is negligible in the picosecond laser system. The maximum THG conversion efficiency from the fundamental reaches about 48%, which is 1.2 times higher than that of LiBsub>3sub>Osub>5sub> (LBO). Theoretical THG outputs with CLBO and LBO are numerically calculated in order to verify the validity of these experimental results in detail.

  9. A worldwide review of standby power use in homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan K.


    Standby power use is the electricity consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their primary purpose. Results from 21 separate field studies of residential standby power use and eight bottom-up national estimates of standby power use in 17 countries were compiled. Average standby power use in the field measurements ranges from about 30 W in China to over 100 W in New Zealand and the United States. The weighted average of the measurements was about 50 W. The bottom-up estimates found that standby power was responsible for 3-12 percent of residential electricity use. There is insufficient information to determine if standby power use is increasing or declining.

  10. Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per


    as their interrelation. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was estimated assuming increased thermal capacity. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage capacity, especially for thick, thermally heavy elements. The storage capacity...... of a 100 mm thick concrete slab was found to increase with increasing heat transfer coefficients as high as 30 W/m2K. In contrast the heat storage capacity of a thin gypsum plaster board was found to be constant when the heat transfer coefficient exceeded 3 W/m2K. Additionally, the optimal thickness...... potential. However, because heat gains and night ventilation periods do not coincide in time, a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building to store the heat. Assuming a 24 h-period harmonic oscillation of the indoor air temperature within a range of thermal comfort, the analytical solution...

  11. Design and use of brushless dc motor without detent torque (United States)

    Wavre, N.


    Two applications of motors which cannot accept a residual detent torque due to the rotor magnets are presented. The first application concerns the joint mechanism of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/HERA project. The brushless torque motor drives a reversible harmonic drive with a high gear ratio of 500. The motor is designed to produce a stall torque of 3.0 Nm with a total imput power of 30 W for a total weight of 1.5 kg, with a no load speed of 500 rpm. The second application concerns the driving mechanism of an infrared sensor. The need to take all geometrical and magnetic parameters into consideration in designing space mechanisms is stressed.

  12. Thermal effects in the Input Optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers. (United States)

    Dooley, Katherine L; Arain, Muzammil A; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V; Heintze, Matthew; Hoak, Daniel; Khazanov, Efim A; Lucianetti, Antonio; Martin, Rodica M; Mueller, Guido; Palashov, Oleg; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H; Savage, R L; Tanner, D B; Williams, Luke F; Wu, Wan


    We present the design and performance of the LIGO Input Optics subsystem as implemented for the sixth science run of the LIGO interferometers. The Initial LIGO Input Optics experienced thermal side effects when operating with 7 W input power. We designed, built, and implemented improved versions of the Input Optics for Enhanced LIGO, an incremental upgrade to the Initial LIGO interferometers, designed to run with 30 W input power. At four times the power of Initial LIGO, the Enhanced LIGO Input Optics demonstrated improved performance including better optical isolation, less thermal drift, minimal thermal lensing, and higher optical efficiency. The success of the Input Optics design fosters confidence for its ability to perform well in Advanced LIGO.

  13. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Demirchyan, R; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, W; Essenov, S; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, Erwin; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Göttlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Goyon, C; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Heuer, R D; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C B; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D K; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pöschl, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S V; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Vujicic, B; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wigmore, C; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, J; Zohrabyan, H G; Zomer, F


    A measurement is presented of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering \\gamma* p \\to \\gamma p made using e^+ p collision data corresponding to a luminosity of 46.5 pb^{-1}, taken with the H1 detector at HERA. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, the invariant mass of the \\gamma* p system, W, and for the first time, differentially in the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex, t, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2. QCD based calculations at next-to-leading order using generalized parton distributions can describe the data, as can colour dipole model predictions.

  14. Time-varied magnetic field enhances transport of magnetic nanoparticles in viscous gel. (United States)

    MacDonald, Cristin; Friedman, Gary; Alamia, John; Barbee, Kenneth; Polyak, Boris


    The potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to deliver various forms of therapy has not been fully realized, in part due to difficulties in transporting the carriers through soft tissue to different target sites. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that transport of MNPs through a viscous gel can be controlled by a combined AC (time-varying) magnetic field and static field gradient. MNP velocity and transport efficiency were measured in a viscous gel at various settings of magnetic field and magnetite loadings. Combined application of an AC magnetic field with the static field gradient resulted in a nearly 30-fold increase in MNP transport efficiency in viscous gel for 30% (w/w) magnetite-loaded particles as compared with static field conditions. The 'oscillating' effect of an AC magnetic field greatly improves the ability to transport MNPs within soft media by decreasing the effective viscosity of the gel.

  15. Production of ethanol by raw starch hydrolysis and fermentation of damaged grains of wheat and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.; Kiransree, N.; Venkateswar Rao, L. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Microbiology


    The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was used to produce ethanol from raw starch of damaged quality wheat and sorghum grains by utilising crude amylase preparation from B. subtilis VB2 and an amylolytic yeast strain S. cerevisiae VSJ4. Various concentrations of damaged wheat and sorghum starch from 10% to 30%W/V were used and 25% was found to be optimum for damaged wheat and sorghum starch yielding 4.40%V/V and 3.50%V/V ethanol respectively. Whereas 25% raw starch of fine quality wheat and sorghum grains gave an yield of 5.60%V/V and 5.00%V/V respectively. The process was carried out at 35 C, 5.8 pH and 200 rpm for 4 days. (orig.) With 2 figs., 4 tabs., 14 refs.

  16. Observational Evidence for Loop-Loop Interaction (United States)

    Guiping, W.; Guangli, H.; Yuhua, T.; Aoao, X.


    Through analysis of the data including the hard x-ray(BASTE) microwave(NoRP) and magnetogram(MDI from SOHO) as well as the images of soft x-ray(YHKOH) and EIT(SOHO) on Apr. 151998 solar flare in the active region 8203(N30W12) we found: (1) there are similar quasi period oscillation in the profile of hard x-ray flux (25-5050-100keV) and microwave flux(1GHz) with duration of 85+/-25s every peak includes two sub-peak structures; (2) in the preheat phase of the flare active magnetic field changes apparently and a s-pole spot emerges ; (3) several EIT and soft x-ray loops exist and turn into bright . All of these may suggest that loop-loop interaction indeed exist. Through reconnection the electrons may be accelerated and the hard x-ray and microwave emission take place.

  17. On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of solar radiation (United States)

    Solomon, S.; Portmann, R. W.; Sanders, R. W.; Daniel, J. S.; Madsen, W.; Bartram, B.; Dutton, E. G.


    Direct measurements of the absorption of downwelling visible radiation by nitrogen dioxide are presented. The data show that this gas can contribute significantly to local radiative forcing under certain conditions. The observed enhancements in nitrogen dioxide absorption are likely to be due both to pollution and to production by lightning in convective clouds. Case studies of several days of observations in Colorado reveal peak absorption of downwelling radiation by NO2 of up to 5-12%, corresponding to an estimated local radiative forcing that is likely to be in the range of 5-30 W/m2. The amount of local forcing associated with thunderstorm activity depends strongly upon the cloud optical depth and on where the NO2 resides within the clouds. These case studies suggest that NO2 can play a significant role in the absorption of radiation (including but not limited to anomalous cloud absorption) either under polluted conditions or when electrically active storms are considered.

  18. High-power near-diffraction-limited solid-state amplified spontaneous emission laser devices. (United States)

    Smith, G; Shardlow, P C; Damzen, M J


    We present investigations into high-power scaling of solid-state amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) laser sources by use of two high-gain (~10(4)) Nd:YVO(4) bounce amplifiers. The sources deliver high power with a high-quality spatial output, but unlike a laser they have a high misalignment tolerance and do not require a precisely aligned cavity. In one system with two amplifiers, we demonstrate an ASE source with 24.5W of output power with good spatial quality, M(2)vertical. In a more sophisticated setup, the two amplifiers are arranged in a loop configuration producing 30W of ASE output with near-diffraction-limited spatial quality, with M(2)vertical, at an ~38% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency.

  19. Subchronic toxicity study in mice fed Spirulina maxima. (United States)

    Salazar, M; Martínez, E; Madrigal, E; Ruiz, L E; Chamorro, G A


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga used as food supplement and food coloring, after 13 weeks of treatment. Groups of ten mice of each sex were given S. maxima in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, 20 or 30% (w/w) for 13 weeks. The alga ingestion had no effect on behavior, food and water intake, growth or survival. Terminal values in hematology and clinical chemistry did not reveal differences between treated and control groups. However, male and female mice showed significant changes in serum cholesterol levels at 20 and 30% algal concentrations, but a toxic effect of S. maxima was excluded. Post-mortem examination revealed no differences in gross or microscopic findings. Our results show that S. maxima up to high feeding levels did not produce adverse effects in mice after subchronic treatment.

  20. Physiographic, stratigraphic, and structural development of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais, Brazil (United States)

    Dorr, J.V.N.


    The Quadrilatero Ferrifero is an area of some 7,000 square kilometers in central Minas Gerais, Brazil centered about lat. 20°15' S, long. 43°30' W.  For 250 years the region has poured forth a variety of mineral riches, now totaling more than $2 billion, and future production will undoubtedly be even greater.  The main products are iron ore, manganese ore, and gold.  To assist this development, the Braziliam and American Governments in 1946 jointly undertook the first detailed geologic study of the region: this report is a synthesis of the results of work and mapping by 17 Brazilian and American geologists under this program; other reports discussing the economic geology, the metamorphic geology, and the igneous geology of the region as a whole are being prepared.

  1. [Laser hair removal for urethral hair after hypospadias repair]. (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Ogushi, Tetsuo; Sugimoto, Masayuki; Asakage, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Tadaichi


    A 56-year-old male was admitted for induration of ventral side of the penile shaft. Computed tomography showed a large urethral calculus in the distal urethra. About 50 years previously, he had undergone multi-staged urethroplasty for hypospadias. He had also suffered from recurrent urethral calculi managed by urethrolithotomy 5 and 2 years before the admission. Urethrolithotomy revealed hair-bearing urethral calculus. Instillation of depilating agent containing thioglycolate into the neourethra for preventing hair regrowth was ineffective. Transurethral laser hair removal of neourethra was subsequently performed. All the neourethral follicles were ablated with GaAlAs diode laser (wave length 810 nm; at a power of 15W for 2 seconds) through a side-firing laser fiber. Another three operations were performed for a few regrown hairs at a power of 20-30W. Convalescence was uneventful. The patient is free of hair regrowth except for a hair at five months of follow-up.

  2. Universal lab on a smartphone: a research of TiOPc thin film as a light dependence electrode (United States)

    Lin, PoHan; Hsu, Y. H.; Lee, C. K.


    In this paper, we study the photoconductivity of a polymer-based TiOPc (Titanium Oxide Phthalocyanine) thin-film for the development of a multi-opto-piezoelectric-valve-array. Using a polymer-based TiOPc thin film to serve as the electrode and a structural layer of a piezoelectric polymer, P(VDF-TrFE) poly[(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene], an optical control valve-array could be developed for manipulating multiple microdroplets for the application of digital microfluidic. In this ongoing project, the dependency of the light intensity, thickness, and composition of spin-coated polymer-based TiOPc thin-film was studied. The experimental finding suggested that a 14 to 55 times resistivity change could be achieved by controlling the film thickness to be between 0.9 μm and 1.5 μm with TiOPc concentration of 20% and 30% w/w compositions.

  3. Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Palermo, Giovanna; Cataldi, Ugo; De Sio, Luciano; Bürgi, Thomas; Tabiryan, Nelson; Umeton, Cesare


    We demonstrate and characterize an optical control of the plasmonic heat delivered by a monolayer substrate of gold nanoparticles, obtained by modulating the effective refractive index of the neighboring dielectric medium. The effect, which exploits the dependence of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) refractive index on the molecular director orientation, is realized by using a polarization dependent, light-induced molecular reorientation of a thin film of photo-alignment layer that the NLC is in contact with. For a suitable alignment, plasmonic pumping intensity values ranging from 0.25 W/cm2 to 6.30 W/cm2 can induce up to 17.4 °C temperature variations in time intervals of the order of seconds. The reversibility of the optically induced NLC molecular director orientation enables an active control of the plasmonic photo-induced heat.

  4. Paclitaxel loaded biodegradable poly (sebacic acid-co-ricinoleic acid cylindrical implants for local delivery-in vitro characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh G Hiremath


    Full Text Available The aim of the present research work was to develop the biodegradable polymeric implant for the delivery of antineoplastic drug, paclitaxel (PTX using poly (sebacic-co-recinoleic acid 70:30 w/w. PTX loaded implants were prepared by indigenously developed melt molding technique. Implants were characterized in terms of physico-chemical evaluations, drug content, drug stability and intactness, thermal analysis, drug physical state and crystallinity, surface morphology, hydrolytic degradation, drug release and its kinetics. Prepared implants were yellow and cylindrical in shape with smooth surfaces. Drug in the implants was found to be stable, intact and uniformly dispersed as amorphous state within the polymer matrix. In vitro release, kinetic studies showed zero order and Korsmeyer-Peppas model release being exhibited. Drug release from the polymeric implants was occurred could be as results of diffusion.

  5. Effects of protocol design on lactate minimum power. (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R


    The aim of this investigation was to use a validated lactate minimum test protocol and evaluate whether blood lactate responses and the lactate minimum power are influenced by the starting power (study 1) and 1 min inter-stage rest intervals (study 2) during the incremental phase. Study 1: 8 subjects performed a lactate minimum test comprising a lactate elevation phase, recovery phase, and incremental phase comprising 5 continuous 4 min stages with starting power being 40% or 45% of the maximum power achieved during the lactate elevation phase, and with power increments of 5% maximum power. Study 2: 8 subjects performed 2 identical lactate minimum tests except that during one of the tests the incremental phase included 1 min inter-stage rest intervals. The lactate minimum power was lower when the incremental phase commenced at 40% (175±29 W) compared to 45% (184±30 W) maximum power (pvalidity and therefore training status evaluation and exercise prescription.

  6. Over 0.5 MW green laser from sub-nanosecond giant pulsed microchip laser (United States)

    Zheng, Lihe; Taira, Takunori


    A sub-nanosecond green laser with laser head sized 35 × 35 × 35 mm3 was developed from a giant pulsed microchip laser for laser processing on organic superconducting transistor with a flexible substrate. A composite monolithic Y3Al5O12 (YAG) /Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG/YAG crystal was designed for generating giant pulsed 1064 nm laser. A fibercoupled 30 W laser diode centered at 808 nm was used with pump pulse duration of 245 μs. The 532 nm green laser was obtained from a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with output energy of 150 μJ and pulse duration of 268 ps. The sub-nanosecond green laser is interesting for 2-D ablation patterns.

  7. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Chitosan-graft Maleic Anhydride Reinforced with Montmorillonite (United States)

    Fajrin, A.; Sari, L. A.; Rahmawati, N.; Saputra, O. A.; Suryanti, V.


    The research aims to develop biodegradable composites as bio-based plastics from chitosan. The composites were prepared via solution casting method by introducing the maleic anhydride (MAH) as grafting agent and montmorillonite (MMt) as reinforcement. The grafting process of chitosan was conducted by varying concentrations of MAH which were 10, 20, and 30% w/w. It was observed that the chitosan-graft-maleic anhydride (Cs-g-MAH) containing 10% w/w of MAH increased its tensile strength by 70%. Reinforcement material was added to the Cs-g-MAH by varying MMt concentrations, e.g. 3, 6, 9 and 12% w/w. It was noted that the presence of 9% w/w of MMt in the Cs-g-MAH gave the best mechanical properties of the Cs-g-MAH/MMt composite.

  8. Revegetation of lagoon ash using the legume species Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.C.; Wong, J.P.K.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Wong, J.W.C.; Wong, M.H. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China). Inst. of Natural Resources and Waste Management


    This paper describes a greenhouse study conducted to evaluate the potential use of two legume species, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala for growth on ameliorated lagoon ash with or without nitrogen fixing bacteria inoculation. Even though amendments of 30% (w/w) vermiculite or with sewage sludge compost were added to improve the chemical and physical limitations of lagoon ash, significant suppressions in biomass and plant nutrient content were found with ameliorated lagoon ash in comparison to an agricultural soil. The high proportion of clay-sized ({lt} 53{mu}m) ash particles limited root growth. In addition, heavy metal toxicity was a possible factor contributing to poor seeding growth. Higher plant productivity resulted from the sewage sludge compost-amended lagoon ash than with vermiculite due to a greater contribution of plant nutrients in the compost. Both species showed potential to establish on amended lagoon ash, with Acacia auriculiformis being the best adapted.

  9. Stereolithography of three-dimensional bioactive poly(ethylene glycol) constructs with encapsulated cells. (United States)

    Arcaute, Karina; Mann, Brenda K; Wicker, Ryan B


    Stereolithography (SL) was used to fabricate complex 3-D poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Photopolymerization experiments were performed to characterize the solutions for use in SL, where the crosslinked depth (or hydrogel thickness) was measured at different laser energies and photoinitiator (PI) concentrations for two concentrations of PEG-dimethacrylate in solution (20% and 30% (w/v)). Hydrogel thickness was a strong function of PEG concentration, PI type and concentration, and energy dosage, and these results were utilized to successfully fabricate complex hydrogel structures using SL, including structures with internal channels of various orientations and multi-material structures. Additionally, human dermal fibroblasts were encapsulated in bioactive PEG photocrosslinked in SL. Cell viability was at least 87% at 2 and 24 h following fabrication. The results presented here indicate that the use of SL and photocrosslinkable biomaterials, such as photocrosslinkable PEG, appears feasible for fabricating complex bioactive scaffolds with living cells for a variety of important tissue engineering applications.

  10. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous; Obtencao de ceramicas bifasicas densas e porosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S., E-mail: eliria@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Silva, K.L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Rezende, M.E. [Universidade Sao Francisco, Itatiba, SP (Brazil); Fraga, A.F. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Marques, R.F.C. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)


    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  11. 1.1.5. Synthesis and characterization of silver(I complexes with ligands having anti-inflammatory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Azócar*, H. Muñoz, P. Levin, N. Dinamarca, G. Gómez, A. Ibañez, M.T. Garland and M. A. Paez


    Full Text Available Five water soluble silver(I  complex with Ibuprofen (AgIbu, Naproxen (AgNap,  Mefenamic acid (AgMef, acetyl salicylic acid(AgAsp and salicylic acid (AgSal were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR. Data suggest coordination of the ligand to Ag(I through the oxygen atom of the carboxylic group. AgAsp was obtained as a mixture of AgAsp and Ag(I-2-hydroxybenzoate (AgSal due to decomposition by thermal and hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid into salicylic acid. AgSal structure was confirmed by FT-IR, NMR and X-ray diffraction. Synthesized compounds were tested toward UV-radiation (258 nm, 30 W and compared with AgCl in order to characterize their light sensibility.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle1 and


    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  13. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, L.B.; Luccas, V.; Kieckbusch, T.G.


    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cupuassu fat were determined. recrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter (Author).

  14. Selective removal of carious human dentin using a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at a wavelength of 5.85 μ m (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio


    Less invasive methods for treating dental caries are strongly desired. However, conventional dental lasers do not always selectively remove caries or ensure good bonding to the composite resin. According to our previous study, demineralized dentin might be removed by a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at wavelengths of around 5.8 μm. The present study investigated the irradiation effect of the light on carious human dentin classified into "remove," "not remove," and "unclear" categories. Under 5.85-μm laser pulses, at average power densities of 30 W/cm2 and irradiation time of 2 s, the ablation depth of "remove" and "not remove," and also the ablation depth of "unclear" and "not remove," were significantly different (p<0.01). The ablation depth was correlated with both Vickers hardness and Ca content. Thus, a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at 5.85 μm proved an effective less-invasive caries treatment.

  15. Experimental investigation on CFRP milling by low power Q-switched Yb:YAG laser source (United States)

    Genna, S.; Tagliaferri, F.; Papa, I.; Leone, C.; Palumbo, B.


    In the present study, laser milling of CFRP plate by means of a 30W Q-Switched Yb:YAG fiber laser is investigated through statistical analysis. Milling tests were performed at the nominal power changing the pulse power; the scanning speed, the hatch distance and the released energy. Design of Experiments (DoE) and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) were applied with the aim to improve the process performances in term of material removal rate and heat affected zone extension. The results show that, the adopted laser is an effective solution for the CFRP milling. Moreover, adopting an accurate approach to the problem, process variability and material damages can be easily reduced.

  16. Application of Nanocrystalline Ribbon Curing Molding Iron Core in High Frequency Power Transformer%纳米晶薄带固化成型铁芯在中高频功率变压器上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋翀旸; 时红昊; 王立军; 杜宇


    The application of FeSiBCuNb nanocrystalline core curing method in power transformer and the influence on the performance of nanocrystalline power transformer core before and after molding of 24 μm and 30 μm different thickness of ribbons and curing agents are studied,it shows that 24μm ribbon can obtain lower loss,iron loss increased significantly after curing,permeability change little and meet the demand of the loss of existing core that with circular box work at 20 kHz,0.5 T less than 30 W/kg.Explore a new method of nanocrystalline power transformer core forming,provides more options for the design of the high frequency power transformer and the late line winding.%研究了FeSiBCuNb合金纳米晶铁芯固化成型方式在功率变压器上的应用,通过研究24μm和30 μm不同厚度带材、固化剂等对变压器铁芯成型前后性能的影响,结果表明,24μm带材可以获得更低的损耗,铁芯固化成型后损耗明显增加,导磁率变化不大,能够满足现有环形护盒铁芯在20 kHz,0.5T条件下损耗小于30 W/kg的要求,探索出新型的纳米晶功率变压器铁芯成型方式,为高频电源变压器的设计及后期线包的绕制提供了更多的选择方案.

  17. Factorial study on influence of gas generating agent and diluent on drug release kinetics of clopidogrel bisulfate floating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Koteswara Rao


    Full Text Available The purpose of present work was to formulate and characterize a floating drug delivery system for Clopidogrel bisulphate to improve bioavailability and to minimize the side-effects of the drug such as gastric bleeding and drug resistance development. Clopidogrel floating tablets were prepared by direct compression technique by the use of xanthan gum at different concentrations (20%, 25% and 30% w/w. Sodium bicarbonate (15% w/w and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC (30% w/w were used as gas generating agent and diluent respectively. The effects of sodium bicarbonate and MCC on the drug release kinetics and floating properties were investigated. A 2 2 factorial design was applied systematically to optimized formulation. The percentage amount of sodium bicarbonate (X 1 and percentage amount of MCC (X 2 were selected as independent variables. The drug release rate constant (K and time required for 85% drug dissolution (T85 was selected as dependent variables. Factorial design revealed that the percentage amount of sodium bicarbonate and MCC had insignificant effect on drug release kinetics (K, T85 within the chosen levels and a high level of sodium bicarbonate (X 1 and the low level of MCC (X 2 favor the preparation of clopidogrel floating tablets. All the Clopidogrel floating formulations followed first order kinetics, Higuchi drug release kinetics with diffusion as the dominant mechanism of drug release. As per Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, the release exponent "n" ranged 0.455-0.654 indicating that drug release from all the formulations was by non-fickian diffusion mechanism.

  18. Identification of genes required for maximal tolerance to high-glucose concentrations, as those present in industrial alcoholic fermentation media, through a chemogenomics approach. (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel C; Raposo, Luís R; Palma, Margarida; Sá-Correia, Isabel


    Chemogenomics, the study of genomic responses to chemical compounds, has the potential to elucidate the basis of cellular resistance to those chemicals. This knowledge can be applied to improve the performance of strains of industrial interest. In this study, a collection of approximately 5,000 haploid single deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which each nonessential yeast gene was individually deleted, was screened for strains with increased susceptibility toward stress induced by high-glucose concentration (30% w/v), one of the main stresses occurring during industrial alcoholic fermentation processes aiming the production of alcoholic beverages or bio-ethanol. Forty-four determinants of resistance to high-glucose stress were identified. The most significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms enriched in this dataset are vacuolar organization, late endosome to vacuole transport, and regulation of transcription. Clustering the identified resistance determinants by their known physical and genetic interactions further highlighted the importance of nutrient metabolism control in this context. A concentration of 30% (w/v) of glucose was found to perturb vacuolar function, by reducing cell ability to maintain the physiological acidification of the vacuolar lumen. This stress also affects the active rate of proton efflux through the plasma membrane. Based on results of published studies, the present work revealed shared determinants of yeast resistance to high-glucose and ethanol stresses, including genes involved in vacuolar function, cell wall biogenesis (ANP1), and in the transcriptional control of nutrient metabolism (GCN4 and GCR1), with possible impact on the design of more robust strains to be used in industrial alcoholic fermentation processes.

  19. Implementation of reverse flotation method to reduce reactive and non-reactive silica in bauxite ore from West Kalimantan (United States)

    Wulandari, Winny; Purwasasmita, Mubiar; Sanwani, Edy; Pixelina, Adinda Asri; Maulidan, Agus


    This paper reports a study that implements reverse flotation method to separate silica from West Kalimantan bauxite ores. The study is aimed to find the good process condition to obtain low-silica bauxite as the feed for the Bayer process. The experiments were carried out in a 1 L of flotation cell tank. Dodecylamine was used as the collector, starch as the depressant, and MIBC as the frother. The varied parameters were solid content to solution (15-30% w/w), and pH (6 - 10). The results of XRF of products show that in all reverse flotation experiments, the ratio of alumina to silica (Al/Si) are increased from 7 up to 14. The increase of solid percentage in the flotation gives a good result for Al/Si ratio as well as alumina and silica recovery in concentrate, with 30% w/w solid percentage to solution increases Al/Si ratio to 14.38, with silica recovery of 20%. The good separation with variation of depressants is obtained with depressant concentration of 400 g/ton bauxite, with Al/Si ratio in concentrate 15 and ratio in tailing 7. For the pH variation, the good condition is obtained at pH 8, while for collector concentration, the good condition is obtained at 200 g/ton bauxite. XRD analysis of the feed indicates that bauxite ore consists of gibbsite, diaspore, kaolinite, halloysite, quartz, boehmite, hematite and rutile. It is found that the concentrate has similar minerals, but halloysite became very minor or classified as a trace.

  20. Portable proton exchange membrane fuel-cell systems for outdoor applications (United States)

    Oszcipok, M.; Zedda, M.; Hesselmann, J.; Huppmann, M.; Wodrich, M.; Junghardt, M.; Hebling, C.

    A hydrogen fuelled, 30 W proton exchange membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) system is presented that is able to operate at an ambient temperature between -20 and 40 °C. The system, which comprises the fuel-cell stack, pumps, humidifier, valves and blowers is fully characterized in a climatic chamber under various ambient temperatures. Successful cold start-up and stable operation at -20 °C are reported as well as the system behaviour during long-term at 40 °C. A simple thermal model of the stack is developed and validated, and accounts for heat losses by radiation and convection. Condensation of steam is addressed as well as reaction gas depletion. The stack is regarded as a uniform heat source. The electrochemical reaction is not resolved. General design rules for the cold start-up of a portable fuel-cell stack are deduced by the thermal model and are taken into consideration for the design. The model is used for a comparison between active-assisted cold start-up procedures with a passive cold start-up from temperatures below 0 °C. It is found that a passive cold start-up may not be the most efficient strategy. Additionally, the influence of different stack concepts on the start-up behaviour is analysed by the thermal model. Three power classes of PEMFC stacks are compared: a Ballard Mk902 module for automotive applications with 85 kW, the forerunner stack Ballard Mk5 (5 kW) for medium power applications, and the developed OutdoorFC stack (30 W), for portable applications.

  1. Effect of three interventional bronchoscopic methods on tracheal stenosis and the formation of granulation tissues in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; WANG Ting; WANG Juan; PEI Ying-hua; XU Min; WANG Yu-ling; ZHANG Xia; WANG Chen


    Background Therapeutic approaches for tracheal stenosis caused by the formation of exuberant granulation tissues usually include electrocautery, mechanical dilation, laser therapy, argon plasma coagulation (APC), cryotherapy and stent placement. However, restenosis after stent insertion remains a significant limitation. We examined the efficacy of three different approaches, including induction of mechanical lesions, APC performed with different powers or durations and cryotherapy, to identify the method that limited the formation of granulation tissue. Methods Twelve specially bred research mongrel dogs were divided into three groups. In group 1 (four dogs) mild (procedure 1; two dogs) or moderate (procedure 2; two dogs) damage was induced mechanically. Group 2 (six dogs) received APC at different powers or durations (procedure 3:30 W, 1 amis; procedure 4:30 W, 2 cm/s; procedure 5:25 W, 3 cm/s). Group 3 (two dogs) received cryotherapy (procedure 6: two freeze-thaw cycles of 30 seconds). Uncovered self-expandable metallic stents were inserted in all dogs to maintain a continuous stimulus to the trachea mucosa. Dogs were monitored for 4 weeks and the relationship between granulation tissue proliferation and method used was analyzed. Results In group 1, granulation tissue growth increased with more severe mechanical damage. The growth of granulation tissue in group 2 was more pronounced than in group 1, and both dogs in procedure 3 died because of severe stenosis. In this group, the formation of granulation tissue decreased with decreasing power and duration. In group 3, no obvious granulation tissue was found at week 4. Conclusions Lesions and stimuli from a foreign body (the stent) are two important factors that lead to overgrowth of granulation tissue. Thermal lesions, such as APC, seem to induce greater granulation tissue growth and cartilage damage compared with mechanical and cryotherapy lesions. Cryotherapy in combination with mechanical dilation may be a safe

  2. Wound healing activity of the inflorescence of Typha elephantina (Cattail). (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Thakur, Tejas


    Methanolic extracts of Typha elephantina inflorescence (TE) and its bandage were screened for wound healing by incision and excision wound models in Wistar rats. In the incision wound model, incision wounds were topically treated with TE gel (2.0% [w/w], 3.0% [w/w], and 5.0% [w/w]), Typha elephantina inflorescence bandage, and the reference standard 5.0% w/w povidone iodine for a period of 10 days. When the wounds healed thoroughly, sutures were removed on the 8th postwounding day, and the tensile strength of the skin was measured on the 10th day. In the excision wound model, excision wounds were treated with TE gel (3.0% [w/w] and 5.0% [w/w]), inflorescence bandage, and 5.0% w/w povidone iodine till the wounds completely healed. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline and hexosamine content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in this model. In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the skin of the healed wound was observed in rats treated with the TE gels and the inflorescence bandage when compared with wounded control rats. The increase in tensile strength indicates a promotion of collagen fibers and a firm knitting of the disrupted wound surfaces by collagen. In the excision wound model, higher rate of wound contraction, decreased period of epithelization, elevated hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and ascorbic acid levels, and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content was observed in treated groups when compared with the wounded control animals. It may be concluded that the inflorescence of Typha elephantina possesses a potent wound healing activity, which may be due to an underlying antioxidant mechanism.

  3. Novos registros de Eunotia Ehrenberg (Eunotiaceae-Bacillariophyta para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e Brasil New reports of Eunotia Ehrenberg (Eunotiaceae-Bacillariophyta for Rio Grande do Sul State and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Brugalli Bicca


    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar as características morfológicas, e/ou estruturais e métricas de 12 espécies de Eunotia (E. batavica A. Berg, E. deficiens Metz., Lange-Bert & García-Rodr., E. genuflexa Nörpel-Sch., E. hepaticola Lang-Bert. & Wydrz., E. herzogii Krasske, E. mucophila (Lange-Bert., Nörpel-Sch. & Alles Lange-Bert., E. pileus Ehr., E. pirla Carter & Flower, E. schwabei Krasske, E. subarcuatoides Alles, Nörpel-Sch. & Lange-Bert., E. transfuga Metz. & Lange-Bert. e E. yanomami Metz. & Lange-Bert. encontradas nas áreas da Lagoa do Casamento e dos Butiazais de Tapes, entre as coordenadas 30º10'-30º40'S e 50º30'-51º30'W, na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. São incluídos comentários sobre a distribuição e os ambientes onde os táxons foram encontrados.This paper presents the morphological and/or structural and mensurable characteristics of 12 Eunotia species (E. batavica A. Berg, E. deficiens Metz., Lange-Bert. & García-Rodr., E. genuflexa Nörpel-Sch., E. hepaticola Lang-Bert. & Wydrz., E. herzogii Krasske, E. mucophila (Lange-Bert., Nörpel-Sch. & Alles Lange-Bert., E. pileus Ehr., E. pirla Carter & Flower, E. schwabei Krasske, E. subarcuatoides Alles, Nörpel-Sch. & Lange-Bert., E. transfuga Metz. & Lange-Bert. and E. yanomami Metz. & Lange-Bert. found in the Lagoa do Casamento and Butiazais de Tapes areas, between 30º10'-30º40'S and 50º30'-51º30'W, on the Rio Grande do Sul State Coastal Plain. Comments on distribution and habitats where the taxons are found are included.

  4. .VO2max is not altered by self-pacing during incremental exercise. (United States)

    Chidnok, Weerapong; Dimenna, Fred J; Bailey, Stephen J; Burnley, Mark; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M


    We tested the hypothesis that incremental cycling to exhaustion that is paced using clamps of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) elicits higher .VO2max values compared to a conventional ramp incremental protocol when test duration is matched. Seven males completed three incremental tests to exhaustion to measure .VO2max. The incremental protocols were of similar duration and included: a ramp test at 30 W min(-1) with constant cadence (RAMP1); a ramp test at 30 W min(-1) with cadence free to fluctuate according to subject preference (RAMP2); and a self-paced incremental test in which the power output was selected by the subject according to prescribed increments in RPE (SPT). The subjects also completed a .VO2max 'verification' test at a fixed high-intensity power output and a 3-min all-out test. No difference was found for .VO2max between the incremental protocols (RAMP1 = 4.33 ± 0.60 L min(-1); RAMP2 = 4.31 ± 0.62 L min(-1); SPT = 4.36 ± 0.59 L min(-1); P > 0.05) nor between the incremental protocols and the peak.VO2max measured during the 3-min all-out test (4.33 ± 0.68 L min(-1)) or the .VO2max measured in the verification test (4.32 ± 0.69 L min(-1)). The integrated electromyogram, blood lactate concentration, heart rate and minute ventilation at exhaustion were not different (P > 0.05) between the incremental protocols. In conclusion, when test duration is matched, SPT does not elicit a higher .VO2max compared to conventional incremental protocols. The striking similarity of .VO2max measured across an array of exercise protocols indicates that there are physiological limits to the attainment of .VO2max that cannot be exceeded by self-pacing.

  5. Content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of pumpkin puree enriched with japanese quince, cornelian cherry, strawberry and apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nawirska-Olszańska


    Full Text Available   Background. When evaluated in terms of taste, smell or active ingredients, pumpkin in itself is not very attractive as a raw material. Hence, it is recommended to blend pumpkin with other fruits, which are aromatic, have a defined taste, and contain a large quantity of active ingredients and organic acids to improve its palatibility. Material and methods. The pumpkin chosen for the experiments was of the variety Karowita, of species Cucurbita maxima. Ten different of compositions were prepared for the purpose of the study: 10, 20 and 30% (w/w of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry each, or 20 and 30% (w/w of strawberry and apple each. The puree was then analysed for dry matter, extract, viscosity, colour, vitamin C, total polyphenols, carotenoids and DPPH. Results. The highest content of vitamin C, which was in direct proportion to the quantity of the supplement added (17.88 to 23.43 mg·100 g-1, was detected in the quince-enriched puree. The lowest vitamin C content was determined in apple-enriched samples (1.36 to 1.6 mg·100 g-1. A similar pattern was observed with total polyphenols: the highest values were measured in quince-enriched puree, and the lowest in the puree supplemented with apple. Conclusion. Taking into account antioxidant properties of the samples, quince-enriched pumpkin puree was found to be the most attractive, and apple-enriched pumpkin puree the least attractive one. The results suggest a wide range of application for pumpkin puree enriched with various additives.  

  6. CO2 and Nd:YAP laser interaction with lithium disilicate and Zirconia dental ceramics: A preliminary study (United States)

    Rocca, Jean-Paul; Fornaini, Carlo; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie; Bassel Seif, Samy; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne


    Lithium disilicate and Zirconia ceramics offer a high level of accuracy when used in prosthetic dentistry. Their bonding using different resins is highly dependent on micro-mechanical interlocking and adhesive chemical bonding. Investigation of the performances of high strength ceramics when their surface is modified for chemical and mechanical bonding is then required. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using laser for surface treatment of different high strength CAD/CAM ceramics and thus to improve their mechanical and chemical properties. Thirty two CAD/CAM ceramic discs were divided into two different groups: lithium disilicate ceramics (IPS e.max CAD®, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Italy) and Zirconia ceramics (IPS e.max ZirCAD®, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Italy). The Laser surface treatment was performed by Carbon Dioxide laser (Dream Pulse Laser®, Daeshin Enterprise Corp., Korea) at 20 W, 25 W and 30 W CW and by Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite laser (Nd:YAP Lokki®, Lobel Medical, France) at 10 W and 30 Hz. Physical modifications of the irradiated ceramic discs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemically analyzed by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Surface wettability was tested using the water drop test and the crystalline structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The macroscopic observation showed a shinier structure in all the groups, while at the SEM observation only CO2 25 W and 30 W treated groups showed cracks and fissures. In the conditions of this study, CO2 laser and Nd:YAP laser with the parameters used create chemical and physical surface modifications of the ceramics, indicating the possibility of an improvement in adhesion of the tested ceramics.

  7. Left ventricular twist mechanics during incremental cycling and knee extension exercise in healthy men. (United States)

    Beaumont, Alexander; Hough, John; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Richards, Joanna


    The objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises. Twenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60% work rate maximum (W max) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30% W max (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p  0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s(-1) to 75% MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s(-1), p  0.05) then increased from 40 to 75% MVC [-98.44 (43.54)° s(-1) to -138.42 (73.29)° s(-1), p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01). Cycling increased LV twist to 30% W max which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.

  8. Resistência mecânica à penetração de um argissolo amarelo distrófico típico sob diferentes sistemas de produção em plantio direto Soil mechanical resistance to penetration of a typic hapludalf under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fernanda Almeida Teixeira


    Full Text Available Determinou-se a resistência mecânica à penetração (RP de um Argissolo Amarelo Distrófico típico em 1997, em Pelotas (RS, Brasil (31º49'S e 52º30'W. O experimento consistiu de oito tratamentos envolvendo diferentes culturas de cobertura, em rotação e sucessão no sistema plantio direto. As amostragens de RP foram realizadas até a profundidade de 0,60 m e a umidade gravimétrica nas camadas de 0,00-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,40 e 0,40-0,60m. Os sistemas de produção apresentaram valores de RP mais elevados até 0,20m; no tratamento azevém/feijão, aveia/soja, ervilhaca/milho o solo apresentou os maiores valores de RP.The determination of the penetration resistance (RP of a typical Hapludalf was accomplished in 1997, in Pelotas (RS, Brazil (31º49'S and 52º30'W. The study consisted of eight treatments with different cover crops, under rotation and succession under no-tillage. The samplings were accomplished up to the depth of 0.60 m and soil water content were accomplished in the layers of 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20; 0.20-0.40 and 0.40-0.60m. Starting from the obtained results it was concluded that the production systems presented values of RP more elevated until to 0.20m; the treatment rye-grass/common bean, oat/soybean, vetch/corn presented the largest values of RP along the soil profile.

  9. High drug load, stable, manufacturable and bioavailable fenofibrate formulations in mesoporous silica: a comparison of spray drying versus solvent impregnation methods. (United States)

    Hong, Shiqi; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, David Cheng Thiam; Ng, Wai Kiong; Liu, Xueming; Chia, Leonard S O; Irwan, Anastasia W; Tan, Reginald; Nowak, Steven A; Marsh, Kennan; Gokhale, Rajeev


    Encapsulation of drugs in mesoporous silica using co-spray drying process has been recently explored as potential industrial method. However, the impact of spray drying on manufacturability, physiochemical stability and bioavailability in relation to conventional drug load processes are yet to be fully investigated. Using a 2(3) factorial design, this study aims to investigate the effect of drug-loading process (co-spray drying and solvent impregnation), mesoporous silica pore size (SBA-15, 6.5 nm and MCM-41, 2.5 nm) and percentage drug load (30% w/w and 50% w/w) on material properties, crystallinity, physicochemical stability, release profiles and bioavailability of fenofibrate (FEN) loaded into mesoporous silica. From the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images, powder X-ray diffraction and Differential scanning calorimetry measurements, it is indicated that the co-spray drying process was able to load up to 50% (w/w) FEN in amorphous form onto the mesoporous silica as compared to the 30% (w/w) for solvent impregnation. The in vitro dissolution rate of the co-spray dried formulations was also significantly (p = 0.044) better than solvent impregnated formulations at the same drug loading. Six-month accelerated stability test at 40 °C/75 RH in open dish indicated excellent physical and chemical stability of formulations prepared by both methods. The amorphous state of FEN and the enhanced dissolution profiles were well preserved, and very low levels of degradation were detected after storage. The dog data for the three selected co-spray-dried formulations revealed multiple fold increment in FEN bioavailability compared to the reference crystalline FEN. These results validate the viability of co-spray-dried mesoporous silica formulations with high amorphous drug load as potential drug delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs.

  10. Volume budget of the eastern boundary layer off the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Mazé, J. P.; Arhan, M.; Mercier, H.


    Data from a hydrographic array carried out in May 1989 offshore of the Iberian Peninsula are used to determine the vertical distribution of zonal transports near the ocean eastern boundary (the so-called eastern boundary kinematic condition). Eastward transports of Central Water, Bottom Water and, more surprisingly, of Mediterranean Water, are found, complemented by westward flows at the deep-intermediate and deep levels. The top-to-bottom integrated estimate is 2 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 (±1.2 × 10 6 m 3 s -1) eastward across the studied 5° long meridional segment at 12°30'W. The meridional transports in the 300 km wide boundary layer are northward at all levels, and their vertical integral amounts to six times the zonal one. The finding of a net poleward flow of Central Water is discussed with regard to the notion of a southward Portugal Current. Seasonality of the eastern boundary processes is proposed as a clue to the apparent contradiction and is also suggested to influence the phenomenon of eastern boundary ventilation sometimes invoked in, or inferred from, theoretical studies. The pronounced bathymetric features of the region have strong effects on the details of the boundary layer circulation. At intermediate levels, three meridional advective paths carry the Mediterranean Water away from the west Iberian region: the northward slope undercurrent off Cape Finisterre and two branches in opposing directions west of the Galicia and Gorringe Banks. The meridionally averaged zonal transport of this water mass being eastward, it is argued that a direct entry of Mediterranean Water into the ocean interior can occur, at Iberian latitudes, only through westward meddy propagation. Hydrographic estimates of the eddy salinity transport across 12°30'W are indeed westward. A scaling analysis of the advection-diffusion equation of salinity at the level of Mediterranean Water is proposed, which includes these elements.

  11. Effects of rf power on chemical composition and surface roughness of glow discharge polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; He, Xiaoshan; Chen, Guo; Wang, Tao; Tang, Yongjian; He, Zhibing, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The growth mechanism of defects in GDP films was studied upon plasma diagnosis. • Increasing rf power enhanced the etching effects of smaller-mass species. • The “void” defect was caused by high energy hydrocarbons bombardment on the surface. • The surface roughness was only 12.76 nm, and no “void” defect was observed at 30 W. - Abstract: The glow discharge polymer (GDP) films for laser fusion targets were successfully fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at different radio frequency (rf) powers. The films were deposited using trans-2-butene (T{sub 2}B) mixed with hydrogen as gas sources. The composition and state of plasma were diagnosed by quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and Langmuir probe during the deposition process. The composition, surface morphology and roughness were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white-light interferometer (WLI), respectively. Based on these observation and analyses, the growth mechanism of defects in GDP films were studied. The results show that, at low rf power, there is a larger probability for secondary polymerization and formation of multi-carbon C-H species in the plasma. In this case, the surface of GDP film turns to be cauliflower-like. With the increase of rf power, the degree of ionization is high, the relative concentration of smaller-mass hydrocarbon species increases, while the relative concentration of larger-mass hydrocarbon species decreases. At higher rf power, the energy of smaller-mass species are high and the etching effects are strong correspondingly. The GDP film's surface roughness shows a trend of decrease firstly and then increase with the increasing rf power. At rf power of 30 W, the surface root-mean-square roughness (Rq) drops to the lowest value of 12.8 nm, and no “void” defect was observed.

  12. Simulação estocástica de atributos do clima e da produtividade potencial de milho utilizando-se distribuição triangular Stochastic simulation of climate parameters and potential productivity of maize using triangular distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janilson Pinheiro de Assis


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi simular a produtividade potencial da cultura de milho, pelo método de Monte Carlo, utilizando um modelo agrometeorológico estocástico. O experimento foi conduzido em Piracicaba, SP, a 22º42'30''S, 47º38'30''W, e altitude de 546 m, o clima da região é do tipo Cwa (tropical úmido. Foram utilizados os valores médios diários de temperatura (de 1917 a 2002 e radiação solar global (de 1978 a 2002. Para comparar os dados reais com os simulados, foram utilizados índices de desempenho estatístico. Observou-se que os modelos probabilísticos, desenvolvidos para a simulação de dados médios diários de temperatura e de radiação solar global, geraram valores semelhantes aos observados por meio da distribuição triangular, a qual pode ser utilizada em modelo estocástico, para previsão da produtividade potencial de milho, nas diferentes épocas de semeadura.The objective of this work was to simulate the potential productivity of maize, through Monte Carlo method, using an agrometeorological stochastic model. The experiment was conduct in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, at 22º42'30''S, 47º38'30''W, and 546 m altitude, the climate of the region is Cwa type, tropical humid. Daily average values of temperature (from 1917 to 2002 and global solar radiation (from 1978 to 2002 were used. Statistical performance index was used to compare observed and simulated data. The probabilistic models developed to simulate temperature and solar radiation averages produced similar values to observed data through triangular distribution, and it can be used in stochastic models to predict maize potential productivity in different dates of sowing.

  13. Optimal design of a hybridization scheme with a fuel cell using genetic optimization (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A.

    Fuel cell is one of the most dependable "green power" technologies, readily available for immediate application. It enables direct conversion of hydrogen and other gases into electric energy without any pollution of the environment. However, the efficient power generation is strictly stationary process that cannot operate under dynamic environment. Consequently, fuel cell becomes practical only within a specially designed hybridization scheme, capable of power storage and power management functions. The resultant technology could be utilized to its full potential only when both the fuel cell element and the entire hybridization scheme are optimally designed. The design optimization in engineering is among the most complex computational tasks due to its multidimensionality, nonlinearity, discontinuity and presence of constraints in the underlying optimization problem. this research aims at the optimal utilization of the fuel cell technology through the use of genetic optimization, and advance computing. This study implements genetic optimization in the definition of optimum hybridization rules for a PEM fuel cell/supercapacitor power system. PEM fuel cells exhibit high energy density but they are not intended for pulsating power draw applications. They work better in steady state operation and thus, are often hybridized. In a hybrid system, the fuel cell provides power during steady state operation while capacitors or batteries augment the power of the fuel cell during power surges. Capacitors and batteries can also be recharged when the motor is acting as a generator. Making analogies to driving cycles, three hybrid system operating modes are investigated: 'Flat' mode, 'Uphill' mode, and 'Downhill' mode. In the process of discovering the switching rules for these three modes, we also generate a model of a 30W PEM fuel cell. This study also proposes the optimum design of a 30W PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model and hybridization's switching rules are postulated

  14. Bioethanol production from spent mushroom compost derived from chaff of millet and sorghum. (United States)

    Ryden, Peter; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Tindyebwa, Teddy A M; Elliston, Adam; Wilson, David R; Waldron, Keith W; Malakar, Pradeep K


    In Uganda, the chaff remaining from threshed panicles of millet and sorghum is a low value, lignocellulose-rich agricultural by-product. Currently, it is used as a substrate for the cultivation of edible Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). The aim of this study was to assess the potential to exploit the residual post-harvest compost for saccharification and fermentation to produce ethanol. Sorghum and millet chaff-derived spent oyster mushroom composts minus large mycelium particles were assessed at small-scale and low substrate concentrations (5% w/v) for optimal severity hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzyme loading and fermentation with robust yeasts to produce ethanol. These conditions were then used as a basis for larger scale assessments with high substrate concentrations (30% w/v). Millet-based compost had a low cellulose content and, at a high substrate concentration, did not liquefy effectively. The ethanol yield was 63.9 g/kg dry matter (DM) of original material with a low concentration (19.6 g/L). Compost derived from sorghum chaff had a higher cellulose content and could be liquefied at high substrate concentration (30% w/v). This enabled selected furfural-resistant yeasts to produce ethanol at up to 186.9 g/kg DM of original material and a concentration of 45.8 g/L. Spent mushroom compost derived from sorghum chaff has the potential to be an industrially useful substrate for producing second-generation bioethanol. This might be improved further through fractionation and exploitation of hemicellulosic moieties, and possibly the exploitation of the mycelium-containing final residue for animal feed. However, spent compost derived from millet does not provide a suitably high concentration of ethanol to make it industrially attractive. Further research on the difficulty in quantitatively saccharifying cellulose from composted millet chaff and other similar substrates such as rice husk is required.

  15. Accelerating protein release from microparticles for regenerative medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Lisa J., E-mail:; Kirby, Giles T.S.; Cox, Helen C.; Qodratnama, Roozbeh; Qutachi, Omar; Rose, Felicity R.A.J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.


    There is a need to control the spatio-temporal release kinetics of growth factors in order to mitigate current usage of high doses. A novel delivery system, capable of providing both structural support and controlled release kinetics, has been developed from PLGA microparticles. The inclusion of a hydrophilic PLGA–PEG–PLGA triblock copolymer altered release kinetics such that they were decoupled from polymer degradation. A quasi zero order release profile over four weeks was produced using 10% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 50:50 PLGA whereas complete and sustained release was achieved over ten days using 30% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 85:15 PLGA and over four days using 30% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 50:50 PLGA. These three formulations are promising candidates for delivery of growth factors such as BMP-2, PDGF and VEGF. Release profiles were also modified by mixing microparticles of two different formulations providing another route, not previously reported, for controlling release kinetics. This system provides customisable, localised and controlled delivery with adjustable release profiles, which will improve the efficacy and safety of recombinant growth factor delivery. Highlights: ► A new delivery system providing controlled release kinetics has been developed. ► Inclusion of hydrophilic PLGA–PEG–PLGA decoupled release kinetics from degradation. ► Using 10% triblock copolymer produced quasi zero order release over four weeks. ► Mixing microparticle formulations provided another route for controlling release. ► This system provides customisable, localised and controlled delivery of growth factors.

  16. Minimizing Superficial Thermal Injury Using Bilateral Cryogen Spray Cooling During Laser Reshaping of Composite Cartilage Grafts (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Jen; Cheng, Sally M.H.; Chiu, Lynn L.; Wong, Brian J.F.; Ting, Keen


    Composite cartilage grafts were excised from New Zealand rabbit ears. Flat composite grafts (of cartilage and overlying skin graft on both surfaces) were obtained from each ear and cut into a rectangle measuring 50 mm by 25 mm (x by y) with an average thickness of approximately 1.3 mm (z), skin included. Specimens were manually deformed with a jig and maintained in this new position during laser illumination. The composite cartilage grafts were illuminated on the concave surface with an Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm, 3 mm spot) at 10 W, 20 W, 30 W, 40 W, 50 W. Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) was applied to both exterior (convex) and interior (concave) surfaces of the tissue to reduce thermal injury to the grafts. CSC was delivered: (1) in controlled applications (cryogen released when surface reached 40°C, and (2) receiving only laser at above wattage, no CSC [representing the control group]. The specimens were maintained in a deformation for 15 minutes after illumination and serially examined for 14 days. The control group with no CSC caused injury to all specimens, ranging from minor to full thickness epidermal thermal injury. Although most levels of laser and CSC yielded a high degree of reshaping over an acute time period, after 14 days specimens exposed to 30 W, 40 W, 50 W retained shape better than those treated at 10 W and 20 W. The specimens exposed to 50 W with controlled CSC retained its new shape to the highest degree over all others, and thermal injury was minimal. In conclusion, combinations of laser and CSC parameters were effective and practical for the reshaping of composite cartilage grafts. Lasers Surg. PMID:18727025

  17. Inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium for recovery and removal of pollutant metals of aqueous effluents; Trocadores ionicos inorganicos a base de manganes e potassio para recuperacao e remocao de metais poluentes de efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jacinete Lima dos


    This work presents a study on the synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium. The ion exchangers were synthesized by calcination of the mixture of manganese(II) oxalate and potassium oxalate and were characterized by granulometer distribution analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic. From the data obtained in characterization it was observed that exist two distinguished groups of these materials. The first group belong to ion exchangers with up to 30% w/w potassium and the second group formed by the ion exchangers with more than 30% w / w of content of potassium in their compositions. The studies of adsorption of these materials showed that the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+} is a function of the following parameters as pH, concentration of Cd{sup 2+}, time of contact between the ion exchangers the concentration of the Cd{sup 2+} solution and the interference of other ions like Ni{sup 2+}. The great pH of adsorption for these materials occur in pH 9, the study of the influence of the cadmium concentration in the adsorption showed that for a group of exchangers the adsorption decreases with the increase of cadmium concentration and for the other group the adsorption increases with the increase of cadmium concentration. The kinetics of adsorption occur in a contact time between the ion exchangers and the Cd{sup 2+} solutions relatively short, at about 15 minutes is necessary to establish the equilibrium. The presence of Ni{sup 2+} as interfering ion decreases the adsorption of cadmium of 99,7% to 65%. These inorganic ion exchangers showed be good exchangers for Cd{sup 2+}. (author)

  18. Modeling of plasma and thermo-fluid transport in hybrid welding (United States)

    Ribic, Brandon D.

    heat source separation distance on cooling rates during hybrid welding are not known. (4) Convection during hybrid welding is not well understood despite its importance to weld integrity. (5) The influence of surface active elements on weld geometry, weld pool temperatures, and fluid flow during high power density laser and laser/arc hybrid welding are not known. (6) Although the arc power and heat source separation distance have been experimentally shown to influence arc stability and plasma light emission during hybrid welding, the influence of these parameters on plasma properties is unknown. (7) The electrical conductivity of hybrid welding plasmas is not known, despite its importance to arc stability and weld integrity. In this study, heat transfer and fluid flow are analyzed for laser, gas tungsten arc (GTA), and laser/GTA hybrid welding using an experimentally validated three dimensional phenomenological model. By evaluating arc and laser welding using similar process parameters, a better understanding of the hybrid welding process is expected. The role of arc power and heat source separation distance on weld depth, weld pool centerline cooling rates, and fluid flow profiles during CO2 laser/GTA hybrid welding of 321 stainless steel are analyzed. Laser power is varied for a constant heat source separation distance to evaluate its influence on weld temperatures, weld geometry, and fluid flow during Nd:YAG laser/GTA hybrid welding of A131 structural steel. The influence of oxygen and sulfur on keyhole and weld bead geometry, weld temperatures, and fluid flow are analyzed for high power density Yb doped fiber laser welding of (0.16 %C, 1.46 %Mn) mild steel. Optical emission spectroscopy was performed on GTA, Nd:YAG laser, and Nd:YAG laser/GTA hybrid welding plasmas for welding of 304L stainless steel. Emission spectroscopy provides a means of determining plasma temperatures and species densities using deconvoluted measured spectral intensities, which can then be

  19. Emergía de tres sistemas agroforestales en el sur del municipio de Lempira, Honduras Emergy of tree agroforestry systems in southern Lempira, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    óscar I. Ferreira C.


    Full Text Available Se evaluaron el uso de recursos y la sostenibilidad de tres sistemas agroforestales (bosque secundario- BS, tala y quema-TQ y sistema conservacionista Quesungual-SAQ. Se utilizaron datos de 15 parcelas de 200 m² ubicadas entre 14° 05' N y 88° 30' W y transformicidades reportadas en otros estudios. Los mayores valores de emergía se presentaron en la variable Lluvia (1.35E15 sej/ha por año y las mayores diferencias de emergía entre sistemas se observaron en suelo erosionado, especialmente en TQ, BS y SAQ tuvieron mayor Razón de Carga Ambiental que TQ (0.63, 0.14 y 0.02, respectivamente. El sistema TQ presenta el valor más alto del índice de Huella Ecológica seguido por SAQ y BS. El índice de Sostenibilidad de Emergía del sistema TQ fue 34.8, el de SAQ = 135.6 y el de BS = 4123.8, con mayores valores de sostenibilidad en el SAQ y el BS, lo cual indica que son sistemas que favorecen el uso de recursos renovables y locales.Resource use and sustainability of three agroforestry systems (Secondary Woods - BS; Fell and Burn - TQ; and Quesungal Conservation mode - SAQ were evaluated by analyzing data from fifteen 200 m² plots (14° 05' N; 88° 30' W, making use of transformity values reported in other related studies. The highest emergy values were observed for the variable rain (1.35E15 sej/ha per year; and the largest emergy differences were found in eroded soils, especially those of TQ. BS and SAQ exhibited a greater Environmental Load Ratio than TQ (0.63, 0.14 and 0.02, respectively. TQ showed the largest Ecological Footprint Index value, followed by SAQ and BS. Emergy Sustainability Index for TQ was 34.8, whereas SAQ and BS reached respective values of 135.6 and 4,123.8. The latter two data, as compared to the former, reveal how these systems (SAQ and BS favor the use of local renewable resources.

  20. Zoneamento agroecológico para a região de Ribeirão Preto utilizando um sistema de informações geográficas Agroecologic zoning for the Ribeirão Preto Region using a geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieta G. Martorano


    Full Text Available Objetivando contribuir com a metodologia de identificação de potencialidades de uso das terras, este trabalho apresenta uma proposta de zoneamento agroecológico da quadrícula de Ribeirão Preto, SP, localizada entre as coordenadas de 21o00'S a 21o30'S e 47o30'W a 48o00'W, com base em características de solo, relevo e clima, utilizando-se de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas. Para caracterizar o regime térmico-hídrico da área utilizou-se os dados de temperatura do ar e de chuva, de 22 localidades, referentes ao período de 1967 a 1996. De acordo com os critérios adotados, quanto a capacidade de uso das terras, o zoneamento identificou seis unidades de utilização da área: agricultura (I; agricultura (II; agricultura (III; pecuária; agrossilvicultura e preservação. As principais conclusões referentes à área de estudo foram: o regime térmico-hídrico é praticamente homogêneo, a vocação dominante é para agricultura (I representando aproximadamente 191.118 hectares, correspondentes a 66,3% da área e cerca de 82,5% das terras possuem vocação para agropecuária e 10,4% devem ser preservadas ou utilizadas seguindo técnicas conservacionistas.In order to contribute with the methodology of identification of land use potentialities, this paper presents a proposal of agroecologic zoning of the quadrangle (21o00'S at 21o30'S and 47o30'W to 48o00'W, of the county of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, based on soil, relief and climate characteristics, in a GIS environment. Data of air temperature and rainfall of 22 locations from 1967 to 1996 were used to characterize the thermo-hydric regime of the area. Criteria were adopted according to the capacity of land use. The zoning identified six units of land use: agriculture (I; agriculture (II; agriculture (III; cattle; agroforest systems and preservation. It was concluded that the quadrangle has: a relative climatic uniformity; the dominant zone is the agriculture (I; about 82.5% of

  1. Utilização de habitats reprodutivos e micro-habitats de vocalização em uma taxocenose de anuros (Amphibia da Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bertoluci


    Full Text Available Foi estudada a utilização de sítios reprodutivos e de vocalização em uma taxocenose de anuros do Parque Estadual Intervales, uma reserva de Mata Atlântica localizada no sudeste do Brasil (24°12' - 24°25' S, 48°03' - 48°30' W. Os trabalhos de campo foram desenvolvidos entre abril de 1990 e março de 1991. Na área de estudo, foram registradas 47 espécies pertencentes a quatro famílias: Bufonidae (4, Hylidae (24, Leptodactylidae (18 e Microhylidae (1. Foram obtidos dados sobre a distribuição dos hábitats reprodutivos e dos micro-habitats de vocalização para 26 espécies por meio do monitoramento mensal de seis corpos d'água ao longo de um ciclo anual. O número de espécies que utilizaram um determinado hábitat variou de 7 a 22. As espécies foram classificadas como generalistas ou especialistas. A maioria das espécies mostrou preferência por determinados sítios de vocalização. Para algumas espécies, a especificidade por sítios de vocalização pareceu depender da densidade de machos emitindo canto nupcial e não da composição de espécies das agregações reprodutivas.Breeding and calling site utilization were studied for an anuran community of the Parque Estadual Intervales, an Atlantic Rainforest reserve located in Southeastern Brazil (24°12'-24°25'S, 48°03'-48°30'W. Field work was carried out between April 1990 and March 1991. Forty-seven species from four families were recorded in the study site: Bufonidae (4, Hylidae (24, Leptodactylidae (18, and Microhylidae (1. We were able to obtain data on breeding habitat and microhabitat distribution for 26 species by monitoring six breeding sites year-round on a monthly basis. The number of species in the sites varied from 7 to 22. Species were classified as habitat generalists and specialists based on breeding site utilization. Most species showed preferences for certain calling sites. For some species calling site specificity seemed to depend on the density of the

  2. 微波辅助提取鸡眼草中的黄酮类物质%Microwave-assisted Extraction of Flavoniods from the Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海棠; 欧小辉; 陈其锋; 李家璇


    [目的]优化鸡眼草中黄酮类化合物的提取条件.[方法]以鸡眼草的总黄酮提取率为评价指标,通过单因素试验对微波辅助提取鸡眼草黄酮类化合物的工艺条件进行了研究,再运用正交分析法确定最佳提取条件.[结果]微波辅助提取鸡眼草中的黄酮类物质的最佳条件为:乙醇浓度为50%、料液比1∶30(W/V,g/ml,下同)、微波功率300W,微波处理时间25 min;在此条件下,鸡眼草的总黄酮提取率为3.28%.[结论]微波辅助提取鸡眼草中的黄酮类物质,操作简单易行,提取率较高,是一种理想的提取方法.%[Objective]To study the optimal conditions for extracting total flavonoids from Kummerowia striata ( Thunb. )' Schindl.. [ Method] The technological conditions of microwave-assisted extraction of flavoniods were investigated by the single factor and orthogonal experiments, and were assessed according to the extraction rate of tatol flavonoids. [Result] The optimum conditions of microwave-assisted extraction were 50% ethanol as solvent, 1:30 ( W/V, g/ml) of solid-liquid ratio, 300 W of microwave power and 25 min of microwave extraction time. Under the conditions, the extraction rate of total falconoid was 3.28%. [ Conclusion] The microwave-assisted extraction extracting flavoniods in Kummerowia striata (Thunb. ) Schindl. is a simple and ideal extraction method with high efficiency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Tharawadee


    Full Text Available Heat pipes have been used extensively in the electronic industry for decades especially in laptop computers. For cost-effectiveness, a single heat pipe is designed to simultaneously transfer heat from both the Central Processing Unit (CPU and the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU inside the main board to the heat sink. This causes the efficiency of the heat pipe to change without any theoretical prediction. In this research, thermal performance of a sintered-wick heat pipe with double heat sources has been experimentally and numerically investigated by utilizing the Finite Element Method (FEM. The focus being the effect that the distance between the two heat sources and also the power input pattern (heat source#1 (HT1: heat source#2(HT2 has on temperature and thermal resistance of the heat pipe. The first heat source (HT1 was located at one end and the heat sink was located at another end of the heat pipe, while another heat source (HT2 was placed between HT1 and a heat sink. The ratios of heat input power were controlled at 10W:10W, 20W:10W and 30W:10W. Two copper blocks (15 mm×15 mm were used as heat sources for the evaporator section (Le1, Le2 to electrically supply heat to the bottom half of the heat pipe. A mathematical model using the Finite Element Method (FEM was established to calculate temperature and thermal resistance. The speed of the cooling fan was adjusted to maintain constant operating temperature at the adiabatic section throughout the tests. The operating temperature was controlled at 60 ± 3°C. It was noted that, when distance between the heat sources was increased from 0 mm to 75 mm, thermal resistance slightly decreased from 0.589-0.53°C/W respectively. Heat source 2, therefore, should be placed as close as possible to the condenser section. Both heat sources should have a distance between them of at least 12 mm, which minimizes heat accumulation. When the power input of HT1 was increased from 10 W to 30W (HT2 was

  4. Comportamento agronômico de bananeira 'Prata-anã' em função do tipo de muda Agromic performance of 'Prata-anã' banana regarding to plant propagation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento de campo com bananeira 'Prata-anã', visando a avaliar o comportamento agronômico de plantas estabelecidas a partir de três tipos de mudas: convencional, micropropagadas em meio sólido e em meio líquido. A área experimental foi instalada no município de Cristais Paulista-SP (20º23'S; 47º30'W, cujo clima é caracterizado por verão chuvoso e inverno seco. Avaliaram-se o crescimento e a fenologia por meio de medidas periódicas de comprimento e diâmetro do pseudocaule das plantas até a emissão da inflorescência. A incidência de doenças (CMV e mal-do-panamá foi estimada visualmente em função da apresentação de sintomas característicos pelas plantas. As plantas originadas de mudas micropropagadas apresentaram crescimento e desenvolvimento iniciais mais vigorosos, maior precocidade e cachos mais leves do que aquelas estabelecidas com mudas convencionais. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas em relação à incidência de doenças e ao tamanho dos frutos produzidos, em função dos tipos de mudas.A field experiment with 'Prata-anã' banana was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance of tissue culture-propagated plants in solid or liquid culture medium and conventionally propagated plants. The experiment was installed in Cristais Paulista (20º23'S; 47º30'W, Planalto Region of State of Sao Paulo (Brazil. This region is characterized by a summer rainy season and dry winter. Plant growth and phenology were assessed through periodic measurements of length and stem diameter of the plants until flowering. The incidence of diseases (CMV and Panama disease was estimated visually according to the presentation of symptoms by plants. The tissue culture-propagated-plants in solid or liquid medium showed initial growth and development more vigorous, precocious flowering and lighter bunches than those from conventionally propagated plants. There were no significant differences in the incidence of

  5. Geothermal characteristics of the molasse basin (pilot study - thermal conductivity); Geothermische Eigenschaften des Molassebeckens (Pilotstudie - Waermeleitfaehigkeit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, W.; Greber, E. [Geoform, Geologische Beratungen und Studien AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R.J. [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland); Keller, B. [Mengis und Lorenz AG, Luzern (Switzerland); Rybach, L. [ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Radiometrie


    Detailed knowledge of the geothermal properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity) of the undergorund becomes more and more important with increasing exploitation of geothermal resources by deep vertical borehole heat exchangers or by seasonal storage installations. For this pilot study all existing thermal conductivity data of the Swiss Molasse were compiled and supplemented with new laboratory measurements on core and cutting samples from deep wells (2.5 to 3.0 W/mK). In a second step top-to-bottom thermal conductivity profiles were calculated from geophysical well logs. These profiles show a clear dependence on lithology and variations in thermal conductivity of up to 1 W/mK over 50-200 m thick intervals. In clay-rich lithofacies thermal conductivity is only slightly dependent on the sedimentary architecture, whereas, in sandy facies obvious distinctions are possible. The modelling of a theoretical 750 m long vertical borehole heat exchanger shows that the potential quality of extractable heat increases or decreases by up to 20% by varying the thermal conductivity with only {+-}0.5 W/mK. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Nutzung geothermischer Ressourcen mit tiefen Erdwaermesonden und saisonalen Speicheranlagen werden detaillierte Kenntnisse der geothermischen Eigenschaften (Waermeleitfaehigkeit und Waemekapazitaet) des Untergrundes zunehmend wichtig. Im Rahmen dieser Pilotstudie wurden saemtliche verfuegbaren Waermeleitfaehigkeits-Daten von Schweizer Molassegesteinen kompiliert und mit Neumessungen an Kern- und Cuttingsmaterial von Tiefbohrungen ergaenzt (2.5 bis 3.0 W/mK). In einem zweiten Schritt wurden Waermeleitfaehigkeits-Profile mit geophysikalischen Bohr-Logs berechnet. Diese Profile zeigen eine deutliche Abhaengigkeit von der Lithologie mit einer Variation der Waermeleitfaehigkeit von bis zu 1 W/mK ueber 50-200 m maechtige Intervalle. In den tonigen Lithologien kann nur eine schwache Abhaengigkeit der Waermeleitfaehigkeit von der sedimentaeren Architektur beobachtet werden, wogegen in den sandigeren Intervallen eine deutliche Unterscheidung moeglich ist. Die Modellierung einer fiktiven 750 m tiefen Erdwaermesonde zeigt, dass der moegliche Waermeentzug bereits bei Variationen der Waermeleitfaehigkeit von {+-}5 W/mK um bis zu 20% ab- oder zunehmen kann. (orig.)

  6. Desinfecção de efluente secundário do sistema Uasb + Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Teresinha Kist


    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a aplicabilidade do processo UV/TiO2/O3 em reator tipo coluna para desinfecção de efluentes secundários da ETE piloto UASB + Wetland da UNISC. O reator foi testado de 0 a 60 minutos, alimentado com os efluentes secundários estudados em pH=7,0. Os ensaios foram realizados com tempo de recirculação de 1 hora, vazão de 180 L h –1 e lâmpadas germicidas de 30 W. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a aplicabilidade do reator tipo coluna para desinfecção de esgotos tratados, sendo obtida desinfecção total em tempos de detenção hidráulica de 12 minutos, a partir das inativações de coliformes termotolerantes. Também, os experimentos utilizando o processo UV/TiO2/O3 demonstraram maior capacidade de oxidação em função das reduções da alcalinidade total e turbidez, indicando maiores potencialidades para a desinfecção.Abstract This work assessed the applicability of UV/TiO2/O3 processes in photo reactors column type for disinfection of secondary effluents of ETE pilot UASB + Wetland of UNISC. The reactors were tested with the same detention times of 0 to 60 minutes, both fed with the studied secondary effluents in pH=7. The tests were carried out with a recirculation time of 1 hour, flow of 180 L h-1, germicide lamps of 30W. The obtained results showed the applicability of the reactors type column for disinfection of treated sewage, obtained total disinfection in HDT’s of 12 minutes, from the inactivation of thermo-tolerant coliforms. Also, the experiments using the UV/TiO2/O3 process had demonstrated to greater capacity of oxidation in function of the reductions of total alkalinity and turbidity, indicating major potentialities for the disinfection.

  7. Microbial population dynamics in an anaerobic CSTR treating a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater. (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Ince, Orhan; Ince, Bahar Kasapgil; Akarsubasi, Alper Tunga; Eyice, Ozge


    Effects of a chemical synthesis based pharmaceutical wastewater on performance of an anaerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR), activity of acetoclastic methanogens and microbial composition were evaluated under various influent compositions. Initially, the CSTR was fed with glucose up to an organic loading rate (OLR) of 6 kg COD/m3 x d corresponding to an F/M ratio of 0.43 with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.5 days. A COD removal efficiency of 92% and a methane yield of 0.32 m3 CH4/kg COD(removed) were achieved whilst specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was found to be 336mL CH4/gTVS x d. After the CSTR was fed with pre-aerated wastewater diluted by glucose in different dilution ratios of 10% (w/v), 30% (w/v), 70% (w/v), and 100% (w/v) pre-aerated wastewater, gradual decreases in COD removal efficiency to 71%, methane yield to 0.28 m3CH4/kg COD(removed) and SMA to 166 mL CH4/gTVS d occurred whilst volatile fatty acid concentration reached to 1474 mg/L. After the raw wastewater diluted with the pre-aerated wastewater was fed into the CSTR in increasing ratios of 10% (w/v), 30% (w/v), and 60% (w/v), there was a proportional deterioration in performance in terms of COD removal efficiency, methane yield and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. Epifluorescence microscopy of the seed sludge revealed that Methanococcus-like species, short, and medium rods were found to be equally dominant. The short and medium rod species remained equally dominant groups in the CSTR throughout the feeding regime whilst Methanococcus-like species and long rods were found to be in insignificant numbers at the end of the study. Changes in archael diversity were determined using molecular analyses such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and denaturent gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that overall archeal diversity did not change much whereas changes in composition of eubacterial population occurred.

  8. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation using stent-type electrode for varicose veins: an experimental study in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Je Hwan; Han, Jae Ho; Oh, Chang Kwon [Ajou University Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Young Lan [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Il [Ulsan University GangNeung Asan Hospital, Gangeung (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the optimal conditions of radiofrequency (RF) ablation by using the stent-type electrode upon the saphenous vein of goats for the endovenous treatment of varicose veins. A self-expandable nitinol stent electrode (6 mm diameter, 2 cm length, cell size; 1.3 x 2 mm) was designed to expose the distal 1 cm segment to allow for contact with the venous wall. The proximal part of the electrode was connected to the RF generator by insulated copper wires located within the stent electrode introducer. Initially, to optimize the power setting, ablation of 6 saphenous veins in 3 goats was performed with power settings of 10, 20 and 30 W. Pull back rate of the electrode was 2 and 4 cm/min for each power level, respectively. The goats were sacrificed 4-6 weeks later and histologic examinations of the saphenous veins were done. For the second part of the experiment, RF ablation of 4 saphenous veins from 2 goats was done by applying the optimal power, based upon the first examination; these procedure was performed with variable pull back rates. Again, the goats were sacrificed 1-6 weeks later and histologic examinations were done. Endovenous ablation of the goat saphenous veins at 20 W caused complete obliteration without complication. There was incomplete occlusion at 10 W, and there were vessel perforation, extravasation, and adjacent tissue injury at 30 W. In second part of the study, the complete circumferential obliteration of the vein was demonstrated at a pull back rate of 1 cm/min and 3 cm/min with the power of 20 W. The stent-type electrode may be useful in endovenous RF ablation for treatment of varicose veins. For stents with a diameter of 6 mm, the optional combination of 20 W of power with a pull back rate of 1-3 cm/min produced the most favorable results. Further study and clinical investigations are warranted.

  9. The bryophytes of Trindade Island, South Atlantic, Brazil As briófitas da Ilha da Trindade, Atlântico Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Laid Alkimim Faria


    Full Text Available Trindade is a Brazilian oceanic island located about 1,200 Km east of the Brazilian coast (between 20º 31' 30" S, 29º 19' 30'' W. The island originated from the abissal zone about 3 million years ago, has a maximum altitude of 620 meters and an area of 9.28 Km². Even though the fanerogamic flora is known, there were virtually no data on the bryophyte flora. Four expeditions to the island were carried out during two years and approximately 431 specimens collected. This work presents the Bryoflora of this island, which comprises 32 species, including 20 species of liverworts distributed among six families; the most speciose being Lejeuneaceae with 11 species and Frullaniaceae with four. There are also 11 species of mosses distributed among eight families, the most diverse being Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae and Pottiaceae with two species each. Only one species of hornworts was found. The bryophyte flora of Trindade most likely originated from the threatened Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil and, therefore, has conservation implications. Keys and comments are provided.Trindade é uma ilha oceânica brasileira localizada a 1.200 km a oeste da costa do Brasil entre as coordenadas 20º 31' 30" S e 29º 19' 30'' W. A ilha emergiu da zona abissal cerca de 3 milhões de anos, com altitude máxima de 620 m e uma área de 9,28 km². Sua flora fanerógama é relativamente conhecida, sendo praticamente não tendo dados sobre a flora de briófitas. Foram realizadas quatro expedições entre os anos de 2010 e 2011 e cerca de 431 espécimes coletados. O resultado mostrou 32 espécies de briófitas, das quais 20 são hepáticas distribuídas em seis famílias, com 11 espécies de Lejeuneaceae e quatro de Frullaniaceae. Na divisão dos musgos foi representado com 11 espécies distribuídos em oito famílias sendo a mais diversificadas com duas espécies: Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae e Pottiaceae. Na divisão dos antóceros apenas uma espécie foi

  10. 超声乳化生物质柴油稳定性研究%Study on stability of ultrasonic emulsified bio-diesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓莉; 王述洋; 王卓


    为提高乳化生物质柴油稳定性,以超声波为外加能量,构筑超声波加乳化剂的生物质柴油乳化体系,考查超声波频率、超声激励波形、超声功率与超声时间等超声因素对生物质柴油乳化效果及稳定性影响.根据试验要求设计槽式可变频率可控波形超声波乳化仪,在实验中改变超声波频率、波形、功率和处理时间,比较各因素条件下制备的乳化油稳定性.结果表明,在超声乳化生物质柴油效果及稳定性的影响因素中,影响最大为处理时间、其次为功率、频率最小为超声激励波形,超声作用的最佳操作条件是超声功率30W,处理时间8min,超声频率25 kHz以及超声波形为方波脉冲,此条件下制取的乳化油稳定性能最好,且燃烧特性良好,自然放置稳定时间可达2 256 h.%In order to improve the stability of bio-iesel fuel,the system which is combination of ultrasonic and bio-diesel fuel use ultrasonic as the additional energy,and investigate the Ultrasonic frequency,waveforms,power and ultrasonic time factors and the effects of bio-diesel fuel stability.Optimal operating parameters of ultrasonic generator were studied by orthogonal experiment.The ultrasonic generator could adjust frequency,power,waveform and treating time exibly in order to compare the stability of bio-diesel fuel under different conditions.According to the results,treating time had the most significant in fluency on the stability,power and frequency was less important than it and waveform was the least.The optimal operaling parameter was power of 30 W,frequency of 25 kHz,treating time of 8 min and waveform of square wave pulse.The emulsification stability under these conditions was the best; the setting time was 2 256 h.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and high titer lactic acid fermentation of corn stover using a newly isolated lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici DQ2. (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Qiao, Qingan; Chu, Deqiang; Gu, Hanqi; Dao, Thai Ha; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie


    A lactic acid bacterium with high tolerance of temperature and lignocellulose derived inhibitor was isolated and characterized as Pediococcus acidilactici DQ2. The strain used in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for high titer lactic acid production at the high solids loading of corn stover. Corn stover was pretreated using the dry sulphuric acid pretreatment, followed by a biological detoxification to remove the inhibitors produced in the pretreatment. The bioreactor with a novel helical impeller was used to the SSF operation of the pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover. The results show that a typical SSF operation at 48 °C, pH 5.5, and near 30% (w/w) solids loading in both 5 and 50 L bioreactors was demonstrated. The lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity reached 101.9 g/L, 77.2%, and 1.06 g/L/h, respectively. The result provided a practical process option for cellulosic lactic acid production using virgin agriculture lignocellulose residues.

  12. The Effect of Seasonal Variation and Angle of Inclination on the Performances of Photovoltaic Panels in South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Ogueke


    Full Text Available The effects of seasonal variation and angle of inclination on the performances of photovoltaic panels in south eastern Nigeria are presented. Three photovoltaic panels, each with a rated capacity of 60 W, were used for the study in each of the locations considered. Three installation positions considered are: horizontal, an angle equal to the local latitude of location and an angle 5º greater than the local latitude of location. Power output from these panels was measured at fixed time interval from dawn to dusk for 12 months. Results obtained show an average performance of 25-30 W representing about 42-50% of the panels rated capacity. Furthermore, the horizontally installed panels, on the average, presented better performance than the others angles. Thus utilization of photovoltaic panels for power generation in the region considered should be limited to lighting applications and applications within the same power requirement range. Also for overall best performance, they should be installed in a horizontal position.

  13. Mechanism of Expansion of Mortars with Limestone Filler due to External Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mechanism of expansion of mortars and pastes with limestone filler due to external sulfate attack was studied.Mortars and pastes made at water to solid ratios of 0.45, 0.5, 0.6 from Portland Cement (OPC) with 0%, 20% or 30% (w/w) limestone filler (LF) were cured in a 95±1% RH moist room at 20±1 ℃ for 14 or 28 days. They subsequently were immersed in 5% Na2SO4(0.35 M) solution at ambient temperature (1~35 ℃). The expansion of the specimens was measured every month, and selected samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that mortars with 20% LF show larger expansion than that of OPC mortars at up to 9 months of exposure,and the amount of gypsum in both mortars and pastes with LF is much more than that in mortars and pastes without LF. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that the formation of massive gypsum leads to the lager expansion of the mortars and pastes containing 20% LF. These behaviors may be explained by the changes in hydration products due to the addition of LF.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Laborde


    Full Text Available E n este trabajo se presenta la aplicación de redes de intercambio de calor (RIC a la esterificación de aceites vegetales usados (AVUs con catálisis ácida para la producción de biodiesel. Se aplican distintos métodos para obtener las cantidades mínimas de calor y la RIC para una capacidad de procesamiento de 0,19 kg/s de AVUs. Se considera una diferencia de temperatura mínima (∆Tmin de 10°C y los requerimientos mínimos de calentamiento y enfriamiento, resultan ser de 4629,87 W y de 10066,30 W, respectivamente. Al aplicar la red de intercambio calórico disminuye en un 78,92% el servicio de vapor requerido en el proceso y en un 62,48% el servicio de agua de enfriamiento, lo que demuestra que la integración reduce los requerimientos energéticos respecto al proceso no integrado.

  15. Influence of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin on transdermal penetration and photostability of avobenzone. (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wiley, Cody J; Godwin, Donald A; Felton, Linda A


    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) complexation on the transdermal penetration and photostability of a model ultraviolet A (UVA) absorber, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone), and to determine the influence of complexation on in vivo photoprotection. Avobenzone-HPCD complexation was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry. Formulations containing 0.12 mg/ml avobenzone and up to 30% (w/w) HPCD were prepared. Transdermal penetration was conducted using a modified Franz diffusion cell apparatus. As the concentration of HPCD was increased from 0% to 20%, transdermal permeation increased. Maximum flux occurred at 20% HPCD, where sufficient cyclodextrin was present to completely solubilize all avobenzone. When the concentration of HPCD was increased to 30%, transdermal penetration decreased, suggesting the formation of an avobenzone reservoir on the skin surface. Photostability of avobenzone was investigated under 100, 250, and 500 kJ/m2 UVA irradiation. The 30% HPCD formulation was the most photostable, followed by 20%, 10%, and 0% formulations. In vivo, the 30% HPCD formulation afforded the best photoprotection, as evidenced by the lowest extent of sunburn cell formation and edema induction. This work indicates that inclusion of HPCD in sunscreen formulations may enhance photoprotection by reducing both skin penetration and photodecomposition of UV absorbers.

  16. Little ice age advance and retreat of Glaciar Jorge Montt, Chilean Patagonia, recorded in maps, air photographs and dendrochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rivera


    Full Text Available Glaciar Jorge Montt (48°20' S/73°30' W, one of the main tidewater glaciers of the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI, has experienced the fastest frontal retreat observed in Patagonia during the past century, with a recession of 19.5 km between 1898 and 2011. This record retreat uncovered trees overridden during the Little Ice Age (LIA advance of the glacier. Samples of these trees were dated using radiocarbon methods, yielding burial ages between 460 and 250 cal yr BP. The dendrochronology and maps indicate that Glaciar Jorge Montt was at its present position before the beginning of the LIA, in concert with several other glaciers in Southern Patagonia, and reached its maximum advance position between 1650 and 1750 AD. The post-LIA retreat is most likely triggered by climatically induced changes during the 20th century, however, Glaciar Jorge Montt has responded more dramatically than its neighbours. The retreat of Jorge Montt opened a new fjord 19.5 km long, and up to 391 m deep, with a varied bathymetry well correlated with glacier retreat rates, suggesting that dynamic responses of the glacier are at least partially connected to near buoyancy conditions at the ice front, resulting in high calving fluxes, accelerating thinning rates and rapid ice velocities.

  17. Properties and Performance of Rubberwood Particleboard Treated With Bp® Fire Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izran K.


    Full Text Available Rubberwood composites are available in many sizes and are frequently used as furniture and partitioning inputs. However they are naturally combustible and may limit its usage for other value-added products. Treating wood composites with fire retardant was one of the most effective ways to prevent such occurrence. In this study, Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis particleboards were incorporated with BP® fire retardant through hot and cold soaking processes. Four different concentrations of fire retardant were applied for the study i.e., 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/v. Treated and untreated particleboards were exposed to early burning performance test. Fire performance was assessed based on the amount of weight loss and width of burnt area formed on the boards after they were exposed to a fire source. The study shows that BP® had significantly affected the burnt area of the treated particleboards. Insignificant reductions of weight loss were recorded between 15-30% treatment concentrations. Early burning performance showed that increase of fire retardant concentration up to 25% (w/v reduced the weight loss. There was no further weight loss reduction recorded above that concentration. The burnt area decreased as the concentration level of BP® increased. The smallest burnt area was recorded for the boards treated with 30% BP®. The addition of fire retardant had interfered slightly with the physical and mechanical properties of the treated particleboards. The physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards were adversely affected compared to untreated boards with increasing concentration of BP®.

  18. Effective delayed neutron fraction measurement in the critical VENUS-F reactor using noise techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, X. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3/Univ. Paris Sud (France); Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Chevret, T.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecouey, J.L.; Lehaut, G.; Marie-Nourry, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Caen, ENSICAEN/Univ. de Caen/CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Fourmentel, D.; Mellier, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DER/SPEX (France); Krasa, A.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (Belgium)


    This paper present the measurements of VENUS-F kinetic parameters using the Rossi-Alpha methods. The VENUS-F reactor is a zero-power reactor based in Mol, Belgium at SCK-CEN where the fuel is made of metallic enriched uranium with pure lead in order to simulate the behavior of lead fast reactor. The reactor can be operated under critical when it is coupled with GENEPI-3C. At the beginning of 2014, a measurement campaign was performed in order to estimate the kinetics parameters. In this paper, two measurements are analyzed at two different powers (approximately 2 W and 30 W) with 7 different fission chambers (with a 235-U deposit that varies from 1 g to 10 mg). All the correlation functions needed for the Rossi-Alpha method have been built for each possible set of two detectors in each configuration and values obtained from those functions for the effective delayed neutron fraction are then compared. The absolute necessity to operate at very low power is presented. The final value for the effective delayed neutron fraction is finally estimated to be 730 pcm ± 11 pcm and the prompt neutron generation time is estimated to be equal to 0,041 μseconds ± 0.04 μsec. (authors)

  19. Intracatheter hyperthermia and iridium-192 radiotherapy in the treatment of bile duct carcinoma. (United States)

    Wong, J Y; Vora, N L; Chou, C K; McDougall, J A; Chan, K W; Findley, D O; Forell, B W; Luk, K H; Philben, V J; Beatty, J D


    We report a case of a patient with locally advanced bile duct carcinoma treated with 4500 cGy external beam radiotherapy, followed 3 weeks later by intracatheter 915 MHz microwave hyperthermia and radiotherapy delivered through a biliary U-tube placed at the time of surgery. Heating was to 43-45 degrees C for 1 hour followed immediately by intracatheter Iridium-192 seeds to deliver 5000 cGy over a 72 hour period. Prior to treatment, a thermal dosimetry study in phanton was conducted, using the same type of U-tube catheter tubing as in the patient. Orthogonal X rays of the patient's porta hepatis region were used to reconstruct the catheter geometry in the phantom. Proper insertion depth was determined thermographically to obtain maximum heating at the center of the tumor. The maximum SAR was 8.8 watts per kilogram per watt input. During the treatment, the average power applied was 30 W. Six months after therapy, the patient is asymptomatic. Although alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT have remained elevated, bilirubin has returned to normal and computerized tomographic scans and cholangiograms remain stable. A duodenal ulcer developed after therapy and is healing well with conservative medical management. This case demonstrates that hyperthermia applied through biliary drainage catheters is technically feasible and clinically tolerated. We believe the use of intracatheter hyperthermia in conjunction with external and/or intracatheter radiotherapy in selected patients with unresectable bile duct carcinomas warrants further study.

  20. Time of day has no effect on maximal aerobic and peak power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesboüé B


    Full Text Available N Bessot1,3, S Moussay1,2, B Dufour1,2, D Davenne1,2, B Sesboüé1,3, A Gauthier1,21Inserm, ERI27, Caen, France; 2University Caen, Caen, France; 3CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, FranceBackground: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of time of day on peak power reached during an exercise test and maximal aerobic power achieved when the subject reached maximal oxygen uptake.Methods: Fifteen male competitive endurance cyclists performed a standardized maximal incremental exercise test at 06:00 hours and 18:00 hours. The test began with a 5-minute warmup period at a workload of 150 W. The work rate was then increased by incremental steps of 30 W per minute until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.00. Thereafter, workload was increased in steps of 15 W per minute until exhaustion was reached.Results: No significant diurnal variation was detected in physiological parameters (maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate or biomechanical parameters (maximal aerobic power, peak power.Conclusion: Circadian variations classically reported in competitive aerobic performances could be due to fluctuations in maximal aerobic endurance and/or improvement in gestural efficiency (pattern of muscle activity, effective force production, and kinematics.Keywords: chronobiology, maximal aerobic power, peak power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal incremental test

  1. Search for a simultaneous signal from small transient events in the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Tupi muon telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; Navia, C E; Tsui, K H; Sinzi, T


    We present results of a search for a possible signal from small scale solar transient events (such as flares and interplanetary shocks) as well as possible counterparts to Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) observed simultaneously by the Tupi muon telescope Niteroi-Brazil, 22.90S, 43.20W, 3 m above sea level) and the Pierre Auger Observatory surface detectors (Malargue-Argentina, 69.30S, 35.30W, altitude 1400 m). Both cosmic ray experiments are located inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. Our analysis of several examples shows similarities in the behavior of the counting rate of low energy (above 100 MeV) particles in association with the solar activity (solar flares and interplanetary shocks). We also report an observation by the Tupi experiment of the enhancement of muons at ground level with a significance higher than 8 sigma in the 1-sec binning counting rate (raw data) in close time coincidence (T-184 sec) with the Swift-BAT GRB110928B (trigger=504307). The GRB 110928B coordinates are in the field of view ...

  2. Development of long life pulse power supply for copper vapor laser. Do joki laser yo chojumyo reiki dengen no kaihatsu. ; Saidai shutsuryoku unten oyobi laser hasshin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Goto, N.; Nemoto, K. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))


    Long life pulse power supply for Cu vapor laser was developed. This is composed of the pulse generation circuit and the pulse compression circuit. Current pulse of 10 mu second pulse width is generated in the pulse generating circuit by switching electric charge on the condensor charged through GTO (gate turn off) thyristors. The pulse compression circuit makes the current pulse fast to 300ms utilizing the difference of inductance at the saturation and the unsaturation on the circuit which uses a reactor having saturable property using a ferromagnetic substance for the core as the magnetic switch. The operation was carried out at the GTO generasting full power. Co base amorphous alloy of low loss was used for the core of saturable inductor and the circuit efficiency of 77% could be obtained by suppressing the heat generation in core even at 4,000Hz operation. The full output power of 8.2kW was possible which corresponds to 100W class laser oscillation. Repeated Cu vapor laser oscillation of 30W succeeded at the condition of 4,000Hz and power supply output of 5.9kW. 7 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10. (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi


    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  4. Merging micro-meteorology and Landsat imagery to monitor daily evapotranspiration at a regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sánchez


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to show the operational applicability of a recently proposed model (Sánchez et al., 2008 together with satellite images to monitor surface energy fluxes at a regional scale. In particular, we will focus on the retrieval of daily evapotranspiration because of the particular significance of this flux in the generation of precipitation or in agricultural water resource management. A detailed methodology to apply the Simplified Two- Source Energy Balance method to Landsat imagery is presented. The different surface cropland features are characterized from the CORINE Land Cover maps, and the required meteorological variables are obtained by interpolating the data of a network of agro-meteorological stations distributed within the region of interest. Finally, we show the application of the methodology to three different Landsat images covering the whole Basilicata region (Southern Italy. Maps of the different fluxes including the daily evapotranspiration are performed. Results are compared with some ground measurements, and an analysis is made taking the land use classification as a basis. An accuracy close to 30 W m-2 is obtained.

  5. Use of clinoptilolite to improve and protect soil quality from the disposal of olive oil mills wastes. (United States)

    Doula, Maria K; Elaiopoulos, Kyriakos; Kavvadias, Victor A; Mavraganis, Vasilis


    In the framework of LIFE07 ENV/GR/000280 Project "Strategies to improve and protect soil quality from the disposal of olive oil mills wastes in the Mediterranean-PROSODOL", a laboratory experiment was conducted in order to investigate to which extent the natural zeolite clinoptilolite is capable of limiting environmental degradation caused by the uncontrolled disposal of olive oil mills wastes (OOMW). Clinoptilolite was added in various ratios (from 0% up to 30%w/w) to soil samples, which were collected from four OOMW disposal sites (from both the interior of the disposal ponds and the surroundings) located in a pilot Municipality in Rethymno, Crete, Greece. Water soluble K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, polyphenols, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) were measured in leachates after equilibration of the soil samples with clinoptilolite It was observed that water soluble K, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and polyphenols were decreased with an increase in zeolite percentage; Ca leaching was slightly increased or remained nearly constant; Mg leaching remained constant or increased, especially for pond soils; and PO4(3-) leaching was very low. Although the soil samples' content in available Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe was high, the metals were not detected in the leachates.

  6. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and its Beam Charge Asymmetry in $e^{\\pm} p$ Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Alexa, C; Alimujiang, K; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R.C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M.P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D.P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, Arnd E; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; Zus, R


    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering gamma* p -> gamma p using e^+ p and e^- p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb^-1, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q^2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the gamma* p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The cross section is determined differentially in t for different Q^2 and W values and exponential t-slope parameters are derived. Using e^+ p and e^- p data samples, a beam charge asymmetry is extracted for the first time in the low Bjorken x kinematic domain. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. Experimental results are dis...

  7. Characterization of omega-3 tablets. (United States)

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo


    Omega-3 nutraceuticals are extensively used as health supplements worldwide. Various administration forms for delivery of omega-3 are available. However, the niche omega-3 tablets have so far remained unexplored. In this work tablets containing 25-40% (w/w) omega-3 oil as triglycerides or ethyl esters were prepared utilizing a direct compaction grade powder with β-cyclodextrin as encapsulating agent. It was found that powders with up to 35% (w/w) triglyceride oil and 30% (w/w) ethyl ester oil, respectively, can be directly compressed into tablets of excellent quality. Physical properties of omega-3 containing powders and tablets are described. The powder X-ray diffractograms of the powders and crushed tablets show evidence of the formation of new crystalline phases not present in β-cyclodextrin. In addition, (1)H NMR data suggest that the ethyl esters form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. Compaction of other, commercially available, omega-3 powders was performed as a comparison and deemed unsuccessful.

  8. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed interesterification for bulky fats modification with FT-IR/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Lai, Xuxin; Zhang, Hong


    This work demonstrates the application of FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for bulky fat modification. The reaction was conducted between palm stearin and coconut oil (70/30, w/w) with the catalysis of Lipozyme TL IM at 70°C in a batch reactor...... (PLS) regression. High correlations (r > 0.96) were obtained from cross validations of the data estimated by FT-IR, FT-NIRand above-mentioned conventional analytical methods, except for correlations (r = 0.90-0,95) between FT-IR and SFC profiles. Overall, FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with transmission....... The blends and interesterified fats samples in liquid form were measured by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) based FT-IR (spectra region: 1516-781 cm-1) and transmission mode based FT-NIR (spectra region: 5369-4752 cm-1) with temperature both controlled at 70°C. The samples in solid form were also measured...

  9. Biological properties and biodegradation studies of chitosan biofilms plasticized with PEG and glycerol. (United States)

    Kammoun, Maher; Haddar, Manel; Kallel, Tasnim Kossentini; Dammak, Mohamed; Sayari, Adel


    Chitosan biofilms, prepared by casting method at various percentage of plasticizer (PEG and glycerol), were evaluated for their biological, structural and thermal properties. The addition of PEG at 30% (w/w) and glycerol at 10% (w/w) to chitosan has increased the antioxidant activity of biofilm with the percentages of 22 and 26%, respectively. The increase of ferric reducing power was noted for the mixtures of chitosan-PEG (70-30) and chitosan-GLY (75-25). Additionally, the antibacterial properties of several biofilms were tested against E. coli and S. aureus. Biofilms with 70-30 and 90-10 blends ratio of chitosan-PEG and chitosan-GLY showed the best inhibitory effect against E. coli and S. aureus with 12 and 27%, respectively. All biofilms were degraded in compost in liquid and the addition of plasticizer PEG to chitosan increased his biodegradability with a value of BOD5 about 2.33 O2/mg CO. FT-IR spectra showed that the addition of plasticizer promoted the interactions through hydrogen bonding as reflected on the shifting of main peaks but there is no effect on biodegradation.

  10. A plasma polymerization technique to overcome cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections. (United States)

    Cökeliler, D; Caner, H; Zemek, J; Choukourov, A; Biederman, H; Mutlu, M


    Prosthetic devices, mainly shunts, are frequently used for temporary or permanent drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of shunt infection is a very important problem in modern medicine and generally this is characterized by staphylococcal adhesion to the cerebrospinal fluid shunt surfaces. In this paper, the prevention of the attachment of test microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis on the cerebrospinal fluid shunt surfaces by 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) precursor modification in the plasma polymerization system, is reported. Different plasma polymerization conditions (RF discharge power 10-20-30 W, exposure time 5-10-15 min) were employed during the surface modification. The surface chemistry and topology of unmodified and modified shunts was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, static contact angle measurements were performed to state the change of surface hydrophilicity. All samples were tested in vitro with Staphylococcus epidermidis. A plasma-polymerized HEMA film (PP HEMA) was found to be an alternative simple method to decrease the microorganism attachment and create bacterial anti-fouling surfaces. The attachment of the model microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis on the shunt surface modified by PP HEMA at 20 W and 15 min was reduced 62.3% if compared to the unmodified control surface of the shunt.

  11. Evaluation of polysaccharides content in fruit bodies and their antimicrobial activity of four Ganoderma lucidum (W Curt.: Fr. P. Karst. strains cultivated on different wood type substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak


    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies from different sawdust cultivation substrates and their antibacterial activity was done. Thirty six samples were analyzed. Four strains of Ganoderma lucidum (GL01, GL02, GL03 and GL04 were cultivated on the growth substrates of three different sawdust types: birch (Bo, maple (Kl or alder (Ol amended with wheat bran in three different concentrations: 10, 20 and 30% (w/w. Even though the richest in polysaccharides was GL01 strain, the highest yields of the polysaccharides were determined in GL04Kl3 sample and was 112.82 mg/g of dry weight. The antibacterial activity of polysaccharides was determined in vitro using micro-dilution broth method. The panel of eight reference bacterial strains was used. All the polysaccharide samples tested showed the broad spectrum and the moderate antibacterial activity. Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 strain was the most sensitive with MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration = 0.63 − 1.25 mg/mL.

  12. Computer Programs to Display and Modify Data in Geographic Coordinates and Methods to Transfer Positions to and from Maps, with Applications to Gravity Data Processing, Global Positioning Systems, and 30-Meter Digital Elevation Models (United States)

    Plouff, Donald


    Computer programs were written in the Fortran language to process and display gravity data with locations expressed in geographic coordinates. The programs and associated processes have been tested for gravity data in an area of about 125,000 square kilometers in northwest Nevada, southeast Oregon, and northeast California. This report discusses the geographic aspects of data processing. Utilization of the programs begins with application of a template (printed in PostScript format) to transfer locations obtained with Global Positioning Systems to and from field maps and includes a 5-digit geographic-based map naming convention for field maps. Computer programs, with source codes that can be copied, are used to display data values (printed in PostScript format) and data coverage, insert data into files, extract data from files, shift locations, test for redundancy, and organize data by map quadrangles. It is suggested that 30-meter Digital Elevation Models needed for gravity terrain corrections and other applications should be accessed in a file search by using the USGS 7.5-minute map name as a file name, for example, file '40117_B8.DEM' contains elevation data for the map with a southeast corner at lat 40? 07' 30' N. and lon 117? 52' 30' W.

  13. Effects of ionic strength on the enzymatic hydrolysis of diluted and concentrated whey protein isolate. (United States)

    Butré, Claire I; Wierenga, Peter A; Gruppen, Harry


    To identify the parameters that affect enzymatic hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, whey protein isolate (1-30% w/v) was hydrolyzed by Alcalase and Neutrase at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. No changes were observed in the solubility and the aggregation state of the proteins. With increasing concentration, both the hydrolysis rate and the final DH decreased, from 0.14 to 0.015 s(-1) and from 24 to 15%, respectively. The presence of 0.5 M NaCl decreased the rate of hydrolysis for low concentrations (to 0.018 s(-1) for 1% WPI), resulting in similar rates of hydrolysis for all substrate concentrations. The conductivity increase (by increasing the protein concentration, or by addition of NaCl) has significant effects on the hydrolysis kinetics, but the reason for this is not yet well understood. The results show the importance of conductivity as a factor that influences the kinetics of the hydrolysis, as well as the composition of the hydrolysates.

  14. Thermoelectricity in Self-Contained Heating and Boiler Systems (United States)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Mykhailovsky, V. Ya.; Strutynska, L. T.


    The use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) in heating systems enables autonomous supply of power to automatic safety devices, creation of optimized gas mixtures, and automation and precise temperature control of exhaust gas and heat carriers. It is particularly important to make heating systems independent of the district electric grid. Results of research and development efforts on a TEG for supplying power to electric devices of self-contained heating and boiler systems are presented. A TEG physical model is proposed, and results of computer simulation and optimization of its basic power and design parameters are given. Two TEG design variants (single and double sided) are considered. Their advantages and shortcomings are discussed. On the basis of theoretical calculations, a prototype TEG for a 10.5-kW boiler is built. At water heating system temperatures from 35°C to 80°C, the TEG electric power is 50 W to 65 W, which is used to supply a circulation pump for forced liquid heat carrier delivery (30 W to 40 W) and a fan for removal of fuel combustion products from the boiler’s smoke chamber (5 W to 7 W).

  15. Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents. (United States)

    Croughan, W S; Behbehani, A M


    A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2,000 ppm (2,000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp (model G30TB; General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y.) (30 W) at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Quadri Adio


    Full Text Available In this study mould strains screened and molecularly identified as Aspergillus niger F7-02 was used to produced extracellular lipase in Solid State Fermentation (SSF process. Different agricultural residues were combined in different ratios as carbon, nitrogen and elemental sources in the solid culture medium. The optimization of the culture medium was carried out for such parameters as incubation time (24 h - 96 h, inoculum concentration (0.5 – 3.0%, w/v, initial moisture content (40 – 70%, w/v, and initial pH (6 – 8 for maximum yield. The maximum lipase activity of 76.7 U/ml was obtained with a medium containing rice bran (RB, palm kernel cake (PKC, groundnut cake (GNC and starch (S at the ratio of 5:5:3:1 (%w/w with optimum conditions of 60% moisture, 1% inoculum and a pH of 7.0 with an incubation temperature of 30 oC and incubation time of 72 h.

  17. Comparative studies for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride pre-formed gels and thermally triggered (in situ) gels: in vitro and in vivo appraisal using a bacterial keratitis model in rabbits. (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Mansour, Heba F


    This article reports on comparative in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation of pre-formed cellulose-based gels, methylcellulose (MC) and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and in situ gel-forming Pluronic F127 (PL) for ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (Cipro) by using a bacterial keratitis model and histological corneal examination. Drug-polymer interactions were studied employing thermal analysis. Further, different concentrations (1-3% w/w or 10-30% w/w) of gels depending on the nature of the polymer used were prepared, characterized for clarity, pH, rheology and in vitro release. Selected gel formulations were evaluated for ocular delivery to Staphylococcus aureus-infected rabbit corneas; and ocular toxicity through histological examination of the cornea. The results demonstrated no Cipro-polymers physicochemical interactions and pseudoplastic flow for all gels used at 35 °C. Both polymer concentrations and drug solubility in the gels are dominantly the rate-determining factors for in vitro drug release. The corneal healing rate for all gel-based formulations was significantly faster (p < 0.05) than that for Cipro solution-treated rabbits. PL-based gel induced significant swelling/edema of the corneal stroma, compared with MC- and CMC-based gels. In conclusion, cellulose-based polymers have superior ocular tolerability/dramatically less irritant; and superior efficacy with more convenient administration compared with PL and Cipro solution, respectively.

  18. Optimization of the Dilute Acid Hydrolyzator for Cellulose-to-Bioethanol Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Tsoutsos


    Full Text Available The production of fermentable sugar solutions for bioethanol production is optimized. The process of acid hydrolysis using dilute H2SO4 was selected. Suitable lignocellulosics which are abundant in the Mediterranean (corn stover, hardwood and wheat straw were investigated, and therefore their exploitation could be economically feasible. The process was studied in the two most common hydrolyzators (batch and continuous stirred by developing a specific simulator for different raw materials. The simulation was applied in a wide range of temperatures (100–240 °C and acid concentrations (0.5–3.0% w/w, in order to optimize the productivity of fermentable pentosans and hexosans. It was confirmed that the production of sugar-rich solutions required a two-stage process; in the first stage the degradation of sugars takes place, since pentoses are formulated under milder conditions than hexoses; in the second stage of simulation, a variety of samples with high sugar concentration and low degradation products are tested. The xylose productivity ranges between 85–95% under the most optimal conditions compared to the theoretical values, while large variations in glucose were frequent (10–55% in comparison with the theoretical values. The best theoretical results were achieved for wheat straw hydrolysis in a batch reactor.

  19. Coupling stir bar sorptive extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for preconcentration of triazole pesticides from aqueous samples followed by GC-FID and GC-MS determinations. (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Djozan, Djavanshir; Nouri, Nina; Bamorowat, Mehdi; Shalamzari, Mohammad Safi


    Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed as a new approach for the extraction of six triazole pesticides (penconazole, hexaconazole, diniconazole, tebuconazole, triticonazole and difenconazole) in aqueous samples prior to GC-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). A series of parameters that affect the performance of both steps were thoroughly investigated. Under optimized conditions, aqueous sample was stirred using a stir bar coated with octadecylsilane (ODS) and then target compounds on the sorbent (stir bar) were desorbed with methanol. The extract was mixed with 25 microL of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and the mixture was rapidly injected into sodium chloride solution 30% w/v. After centrifugation, an aliquot of the settled organic phase was analyzed by GC-FID. The methodology showed broad linear ranges for the six triazole pesticides studied, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.993, lower LODs and LOQs between 0.53-24.0 and 1.08-80.0 ng/mL, respectively, and suitable precision (RSD FID determination. In short, by coupling SBSE with DLLME, advantages of two methods are combined to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. This method showed higher enrichment factors (282-1792) when compared with conventional methods of sample preparation to screen pesticides in aqueous samples.

  20. Effect of squalane on mebendazole-loaded Compritol® nanoparticles. (United States)

    Graves, Richard A; Ledet, Grace A; Nation, Cedric A; Pramar, Yashoda V; Bostanian, Levon A; Mandal, Tarun K


    The objective of this study is to develop nanostructured lipid formulations of Compritol for the delivery of mebendazole. The formulations were prepared with Compritol 888 ATO, squalane, and Pluronic F68. Nine batches with different amounts of modifier, squalane, and drug were prepared. The formulations were characterized by evaluating particle size, morphology, and zeta potential. The thermal properties of the formulations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The encapsulation efficiency of each formulation and the drug release rates from each formulation were quantified by UPLC. The particles were spherical and had median particle sizes between 300 and 600 nm (50th percentile). A linear relationship was observed between Compritol/squalane composition and the melting point of the mixture. The DSC scans of the formulations revealed some recrystallization of the drug from the formulations, and the amount of recrystallization correlated with the amount of squalane in the formulation. Approximately, 70% efficiency of encapsulation was observed in the formulations with 30% (w/w) squalane, and these formulations also had faster dissolution rates compared to the other formulations. Overall, the formulations with 30% squalane are the preferred formulation for future testing.