Sample records for 3075ma ocelli-hosting pillow

  1. Porcelain Pillow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This pillow, 7.3cm high, 13.1cm long and 8.1cm wide, was unearthed in Changsha in 1983. Its pedestal is a male lion lying prostrate with an open mouth. The surface is rectangular. The pillow was glazed in blue with brownish green dots. A poem on the surface written with brown ink reads, "Dressed in a red blouse and slik gauze skirt, she

  2. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.; Frei, Robert


    assemblage is interpreted as relict epidosite. The stage II metasomatic assemblage occurs as concordant discontinuous layered calc-silicate bodies to discordant calc-silicate veins commonly associated with shear zones. The stage II metasomatic assemblage consists mainly of diopside...... + garnet + amphibole + plagioclase + quartz ± vesuvianite ± scapolite ± epidote ± titanite ± calcite ± scheelite. Given that the second stage of metasomatism is closely associated with shear zones and replaced rocks with an early metamorphic fabric, its origin is attributed to regional dynamothermal metamorphism. The least altered pillow basalts, picrites, gabbros, and diorites are characterized by LREE......-enriched, near-flat HREE, and HFSE (especially Nb)-depleted trace element patterns, indicating a subduction zone geochemical signature. Ultramafic pillows and cumulates display large positive initial eNd values of + 1.3 to + 5.0, consistent with a strongly depleted mantle source. Given the geological...

  3. Unassisted smothering in a pillow. (United States)

    Schmeling, Andreas; Fracasso, Tony; Pragst, Fritz; Tsokos, Michael; Wirth, Ingo


    We report the case of a 33-year-old man admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of paranoid schizophrenia. The man was found dead lying in his bed with the face pressed against a pillow and with elevated buttocks. The autopsy did not reveal a cause of death. The histological findings displayed the signs of the haemorrhagic-dysoric syndrome with acute emphysema; these findings are pathognomonic of obstructive asphyxia. The adverse effects of the neuroleptics demonstrated by the toxicological findings may have accelerated the loss of consciousness and facilitated the unusual position of the body. On the basis of the clinical history, the autopsy findings, the histological features and the toxicological results, asphyxia due to smothering was diagnosed as the cause of death.

  4. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany. (United States)

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J


    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  5. A randomized, comparative trial: does pillow type alter cervico-thoracic spinal posture when side lying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon SJ


    Full Text Available Susan J Gordon1, Karen A Grimmer-Somers2, Patricia H Trott31School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Science, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD; 2Centre for Allied Health Sciences, 3School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Many patients ask for advice about choosing a pillow. This research was undertaken to determine if pillow type alters cervico-thoracic spine position when resting in the side-lying position.Aim: To investigate the effect of different pillow shape and content on the slope of cervico-thoracic spine segments when side lying.Materials and methods: The study was a randomized blinded comparative trial set in a laboratory that replicated a bedroom. The subjects were side sleepers aged over 18 years. Exclusion criteria were history of surgery to the cervico-thoracic spine, an injury or accident to the cervico-thoracic spine in the preceding year, or currently receiving treatment for neck symptoms. Each participant rested in a standardized side-lying position for 10 minutes on each of the trial pillows: regular shaped polyester, foam, feather, and latex pillows, and a contour shaped foam pillow. Reflective markers were placed on external occipital protuberance (EOP, C2, C4, C7, and T3, and digital images were recorded of subjects at 0 and 10 minutes on each pillow. Images were digitized using each reflective marker and the slope of each spinal segment calculated. Univariate analysis of variance models were used to investigate slope differences between pillows at 0 and 10 minutes. Significance was established at P < 0.01 to take account of chance effects from repeated measures and multiple comparisons.Results: At 0 and 10 minutes, the EOP-C2, C2-C4, and C4-C7 segmental slopes were significantly different across all pillows. Significant differences were identified when comparing the feather pillow with the latex, regular and contour foam pillows, and when

  6. 78 FR 64196 - Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado On August 21... existing activation limit of FTZ 123, on behalf of Pillow Kingdom, Inc., in Aurora, Colorado....

  7. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon. (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Staples, L.W.


    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence. Although the zeolite assemblages are similar to those found in other major zeolite occurrences in basaltic pillow lavas, regional zoning of the zeolite assemblages is not apparent. The formation of the different assemblages is discussed.-D.F.B.

  8. 78 FR 52758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 123-Denver, Colorado; Application for Subzone, Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora... (United States)


    ... Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board... Pillow Kingdom, Inc. (Pillow Kingdom), located in Aurora, Colorado. The application was...

  9. Hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis of terrestrial lacustrine pillow basalts: Coordination of hyperspectral imaging with laboratory measurements (United States)

    Greenberger, Rebecca N; Mustard, John F; Cloutis, Edward A; Mann, Paul; Wilson, Janette H.; Flemming, Roberta L; Robertson, Kevin; Salvatore, Mark R; Edwards, Christopher


    We investigate an outcrop of ∼187 Ma lacustrine pillow basalts of the Talcott Formation exposed in Meriden, Connecticut, USA, focusing on coordinated analyses of one pillow lava to characterize the aqueous history of these basalts in the Hartford Basin. This work uses a suite of multidisciplinary measurements, including hyperspectral imaging, other spectroscopic techniques, and chemical and mineralogical analyses, from the microscopic scale up to the scale of an outcrop.

  10. Prediction and control of pillow defect in single point incremental forming using numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidore, B. B. Lemopi [Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa (Turkmenistan); Hussain, G.; Khan, Wasim A. [GIK Institute of Engineering, Swabi (Pakistan); Shamachi, S. Pourhassan [University of Minho, Guimaraes (Portugal)


    Pillows formed at the center of sheets in Single point incremental forming (SPIF) are fabrication defects which adversely affect the geometrical accuracy and formability of manufactured parts. This study is focused on using FEA as a tool to predict and control pillowing in SPIF by varying tool size and shape. 3D Finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments are carried out using annealed Aluminum 1050. From FEA, it is found out that the stress/strain state in the immediate vicinity of the forming tool in the transverse direction plays a determinant role on sheet pillowing. Furthermore, pillow height increases as compression in the sheet-plane increases. The nature of in-plane stresses in the transverse direction varies from compressive to tensile as the tool-end geometry is changed from spherical to flat. Additionally, the magnitude of corresponding in-plane stresses decreases as the tool radius increases. According to measurements from the FEA model, flat end tools and large radii both retard pillow formation. However, the influence of changing tool end shape from hemispherical to flat is observed to be more important than the effect of varying tool radius, because the deformation zone remains in tension in the transverse direction while forming with flat end tools. These findings are verified by conducting a set of experiments. A fair agreement between the FEM and empirical results show that FEM can be employed as a tool to predict and control the pillow defect in SPIF.

  11. Petrogenesis of pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen


    The pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan have been inferred to bear Dupal signautres based on their Th/Ce ratio, linking the Baolai basalts to the South China Sea (SCS) seamounts that are characterized by Dupal Pb isotope signatures (Smith and Lewis, 2007). In this study, thirty-two Baolai basalt samples were analyzed for abundances of major and trace elements as well as Pb and Nd isotope ratios to verify their Dupal characters and to constrain their petrogenesis significance. The Baolai basalts contain 4-10 % L.O.I.. Three stages of alteration are inferred from plots of L.O.I. abundance versus concentrations major oxides as well as mineral textures and compositions. The first alteration stage was characterized by albitization that converted Ca-rich plagioclase to albite. The second alteration stage was dominated by chloritization of olivine and augite, resulting in increases in L.O.I. abundance. The last alteration stage is represented by formation of secondary calcite in vesicles and cracks. These alteration processes reflect interaction with seawater and apparently did not affect the magmatic Pb isotope composition for the low Pb concentration in seawater. Relative to the North Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL), the Baolai pillow basalts have higher 208Pb/204Pb ratios at a given 206Pb/204Pb value, showing Dupal anomaly. For their relatively higher 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the Baolai basalts are distinct from majority of the Cenozoic basalts in the Hainan-Leizhou peninsula, the Indochina peninsula, and the SCS seamounts, for which derivation from the Hainan mantle plume has been recently proposed (Wang et al., 2013). In contrast, the Baolai basalts and the Cenozoic basalts from eastern Guangdong at southeastern China have similar Pb and Nd isotope compositions, indicating derivation from similar mantle sources. However, the Baolai basalts have lower abundance ratios of Zr/Hf (40.3-45.6 versus 46.5-50.5), La/Yb (12

  12. Study on the automatic process of line heating for pillow shape plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper focuses on the process for pillow shape plate by line heating technique, which is widely applied in the production of ship hull. Based on the analysis of primary parameters and experimental data in line heating process, the amount of local contraction generated by line heating has been illustrated. Then, combining with the computational result of local deformation determined by shell plate development, an optimization method for line heating parameters has been studied. This prediction system may provide rational arrangements of heating lines and technical parameters of process. By integrating the prediction system into the line heating robot for pillow shape plate, the automatic process of line heating for pillow shape plate can be achieved.

  13. Analogue experiments of salt flow and pillow growth due basement faulting and differential loading (United States)

    Warsitzka, M.; Kley, J.; Kukowski, N.


    Basement faulting is widely acknowledged as a potential trigger for salt flow and the growth of salt structures in salt-bearing extensional basins. In this study, dynamically scaled analogue experiments were designed to examine the evolution of salt pillows and the kinematics of salt flow due to a short pulse of basement faulting and a long-lasting phase of successive sedimentation. Experiments performed in the framework of this study consist of viscous silicone putty to simulate ductile rock salt, and a PVC-beads-quartz sand mixture representing a brittle supra-salt layer. In order to derive 2-D incremental displacement and strain patterns, the analogue experiments were monitored by an optical image correlation system (Particle Imaging Velocimetry). By varying layer thicknesses and extension rates, the influence of these parameters on the kinematics of salt flow were tested. Model results reveal that significant strain is triggered in the viscous layer by minor basement faulting. During basement extension downward flow occurs in the viscous layer above the basement fault tip. In contrast, upward flow takes place during post-extensional sedimentation. Lateral redistribution of the viscous material during post-extensional sedimentation is associated with subsidence above the footwall block and uplift adjacent to the basement faults leading to the formation of pillow structures (primary pillows). Decoupled cover faulting and the subsidence of peripheral sinks adjacent to the primary pillow causes the formation of additional pillow structures at large distance from the basement fault (secondary pillows). Experimental results demonstrate that the development of salt pillows can be triggered by basement extension, but requires a phase of tectonic quiescence. The potential for pillow growth and the displacement rate in the viscous layer increase with increasing thickness of the viscous layer and increasing extension rate, but decrease with increasing thickness of the

  14. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla


    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  15. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric


    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars.

  16. Analogue experiments of salt flow and pillow growth due to basement faulting and differential loading (United States)

    Warsitzka, M.; Kley, J.; Kukowski, N.


    Salt flow in sedimentary basins is mainly driven by differential loading and can be described by the concept of hydraulic head. A hydraulic head in the salt layer can be imposed by vertically displacing the salt layer (elevation head) or the weight of overburden sediments (pressure head). Basement faulting in salt-bearing extensional basins is widely acknowledged as a potential trigger for hydraulic heads and the growth of salt structures. In this study, scaled analogue experiments were designed to examine the kinematics of salt flow during the early evolution of a salt structure triggered by basement extension. In order to distinguish flow patterns driven by elevation head or by pressure head, we applied a short pulse of basement extension, which was followed by a long-lasting phase of sedimentation. During the experiments viscous silicone putty simulated ductile rock salt, and a PVC-beads/quartz-sand mixture was used to simulate a brittle supra-salt layer. In order to derive 2-D incremental displacement and strain patterns, the analogue experiments were monitored using an optical image correlation system (particle imaging velocimetry). By varying layer thicknesses and extension rates, the influence of these parameters on the kinematics of salt flow were tested. Model results reveal that significant flow can be triggered in the viscous layer by small-offset basement faulting. During basement extension downward flow occurs in the viscous layer above the basement fault tip. In contrast, upward flow takes place during post-extensional sediment accumulation. Flow patterns in the viscous material are characterized by channelized Poiseuille-type flow, which is associated with subsidence in regions of "salt" expulsion and surface uplift in regions of inflation of the viscous material. Inflation of the viscous material eventually leads to the formation of pillow structures adjacent to the basement faults (primary pillows). The subsidence of peripheral sinks adjacent to

  17. A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased anesthesiologist discomfort compared to a pillow of 4 cm height during tracheal intubation in adult patients (United States)

    Hong, Hyo Ju; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Won; Lee, Hyung Chul


    Background Neck flexion by head elevation using an 8 to 10 cm thick pillow and head extension has been suggested to align the laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axis and facilitate tracheal intubation. Presently, the laryngeal view and discomfort for tracheal intubation were evaluated according to two different degrees of head elevation in adult patients. Methods This prospective randomized, controlled study included 50 adult patients aged 18 to 90 years. After induction of anesthesia, the Cormack Lehane grade was evaluated in 25 patients using a direct laryngoscope while the patient's head was elevated with a 4 cm pillow (4 cm group) and then an 8 cm pillow (8 cm group). In the other 25 patients, the grades were evaluated in the opposite sequence and tracheal intubation was performed. The success rate and anesthesiologist's discomfort score for tracheal intubation, and laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were assessed. Results There were no differences in the laryngeal view and success rate for tracheal intubation between the two groups. The discomfort score during tracheal intubation was higher in the 8 cm group when the patient's head was elevated 4 cm first and then 8 cm. The alignment of laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were not different between the two degrees of head elevation. Conclusions A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased the anesthesiologist discomfort, compared to a pillow of 4 cm height, during tracheal intubation in adult patients. PMID:27066204

  18. Nasal pillows as an alternative interface in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome initiating continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke


    Side-effects directly due to the nasal mask are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) commencing continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Recently, nasal pillows have been designed to overcome these issues. Limited evidence exists of the benefits and effectiveness of these devices. Twenty-one patients (19 male, 49+\\/-10years) with the established diagnosis of OSAS [apnoea\\/hypopnoea index (AHI): 52+\\/-22] and who had a successful CPAP titration were commenced on CPAP therapy (10+\\/-2cmH2O), and randomized to 4weeks of a nasal pillow (P) and a standard nasal mask (M) in a crossover design. Outcome measures were objective compliance, AHI, quality of life, Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and CPAP side-effects. There was no difference in compliance (M versus P: 5.1+\\/-1.9h versus 5.0+\\/-1.7h; P=0.701) and AHI (2.6+\\/-2.7 versus 3.0+\\/-2.9; P=0.509). Quality of life and ESS improved with CPAP, but there was no difference in the extent of improvement between both devices. Usage of nasal pillows resulted in less reported pressure on the face and more subjects found the nasal pillow the more comfortable device. However, there was no clear overall preference for either device at the end of the study (mask=57%, pillow=43%; P=0.513). The applied CPAP pressure did not correlate with compliance, AHI and ESS. Furthermore, no differences in outcome parameters were noted comparing groups with CPAP pressure <10 and >\\/=10cm H(2) O. Nasal pillows are equally effective in CPAP therapy, but do not generally lead to improved compliance.

  19. Effect of pillow height on the biomechanics of the head-neck complex: investigation of the cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicong Ren


    Full Text Available Background While appropriate pillow height is crucial to maintaining the quality of sleep and overall health, there are no universal, evidence-based guidelines for pillow design or selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of pillow height on cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment. Methods Ten healthy subjects (five males aged 26 ± 3.6 years were recruited. The average height, weight, and neck length were 167 ± 9.3 cm, 59.6 ± 11.9 kg, and 12.9 ± 1.2 cm respectively. The subjects lay on pillows of four different heights (H0, 110 mm; H1, 130 mm; H2, 150 mm; and H3, 170 mm. The cranio-cervical pressure distribution over the pillow was recorded; the peak and average pressures for each pillow height were compared by one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Cervical spine alignment was studied using a finite element model constructed based on data from the Visible Human Project. The coordinate of the center of each cervical vertebra were predicted for each pillow height. Three spine alignment parameters (cervical angle, lordosis distance and kyphosis distance were identified. Results The average cranial pressure at pillow height H3 was approximately 30% higher than that at H0, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05. The average cervical pressure at pillow height H0 was 65% lower than that at H3, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05. The peak cervical pressures at pillow heights H2 and H3 were significantly different from that at H0 (p < 0.05. With respect to cervical spine alignment, raising pillow height from H0 to H3 caused an increase of 66.4% and 25.1% in cervical angle and lordosis distance, respectively, and a reduction of 43.4% in kyphosis distance. Discussion Pillow height elevation significantly increased the average and peak pressures of the cranial and cervical regions, and increased the extension and lordosis of the cervical spine. The cranio-cervical pressures and cervical

  20. U-series dating of pillow rim glass from recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge (United States)

    Thomas, L. E.; van Calsteren, P. W.; Jc024 Shipboard Party


    Visual observations using camera systems on the tethered ROV Isis deployed during the 2008 JC024 cruise to the Mid Atlantic Ridge at 45°N showed1 numerous monogenetic volcanoes that are essentially piles of lava pillows. The pillows are usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long and form mounds with average dimensions around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on pillows appear to be the youngest regions, were sampled using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. On the surface, any glass crust on the pillow protrusions was chiselled off using clean tools and double bagged in polythene. In the laboratory a portion of the glass was crushed in a jeweller’s roller mill and sieved using stainless steel sieves to obtain a sufficient amount of the fraction 0.125-0.250mm for hand picking, using a binocular microscope with the glass submerged in a mix of water and iso-propyl alcohol. The samples were subsequently leached using the procedure of Standish & Sims2. Samples were spiked with a mixed 229Th-236U spike and the U, Th and Ra fractions were separated and purified using standard chemistry methods. U and Th isotope ratios were determined using a Nu Instruments MC-ICPMS and Ra isotope ratios were determined using a MAT-262-RPQII TIMS instrument. The U-series data were evaluated using a MathCad program based on published4,5,6 equations. The data can be successfully modelled by assuming the ‘accepted’ mantle upwelling rate for the region of 11mm.y-1. The U-Th characteristics are mostly derived during ‘porous flow’ magma upwelling in the garnet stability zone, ranging to a depth of 60km with incipient melting starting at 70km. Above 60km depth the melt fraction will be >3% and the mantle mineralogy devoid of phases that fractionate U-Th significantly. Moreover, at melt fractions >3%, channel flow will be dominant and magma will transit to eruption on time-scales that are

  1. Reconstruction of seawater chemistry from deeply subducted oceanic crust; hydrogen and oxygen isotope of lawsonite eclogites preserving pillow structure (United States)

    Hamabata, D., VI; Masuyama, Y.; Tomiyasu, F.; Ueno, Y.; Yui, T. F.; Okamoto, K.


    In order to understand evolution of life, change of seawater chemistry from Hadean, Archean to present is significant. Pillow structure is well-preserved in the Archean greenstone belt (e.g. Komiya et al., 1999). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope of rims in the pillow is useful conventional tool to decipher chemistry of Paleao-seawater from Archean to Present. However, Archean greenstone belt suffered regional metamorphism from greenschist to Amphibolite facies conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to testify the validity of pillow chemistry from recent (Phanerozoic) metamorphosed greenstone. We have systematically collected pillowed greenstone from blueschist and eclogites. Two eclogite exhibiting pillow structures were chosen for oxygen and hydrogen isotope analysis. One is from Corsica (lawsonite eclogite collected with Dr. Alberto Vidale Barbarone) and another is from Cazadero, Franciscan belt (collected by Dr. Tatsuki Tsujimori). The both are ascribed as MORB from major and trace bulk chemistry and Ca is rich in the core and Na is poor in the rims. The former exhibits garnet, omphacite, lawsonite, and glacophane. Phengite is in core of the pillow and chlorite is in the rims. In the latter, besides garnet, omphacite, epdiote and glaucophane, chlorite is recognized with phengite in the core. Glaucophane is richer in the rims from the both samples, therefore istope analysis of glaucophane was done. Mineral separation was carefully done using micro-mill, heavy liquid and isodynamic separator. 20 mg specimens were used for oxygen isotope analysis and 2mg were for hydrogen analysis. δ18O of the all analysis (7.7 to 8.3) is within the range of unaltered igneous oceanic crust and high temperature hydrothermal alteration although rims (8.3 for Franciscan and 8.0 for Corsica) are higher than cores (7.7 for Franciscan and Corsica). δD data is also consistent with hydrothermal alteration. It is relative higher in core from the Corsica and Franciscan (-45 and -56) than of the

  2. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: Oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Budahn, James R.; Murchey, Benita L.


    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippean), Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks (pillow basalt, subordinate diabase, basaltic tuff, and radiolarian chert). Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. Classification based on immobile trace elements confirms the tholeiitic character of most of the basalts but suggests that some had primary compositions transitional to alkali basalt. Although field and petrographic features of the basalts are similar, trace element characteristics allow definition of geographically distinct suites. A central outcrop belt along the crest of the mountains is made up of basalt with relatively flat rare earth element (REE) patterns. This belt is flanked to the north and south by LREE (light rare earth element)-enriched basalts. Radiolarian and conodont ages from interpillow and interlayered chert and limestone indicate that the central belt of basalts is Triassic in age, the southern belt is Jurassic in age, and the northern belt contains a mixture of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Data for most of the basalts cluster in the "within-plate basalt" fields of trace element discriminant diagrams; none have trace-element characteristics of island arc basalt. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted

  3. The Textualization of Identity in Peter Greeaway’s Cinema. A Semiotic Analysis of The Pillow Book (1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to reassess Peter Greenaway’s filmography, in particular his acclaimed 1996 motion picture The Pillow Book, as a lucid reflection on the postmodern problem of textualized identities. By means of a thorough analysis of the sophisticated narrative, intertextual and aesthetical devices used in this film, this study identifies and interprets for the first time some particularly relevant visual clues, which give proof of a surprising depth and consistency as cinematic metaphors.

  4. Geochemical and Mineralogical Analyses of Palagonitic Tuffs and Altered Rinds of Pillow Lavas on Iceland and Applications to Mars (United States)

    Bishop, Janice; Schiffman, P.; Southard, R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    Samples of altered pillow lavas and hyalotuffs were collected from a volcanic Tuya and hyaloclastite ridge in western Iceland. Altered basaltic material from regions such as Hloudufell Tuya and Thorolfsfell Ridge may be similar to the surface fines on Mars, which are thought to contain altered basaltic components as well. Geochemical and mineralogical analyses have been performed on the Icelandic samples in order to characterize the properties that distinguish palagonitization from other forms of low temperature alteration in this environment. Major elements were measured using an electron microprobe and mineralogy was determined through X-ray diffraction and visible- infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The primary focus in this study was on the less than 2 microns size fractions of the Hloudufell altered pillow and Thorolfsfell palagonitic tuff samples. The palagonitic tuff contained more crystalline clay minerals and has a higher Al/Fe ratio. The altered pillow lava contained higher abundances of nanophase iron oxides/oxyhydroxides. The extended visible region spectra of the less than 2 microns fractions of both Icelandic samples are similar to bright Martian soils measured by Pathfinder.

  5. Along-axis variations in volcanology and geochemistry of a pillow-dominated tindar: Comparison of exposures in Undirhlithar and Vatnsskarth quarries, Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland (United States)

    Was, E.; Edwards, B. R.; Pollock, M.; Hauksdottir, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hiatt, A. R.; Perpalaj, A.; Plascencia, E.; Reinthall, M.; Silverstein, A.


    Quarries at Undirhlithar and Vatnsskarth, which are part of the Krisuvik fissure system in southwestern Iceland, provide exceptional windows into the stratigraphy and emplacement processes for glaciovolcanic, pillow-dominated tindars. The two quarries are approximately three kilometers apart and expose slightly different aspects of the elongate, glaciovolcanic ridge system. At Undirhlithar, the ridge is only 0.5 km in width and the quarry walls expose a section almost across the entire ridge. Based on exposures in the quarry, this part of the ridge is dominated by ';pillow lava flows', which, along with subordinate intrusions and smaller volumes of tuff-breccia, make up six different lithofacies and at least four stratigraphic packages. Quarry walls in the southern half of the quarry approximate cross-sections through three different units of pillow flows, with the majority of pillows plunging less than 20 degrees. Size analysis from field measurements of 69 pillows in the lowermost unit (Lp1) showed an average width of 0.75 m (1 SD = 0.5 m), an average height of 0.5 m (1 SD = 0.25 m); the largest pillow was 2.9 m by 1.3 m, and the smallest pillow was 0.16 by 0.17 m; the average of plunges for 100 measurements was 11.0 degrees. We have also used high resolution images to make detailed maps of the pillow units. After digitally tracing individual pillows, we used ImageJ to analyze the size distribution of pillows in three of the flow units (Lp1 n=2500, Lp2 n=1250, Lp3 n=490). Our preliminary results show two trends: average pillow sizes decrease from east to west within unit Lp1, which has the longest east-west continuous exposure. The average sizes also decrease going up section vertically from Lp1 to Lp2 to Lp3.The northwestern and northeastern quarry walls appear to show more longitudinal sections through individual pillows, as well as a higher proportion of intrusions. Compositionally, the Undirhlíthar units can be divided into two groups: (1) older, plagioclase

  6. Contrasting geochemistry and metamorphism of pillow basalts in metamorphic complexes from Aysén, S. Chile (United States)

    Hervé, F.; Aguirre, L.; Sepúlveda, V.; Morata, D.


    The geochemistry of pillow basalts from the Chonos Metamorphic Complex (CMC) and the Eastern Andes Metamorphic Complex of Aysén (EAMC) indicates contrasting tectonic environments for these basic lavas. They have E-MORB and continental alkaline affinities, respectively. The MORB-like basalts are metamorphosed in the pumpellyite-actinolite metamorphic facies, with mineral associations indicative of relatively high P/T metamorphism. The continental alkali basalts exhibit pumpellyite-chlorite assemblages developed in a low to intermediate P/T regime. These contrasting eruptive and metamorphic settings agree with recently established age differences between the complexes, and invalidate direct correlation between them.

  7. Analysis of ergonomics conditions of a brand of mattress and pillows. University-industry project, Medellín-Colombia. (United States)

    Sáenz Zapata, Luz M; Arias, Ana María L; Guzmán, Emilio C; Arias de L, Martha


    This project presents an analysis of the ergonomic conditions of three types of mattress and three types of pillow. The products are manufactured by a Colombian company which specializes in flexible polyurethane foam and other products designed for rest and relaxation. The project was developed through the University - Industry relationship: a strategic partnership based on the knowledge and strengths of each component. The conceptual theories that underpin the Ergonomics Research Division of the Design Studies Research Group (GED) provided the methodological approach for the project: the characteristics, the requirements and the relationships that are established between the components that constitute the User - Product - Context system (basic principles of the Ergonomics - Design relationship). An important factor in the project was the conception and measurement of comfort. Comfort can be measured on an objective level (quantitative measurement), and on a subjective level (a user's particular perceptions and tastes). What constitutes 'comfort' can vary from person to person, thus making the identification of criteria for the standardization of consumer products problematic. This project enabled design recommendations to be made to the Company vis-à-vis future proposals for mattress and pillow products. This experience of applied research was carried out by professors and students from the Faculty of Industrial Design at the UPB in Medellín, Colombia.

  8. Impact of a New Nasal Pillows Mask on Patients' Acceptance, Compliance, and Willingness to Remain on CPAP Therapy. (United States)

    Wimms, Alison; Ketheeswaran, Sahisha; Ziegenbein, Claus; Jennings, Laura; Woehrle, Holger


    Aim. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) masks are a key factor in patient compliance. This program assessed the performance of a new nasal pillows mask (NPM) on a variety of new and established obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients using CPAP therapy. Methods. Five programs were developed to assess the new NPM [AirFit P10, ResMed] on naïve patients; patients established on another NPM; patients using a nasal mask; patients with low CPAP compliance; and patients who wished to stop using CPAP therapy. Results. A total of 212 patients were included. In naïve patients, CPAP usage after 3 months was 5.9 ± 1.7 hours/night, compared with the control group at 4.6 ± 2.4 hours/night (p CPAP, 60% continued with therapy using the new NPM. Conclusion. The new NPM mask performed well in a variety of clinical groups of OSA patients receiving CPAP therapy and shows that technical advances in CPAP masks can improve patient compliance.

  9. Zircon U-Pb and geochemical analyses for leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group, north Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN QuanRen; CHEN JunLu; WANG ZongQi; YAN Zhen; WANG Tao; LI QiuGen; ZHANG ZongQing; JIANG ChunFa


    Field observation showed that there are many irregular leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group in the Xiaowangjian area, north Qinling orogenic belt. Photomicrographs indicated that the protoliths of those altered leucocratic intrusive rocks are dioritic rocks. Geochemical analyses showed that pillow lavas have a range of SiO2 from 47.35% to 51.20%, low abundance of TiO2 from 0.97% to 1.72%, and percentages of MgO (MgO#=41-49). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of pillow lavas are even, indicative of a weak differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=1.52-0.99).N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that pillow lavas are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba). Leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas have a wide range of SiO2 from 53.85%-67.20%, low abundances of TiO2 from 0.51%-1.10%, and MgO (MgO#=40-51), and higher percentages of AI2O3 (13.32% -16.62%) and concentration of Sr (342-539 ug/g), ratios of Na2O/K2O (2-7) and Sr/Y (17-28). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of leucocratic intrusive rocks showed highly differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=12.26-19.41). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that leucocratic intrusive rocks are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba), and significantly depleted in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr and Ti), indicative of a to that of MORB (+8.8-+9.7), which indicates that those leucocratic intrusive rocks sourced from depleted mantle most likely. SHRIMP U-Pb analyses for zircon showed that those leucocratic intrusive rocks were formed at 442-+7 Ma, yielding an age of subduction in the early Paleozoic in the north Qinling orogenic belt.

  10. Zircon U-Pb and geochemical analyses for leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group,north Qinling Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Field observation showed that there are many irregular leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group in the Xiaowangjian area, north Qinling orogenic belt. Photomicrographs indicated that the protoliths of those altered leucocratic intrusive rocks are dioritic rocks. Geochemical analyses showed that pillow lavas have a range of SiO2 from 47.35% to 51.20%, low abundance of TiO2 from 0.97% to 1.72%, and percentages of MgO (MgO#=41―49). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of pillow lavas are even, indicative of a weak differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=1.52―0.99). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that pillow lavas are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba). Leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas have a wide range of SiO2 from 53.85%―67.20%, low abundances of TiO2 from 0.51%―1.10%, and MgO (MgO#=40―51), and higher percentages of Al2O3 (13.32%―16.62%) and concentration of Sr (342-539 μg/g), ratios of Na2O/K2O (2―7) and Sr/Y (17―28). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of leucocratic intrusive rocks showed highly differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=12.26―19.41). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that leucocratic intrusive rocks are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba), and significantly depleted in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr and Ti), indicative of a relationship to subduction. Isotopically, leucocratic intrusive rocks have a similar εNd(t) (+7.45―+13.14) to that of MORB (+8.8―+9.7), which indicates that those leucocratic intrusive rocks sourced from depleted mantle most likely. SHRIMP U-Pb analyses for zircon showed that those leucocratic intrusive rocks were formed at 442±7 Ma, yielding an age of subduction in the early Paleozoic in the north Qinling orogenic belt.

  11. Pillow basalts of Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite: records of seafloor in the midwestern portion of Araguaia Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Jesus Penha Pamplona Miyagawa


    Full Text Available Along the domain of low metamorphic grade (Midwestern portion of the Araguaia Belt, outcrop dozens mafic and/or ultramafic bodies of ophiolitic suites. An example is the Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite, in the surroundings of the city of Araguacema (Tocantins that configures a small isolated body that sustains the Morro do Agostinho and is tectonically emplaced in meta-sandstones, slates and phyllites of Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite consists of serpentinized peridotites, basalts and ferriferous cherts. The association of basalts is characterized by a significant layer of submarine pillow lavas overlying serpentinized peridotites. The basalts were classified into massive and hialobasalts types. Massive basalts are homogenous, with intersertal texture that is essentially composed of thin laths and acicular crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene and present rare crystals of olivine, chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Hyalobasalt shows ultra-fast cooling features (quenching as spherulites, radial, acicular and skeletal crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with forms of swallowtail. Geochemical data, including (La/Ybn and (La/Smn ratios less than 1, indicate a subalkaline-tholeiitic MORB nature of the basalts. These rocks show that during the geological evolution of Araguaia Belt, there was an oceanization stage of Araguaia Basin, with litospheric mantle’s exposure, followed by lava’s extravasation and sedimentation of cherts and banded iron formation in deep ocean environment. After sedimentary filling of the Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group, the tectonic inversion, which led to the exhumation of the ophiolitic bodies, especially along thrust surface, with fragmenting and tectonic mixing with supracrustal rocks, accompanied by regional metamorphism under conditions of low green schist facies. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite therefore represents a small allochthonous

  12. The Qigong Herbal Pillow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  13. The Qigong Herbal Pillow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Original thought has great and deep effect on the form of the beauty appreciation of the traditional ceramics art. The symbol of the folk porcelain pillow is based on reheriting the combination of original thought and life. It results from interweaving the conscious image thought and developing on entrusting the physical feeling to the image. The article mainly expounds the characters of beauty appreciation of the traditional folk porcelain pillow in terms of symbolic thought.%原始思维对传统陶瓷艺术审美的形成有着重大而深刻的影响。民间瓷枕艺术的象征性就是在继承原始思维生命一体化认知的基础上,经过自觉的图像思维交织,将物化情感寄托于图像之上并定势化、模式化发展的结果。文章主要从象征思维的角度阐述了传统民间瓷枕的审美特征。

  15. 两种外展枕用于人工全髋关节置换术后的疗效观察%Effective observation on application of two kinds of abduction pillow in postoperative artificial total hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾尚琼; 徐支南; 李舜尧; 蒋丽华; 罗红梅; 王丽晖


    Objective To compare the ettects of two kinds of abduction pillow used in postoperative artificial total hip arthro-plasty(THA). Methods 160 cases of artificial THA in our hospital from January 2007 to October 2010 were divided into two groups,80 cases in each group. The experimental group used the introduced new technological ladder-shaped abduction pillow,and the control group was given the improved abduction pillow. The effects of two kinds of abduction pillow used in postoperative artificial total hip replacement were compared. Results In experimental group, the position turning over took 5 - 10 min,the tolerance time of lateral lying position was (10. 0+1. 3)min. The comfort level and the satisfaction level were 31. 2% and 65. 0%. But in the control group,the position turning over took 3 - 5 min,the tolerance time of lateral lying position was (30. 0±2. L)min. The comfort level and the satisfaction level were 56. 2% and 90. 0%. The results showed statistical difference between the two groups(P< 0. 05). Conclusion The improved abduction pillow is better than introduced new technological ladder-like abduction pillow.%目的 比较两种外展枕用于人工全髋关节置换术(THA)后的效果.方法 选择2007年1月至2010年10月行THA的患者160例随机分为实验组和对照组,每组80例,实验组使用引进的新技术梯形外展枕,对照组为改良后的外展枕.比较两组外展枕用于THA后的效果.结果 实验组患者翻身时间(5~10)min、侧卧耐受时间(10.0±1.3)min,舒适度(31.2%)和满意度(65.0%),与对照组[分别为(3~5)、(30.0±2.1)min、56.2%和90.0%]比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 改良后的外展枕更利于THA后的患者.

  16. Design and clinical application of balloon-type head fixation pillow for interventional neuroradiology operation%神经介入手术头颅气囊固定枕的设计与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建华; 段传志; 汪求精; 刘亚杰; 刘玉龙


    目的:为解决患者头颅移动给神经介入手术带来的不便,研制一种头颅气囊固定枕.方法:采用透X线、弹性及强度好的海绵和与皮肤相容性好的透X线的布料制作与人体后颅及颈肩相适应的枕座,用抗拉力的密气尼龙布制成的充气球囊进行下颌固定.结果:使用该头颅固定枕进行手术与使用普通头枕固定治疗的手术比较,在成像次数、所受X线剂量、异常情况的发生上均较少,具有显著的优势.结论:该头颅气囊固定枕在神经介入手术中可缩短手术时间,减少辐射剂量,降低手术并发症的发生几率,值得临床推广.%Objective To develop a balloon-type head fixation pillow for interventional neuroradiology operation.Methods Some radiotransparent sponge with high elasticity and strength and some nonopaque cloth with high skin compatibility were employed to make pillow base adaptable to the posterior fossa, neck and shoulder. A inflatable balloon made of anti-tensile airtight nylon was used to fix the underjaw.Results The fixation pillow gained advantages over the common one in imaging times, X-ray exposure dose and abnormal condition.Conclusion The head fixation pillow may decrease operating time, exposure dose and complications during interventional neuroradiology operation, and thus is worth popularizing clinically.

  17. Design and clinical application of fixed pillow for neonatus%一种新型新生儿头部固定枕的设计与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任瑞莲; 王勤华; 李化兵; 申芳


    目的 探讨自制"U"形枕在预防新生儿头颅畸形、辅助治疗新生儿常见疾病中的作用.方法 自制新生儿"U"形枕,选取住院的新生儿颅内出血、新生儿硬肿症、新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病及急性脱水热患儿各10例,分别根据疾病选择合适的"U"形枕,同时选择相同疾病患儿各10例,不应用"U"形枕,相同住院时间对比头颅外形.结果 治愈出院时头颅外形美观、端正,没有任何一例患儿因枕头而发生体位性水肿现象,受到家属高度赞誉,出院满意度调查达100%,并且对不同的新生儿科疾病起到了辅助治疗的作用.结论 针对病种对症选枕,既有辅助治疗的作用,又保持了患儿头颅的美观外形,既提高了患儿家属的满意度,又经济实用、人性化,具有直接的社会效益与经济效益.%Objective To explore the role of homemade "u-shaped" pillow in preventing neonatal head deformity and ad-junctive therapy of neonatal common diseases. Methods Homemade newborn "u-shaped" pillow for neonatus, 10 neonatus of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 10 neonatus of HIE, 10 neonatus of scleredema neonatorum and 10 neonatus of dehydration fever were selected and chose the appropriate "u-shaped" pillow according to the disease. And the same diseases every 10 children were selected, who didn't use "u-shaped" pillow. The skull shape of the neonatus with same diseses on the same length of stay was compared. Results After cured and discharged, the head appearance of children was beautiful and regular. There were no cases of dependent edema because of pillow, and the pillow won high praise from the parents. The discharge satisfaction reached to 100%. It played adjuvant therapy role in different pediatric diseases. Conclusion Remedy for disease to choose pillow, both auxiliary treatment role, and keep the children of beautiful appearance head, it raises the families of the children of the satisfaction, and economic and practical, human nature

  18. Tubular textures in pillow lavas from a Caledonian west Norwegian ophiolite: A combined TEM, LA-ICP-MS, and STXM study (United States)

    Fliegel, Daniel; Wirth, Richard; Simonetti, Antonio; Schreiber, Anja; Furnes, Harald; Muehlenbachs, Karlis


    Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, in glassy rims of pillow lavas from a Norwegian ophiolite (Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex (SSOC)) are described and characterized by a multimethod approach. Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, have been previously proposed to result from bioalteration. The microstructure of the titanite and the tubes is investigated using focused ion beam milling in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These indicate an assemblage of submicrometer-sized (about 500 nm) titanite single crystals with no organic film or residue in between the grains. In situ U-Pb radiometric dating of the titanite, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS), yielded a metamorphic age of 442 ± 13 Ma. An isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometric age obtained previously for zircons from the SSOC plutonic rocks yielded a magmatic age of 443 ± 3 Ma. The overlap in ages indicates that subseafloor metamorphism, responsible for titanite formation, occurred during seafloor or subseafloor formation of the tubular alteration textures. The rare earth element contents of the titanite were determined using LA-ICP-MS and chondrite-normalized patterns are similar to those of the SSOC volcanics; hence these do not reflect hydrothermal or seawater influence. The Y/Ho ratio of ˜20-30 in the titanite is also consistent with an upper mantle-derived origin. The sum of all of the spatial resolved data reported here neither supports nor refutes a biogenic origin for the tubular textures.

  19. 整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床研究%Clinical Study of Chiropractic Technique Combined With Small Pillow for Treating Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:将86例神经根型颈椎病患者,随机分为对照组和治疗组,每组各43例.对照组采用软组织松解手法治疗;治疗组在对照组的基础上加用整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗.结果:对照组有效率为72%,治疗组有效率为95%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病,可有效改善或解除神经根受到刺激与压迫.%Objective: To analyze the clinical effect of chiropractic technique combined with a small pillow for treating cervical spondyl ic radiculopathy. Methods:86 cases of nerve root type of cervical spondylosis patients randomly divided into treatment group and cont group, each group of 43 cases. The control group using soft tissue release technique treatment; the treatment group was treated with c ropractic technique combined with a small pillow treatment t on the basis ofhe control group. Results:In the control group was 49% ,1 effective rate of treatment group was 72% , the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion: Chiropractic combir treatment of small pillow for treatment of cervical spondylosis of nerve root stimulation and oppression, can effectively improve or reli< nerve root.

  20. 新型鼻腔滴药枕在急性鼻窦炎患者中的应用%Application of a new type of nasal drops pillow in patients diagnosed as acute sinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    底瑞青; 苗金红; 赵玉林; 娄小平; 李星丹; 王鑫; 李雪姣


    目的:比较新型鼻腔滴药枕与传统滴药枕在患者用药5d后鼻塞、脓涕、打喷嚏、头痛及舒适度等方面的差异。方法选取急性鼻窦炎患者86例,随机分为干预组43例和对照组43例,干预组患者应用新型鼻腔滴药枕进行鼻腔滴药,对照组患者应用普通滴药枕进行鼻腔滴药。两组患者在用药5d后,采用SNOT-20量表、疼痛评估表及线性视觉模拟评分标尺进行用药效果评价。结果干预组患者在鼻塞、鼻涕黏稠、打喷嚏、头痛、嗅觉减退、味觉减退、难以入睡及夜间睡眠质量不好方面得分显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);舒适度得分显著高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论新型鼻腔滴药枕能够使药液准确到达窦腔,在减轻急性鼻窦炎患者鼻塞、流脓涕、头痛等症状及提高患者舒适度方面优于传统鼻腔滴药枕。%Objective To compare the differences between a new type of pillow for nasal drops and traditional pillow in alleviating nasal congestion, nasal pus, sneezing and headache in patients suffering from acute sinusitis, and to select a better nasal dropping equipment for clinical nursing. Methods In total 86 acute sinusitis patients in hospital were randomly divided into the observation group and control group ( for each group, n= 43 ) . Patients in both groups were treated with intravenous cephalosporin, and arcelor thiazole and levofloxacin by nasal dropping. Our new type of pillow for nasal drops and the traditional pillow were applied in the observation group and control group respectively. We compared the differences of treatment effect in five days later between two groups by the SNOT-20 scale, pain assessment, and visual analogue scale. Results The scores of a stuffy nose, discharging, sneezing, headache, decreased smell, taste and unable to sleep, and night sleep of the patients in the observation group were significantly

  1. 长圆枕辅助沙袋在脑卒中卧床期患者中的应用效果评价%Evaluation the effect of long round pillow auxiliary sandbags application in bedridden patients with stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾继红; 周取英; 梁丽


    目的:观察和评价长圆枕辅助沙袋作为踝关节支具临床预防脑卒中长期卧床患者发生足下垂的效果。方法:选择GCS评分≤8分的120例脑卒中患者,分为常规康复(无支具)组、丁字鞋组、自制长圆枕辅助沙袋组进行观察,比较三种方法预防足下垂的效果、使用两种支具的不良反应、患者陪护及护士的满意度。结果:使用支具可减少足下垂的发生;两种支具对足下垂的预防效果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);应用自制长圆枕辅助沙袋的患者压疮不良反应明显少于丁字鞋组,患者陪护接受程度及护士满意度高。结论:应用长圆枕辅助沙袋可有效减少脑卒中患者足下垂发生,使用过程中陪护和护士容易接受,是保障患者体位安全的辅助用具,且制作和使用简单,值得推广应用。%Objective To observe and evaluate the long round pillow auxiliary sandbags as joint ankle brace in the prevention of foot drop in bedridden patients with stroke.Methods 120 stroke patients were recruited,whose GCS score≤ 8.They were divided into conventional rehabilitation(no brace) group,T-shoes and long round pillow auxiliary sandbags group,and comparing the difference between the three Methods in prevention of foot drop,adverse reactions as well as the satisfaction of nurse and attendants.Results Using the brace can reduce occurrence of foot drop,but there was no significant difference on the prevention of foot drop between the two brace.The incidence of bedsores was significantly lower in long round pillow auxiliary sandbags group than T- shoes group.On the contrary,the satisfaction of nurse and attendants was higher in long round pillow auxiliary sandbags group than T-shoes group.Conclusion The long round pillow auxiliary sandbags can effectively reduce the occurrence of foot drop in bedridden patients with stroke,and simple to make and use,as well as easily accepted by nursing

  2. The treatment of stable inflectional vertebral compress fracture of thoracolumbar spine with sandbag pillow and exercise%沙袋垫枕锻炼法治疗胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏建; 杜靖远


    AIM: To treat the stable inflectional vertebral compress fracture of thoracolumbar with sandbag pillow and back extensor exercise .METHODS: After traumatism , the sandbag pillow of four specification from low to high were underlay to the thoracolumbar respectively every other 3 to 5 days, kept excessive extend posture for 8 to 10 weeks. When the sandbag pillow was underlain for 3 hours, trundle the body for sleeping in left or right posture for half an hour. Exercise started after the sandbag pillow were underlay for 1 or 2 days. Supine exercise techniques included 5points shoring and 3 points shoring. The former was 3 times per day, 30minutes to 1 hour once, more than 100 times per day and increased to 2minutes and 5 to 10 times per day gradually. Three weeks later, the latter group started after vertebral compress fracture 4 weeks, pronate exercise started.RESULTS: According to Dennis assess: of the 74 follow-up patients, 4remained low-grade pain on back and waist, 1 remained mid-grade pain, 1remained continued pain and gone with the complications of low limbs anaesthesia and urine incontinence. The rest were cured. Cobb angles decreased 5°- 35° (mean 17°) compared to original by X-ray examination in reexamination.CONCLUSION: This conventional therapy is easy to learn and popularize to treat compression fracture, and attained therapeutic success.%目的:沙袋垫枕加背伸肌锻炼法治疗胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折.方法:胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折100例,外伤后二三天开始,每隔3~5 d,分别应用由低到高4种规格的沙袋垫于胸腰段,维持过伸位至8~10周,每垫枕3 h,用整体滚动法可左右侧卧半小时.锻炼应从垫枕后一两天开始,仰卧锻炼法分为5点支撑法和3点支撑法,前者原则为3次/d,30min~1 h/次,不少于100次/d,渐过渡到逐日增加2min,次数5~10次/d;后者在前者应用3周后开始.俯卧位锻炼法要求在骨折后4周开始.结果:以Dennis评定方法:74

  3. Construction Technology of No . 42 Pillow Type High Speed Turnout Passenger Dedicated Railway Tunnel%客专隧道内42号枕式高速道岔施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper summarized the Tunnel No. 42 pillow turnout construction technology, which are rail laying, turnout installation, ballast bed construction technology,proposed in the tunnel space is limited and inconvenient conditions of logistics providing reference for subsequent similar engineering.%文章介绍了42号道岔在隧道内轨枕铺设、道岔安装及道床施工工艺,提出在隧道空间受限和物流不便的条件下,进行长轨枕快速布设和道岔精确组装定位的方法,为类似工程提供了参考。

  4. Effect of the brake type pillow on preventing the postoperative complication in breast cancer patients%制动式垫枕在预防乳腺癌术后并发症中的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦俊琴; 苏金娜; 谢艳丽


    目的:探讨制动式垫枕在预防乳腺癌术后并发症中的应用效果。方法将160例行乳腺癌改良根治术患者按随机数字表随机分为观察组和对照组各80例,观察组术后使用制动式垫枕,对照组按传统方法护理,比较两组乳腺癌术后皮下引流量、皮下积液、皮瓣坏死和患肢水肿发生情况。结果观察组术后皮下引流总量为(276.59±163.10)ml,与对照组的(431.72±265.18)ml比较,差异有统计学意义(t=3.573,P<0.01);观察组皮下积液发生率为0.25%,对照组皮下积液发生率为1.63%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=8.901,P<0.01);观察组皮瓣坏死发生率为0.25%,对照组皮瓣坏死发生率为1.38%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.782,P<0.01);两组患者患肢水肿发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.592,P>0.05)。结论应用制动式垫枕能减少乳腺癌术后皮下引流量,预防皮下积液和皮瓣坏死的发生,但预防患肢水肿有待进一步研究。%Objective To explore the effect of the brake type pillow on preventing the postoperative complication in breast cancer patients .Methods One hundred and sixty patients with modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer were divided into the control group and the observation group according to the random number table, each with 80 cases.The observation group received the brake type pillow , and the control group received the routine nursing .The incidence of postoperative subcutaneous drainage , the subcutaneous effusion , the skin flap necrosis and the paretic upper-limb edema were compared between two groups .Results The amount of postoperative subcutaneous drainage in the observation group was (276.59 ±163.10) ml, and was (431.72 ± 265.18) ml in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (t=3.573,P0.05).Conclusions

  5. Research in prevention of pressure ulcer for bed-ridden patients by simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress%简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于卧床患者预防压疮的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study the prevention of pressure ulcer for bed-ridden patients by simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress.Methods Self-made simple turn-over pillow and turnover mattress were used in 1300 patients who had high risk of pressure ulcer,and the application effect was observed.Results No pressure ulcer occurred in 1300 patients when they were discharged.Conclusions Simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress showed definite effect to prevent pressure ulcer,they have application value,and are worthy of wide spread.%目的 探讨简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于卧床患者预防压疮的效果.方法 将自行研制的简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于1300例易患压疮患者,观察应用效果.结果 1300例患者出院时均皮肤完好,无压疮发生.结论 简易翻身枕、翻身褥确为一种预防压疮的有效方法,具有一定的应用价值,值得推广.

  6. 西准噶尔科克萨依OIB型玄武岩地球化学特征及意义%Geochemistry and tectonic significance of OIB-type pillow basalt of Kekesayi in western Jungger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旋; 金瑜


    The Ophiolite of Kekesayi district in western Jungger of XinJiang,is a melange belt formed of serpentinite, pillow basalt,andesite-basaltic tuff lava,gabbro(diabase dyke) and siliceous rock.We have done a detailed geochemical study on the pillow basalt from the association. It turned out that the basalt is characterised by the low magnesium(Mg#=0.27~0.33)and high titanium(1.31%~2.43%);the REE pattern shows the enrichment of LREE(La/Yb)N=9.22~13.01 and unobvious Eu anomaly(δEu=0.95~1.15);Rb and Sr show a little negative anomaly.Comparing to the oceanic island basalt,the high field-strength elements(Nb,Ta,Zr,Hf,Ti,P) show unobvious anomaly.The trace elements and REE distribu-tion patterns are similar to those of the oceanic island basalt(OIB),which indicates they have the characteristics of the typical oceanic island basalt.The comprehensive study suggests that the basalt in the Kekesayi is formed in the oceanic island(seamount) environment within the oceanic plate.This provides a new basis for the hot point activity in oceanic plate of western junggar kekesayi region.%新疆西准噶尔地区的科克萨依蛇绿岩带,为一套由蛇纹岩、枕状玄武岩及安山玄武质凝灰熔岩、辉长岩(辉绿岩墙)、硅质岩构成的混杂岩带。选择组合中的枕状玄武岩进行地球化学研究,结果表明,玄武岩以低镁(Mg#=0.27~0.33)、高钛(1.31%~2.43%)为特征;稀土分布有 LREE 富集(La/Yb)N=9.22~13.01,无明显 Eu 异常(δEu=0.95~1.15);Rb,Sr略显负异常,高场强元素(Nb,Ta,Zr,Hf,Ti,P)相对OIB型玄武岩无明显异常。稀土元素及微量元素分布模式与洋岛玄武岩基本一致,具典型洋岛(海山)型玄武岩特征。综合研究认为,科克萨依玄武岩形成于大洋板内洋岛(海山)环境。

  7. On the Aesthetic Features of "The Pillow Book" from"Annual Events"%从“年中行事”看《枕草子》的审美特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    清少纳言在随笔作品《枕草子》中通过一系列的“年中行事”诠释了日本平安王朝的传统审美意识,我们根据“年中行事”的一些特征,可从一定程度上了解清少纳言对季节的重视程度与审美取向。也就是说,清少纳言并没有被平安王朝传统的审美意识的条框所束缚,而是根据自己审美理念的需要,从不同视角去观察周围的事物和现象,同时凭借自己的感觉去挖掘“美”,进而将这些所谓的“美”充分融入作品之中。%Through a series of"annual events",Sei Shōnagon in-terpreted the traditional aesthetic consciousness during the Heian period in her essay"The Pillow Book". In accordance with some features of "annual events", we can learn Sei Shōnagon's em-phasis on seasons and her aesthetic orientation, to a certain ex-tent. In other words, free from the traditional aesthetic conscious-ness of that dynasty, Sei Shōnagon observed things and phe-nomena around from a different perspective based on the need of her own aesthetic concept, and by means of her own feelings, she sought"beauty"which would be fully integrated into her works.

  8. The clinical study of vacuum-formed jaw-pillow used for teeth fixing in children with traumatic anterior teeth%全牙列牙合垫用于混合牙列期儿童上颌外伤前牙固定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉伟; 李雅; 张峥


    目的:评价全牙列牙合垫用于儿童外伤前牙固定的临床效果。方法:选择58例7~12岁儿童,其中男42例,女16例,随机分为两组,实验组(30例)采用全牙列颌垫固定,对照组(28例)采用弓丝托槽技术固定。比较治疗前及固定4周后的牙松动度、患者舒适指数、牙龈指数和医生临床操作时间,并进行统计学分析。结果:外伤牙固定4周后,疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);患者舒适指数、牙龈指数、临床操作时间全牙列牙合垫优于弓丝托槽(P<0.05)。结论:全牙列牙合垫用于混合牙列期儿童外伤前牙固定效果可靠,且较舒适,对牙周刺激小,可节省时间。%AIM:To evaluate the clinical effects of vacuum-formed jaw-pillow used for teeth fixing in chil-dren with traumatic anterior teeth.METHODS:58 cases of children (42 males and 16 females aged 7 -12 years) with anterior teeth trauma were randomly divided into 2 groups,and respectively treated by vacuum-formed jaw-pillow (30 cases)and arc wire (28 cases).The clinical operation time,tooth mobility,patient comfort index and gingival index were compared between the 2 groups before and 4 weeks after treatment .Tata were statistically analyzed.RE-SULTS:The efficacy between the 2 groups was not statistically different (P>0.05);the comfort index,gingival in-dex and clinical operation time of vacuum-formed jaw-pillow group were obviously better than those of control group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Vacuum-formed jaw-pillow used for teeth fixing in children with traumatic anterior is superior to arc wire .

  9. Clinical Efficacy and Nursing Method in Cervical Vertigo Patients at Acute Stage which were Treated by Heating Pillow Combined Betahistine%加热药枕配合倍他司汀在颈性眩晕急性期疗效观察及护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓春; 李建英


    目的:观察加热药枕配合倍他司汀在颈性眩晕急性期的疗效,分析其作用机理及护理方式.方法:纳入42例颈性眩晕急性期患者,以加热药枕外用配合倍他司汀静滴,观察其在治疗后0.5、1、2h的疗效.结果:治疗0.5hg42例患者中,治愈8例(19.05%),显效12例(28.57%),有效20例(47.62%),无效2例(4.76%),总体有效率95.24%,随着治疗时间延长,2h后总体有效率100%.结论:加热药枕配合倍他司汀能够早期缓解患者症状,同时临床护理方面要注重药枕温度的保持、改进外形等.%Objective: To observe the Efficacy in cervical vertigo the acute stage which was treated by heating pillow with Betahistine, then analysis its mechanism and nursing method. Methods: A total of 42 cases of acute cervical vertigo were treated by heating pillow and intravenous infusion of betahistine, then observed the efficacy. After treatment half an hour, 1 hour, and 2 hours. Results: After half an hour in 42 patients, 8 cases were cured ( 19.05% ), 12 cases obviously valid ( 28.57% ),20 cases effective ( 47.62% ),2 cases invalid ( 4.76% ), the overall effective rate was 95.24% .After 2 hours the overall efficiency is 100%.Conclusion: Heating pillow with betahistine can alleviate the symptoms early, and clinical care should pay attention to ensure the pillow temperature, improve the appearance and so on.

  10. Clinical Observation on 35 Cases of Cervical Vertigo in the Acute Stage Treated by the Heated Medicinal Pillow and Betahistine%加热药枕配合倍他司汀治疗颈性眩晕急性期35例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进忠; 覃小兰; 张晓春


    目的 观察自制药枕经过加热后联合倍他司汀对颈性眩晕急性发作期患者的临床疗效.方法 将70例颈性眩晕急性发作期患者随机分为两组,治疗组采用静脉滴注倍他司汀+加热药枕治疗,对照组采用单纯静脉滴注倍他司汀治疗.通过眩晕疗效评价标准及前庭症状指数(VSI)评分对两组患者眩晕症状改善情况进行比较.结果 眩晕改善情况治疗组痊愈率为17.14%,总有效率为100.00%;对照组分别为8.57%、97.15%,两组痊愈率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),总有效率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).VSI评分方面,治疗组优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在颈性眩晕急性发作期治疗方面,加热药枕疗效肯定,其配合倍他司汀优于单纯倍他司汀治疗.%Objective To observe the clinical effect of self-made heated medicinal pillow and Betahistine on the acute attack of cervical vertigo. Methods The 70 enrolled patients were randomized into two groups. The treatment group was given Betahistine intravenous infusion and heated medicinal pillow treatment, and the control group was simply given Betahistine intravenous infusion. The symptom improvement of two groups was compared with the effect evaluation criteria and VSI vestibular symptom rating scale for analyzing the effect of heated medicinal pillow. Results The cure rate of the treatment group and the control group was 17.14% and 8. 57% respectively, with significant difference (P<0. 05); the total effective rate of the treatment and control group was 100% and 97.15% respectively, without significant difference (P>0. 05). Th treatment group was also better in the VSI vestibular symptom scale score than the control group, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion In the treatment of acute stage of cervical vertigo, the effect of heated medicinal pillow and Betahistine is better than that of single use of Betahistine.

  11. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of pillow lava basalts in southwestern Langshan, Inner Mongolia and their implication%内蒙古狼山西南地区枕状玄武岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进; 李锦轶; 刘建峰; 李岩峰; 曲军峰; 张义平


    报道了新近在华北北缘西段狼山地区发现的枕状玄武岩的初步定年工作.前人将其时代定为早古生代.对选自玄武岩的32颗锆石进行了LA-ICP-MS U-Pb定年结果表明,玄武岩的锆石大量为捕获基底的锆石,其年龄和锆石内部结构复杂多样.根据锆石内部特征将其划分为4类,其中的板状锆石被定为玄武岩的自生锆石,年龄为晚古生代末期—早三叠世早期.其余均为来自阿拉善地块基底的锆石,主要为古元古代—新大古代和古生代锆石.狼山晚古生代末期的玄武岩可能产自古亚洲洋封闭后由于岩石圈拆沉导致的伸展环境,该期伸展贯穿华北北缘直至阿拉善地块,暗示华北板块与阿拉善地块至少在晚古生代之前就已经拼合在一起了.%Recent found pillow lava basalts in the southwestern Langshan and its preliminary dating has been reported here. Previous survey had assigned its age at the Early Paleozoic. 32 zircons from pillow lava basalts have been dated using LA-ICP-MS. Most zircons from basalts are captured from the basement, the distribution of ages and internal structures of which are complicated. Four groups of zircons have been distinguished by their internal structures. Among them the tabular zircons have been believed as the autogenetic zircons of pillow lava basalts, the ages of these zircons range from the end of Permian to the Early Triassic. The rest zircons in the samples are all from the Alashan basement, among which Paleoproterozoic and Newarchaeozoic zircons and Paleozoic zircons are most. The latest Late Permian Langshan basalts may developed in the extensional tectonics resulting from the delamination of the lithosphere after the closure of the Paleoasian Ocean, the extension of this period occurred along the whole north margin of the North China Plate including the Alashan block, which means that the Alashan block jointed with the North China Plate at least before the Late Paleozoic.

  12. 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效%Efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of patients with cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙其斌; 张崇岳; 冀全谋; 谢永明; 陈国梁


    目的 观察生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 神经根型颈椎病180例,随机分为生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅰ组)和垂直颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅱ组),各组90例.分别采用生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗与垂直颈椎牵引治疗,两组患者每次牵引重量均为3.0~7.0 kg,牵引时间均为20 min.牵引10次为1个疗程,2个疗程后判定疗效.结果 Ⅰ组的优效率61.1%(55/90例)和总有效率93.3%(84/90例)分别高于Ⅱ组的优效率42.2%(38/90例)和总有效率72.2%(65/90例),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效确切,较垂直牵引效果好.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type.Methods One hundred and eighty patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy were randomly divided into group Ⅰ and Ⅱ, 90 cases in each group.Patients were received the treatment with physiological type neck pillow cervical traction in the group Ⅰ ,while received vertical cervical traction in the group Ⅱ.The tractive weight was 3~7 kg and the tractive time was 20 minute in all patients every time, 10 times for a course.The efficacy was evaluated after 2 courses.Resuits The excellent effect and total effective rates in the group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in the group Ⅱ respectively (61.1%, 55/90 cases vs 42.2%, 38/90 cases;93.3%, 84/90 cases vs 72.2%, 65/90 cases) (P < 0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of physiological type cervical traction with neck pillow is definite and superior to the vertical traction in the treatment of patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.

  13. 个体化颈椎刚柔保健枕防治上颈段颈型颈椎病临床研究%Clinical Study on Curative Effect of Individualized Health Care Pillow Coupled Hardness with Softness on Prevention and Treatment of Upper Neck Type Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保新; 黄承军; 徐敏; 唐福宇; 娄宇明; 梁柱; 王继; 梁冬波; 唐汉武


    目的:观察个体化颈椎刚柔保健枕防治上颈段颈型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:2008年11月—2010年1月在本院门诊就诊的上颈段颈型颈椎病患者50例,按照治疗方法分为治疗组(29例)与对照组(21例),分别采用枕颌带牵引与个体化颈椎刚柔保健枕治疗,治疗3周后评价临床疗效与疼痛评分,并观察治疗6个月前后的颈部残障指数评分的改变.结果:治疗3周后,治疗组的疗效与对照组相比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组的疼痛评分均明显下降(均P<0.01),但治疗组优于对照组(P<0.01).两组治疗前的颈部残障指数评分之间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).6个月后,治疗组的颈部残障指数与对照组比较,有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论:个体化颈椎刚柔保健枕防治上颈段颈型颈椎病疗效满意,值得临床推广.%Objective;To explore the effect of individualized health care pillow coupled hardness with softness on the prevention and treatment of the upper neck type cervical spondylosis. Methods: 50 cases with the upper neck type cervical spondylosis were divided into control group ( n=21 )and treatment group ( n=29 ). The patients in control group received cervical traction and the ones in treatment group were treated with individualized health care pillow coupled hardness with softness. The curative effect and the pain scores of the patients in two groups after 3 weeks' treatment and the neck disability index of the patients in two groups before and after 6 months were observed. Results : After three weeks' treatment, among the patients in control group,2 patients got an excellent result, 16 good,3 fair, and 0 poor. In the treatment group, 11 patients got an excellent result, 17 good, 1 fair, and 0 poor. The ridit analysis showed there was a significant difference (P<0.05 ). Before treatment the pain scores and the neck disability index in two groups had no significant difference. The pain scores after 3 weeks

  14. Ti-Cu-W体系Pillow飞片加载铋熔化再凝固过程计算分析%Calculation Analysis of the Impact Melting and Resolidification Process for the Bismuth Using the Ti-Cu-W Pillow Flyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏劲松; 张联盟; 于继东; 戴诚达; 王宇; 刘坤; 罗国强; 沈强; 谭华; 吴强


    采用数值计算设计了Ti-Cu-W材料体系 Pillow飞片,实现金属铋样品的冲击加载和准等熵加载,并通过实验研究铋的冲击熔化再凝固这一复杂的物理过程,实验获得的速度波剖面结果与数值模拟结果基本一致。还建立了金属铋的包含5个固相和1个液相的完全物态方程,计算相图的三相点以及高压区的 Hugoniot线与实验数据吻合较好,计算还获得了冲击加载再凝固实验中的温度信息和相变信息。通过计算分析和对实验数据的解读,认为Ti-Cu-W材料体系Pillow飞片加载可以用于铋的冲击熔化再凝固复杂物理过程研究,为实验探索研究建立了适用的研究方法和有效的技术手段。%Numerical simulations are carried out to design the Pillow flyer of Ti-Cu-W system,and the impact loading and quasi-isentropic loading of the bismuth sample are also carried out.We experimentally investigate the intricate physical process of impact melting and resolidification.Experiment results of wave profiles are similar with numerical ones.The complete equation of state of bismuth including five solid phases and one liquid phase is established.Triple points in phase diagram and the Hugoniot curve in high pressure area agree well with the experiment data.The temperature and phase transition information in impact loading and resolidification experiment are also obtained.According to the calculation analysis and interpretation of the experiment data,the loading experiment based on Ti-Cu-W flyer is available to study the physical process of impact melting and resolidification of bismuth,and an appropriate research method and effective technique means for experiment exploration is established.

  15. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla


    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  16. Watching Commoners, Performing Class : Images of the Common People in The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon


    ANGLES, Jeffrey


    A common refrain in criticism of the eleventh-century work The Pilloe Book is that Sei Shonagon had nothing but disparaging words to say abaut the liwer slasses. This study re-examiners this idea through an in-depth review of the ppasage in The Pilloe Book that mention commoners, and it finds that the situation is somewhat more complex.This paper begins by looking at the language that identifies people of the lower classes, specifically the noun gesu, the adjeutive waroki, and the prefix ...

  17. Integrable boundary interaction in 3D target space: The “pillow-brane” model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, Sergei L., E-mail: [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849 (United States); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Zamolodchikov, Alexander B. [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849 (United States); Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We propose a model of boundary interaction, with three-dimensional target space, and the boundary values of the field X∈R{sup 3} constrained to lay on a two-dimensional surface of the “pillow” shape. We argue that the model is integrable, and suggest that its exact solution is described in terms of certain linear ordinary differential equation.

  18. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Heihe mafic pillow lavas in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Zongqing


    [1]Lee, C. Y., A preliminary study of plate tectonics of China, Bull. Chinese Acad. Geol. Sci. (in Chinese), 1980, 2(1): 11-19.[2]Lee, C. Y., Tectonic evolution of Asia, Bull. Chinese Acad. Geol. Sci. (in Chinese), 1984, 10: 3-11.[3]Ren Jishun, Jiang Chunfa, Zhang Zhengkun et al., The Geotectonic Evolution of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1980.[4]Ren Jishun, Chen Tingyu, Niu Baogui et al., Tectonic Evolution of the Continental Hithospheres and Metallogeny in Eastern China and Adjacent Areas (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1990.[5]Zhang Qiusheng, Zhu Yongzheng, The Paleozoic ophiolite in the east Qinling, J. Changchun College of Geology (in Chi-nese), 1984, 3: 1-13.[6]Xiao Siyun, Zhang Weiji, Song Ziji, The Metamorphic Strata of the Northern Qinling in China (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Jiaotong University Press, 1988.[7]Xu Zhiqin, Lu Yilun, Tang Yaoqing et al., Formation of the Composite Eastern Qinling Chains (in Chinese), Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 1988.[8]Zhang Guowei, Formation and evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1988.[9]Zhang Guowei, Meng Qingren, Yu Zaiping, Orogenesis and dynamics of the Qinling orogen, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(3):225-234.[10]Wu Liren, Xu Guizhong, Geological Evolution in the East Qinling-Dabieshan Collision Orogen (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1988.[11]Sun Yong, Yu Zaiping, A discussion of an ancient ocean and Caledonian in the east Qinling, in A Selection of Papers Pre-sented at the Conference on the Qinling Orogenic Belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1991, 167-173.[12]Zhang Zongqing, Liu Dunyi,Fu Guomin et al., Geochronology of Metamorphic Strata in the North Qinling Area (in Chi-nese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994.[13]Cui Zhilin, Sun Yong, Wang Xueren, Discovery of radiolarian fossils within the Danfeng ophiolite in the Qinling and its significance, Chinese Science Bull., 1995, 40(19):1686-1688.[14]Pei Xianzhi, Composition and Tectinic Evolution of the Shangdan Structural Zone in the East Qinling, China (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Maps Publishing House, 1997.[15]Jiang Changyi, Su Shengrui, Zhao Taiping et al., Intruded Rock Belt in the North Qinling Area and Jinning Movement (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1988.[16]Zhang Zongqing, Zhang Guowei, Fu Guomin et al., Geochronology of metamorpic strata in the Qinling Mountains and its tectonic implications, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(3): 283-292.[17]Zhang Qi, Zhang Zongqing, Sun Yong et al., Trace element and isotopic geochemistry of metebasalts from Danfeng Group in Shangxian-Danfeng area, Shaanxi Province, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1995, 11(1): 43-54.[18]Zhang Benren, Luo Tingchuan, Ouyang Jianping et al., Geochemical Study of the Lithosphere, Tectonism and Metallo-genesis in the Qingling-Dabashan Region (in Chinese), Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1994.[19]Li, S., Hart, S. R., Zheng, S. et al., Timing of collision between the North and South China blocks: The Sm-Nd isotopic age evidence, Science in China, Ser. B, 1989, 32(3): 312-319.[20]Li, S., Chen, Y. Z., Zhang Guowei, A l Ga B. P. Alpine peridotite body emplaced into the Qingling group: Evidence for the existence of the late proterozoic plate tectonics in the North Qinling area, Geol. Review (in Chinese), 1991, 37(3): 235-242.[21]Zhang Guowei, Meng Qingren, Lai Shaocong, Tectonics and structure of Qinling orogenic belt, Science in China, Ser. B, 995, 38(10): 1379.[22]Liu Guohui, Zhang Shouguang, You Zhendong et al., The Major Metamorphic Rock Groups in the Qinling Orogenic Belt and Their Metamorphic Evolution (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.[23]You Zhendong, Suo Shutian, Han Yujing et al., The major characteristcs of the metamorphic complex of the Qinling oro-genic belt and their implication of the construction of the eastern Qinling continental crust, in A Selection of Papers Pre-sented at the Conference on the Qinling Orogenic Belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1991, 1-14.[24]Wang Tao, Li Wuping, Wang Xiaoxia, Zircon age of the Niujiaoshan granitoid gneisses in the Qinling complex of the Qinling orogenic belt, Regional Geology of China (in Chinese), 1998, 17(3): 262-265.[25]Lu Xinxiang, Dong You, Wei Xiangdong, Age of the Tuwushan A-type granite and its tectonic implications, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44(9): 975-978.

  19. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)); Clague, D.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States))


    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in [sup 20]Ne and [sup 21]Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He ratios. The high [sup 20]Ne/[sup 22]Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO[sub 2] well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere.

  20. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth (United States)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.


    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in 20Ne and 21Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high 3He 4He ratios. The high 20Ne 22Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO2 well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. ?? 1993.

  1. 新型颈椎固定枕的设计与使用%Design and Use of New Fixed Cervical Pillow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍新型颈椎固定枕的设计与使用方法。颈椎固定枕内部由弹力棉填充,主要由中间相连的颈枕和枕枕以及侧面分离的侧枕和侧面颈枕构成,每个颈枕或枕枕均有配备沙袋等辅助品。患者可以采取仰卧或侧卧的不同体位,使用时用侧枕包裹沙袋垫在患者颈后避免颈部活动或者用备用枕将枕部调高。经反复临床验证,我科设计的新型颈椎枕能够满足患者仰卧或侧卧对枕高的需求。%Introduce the design and use of the model fixed cervical pil ow. Fixed cervical pil ow is fil ed by elastic cotton,mainly made up by connected neck pil ow and pil ow,and separated neck pil ow formed. Each neck pil ow or pil ow is equipped with sandbags and other auxiliary materials. Patients can take different supine or lateral postures,when used with a side pil ow package sandbag in patients with carotid after avoiding neck activity or spare pil ow wil occipital height adjustment. After repeated clinical verification,we designed model cervical vertebra pil ow,which can satisfy the patient supine or lateral to the occipital high demand.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 李静



  3. Elastic Painkiller Pillow in Prevention of Chest Incision Pain%弹性止痛枕用于胸部手术切口止痛效果的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建新; 王晓芳


    目的 经过循证了解胸部手术切口疼痛产生的原理,观察弹性止痛枕作用于胸部手术切口的止痛效果.方法 选择50例在我院行胸部切口手术的患者,根据术后是否使用弹性止痛枕分为实验组(26例)和对照组(24例),对比分析两组研究对象的VAS评分,评价弹性止痛枕对胸部手术切口处止痛的效果.结果 实验组中,23例患者术后第7天的VAS评分为(1.85±0.99),而对照组中14例患者的VAS评分为(2.23±1.12).统计学分析显示实验组明显低于对照组(P<0.035).结论 胸部手术切口使用弹性加压止痛枕是一种有效的物理止痛方法.

  4. Electronic Anti-cutting Function and Control-algorithm Realization of Three-servo Pillow Packaging Machine%三伺服枕式包装机电子防切功能及控制算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于镭; 卫光


    The paper introduced the procession of new model of three-servo packaging machine and its u-nique features electronic anti-cutting function. By elaborating the principle of error-sensor and the electronic anti-cutting technology controlling algorithm, realized the electronic anti-cutting technology of three-servo packaging machine. At last the machine meets the design requirement and customs need through the practice.%介绍了目前新型三伺服枕式包装机的工作过程及其能够实现的特有功能电子防切;通过阐述错位传感器的检测原理和电子防切技术的控制算法,实现三伺服枕式包装机的电子防切功能.通过实际应用达到了设计要求,得到了用户的一致好评.

  5. 满族枕顶绣研究——以辽东学院柞蚕丝绸与满族服饰博物馆馆藏为例%Study on Pillow Side Embroidery of Man Nationality by Taking Collections of Tussah Silk and Man Nationality Costume Museum of Eastern Liaoning Universtiy as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  6. Three-Year-Olds Can Predict a Noun Based on an Attributive Adjective: Evidence from Eye-Tracking (United States)

    Tribushinina, Elena; Mak, Willem M.


    This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., "soft pillow") as they hear them and to predict the noun ("pillow") on the basis of the adjective meaning ("soft"). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The participants saw two…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards On April 24, 2006, Yalong Bay Mangrove Tree Resort proudly received 'Top 10 Resorts in China" at the 3nd Annual China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards. The resort has created an entirely new concept for a Chinese resort, with its South Asia architec-

  8. Isentropic compressive wave generator and method of making same (United States)

    Barker, L.M.

    An isentropic compressive wave generator and method of making same are disclosed. The wave generator comprises a disk or flat pillow member having component materials of different shock impedances formed in a configuration resulting in a smooth shock impedance gradient over the thickness thereof for interpositioning between an impactor member and a target specimen for producing a shock wave of a smooth predictable rise time. The method of making the pillow member comprises the reduction of the component materials to a powder form and forming the pillow member by sedimentation and compressive techniques.

  9. В преддверии темных ночей

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tekstiilidisaini üliõpilaste töödest "Moonwalk" (autorid Stella Kalkun ja Luisa Aid), "RE:ME - remind me pillow" (autorid Heleri Alexandra Sits ja Signe Aasoja) ja "Volt" (autor Stella Kalkun)

  10. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure (United States)

    ... time and help eliminate false readings. Find out more about how healthy eating can lower your blood pressure with the DASH eating plan . Getting adequate rest To improve your sleep at night, use pillows to prop up your ...

  11. Kidney Biopsy (United States)

    ... an examination table. The technician will place a firm pillow or sandbag under a person’s body to ... Care Professionals Community Outreach and Health Fairs Health Communication Programs FAQs About NIDDK Meet the Director Offices & ...

  12. What to include in your birth plan (United States)

    ... unmedicated, or "natural," childbirth, and others know they absolutely do not want to have an unmedicated childbirth. ... want for labor and delivery? Do you want music? Lights? Pillows? Photos? Make a list of items ...

  13. Determination of radiation levels by neutrons in an accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de niveles de radiacion por neutrones en un acelerador para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.; Salazar B, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Genis S, R. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Torriello Guerra, Tlalpan 14050, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    It was determined the radiation levels by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions ({gamma}, n) which occur in the target, levelling filter, collimators and the small pillow blinding of a medical accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MeV, using thermoluminescent dosemeters UD-802AS and US-809AS. The experimental values were presented for the patient level, inside and outside of the radiation field, as well as for the small pillow. (Author)

  14. Comprehensive Monitoring Program: Air Quality Data Assessment Report for FY90. Volume 2. Version 3.1 (United States)


    Alltac Corporation 32 80 Pillow Kingdom Co. (2) 33 6 0 W.J. Whatley Co. 34 Stanley Aviation Corp. 35 A.IR-TBLI.9O0 9S000 0 0 0 "Ti Table 4.1-2 Emissions...62429 12.25 Adam- Toluene, MEK C Pillow Kingdom 53237 4.70 Denver Toluene, 1 II TCE, MEK W.J. Whatley Inc. 52671 10.33 Adams Acetone, styrene

  15. Gunung Api purba Watuadeg: Sumber erupsi dan posisi stratigrafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Bronto


    Full Text Available lava flows of pyroxene basalt containing 50 wt.% SiO are exposed at Opak River, west of Watuadeg Village, Sleman - Yogyakarta. The length of flow structures is between 2 – 10 m, with diameter of 0.5 – 1.0 m and it has a glassy skin at the surface body. Flow directions vary from N70E in the northern side, through N 120E in the middle to N 150E in the southern side. About 150 m away from the river to the west, there is a small hill about 15 m high, that has a similar composition with the pillow lavas. Both lava flows and the small hill are composed of pyroxene basalt, dark grey in color, hypocrystalline vitrophyre to porphyritic texture, with fine-grained phenocrysts of pyroxene (10 % and plagioclase (25 % set in glassy groundmass. These data indicate that the small hill was the eruption source of the basaltic pillow lavas. The lavas are overlain by pumice-rich volcaniclastic rocks, composed of tuff, lapillistones and pumice breccias, that are known as the Semilir Formation. Near the contact with lavas, the volcaniclastic rocks contain some fragments of pyroxene basalt, similar composition with the pillow lavas. This fact, together with analyses of petrology, volcanology, and radiometric dating show that the basaltic pillow lavas are unconformably overlain by the Semilir Formation.  

  16. Effect of melt composition and crystal content on flow morphology along the Alarcón Rise, Mexico (United States)

    Martin, J. F.; Lieberg-Clark, P.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Portner, R. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.


    Differences in submarine lava flow morphology have been related to differences in eruption rate; low eruption rates form pillow-flow morphologies whereas high eruption rates form sheet-flow morphologies. Eruption rate is likely controlled by dike intrusion width, exsolved bubble content of the magma, viscosity of the magma, or some combination these three properties. Samples and observations from a 2012 expedition to the Alarcón Rise, Mexico, are used to evaluate the potential control of viscosity due to melt composition and crystal content on observed flow morphologies and associated eruption rates. A 1-m resolution multibeam survey, covering the entire 50 km length of the neovolcanic zone, was completed using the MBARI Mapping AUV. Based on the high-resolution bathymetry, two basic flow morphologies could be distinguished: pillow flows, comprising ~ 40 % of the rise, and sheet flows, comprising the remaining ~ 60 %. A series of dives using the ROVs Doc Ricketts in 2012 and Tiburon in 2003 visually confirmed pillow flows, lobate flows, sheet flows, and jumbled sheet flows at the sampled sites. Over 150 lava samples collected during the dives, spanning the entire length of the rise were analyzed for major-element chemistry, crystal content, and corresponding flow morphology. Lavas selected for this analysis ranged from basalt to basaltic-andesite (100 pa s, only pillow lavas are generated. The majority (> 80 %) of sampled pillow lavas are plagioclase-phyric to ultraphyric whereas the majority of lobate and sheet flow lavas are aphyric. Crystal fractions in the pillow lavas are as high as 30-40%, resulting in magma viscosities ~ 5-15 times the melt viscosities. The majority of pillow lavas (~77%) have magma viscosities > 100 pa s. Only ~ 25 % of lobate and sheet flow lavas have magma viscosities > 100 pa s. Many of the phyric lobate and sheet flow samples show evidence of strong flow segregation of crystals to the outer surface of the flow, resulting in samples

  17. Effects of surface anisotropy on magnetic vortex core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V., E-mail: [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Sheka, Denis D. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine)


    The vortex core shape in the three dimensional Heisenberg magnet is essentially influenced by a surface anisotropy. We predict that depending of the surface anisotropy type there appears barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex core along the magnet thickness. Our theoretical study is well confirmed by spin–lattice simulations. - Highlights: • The shape of magnetic vortex core is essentially influenced by SA (surface anisotropy). • We predict barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex depending on SA. • The variational approach fully describes the vortex core deformation. • We performed spin–lattice simulations to detect SA influence on the vortex core.

  18. Ophiolitic association of Cape Fiolent area, southwestern Crimea (United States)

    Promyslova, M. Yu.; Demina, L. I.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Gushchin, A. I.; Koronovsky, N. V.; Tsarev, V. V.


    An ophiolitic association consisting of serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentinite, layered mafic-ultramafic complex, gabbro and gabbrodolerite, fragments of parallel dike complex, pillow lava, black bedded chert, and jasper has been identified for the first time by authors in the Cape Fiolent area. The chemistry of pillow lavas and dolerites, including REE patterns and a wide set of other microelements, indicates suprasubduction nature of the ophiolites and their belonging to a backarc basin that has reached the stage of spreading in its evolution.

  19. Strobilus organization in the enigmatic gymnosperm Bernettia inopinata from the Jurassic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustatscher, E.; van Konijnenburg - van Cittert, J.H.A.; Bauer, K.; Krings, M.


    The enigmatic fossil Bernettia inopinata from Lower Jurassic strata of Upper Franconia, Germany, has been described as a leaf-like structure a leaf-like structure bearing a proximal cluster of densely spaced, pillow-like objects believed to represent ovules or ovule-containing units. The systematic

  20. 77 FR 14055 - Graco Children's Products Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance (United States)


    ... components of vehicle occupant compartments. NHTSA's Analysis of Graco's Reasoning Based on Dorel's explanation in its petition, certain warning labels sewn to a detachable pillow provided with the Dorel MyRide.... 213 and No. 302. Dorel stated that the subject warning labels were supplied by a sub-supplier of...

  1. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens (United States)

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  2. A comparison of two pressure-relieving devices on the prevention of heel pressure ulcers. (United States)

    Tymec, A C; Pieper, B; Vollman, K


    The effectiveness of hospital pillows versus a commercial heel elevation device (the Foot Waffle [EHOB incorporated]) in preventing heel pressure ulcers was examined using an experimental balanced factorial design with repeated measures on 52 patients (ages 27 to 90) in randomized groups. Heel interface pressures were taken with patients in supine and right lateral tilt positions. Logistic regression demonstrated a statistically significant difference between interface pressures on left and right heels (p = .004) and a trend toward significance between the pillow and Foot Waffle (p = .069). The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method revealed the Foot Waffle was four times more likely not to suspend the heel off the bed than the pillow, and the left heel was four-and-a-half times more likely to have higher interface pressures than the right. There was no significant difference between groups in incidence of lower-extremity pressure ulcers, but patients using the Foot Waffle developed pressure ulcers significantly sooner (10 days versus 13 days for the pillow). Heels require additional protection beyond the use of specially beds and mattress overlays. In order to provide continuous heel suspension, clinicians must consider proper fit, turning schedules, patient position, patient activity, and presence of additional equipment when selecting heel protection products. This study illustrates how difficult it is to control for all these factors when doing clinical research. Note: This study was done with a Foot Waffle model that has since been redesigned. No research is available on the new model.

  3. Effect of Divided Attention on the Production of False Memories in the DRM Paradigm: A Study of Dichotic Listening and Shadowing (United States)

    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro B.


    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling…

  4. Effects of Surface Anisotropy on Magnetic Vortex Core


    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri


    The vortex core shape in the three dimensional Heisenberg magnet is essentially influenced by a surface anisotropy. We predict that depending of the surface anisotropy type there appears barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex core along the magnet thickness. Our theoretical study is well confirmed by spin-lattice simulations.

  5. 阅读理解三则(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>(A)Over a third of one1s life is spent sleeping with one1s head on apillow ( 枕头). A good pillow, in its right height and composition, hasimportant effects on one1s sleep and health. There is an old way of

  6. Categorization Is Modulated by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Left Prefrontal Cortex (United States)

    Lupyan, Gary; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.


    Humans have an unparalleled ability to represent objects as members of multiple categories. A given object, such as a pillow may be--depending on current task demands--represented as an instance of something that is soft, as something that contains feathers, as something that is found in bedrooms, or something that is larger than a toaster. This…

  7. Taking a nap is the new white-knuckle ride. (United States)

    Bates, Jane


    I awoke from my afternoon slumber, stretched like a cat on a warm pillow, slept some more, then opened my eyes and contemplated the sheer joy of an afternoon nap in summer, lulled to sleep by the sun and the sound of bees buzzing and doves cooing….

  8. Ringworm (United States)

    ... by encouraging your kids to: avoid sharing combs, brushes, hair accessories, pillows, hats, and headphones wear flip-flops at the pool or in the locker room shower wash sports clothing regularly shower after contact sports wash hands well and often Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD ...

  9. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R


    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  10. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte


    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  11. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary) (United States)

    Kiss, Gabriella B.; Oláh, Erika; Zaccarini, Federica; Szakáll, Sándor


    The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag) occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  12. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  13. Confederate King of Battle: A Comparison of the Field Artillery Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of Tennessee (United States)


    stubborn, aloof, insubordinate, quarrelsome, and childish .”3 Next in line was Gideon Pillow, Polk’s second in command. He and Polk feuded continually...On this matter Bragg agreed and removed Hill from command as well.80 However, the removal of these two tumors did not stop the cancer of

  14. 每月幽它一默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正> 牙仙子One Sunday evening,my over tired(厌烦的)8-year-old wouldn’t stop crying.Isuggested we put her newly lost tooth un-der the pillow(枕头)(to try to cheer herup)for the tooth fairy.She started crying

  15. Lava Cones and Shields on Intermediate-Rate Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Caress, D. W.


    Most eruptions of basalt along mid-ocean ridges produce either sheet flows or pillow mounds and ridges. Rare eruptions on the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges and on the Alarcon Rise (northern East Pacific Rise) produce volcanic cones or shields from point sources. Bathymetric maps at 1-m resolution from an autonomous underwater vehicle enabled classification of these ~circular features. The most common are 290-510m across and inflated flows on their summits. There are 8 of these on the upper south rift, caldera floor, and southwest caldera rim on Axial Seamount; one on North Cleft segment near the 1986 pillow mounds; and one in the axial graben on northern Endeavour Segment. Hundreds of smaller pillow mounds lack craters or tumulus-like inflated flows at their summits. Three 660-1300m across circular cones have either a crater or an inflated tumulus-like structure at their flat to slightly domed summits. One in the axial graben on the northern Endeavour Segment is dissected by extensional faulting. Cage Seamount on the Coaxial Segment south of the 1993 pillow ridge is the most voluminous at 1100m across and >200m tall. Two flat-topped cones are located near the center of Alarcon Rise. A low-relief shield volcano on the northern Alarcon Rise is ~1700m across and only ~45m tall, and is cut by numerous faults and fissures. Two other shields, 860m and 1700m across and 50-70m tall, occur south of the 1996 North Gorda pillow mounds. These shields are decorated with small pillow mounds. Five 100-250m across and 15-30m deep pits collapsed on the northern shield. These constructional cones and shields form during eruptions where the initial fissure consolidated to a point, indicative of long duration activity. They are constructed during uncommon eruptions with flux larger than produces pillow mounds and smaller than produces sheet flows. They are a submarine equivalent of subaerial shield-building eruptions.

  16. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.


    The North Kona slump is an elliptical region, about 20 by 60 km (1000-km2 area), of multiple, geometrically intricate benches and scarps, mostly at water depths of 2000–4500 m, on the west flank of Hualalai Volcano. Two dives up steep scarps in the slump area were made in September 2001, using the ROV Kaiko of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), as part of a collaborative Japan–USA project to improve understanding of the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes. Both dives, at water depths of 2700–4000 m, encountered pillow lavas draping the scarp-and-bench slopes. Intact to only slightly broken pillow lobes and cylinders that are downward elongate dominate on the steepest mid-sections of scarps, while more equant and spherical pillow shapes are common near the tops and bases of scarps and locally protrude through cover of muddy sediment on bench flats. Notably absent are subaerially erupted Hualalai lava flows, interbedded hyaloclastite pillow breccia, and/or coastal sandy sediment that might have accumulated downslope from an active coastline. The general structure of the North Kona flank is interpreted as an intricate assemblage of downdropped lenticular blocks, bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. The undisturbed pillow-lava drape indicates that slumping occurred during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism. All analyzed samples of the pillow-lava drape are tholeiite, similar to published analyses from the submarine northwest rift zone of Hualālai. Relatively low sulfur (330–600 ppm) and water (0.18–0.47 wt.%) contents of glass rinds suggest that the eruptive sources were in shallow water, perhaps 500–1000-m depth. In contrast, saturation pressures calculated from carbon dioxide concentrations (100–190 ppm) indicate deeper equilibration, at or near sample sites at water depths of − 3900 to − 2800 m. Either vents close to the sample sites erupted mixtures of undegassed and degassed magmas, or volatiles were resorbed from

  17. Reassessing the biogenicity of Earth’s oldest trace fossil with implications for biosignatures in the search for early life


    Eugene G. Grosch; McLoughlin, Nicola


    It has been argued that Archean subseafloor pillow lava sequences provide an environment in which to seek evidence for the earliest traces of life. Candidate titanite biosignatures of microbial activity have been reported in ∼3.45-Ga metavolcanic glass from the Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa. In this paper we present new in situ U–Pb age data, metamorphic constraints, and morphological observations on these titanite microtextures. Our data challenges a biological origin for these o...

  18. Komatiites: From Earth's Geological Settings to Planetary and Astrobiological Contexts


    Nna-Mvondo, Delphine; Martinez-Frias, Jesus


    Komatiites are fascinating volcanic rocks. They are among the most ancient lavas of the Earth following the 3.8 Ga pillow basalts at Isua and they represent some of the oldest ultramafic magmatic rocks preserved in the Earth's crust at 3.5 Ga. This fact, linked to their particular features (high magnesium content, high melting temperatures, low dynamic viscosities, etc.), has attracted the community of geoscientists since their discovery in the early sixties, who have tried to determine their...

  19. Macro-encapsulation of heat storage phase-change materials for use in residential buildings. First quarterly progress report, September 29--December 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, G.A.; Kott, A.C.; Rossow, H.E.


    Objectives are to assess the feasibility of macro-encapsulated PCM's for residential solar systems, to develop and evaluate such materials. Five PCM's have been selected from encapsulation studies. Encapsulated storage media were evaluated theoretically in storage beds with air and water as the heat transfer medium. Cylindrical, tetrahedral, and pillow shapes are being evaluated for the encapsulated PCM. Encapsulant materials under consideration are multilayer flexible plastic films, steel cans, and plastic bottles.

  20. 牙仙女%The Tooth Fairy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The American children’s ritual of hiding a lost tooth under a pillow stems from an old German tradition of placing a lost tooth in a mouse or rat hole SO that when a new tooth grew in,it would possess the strong dental qualities of a rodent’S tooth.In America the “tooth rat”was replaced by the“tooth fairy”,who would compensate the child with money for surrendering a tooth to her.

  1. Evaluating the earliest traces of Archean sub-seafloor life by NanoSIMS (United States)

    Mcloughlin, N.; Grosch, E. G.; Kilburn, M.; Wacey, D.


    The Paleoarchean sub-seafloor has been proposed as an environment for the emergence of life with titanite microtextures in pillow lavas argued to be the earliest traces of microbial micro-tunneling (Furnes et al. 2004). Here we use a nano-scale ion microprobe (NanoSIMS) to evaluate possible geochemical traces of life in 3.45 Ga pillow lavas of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We investigated both surface and drill core samples from the original "Biomarker" outcrop in the Hooggenoeg Fm. Pillow lava metavolcanic glass contain clusters of segmented microcrystalline titanite filaments, ~4μm across and inclusions in the microtextures have strongly depleted δ34SVCDT values of -39.8 to +3.2‰ (n= 32). The magnitude, range and spatial heterogeneity of these δ34S values are consistent with an early microbial origin (McLoughlin et al. 2012). In contrast, sulfides cross-cutting the microtextures related to later veining have positive δ34S of +6.7 to +18.0‰ (n=20). These data can be compared to magmatic sulfides (δ34S = +3±3‰), Archean seawater (δ34S ca. +5‰) and Archean sedimentary sulfides (δ34S = +8 to -23‰). We propose that the Hooggenoeg sulfides probably formed during early fluid-rock-microbe interaction involving sulfate-reducing microbes (c.f. Rouxel et al. 2008). The pillow lavas were then metamorphosed, the glass transformed to a greenschist facies assemblage and titanite growth encapsulated the microbial sulfides. In summary, the extreme sulfur isotope fractionations reported here independently point towards the potential involvement of microbes in the alteration of Archean volcanic glass. In situ sulfur isotope analysis of basalt-hosted sulfides may provide an alternative approach to investigating the existence of an Archean sub-seafloor biosphere that does not require the mineralization of early microbial microborings with organic linings.

  2. A Systems Engineering Approach for Global Fleet Station Alternatives in the Gulf of Guinea (United States)


    pillow tanks, reverse osmosis water purification units, and empty water containers. Within this attribute are the elements of clinical capabilities...required to check expiration dates and perhaps be capable of making basic repairs to 182 generators and water purification systems. Overall, the HA/DR...Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005. It is a transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers. 6. Comments

  3. The Marine Physical Laboratory Multi-Disciplinary Ocean Science and Technology Program (United States)


    harmonics, which have been occur at tidal and twice-tidal frequencies, where near- smeared by the Doppler shifting of the drilling inca- surface effects... spallation of pillow rinds, which com- and, furthermore, to be somewhat rounded by sedimentary monly have abundant microlites and crystallites. In...sandstone and gravel from DSPD hole 396B. leg 46. Initial present. Rep Deep Sea Drill . Proi., 46. 331 339, 1978. 8390 BATIZA ET AL.: PACIFIC

  4. A Landsat Data Collection Platform at Devil Canyon Site, Upper Susitna Basin, Alaska. Performance and Analysis of Data. (United States)


    provided by a rotary cup anemometer with a RESULTS AND DISCUSSION small reed switch that momentarily closes its contacts for each 0.16 km of formation w hich immobilized the Water equivalent data from the snow pillow, anemometer cups . A lso, one cup was found to as measured by the Stevens...recorder during the be twisted on the April site visit. The date the period 7 November 1974-7 April 1975, are shown cup became twisted (sometime

  5. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization (United States)


    pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt -lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter...Total 1 McMaster-CARR 5911k16 1" Dia, 6" long anodized aluminum shaft $15.38 8 $123.04 2 McMaster-CARR 6359k37 Cast iron base-mounted babbitt

  6. Do posture correction exercises have to be boring? Using unstable surfaces to prevent poor posture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymanska


    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor posture in children is a common problem. It appears most often in early school-age children and, if not corrected, progresses quickly as they mature. Aim of the research: To find a method that can prevent poor posture, is effective and attractive for children, and can be used on a wide scale in state schools. Material and methods : Seventy-seven first year pupils were tested at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Nineteen children undertook corrective exercises using unstable surfaces; 41 children sat on sensorimotor pillows during classes; and 17 children were the control group. Body mass and body height were measured. Body mass index was calculated. The symmetry of the position of selected skeletal points was assessed: the acromions, lower angles of the scapulas, apexes of the iliac crests, antero-superior iliac spine, and postero-superior iliac spine using a Duometer electronic device. The differences between the groups and changes between the first and second study for each group were estimated. Results : In the first study there were no significant differences in quality of posture. In the second study a significant improvement was noted in symmetry of the shoulders, scapulas, and pelvis in children who sat on sensorimotor pillows, as well as the position of the iliac crests and iliac spines in children exercising regularly on unstable surfaces. Conclusions: Exercises using unstable surfaces and sitting on sensorimotor pillows during classes might be an effective alternative to traditional posture correction exercises.

  7. New constraints on the origin of the ophiolitic rocks within sinorogenic turbiditic sequences at Cilento region (southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, F.C.; Vita, P. de; Aulinas, M.; Arienzo, I.; Cirillo, G.; Iovine, R.S.; Spari, D.


    Mafic igneous rocks (pillow lavas and gabbros) embedded as olistoliths within Miocene turbiditic sequences crop out in the Cilento area at the Mount Centaurino (Campania region, Southern Italy). The concentration of major oxides, as well as trace element ratios (Nb/Yb, Nb/Ta, Th/Nb) and the chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) patterns suggest a tholeiitic character with Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalts (MORB) affinity. The chemical composition of pillow lavas is consistent with magmas generated by 10% degrees of non-modal fractional partial melting, of a spinel-bearing MORB-type asthenospheric mantle. Regarding gabbros, the calculated composition of parental melts in equilibrium with the clinopyroxenes show a wide compositional range, and there are very different from the pillow basalts of the Mount Centaurino, suggesting that the clinopyroxenes might have derived from more evolved melts compared to those that produced the basalts. The origin of these olistoliths is not yet understood. Here we suggest that these rocks represent fragment of a dismantled accretionary wedge embedded during the deposition of the Cilento group sedimentary successions in a thrust top basin. (Author)

  8. Crustal structure beneath the Northern Mississippi Embayment from travel time inversion of vintage wide-angle seismic data (United States)

    Guo, L.; Magnani, M.


    The northern Mississippi Embayment (ME) in the central US is located along the southern margin of Laurentia, a region that has been shaped by a long history of tectonic and magmatic events, including episodes of continental rifting, collision and amalgamation. In the ME these events have fundamentally altered the structure and composition of the continental lithosphere, resulting in the formation and failure of the Paleozoic Reelfoot Rift, and in the emplacement of the enigmatic mafic rift pillow at lower crustal and upper mantle depths beneath the Reelfoot Rift. Because of the spatial correlation between the present, historical and prehistorical seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone and the mafic rift pillow, it has been proposed that this magmatic feature plays a key role in localizing strain in the Central US. Emerging evidence, however, shows that Quaternary deformation in the ME is not restricted to the New Madrid seismic zone, but encompasses a region beyond the presently seismogenic area, perhaps suggesting that the mafic rift pillow extends beyond its previously detected location. To test this hypothesis and to better constrain the lateral extent, dimension, and velocity structure of the mafic rift pillow in lower crust and upper mantle beneath the ME, we perform a travel time tomographic inversion using recent modeling codes on two vintage wide-angle seismic datasets available in the region. The data were acquired by the USGS in 1980 and 1991, and are the only seismic wide-angle crustal data constraining the geometry of the rift pillow. The 1980 USGS seismic refraction investigation consisted of a total of 34 900-1800 kg shots gathered in 9 locations and recorded by 100 portable seismographs along a series of profiles targeting the structure of the Reelfoot Rift north of Memphis, Tennessee. The 1991 USGS survey acquired a N-S 400 km-long seismic profile from Memphis, Tennessee to St. Louis, Missouri, and included 3 680-2260 kg shots recorded by ~200

  9. Salt tectonics and associated fluid migration and entrapment in the western part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin (United States)

    Sørig, Simon A.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.


    The western part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin is part of the Northern Permian Basin and encompasses a variety of Zechstein salt structures (pillows, rollers, diapirs and salt walls). The area has been studied for decades with respect to HC prospectively associated to salt structures as well a focus area for studies on conceptual evolution of salt structures and faults associated with the salt structures. Previous local studies on fluid migration and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI's) in the area show a close relation between halo kinetics and local fluid migration. In the present study we have used3D seismic data (approximately 3500 km2) to identify and describe A: large diapirs which have been active until the youngest Cenozoic, B: medium sized diapirs being active until the early Cenozoic, C: salt relicts creating small non active pillows, and D: small satellite structures related to type A. The salt structures are evenly distributed across the studied area, and we conclude that the structures were initiated during the late Triassic due to depositional controlled differential loading combined with differential subsidence. DHI's are identified at various stratigraphic and structural settings associated to the salt structures and each structure type has different types of DHI's associated. The DHIs observed at the type A and B diapirs are located above or at the stem of the diapirs and are here interpreted as classic structural hydrocarbon traps associated with rising salt deforming the strata. However, the DHI's associated to type C salt pillows have a relatively small lateral extent, stratigraphically restricted to the Mesozoic succession; they are located above the apex of the pillow and have in general a seismically disturbed zone located beneath the DHI. The seismically disturbed zone resembles gas chimneys, but may also be related to minor deformation of the Mesozoic strata overlying the type C pillows. A biogenic origin of the gas in at least some of the

  10. Type of mask may impact on continuous positive airway pressure adherence in apneic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Christian Borel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: In obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence is crucial to improve symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The choice of mask may influence CPAP adherence but this issue has never been addressed properly. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of nasal pillows, nasal and oronasal masks on CPAP adherence in a cohort of OSA. METHODS: Newly CPAP treated OSA participating in "Observatoire Sommeil de la Fédération de Pneumologie", a French national prospective cohort, were included between March 2009 and December 2011. Anthropometric data, medical history, OSA severity, sleepiness, depressive status, treatment modalities (auto-CPAP versus fixed pressure, pressure level, interface type, use of humidifiers and CPAP-related side effects were included in multivariate analysis to determine independent variables associated with CPAP adherence. RESULTS: 2311 OSA (age = 57(12 years, apnea+hypopnea index = 41(21/h, 29% female were included. Nasal masks, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were used by 62.4, 26.2 and 11.4% of the patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were associated with higher risk of CPAP non-adherence. CPAP non-adherence was also associated with younger age, female gender, mild OSA, gastroesophageal reflux, depression status, low effective pressure and CPAP-related side effects. In multivariate analysis, CPAP non-adherence was associated with the use of oronasal masks (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.6; 2.5, depression, low effective pressure, and side effects. CONCLUSION: As oronasal masks negatively impact on CPAP adherence, a nasal mask should be preferred as the first option. Patients on oronasal masks should be carefully followed.

  11. A laboratory investigation into the effects of slope on lava flow morphology (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Fink, Jonathan H.


    In an attempt to model the effect of slope on the dynamics of lava flow emplacement, four distinct morphologies were repeatedly produced in a series of laboratory simulations where polyethylene glycol (PEG) was extruded at a constant rate beneath cold sucrose solution onto a uniform slope which could be varied from 1° through 60°. The lowest extrusion rates and slopes, and highest cooling rates, produced flows that rapidly crusted over and advanced through bulbous toes, or pillows (similar to subaerial "toey" pahoehoe flows and to submarine pillowed flows). As extrusion rate and slope increased, and cooling rate decreased, pillowed flows gave way to rifted flows (linear zones of liquid wax separated by plates of solid crust, similar to what is observed on the surface of convecting lava lakes), then to folded flows with surface crusts buckled transversely to the flow direction, and, at the highest extrusion rates and slopes, and lowest cooling rates, to leveed flows, which solidified only at their margins. A dimensionless parameter, Ψ, primarily controlled by effusion rate, cooling rate and flow viscosity, quantifies these flow types. Increasing the underlying slope up to 30° allows the liquid wax to advance further before solidifying, with an effect similar to that of increasing the effusion rate. For example, conditions that produce rifted flows on a 10° slope result in folded flows on a 30° slope. For underlying slopes of 40°, however, this trend reverses, slightly owing to increased gravitational forces relative to the strength of the solid wax. Because of its significant influence on heat advection and the disruption of a solid crust, slope must be incorporated into any quantitative attempt to correlate eruption parameters and lava flow morphologies. These experiments and subsequent scaling incorporate key physical parameters of both an extrusion and its environment, allowing their results to be used to interpret lava flow morphologies on land, on the

  12. A new structural model of the Pachitea Basin, Peru: Interaction of thick-skinned tectonics and salt detached thrusting (United States)

    Witte, J.; Rebaza, J.; Westlund, D.; Stratton, M.; Alegria, C.


    We present four new structural transects, a new seismo-stratigraphic correlation, a refined structural model and new shortening rates for the Pachitea Basin (=PB), Peru. Our results are based on the integration and detailed interpretation of newly acquired industry seismic (2D, 2005 vintage), existing well data, existing and proprietary surface geology data and newly acquired aero magnetic data (2007 vintage). Our assessment confirms the presence of at least four distinct structural styles in the area, thick-skinned structures, thin-skinned detachment thrusting, salt-tectonics and localized strike-slip tectonics. Based on seismo-stratigraphic correlations we conclude that the oldest rocks carried to outcrop by the San Matias (=SM) thrust are of Jurassic age. We interpret the thin-skinned master detachment to be located in varying positions, directly below or above, autochtonous salt pillows. Timing assessment of the SM thrust sheet reveals that it has been active from at least ˜5 Ma to post-2 Ma, supporting regionally published timing data for this latitude. Positive topographic surface expressions indicate ongoing contraction along the mountain front of the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera (=EC). Across the PB we calculate between 2.6% and 5.5% for thick-skinned shortening and at least 25.5% for the thin-skinned shortening. For the SM thrust sheet we calculate a slip-rate of ˜1-1.6 mm/yr, which is in line with published slip rates on individual thrusts from around the world. Observations along the SM thrust system indicate that thin- and thick-skinned systems interact mechanically, and that they have been active intermittently. We conclude that the location of salt pillows as well as pre-existing or growing basement-involved structures helped trigger the SM thrust. Different types of salt bodies are present in the PB, autochtonous pillows, slightly thrusted pillows and allochtonous diapirs. Our results provide new insight into the structural interplay, particularly

  13. Structure, tectonic and petrology of mid-oceanic ridges and the Indian scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Ray, Dwijesh

    due to rapid chilling when the lava contacts seawater. Lavas commonly form pillows (10 ? 100 cm in dia.) when bulbous protru sions of submarine flows detach from the parent flow and come to rest (while still hot and plastic) on the seafloor 24... variations are expressed as Na 8 , Fe 8 , Ca 8 and TiFe 7.3 which are calculated at a constant MgO content (7 ? 8.0 wt%). Magmatic processes Compositionally, the erupted basalts may be quite dif - ferent from its parental source produced at depth...

  14. How to write a story in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>When it comes to writing a story,the first thing that strikes me is fear.Where to start?What is the title of the story?What is it going to be about?After struggling with some monstrous idea of using a first person perspective to tell a story of a horrific murder,I give up before starting to write and resort to my pillow and blanket for warmth and comfort."Not everyone gets to be Dan Brown."I

  15. Gumuk gunung api purba bawah laut di Tawangsari - Jomboran, Sukoharjo - Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendoet Hartono


    Full Text Available paper discusses the study on the basalt volcanic rocks and the volcano morphology indicating the existence of an ancient submarine volcano in Tawangsari-Jomboran sub-regency, Sukoharjo- Wonogiri, Central Java. In general, this basalt volcanic rocks were identified as andesite breccia which might be grouped into the Mandalika Formation of Oligosen-Miosen age (Surono et al., 1992. The origin of the Mandalika Formation in relation to the classic sedimentation process and the submarine volcanism is still needed to be evaluated. The present study was based on the detailed descriptions of the rocks both in the field and in the laboratory. The autoclastic basalt outcrops consisting of breccias show the characteristics of the igneous rock fragment component embedded in the groundmass with the same composition, namely igneous rock, dark grey to black in colour; porphyritic texture, rough surface, brecciated; pillow structures, massive, fine vesicularities, amygdaloidal filled with calcite, and radial fractures; calk-alkaline andesite composition ( SiO = 54.71% , K O = 1.15% . This rock body attains the  dimension of 2 - 5 m length, and 40 cm - 1 m in diameter with the direction of the deposition varies following the direction of the eruption source. Brecciated structures on the surface was controlled by the high cooling rate and the low flow, while the interior of the rock is massive because it was not in a direct contact to the cooler mass outside. Autoclastic basalt breccias and or the pillow basalt lava was interpreted to be formed by the undulating low gradient of morphology with the average angle of <10o. On the other hand, the low basaltic magma viscosity produced the effusive eruption related to the formation of the low angle morphology. The distance between the hills generally composed of pillow basalt is between 500 m - 1 km. The typical pillow structure of the igneous rock as described above is

  16. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders;


    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out...... pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys....

  17. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)


    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  18. Premiers résultats des plongées du Nautile sur le banc de Gorringe (Ouest Portugal) (United States)

    Girardeau, Jacques; Cornen, Guy; Agrimer, Pierre; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Dubuisson, Gilles; LeGall, Bernard; Monnier, Christophe; Pinheiro, Luis; Ribeiro, Antonio; Whitechurch, Hubert


    The oceanic crust exposed on the Gorringe Bank (SW Portugal) presents a laccolith-like body of gabbros, 500 m thick by 50 km long, within mantle peridotites. It also shows rare tholeiitic dikes and pillow-lavas resting locally directly over the peridotites. Gabbros, that crystallized in a closed system, subsequently underwent strong deformation in highto low-temperature conditions, in a west to east extensional flat shear zone system. This massif would likely be formed during the early stages of oceanic spreading, at the end of continental rifting. This is in agreement with kinematic reconstructions for the North Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Study for comfortable supine for patients with partial nephrectomy by robot-assisted laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery%机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除患者术后舒适卧位探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英娜; 周秀彬


    目的:探讨机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后患者最舒适的卧位。方法抽取80例行机器人腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后的患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组患者手术后经医生允许采用早期舒适卧位,即颈部垫软枕、腰部垫20 cm ×20 cm硬枕仰卧位;对照组患者术后按传统方法采用平卧位。术后前2 d进行观察比较,找出患者最舒适卧位。结果观察组患者睡眠、情绪稳定及腰肌酸痛情况明显优于对照组( P<0.05)。结论机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后卧床期间采取颈部垫软枕、腰部垫20 cm ×20 cm硬枕的仰卧位方式,患者最舒适。%Objective To study the most comfortable lying position for post-operative patients with robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy .Method 80 post-operative patients with robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrec-tomy surgery were randomly divided into observation group and the control group ,patients observed by doctors after surgery to allow the use of early comfort lying ,that is ,a soft pillow neck cushion ,waist cushion 20 cm × 20 cm hard pillow supine position ,tupatients in control group by traditional methods in supine position ,after 2 days of ob-servation and comparison ,to find the most comfortable lying position .Result The sleep ,comfort and lumbar pain in observation group was obviously better than that of control group (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Robot assisted laparoscop-ic partial nephrectomy surgery took the neck cushion soft pillow ,lumbar pillow pad 20 cm × 20 cm hard way the su-pine position ,the patient feels most comfortable .

  20. Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN); Naples (Italy); October 12-15, 2016



    Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN); Naples (Italy); October 12-15, 2016 LECT 1. LUNG RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND EARLY SURFACTANT IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. PRESENTATION OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL: EFFICACY OF A NEW TECHNIQUE (IN-REC-SUR-E) IN PRETERM NEONATES WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROMEG. Vento, R. Pastorino, L. Boni, F. Cota, V. Carnielli, F. Cools, C. Dani, F. Mosca, J. Pillow, G. P...

  1. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos


    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  2. Calvin Klein Home“枕边话事件”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>艺术家Jonathan Horowitz和Art Production Fund合作的回顾展"Jonathan Horowitz:And/Or."被纽约时报称为"一次精明而脆弱的回顾",包括由Yvonne Force Villareal和Doreen Remen共同创立的非盈利组织Art Production Fund的作品"枕边话事件"(Pillow Talk Cases)。由Calvin Klein Home捐赠的一系列白色

  3. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sein Sein Win


    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  4. My Bedroom同题异构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    I have my own room. It' s clean and nice .There is a big closet and many clothes in it. There are pink curtains, they are very beautiful. On top of it there are some lovely pictures. Beside it there is a bed. The pillows are green. The shelf is near the table, the books are on the shelf. My mirror is very bright. In my room I can do lots of things. Do you like my new room? What' s your room like? Can you tell me, please?

  5. 曲がった管内の非定常剥離音



    Measurement of the aerodynamic sound of flow in curved tubes, probably generated by nonsteady separation of flow inside the tube wall, was conducted. It simulates sound generation by a patient whose neck is bent by the use of a pillow; in such a situation, the breath sound is known clinically to be enlarged. Although the experiment is of preliminary nature performed using a flexible plastic tube and observing sound emerging from one end of the tube, it was verified that the broadband sound is...

  6. An overview of the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean (ca. 3075) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Frei, Robert; Appel, P.W.U.


    Archean greenstone belts in the area. The Ivisaartoq greenstone belt is the largest Mesoarchean supracrustal lithotectonic assemblage in the Nuuk region. The belt contains well-preserved primary magmatic structures including pillow lavas, volcanic breccias, and cumulate (picrite) layers. It also includes...... depleted initial Nd isotopic signatures ( Nd = +4.2 to +5.0) than gabbros, diorites, and tholeiitic basalts ( Nd = +0.3 to +3.1), consistent with a strongly depleted mantle source. In some areas gabbros include up to 15 cm long white inclusions (xenoliths). These inclusions are composed primarily (>90...

  7. Large Plant Growth Chambers: Flying Soon on a Space Station near You! (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.


    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species, and those capabilities continue to grow. The Veggie vegetable production system will be deployed to the ISS in Spring of 2014 to act as an applied research platform with goals of studying food production in space, providing the crew with a source of fresh food, allowing behavioral health and plant microbiology experimentation, and being a source of recreation and enjoyment for the crew. Veggie was conceived, designed, and constructed by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC, Madison, WI). Veggie is the largest plant growth chamber that NASA has flown to date, and is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low energy usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) light emitting diodes. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows baseplate secured to the light cap via magnetic closures and stabilized with extensible flexible arms. The baseplate contains vents allowing air from the ISS cabin to be pulled through the plant growth area by a fan in the light cap. The baseplate holds a Veggie root mat reservoir that will supply water to plant pillows attached via elastic cords. Plant pillows are packages of growth media and seeds that will be sent to ISS dry and installed and hydrated on orbit. Pillows can be constructed in various sizes for different plant types. Watering will be via passive wicking from the root mat to the pillows. Science procedures will include photography or videography, plant thinning, pollination, harvesting, microbial sampling, water sampling, etcetera. Veggie is one of the ISS flight options currently available for research investigations on plants. The Plant Habitat (PH) is being designed and constructed through a NASA

  8. Quality of water from freshwater aquifers and principal well fields in the Memphis Area, Tennessee (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Parks, W.S.; Gaydos, M.W.


    Water from the freshwater aquifers in the Memphis area is suitable for most uses. Freshwater aquifers are the alluvium and fluvial (terrace) deposits of Quaternary age, the Memphis Sand and Fort Pillow Sand of Tertiary age, and the Ripley Formation and McNairy Sand of Cretaceous age. About 180 million gallons/day (mgd) of freshwater are withdrawn from the Memphis Sand, primarily for municipal and industrial use; the Memphis Sand is the principal aquifer supplying the City of Memphis. The alluvium provides water for irrigation and some industrial uses, and the fluvial deposits provide water for domestic use in rural areas. The Fort Pillow Sand supplies water for some municipal and industrial uses. The Ripley-McNairy aquifer is not used as a source of water. Water from the alluvium, fluvial deposits, and Memphis Sand is a calcium bicarbonate type, and water from the Fort Pillow Sand and Ripley-McNairy aquifer is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved solids concentrations are low in the Memphis Sand, with a median value of 83 mg/L, and are high in the Ripley-McNairy aquifer with a value of about 1,000 mg/L. Water is very soft in the Fort Pillow Sand with a median hardness value of 9 mg/L as CaCO3 and is very hard in the alluvium with a median value of 285 mg/L. Iron concentrations are low in the fluvial deposits with a median value of 50 micrograms/L and are high in the alluvium with a median value of 5,200 micrograms/L. Temperature of the water generally increases with depth, ranging from 16.0 C in the alluvium and fluvial deposits to about 32.0 C in the Ripley-McNairy aquifer. Water from the Memphis Sand at Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division well fields has very low mineralization. Median values are 79 mg/L dissolved solids concentrations, 56 mg/L alkalinity as CaCO3, 46 mg/L hardness as CaCO3, 4 mg/L chloride, 3.5 mg/L sulfate, and 600 micrograms/L iron. (Author 's abstract)

  9. 三十年的纪念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    这是一张梦影现代爵士乐团(Pieces of A Dream)成军三十年纪念专辑,取名枕边细语(Pillow Talk)。三十年前,二位对音乐抱持梦想的费城少年,十一岁的James Lloyd与十三岁的Curtis Harmon,引用萨克斯风手Stanley Turrentine的经典专辑《Pieces of a Dream》的名称,成立了“梦影现代爵士乐团”。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson


    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  11. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India: A mineralchemical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Saha; Avik Dhang; Jyotisankar Ray; Suvankar Chakraborty; David Moecher


    Field studies supplemented by petrographic analyses clearly reveal complete preservation of ophiolite suite from Port Blair (11° 39′ N: 92° 45′E) to Chiriyatapu (11° 30′ 24′′N: 92° 42′ 30′′E) stretch of South Andaman. The ophiolite suite reveals serpentinite at the base which is overlain unconformably by cumulate ultramafic–mafic members with discernible cumulus texture and igneous layering. Basaltic dykes are found to cut across the cumulate ultramafic–mafic members. The succession is capped by well exposed pillow basalts interlayered with arkosic sediments. Olivine from the basal serpentinite unit are highly magnesian (Fo80.1–86.2). All clinopyroxene analyses from cumulate pyroxenite, cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke are discriminated to be `Quad’ and are uniformly restricted to the diopside field. Composition of plagioclase in different lithomembers is systematically varying from calcic to sodic endmembers progressively from cumulate pyroxenite to pillow basalt through cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke. Plagioclase phenocrysts from basaltic dyke are found to be distinctly zoned (An60.7–An35.5) whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An33–An23.5). Deduced thermobarometric data from different lithomembers clearly correspond to the observed preservation of complete ophiolite suite.

  12. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ophiolite suite, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Srivastava; R Chandra; Anant Shastry


    A complete dismembered sequence of ophiolite is well exposed in the south Andaman region that mainly comprises ultramafic cumulates, serpentinite mafic plutonic and dyke rocks, pillow lava, radiolarian chert, and plagiogranite. Pillow lavas of basaltic composition occupy a major part of the Andaman ophiolite suite (AOS). These basalts are well exposed all along the east coast of southern part of the south AOS. Although these basalts are altered due to low-grade metamorphism and late hydrothermal processes, their igneous textures are still preserved. These basalts are mostly either aphyric or phyric in nature. Aphyric type exhibits intersertal or variolitic textures, whereas phyric variety shows porphyritic or sub-ophitic textures. The content of alkalies and silica classify these basalts as sub-alkaline basalts and alkaline basalts. A few samples show basaltic andesite, trachybasalt, or basanitic chemical composition. High-field strength element (HFSE) geochemistry suggests that studied basalt samples are probably derived from similar parental magmas. Al2O3/TiO2 and CaO/TiO2 ratios classify these basalts as high-Ti type basalt. On the basis of these ratios and many discriminant functions and diagrams, it is suggested that the studied basalts, associated with Andaman ophiolite suite, were derived from magma similar to N-MORB and emplaced in the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting.

  13. Evaluation of NVE's snow station network; Subreport in R et D project 302H15 Good snow data; Evaluering av NVE sitt snoestasjonsnettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, Bjoerg Lirhus; Landroe, Hilde; Trondsen, Elise; Moeen, Knut M.


    NVE has measured snow water equivalent of snow pillow in forty years. Our snow station network has risen since 1997 from 6 to 25 stations. It was therefore absolutely necessary to do a review and quality assurance of NVE's snow data. This report discusses the snow data measured continuously - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Each station and the parameters it measures are described and evaluated. It is concluded in relation to whether stations should be continued or not. Stations technical solutions are well described, both of NVE's standard stations and the two test stations, Filefjell and Svarttjoernbekken. It has been o importance to bring out what problems the instruments have or may have and provide suggestions for solutions to them. Problems related to measure the water equivalent under Norwegian conditions, with the challenges and winter rain and re-freezing provides, is also reviewed. Alternatives to water equivalent measurements with a snow pillow, which is the traditional way in this country, are presented. Some of the alternative methods NVE tests out, for the others only description and our opinion is given. (Author)

  14. 大龄肌性斜颈患儿的手术治疗分析%Older Children Surgical Treatment of Muscular Torticollis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:Of congenital muscular torticollis in older children and surgical treatment results.Methods:20 patients in our hospital and 10 cases of older hospital in Mozambique's capital of congenital muscular torticollis sternocleidomastoid incision through the pillow traction jaw simultaneously,the comprehensive treatment to correct scoliosis.Results:Through follow-up,most children have returned to satisfactory results.Conclusion:Congenital muscular torticollis surgery should be less than 6 years old,older children should also pillow traction jaw line,to correct scoliosis.%目的:探讨大龄患儿先天性肌性斜颈的治疗方法及手术效果.方法:分析我院20例及莫桑比克首都马普托医院10例大龄患儿先天性肌性斜颈通过胸锁乳突肌双切口同时行颌枕牵引,纠正侧弯的综合治疗方法.结果:通过随访,大部分儿童恢复效果理想.结论:先天性肌性斜颈应在6岁以内手术,大龄儿童则应同时行颌枕牵引,纠正侧弯.

  15. Soft-sediment Deformation Structures Related to Earthquake from the Devonian of the Eastern North Qilian Mts. and Its Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; XU Yajun; YANG Jianghai


    Devonian in the North Qilian orogenic belt and Hexi Corridor developed terrestrial molasse of later stage of foreland basin caused by collision between the North China plate and Qaidam microplate. The foreland basin triggered a intense earthquake, and formed seismites and earthquake- related soft-sediment deformation. The soft-sediment deformation structures of Devonian in the eastern North Qilian Mts. consist of seismo-cracks, sandstone dykes, syn-depositional faults, microfolds (micro-corrugated lamination), fluidized veins, load casts, flame structures, pillow structures and brecciation. The seismo-cracks, syn-depositional faults and microfolds are cracks, faults and folds formed directly by oscillation of earthquake. The seismic dykes formed by sediment instilling into seismic cracks. Fluidized veins were made by instilling into the seismo-fissures of the fluidized sands. The load casts, flame structures and pillow structures were formed by sinking and instilling caused from oscillation of earthquake along the face between sandy and muddy beds. The brecciation resulted from the oscillation of earthquake and cracking of sedimentary layers. The seismites and soft-sediment deformations in Devonian triggered the earthquake related to tectonic activities during the orogeny and uplift of North Qilian Mts.

  16. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants. (United States)

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran


    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely.

  17. Radiation dose to the eye lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Christina; Falch Braas, Kirsten; D. Nielsen, Kamilla;


    field in oncology patients undergoing eyes-to-thighs PET/CT must always include the base of the scull according to department guidelines. The eye lens is sensitive to radiation exposure and if possible it should be avoided to scan the eye. If the patient’s head is kipped backwards during the scan one...... might avoid including the eye in the CT scan without losing sufficient visualization of the scull base. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the radiation dose to the eye lens, simply by changing the head position, when doing the PET/CT scan from the base of the scull...... pillow below the head (standard), and (b) kipped backwards with the pillow below the neck (kipped). For each head position, CT scans were repeated 5 times with both a low dose and a high dose CT protocol; in this way, a total of 20 CT scans were performed. Robust standard errors were used in order...

  18. Bed Microenvironment in Hospital Patient Rooms with Natural or Mechanical Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Li, Yuguo; Georgiev, Emanuil


    We studied how to provide patients in bed with thermally comfortable microenvironment in both naturally and mechanically ventilated hospital rooms for both winter and summer seasons. A climate chamber was used to resemble a hospital room and thermal manikin to simulate a patient lying in a bed....... The °manikin was dressed and covered by a quilt with its head resting on a pillow. The effect of local heating was studied at room air temperature of 10 and 16 °C and of local cooling at 28 and 35 °C. Electrical radiant heater, heated blanket, heated pillow, personalized ventilation (PV) and heated boots were...... temperature of 22 °C. The effect of air movement (0.2, 0.4 and 1 m/s) at the bed vicinity was also studied. Electrical radiant heater in combination with heated bed showed to be the most effective at 10 and 16 °C and the combined use of PV and cooled mattress or ventilated bed was the most effective at 28...

  19. Texto e têxtil em O Livro de Travesseiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Cunha


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This text is a three-part reflection upon the theme of “clothing” as it is found in a literary work of Ancient Japan — on the importance of garment-making skills as a device for the production of difference in the context of the Imperial Court; on how the theme from the book resonates in the context of 20th century fashion; and on how it is brought up to date and amplified, working as a metaphor for writing, in the film adaptation of the ancient text. In The Pillow Book of Sei Shônagon (Japan, 10th–11th centuries, text, textile and memory merge into an extended, web-like metaphor that is also a commentary on the status of women in Imperial Heian. The adaptation of the written work for the cinema (The Pillow Book, by Peter Greenaway, 1996 features clothes by deconstructivist Martin Margiela, adding new interpretative layers to this cluster of images, relating them to the acts of writing, weaving, reading, translating, adapting and deconstructing. The fragmentary character of Sei Shônagon’s work also resonates with fashion journalism of the 20th century. The aesthetic ideal of okashi, a concept from classical Japanese literature, resonates with 20th century conceptions of fashion, such as Diana Vreeland’s pizzazz, and with the aesthetics of modernist poetry. Clothing as a metaphor for text and the idea of clothing as text are present in those three interpretative moments.

  20. Carbonate Cements from the Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell Volcanoes, Svalbard Norway: Analogs for Martian Carbonates (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Treiman, A. H.; Morris, R.; Bish, D.; Amundsen, H.E.F.; Steele, A.


    The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell volcanic complexes erupted at 1Ma on Svalbard, Norway. Sverrefjell is a cone of cinders, pillow lavas and dikes; Sigurdfjell is elongate in outcrop and may represent a fissure eruption [1]. The lavas of both volcanos were volatile rich. The volcanos erupted under ice and were subsequently dissected by glaciation (glacial eratics are present on most of Sverrefjell, even on its summit). Eruption beneath an ice sheet is inferred, based on the presence of pillow lavas from near sea level to 1000 m above sea level. Sverrefjell contains the largest fraction of ultramafic xenoliths of any volcanic complex in the world, in places accounting for as much as 50% of the volume of the outcrop. The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfell volcanos contain carbonate cements of several varieties: (1) Amundsen [2] reported Mg-Fe-rich carbonate in sub-mm globules in basalts and ultramafic xenoliths from the volcanos. These globules are the best terrestrial analogs to the carbonate globules in the Mars meteorite ALH84001 [3]. (2) Thick (1-3 cm) coatings of carbonate cement drape the walls of vertical volcanic pipes or conduits on the flanks and near the present summit of Sverrefjell. Similar occurrences are found on Sigurdfjell. (3) Breccia-filled pipes or vents occur on Sverrefjell and Siggurdfjell in which the breccia fragments are cemented by carbonate. The fragments themselves commonly contain carbonate globules similar to those found in the basalts and ultramafic xenoliths.

  1. 自制导乐枕辅助胎心监测的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞琼燕; 洪红; 苏小容; 吴丽丽; 利梅芬; 陈贤秀


    目的::探讨自制导乐枕辅助胎心监测的应用效果.方法:对住院分娩待产妇1000例进行胎心监测的观察对比,自制导乐枕辅助胎心监测的应用观察随机分为观察组和对照组各500例,进行胎心监测时使用导乐枕辅助的作为观察组,不用导乐枕辅助的作为对照组.以待产妇舒适感;配合检查的效果;获得胎监数据的满意度;助产士操作时的简便程度作为评价标准.用统计学方法分析两组待产妇舒适感;配合检查的效果;获得胎监数据的满意度;助产士操作时的简便程度有无明显差异.结果:两组待产妇舒适感;配合检查的效果;获得胎监数据的满意度;助产士操作时的简便程度均有显著差异(P<0.01).结论:自制导乐枕用于缓解产妇的不适,使产妇能配合胎心监测的完成,增加舒适度,得到满意真实的检查效果.减少因延长胎监时间造成的资源浪费.提高产妇的满意度.此方法取材方便,操作简单,价格低廉,值得临床推广和应用.%[Abstract ]Obj ective To investigate the effects of self-made the application effect of Doula pillow auxiliary fetal heart monitoring.Methods of de-livery in hospital expectant mothers 1000 cases for comparative observation of the fetal heart monitoring,homemade Douglas pillow auxiliary fetal heart monitoring application were randomly divided into observation group and control group,each of 500 cases,fetal heart monitoring using Douglas pillow auxiliary as the observation group,not as a Douglas pillow auxiliary control group.Pending maternal comfort;with the inspection effect;fetal monito-ring data of satisfaction;midwives operation simple degree as the evaluation criteria.Statistical method was used to analysis the two groups to be mater-nal comfort;with the inspection effect;fetal monitoring data Satisfaction;midwives operation simple degree has no significant difference.The two groups to

  2. Volcanology of the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California (United States)

    Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.


    The Alarcon Rise is a ~50 km long intermediate-rate (~50mm/a) spreading center at the southern end of the Gulf of California. In Spring 2012, an MBARI-led expedition to Alarcon Rise mapped a ~1.5- 3km wide swath of the ridge axis at 1-m resolution and completed 9 dives with the ROV Doc Ricketts (Clague et al., this session). Pillow, lobate, and sheet flows occur along the entire axis. An inflated zone of the axis south of the midpoint along the Rise is dominated by a large sheet/lobate flow that erupted from en echelon fissures that extends for 8 km. This flow extends laterally away from the fissures for at least 2 km and covered nearly all prior flows and pillow mounds in its path. The middle of the segment contains a 1km across flat-topped volcano, virtually unmodified by fissures and faults, which dissect a 2.5 km across shield 5 km to the north. The NE and SW parts of the axis are characterized by more abundant pillow mounds and less voluminous sheet flows. Many of the pillow mounds, especially those in the northern third of the axis are small, steep sided mounds. Examination of sand and slit sized fractions of the basal cm of 87 cores collected by the ROV shows that basaltic pyroclasts with fluidal or bubble-wall (limu o Pele) morphologies are ubiquitous along the entire ridge. A rugged dome-like structure about 0.5x1.2kmx75m tall occurs about 9 km from the northern end of the ridge axis. Its crest is at a depth of 2330 m. Linear ridge-parallel faults and ridges cross-cut or terminate into the dome. These ridges extend several km both NE and SW along strike from the dome. Extensive sampling during two ROV dives shows that the entire dome is constructed of coarse blocky breccia and minor lineated flows of rhyolite. Dacite, andesite, and basaltic andesite flows occur on adjacent slopes to the north, south and west, and exhibit medium- to large-diameter pillow morphologies. Many of these flows and the flanks of the dome are mantled by abundant coarse- to fine

  3. Preparation for the Proof of Concept Flight of the Veggie Plant Growth Chamber (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Morrow, Robert; Hummerick, Mary; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond


    Veggie is a small plant growth chamber designed and built by ORBITEC that will fly to the International Space Station on SpaceX-3, scheduled for the summer of 2013. Ultimately Veggie will be used for research, education and outreach, and crew recreation. We want to demonstrate the functionality of this hardware by testing a scenario that could allow the crew to grow and consume fresh vegetables. Veggie will be collapsed and transported flat in a cargo transfer bag, and deployed on orbit, where it will be installed in an EXPRESS rack. The chamber consists of three subsystems: an LED light cap, a transparent bellows, and a root mat reservoir assembly. The bellows and flexible support arms allow the distance between plants and light cap to be adjusted for different ages and types of plants. Researchers at Kennedy Space Center and ORBITEC have been working to develop the plant growth interfaces for the proof of concept flight. We have developed a rooting pillow, consisting of a small bag containing media, time release fertilizer, seeds, and a wicking surface to conduct water from the root mat reservoir. Prototype pillows have been tested and results have influenced the design of flight pillows, which will be modified for microgravity from flight-approved materials. Several studies have been conducted selecting species and comparing media types in analog systems. Water content seems to be the most important factor differentiating media types in these small growth volumes (100 mL). Media type also influenced microbial levels on plants. Since produce sanitizing agents are not currently approved for growing food crops on orbit, plants and media types having very low microbial levels are being selected. Lettuce, mizuna, and other salad greens typically have microbial counts less than 10(exp 4) colony forming units and thus are good candidates for spaceflight. As we approach flight verification testing, we will finalize species, media selection, harvesting, and microbial

  4. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F. Raith


    Full Text Available At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium–magnesium salts (K-Mg salts carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt

  5. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent


    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  6. Geochemistry and petrology of andesites from the north rift zone of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Smithka, I. N.; Perfit, M. R.; Clague, D. A.; Wanless, V. D.


    In 2013, the ROV Doc Ricketts onboard R/V Western Flyer explored ~4 km of an elongate pillow ridge up to ~300 m high along the eastern edge of the north rift zone of Axial Seamount. The steep-sided volcanic ridge is constructed of large pillow lavas up to 2-3 m in diameter and smaller elongated pillow tubes. Of the 27 samples collected during dive D526, all but one are andesites making it one of the largest confirmed high-silica exposures along a mid-ocean ridge (MOR). Based on radiocarbon ages of sediment on top of flows, the mounds are at least ~1390 years old. This minimum age is much younger than the 56 Ka age calculated based on distance from the rift axis, indicating eruption off-axis through older, colder crust and supporting the hypothesis and model calculations that extensive fractional crystallization (>85%) caused the high silica content. The andesitic lavas are primarily glassy, highly vesicular, crusty, and sparsely phyric with small (~1 mm) plagioclase crystals and olivine, clinopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide microphenocrysts. Microprobe analyses of glasses are similar to wax-core samples previously collected from this area but are more compositionally variable. Excluding one basalt (7.7 wt% MgO) sampled between mounds, the lavas are basaltic andesites and andesites (53-59 wt% SiO2) with <3 wt% MgO and 12.8-15.7 wt% FeO concentrations. Incompatible trace element abundances are ~4-6 times more enriched than in Axial Seamount T-MORB. Primitive mantle-normalized patterns are similar to those of high-silica lavas from other MORs (southern Juan de Fuca Ridge, 9N East Pacific Rise) with significant positive U anomalies, large negative Sr anomalies, small negative Eu anomalies, and slight positive Zr-Hf anomalies. The andesites are more enriched in light rare earth elements than basalts from Axial Seamount ((La/Yb)N 1.35-1.4 vs. 0.7-1.27) and N-MORB from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The andesites also have high Cl (~0.3-0.6 wt%) and H2O (~1.60-1.71 wt

  7. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore


    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  8. Internal deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts. Structures formed by complex deformation and high contrasts in viscosity observed in drill cores. (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    During the evaporation of a massive salt body, alternations of interrupted and full evaporation sequences can form a complex layering of different lithologies. Viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude between these different lithologies are possible in this environment. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. How up to 200m thick layers of these evaporites affect salt deformation at different scales is not well known. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt. To gain a better understanding of the internal deformation of these layers we analyzed K-Mg salt rich drill cores out of the Zechstein III-1b subunit from the Veendam Pillow 10 km southeast of Groningen, near the city Veendam in the NE Netherlands. The study area has a complex geological history with multiple tectonic phases of extension and compression forming internal deformation in the pillow but also conserving most of the original layering. Beside halite the most common minerals in the ZIII-1b are carnallite, kieserite, anhydrite and bischofite alternating in thin layers of simple composition. Seismic interpretation revealed that the internal structure of the Veendam Pillow shows areas, in which the K-Mg salt rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, as a result of salt deformation. The internal structure of the ZIII-1b on the other hand, remains unknown. The core analysis shows a strong strain concentration in the weaker Bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) and Carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) rich layers producing tectonic breccias and highly strained layers completely overprinting the original layering. Layers formed by alternating beds

  9. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.


    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL


    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  11. Feasible metabolisms in high pH springs of the Philippines. (United States)

    Cardace, Dawn; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Woycheese, Kristin M; Arcilla, Carlo A


    A field campaign targeting high pH, H2-, and CH4-emitting serpentinite-associated springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to rank feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs between sampling years, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms. In all, this geochemistry-based assessment of feasible metabolisms indicates methane cycling, hydrogen oxidation, some iron and sulfur metabolisms, and ammonia oxidation are feasible reactions in this continental site of serpentinization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Lumbosacral meningomyelocele and hydrocephalus are two major congenital neurological defects in paediatric patients. METHODS We have discussed management of two cases, one of large meningomyelocele and second of massive hydrocephalus. Both cases were done successfully under general anaesthesia taking care of proper positioning. Child with meningomyelocele was positioned supine on two sand bags, creating a doughnut shaped depression to accommodate the meningomyelocele. Patient with hydrocephalus was placed on 25cms high pillow with head on a high head ring and an assistant’s hand supporting the head while intubation. RESULTS Major challenges for anaesthesiologist in these patients include airway management with proper positioning, replacement of blood and fluid losses and maintenance of body temperature.

  13. High and Low Temperature Gold Mineralizations in the Fe–Cu–Zn Sulfide Deposits of Corchia Ophiolite, Northern Italian Apennine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccarini Federica


    Full Text Available Gold has been found in the Cyprus-type volcanogenic massive sulfide ore (VMS deposits of Corchia ophiolite (Parma province, Italy in the Cantiere Donnini, Speranza and Pozzo mining sites. At Cantiere Donnini and Speranza, the mineralization occurs at the contact between pillow lava and sedimentary rocks. The Pozzo mineralization is hosted by a serpentinite. Concentrations of gold up to 3070 ppb have been reported for the Cantiere Donnini and up to 6295 ppb in the Pozzo mine. According to the field relationships, gold composition, mineralogical assemblage and sulfur isotope data, we can conclude that two different types of gold mineralization have been recognized in the Corchia ophiolite: (1 formed at low temperature in submarine environment (Cantiere Donnini and Speranza and (2 formed at high temperature in the oceanic mantle (Pozzo by segregation of an immiscible sulfide liquid.

  14. Activated charcoal suppresses breeding of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, in culture. (United States)

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Siebers, Robert; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian


    House dust mite sensitized asthmatics are advised to practice allergen avoidance. Charcoal pillows are used in Korea with unsubstantiated claims regarding their efficacy in alleviating asthma symptoms. We tested the effects of activated charcoal on breeding of house dust mites in culture. Twenty live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were inoculated, 10 replicates, on culture media containing 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% activated charcoal and incubated at 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 75%. After four weeks, the mean numbers of live house dust mites were 286, 176, 46, 16, 7, and 0 for the 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% charcoal-containing culture media, respectively. Thus, activated charcoal suppresses breeding of house dust mites and offers a new promising method for house dust mite control.

  15. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke


    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of eczema suggests the role of environmental factors triggering a genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of environmental exposures in early life and genetic predisposition on the development of eczema before age 3 years. METHODS...... assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat...... and dog at home; feather pillow; nicotine in infant's hair; and temperature and humidity in bedroom. RESULTS: Eczema developed in 43.5% of the infants. Filaggrin mutation (odds ratio [OR], 3.20; 95% CI, 1.46-7.02; P = .004), mother's eczema (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63; P

  16. Growth and preservation of subsurface bio-signatures in submarine volcanic glass (United States)

    Banerjee, N.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Furnes, H.


    We suggest that an unlikely substrate, altered submarine basalt, may preserve early biomarkers. Basalts are likely to be returned by any extra-terrestrial sample return mission and should be assessed for their potential in recording and preserving biological traces. Bioalteration of MORB glass in sub-seasurface pillow rims and tuffs has been documented. Petrographic evience of fossil microbial alteration is seen in two textures: tubular and granular. Tubular textures are characterized by micron-scale, tubular to vermicular, channel-like features and branching bodies extending into fresh glass. Granular textures appear as solid bands, semicircles or irregular patches of individual and/or coalesced spherical bodies with irregular protrusions into fresh glass. These textures are observed to extend away from fractures and grain boundaries, where liquid water was once present, into fresh glass. Detailed SEM imaging of these features in thin sections and on grain mounts of freshly exposed surfaces have revealed complex channels, delicate filament-like structures, and material resembling desiccated biofilm. The channels are highly convoluted and are occasionally filled with clay minerals, probably smectite. X-ray element maps show elevated levels of C, N, P, and K associated with the microbial alteration features. Micron sized grains of iron sulphides have also been identified at the margin of some of these features, possibly resulting from reduction of seawater sulphate by microbes. Carbon isotope ratios of disseminated carbonate in microbially altered volcanic glass are variably depleted by as much as -20 per mil, suggesting biologic fractionation. We have also treated samples with nucleic acid stains that specifically bind to DNA and RNA revealing DNA/RNA associated with areas of suspected microbial alteration. However, the evolutionary history of glass bioalteration or its preservability in the geological record is not known. We searched for evidence of ancient

  17. Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.


    The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

  18. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Høy; Permin, Anders;


    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out...... to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery...... pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys....

  19. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment. (United States)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Andersen, Leif Percival


    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys.

  20. Isotopic evidence for multiple contributions to felsic magma chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Wiebe, R.A.; Krogstad, E.J.


    by contemporaneous mafic magmas; the transition between the two now preserved as a zone of chilled mafic sheets and pillows in granite. Mafic components have highly variably isotopic compositions as a result of contamination either at depth or following injection into the magma chamber. Intermediate dikes...... with identical isotopic compositions to more mafic dikes suggest that closed system fractionation may be occurring in deeper level chambers prior to injection to shallower levels. The granitic portion of the pluton has the highest Nd isotopic composition (eNd=+3.0) of plutons in the region whereas the mafic...... lithologies have Nd isotopic compositions (eNd=+3.5) that are the lowest in the region and similar to the granite and suggestive of prolonged interactions and homogenization of the two components. Sr and Nd isotopic data for felsic enclaves are inconsistent with previously suggested models of diffusional...

  1. Composition and formation of Palaeozoic Erlangping ophiolitic slab, North Qinling: Evidence from geology and geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勇; 卢欣祥; 韩松; 张国伟


    The analyses based on the protolith formation, metamorphic and deformation reveal that the Erlangping Group is composed of different lithological slices, without any significance in stratigraphy. It is therefore to discard the Erlangping Group into the Damiao slab, the Erlangping ophiolitic slab and the Xiaozhai slab. The Erlangping ophiolitic slab only includes the former Huoshenmiao Formation and it is mainly composed of massive basalts, pillow basalts, sheet dikes, gabbro and a few of ultramafic intrusions with patches of plagiogranite, overlain by radiolarian silicolites. A lot of microfossils were discovered in the silicolites that mark the Erlangping ophiolitic slab mainly formed in the Early to Middle Ordovician. In geochemistry, most of the basalts and diabase dikes are consistent with N-MORB except a few of samples effected by alteration. The Erlangping ophiolitic slab represents a remnant piece of ancient ocean crust which is most suitable to a back-arc basin setting. A mean 207Pb/206Pb age of

  2. Feasible Metabolic Schema Associated with High pH Springs in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A field campaign targeting high pH springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to evaluate feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms.

  3. Imaging designs of occipitocervical fusion for reversed transplantation of occipital outer plate flap%枕骨外板翻转行枕颈融合术的影像学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 王文军


    Objective By analyzing and measuring adult pillow neck midline sagittal CT image data and to investigate preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap. Methods Ninety pillow neck sagittal CT image datas from the patients un-derwent CT examination in Hengyang Center Hospital from August to November in 2013 were conducted preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap by method A(through 1 cm above the midpoint of the trailing edge of the foramen magnum,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image)and method B(through pillow inside and outside carina midpoint,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image) respectively. It was determined the feasibility of methods A and B and to obtain preoperative imaging parameters of the flipping of the occipital outer plate through the measurement of relevant indicators of methods A and B. Results There was statistical significance between the flip ratio (desired flap length/maximum flap length available )according to method A or B and the maximum flip ratio(100%)(P0.05). There was statistical significance between methods A and B to flip the occipital outer plate for the same person(P<0.05). Conclusion Both methods A and B are feasible,and method B is better than A. Preoperative measurement of the pillow neck sagittal CT can provide imaging parameters for the intraoperative flip-ping of occipital outer plate.%目的:测量及分析成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT,探讨枕骨外板翻转的术前设计。方法选取2013年8~11月在衡阳市中心医院行CT检查的90例健康成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT影像资料,分别用甲法(经枕骨大孔后缘中点上方1 cm处作板障圆弧的切线)及乙法(经枕内外隆凸连线中点作板障圆弧的切线)进行枕骨外板翻转的术前设计,通过对2种设计相关指标的测量,比较甲、乙法的可行性及枕骨外板翻转的影像学参数。结果成人依据甲法或乙法的翻转比值(所需骨瓣长度/可获取最大

  4. An electronic communication system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients - biomed 2013. (United States)

    Murakami, Atsushi; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Patients with the disease lose their ability to speak and to use their hands as the disease progresses. We have developed a new electronic communication system that enables communication by blinking of the eyes. The system consists of a light emitting diode (LED), two silicone rubber electrodes, an electrooculogram (EOG) recorder, a microcontroller, a sound reproduction board, a pillow speaker and a low power mobile phone. The two silicone rubber electrodes record the EOG induced by blinking the eyes synchronized with LED flashing. The EOG is amplified by the EOG recorder. The microcontroller detects the blinking from the amplified EOG, and then their meanings are confirmed by voice. After that, the patient’s intention is transmitted to the nurse by a low power mobile phone so the care giver is kept in the loop.

  5. Occurrence of two myxosporean species, Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. and Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n., in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fry imported from Thailand to Europe as ornamental fish. (United States)

    Baska, Ferenc; Voronin, V N; Eszterbauer, Edit; Müller, Linda; Marton, Szilvia; Molnár, Kálmán


    Fingerlings of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a favorite food fish in South Asia, is regularly imported by European fish traders and sold in pet fish shops. In shipments from Thailand, a skin and a kidney infection of this fish caused by myxosporean parasites was found both in Hungary and Russia. In the skin of the fish, small millet-sized nodules containing great numbers of a Myxobolus species were found, while in the renal glomeruli, spores and sporogonic stages of a Hoferellus species developed. The skin-infecting species described as Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. had 15.9 x 6.6-microm-sized spores with elongated polar capsules, while the renal species described as Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n. had roundish spores with a size of 6.5 x 5.0 microm and had a characteristic pillow-like structure at its posterior end. Besides morphology, histology of infection and 18S rDNA sequences were studied.

  6. About the book by Riitta V. Lahtinen and Russ C. Palmer. The Body Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomatina I.V.


    Full Text Available The study carried out by a married couple, specialists in the sphere of deafblindness (one of whom has got an Usher syndrome, is devoted to the development of means of non-verbal communication and music perception for people with double sensory defect — deafblindness. Russ Palmer is a professional musician who had lost his hearing capacity under the influence of Usher syndrome. At present together with his wife he is inventing new ways of widening the contacts with the external world for people who found themselves in the same difficult situation. The authors of the book prove that any welfare item like a pillow or a toy balloon can sometimes dramatically change the situation for better.

  7. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Brazinski


    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  8. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole (United States)

    Morin, R.H.


    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  9. Estructura y organización de las coladas submarinas: características de las lavas almohadilladas de edad cretácica que afloran en la Cordillera Vasco- Cantábrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, A.


    Full Text Available In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, an important submarine volcanic activity of alkaline character was developed during the upper Cretaceous. This vulcanism was related to a rift and/or transform fault in the continental crust associated to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. Pillow lava flows are noteworthy among the other volcanic materials by their volume and excellent preservation state. The lava flows are formed by the pile up of small flow-and cooling units, i.e. tubes or lava tubes, characterized by: i coarse cylindrical morphology with abundant constrictions, ii diameter less than 1 meter in a transversal section, iii smooth or striated surface, iv concentric and/or radial internal structure, and iv the branches and direction changes during the outflow. Lava flows/tubes shape and surface characteristics depend on the viscosity, effusion rate and the thickness of quenched crust during growth. The Tubes are moted directly on feeder dykes or are connected in tabular flows. The expanding and advancement of the tubes was the result of stretching or breaking of the quenched surface crust and spreading of the molten lava from the interior. Stretching features and cracks appear mainly at the flow front, but lobes of lava developed from the top and the flanks of the tubes are not uncommon. Only scarce pillowed lavas are truly isolated magma sacks separated from their sources. Related to the tabular flows and the biggest pillow lavas, some breccias were occasionally formed by the gravitational collapse of the roof of the draining tunnels.Durante el Cretácico superior se desarrolló en la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica una importante actividad volcánica submarina de naturaleza alcalina. Este vulcanismo estuvo relacionado con el funcionamiento de un rift y/o una falla transformante en corteza continental asociado a la apertura del Atlántico Norte. Entre los productos volcánicos destacan, por su notable volumen y excelente grado de preservación, las

  10. Metamorphic fluid flow in the northeastern part of the 3.8-3.7 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt (SW Greenland): A re-evalution of fluid inclusion evidence for early Archean seafloor-hydrothermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijlen, Wouter; Appel, P. W. U.; Frezzotti, M. L.;


    segregations showed that they were affected by variable recrystallization which controlled their fluid inclusion content. The oldest unaltered fluid inclusions found are present in vein crystals that survived dynamic and static recrystallization. These crystals contain a cogenetic, immiscible assemblage of CO2......-NaCl (0.2-3.7 eq. wt% NaCl.) These successive fluid inclusion assemblages record a retrograde P-T evolution close to a geothermal gradient of similar to 30 degrees C/km, but also indicate fluid pressure variations and the introduction of highly reducing fluids at similar to 200-300 degrees C and 0......Fluid inclusions in quartz globules and quartz veins of a 3.8-3.7 Ga old, well-preserved pillow lava breccia in the northeastern Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB) were studied using microthermometry, Raman spectrometry and SEM Cathodoluminescence Imaging. Petrographic study of the different quartz...

  11. Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks in the Khabr-Marvast Tectonized Ophiolite: Evidence for Subduction Processes in the South-Western Margin of Central Iranian Microcontinent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Late Cretaceous Khabr-Marvast tectonized ophiolite is located in the middle part of the Nain-Baft ophiolite belt, at the south-western edge of the central Iranian microcontinent. Although all the volcanic rocks in the study area indicate subduction-related magmatism (e.g. high LILE (large ion lithophile elements)/ HFSE (high field strenght elements) ratios and negative anomalies in Nb and Ta), geological and geochemical data clearly distinguish two distinct groups of volcanic rocks in the tectonized association: (1) group 1 is comprised of hyaloclustic breccias, basaltic pillow iavas, and andesite sheet flows. These rocks represent the Nain-Baft oceanic crust; and (2) group 2 is alkaline iavas from the top section of the ophiolite suite. These lavas show shoshonite affinity, but do not support the propensity of ophiolite.

  12. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashima Saikia; Bibhuti Gogoi; Mansoor Ahmad; Talat Ahmad


    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, crosscutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  13. Validating reconstruction of snow water equivalent in California's Sierra Nevada using measurements from the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory (United States)

    Bair, Edward H.; Rittger, Karl; Davis, Robert E.; Painter, Thomas H.; Dozier, Jeff


    Accurately estimating basin-wide snow water equivalent (SWE) is the most important unsolved problem in mountain hydrology. Models that rely on remotely sensed inputs are especially needed in ranges with few surface measurements. The NASA Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) provides estimates of SWE at 50 m spatial resolution in several basins across the Western U.S. during the melt season. Primarily, water managers use this information to forecast snowmelt runoff into reservoirs; another impactful use of ASO measurements lies in validating and improving satellite-based snow estimates or models that can scale to whole mountain ranges, even those without ground-based measurements. We compare ASO measurements from 2013 to 2015 to four methods that estimate spatially distributed SWE: two versions of a SWE reconstruction method, spatial interpolation from snow pillows and courses, and NOAA's Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS). SWE reconstruction downscales energy forcings to compute potential melt, then multiplies those values by satellite-derived estimates of fractional snow-covered area to calculate snowmelt. The snowpack is then built in reverse from the date the snow is observed to disappear. The two SWE reconstruction models tested include one that employs an energy balance calculation of snowmelt, and one that combines net radiation and degree-day approaches to estimate melt. Our full energy balance model, without ground observations, performed slightly better than spatial interpolation from snow pillows, having no systematic bias and 26% mean absolute error when compared to SWE from ASO. Both reconstruction models and interpolation were more accurate than SNODAS.

  14. Indian Ocean-MORB-type isotopic signature of Yushigou ophiolite in North Qilian Mountains and its implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qingye; ZHAO Zhidan; ZHANG Hongfei; ZHANG Benren; CHEN Yuelong


    In order to explore the disputed issue concerning the tectonic affinity of the ancient ocean mantle of North Qilian Mountains (NQM), geochemical and Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic compositions of pillow basalts of the Yushigou Ophiolite (YSGO) suite from NQM have been analyzed systematically. The pillow basalts exhibit tholeiitic characteristics, with flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 0.98―1.27). They display no Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf negative anomalies, and show MORB features in 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and Ti/100-Zr-Y×3 tectonic discrimination diagrams. These results indicate that the Yushigou ophiolite is most likely to be formed in a mid-ocean ridge or mature back-arc basin. Their isotopic data show a relatively broad and enriched 87Sr/86Sr (0.70509―0.70700), restricted 143Nd/144Nd (0.512955―0.512978). Pb isotopes are in the range of 206Pb/204Pb (18.054―20.562), 207Pb/204Pb (15.537―15.743) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.068―38.530). These isotopic data imply that the basalts originated from the depleted mantle (DMM), with the involvement of enriched mantle components (mainly EMII). Geochemical comparisons between the basalts in YSGO and the MORB-type basalts of ophiolite suites occurring in the known ancient Tethyan tectonic domain indicate that the ancient oceanic mantle represented by YSGO suite forming in early Paleozoic in the North Qilian Moutains is very similar to the Tethyan mantle in both trace elements and isotopic compositions. The North Qilian Mountains should be a part of the Tethyan tectonic domain in early Paleozoic. This further implies that the Tethyan tectonic domain can be deduced to early Paleozoic in the study area, which will be helpful to discussing the tectonic affinity and evolution of the North Qilian Mountains.

  15. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  16. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation - Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates (United States)

    Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Rice, F. J.; Kraft, N. C.; Taylor, S. C.; Lillo, M.; Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G. A.


    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008-2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm2 peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm3 peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  17. Subduction-related oceanic crust in the Khantaishir ophiolite (western Mongolia). (United States)

    Gianola, O.; Schmidt, M. W.; Jagoutz, O. E.


    Most of the oceanic crust is generated at mid oceanic ridges and only a minor portion results from magmatism related to subduction zones (i.e. back-arc basins or in incipient arcs). However it has been observed that several ophiolites preserve an oceanic crust displaying a subduction zone signature. Such a signature is also found in the Khantaishir ophiolite located in western Mongolia. This ~570 m.y. old ophiolite is ~480 km2 in size and displays a complete sequence, tectonically slightly dismembered during the emplacement process. The ophiolite exposes ~130 km2 of highly refractory harzburgitic mantle with local dunite channels and lenses. Towards its top the mantle is replaced by sub-horizontal km-wide discrete zones of pyroxenites situated either in the mantle or forming a crust-mantle transition zone overlain by gabbros. The crust is then composed of various gabbros and minor gabbronorite (both in part replaced by pyroxenites and/or cut by intermediate dykes), by a dyke/sill-complex and by pillow lavas. The entire ophiolite is re-equilibrated at lower greenschist facies conditions. Major and trace elements of the crustal rocks of the Khantaishir ophiolite show trends similar to those observed for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Mafic dykes/sills and pillow lavas of the Khantaishir ophiolite have overall basaltic-andesite compositions, resembling high-Mg andesites with an average SiO2 of 57 wt%. Their low TiO2 (high-Mg andesites and boninites from modern island arcs. This evidence suggests that the Kantaishir crust might represent the submarine initial stage of an incipient arc, probably when the preexisting oceanic crust is spread and incipient island arc crust is formed.

  18. Volcano-sedimentary processes operating on a marginal continental arc: the Archean Raquette Lake Formation, Slave Province, Canada (United States)

    Mueller, W. U.; Corcoran, P. L.


    The 200-m thick, volcano-sedimentary Raquette Lake Formation, located in the south-central Archean Slave Province, represents a remnant arc segment floored by continental crust. The formation overlies the gneissic Sleepy Dragon Complex unconformably, is laterally interstratified with subaqueous mafic basalts of the Cameron River volcanic belt, and is considered the proximal equivalent of the turbidite-dominated Burwash Formation. A continuum of events associated with volcanism and sedimentation, and controlled by extensional tectonics, is advocated. A complex stratigraphy with three volcanic and three sedimentary lithofacies constitute the volcano-sedimentary succession. The volcanic lithofacies include: (1) a mafic volcanic lithofacies composed of subaqueous pillow-pillow breccia, and subaerial massive to blocky flows, (2) a felsic volcanic lithofacies representing felsic flows that were deposited in a subaerial environment, and (3) a felsic volcanic sandstone lithofacies interpreted as shallow-water, wave- and storm-reworked pyroclastic debris derived from explosive eruptions. The sedimentary lithofacies are represented by: (1) a conglomerate-sandstone lithofacies consistent with unconfined debris flow, hyperconcentrated flood flow and talus scree deposits, as well as minor high-energy stream flow conglomerates that formed coalescing, steep-sloped, coarse-clastic fan deltas, (2) a sandstone lithofacies, interpreted as hyperconcentrated flood flow deposits that accumulated at the subaerial-subaqueous interface, and (3) a mudstone lithofacies consistent with suspension sedimentation in a small restricted lagoon-type setting. The Raquette Lake Formation is interpreted as a fringing continental arc that displays both high-energy clastic sedimentation and contemporaneous effusive and explosive mafic and felsic volcanism. Modern analogues that develop along active plate margins in which continental crust plays a significant role include Japan and the Baja California

  19. Paleo-Pacific subduction-accretion: Evidence from Geochemical and U-Pb zircon dating of the Nadanhada accretionary complex, NE China (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Bo; Cao, Jia-Lin; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Bin


    The Nadanhada Terrane, located along the eastern margin of Eurasia, contains a typical accretionary complex related to paleo-Pacific plate subduction-accretion. The Yuejinshan Complex is the first stage accretion complex that consists of meta-clastic rocks and metamafic-ultramafic rocks, whereas the Raohe Complex forms the main parts of the terrane and consists of limestone, bedded chert, and mafic-ultramafic rocks embedded as olistolith blocks in a weakly sheared matrix of clastic meta-sedimentary rocks. Geochemical data indicate that the Yuejinshan metabasalts have normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) affinity, whereas the Raohe basaltic pillow lavas have an affinity to ocean island basalts (OIB). Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon analyses of gabbro in the Raohe Complex yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age of 216 ± 5 Ma, whereas two samples of granite intruded into the complex yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon ages of 128 ± 2 and 129 ± 2 Ma. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) U-Pb zircon analyses of basaltic pillow lava in the Raohe Complex define a weighted mean age of 167 ± 1 Ma. Two sandstone samples in the Raohe Complex record younger concordant zircon weighted mean ages of 167 ± 17 and 137 ± 3 Ma. These new data support the view that accretion of the Raohe Complex was between 170 and 137 Ma, and that final emplacement of the Raohe Complex took place at 137-130 Ma. The accretion of the Yuejinshan Complex probably occurred between the 210 and 180 Ma, suggesting that paleo-Pacific plate subduction was initiated in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

  20. Alteration of Crystalline and Glassy Basaltic Protolith by Seawater as Recorded by Drill Core and Drill Cutting Samples (United States)

    Fowler, A. P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.


    The major and trace element composition of hydrothermally altered basaltic drill core and drill cutting samples from the seawater recharged Reykjanes geothermal system in Iceland are compared to unaltered surface flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula compiled from the literature. Trace element characteristics of deep (>2000 m) core samples record bimodal compositions similar to trace element enriched and trace element depleted Reykjanes Ridge basalts. Drill cuttings (350-3000 m) overwhelmingly reflect the more common trace element enriched igneous precursor. Crystalline protoliths (dolerite dykes and pillow lava cores) are depleted in Cs, Rb, K, and Ba (± Pb and Th) relative to an unaltered equivalent, despite variations in the extent of alteration ranging from from minor chloritization with intact igneous precursor minerals through to extensive chloritization and uralitization. Glassy protoliths (dyke margins, pillow edges, and hyaloclastites) show similar depletions of Cs, Rb, K, and Ba, but also show selective depletions of the light rare earth elements (LREE) La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Eu due to extensive recrystallization to hydrothermal hornblende. Lower grade alteration shows less pronounced decoupling of LREE and is likely controlled by a combination of Cl complexation in the seawater-derived recharge fluid, moderated by anhydrite and epidote precipitation. These results suggest that alteration of glassy protolith in seawater-recharged systems is an important contribution to the consistently light rare earth and Eu enriched patterns observed in seafloor hydrothermal fluids from basaltic systems. An important conclusion of this study is that that drill cuttings samples are strongly biased toward unaltered rock and more resistant alteration minerals including epidote and quartz potentially resulting in misidentification of lithology and extent of alteration.

  1. HSDP II Drill Core: Preliminary Rock Strength Results and Implications to Flank Stability, Mauna Kea Volcano (United States)

    Thompson, N.; Watters, R. J.; Schiffman, P.


    Selected portions of the 3-km HSDP II core were tested to provide unconfined rock strength data from hyaloclastite alteration zones and pillow lavas. Though the drilling project was not originally intended for strength purpose, it is believed the core can provide unique rock strength insights into the flank stability of the Hawaiian Islands. The testing showed that very weak rock exists in the hyaloclastite abundant zones in the lower 2-km of the core with strength dependent on the degree of consolidation and type of alteration. Walton and Schiffman identified three zones of alteration, an upper incipient alteration zone (1080-1335m), a smectitic zone (1405-1573m) and a lower palagonitic zone from about 1573 m to the base of the core. These three zones were sampled and tested together with pillow lava horizons for comparison. Traditional cylindrical core was not available as a consequence of the entire core having been split lengthwise for archival purposes. Hence, point load strength testing was utilized which provides the unconfined compressive strength on irregular shaped samples. The lowest unconfined strengths were recorded from incipient alteration zones with a mean value of 9.5 MPa. Smectitic alteration zones yielded mean values of 16.4 MPa, with the highest measured alteration strengths from the palagonite zones with a mean value of 32.1 MPa. As anticipated, the highest strengths were from essentially unaltered lavas with a mean value of 173 MPa. Strength variations of between one to two orders of magnitude were identified in comparing the submarine hyaloclastite with the intercalated submarine lavas. The weakest zones within the hyaloclastites may provide horizons for assisting flank collapse by serving as potential thrust zones and landslide surfaces.

  2. Isotopic contrasts within the Internal Liguride ophiolite (N. Italy): the lack of a genetic mantle-crust link (United States)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid


    It is widely accepted that oceanic lithosphere is generated by partial melting of fertile mantle peridotites producing basaltic melts and residual peridotites. This theory implies a cogenetic relationship between peridotites and associated crustal rocks, but the actual existence of such a genetic link has been tested in very few places. In this paper, we use Sr and Nd isotopes to test the relationship between mafic and ultramafic mantle rocks from a MORB-type ophiolite in the Internal Liguride Units of the Northern Apennines. This ophiolite is a remnant of the oceanic lithosphere of the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys, and consists of depleted mantle peridotites intruded by a gabbroic complex and covered by pillow lavas and ophiolitic breccias. Whole rocks and mineral separates from the gabbroic rocks yield a Sm-Nd isochron with an age of 164±14 Ma. The whole rock data for pillow lavas are also consistent with this isochron, yielding an initial value of ɛ Nd (164)=8.6±0.3 (1σ). The mantle peridotites, by contrast, have ɛ Nd(164) values ranging from 11.9 to 14.8, indicating an extreme depletion unlike that seen in modern oceanic mafic and ultramafic rocks. These results demonstrate that some ophiolites consist of mantle and crustal sections that are not genetically linked by a simple melt-residue relationship, and consequently do not represent mature oceanic lithosphere. Similar evidence has previously been available only from the Xigaze and Trinity ophiolites. The Internal Liguride peridotites yield Sm-Nd model ages of about 270 Ma, assuming a normally depleted mantle source with ɛ Nd = 9, indicating a Permian time of `extra' depletion. The ophiolite thus consists of mantle peridotites which were depleted during Permian time, and were later intruded and covered by MORB-type magmas during Jurassic time. On a regional scale, this interpretation is consistent with widespread evidence that extensional processes leading to asthenospheric upwelling and magma production

  3. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (United States)

    Saikia, Ashima; Gogoi, Bibhuti; Ahmad, Mansoor; Ahmad, Talat


    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, cross-cutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  4. Application of airborne LiDAR to the detailed geological mapping of mineralised terrain: the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus (United States)

    Grebby, S.; Cunningham, D.; Naden, J.; Tansey, K.


    forest cover. To examine the efficacy of LiDAR in mineral exploration, an airborne survey was flown over approximately 375 km2 of the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus—a region noted for its volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS)-style mineralisation. Although most commonly found at the Lower Pillow Lava-Upper Pillow Lava interface, sulphide mineralisation occurs throughout the pillow lava sequence. Therefore, accurate identification of geological contacts is a key parameter for VMS exploration in the Troodos complex. However, the existing geological maps, produced using a combination of conventional field mapping and aerial photograph interpretation, have significant differences and do not adequately represent the geological complexity in high detail. In this study, we present a semi-automated algorithm for the detailed lithological mapping of a 16 km2 study area using high-resolution (4 m) airborne LiDAR topographic data in which non-ground features such as trees and buildings have been removed (i.e., bare-earth). Differences in the geomorphological characteristics of each major lithological unit result in each unit having a distinctive topographic signature in the bare-earth LiDAR DEM. Thematic maps (slope, curvature and surface roughness) are derived from the LiDAR DEM in order to quantify the topographic signatures associated with each lithological unit. With the thematic maps as the input layers, Kohonen's Self-Organising Map is used as a supervised artificial neural network to assign each pixel to a lithology to produce a geological map. The algorithm successfully identifies the major lithological units—Basal Group (> 50 % dykes and < 50 % pillow lavas), pillow lavas, alluvium and Lefkara Formation (chalks and marls)—in excellent detail and highlights geological features to a 20 m resolution. Although the ability to distinguish between lithologies in some areas is affected by anthropogenic activity (e.g., farming), the resultant lithological map easily surpasses the

  5. Products of Submarine Fountains and Bubble-burst Eruptive Activity at 1200 m on West Mata Volcano, Lau Basin (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Rubin, K. H.; Keller, N. S.


    An eruption was observed and sampled at West Mata Volcano using ROV JASON II for 5 days in May 2009 during the NSF-NOAA eruption response cruise to this region of suspected volcanic activity. Activity was focused near the summit at the Prometheus and Hades vents. Prometheus erupted almost exclusively as low-level fountains. Activity at Hades cycled between vigorous degassing, low fountains, and bubble-bursts, building up and partially collapsing a small spatter/scoria cone and feeding short sheet-like and pillow flows. Fire fountains at Prometheus produced mostly small primary pyroclasts that include Pele's hair and fluidal fragments of highly vesicular volcanic glass. These fragments have mostly shattered and broken surfaces, although smooth spatter-like surfaces also occur. As activity wanes, glow in the vent fades, and denser, sometimes altered volcanic clasts are incorporated into the eruption. The latter are likely from the conduit walls and/or vent-rim ejecta, drawn back into the vent by inrushing seawater that replaces water entrained in the rising volcanic plume. Repeated recycling of previously erupted materials eventually produces rounded clasts resembling beach cobbles and pitted surfaces on broken phenocrysts of pyroxene and olivine. We estimate that roughly 33% of near vent ejecta are recycled. Our best sample of this ejecta type was deposited in the drawer of the JASON II ROV during a particularly large explosion that occurred during plume sampling immediately above the vent. Elemental sulfur spherules up to 5 mm in diameter are common in ejecta from both vents and occur inside some of the lava fragments Hades activity included dramatic bubble-bursts unlike anything previously observed under water. The lava bubbles, sometimes occurring in rapid-fire sequence, collapsed in the water-column, producing fragments that are quenched in less than a second to form Pele's hair, limu o Pele, spatter-like lava blobs, and scoria. All are highly vesicular

  6. 神经内科多重感染患者病原学及其病房环境特征的分析%Etiology and indoor environment characteristics of multiple-infection patients in neurological department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段海丽; 元小冬; 许亚茹


    目的 通过对神经内科住院患者多重感染的病原学及其病房环境主要微生物学特征的分析,有针对性地进行预防与控制医院感染的发生.方法 选取2009年4月-2010年9月某三甲医院神经内科住院患者为监测对象,对发生感染患者进行病原学检查,并对其所住病房的空气和床单位等进行微生物学监测.结果 神经内科住院患者2481例中感染110例占4.43%,多重感染42例,占感染患者的38.18%;以下呼吸道感染为主占76.92%;检出病原菌主要为铜绿假单胞菌占24.73%、肺炎克雷伯菌占19.35%;病房空气和床单位中以藤黄微球菌、表皮葡萄球菌等革兰阳性球菌为主,并检测到大肠埃希菌、鲍氏不动杆菌等少量条件致病菌;其中3例多重感染患者,在病房的空气、枕头、棉被中同时检测出表皮葡萄球菌,1例多重感染患者同时检测到大肠埃希菌.结论 神经内科多重感染患者的病原菌和病房空气及床单位中微生物分布具有明显的一致性,病房空气及床单位环境中的微生物是医院感染的主要病原菌.%OBJECTIVE To prevent and control nosocomial infection by analyzing characteristics of etiology and microbiology in indoor environment of patients complicating multiple infections in neurological department. METHODS The inpatients in neurological department in a hospitals from Apr 2009 to Sep 2010 were studied. The etiological examination for patients with infection and microbiological monitoring for the air and drapes (pillow, quilt) were performed. RESULTS Of 2481 inpatients in department of neurology, totally 110 cases were found with infection, and the infection rate was 4. 43%. Of the 110 cases, 42 cases were found with multiple infections, accounting for 38. 18% of the infection patients. Low respiratory tract (76. 92%) was the major infection site. The main pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24. 73%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (19. 35

  7. Archean hydrothermal oceanic floor sedimentary environments: DXCL drilling project of the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, Pilbara, Australia (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Suganuma, Y.


    Many place in Archean greenstone belts have been reported of the black chert to Iron rich sediments above volcanic sequence. The chemical sedimentary sequence has been recognized to form by as hydrothermal siliceous sequence. These sediments contain the hint to understand the Archean ocean and earth surface environments. Here, we will focus the Dixon Island and Cleaverville formations, which are one of the best preserved Archean hydrothermal sedimentary sequence in the world, to recognized detail stratigraphy and restored deep ocean environment. We did scientific drilling, which is called ‘DXCL drilling project’, at 2007 summer. This drilling project had been selected two coastal sites; CL site at lower part of the Cleaverville Formation, and another is DX site at the upper Dixon Island Formation. A systematic combinations of geological, sedimentological, geochemical, and geobiological approaches will be applied to the fresh samples. Here we will show the recent result of this sequence, which will be key evidence to understand the nature of the middle Archean (3.2 Ga) marine environment influenced by hydrothermal activity. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island -Cleaverville formations composed of volcanic rock units and chemical-volcanosedimentary sequence which are identified by accreted immature island arc setting. The ~350m-thick Dixon Island Formation which is overlie by pillow basalt consists mainly of highly silicified volcanic-siliceous sequences that contain apparent microbial mats and bacterial fossil-like structure within black chert and also includes a komatiite-rhyolite sequences bearing hydrothermal veins. The >300m-thick Cleaverville Formation, which conformably overlay pillow basalt, contains a thick unit of reddish shale, bedded red-white chert and banded iron formation. It partly contains chert fragments-bearing pyroclastic beds. In detail lithology from the drill cores, the CL and DX contain different type of organic rocks. The CL 1 and CL2 core samples

  8. Earthquake-related Tectonic Deformation of Soft-sediments and Its Constraints on Basin Tectonic Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hongbo; ZHANG Yuxu; ZHANG Qiling; XIAO Jiafei


    The authors introduced two kinds of newly found soft-sediment deformation-syn-sedimentary extension structure and syn-sedimentary compression structure, and discuss their origins and constraints on basin tectonic evolution. One representative of the syn-sedimentary extension structure is syn-sedimentary boudinage structure, while the typical example of the syn-sedimentary compression structure is compression sand pillows or compression wrinkles. The former shows NW-SE-trending contemporaneous extension events related to earthquakes in the rift basin near a famous Fe-Nb-REE deposit in northern China during the Early Paleozoic (or Mesoproterozoic as proposed by some researches), while the latter indicates NE-SW-trending contemporaneous compression activities related to earthquakes in the Middle Triassic in the Nanpanjiang remnant basin covering south Guizhou, northwestern Guangxi and eastern Yunnan in southwestern China. The syn-sedimentary boudinage structure was found in an earthquake slump block in the lower part of the Early Paleozoic Sailinhudong Group, 20 km to the southeast of Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, north of China. The slump block is composed of two kinds of very thin layers-pale-gray micrite (microcrystalline limestone) of 1-2 cm thick interbedded with gray muddy micrite layers with the similar thickness. Almost every thin muddy micrite layer was cut into imbricate blocks or boudins by abundant tiny contemporaneous faults, while the interbedded micrite remain in continuity. Boudins form as a response to layer-parallel extension (and/or layer-perpendicular flattening) of stiff layers enveloped top and bottom by mechanically soft layers. In this case, the imbricate blocks cut by the tiny contemporaneous faults are the result of abrupt horizontal extension of the crust in the SE-NW direction accompanied with earthquakes. Thus, the rock block is, in fact, a kind of seismites. The syn-sedimentary boudins indicate that there was at least a strong earthquake

  9. Geology of the Alarcón Rise Based on 1-m Resolution Bathymetry and ROV Observations and Sampling (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.; Portner, R. A.; Bowles, J. A.; Castillo, P. R.; Dreyer, B. M.; Guardado-France, R.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Rivera-Huerta, H.; Santa Rosa-del Rio, M.; Spelz-Madero, R.


    Alarcón Rise is a ~50 km-long segment of the northernmost East Pacific Rise, bounded on the north and south by the Pescadero and Tamayo Fracture Zones. In April 2012, the MBARI AUV D. Allan B. completed a 1.5-3.1-km wide bathymetric map along the neovolcanic zone between the two fracture zones during 10 surveys. A single AUV survey was also completed on Alarcón Seamount, a near-ridge seamount with 4 offset calderas. Bathymetric data have 1 m lateral and 0.2 m vertical resolution. The maps guided 8 dives of the ROV Doc Ricketts on the ridge and 1 on the seamount. The morphology of the rise changes dramatically along strike and includes an inflated zone, centered ~14 km from the southern end, paved by a young sheet flow erupted from an 8-km-long en echelon fissure system. A young flat-topped volcano and an older shield volcano occur near the center of the ridge segment. Areas nearer the fracture zones are mainly pillow mounds and ridges, some strongly cut by faults and fissures, but others have few structural disruptions. More than 150 of the 194 lava samples recovered from the neovolcanic zone are aphyric to plagioclase-phyric to ultraphyric N-MORB with glass MgO ranging up to 8.5%. The basal cm from 87 short cores contain common limu o Pele and adequate foramifers to provide minimum radiocarbon ages for the underlying lava flows. A rugged lava dome of rhyolite (based on glass compositions) is surrounded by large pillow flows of dacite, centered ~8 km from the north end of the Rise. Pillow flows are steeply uptilted for 2-3 km north and south of the dome, possibly reflecting intrusion of viscous rhyolitic dikes along strike. Near the southern end of this deformed zone, an andesite flow crops out in a fault scarp. Mapping data also reveal the presence of about 110 apparent hydrothermal chimney structures as tall as 18 m, scattered along roughly the central half of the Rise. Subsequent ROV dives observed 70 of these structures and found active venting at 22 of them

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Flank Stability Appraised From Strength Testing the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's (HSDP) 3.1-km Drill Core (United States)

    Thompson, N.; Watters, R. J.; Schiffman, P.


    the means of the basaltic flows, intrusive and pillow lava values. The test results imply that shallow rotational slumps that develop within the upper few kilometers of spreading Hawai'ian volcanoes within low strength, poorly-consolidated, smectite-rich hyaloclastites are similar to those we have found from the incipient and smectitic alteration zones of the HSDP cores. Deeper slumps might be directed through over-pressured pillow lava units as a result of the stronger pillow lava units permitting deeper failure surfaces to develop. Petrographically the Mauna Kea hyaloclastites appear similar to those from actively spreading Hawai'ian shield volcanoes. Alteration processes apparently affect the strength of these hyaloclastites. In the shallower zones of incipient and smectitic alteration, hyaloclastites generally retain their high primary porosities. In the deeper, palagonitic zone of alteration, the hyaloclastites gain both compressive and shear strength, primarily through consolidation and zeolitic cementation. The marked strength contrast between hyaloclastites, and the lavas that overlie and underlie them is significant, and may be a primary factor in localizing the destabilization of the flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes.

  11. Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc crust as a modern ophiolite analogue (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Tani, Kenichiro; Reagan, Mark; Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Harigane, Yumiko


    Recent geological and geophysical surveys in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc have revealed the occurrence on the seafloor of oceanic crust generated in the initial stages of subduction and embryonic island arc formation. The observed forearc section is composed of (from bottom to top): (1) mantle peridotite, (2) gabbroic rocks, (3) a sheeted dyke complex, (4) basaltic pillow lavas, (5) boninites and magnesian andesites, and (6) tholeiites and calc-alkaline arc lavas. The oldest magmatism after subduction initiation generated forearc basalts (FAB) between 52 and 48 Ma, and then boninitic and calc-alkaline lavas that collectively make up the extrusive sequence of the forearc oceanic crust. The change from FAB magmatism to flux melting and boninitic volcanism took 2-4 m.y., and the change to flux melting in counter-flowing mantle and "normal" arc magmatism took 7-8 m.y. This evolution from subduction initiation to true subduction occurred nearly simultaneously along the entire length of the IBM subduction system. One important characteristic feature of the common forearc stratigraphy in the IBM forearc is the association of sheeted dykes with basaltic pillow lavas, which strongly implies that the eruption of FAB was associated with seafloor spreading. This is supported by the seismic velocity structure of the Bonin Ridge area (Kodaira et al., 2010), showing it to have a thin ocean-ridge-like crust (spreading associated with subduction initiation along the length of the IBM forearc. A potential location of subduction nucleation along the Mesozoic-aged crust has been found along the margins of the West Philippine Basin. One possible scenario for subduction initiation at the IBM arc was that it was induced by overthrusting of the Mesozoic arc and backarc or forearc terranes bounding the east side of the Asian Plate over the Pacific Plate, followed by failure of the Pacific plate lithosphere and subduction initiation. Alternatively, subduction could have begun

  12. A New Seafloor Spreading Model of the Red Sea: Magnetic Anomalies and Plate Kinematics (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Afifi, A. M.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Muzaiyen, E.


    A high resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms the existence of consistent magnetic anomaly patterns, continuous from 16 to 24°N, and episodic up to 28°N, typical of slow to ultraslow spreading centers. The older Saudi-Sudanese aeromagnetic survey shows that these anomalies are symmetrical between 18 and 23°N. The strong, short-wavelength anomalies over the central trough south of 24°N have long been identified as Chrons 1 to 3 (0-5 Ma). By contrast, the weaker, longer-wavelength anomalies over adjacent sediment-covered areas do not fit standard magnetic anomaly models. The abrupt basement deepening from ~ 1.5 km in the central trough to ~ 5 km beneath the sediments partly accounts for the lower amplitude but not for the lack of short wavelengths. Other spreading centers also lack short-wavelength, high-amplitude magnetic anomalies where covered by thick sediments (Andaman Basin, Juan de Fuca Ridge). We interpret this to reflect the absence of a well-defined layer of pillow lavas, whose emplacement is hampered by rapid, abundant sedimentation. The formation of dykes and sills instead of extrusive lavas results in weaker, less coherent magnetization, generating longer-wavelength anomalies. We test this inference by removing the extrusive basalt contribution from a slow spreading center crustal magnetization model. The computed magnetic anomalies fit well with the shape and amplitude of the anomalies observed in the Red Sea. Two major long-wavelength anomalies are dated at 10-11 Ma (Chron 5) and 14-15 Ma (Chron 5B), implying seafloor spreading back to at least 15 Ma and constraining plate-kinematic reconstructions. Beyond being a key to the geological evolution of the Red Sea, these results emphasize that oceanic crust may exist without clear, short wavelength magnetic anomalies, particularly at the onset of seafloor spreading, when abundant sedimentation may preclude the formation of pillow lavas. The location of many

  13. Testing a new approach to differentiate oxidation degree from the primitive composition of titanomagnetites from oceanic basalts (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Almeida, Francisco; Waerenborgh, João; Madureira, Pedro; Mirão, José; Henry, Bernard; Neres, Marta; Petrovsky, Eduard


    Low-field magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature - χ(T) is one of the most powerful techniques to assess the main magnetic mineralogy of rocks from distinct geological settings. For the specific case of titanomagnetite solid solution, the dependence of Curie temperature (Tc) on their composition and oxidation degree imposes limits to the application of thermomagnetic methods as a tool to assess independently one of the variables, i.e., the pristine composition and/or quantification of the oxidation degree. In order to overcome this ambiguity several authors resorted to independent methods, like microprobe, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The study here presented seeks to establish a new approach able to correlate the oxidation degree with Tc variations of partially oxidized submarine basalts, only supported by the thermomagnetic analyses conducted between -190°C and 650°C. 40 thermomagnetic signatures were evaluated along cross-section profiles of four pillow-lavas, sampled from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and from the Terceira Rift (Azores plateau). For each one a lamellae with a thickness of 2 to 3 mm was collected along each centimeter of the profile. All the experiments were made using the same experimental conditions (atmosphere, heating rate). Our thermomagnetic curves of partially oxidized oceanic basalts are characterized by a peak of susceptibility between 300-350°C and 520-550°C, which mostly results from the inversion of the thermally metastable titanomaghemite into a complex multiphase intergrowth. From our experiments, we were able to obtain a good linear correlation (positive) between the amplitude of this peak and the Tc for each sample profile. Moreover, these results are well correlated with the oxidation degree determined by Mössbauer Spectroscopy analyses and with microscopic observations, which show an increase of oxidation degree towards the margins of the pillow lavas

  14. Plate Tectonics at 3.8-3.7 Ga: Field Evidence from the Isua Accretionary Complex, Southern West Greenland. (United States)

    Komiya; Maruyama; Masuda; Nohda; Hayashi; Okamoto


    A 1&rcolon;5000 scale mapping was performed in the Isukasia area of the ca. 3.8-Ga Isua supracrustal belt, southern West Greenland. The mapped area is divided into three units bounded by low-angle thrusts: the Northern, Middle, and Southern Units. The Southern Unit, the best exposed, is composed of 14 subunits (horses) with similar lithostratigraphy, bound by layer-parallel thrusts. Duplex structures are widespread in the Isua belt and vary in scale from a few meters to kilometers. Duplexing proceeded from south to north and is well documented in the relationship between link- and roof-thrusts. The reconstructed lithostratigraphy of each horse reveals a simple pattern, in ascending order, of greenstone with low-K tholeiitic composition with or without pillow lava structures, chert/banded iron-formation, and turbidites. The cherts and underlying low-K tholeiites do not contain continent- or arc-derived material. The lithostratigraphy is quite similar to Phanerozoic "oceanic plate stratigraphy," except for the abundance of mafic material in the turbidites. The evidence of duplex structures and oceanic plate stratigraphy indicates that the Isua supracrustal belt is the oldest accretionary complex in the world. The dominantly mafic turbidite composition suggests that the accretionary complex was formed in an intraoceanic environment comparable to the present-day western Pacific Ocean. The duplex polarity suggests that an older accretionary complex should occur to the south of the Isua complex. Moreover, the presence of seawater (documented by a thick, pillow, lava unit at the bottom of oceanic plate stratigraphy) indicates that the surface temperature was less than ca. 100 degrees C in the Early Archean. The oceanic geotherm for the Early Archean lithosphere as a function of age was calculated based on a model of transient half-space cooling at given parameters of surface and mantle temperatures of 100 degrees and 1450 degrees C, respectively, suggesting that the

  15. 便携式液压打桩机现状分析%Status Analysis of Portable Hydraulic Hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步恩; 余俊锋; 彭博


    In the flood rescue process,traditional bundle and throw wicker rock pillows, firewood pile revetment, rock?loft and other emergency technologies in emergency and rescue play significant roles. These methods require a lot of wood pipes to fasten the wicker pillows and willow branches;In highway construction project, the construction and maintenance of fences also need large amount of steel piles. So it can concluded that in a variety of rescue methods, piling is an in dispensable process.In the piling work of flood rescue,dike reinforcement before and after the flood sea?son, rivers, lakes, ponds and embankment maintenance and highway construction and maintenance, the machine in?stead of human piling operation is a technological revolution.Based on the status and principle research and review of domestic portable hammer,the technical level of domestic portable hydraulic hammers is clarified, for the view of the current shortcomings, it lies the theoretical basis for the design and development of new portable hydraulic hammers.%防洪抢险过程中,传统捆抛柳石枕、桩柴护岸、柳石楼厢等抢险技术发挥着巨大无比的作用,在这些应急抢险方法中,需要大量木桩以便固定柳枕和厢埽.在公路建设工程中,两边护栏的建设维护也需要大量钢管桩.由此可见,打桩是各种抢护方法中不可缺少的一道工序.而在抗洪抢险,汛期前后的堤防加固,维护江、湖、河、塘等堤岸以及公路建设维护的打桩作业中,由机械劳动代替人力打桩作业是一次技术性革命.本文通过对国内各类便携式打桩机现状、原理进行研究总结,明确国内便携式液压打桩机技术水平及存在的缺陷,为设计研发新型便携式液压打桩机奠定理论基础.

  16. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Mark R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  17. Faunes du Jurassique supérieur dans les séries pélagiques de l'escarpement de Malte (Mer Ionienne. Implications paléogéographiques Upper Jurassic Fauna in the Pelagic Series of the Malta Escarpment (Lonian Sea. Paleogeographic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enay R.


    Full Text Available Au cours d'une campagne de plongée sur les escarpements qui bordent le bassin Ionien profond, des roches sédimentaires d'âge jurassique supérieur ont pu être récoltées dans l'escarpement de Malte, associées à des coulées de pillow-lavas. Les faunes d'Ammonites, typiquement mésogéennes, indiquent des âges oxfordien et tithonique. Elles peuvent correspondre à un milieu de dépôt profond. Les foraminifères recueillis dans les niveaux équivalents, riches en radiolaires, sclérites d'holothuries, fragments d'aptychus et rares Ostracodes, indiquent un âge oxfordien au sens large et un milieu de dépôt relativement profond. Cette série, relativement condensée et profonde, est comparable aux séries du même âge connues en Sicile. Elle s'oppose aux séries de calcaires de plate-forme néritiques du Trias-Lias inférieur qui constituent la base de la coupe. II y a donc eu un changement radical de milieu de sédimentation entre le Lias et le Callovo-Oxfordien, accompagné d'une distension révélée par un magmatisme important. During a diving campaing along the escarpments bordering the deep lonian Basin, Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks were gathered from the Malta escarpment, associated with pillow-lava. Typically Mesogean ammonite fauna indicate Oxfordian and Tithonian ages. They correspond to a relatively deep deposition environment. The Foraminifers gathered in the equivalent levels, which proved to be rich in radiolarians, holothuroid sclerites, aptychus fragments and sparse ostracodes, indicate an Oxfordian age and a relatively deep deposition environnent. This relatively condensed and deep series can be compared with series of the same age known in Sicily. It is opposed to the Lower Triassic-Lias neritic platform limestone series making up the bottom of the section. A radical change in sedimentation thus occured between the Lias and the Callovo-Oxfordain, accompanied by a distension revealed by extensive magmatism.

  18. Liquid Immiscibility of Boninite in Xiangcheng, Southwestern China, and Its implication to Genetic Relationship between Boninite and Komatiitic Basalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Boninitic rocks and associated high-magnesian basalt and high-iron tholeiite in the Xiangcheng area constitute the basal horizon of the arc volcanic sequence in the Triassic Yidun Island-Arc, southwestern China. The boninite occurs as pillow, massive and ocellar lavas; the last one possesses well-developed globular structure and alternates with the former two. The boninite is characterized by the absence of phenocrysts of olivine and low-Ca pyroxenes and by low CaO/Al2O3 ratios (1000 ppm) and Ni (>250 ppm). The normalized abundance patterns (NAP) of trace elements to primitive mantle are similar to the NAP of low-Ca modern boninites and SHMB in the Archaean and Proterozoic. As a mechanism of ocellar texture, liquid immiscibility in boninite is supported by the following lines of evidence: (a) sharp contact between ocelli and matrix, (b) constant volumetric ratios of ocelli/matrix and common coalescence of ocelli in ocellar rocks, (c) identical micro-spinifex textures and mineral assemblages with different modal mineral contents in ocelli-matrix pairs, (d) bubbles and acicular clinopyroxene crystal strand over the boundary between ocelli and matrix, and (e) chemical compositions of ocelli and matrix corresponding to high-Mg andesite and komatiitic basalt, respectively. The close association and geochemical similarities between ocellar boninites and pillow boninite/massive boninite suggest that these are comagmatic rocks. The primary features of the ocellar boninite indicated by high Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) ratio and high Cr and Ni abundance show that liquid immiscibility took place in the early evolution stage of the boninitic magma. The miscibility gap in boninite which is smaller than that in tholeiite is likely to be due to the low FeO*/MgO+FeO* ratio and high MgO content of the boninitic magma. The association of komatiite-komatiitic basalt-boninite (or SHMB) and the immiscibility phenomenon in high-Mg lavas in some Archaean greenstone belts and ophiolites is also

  19. The Role of Late-Cenozoic Lava Flows in the Evolution of the Owyhee River Canyon, Oregon (United States)

    Brossy, C. C.; House, P. K.; Ely, L. L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Safran, E. B.; Bondre, N.; Champion, D. E.; Grant, G.


    Over the last 2 Ma, at least six lava flows entered the canyon of the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon, dramatically and repeatedly altering the river's course and profile. A combination of geochronologic, geochemical, and paleomagnetic analyses accompanied by extensive field mapping shows that these lava flows erupted from upland vents 10s of km from the river, entered the canyon via tributary or rim, and formed blockages sufficient to create lakes. Thick deltas of pillow lavas and rising passage zones in the head of the dams and subaerial lavas downstream of the dam indicate effective damming. The presence of fine grained laminated sediments deposited in the lakes suggests the dams were fairly long lived. Pending OSL dates and ongoing field study of these sediments will shed light on the nature and duration of dam construction and removal. Lava-water interaction during dam construction was extensive, and thick pillow lava deltas are common. In contrast to rivers in other locations, we did not find evidence of pyroclastics such as cinders associated with the dams. The three oldest intracanyon lava flows: the lower undivided Bogus lavas (>1.92 ± 0.22 Ma), the Bogus Rim (1.92 ± 0.22 Ma), and the Greeley Bar lavas (>780 ka), all record the filling of a wide, deep canyon, damming of the Owyhee River, and creation of extensive lakes at elevations 230 to 310 m above the modern river. The three younger lava flows, the Clarks Butte (248 ± 45 ka), the Saddle Butte (~125 ka), and the West Crater (60-90 ka), record the occurrence of similar events but in a narrower, deeper canyon similar to the modern one. Overall, this array of late Cenozoic intracanyon lava flows provides key insights into the long-term incision history of the canyon, possibly including the effect of integration with the Snake River, and supports a model of long-term, regional landscape evolution that is strongly linked to lava-water interactions.

  20. A Novel Approach to Characterize Compositional Variability through Time at Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Gill, J. B.


    The temporal, spatial, and compositional variability of eruptive products illuminates the scales of magmatic sources and processes. Prior methods to evaluate this variability rely on extensive sampling of lava flows. We describe a novel approach to assess the variability of submarine volcanics using material recovered in pushcores at a mid-ocean ridge. Pushcores collected from the west flank of Endeavour in 2011 with ROV Doc Ricketts were extruded in 1- or 2-cm intervals and volcaniclastic glass shards and foraminifera were extracted for electron microprobe and radiocarbon analyses, respectively. 14C ages and glass compositions from two cores provide chemical stratigraphies we compare to compositions of proximal lavas to assess local variability and volcaniclast dispersal. A 20-cm core from the north slope of Summit Seamount ~100m above the axial valley floor has a basal age of 4.5ka and 10-12 cm is ~1.5ka. Shards in the bottom 6cm are chemically distinct from the lava flow that it overlies. These basal shards are bimodal in MgO and the more differentiated mode is similar to flows on the valley floor on the opposite side of the faulted remnants of Summit Seamount. Most shards in the top 14 cm are similar to the underlying lava flow and have uniform MgO of 7.3 ×0.1. This composition is dominant in shards from 6-12 cm, which may represent a single eruption. Nearby flows encompassing three additional distinct lava types are also present as rare random shards; one additional lava type ~1km distant is absent. A 24-cm core from NW of Main Endeavour Field overlies a compositionally distinct low pillow mound on the west flank; no shards with this composition are found. The core is dated at 10.5ka (basal), ~4.8ka (15-17 cm), and ~2.0ka (9-11 cm). From 10.5 to 4.8 ka, most shards are compositionally similar to, but slightly more evolved than, extensive sheet lavas that flowed around the pillow mounds. A subordinate amount of shards that are compositionally similar, but more

  1. CUES – A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada

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    Edward H. Bair


    Full Text Available Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB established the CUES snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We

  2. The Ivisartoq Greenstone Belt, Southwest Greenland: New Investigations (United States)

    Mader, M. M.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.


    The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is situated 40 km south of the Isua greenstone belt, within the Archean gneiss complex of southwest Greenland. The Isua region has been the focus of intense study because it contains some of the oldest known (~ 3.8-3.7 Ga) rocks on Earth. However, relatively little research has been conducted within the Ivisartoq belt. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is exceptionally well-exposed in three dimensions, and primary features are better preserved here than in any other Archean greenstone belt in Greenland. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt provides a unique opportunity to characterise early-middle Archean mafic-ultramafic magmatism. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt forms a southwest-closing, V-shaped synform and was subjected to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. New field mapping has concentrated on the 3 km thick southern limb of the synform, where the most complete section of the tectonostratigraphy is preserved, and where pillow structures with unambiguous way-up indicators are observed. The southern limb has been divided into two units of amphibolites: a lower unit and an upper unit. The upper amphibolite unit is characterized by heterogeneously deformed pillow structures interlayered with ultramafic amphibole schists, meta-gabbro, and with boudins of olivine-bearing ultrabasic rocks. The lower amphibolite unit is more heterogenous and intensely deformed than the upper unit. Layers of quartz-feldspathic rocks with sulfides are abundant in both the upper and lower unit and are highly sheared. A thick (~ 500m) section of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and schists in the lower unit has been the focus of preliminary geochronological work. Previously, only one U/Pb zircon age (~ 2580 Ma from a "paraschist") has been obtained from the Ivisartoq belt and was reported by Baadsgaard in 1976. Currently, laser ablation microprobe inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LAM ICP-MS) and isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry

  3. Half a Century of Oman Ophiolite Studies: SSZ or MOR, the Arc Disposal Problem (United States)

    Gregory, R. T.; Gray, D.


    The Samail Ophiolite, one of the largest and best exposed ophiolite complexes, is a Tethyan ophiolite obducted in the Late Cretaceous onto the formerly passive Arabian platform as Arabia began its most recent >1000 km northward migration towards a Miocene collision with Eurasia. The Oman Mountains, northeastern Arabian Peninsula have yet to collide with Eurasia; present uplift and form of the mountains also date to the Miocene. In addition to the scientific scrutiny of the ophiolite complex, the geologic constraints on the timing and emplacement of the ophiolite are abundant with no consensus on the obduction mechanism or its original tectonic setting. The crustal thickness of the ophiolite is comparable to thicknesses observed for "normal" mid-ocean ridges. Largely on the basis of structural and paleomagnetic arguments, some workers have attributed its origin to Pacific-type fast spreading ridges and complex micro plate geometries. Indeed the lower pillow lava sequences and much of the gabbroic crust have isotope and geochemical signatures consistent with a MORB source. However, because of the geochemistry of the upper pillow lavas, the ophiolite is most often characterized as a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite, i.e. it sits in the hanging wall of some large tectonic structure for part of its history. In the absence of a preserved arc, the SSZ designation has little explanatory power only being a declaration of allochthony or about chemical properties of the mantle source. That associated continental shelf and oceanic crustal sections have suffered either clockwise or counterclockwise PT time trajectories requires some type of nascent subduction and hanging wall thrust transport of the young ridge crest. The widespread Late Cretaceous obduction of Tethyan oceanic crust and mantle over thousands of kilometers strike length is a problem for SSZ models (arc, forearc, back arc etc.) because arc initiation results in thick crust on short time scales, none of which

  4. Surgical treatment of Chiari malformation and discussion of related questions%Chiari畸形的外科治疗及相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 刘宏毅; 章文斌; 邹元杰


    Objective To study the surgical treatment of the Chiari malformation and relevant clinical problems. Methods The clinical data of 35 patients with Chiari malformation ,in whom 26 with syringomyelia were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were operated after posterior fossa decompression, C1 bow decompression, pillow big pool expand forming, cerebellar tonsillar next hernia dissection or electricity coagulation resection. Results All patients were followed up from 1to 4 years. The clinical symptoms were ameliorated and dynamic review images were obtained a good result. Conclusion According to the clinical symptoms and radiologic features, personalized choices in the posterior fossa decompression of big or small bone window, pillow big pool expand forming and and resection of downward hernia of cerebellar tonilar were an effective method in the surgical treatment of Chiari malformation.%目的 探讨Chiari 畸形的外科手术治疗和相关临床问题.方法 回顾分析35 例Chiari 畸形(26 例合并脊髓空洞)的外科治疗经验.全部病例均行后颅窝减压,C1 后弓减压,枕大池扩大成形,小脑扁桃体下疝切除术或电灼术.结果 全部病例随访6 个月~ 4 年,获得不同程度的临床症状改善,动态复查影像均获得良好的效果.结论 Chiari 畸形的外科治疗中根据临床症状和影像特点,个性化的选择行后颅窝大或小的骨窗减压,枕大池扩大成形和小脑扁桃体下疝切除手术治疗,是处理该种畸形获得临床疗效的好方法.

  5. ONB疗法对青少年CHE患者认知功能改善的临床研究%Clinical research of occipital nerve block in improving cognitive function of adolescents with neck source headache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广敬; 张建中


    目的:观察枕神经阻滞(ONB)治疗青少年颈源性头痛(CHE)的效果及安全性,并分析治疗前后患者认知功能的改善情况。方法选择近10年就诊的青少年颈源性头痛患者60例,其中A组30例患者采用枕神经阻滞并常规药物及理疗, B组30例患者采用常规药物治疗及理疗。并在本市一中学随机抽取正常儿童30例作为对照组C组。结果在治疗后, A、B两组在认知功能及精神状况上均比治疗前有明显改善,与C组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<005);A组满意度较B组好。结论适度进行枕神经阻滞对青少年颈源性头痛有着较好的临床价值,值得在临床上推广应用。%Objective To observe the effect and safety of occipital nerve block (ONB) in the treatment of adolescents neck source headache(CHE), and analyze the improvement of cognitive function of patients before and after treatment.Methods Choosing 60 cases of adolescents neck source headache patients in resent ten years to our hospital and dividing them in to two groups, 30 cases for each group, group A treated with nerve block the pillow and conventional drugs and physical therapy, group B treated with routine therapy and physical therapy. And in a city middle school randomly normal children in 30 cases as control group C.Results After treatment, cognitive function and mental status in group A and group B were obviously improved, but compared with group C, it still had obvious difference,P<005; satisfaction of group A was better than group B.Conclusion The nerve block moderate for pillow on youth journal source headache has good clinical value, it is worth clinical promotion.

  6. Correction of patient positioning errors based on in-line cone beam CTs: clinical implementation and first experiences

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    Häring Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT for setup correction in radiotherapy. Patients and methods For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI, was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. Results and discussion Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point

  7. Evaluation of effects of groundwater withdrawals at the proposed Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant, Shelby County, Tennessee (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.


    The Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study groundwater-flow model was used to simulate the potential effects of future groundwater withdrawals at the proposed Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant in Shelby County, Tennessee. The scenario used in the simulation consisted of a 30-year average withdrawal period followed by a 30-day maximum withdrawal period. Effects of withdrawals at the Allen plant site on the Mississippi embayment aquifer system were evaluated by comparing the difference in simulated water levels in the aquifers at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and at the end of the scenario to a base case without the Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant withdrawals. Simulated potentiometric surface declines in the Memphis aquifer at the Allen plant site were about 7 feet at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and 11 feet at the end of the scenario. The affected area of the Memphis aquifer at the Allen plant site as delineated by the 4-foot potentiometric surface-decline contour was 2,590 acres at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and 11,380 acres at the end of the scenario. Simulated declines in the underlying Fort Pillow aquifer and overlying shallow aquifer were both less than 1 foot at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and the end of the scenario.

  8. Brainwave entrainment for better sleep and post-sleep state of young elite soccer players - a pilot study. (United States)

    Abeln, Vera; Kleinert, Jens; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan


    The effect of sleep deprivation on psychophysical performance and well-being is comprehensively investigated. Research investigating the effect of improved sleep is rare. Just as little exists about attempts to support athletic mental state and performance by improving sleep quality. This study aims to investigate whether sleep quality of top athletes can be improved by auditory brainwave entrainment and whether this leads to enhancements of post-sleep psychophysical states. In a pilot study, 15 young elite soccer players were stimulated for eight weeks during sleep with binaural beats around 2-8 Hz. Once a week after wake-up, participants completed three different questionnaires: a sleep diary, an adjective list for psychophysical and motivational state, and a self-assessment questionnaire for sleep and awakening quality. Fifteen sport students executed the same protocol sleeping on the same pillow, but without stimulation. Subjective ratings of sleep and awakening quality, sleepiness and motivational state were significantly improved only in the intervention group, but did not impact their perceived physical state. In summary, eight weeks of auditory stimulation with binaural beats improved perceived sleep quality and the post-sleep state of athletes, whereas the effect on physical level is assumed to occur in a time-delayed fashion. It seems to be worthwhile - to further elaborate long-time effects and consequences on physical and mental performance.

  9. MRI Findings of Causalgia of the Lower Extremity Following Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Tumor

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    D. Ryan Ormond


    Full Text Available Background. Causalgia is continuing pain, allodynia, or hyperalgesia after nerve injury with edema, changes in skin blood flow, or abnormal sudomotor activity. Here we report a case of lower extremity causalgia following elective transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary tumor in a young man. Clinical Presentation. A 33-year-old man with acromegaly underwent elective sublabial transsphenoidal resection of his pituitary tumor. During the three-hour surgery, the lower limbs were kept in a supine, neutral position with a pillow under the knees. The right thigh was slightly internally rotated with a tape to expose fascia lata, which was harvested to repair the sella. Postoperatively, he developed causalgia in a distal sciatic and common peroneal nerve distribution. Pain was refractory to several interventions. Finally, phenoxybenzamine improved his pain significantly. Conclusions. Malpositioning in the operating room resulted in causalgia in this young man. Phenoxybenzamine improved, and ultimately resolved, his symptoms. Improvement in his pain symptoms correlated with resolution of imaging changes in the distal sciatic and peroneal nerves on the side of injury.

  10. Environmental implication of subaqueous lava flows from a continental Large Igneous Province: Examples from the Moroccan Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) (United States)

    El Ghilani, S.; Youbi, N.; Madeira, J.; Chellai, E. H.; López-Galindo, A.; Martins, L.; Mata, J.


    The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic volcanic sequence of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) of Morocco is classically subdivided into four stratigraphic units: the Lower, Middle, Upper and Recurrent Formations separated by intercalated sediments deposited during short hiatuses in volcanic activity. Although corresponding to a Large Igneous Province formed in continental environment, it contains subaqueous lava flows, including dominant pillowed flows but also occasional sheet flows. We present a study of the morphology, structure and morphometry of subaqueous lava flows from three sections located at the Marrakech High-Atlas (regions of Aït-Ourir, Jbel Imzar and Oued Lhar-Herissane), as well as an analysis of the sediments, in order to characterize them and to understand their environmental meaning. The analysis of clays by the diffraction method X-ray revealed the presence of illite, mica, phengite, céladonite, talc and small amounts of quartz, hematite, calcite and feldspar, as well as two pairs of interbedded irregular (chlorite Smectite/chlorite-Mica). Fibrous minerals such as sepiolite and palygorskite were not detected. The peperite of Herissane region (Central High Atlas) provided an excellent overview on the factors favoring the magma-sediment interaction. These are the products of a mixture of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated sediments, low permeability with a low viscosity magma. The attempt of dating palynology proved unfortunately without results.

  11. Magmatic activity at Islas Marias Archipelago, Gulf of California: Oceanic lithosphere with gabbroic sills versus Jurassic-Cretaceous arc components. (United States)

    Schaaf, P. E. G.; Solis-Pichardo, G.; Hernandez-Trevino, T.; Villanueva, D.; Arrieta, G. F.; Rochin, H.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Bohnel, H.; Weber, B.


    Islas Marias Archipelago consists of four islands located in the mouth of the Gulf of California. Lithologically three of them (Maria Madre, San Juanito, and Maria Cleofas) are quite similar with a 165-170 Ma metamorphic basement, 75-85 Ma intrusive and extrusive rocks, and a sedimentary sandstone cover, which according to its foraminiferous content recorded multiple uplift and subsidence events related to the opening of the Gulf. However, these units are absent on Maria Magdalena island which is positioned between the other islands. Here, instead, oceanic lithosphere with pillow lavas and gabbroic sills, intercalated with sandstones form the dominant outcrops. Their geochemical and isotopic characteristics are similar to N-MORB with epsilon Nd values around +10 and 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70290. The gabbros are not older than 22 Ma. Magdalena island was obviously uplifted separately from the other islands of the archipelago, probably along a now hidden transform fault system along the East Pacific Rise. Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the other islands can be correlated to lithologically similar units in the Los Cabos Block, Baja California, or to the continental margin units in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Jalisco states when looking at their geochemical and geochronological signatures. Paleomagnetic studies on 35 sampling sites from all 4 islands give evidence for relatively small scale tectonic movements.

  12. Evolución geoquímica y temporal del magmatismo básico mesozoico en las Zonas Externas de las Cordilleras Béticas

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    Aguirre, L.


    Full Text Available The Mesozoic basic magmatism found in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras (ZECB is represented either as «ophites» forming small dimension tectonic blocks intercalated in the Keuper gypsum-rich, clay sediments, or also as lava ilow bodies, most of them with pillow structures, within the Jurassic sedimentary rocks. Geochemical characteristics of these rocks indicate sorne differences between these two magmatic series. Two different chemical affinities have been carried out within the «ophites»: a with modal orthopyroxene and tholeiitic affinity; and b with modal olivine and transitionalalkaline affinity. Chemical characteristics of this last group are similar to those of the volcanic rocks from the Jurassic sediments. The field relationships found in sorne «ophite» outcrops al!ow us to deduce that the tholeiitic rocks are mostly present as extrusive rocks. However, their older whole-rock K-Ar ages range between 182 ± 9 and 187 ± 4 M.a., and do not correctly represent Upper Triassic ages. Transitional-alkaline «ophites» occur as subvolcanic rocks and their older obtained radiometric age is 137 ± 4 M.a. Al! these radiometric ages obtained may be intepreted as a result of the hybridization between the age of the Triassic magmatism and the very low- to low-grade metamorphism present in these rocks. This metamorphism is responsable for the new formed secondary paragenesis, made of prehnite + pumpel! yite + sericitie + mafic phyl!osicates. Radiometric age obtained in sorne intra-Jurassic volcanic rocks range between 155 ± 3 to 166 ± 4 M.a. These new radiometric data and field relationships are used to define the Mesozoic magmatic evolution in the ZECB. Tholeiitic magmatism was generated during an initial Triassic distensive stage. After this magmatic event, and as a consequence of an increment of the distensive regime, with important continental crust thickening, transitionalalkaline magmatism occurS. This

  13. Qualitative and quantitative characteristic ofthe population of mesenchymal cells in structural components from conotruncal region of the embryo heart on its early hystogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyagovets K.I.


    Full Text Available Character of the distribution of the mesenchymal’s cellspopulation was analysed during the early hystogenesis of the conotruncal region of the mouse embr yo heart. Conotruncalregion is the predecessor of the proximal part of the aorta and pulmonary trunk, of the aortic ruff and conus arteriosus and semilunar valves. Violation of its transformations leading to the formation of congenital heart disease,which named «conotruncal defects». The material was used embryos mice by the C57BL / 6 line, which covers the period of from 10 to 12.5th day, which corresponded to a 16-21 Teilor stages. Quantify the planar and volumetric distribution of a population of mesenchymal stem cells conotruncus’s pillows and ridges by the original method; on the basis of serial pictures of embryo heart with the use of the computer providing Photoshop Cs5, Amira of for microscopy 5.0, 3ds max 8.0, we created the three-dimensional models of structural components of the conotruncus embryonic mouse heart. During this research noted the phased settlement condensed esenchymal stem fraction first and then tapered sections, given the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the distribution of the conotruncus’s mesenchyme embryonic mouse heart.

  14. Studies of noble gases in meteorites and in the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.P.


    The isotopic and elemental abundances of noble gases in the solar system are investigated, using simple mixing models and mass-spectrometric measurements of the noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial rocks and minerals. Primordial neon is modeled by two isotopically distinct components from the interstellar gas and dust. Neon from the gas dominates solar neon, which contains about ten times more /sup 20/Ne than /sup 22/Ne. Neon in meteorites consists of galactic cosmic ray spallation neon and at least two primordial components, neon-E and neon-S. Neon was measured in several meteorites to investigate these end-members. Ca,Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite were examined for correlation between neon-E and oxygen or magnesium isotopic anomalies. Measurements were made to determine the noble gas contents of various terrestrial rocks and minerals, and to investigate the cycling of noble gases between different terrestrial reservoirs. Juvenile and atmospheric gases have been measured in the glassy rims of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) pillow basalts. Evidence is presented that three samples contain excess radiogenic /sup 129/Xe and fission xenon, in addition to the excess radiogenic /sup 40/Ar found in all samples. The Skaergaard data demonstrate that atmospheric noble gases dissolved in ground water can be transferred into crustal rocks. Subduction of oceanic crust altered by seawater can transport atmospheric noble gases into the upper mantle.

  15. 6d Dual Conformal Symmetry and Minimal Volumes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy


    The S-matrix of a theory often exhibits symmetries which are not manifest from the viewpoint of its Lagrangian. For instance, powerful constraints on scattering amplitudes are imposed by the dual conformal symmetry of planar 4d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory and the ABJM theory. Motivated by this, we investigate the consequences of dual conformal symmetry in six dimensions, which may provide useful insight into the worldvolume theory of M5-branes (if it enjoys such a symmetry). We find that 6d dual conformal symmetry uniquely fixes the integrand of the one-loop 4-point amplitude, and its structure suggests a Lagrangian with more than two derivatives. On integrating out the loop momentum in $6-2 \\epsilon$ dimensions, the result is very similar to the corresponding amplitude of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory. We confirm this result holographically by generalizing the Alday-Maldacena solution for a minimal area string in Anti-de Sitter space to a minimal volume M2-brane ending on pillow-shaped ...

  16. The Neoproterozoic Malani magmatism of the northwestern Indian shield: Implications for crust-building processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal K Sharma


    Malani is the largest event of anorogenic felsic magmatism (covering ∼50,000km2) in India. This magmatic activity took place at ∼750Ma post-dating the Erinpura granite (850 Ma) and ended prior to Marwar Supergroup (680 Ma) sedimentation. Malani eruptions occurred mostly on land, but locally sub-aqueous conditions are shown by the presence of conglomerate, grits and pillow lava. The Malani rocks do not show any type of regional deformation effects. The Malanis are characterised by bimodal volcanism with a dominant felsic component, followed by granitic plutonism and a terminal dyke phase. An angular unconformity between Malani lavas and basement is observed, with the presence of conglomerate at Sindreth, Diri, and Kankani. This indicates that the crust was quite stable and peneplained prior to the Malani activity. Similarly, the absence of any thrust zone, tectonic m´elange and tectonised contact of the Malanis with the basement goes against a plate subduction setting for their genesis. After the closure of orogenic cycles in the Aravalli craton of the northwestern shield, this anorogenic intraplate magmatic activity took place in a cratonic rift setting under an extensional tectonic regime.

  17. Diamictite from Nimrod Glacier area, Antarctica: Possible Proterozoic glaciation on the seventh continent (United States)

    Stump, Edmund; Miller, Julia M. G.; Korsch, Russell J.; Edgerton, David G.


    Late Proterozoic glacial deposits have been found on all continents except Antarctica. Here we describe four units of Late Proterozoic diamictite, with a total thickness of about 10m, from Panorama Point, Nimrod Glacier area, Antarctica, which have characteristics compatible with glaciogenic origin. The diamictite occurs within the Goldie Formation, a sequence of marine turbidites, and is associated with a unit of mafic pillow lavas. The diamictite is commonly structureless and in places laminated. Coarse clasts occur as scattered pebbles and cobbles and as pebbly pods and beds. No striated or faceted clasts were found. A few pebbles may pierce the laminae, but a drop-stone origin is uncertain. Deformation and metamorphism have obscured subtleties of original sedimentary structure. Outsize clasts in laminated sandy siltstone (now schistose) suggest a glaciogenic origin for these diamictites, but deposition by mass-flow processes cannot be ruled out. The discovery in Antarctica of possible Late Proterozoic glaciogenic deposits extends their geographic distribution to all of the major continental masses.

  18. From unwitnessed fatality to witnessed rescue: Nonpharmacologic interventions in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Fergus; Duncan, John; Hjalgrim, Helle; Seyal, Masud; Bateman, Lisa


    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) risk reduction remains a critical aim in epilepsy care. To date, only aggressive medical and surgical efforts to control seizures have been demonstrated to be of benefit. Incomplete understanding of SUDEP mechanisms limits the development of more specific interventions. Periictal cardiorespiratory dysfunction is implicated in SUDEP; postictal electroencephalography (EEG) suppression, coma, and immobility may also play a role. Nocturnal supervision is protective against SUDEP, presumably by permitting intervention in the case of a life-threatening event. Resuscitative efforts were implemented promptly in near-SUDEP cases but delayed in SUDEP deaths in the Mortality in Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Study (MORTEMUS) study. Nursing interventions--including repositioning, oral suctioning, and oxygen administration--reduce seizure duration, respiratory dysfunction, and EEG suppression in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU), but have not been studied in outpatients. Cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillator devices may be of benefit in a few select individuals. A role for implantable neurostimulators has not yet been established. Seizure detection devices, including those that monitor generalized tonic-clonic seizure-associated movements or cardiorespiratory parameters, may provide a means to permit timely periictal intervention. However, these and other devices, such as antisuffocation pillows, have not been adequately investigated with respect to SUDEP prevention.

  19. Making the hospital a safer place by sonochemical coating of all its textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles. (United States)

    Perelshtein, Ilana; Lipovsky, Anat; Perkas, Nina; Tzanov, Tzanko; Аrguirova, M; Leseva, M; Gedanken, Aharon


    The ability to scale-up the sonochemical coating of medical textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles is demonstrated in the current paper. A roll-to-roll pilot installation to coat textiles was built taking into consideration the requirements of the sonochemical process. A long-run experiment was conducted in which 2500 m of fabric were coated with antibacterial ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The metal oxide NPs were deposited from an ethanol:water solution. In this continuous process a uniform concentration of coated NPs over the length/width of the fabric was achieved. The antibacterial efficiency of the sonochemically-coated textiles was validated in a hospital environment by a reduction in the occurrence of nosocomial infections. NP-coated bed sheets, patient gowns, pillow cover, and bed covers were used by 21 patients. For comparison 16 patients used regular textiles. The clinical data indicated the reduced occurrence of hospital-acquired infections when using the metal oxide NP-coated textiles. In order to reduce the cost of the coating process and considering safety issues during manufacturing, the solvent (ethanol:water) (9:1 v:v) used for the long-run experiment, was replaced by water. Although lesser amounts of ZnO NPs were deposited on the fabric in the water-based process the antibacterial activity of the textiles was preserved due to the smaller size of the particles.

  20. Prevalence and the Relationship between Characteristics and Parental Conditions with Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis


    Full Text Available Introduction  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is a disease which causes unexpected death of infants aged less than 1 year. Given the undeniable role of parents in the presence or absence of SIDS risk factors, the present study aimed to studythe prevalence and the relationship between characteristics and conditions of parent’s infants with SIDS risk factors. Materials and Methods  In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 1,021 infants aged 1 to 12 months in the health centers in Qom-Iran in 2014 were selected as the sample by stratified random sampling method. The required data were collected using an author-made questionnaire on SIDS risk factors. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 18 at a significance level of 95%. Results 4.5% of mothers were younger than 20 years, 92.3% infants had a co-sleeping with their parents, and 35.7% of infants had a bed-sharing with their parents. 19% of infants used Soft pillow. Study findings showed that there is no significant relationship between the age of mothers and using a shared bedroom (P>0.05, while such a relationship exists between education backgrounds of parents and sharing a bedroom (P

  1. Delineating tectonic units beneath the Donbas Fold Belt using scale lengths estimated from DOBRE 2000/2001 deep reflection data (United States)

    Carpentier, S. F. A.; Roy-Chowdhury, K.; Stephenson, R. A.; Stovba, S.


    A novel statistical analysis, which augments conventional interpretation of deep seismic reflection/refraction data, is applied to the DOBRE 2000/2001 reflection profile. The goal is to improve delineation of the lithosphere in terms of lithotectonic units and to compare these to existing interpretations. After a successful validation of the method using synthetic data, stochastic parameters estimated from windowed average lateral autocorrelations in the DOBRE data are compiled in a two-dimensional profile of von Karman-type causative reflectivity. These estimates in terms of lateral correlation lengths and power law exponents are accompanied by associated uncertainties. Given its low uncertainties, the lateral correlation length ax turns out to be a robust delineator. The profile of ax reveals systematic spatial variations in the lithospheric fabric below the Donbas Fold Belt. As in earlier interpretations based upon conventional processing of reflection/refraction data, both the sedimentary basin and Moho discontinuity stand out clearly, as well as a region indicating massive vertical intrusion in the crust from upper mantle sills and ultramafic underplating of the lower crust. Notable differences with conventional interpretations include the number and extent of supra-Moho rift pillow structures, the lack of imaging a crust-cutting dislocation feature and a laterally disturbed uppermost mantle. Von Karman lateral correlation length provides new independent information at a scale between velocity models from wide-angle reflection/refraction data and line drawings from near vertical reflections and provides new insights and understanding of lithospheric evolution.

  2. Formation and tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Jurassic Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex, Pakistan: Implications for the composite tectonic setting of ophiolites (United States)

    Khan, Mehrab; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mahmood, Khalid


    The Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex Balochistan, Pakistan is comprised of an upper and lower nappe and represents one of a number of ophiolites in this region which mark the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. These ophiolites were obducted onto the Indian continental margin around the Late Cretaceous, prior to the main collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The upper nappe contains mantle sequence rocks with numerous isolated gabbro plutons which we show are fed by dolerite dykes. Each pluton has a transitional dunite-rich zone at its base, and new geochemical data suggest a similar mantle source region for both the plutons and dykes. In contrast, the lower nappe consists of pillow basalts, deep-marine sediments and a mélange of ophiolitic rocks. The rocks of the upper nappe have a geochemical signature consistent with formation in an island arc environment whereas the basalts of the lower nappe contain no subduction component and are most likely to have formed at a mid-ocean ridge. The basalts and sediments of the lower nappe have been intruded by oceanic alkaline igneous rocks during the northward drift of the Indian plate. The two nappes of the Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex are thus distinctively different in terms of their age, lithology and tectonic setting. The recognition of composite ophiolites such as this has an important bearing on the identification and interpretation of ophiolites where the plate tectonic setting is less well resolved.

  3. Evidence of Late Quaternary seismicity from Yunam Tso, Lahaul and Spiti, NW Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archna Bohra; B S Kotlia; Amzad H Laskar; M G Yadava


    A relict fluvio-lacustrine sediment of an 8 m thick section exposed at Kilang Sarai along Yunam river, near Baralacha La shows presence of cycloids or pseudonodules, ball and pillow structures, flame-like and pocket structures, sand dyke injections, bed dislocation/faulting and flow folds. Within this section four deformed levels of soft sediment structures have been identified which were dated ca. 25 ka BP at level 1 (∼0.4 m from the modern river level (mrl), 20.1 ka BP at level 2 (∼1.8 m mrl), 17.7 ka BP at level 3 (∼2.56 m mrl) and 12.2 ka BP at level 4 (∼4.25 m mrl)). Detailed study of these soft sediment structures allow us to demonstrate that deformation level 3 is not related to seismic trigger, but remaining three deformation levels (1, 2 and 4) are ascribed to seismic origin. From compilation of earlier palaeoseismological studies using soft sediment deformational structures (SSDS) in the palaeolake deposits in the adjoining area, suggest that the deformational events identified in the present study are regional in nature and thus tectonic process plays an important role in the evolution of landform in the Spiti region.

  4. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Ozcelik


    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptuniandykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitationalinstabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  5. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onah Isegbe Emmanuel


    Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.

  6. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu , C.N. Kus


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera:Cimicidae is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbuginfestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Governmentarea in Benue state, Nigeria.Methods: Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquitonets and bamboo beds were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-pickingtechnique. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis for differences in the infestation levels inharbourages and sampling locations.Results: Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation asegg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestationrate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other studylocations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (2 = 7.92, df = 6,p >0.05. Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%,while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestationrates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher thanother items inspected (2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05.Interpretation & conclusion: This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidencesof infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detectionand education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.

  7. Echosonogrametric diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip. (United States)

    Vrdoljak, J; Bojić, D


    In view of adding to ultrasonographic scanning of the neonatal hip through various projections and in order to improve the measurement and quantification base of the normal and dysplastic neonatal hip, the research was conducted on anatomic hip preparation of full-term still-born baby. The research on a clinical sample covered 600 ultrasonically examined normal and dysplastic hips. Ultrasonographic serial scanning was performed on various planes using linear transducer with 5 and 7.5 MHz and with or without a water pillow. On the clinical sample of the particular group various projections were applied and results compared with projections obtained on anatomic preparation. Concluded was that with several projections frontal sonographic projections tomographic examination of the hip joint could be performed. Better insight of the position of the femoral head at rest in neutral and flexed positions, the relative stability of the hip with motion and stress and the depth and configuration of the bony and cartilaginous portions of the acetabulum could be obtained if, besides frontal sections, cross sections of the hip were used. Sufficient measurement data echosonogrametric parameters were indispensable for an adequate definition of all hip joint structures.

  8. New findings on object permanence: A developmental difference between two types of occlusion. (United States)

    Moore, M Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N


    Manual search for totally occluded objects was investigated in 10-, 12- and 14-month-old infants. Infants responded to two types of total hiding in different ways, supporting the inference that object permanence is not a once-and-for-all attainment. Occlusion of an object by movement of a screen over it was solved at an earlier age than occlusion in which an object was carried under the screen. This dissociation was not explained by motivation, motor skill or means-ends coordination, because for both tasks the same object was hidden in the same place under the same screen and required the same uncovering response. This dissociation generalized across an experimentally manipulated change in recovery means-infants removed cloths while seated at a table in Expt 1 and were required to crawl through 3-D space to displace semi-rigid pillows in Expt 2. Further analysis revealed that emotional response varied as a function of hiding, suggesting an affective correlate of infant cognition. There are four empirical findings to account for: developmental change, task dissociation, generalization of the effects across recovery means, and emotional reactions. An identity-development theory is proposed explaining these findings in terms of infants' understanding of object identity and the developmental relationship between object identity and object permanence. Object identity is seen as a necessary precursor to the development of object permanence.

  9. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury. (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H


    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides.

  10. Optical spectroscopy of free-propagating plasma and its interaction with tungsten targets in PF-1000 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubkowska, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Garkusha, I.E.; Ladygina, M.; Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 61-108 Kharkov (Ukraine)


    The paper reports on optical spectroscopy of pulsed plasma streams during their free propagation within a vacuum chamber and their interaction with tungsten targets. Experiments were performed with the PF-1000 facility and particular attention was paid to improvements in spectroscopic diagnostics techniques. In contrary to preliminary studies, the recent spectroscopic measurements of the free plasma streams were carried out perpendicular to the z-axis and at a larger distance from the electrode outlet. The center of the observation quartz-window was located at z = 30 cm in order to observe first a pure deuterium-plasma stream, and later on some heavy impurities which might reach that distance with a delay induced by differences in their production and time-of-flight. The recorded spectral lines were identified by means of a Kurucz database. It was confirmed that at the pure D{sub 2}-filling the PF-1000 facility emits first the deuterium-plasma stream and one can observe intense deuterium Balmer lines, but at a distance z = 30 cm, after about 2 microseconds there appear many impurity lines originating mainly from the Cu-electrodes, i.e. Cu-lines. The second part of the experiment concerned the spectroscopic measurements of metal plasma 'pillow' produced by the plasma stream impinging upon a solid target made of pure tungsten. The described measurements enabled the most intense spectral lines to be identified. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation

  11. In-flight lift and drag measurements on a first generation jet transport equipped with winglets (United States)

    Lux, D. P.


    A KC-135A aircraft equipped with wing tip winglets was flight tested to demonstrate and validate the potential performance gain of the winglet concept as predicted from analytical and wind tunnel data. Flight data were obtained at cruise conditions for Mach numbers of 0.70, 0.75, and 0.80 at a nominal altitude of 36,000 ft. and winglet configurations of 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence, 0 deg cant/-4 deg incidence, and baseline. For the Mach numbers tested the data show that the addition of winglets did not affect the lifting characteristics of the wing. However, both winglet configurations showed a drag reduction over the baseline configuration, with the best winglet configuration being the 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence configuration. This drag reduction due to winglets also increased with increasing lift coefficient. It was also shown that a small difference exists between the 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence flight and wind tunnel predicted data. This difference was attributed to the pillowing of the winglet skins in flight which would decrease the winglet performance.

  12. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, J.B.; Bryan, W.B.


    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-25/sup 0/N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus.

  13. Pile-soil stress ratio in bidirectionally reinforced composite ground by considering soil arching effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹新军; 杨眉; 赵明华; 杨小礼


    To discuss the soil arching effect on the load transferring model and sharing ratios by the piles and inter-pile subsoil in the bidirectionally reinforced composite ground, the forming mechanism, mechanical behavior and its effect factors were discussed in detail. Then, the unified strength theory was introduced to set up the elastoplastic equilibrium differential equation of the subsoil under the limit equilibrium state. And from the equation, the solutions were derived with the corresponding formulas presented to calculate the earth pressure over and beneath the horizontal reinforced cushion or pillow, the stress of inter-pile subsoil and the pile-soil stress ratio. Based on the obtained solutions and measured data from an engineering project, the influence rules by the soil property parameters (i.e., the cohesion c and internal friction angle φ) and pile spacing on the pile-soil stress ratio n were discussed respectively. The results show that to improve the load sharing ratio by the piles, the more effective means for filling materials with a larger value of φ is to increase the ratio of pile cap size to spacing, while to reduce the pile spacing properly and increase the value of cohesion c is advisable for those filling materials with a smaller value of φ.

  14. 西藏雅鲁藏布江蛇绿岩带和深海沟沉积物的岩石学特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A typical section of ophiolite at Tangga in Lhaze district shows the sequential association of ophiolite from north to south as follows: basal tectonized harzhurgitc,altered basalt, and red radiolarian chert. The ophiolites, late Cretaceous in age, arelithologically similar to the current models of oceanic crust and upper mantle, representing the slice of Tethys ocean basin. At Chongdui, about 20 km southeast of Xigaze, a thick sequence of trench turbidite is recognized associated with pillow lava and submarine volcanic conglomerate. The trench turbidite is well. layered with a suit of rhythmical deposits of graded bedding.The coarse-grained ophiolitic greywacke is generally at the base of each rhythm and gives its way upward to the gabbroid greywacke and finer material, while the chert and volcanic tuff rest at the top, showing good rhythmic pattern of Bouma cycle.Because it has not been documented is named “the Chongdui Formation”after the place. It is also late Cretaceous in age. At the same place it is found that the basal serpentinite overthrusts northwards on the trench turbidite. There, the basal ultramafic rock dips southwards in contrast to the northward dipping of the turbidites, showing thrust drag at contact. Because the trench sediments mark the margin of Eurasia continent, it is suggested that the ophiolites are emplaced tectonically along the suture zone where Indian continent and Eruasia continent are welded together. A four-stage model is proposed to expblin the plate history for Himalayan geology.

  15. Salt-related structural styles of Kuqa foreland fold belt, northern Tarim basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Liangjie; JIA; Chengzao; PI; Xuejun; CHEN; Suping; W


    The salt beds of Lower Tertiary developed in the mid-segment of Kuqa foreland fold belt, northern Tarim basin. They considerably controlled structural deformation of the belt.According to the field observation, seismic profile interpretation and drilling data, three different structural styles of supra-salt, intra-salt and sub-salt occurred in the Kuqa foreland fold belt. Supra-salt structural styles mainly include thrust faults and fault-related sags. Intra-slat structural styles essentially are salt-pillows, intra-salt faults and folds, and salt weld structures. Sub-salt structural styles mainly consist of imbricated thrust faults, duplex structures, pop-up and fault-related folds. It is indicated that great differences exist among supra-salt, intra-salt and sub-salt structures of Kuqa foreland fold belt. The salt-related structures were formed in the same structural stress field. The dynamic mechanism of the salt-related structures is mainly associated with gravitation, compression and plastic flow of salt beds.

  16. Right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Takinami


    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy under general anesthesia. A 75-year-old man was intubated without excessive retroflexion, and his upper body was held in place by lateral body positioners with protective cushions over the chest and acromioclavicular joints. The patient’s head was maintained at the center and held on the operation table with a memory-foam pillow to prevent hyperextension of the neck. The arms, abducted 80° with the forearms supinated, were held in place on the armrests with protective cushions. The surgical position was a 20° head-down lithotomy position with the right side of the body lowered by 15°. Surgery was completed successfully with no complications, and anesthesia time was 7 h and 37 min. After surgery, however, the patient complained of numbness and hypoesthesia on the radial and ulnar side, respectively, of the right arm from the elbow to the fingertips, with the boundary running between fingers 3 and 4. Dysesthesia was observed in the right fingertips of fingers 1–3. After 3 months of silver spike point low-frequency electrotherapy, hypoesthesia improved, while dysesthesia partially improved, in the dorsal area between right fingers 1 and 2.

  17. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element (United States)

    Miedzińska, D.; Gieleta, R.; Osiński, J.


    A vibratory pile hammer (VPH) is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  18. Extraction of the respiratory signal from small-animal CT projections for a retrospective gating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ChavarrIas, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; RodrIguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; GarcIa-Barreno, P; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Anexo PsiquiatrIa, 1 Planta. C/Ibiza, 43. Madrid 28007 (Spain)


    We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%.

  19. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard


    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study.

  20. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope systematics and geochemical studies on metavolcanic rocks from Peddavura greenstone belt: Evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in easternmost part of Dharwar Craton, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Rajamanickam; S Balakrishnan; R Bhutani


    Linear, north–south trending Peddavura greenstone belt occurs in easternmost part of the Dharwar Craton. It consists of pillowed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites (BBA) and rhyolites interlayered with ferruginous chert that were formed under submarine condition. Rhyolites were divided into type-I and II based on their REE abundances and HREE fractionation. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope studies were carried out on the rock types to understand the evolution of the Dharwar Craton. Due to source heterogeneity Sm–Nd isotope system has not yielded any precise age. Rb–Sr whole-rock isochron age of 2551 ± 19 (MSWD = 1.16) Ma for BBA group could represent time of seafloor metamorphism after the formation of basaltic rocks. Magmas representing BBA group of samples do not show evidence for crustal contamination while magmas representing type-II rhyolites had undergone variable extents of assimilation of Mesoarchean continental crust (< 3.3 Ga) as evident from their initial Nd isotope values. Trace element and Nd isotope characteristics of type I rhyolites are consistent with model of generation of their magmas by partial melting of mixed sources consisting of basalt and oceanic sediments with continental crustal components. Thus this study shows evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in Peddavura area in eastern part of Dharwar Craton.

  1. Escrita filmí­ca de O livro de cabeceira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Garcia


    Full Text Available Este texto objetiva apontar alguns fragmentos do discurso intertextual no filme O livro de cabeceira, (1995, de Peter Greenaway. O presente ensaio apoia-se na intertextualidade como um procedimento teórico metodológico para refletir acerca dessa obra contemporânea, em um exercí­cio suplementar do meu trabalho de mestrado. Com isso, proponho explorar algumas redes de interstí­cios do objeto filmico, ao utilizar a noção poética como uma possibilidade de leitura. Palavras-chave cinema, imagem, intertextualidade Abstract This text aims to show some fragments of intertextual discourse in the Peter Greenaway's film Pillow Book, 1995. The present essay subscribes to the notion of intertextuality, as a theorical methodological procedure in order to think about this contemporary art-work. The essay is also a suplementary exercise of my Master degree. In doing so, I propose to explore some net of intertstate of movie, using a poetic notion, as a possibility of reading. Key words cinema, image, intertextuality

  2. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony (United States)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine


    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  3. Contrasted glass-whole rock compositions and phenocryst re-distribution, IPOD Sites 417 and 418 (United States)

    Staudigel, H.; Bryan, W. B.


    Major element composition ranges of closely associated basalt glass-whole rock pairs from individual small cooling units approach the total known range of basalt glass and whole rock compositions at IPOD sites 417 and 418. The whole rock samples fall into two groups: one is depleted in MgO and distinctly enriched in plagioclase but has lost some olivine and/or pyroxene relative to its corresponding glass; and the other is enriched in MgO and in phenocrysts of olivine and pyroxene as well as plagioclase compared to its corresponding glass. By analogy with observed phenocryst distributions in lava pillows, tubes, and dikes, and with some theoretical studies, we infer that bulk rock compositions are strongly affected by phenocryst redistribution due to gravity settling, flotation, and dynamic sorting after eruption, although specific models are not well constrained by the one-dimensional geometry of drill core. Compositional trends or groupings in whole rock data resulting from such late-stage processes should not be confused with more fundamental compositional effects produced in deep chambers or during partial melting.

  4. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico) (United States)

    Blanc, E. J.-P.; Blanc-Alétru, M.-C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the ``Las Vigas'' and ``La Virgen'' formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five ``stratigraphic'' levels (Σ1-Σ5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the ``Las Vigas'' Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian.

  5. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea (United States)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads


    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary; Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Omraadebeskrivelser - Description of areas. Dansk og engelsk resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.


    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  7. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond


    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  8. Does cryotherapy improve skin circulation compared with compression and elevation in preventing venous leg ulcers? (United States)

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; Madisetti, Mohan; Prentice, Margie A; Dooley, Mary J


    This trial compared skin blood flow, temperature and incidence of venous leg ulcers in patients with chronic venous disease using compression wraps and elevation pillows. Patients with CEAP C4 skin damage and C5 history of ulcers were randomly assigned to a cryotherapy intervention (n = 138) or placebo cuff control (n = 138) applied to the lower legs over 9 months. The time the ulcers healed prior to enrollment in the study for the cryotherapy group ranged from 1 to 2218 days (n = 8, median = 32 days); for the control group, the range was 24 to 489 days (n = 6, median = 390 days). There were no statistically significant blood flow changes measured in perfusion units with a laser Doppler flowmetre within or between the groups; mean difference between the groups was 0·62, P = 0·619. No differences were noted in skin temperature measured with an infrared thermometer within and between the groups; mean difference between the groups was -0·17°C, P = 0·540. Cryotherapy did not improve skin blood flow or temperature and did not show efficacy in preventing ulcers. However, at least 30% of intervention and 50% of control participants were anticipated to develop an ulcer during the study; only ∼7% occurred. These findings suggest that strict adherence to standard of care decreases the incidence of leg ulcers and remains a best practice for leg ulcer prevention.

  9. Untangling metabolic and spatial interactions of stress tolerance in plants. 1. Patterns of carbon metabolism within leaves. (United States)

    Biel, Karl Y; Fomina, Irina R; Nazarova, Galina N; Soukhovolsky, Vladislav G; Khlebopros, Rem G; Nishio, John N


    The localization of the key photoreductive and oxidative processes and some stress-protective reactions within leaves of mesophytic C(3) plants were investigated. The role of light in determining the profile of Rubisco, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, catalase, fumarase, and cytochrome-c-oxidase across spinach leaves was examined by exposing leaves to illumination on either the adaxial or abaxial leaf surfaces. Oxygen evolution in fresh paradermal leaf sections and CO(2) gas exchange in whole leaves under adaxial or abaxial illumination was also examined. The results showed that the palisade mesophyll is responsible for the midday depression of photosynthesis in spinach leaves. The photosynthetic apparatus was more sensitive to the light environment than the respiratory apparatus. Additionally, examination of the paradermal leaf sections by optical microscopy allowed us to describe two new types of parenchyma in spinach-pirum mesophyll and pillow spongy mesophyll. A hypothesis that oxaloacetate may protect the upper leaf tissue from the destructive influence of active oxygen is presented. The application of mathematical modeling shows that the pattern of enzymatic distribution across leaves abides by the principle of maximal ecological utility. Light regulation of carbon metabolism across leaves is discussed.

  10. Milestone 5 test report. Task 5, subtask 5.2: Tile to foam strength tests (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.


    This report summarizes work that has been performed to date on the strength of a cryotank insulation system using Rohacell foam and TUFI-coated AETB-12 ceramic tiles directly bonded to a simulated graphite-epoxy tank wall. Testing utilized a custom specimen design which consists of a long tensile specimen with eccentric loading to induce curvature similar to the curvature expected due to 'pillowing' of the tank when pressurized. A finite element model was constructed to predict the specific element strains in the test article, and to assist with design of the test specimen to meet the specific goals of curvature and laminate strain. The results indicate that the heat treated 3.25-pcf density Rohacell foam does not provide sufficient strength for the induced stresses due to curvature and stress concentration at the RTV bondline to the TUFI tile. The test was repeated using higher density non-heat treated Rohacell foam (6.9 pcf) without foam failure. The finite element model was shown to predict specimen behavior, and validation of the model was successful. It is pertinent to mention that the analyses described herein accurately predicted the failure of the heat treated foams and based on this analysis method it is expected that the untreated 3.25 pcf Rohacell foam will be successful.

  11. Determination of ancient volcanic eruption center based on gravity methods (3D) in Gunungkidul area Yogyakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Santoso, Agus; Sismanto, Setiawan, Ary; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo


    Ancient eruption centers can be determined by detecting the position of the ancient volcanic material, it is important to understand the elements of ancient volcanic material by studying the area geologically and prove the existence of an ancient volcanic eruption centers using geophysics gravity method. The measuring instrument is Lacoste & Romberg gravimeter type 1115, the number of data are 900 points. The area 60×40 kilometers, the modeling 3D software is reaching depth of 15 km at the south of the island of Java subduction zone. It is suported by geological data in the field that are found as the following: 1. Pyroclastic Fall which is a product of volcanic eruptions, and lapilli tuff with felsic mineral. 2. Pyroclastic flow with Breccia, tuffaceous sandstone and tuff breccia. 3. Hot springs near Parangwedang Parangtritis. 4. Igneous rock with scoria structure in Parang Kusumo, structured amigdaloida which is the result of the eruption of lava/volcanic eruptions, and Pillow lava in the shows the flowing lava into the sea. Base on gravity anomaly shows that there are strong correlationship between those geological data to the gravity anomaly. The gravblox modeling (3D) shows the position of ancient of volcanic eruption in this area clearly.

  12. The Customs Adjusted Certain Import Duties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to adapt to market development, the General Administration of Customs recently has revised the “Classification Table for Imported Articles of the People's Republic of China” and “Duty-Paid Price List for Imported Articles of the People's Republic of China”, and the new standard was put into practice on April 15th, 2012. According to the Announcement No.15, 2012, of the General Administration of Customs, the rate of duty on imports of clothing, accessories, home textiles, and others whose duty paragraph is 04000000 is adjusted to 20%, and the leather clothing and its accessories (including all kinds of leather garments and leather accessories) of duty paragraph 05000000 see the adjustment to 10%. As for the former one, the clothing includes coat, trousers, underwear, shirt/T-shirt, and other clothing; accessories include hats, scarves, headcloth, neckerchief, ties, belts, gloves, socks, handkerchiefs and so on; home textiles refer to blankets, quilts, pillows, bedspreads, sleeping bags, screens, etc.; the others are towels, bath towels, tablecloths, curtains, and carpets.

  13. Adaptation of the Fresenius PD+ Cycler for a hearing-impaired patient. (United States)

    Kushner, A


    Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) uses a cycler to perform dialysis exchanges and requires the patient to respond to an audible alarm signifying an interruption in the therapy. Consequently, an unassisted hearing-impaired patient could not use the system. By converting the standard alarm to a vibrating signal, the cycler was successfully adapted to accommodate the special needs of our hearing-impaired patient. The items required for the modification were the Sonic Alert Wake Up Alarm (Model SA-WA300: Sonic Alert, Troy, MI, U.S.A.) and the Sonic Alert Super Shaker Bed Vibrator (Model SA-SS120V: Sonic Alert). The patient can place the vibrator under either the pillow or the mattress. When the cycler alarm is activated, vibration wakens the patient. The equipment was purchased from Harris Communications (Eden Prairie, MN, U.S.A.) through a referral by the Easter Seal Society. Three days were needed to complete training compared to an average of one or two days for patients previously trained for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient remained on cycler therapy for approximately four months when the unrelated development of an abdominal hernia required termination of peritoneal dialysis and subsequent transfer to hemodialysis. In conclusion, a modified cycler can provide a safe and efficient renal replacement therapy option for a hearing-impaired patient.

  14. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia collision zone based on 40Ar-39Ar thermochronology in Ladakh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Bhutani; Kanchan Pande; T R Venkatesan


    New 40Ar-39Ar thermochronological results from the Ladakh region in the India-Asia collision zone provide a tectono-thermal evolutionary scenario. The characteristic granodiorite of the Ladakh batholith near Leh yielded a plateau age of 46.3 ± 0.6Ma (2 ). Biotite from the same rock yielded a plateau age of 44.6 ± 0.3Ma (2 ). The youngest phase of the Ladakh batholith, the leucogranite near Himya, yielded a cooling pattern with a plateau-like age of ∼36 Ma. The plateau age of muscovite from the same rock is 29.8 ± 0.2Ma (2 ). These ages indicate post-collision tectonothermal activity, which may have been responsible for partial melting within the Ladakh batholith. Two basalt samples from Sumdo Nala have also recorded the post-collision tectono-thermal event, which lasted at least for 8MY in the suture zone since the collision, whereas in the western part of the Indus Suture, pillow lava of Chiktan showed no effect of this event and yielded an age of emplacement of 128.2 ± 2.6Ma (2 ). The available data indicate that post-collision deformation led to the crustal thickening causing an increase in temperature, which may have caused partial melting at the base of the thickened crust. The high thermal regime propagated away from the suture with time.

  15. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedzińska D.


    Full Text Available A vibratory pile hammer (VPH is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE, whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  16. Accidental childhood death and the role of the pathologist. (United States)

    Byard, R W


    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings, accidental asphyxia, burns, poisonings, electrocution, and miscellaneous trauma. In addition, certain categories have undergone further examination, including asphyxial deaths due to unsafe sleeping environments and unsafe eating practices, drowning deaths, and deaths on farms, following identification of significant child safety problems in these areas as part of the "Keeping Your Baby and Child Safe" program. Previously unrecognized dangers to children detected through this program include mesh-sided cots, V-shaped pillows, and certain types of stroller-prams. The production of information pamphlets and packages for parents and the recall of certain dangerous products following recommendations made by pathologists demonstrate that pediatric and forensic pathologists have an important role to play in preventive medicine issues and in formulating public health strategies.

  17. In-situ dating of the Earth's oldest trace fossil at 3.34 Ga (United States)

    Fliegel, D.; Kosler, J.; McLoughlin, N.; Simonetti, A.; de Wit, M. J.; Wirth, R.; Furnes, H.


    Microbial activity in volcanic glass within the oceanic crust can produce micron sized pits and tunnels. Such biogenic textures have been described from the recent oceanic crust and mineralized equivalents in pillow lavas as old as 3.47-3.45 Ga from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) of South Africa. In meta-volcanic glasses these microbial traces are preserved by titanite mineralization (CaTiSiO 5) and on the basis of morphological, textural and geochemical evidence have been argued to represent Earth's oldest trace fossils. Here we report the results of in-situ U-Pb dating of titanite that infills trace fossils from the Hooggenoeg Complex of the BGB using laser ablation MC-ICP-MS (multi-collector inductively coupled, plasma mass spectrometry). This yields a titanite age of 3.342 ± 0.068 Ga demonstrating the antiquity of the BGB trace fossils. This radiometric age confirms that a sub-seafloor biosphere was already established in the PaleoArchean and that it likely represented an important habitat for the emergence and evolution of early microbial life on the Earth.

  18. [Sleeping habits related to sudden infant death syndrome: a population-based study]. (United States)

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue


    This cross-sectional study on sleeping habits with potential risk for sudden infant death syndrome included all live births in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003 with data collection from Certificates of Live Birth and interviews, analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test. From the 2,634 live births, 2,285 children were selected (86.75%), with 8.4% exclusion and 5.2% losses. Protective habits included 77% of infants with appropriate clothing, 90% loosely wrapped, 69% with thin blankets, 98% sleeping in the parents' bedroom, and 56% in the crib. Potentially risky habits included lateral decubitus (92%), use of a pillow (88%), and feet far from the lower edge of the crib (96%). Among low-income families, bed-sharing with other children was significant (p = 0.00). Thus, in a county with a low prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome, infants are exposed to both protective and risk factors, suggesting that in underprivileged populations in developing countries, other risk factors for this syndrome should be considered.

  19. Rehabilitation exercise for treatment of vestibular disorder: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Feazadeh


    Full Text Available Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, there are different interpretations of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of a 56 year old woman with complains of positional vertigo for 35 consecutive years. She suffered from a sudden onset of rotatory, unilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The symtoms started a day after falling from a bus, where she injured her head. Otherwise her medical history was unremarkable. She was treated with an individualized home exercise program of eye movement exercises, Brandt/Daroff exercises, and general conditioning exercises (i.e., laying on the left side from sitting on the bed, while the head rotated 45 degrees to the right, waiting for about one minue; twice a day on gradual basis, not laying on the side all the way, but to use enough pillows to lay about at 60 degrees. Four weeks from the start of physical therapy, the patient was free of symptoms, even when her neck was in the extended position.

  20. Plume-proximal mid-ocean ridge origin of Zhongba mafic rocks in the western Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Southern Tibet (United States)

    He, Juan; Li, Yalin; Wang, Chengshan; Dilek, Yildirim; Wei, Yushuai; Chen, Xi; Hou, Yunling; Zhou, Aorigele


    The >2000 km-long Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) in southern Tibet includes the remnants of the Mesozoic Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, and is divided by the Zhada-Zhongba microcontinent into northern and southern branches in its western segment. Zircon U-Pb dating of a doleritic rock from the northern branch has revealed a concordant age of 160.5 ± 1.3 Ma. All of the doleritic samples from the northern branch and the pillow basalt and gabbro samples from the southern branch display consistent REE and trace element patterns similar to those of modern OIB-type rocks. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures of these OIB-type rocks from the western segment are identical with those of OIB-type and alkaline rocks from other ophiolite massifs along the central and eastern segments of the YZSZ, suggesting a common mantle plume source for their melt evolution. The enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic character of the gabbroic dike rocks from the southern branch points to a mantle plume source, contaminated by subducted oceanic crust or pelagic sediments. We infer that the mafic rock associations exposed along the YZSZ represent the remnants of a Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, which was developed as part of a plume-proximal seafloor-spreading system, reminiscent of the seamount chains along-across the modern mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific Ocean.

  1. Raman-IR vibrational and XRD characterization of ancient and modern mineralogy from volcanic eruption in Tenerife Island: Implication for Mars

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    E.A. Lalla


    Full Text Available A detailed vibrational Raman-IR spectroscopic and diffractional analyses have been performed on basalts from two locations from Tenerife Island: (1 the Arenas Negras volcano which belongs to the historical eruption not showing visible alteration and (2 Pillow Lavas zone from Anaga Massif which shows a clearly fluid-rock interaction caused by submarine alteration. These places have been extensively studied due to its similarity with the surface of Mars. The analysis is based on the mineral detection of selected samples by a Micro-Raman study of the materials. The complementary techniques have confirmed the mineralogy detected by the Raman measurement. The results show a volcanic environment behavior with primary phases like olivine, pyroxene, and feldspar/plagioclase. Moreover, the presence of accessory minerals or secondary mineralization like phosphate, iron oxides, zeolite or carbonates shows the alteration processes on each outcrop. The variation in the crystallinity and amorphous phases is related to fluid-rock interaction caused by hydrothermal episodes and external weathering processes, which shows several analogies with the ancient volcanic activity from Mars.

  2. Geochronology and Geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Aoyougou Ophiolite in the North Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Aoyougou ophiolite lies in an early Palaeozoic orogenic belt of the western North Qilian Mountains, near the Aoyougou valley in Gansu Province, northwestern China. It consists of serpentinite, a cumulate sequence of gabbro and diorite, pillow and massive lavas, diabase and chert. Ages of 1840±2 Ma, 1783±2 Ma and 1784±2 Ma on three zircons from diabase, indicate an early Middle Proterozoic age. The diabases and basalts show light rare-earth element enrichment and have relatively high TiO2 contents, characteristic of ocean island basalts. All of the lavas have low MgO, Cr, Ni contents and Mg numbers indicating a more evolved character. They are believed to have been derived from a more mafic parental magma by fractionation of olivine, Cr-spinel and minor plagioclase. Based on the lava geochemistry and regional geology, the Aoyougou ophiolite was probably believed to have formed at a spreading centre in a small marginal basin. Subduction of the newly formed oceanic lithosphere in the Middle Proterozoic produced a trench-arc-basin system, which is preserved in the North Qilian Mountains.

  3. Backarc rifting, constructional volcanism and nascent disorganised spreading in the southern Havre Trough backarc rifts (SW Pacific) (United States)

    Wysoczanski, R. J.; Todd, E.; Wright, I. C.; Leybourne, M. I.; Hergt, J. M.; Adam, C.; Mackay, K.


    High resolution multibeam (EM300 and SEABEAM) data of the Southern Havre Trough (SHT), combined with observations and sample collections from the submersible Shinkai6500 and deep-tow camera, are used to develop a model for the evolution and magmatism of this backarc system. The Havre Trough and the associated Kermadec Arc are the product of westward subduction at the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Detailed studies focus on newly discovered features including a seamount (Saito Seamount) and a deep graben (Ngatoroirangi Rift, > 4000 m water depth floored with a constructional axial volcanic ridge > 5 km in length and in excess of 200 m high), both of which are characterised by pillow and lobate flows estimated at Mass balance modelling indicates a maximum crustal thickness of ~ 11 km to magmatism within deep SHT rifts, we propose that the SHT is in an incipient phase of distributed and "disorganised" oceanic crustal accretion in multiple, ephemeral, and short but deep (> 4000 m) spreading systems. These discontinuous spreading systems are characterised by failed rifts, rift segmentation, and propagation. Successive episodes of magmatic intrusion into thinned faulted arc basement results in defocused asymmetrical accretion. Cross-arc volcanic chains, isolated volcanoes and underlying basement plateaus are interpreted to represent a "cap" of recent extrusives. However, they may also be composed entirely of newly accreted crust and the spatially extensive basement fabric of elongated volcanic ridges may be the surface expression of pervasive dike intrusion that has thoroughly penetrated and essentially replaced the original arc crust with newly accreted intrusives.

  4. Stratigraphic and Petrological Constraints of Cretaceous Subduction Initiation and Arc-Continent Collision in the Northern Andes (United States)

    Leon, S.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Parra, M.


    Middle to Late-Cretaceous orogenic events in the northern Andes have been commonly reconstructed from the analysis of inland basins or the integration of regional scale thermochronological, geochronological and geochemical datasets from the accreted blocks. In contrast, limited studies have been developed on the stratigraphic and deformational record of magmatic and sedimentary sequences exposed near the suture zones. New field and petrologic data are used to characterize an ophiolite type sequence that outcrops in the western flank from the northwestern segment of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Stratigraphic analysis indicate the existence of Albian-Aptian deep marine pelitic sequence interbedded with minor chert and thin quartz sandstone beds that apparently change to a volcanic dominate stratigraphy. Deformed ophiolite-like mafic and ultramafic plutonic rocks and isolated pillow lavas are also exposed to the east in fault contact with the pelitic sequence. The pelitic and interlayered volcanic rocks represent the growth of an extensional Early-Cretaceous basin that followed a Late-Jurassic magmatic quiescence in the Northern Andes. The volcano-sedimentary record is probably related to the growth of a fore-arc basin in a new subduction zone that extends until the Late Cretaceous. The deformation and obduction of the ophiolitic association and the fore-arc basin were probably triggered by the Late Cretaceous collision with an allocthonous plateau-arc associated to the migration of the Caribbean plate.

  5. Boojums All the Way through (United States)

    Mermin, N. David


    Preface; Part I. Reflections on the Pursuit of Physics: 1. E. pluribus boojum: the physicist as neologist; 2. Commencement address; 3. One of the great physicists ... and great characters; 4. My life with Landeau; 5. What's wrong with this lagrangean?; 6. What's wrong with this library?; 7. What's wrong with this prose?; 8. What's wrong with these equations?; 9. What's wrong with these prizes?; Part II. The Quantum Theory: 10. Quantum mysteries for anyone; 11. Can you help your team tonight by watching on TV?; 12. Spooky actions at a distance: mysteries of the quantum; 13. A bolt from the blue: The Eistein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox; 14. The philosophical writings of Neils Bohr; 15. The great quantum muddle; 16. What's wrong with this pillow?; Part III. Relativity: 17. Cruel nature: a relativistic tragicomedy; 18. The amazing many coloured relativity engine; 19. Relativistic addition of velocities directly from the constancy of the velocity of light; 20. Relativity without light; 21. E = Mc2 (written with M. J. Feigenbaum); Part IV Mathematical Musings: 22. Logarithms!; 23. Stirling's formula!; 24. Pi in the sky; 25. Variational principles in dynamics and quantum theory; 26. Special functions: a group theoretic approach.

  6. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico) (United States)

    Blanc, E.J.-P.; Blanc-Aletru, M. -C.; Mojon, P.-O.


    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the "Las Vigas" and "La Virgen" formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five "stratigraphie" levels (Z1-Z5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the "Las Vigas" Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  7. 6d dual conformal symmetry and minimal volumes in AdS (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Lipstein, Arthur E.


    The S-matrix of a theory often exhibits symmetries which are not manifest from the viewpoint of its Lagrangian. For instance, powerful constraints on scattering amplitudes are imposed by the dual conformal symmetry of planar 4d N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and the ABJM theory. Motivated by this, we investigate the consequences of dual conformal symmetry in six dimensions, which may provide useful insight into the worldvolume theory of M5-branes (if it enjoys such a symmetry). We find that 6d dual conformal symmetry uniquely fixes the integrand of the one-loop 4-point amplitude, and its structure suggests a Lagrangian with more than two derivatives. On integrating out the loop momentum in 6 - 2 ɛ dimensions, the result is very similar to the corresponding amplitude of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We confirm this result holographically by generalizing the Alday-Maldacena solution for a minimal area string in Anti-de Sitter space to a minimal volume M2-brane ending on a pillow-shaped surface in the boundary whose seams correspond to a null-polygon. This involves careful treatment of a prefactor which diverges as 1/ ɛ, and we comment on its possible interpretation. We also study 2-loop 4-point integrands with 6d dual conformal symmetry and speculate on the existence of an all-loop formula for the 4-point amplitude.


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    Krisdianto Krisdianto


    Full Text Available Kekabu wood  (Bombax  ceiba L., which is  locally known as kapok or randu  has long been planted  as crops troughout  the country, as fiber producer aimed for stuffing  pillow. This species is considered as a giant tree which could produce a large quantity of timber. Unfortunately, the timber is too soft, having low density and several physical defects during drying, limiting its uses in conventional wood processing. Any treatment which could significantly increase its structural density may be useful for diversifying the uses of this timber.   This study examined some anatomical changes that may exist during mechanical densification. Wood samples measuring 40 mm thick, 40 mm wide and 500 mm long were steamed at 126°C for 30 minutes prior to  pressing of 23.75 kg/cm'.  Anatomical measures were undertaken using light microscope and scanning electron microscope  on both treated and untreated samples. Results showed that the treatment  significantly reduced void volume and ray distance of approximately a half the initial wood structure, followed by an increased in wood density of more than 50%.

  9. Titanite mineralization of bioalteration textures - the possible Ti precursor (United States)

    Fliegel, D.; Wirth, R.; Simonetti, A.; McLoughlin, N.; Furnes, H.


    Bioalteration textures in the glassy rims of pillow basalts are found in in-situ oceanic crust of any age, in Phanerozoic ophiolites and from Precambrian greenstone belts. In ancient and metamorphosed rocks, these bioalteration textures are often mineralized by titanite (CaSiTiO5). The presence of titanite provides a way to constrain the age of these tracefossils using in-situ U-Pb dating with LA-MC-ICPMS. Until now the pathway for mineralization by titanite was unclear. We investigate here bioalteration textures from in-situ oceanic crust (DSDP 418A) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Using high spatial resolved spectroscopy, Ti enrichments and the Ti speciation was determined in the bioalteration textures. In addition TEM and EELS revealed the microstructure of the bioalteration textures and with STXM the redox chemistry at the interface between texture and host glass was examined. The observed Ti can serve as precursor for subsequent titanite mineralization during sub-seafloor and/or later regional metamorphism. We present here therefore a model for the mineralization and thus preservation of bioalteration textures in the oceanic crust.

  10. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in Imam Khomayni Hospital, Ilam, 2011-2012

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    Reza Azizian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causes of hospital infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common agent of urinary tract infections. Hospital acquired infection as an old challenge has high importance in hospital infection control and Staphylococcus spp. play main role among routine pathogens. this study designed to investigate the of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus among ICU, Men and Children wards. Materials and methods: Samples collected randomly from ICU, Men and Children wards. Through 203 sampling of wall, floor, bed, pillow and blanket, 75 Staphylococcus spp. isolated. Species recognizes base on culture on Mannitol salt agar and Novobiocin susceptibility determination. Result: Among 75 positive samples, 62 (82.7%, and 13 isolates were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. 51% of bacteria isolated from ICU, 29% from children ward and 20% from men surgery ward. Staphylococcus saprophyticus comprised 87%, 82% and 73% of isolates pertaining to ICU, pediatric and men surgery wards, in a row. Conclusion: Our funding indicate there is an inappropriate instrument to deal with infection in hospital specially ICU. Regards to this issue that Staphylococcus spp. as a main pathogen which has potency to form biofilm and show high resistance to extended broad antibiotics therefore it is suggested to prepare proper guideline to cope with bacteria dissemination and resistance emergence in hospital.

  11. Degassing and differentiation in subglacial volcanoes, Iceland (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Calk, L.C.


    Within the neovolcanic zones of Iceland many volcanoes grew upward through icecaps that have subsequently melted. These steep-walled and flat-topped basaltic subglacial volcanoes, called tuyas, are composed of a lower sequence of subaqueously erupted, pillowed lavas overlain by breccias and hyaloclastites produced by phreatomagmatic explosions in shallow water, capped by a subaerially erupted lava plateau. Glass and whole-rock analyses of samples collected from six tuyas indicate systematic variations in major elements showing that the individual volcanoes are monogenetic, and that commonly the tholeiitic magmas differentiated and became more evolved through the course of the eruption that built the tuya. At Herdubreid, the most extensively studies tuya, the upward change in composition indicates that more than 50 wt.% of the first erupted lavas need crystallize over a range of 60??C to produce the last erupted lavas. The S content of glass commonly decreases upward in the tuyas from an average of about 0.08 wt.% at the base to crystallization that generates the more evolved, lower-temperature melts during the growth of the tuyas, apparently results from cooling and degassing of magma contained in shallow magma chambers and feeders beneath the volcanoes. Cooling may result from percolation of meltwater down cracks, vaporization, and cycling in a hydrothermal circulation. Degassing occurs when progressively lower pressure eruption (as the volcanic vent grows above the ice/water surface) lowers the volatile vapour pressure of subsurface melt, thus elevating the temperature of the liquidus and hastening liquid-crystal differentiation. ?? 1991.

  12. Etiologia, manifestações clínicas e alterações presentes nas crianças respiradoras orais Etiology, clinical manifestations and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children

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    Rubens Rafael Abreu


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a etiologia, as principais manifestações clínicas e as alterações presentes em crianças de 3 a 9 anos, respiradoras orais, residentes na região urbana de Abaeté (MG. MÉTODOS: Estudo com amostra aleatória representativa da população do município de 23.596 habitantes. Clinicamente, foram consideradas respiradoras orais as crianças que roncavam, dormiam com a boca aberta, babavam no travesseiro e apresentavam queixas de obstrução nasal freqüente ou intermitente. As crianças com diagnóstico clínico de respirador oral foram submetidas a endoscopia nasal, teste alérgico cutâneo e raio X do cavum, hemograma, contagem de eosinófilos, dosagem de IgE total e parasitológico de fezes. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa SPSS® versão 10.5. RESULTADOS: As principais causas da respiração oral foram: rinite alérgica (81,4%, hipertrofia de adenóides (79,2%, hipertrofia de amígdalas (12,6% e desvio obstrutivo do septo nasal (1,0%. As principais manifestações clínicas do respirador oral foram: dormir com a boca aberta (86%, roncar (79%, coçar o nariz (77%, babar no travesseiro (62%, dificuldade respiratória noturna ou sono agitado (62%, obstrução nasal (49% e irritabilidade durante o dia (43%. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas manifestações clínicas são muito freqüentes na criança respiradora oral. Essas manifestações devem ser reconhecidas e consideradas no diagnóstico clínico da respiração oral.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the etiology, main clinical manifestations and other concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children aged 3 to 9 years and resident in the urban area of Abaeté (MG, Brazil. METHODS: This study was based on a representative random sample of the town population, of 23,596 inhabitants. Clinical diagnosis of mouth-breathing was defined as a combination of snoring, sleeping with mouth open, drooling on the pillow and frequent or intermittent nasal obstruction. Children with a

  13. 1.90–1.88 Ga arc and back-arc basin in the Orijärvi area, SW Finland

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    Markku Väisänen


    Full Text Available The Orijärvi area within the Uusimaa Belt is a key area in resolving the stratigraphy and tectonic setting of the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex in southern Finland. Based on field relationships, geochemistry and radiometric age determinations, the area can be divided into four formations. The bimodal Orijärvi formation, lowermost in stratigraphy, is exposed in an antiform containing thesynvolcanic Orijärvi granodiorite in its core. Basalts have high LILE/HFSE ratios with pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The basalts in the lower part of the Orijärvi formation are geochemically less evolved than the basalts and basaltic andesites at higher levels. A rhyolite from a low stratigraphic level in the Orijärvi formation yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 1895.3±2.4 Ma. The Kiskoformation stratigraphically overlies the Orijärvi formation and the compositions of the volcanic rocks range from basalts to rhyolites. These mafic and intermediate rocks also show high LILE/HFSE ratios but the total element abundances are higher and show a more pronounced LREE enrichment, compared to the Orijärvi formation, indicating an evolved magma system. A dacite from the upper part of the Kisko formation yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 1878.2±3.4 Ma. TheSalittu formation probably overlies the Kisko formation. It mainly comprises picrites and tholeiitic pillow lavas with mica gneisses and minor marbles as intercalations. It differs from the underlying formations showing higher Mg, Ti and Zr contents and higher LILE/HFSE ratios. The major and trace element compositions indicate an oceanic affinity. The Toija formation evidently underlies the Salittu formation and comprises mafic pillow lavas, rhyolites, marbles, andone picritic horizon. The geochemical characteristics are transitional between the Salittu and Orijärvi/Kisko formations. All the formations contain both concordant and crosscutting intrusive rocks, some of which are comagmatic with the volcanic rocks. In

  14. High-resolution AUV mapping and lava flow ages at Axial Seamount (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.; Martin, J.


    Mapping along mid-ocean ridges, as on land, requires identification of flow boundaries and sequence, and ages of some flows to understand eruption history. Multibeam sonars on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) now generate 1-m resolution maps that resolve lava pillars, internal flow structures and boundaries, and lava flow emplacement sequences using crosscutting relations and abundance of fissures. MBARI has now mapped the summit caldera floor and rims and the upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. With the advent of the high-resolution bathymetry and the ability to observe flow contacts to determine superposition using ROVs and submersibles, the missing component has been determining absolute ages of the flows. We used the MBARI ROV Doc Ricketts to collect short push cores (<30 cm) of the thin sediment nestled between pillow lava lobes and sieve and then hand-pick planktic foraminifera from the base of the cores to date by AMS 14C. Ages of planktic foraminifera are marine-calibrated in years before present, and provide minimum ages for the underlying flows, as there is probably some basal sediment that is not recovered. 14C ages have been determined for 10 cores near the summit of Axial Seamount and for 6 from the lowermost south rift. Ages of nearby samples commonly yield statistically identical ages, and 2 cores near the center of the caldera had multiple layers dated. These ages systematically increase with depth, indicating that redistribution of sediment by bottom currents does not significantly affect the stratigraphy. We will expand these collections in summer 2011. The coring is accompanied by collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition inferred from the mapping data. Six ages from the lowermost part of the south rift of Axial Seamount include samples on a cone with deep summit crater that is ~16,580 aBP and on 5 flows between 950 and 1510 aBP. Two

  15. Modified Large Craniotomy for Decompression of Frontal Parietal Temporal and Occipital Lobes for Treatment of Patients with Supra-tentorial Malignant Infarcts%额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术对幕上恶性脑梗塞的临床疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎乾科; 姚庆宁; 唐协林; 刘胜华; 罗静; 肖奎; 钟俊; 赵超


    Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy for supra-tentorial malignant infarcts ( STMBI ) of craniotomy surgery in pillow top frontotemporal .Method:Using the prospective study , the STMBI patients diagnosed in clinical and radiographic were divided into surgery group and the control group , and compared the postoperative mortality of the two groups .After 1-year follow-up, compared the Glasgow outcome scale ( GOS) and Barthal index between the two groups .Result:The present study included a total of 26 subjects, 13 cases in surgery group and 13 in control group .There's no significant difference in age and GCS between two groups.The results of 1-year follow-up showed that the survival rate in surgery group and the control group were 84.6%and 69.2%respectively ( P>0.05) .GOS and Barthal index in surgery group were better than control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion: Compared with conservative treatment , supra-tentorial malig-nant infarcts ( STMBI) of craniotomy surgery in pillow top frontotemporal can not only reduce mortality but also improve the prognosis .%目的:评估额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术对幕上恶性脑梗塞( supra-tentorial malignant in-farcts,STMBI)的临床疗效。方法:采用前瞻性研究的方法,将临床和放射学诊断为STMBI的患者分为手术组和对照组,比较两组的术后死亡率;随访1年后比较两组患者的格拉斯哥预后评分( GOS)、Bar-thal指数。结果:本次研究共纳入共26例研究对象,其中手术组13例,对照组13例。术前两组年龄、GCS比较差异无统计学意义。随访1年结果显示,手术组和对照组1年生存率分别为为84.6%和69.2%(p>0.05)。格拉斯哥预后评分(GOS)、Barthal 指数在手术组更好(p<0.05)。结论:STMBI 患者早期行额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术与保守治疗相比,不仅降低了死亡率,还改善了预后。

  16. 全膝关节置换术后不同体位和引流方法的失血量比较%Comparison on blood loss between different position and drainage method after total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红嫣; 王利宏; 卢福娇


    Objective To study the effect of different position and drainage method on blood loss after total knee arthro-plasty. Method Select 30 patients after total knee arthroplasty. Divide them into Group A, B and C according to random number table. Patients in Group A take the position of extension knee with pillow under the ankle of affected extremity and indwelling vacuum-drainage bag. Patients in Group B take the position of extension knee with pillow under the ankle of affected extremity and indwelling unvacuum-drainage bag. Patients in Group C lift affected extremity at the angle of 30 degree, bend knee at the angle of 45 degree and indwelling unvacuum-drainage bag. Compare the volumes of drain 24h after operation, total blood transfusion and change of prc - operation and post - operation total protein and hemoglobin of three groups. Result The volumes of drain 24h after operation of Group A, B and C arc (970. 00±79. 54)ml, (719. 00 ± 83. 91) ml and (419. 00 ± 38. 74)ml (F=15. 36, P<0. 05). The total blood transfusion and loss of total protein and hemoglobin arc less in Group C. There is significant difference on comparison between Group C and other two groups. Conclusion Bent and lifting position and unvacuum-drainage for patients after total knee arthroplasty can help reduce postoperative blood loss.%目的 探讨全膝关节置换术后不同体位和引流方法对减少失血量的影响.方法 选择30例全膝关节置换术后患者,按随机数字表分为A组、B组和C组各10例.A组术后患肢踝后垫枕,膝关节伸直位,留置负压引流袋引流;B组术后患肢踝后垫枕,膝关节伸直位,留置非负压引流袋引流;C组术后患肢抬高30°、屈膝45°,留置非负压引流袋引流.比较3组术后24 h 切口引流量、术前和术后总蛋白及血红蛋白差值、总输血量.结果 A、B、C 3组术后24 h 切口引流量分别为(970.00±79.54)ml、(719.00±83.91)ml和(419.00±38.74)ml,经比较,F=15.36,P<0.05;C组患者

  17. Calcitriol Therapy for Treating Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets in Children%骨化三醇治疗佝偻病的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立君; 杜秋影; 姚笠


    Objective To observe calcitriol for treating infantile vitamin D deficiency rickets in children. Methods One hundred and fifty infants with vitamin D deficiency rickets were randomly divided into three groups,treatment group 1(50 cases) ,were treated with oral calcitriol 0.25μg·d-1 for 30 days; treatment group 2 (50 cases) , were treated with 0.50μg·d-1 for 30 days; and treatment group 3(50 cases) , were . Treated with vitamin D2 2000 IU·d-1 for 30 days. The changes in correlation symptoms(night terrors,sweat,vexed make,pillow bald) ,height and weight,serum calcium,bone alkaline phosphatase(BALP),serum 25 - (OH) vitamin D3 and changes in the bone mineral density were observed in 3 groups. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results The clinical symptoms (night terrors,sweat,vexed make,pillow bald) in each group were all improved; height, weight in each group also grew and had no statistical difference among them; the serum calcium in 3 groups had no statistical difference. After treatment, the decline of BALP and the increase of serum 25-( OH) vitamin D, and bone mineral density had statistically significant changes (Pa <0.01). Treatment group 2 changed the most. Conclusion Treatment of calcitriol in infantile rickets has curative effect,and 0.50μg·d-1 in northern area children is proved to be a very good therapy.%目的 探讨骨化三醇治疗小儿佝偻病的效果.方法 选取150例1~3岁的佝偻病患儿,随机分为3组,每组50例,治疗1组每日口服骨化三醇1粒(0.25 μg),治疗2组每日2粒(0.50 μg),对照组则每日给予普通维生素D22000 IU.治疗1个月后比较各组患儿治疗前后临床表现(夜惊、多汗、烦闹、枕秃等)改善情况,以及身高、血清钙、骨碱性磷酸酶(BALP)、血清25羟维生素D3、骨密度的变化情况.采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 各组患儿临床表现(夜惊、多汗、烦闹、枕秃)均有改善;各组患儿身高、体质量均有增长,

  18. Origins of Carbonaceous Matter, Hematite, and Pyrite in the 3.46Ga Marble Bar Chert/Jasper/Basalt Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D. C.; Watanabe, Y.; Otake, T.


    The 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert/Jasper unit in the Pilbara district, W.A. was probably deposited in a deep (>500 m) ocean during the accumulation of a thick (>5 km) submarine basalt. Debate focuses on whether organic matter in pre-2.0 Ga cherts is a remnant of marine organisms or the product of abiotic synthesis in hydrothermal systems, whether the hematite crystals in jaspers were primary or products of modern oxidation of siderite and pyrite, and whether the pyrite crystals formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria, hydrothermal fluids, or atmospheric sulfur. At the drilling site, the Marble bar Chert/Jasper is over turned diping about 80 degrees. A continuous 264 m- long core, drilled at 50 degrees, was recovered. The major chert/jasper unit, comprising alternating beds (0.1 - 5 cm thick) of white/green/gray/black/red chert, is 105 m thick. The abundance of red jasper beds increases down hole, indicating that the hematite crystals were not produced by subaerial oxidation of ferrous minerals. Petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations of the core samples, especially using an X-ray chemical microscope, have revealed that the dominant Fe-bearing minerals are siderite, magnetite, and hematite, in the green, gray-black, and red cherts, respectively. These Fe-bearing minerals and disseminated pyrite crystals (ubiquitous in all cherts) are typically very fine grained (less than 10 microns). The basalts (pillows and tuffs), which occur below, above, and interbedded with the chert/jasper unit, are in places heavily hematitized with various characteristics of submarine hydrothermal alteration, such as chloritization, silicification, pyritization, large variations in the contents of Fe, Mg, Ba, and depletions in Ca, Sr, and Na. Veinles containing quartz and pyrite are abundant in the chert/jaster beds and also in the heavily hematitized basalts. These data suggest the hematite, magnetie, siderite, pyrite and silica in the chert/jasper unit, basalt tuffs, and pillow

  19. 低位产钳助产术的助产指征及并发症141例分析%Analysis of 141 cases of low forceps midwifery indications and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 马秀华


    Objective Discusses low forceps midwifery indications and complications, and the value of clinical appli-cation in obstetric delivery . Method Retrospective analysis of clinical data in our hospital in 2009~2013 years 141 cases of patients with low forceps. Result In the implementation of low forceps midwifery, the indications of mid-wifery are abnormal fetal distress, pillow, weakness of contractions, gestational hypertension disease, antepartum haemorrhage, hyperthyroidism merger, sinus tachycardia, expired pregnancy, pregnancy second prolonged labor. Mainly the indications of midwifery for abnormal fetal distress and pillow, both accounted for 90. 1% of the indica-tions of midwifery. Major maternal complication is vaginal injury, serious complication of neonatal is only 1. 4%. Fe-tal aspiration after failed forceps delivery group and directly for forceps delivery group, there are significant differ-ence in the maternal complications and neonatal complications (P<0. 05). The two groups in neonatal birth weight have significant difference(P<0. 05). Conclusion Correct evaluation and decision making, correct and skilled in the use of low forceps technique on mother and infant, small trauma. Low forceps delivery is to solve the head posi-tion dystocia, shorten the second stage of labor of the important operation method, it has the irreplaceable in obstet-rics childbirth.%目的:探讨低位产钳助产术的助产指征和并发症以及在产科分娩中的临床应用的价值。方法对本院2009~2013年实施的141例低位产钳术的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果在实施低位产钳助产技术中助产指征有:胎儿窘迫、枕位异常、宫缩乏力、妊娠期高血压疾病、产前出血、甲亢合并妊娠、窦性心动过速、过期妊娠和第二产程延长。其中主要助产指征为胎儿窘迫及枕位异常,两者占助产指征的90.1%。母体并发症主要为阴道壁裂伤,而新生儿发

  20. Effect of different body position care combined with early rehabilitation training on the functional recovery of knee joint after surgery for fracture of patella%髌骨骨折术后不同体位护理联合早期康复训练对膝关节功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余敏; 刘长英


    目的:探讨髌骨骨折术后不同体位护理联合早期康复训练对膝关节功能恢复的影响。方法:将47例髌骨骨折患者随机分为实验组24例和对照组23例,实验组内固定术后局部弹力绷带包扎,膝后垫软枕,予屈曲膝关节90°~120°体位放置;常规组内固定术后常规抬高患肢15°~20°,膝后垫软枕,膝关节屈曲5°~10°体位。两组患者术后均实施冷敷,第2天由主管医生、护士和康复师对其进行康复指导,分别于术后第3天、第14天、第30天比较两组患者不同体位护理效果。结果:实验组患肢肿胀、疼痛程度明显轻于对照组,功能锻炼主动配合、膝关节功能恢复情况明显优于对照组,患者平均住院天数明显短于对照组(P﹤0.05);实验组早期体位舒适度较对照组差( P﹤0.05)。结论:髌骨骨折患者术后正确的体位、早期及时正确的功能锻炼是膝关节功能康复的关键。%Objective:To investigate the effect of different body position care combined with early rehabilitation training on the function-al recovery of knee joint after fracture of patella. Methods:47 patients with patellar fracture were randomly divided into the experimental group(n=24)and the control group(n=23). The local bandage was adopted with elastic bandages and soft pillow was used to cushion the knee flexion(90 °~120 °)after internal fixation in the experimental group;the affected limb was lifted about 15 °~ 20 °and soft pil-low was put under the knee in the position of knee flexion(5 ° ~ 10 °)after internal fixation in the control group. The patients in both groups were treated with cold compress after operation and they were given rehabilitation guidance by the doctor and nurse in charge and physical therapist on the second day,the effect of different body position care was compared respectively on the 3rd,14th and 30th day after operation. Results:The severity of swelling and

  1. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.


    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  2. Somnipathy and Sleep Health of Elderly People%老年人睡眠障碍与睡眠养生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 井明鑫


    Sleep is one of the most important physiological activities. Good sleep can save one’s energy. Further more, good sleep can greatly reduce the incidence of various diseases. As a result of the decline of all sorts of physiological functions, the incidence of sleep disorders of elderly people has greatly increased. Adjusting the sleep environment is an effective way to improve the sleep quality of elderly people, such as adjusting sleep time to the diurnal variation, choosing a comfortable sleeping posture, arranging the bedroom, finding a proper bed, a soft pillow and a set of comfortable bedding, etc. All these can help provide a comfortable sleep environment for elderly people.%睡眠是人最重要的生理活动之一,健康良好的睡眠不仅可以养精蓄锐,更大大降低了多种疾病的发病率。老年人由于生理机能的衰退,睡眠障碍的发生率大大提高。通过调整睡眠环境来改善老年人的睡眠状态是一种行之有效的养生手段,如睡眠时间的调整、睡眠姿势的选择、睡眠环境的布置、舒适的床具、柔软的枕头、厚实的被褥等,都可以为老年人提供一个舒适的睡眠环境。

  3. ESOLIP – estimate of solid and liquid precipitation at sub-daily time resolution by combining snow height and rain gauge measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mair


    Full Text Available Measuring precipitation in mountain areas is a demanding task, but essential for hydrological and environmental themes. Especially in small Alpine catchments with short hydrological response, precipitation data with high temporal resolution are required for a better understanding of the hydrological cycle. Since most climate/meteorological stations are situated at the easily accessible bottom of valleys, and the few heated rain gauges installed at higher elevation sites are problematic in winter conditions, an accurate quantification of winter (snow precipitation at high elevations remains difficult. However, there are an increasing number of micro-meteorological stations and snow height sensors at high elevation locations in Alpine catchments. To benefit from data of such stations, an improved approach to estimate solid and liquid precipitation (ESOLIP is proposed. ESOLIP allows gathering hourly precipitation data throughout the year by using unheated rain gauge data, careful filtering of snow height sensors as well as standard meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, global shortwave radiation, wind speed. ESOLIP was validated at a well-equipped test site in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria, comparing results to winter precipitation measured with a snow pillow and a heated rain gauge. The snow height filtering routine and indicators for possible precipitation were tested at a field site in Matsch Valley (South Tyrol, Italy. Results show a good match with measured data because variable snow density is taken into account, which is important when working with freshly fallen snow. Furthermore, the results show the need for accurate filtering of the noise of the snow height signal and they confirm the unreliability of heated rain gauges for estimating winter precipitation. The described improved precipitation estimate ESOLIP at sub-daily time resolution is helpful for precipitation analysis and for several hydrological applications

  4. Seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin and their spatial stratigraphic distribution (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhong, Yijiang; Chen, Hongde; Xu, Changgui; Wu, Kui


    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) have been identified from well cores in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin, China. These deposits formed as interbedded sand and mud at a delta front or on the slope toe of the prodelta. According to criteria proposed by previous research, we established that these SSDS were induced by earthquakes and that they can be divided into two groups: ductile deformation structures (plastic intrusions, ball-and-pillow structures, flame structures, boudinage structures, irregular convolute stratifications, and synsedimentary faults and folds) and brittle deformation structures (sand dykes and autoclastic breccias). Based on their level of deformation, size, and complexity, the SSDS were divided into three Groups, from weak to strong, to reflect the intensity of palaeo-earthquakes. With consideration of the palaeo-sedimentary environment, we proposed a model to account for the production and preservation of these SSDS. According to the classification adopted in this study and the spatial stratigraphic distribution of the SSDS, the tectonic activities of the Tan-Lu faults in the Bohai Bay basin were investigated. The A and B oilfields (assumed names) are located in the tectonically active zones of the west and east branches of these faults, respectively. The extension tectonic activities in the A oilfield region exhibit a sharply decreasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and increase again in E3d2; whereas the strike-slip tectonic activities in the B oilfield region exhibit an increasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and finally, reach a maximum to E3d3. The results of this study show that the method of analysis of the spatial stratigraphic distribution of SSDS is suitable for determining the evolution of tectonic activity and thus, it can provide a new perspective for basin analysis.

  5. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  6. A primitive mantle source for the Neoarchean mafic rocks from the Tanzania Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.A. Cook; I.V. Sanislav; J. Hammerli; T.G. Blenkinsop; P.H.G.M. Dirks


    Mafic rocks comprising tholeiitic pillow basalt, dolerite and minor gabbro form the basal stratigraphic unit in the ca. 2.8 to 2.6 Ga Geita Greenstone Belt situated in the NW Tanzania Craton. They outcrop mainly along the southern margin of the belt, and are at least 50 million years older than the supracrustal assemblages against which they have been juxtaposed. Geochemical analyses indicate that parts of the assemblage approach high Mg-tholeiite (more than 8 wt.%MgO). This suite of samples has a restricted compositional range suggesting derivation from a chemically homogenous reservoir. Trace element modeling suggests that the mafic rocks were derived by partial melting within the spinel peridotite field from a source rock with a primitive mantle composition. That is, trace elements maintain primitive mantle ratios (Zr/Hf ¼ 32e35, Ti/Zr ¼ 107e147), producing flat REE and HFSE profiles [(La/Yb)pm ¼ 0.9 e1.3], with abundances of 3e10 times primitive mantle and with minor negative anomalies of Nb [(Nb/La)pm ¼ 0.6e0.8] and Th [(Th/La)pm ¼ 0.6e0.9]. Initial isotope compositions (3Nd) range from 1.6 to 2.9 at 2.8 Ga and plot below the depleted mantle line suggesting derivation from a more enriched source compared to present day MORB mantle. The trace element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are similar to the mafic rocks outcropping w50 km south. The mafic rocks outcropping in the Geita area were erupted through oceanic crust over a short time period, between w2830 and w2820 Ma; are compo-sitionally homogenous, contain little to no associated terrigenous sediments, and their trace element composition and short emplacement time resemble oceanic plateau basalts. They have been interpreted to be derived from a plume head with a primitive mantle composition.

  7. FY16 Summary Report: Participation in the KOSINA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Salt formations represent a promising host for disposal of nuclear waste in the United States and Germany. Together, these countries provided fully developed safety cases for bedded salt and domal salt, respectively. Today, Germany and the United States find themselves in similar positions with respect to salt formations serving as repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste. German research centers are evaluating bedded and pillow salt formations to contrast with their previous safety case made for the Gorleben dome. Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating on this effort as an Associate Partner and this report summarizes that teamwork. Sandia and German research groups have a long-standing cooperative approach to repository science, engineering, operations, safety assessment, testing, modeling and other elements comprising the basis for salt disposal. Germany and the United States hold annual bilateral workshops, which cover a spectrum of issues surrounding the viability of salt formations. Notably, recent efforts include development of a database for features, events, and processes applying broadly and generically to bedded and domal salt. Another international teaming activity evaluates salt constitutive models, including hundreds of new experiments conducted on bedded salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. These extensive collaborations continue to build the scientific basis for salt disposal. Repository deliberations in the United States are revisiting bedded and domal salt for housing a nuclear waste repository. By agreeing to collaborate with German peers, our nation stands to benefit by assurance of scientific position, exchange of operational concepts, and approach to elements of the safety case, all reflecting cost and time efficiency.

  8. Indoor Environmental Control Practices and Asthma Management. (United States)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C; Abramson, Stuart L; Sandel, Megan T


    Indoor environmental exposures, particularly allergens and pollutants, are major contributors to asthma morbidity in children; environmental control practices aimed at reducing these exposures are an integral component of asthma management. Some individually tailored environmental control practices that have been shown to reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations are similar in efficacy and cost to controller medications. As a part of developing tailored strategies regarding environmental control measures, an environmental history can be obtained to evaluate the key indoor environmental exposures that are known to trigger asthma symptoms and exacerbations, including both indoor pollutants and allergens. An environmental history includes questions regarding the presence of pets or pests or evidence of pests in the home, as well as knowledge regarding whether the climatic characteristics in the community favor dust mites. In addition, the history focuses on sources of indoor air pollution, including the presence of smokers who live in the home or care for children and the use of gas stoves and appliances in the home. Serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibody tests can be performed or the patient can be referred for allergy skin testing to identify indoor allergens that are most likely to be clinically relevant. Environmental control strategies are tailored to each potentially relevant indoor exposure and are based on knowledge of the sources and underlying characteristics of the exposure. Strategies include source removal, source control, and mitigation strategies, such as high-efficiency particulate air purifiers and allergen-proof mattress and pillow encasements, as well as education, which can be delivered by primary care pediatricians, allergists, pediatric pulmonologists, other health care workers, or community health workers trained in asthma environmental control and asthma education.

  9. Interplay between tectonic and volcanic processes along the East Pacific Rise, 16°N (United States)

    Le Saout, M.; Thibaud, R.; Gente, P.


    The East-Pacific Rise (EPR) is a fast spreading ridge. Between 15°22'N and 16°15'N the spreading rate is 87 mm/year. This segment is the most inflated of the EPR due to its interaction with the Mathematician hotspot. The French PARISUB ("Panache Ridge Submersible") cruise in 2010 acquired high-resolution geophysical data using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Aster-X and the manned submersible Nautile (Ifremer). The goal was to investigate in detail the magmatic and tectonic processes at the intersection between the hotspot and the ridge. We investigate tectonic and volcanic processes using high-resolution data along the 16°N segment of the EPR. Near bottom bathymetric data (1 meter grid spacing) are improved by photos, videos and human observations from submersible survey. Data are used : 1/ to characterize in detail tectonic feature (faults and fissures) geometries (e.g., dip and vertical throw), 2/ to distinguish between different lava flows (pillow, lobate and sheet flows) and to locate lava sources defined in particular by flow front orientations and lava channels. In a context of an unusual spreading segment under influence of a hot spot, these data allow us to evaluate how small-scale volcanic and tectonic processes near ASTs, interact for nucleation and evolution of faulting patterns, and affect tectonic stain evaluation. The distinction between eruptive and non-eruptive tectonic features allows to estimate the distribution of tectonic feature affected by magnetic overprinting. We propose two origins for nucleation and evolution of faults around the AST, and define relations between faults, lava flows and seismic layer 2A.

  10. The Fina Nagu volcanic complex: Unusual submarine arc volcanism in the rapidly deforming southern Mariana margin (United States)

    Brounce, Maryjo; Kelley, Katherine A.; Stern, Robert; Martinez, Fernando; Cottrell, Elizabeth


    In the Mariana convergent margin, large arc volcanoes disappear south of Guam even though the Pacific plate continues to subduct and instead, small cones scatter on the seafloor. These small cones could form either due to decompression melting accompanying back-arc extension or flux melting, as expected for arc volcanoes, or as a result of both processes. Here, we report the major, trace, and volatile element compositions, as well as the oxidation state of Fe, in recently dredged, fresh pillow lavas from the Fina Nagu volcanic chain, an unusual alignment of small, closely spaced submarine calderas and cones southwest of Guam. We show that Fina Nagu magmas are the consequence of mantle melting due to infiltrating aqueous fluids and sediment melts sourced from the subducting Pacific plate into a depleted mantle wedge, similar in extent of melting to accepted models for arc melts. Fina Nagu magmas are not as oxidized as magmas elsewhere along the Mariana arc, suggesting that the subduction component responsible for producing arc magmas is either different or not present in the zone of melt generation for Fina Nagu, and that amphibole or serpentine mineral destabilization reactions are key in producing oxidized arc magmas. Individual Fina Nagu volcanic structures are smaller in volume than Mariana arc volcanoes, although the estimated cumulative volume of the volcanic chain is similar to nearby submarine arc volcanoes. We conclude that melt generation under the Fina Nagu chain occurs by similar mechanisms as under Mariana arc volcanoes, but that complex lithospheric deformation in the region distributes the melts among several small edifices that get younger to the northeast.

  11. 桩伴侣与基桩抗震的概念设计%Pile Partner and the Conceptual Earthquake-resistant Design of Foundation Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛江炜; 葛忻声; 蔡景珞; 杨勇


    It is uncertain that the lateral components such as basement wall and cap side wall bearing horizontal load,so the conventional pile foundation with low cap might endure lateral force that is larger,and even cause its damage.The applying of pile partner to improve traditional foundation pile structure form is put for ward,especially when there is few frictional force between pile cap and soil,or the soil modulus is small.The partner can be component for anti-earthquake concept design under rare earthquake action,pile partner may be sacrificed firstly to keep pile perform well.The improper design of composite foundation will destroy or weaken the isolation effect of pillow,and can be solved by reserving buffer space between pile and partner.%地下室外墙、承台侧壁等侧向构件承担水平荷载具有很大的不确定性,常规采用的低承台桩基有可能承受较大的甚至导致破坏的水平力,建议用桩伴侣改善传统基桩的构造形式,特别是对于承台与桩间土摩擦力小或者桩身范围地基土模量低的两类状况.在罕遇地震时,作为抗震概念设计的耗能构件,首先牺牲伴侣,避免或延迟桩头的破坏;复合地基如果设计不当会破坏或削弱褥垫层隔震的效果,可在伴侣与桩之间预留缓冲空间.

  12. Measuring Snow Precipitation in New Zealand- Challenges and Opportunities. (United States)

    Renwick, J. A.; Zammit, C.


    Monitoring plays a pivotal role in determining sustainable strategy for efficient overall management of the water resource. Though periodic monitoring provides some information, only long-term monitoring can provide data sufficient in quantity and quality to determine trends and develop predictive models. These can support informed decisions about sustainable and efficient use of water resources in New Zealand. However the development of such strategies is underpinned by our understanding and our ability to measure all inputs in headwaters catchments, where most of the precipitation is falling. Historically due to the harsh environment New Zealand has had little to no formal high elevation monitoring stations for all climate and snow related parameters outside of ski field climate and snow stations. This leads to sparse and incomplete archived datasets. Due to the importance of these catchments to the New Zealand economy (eg irrigation, hydro-electricity generation, tourism) NIWA has developed a climate-snow and ice monitoring network (SIN) since 2006. This network extends existing monitoring by electricity generator and ski stations and it is used by a number of stakeholders. In 2014 the network comprises 13 stations located at elevation above 700masl. As part of the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), NIWA is carrying out an intercomparison of precipitation data over the period 2013-2015 at Mueller Hut. The site was commissioned on 11 July 2013, set up on the 17th September 2013 and comprises two Geonor weighing bucket raingauges, one shielded and the other un-shielded, in association with a conventional tipping bucket raingauge and conventional climate and snow measurements (temperature, wind, solar radiation, relative humidity, snow depth and snow pillow). The presentation aims to outline the state of the current monitoring network in New Zealand, as well as the challenge and opportunities for measurement of precipitation in alpine

  13. Errors in Transcription and Notes of Poems on Red Leaves in Snuff Pot’s Book%子弟书《红叶题诗》校录指瑕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    “子弟书”是我国满族中下层人民的曲艺作品,是民族文化艺术的瑰宝。《子弟书丛钞》的校录与注释均有可商之处。“遇拙”当为“愚拙”,意为愚昧无知;“扑地岸”当为“赴堤岸”,意为“奔向河沿”;“赴床捣枕”当为“扑床捣枕”,意为“锤击床枕”;“急理便”的本字当为“机灵便”。%As a folk vocal art form originated among the middle and lower class Manchu people,the Snuff Pot’ s Book(zǐdì shū)is a treasure of culture and art of Chinese ethnic minorities. However,possible errors worthy of deliberation exist in the transcription and notes of the Collection of Snuff Pot’s Book (zǐdì shūcóng chāo). For example,遇拙could be愚拙,meaning ignorant and foolish,扑地岸could be赴堤岸,meaning heading for the riverbank,赴床捣枕could be扑床捣枕,meaning thumping the bed and pillow,and急理便could be机灵便.

  14. 液氢加注系统漏热故障对火箭发射的影响%Impact of Liquid Hydrogen Injection System Heat Leakage Fault on the Rocket Launch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昕晖; 栾骁; 陈景鹏; 孙克


    Using AMEsim modeling object-oriented software, with resistance to fluid and friction loss equation (Darcy-Weisbach) formula, extrusion and heat leakage model, based on liquid hydrogen injection system of the launch range, the paper establishes liquid flow and gas-liquid two-phase flow model, and analyzes the different heat leakage rate, pipe and device thermal failure, which affect the rocket changes in the tank. The results show that high-purity hydrogen flow compared with the actual value, in the two-phase flow model gasification hydrogen pressure, resistance, flow and other parameters have changed the role of the rocket tank's injection height and air pillow pressure; the two-phase flow model can simulate the heat leakage fault and can also indicate injection system failure process and results.%以AMEsim面向对象软件作为建模工具,以液阻与摩擦损失方程Darcy Weisbach公式、挤压与漏热模型为基础,基于发射场液氢加注系统,建立液相流动和气液两相流动模型,分析了不同漏热率,管路、器件漏热故障时对火箭贮箱的影响变化情况.研究结果表明:与液氢流动实际数值相比,两相流模型中气化液氢的压力、阻力、流量等参数的作用,改变了火箭贮箱的加注工位高度和贮箱气枕压力;两相流模型可进行加注系统漏热故障仿真,并能预示加注故障过程与结果.

  15. Fatores desencadeantes de crises de migrânea em pacientes com migrânea sem aura Precipitating factors of migraine attacks in patients with migraine without aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ierusalimschy


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a distribuição de fatores desencadeantes de migrânea em uma população determinada, foram avaliados, através de entrevista pessoal, 100 pacientes que preenchiam os critérios diagnósticos para migrânea sem aura propostos pela Sociedade Internacional de Cefaléia. O estresse foi o desencadeante mais citado, respondendo pelo surgimento de crises de migrânea em 76% dos pacientes. Em seguida, em ordem de frequência decrescente, foram citados: estímulos sensoriais (75%, privação do sono (49%, jejum (48%, fatores ambientais (47%, alimentos (46%, menstruação (39%, fadiga (35%, bebidas alcoólicas (28%, sono prolongado (27%, cafeína (22%, esforço físico (20%, trauma craniano (20%, viagens (4%, atividade sexual (3%, medicamentos (2%, os movimentos do pescoço (2%, tabagismo (1% e uso de travesseiro baixo (1%. Conclui-se que determinados fatores parecem desempenhar papel importante na precipitação da migrânea.To study the distribution of triggers of migraine in a selected population, 100 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for migraine without aura as proposed by the International Headache Societywere evaluated by means of a personal interview. Stress was the most cited trigger, triggering migraine in 76%. Afterwards, in descending order of frequency, were cited sensorial stimuli (75%, sleep deprivation (49%, hunger (48%, environmental factors (47%, food (46%, menses (39%, fatigue (35%, alcohol (28%, sleep excess (27%, cafeine (22%, physical exertion (20%, head trauma (20%, trips (4%, sexual activity (3%, medications (2%, neck movements (2%, smoking (1% and the use of a low pillow (1%. It is concluded that certain factors seem to play an important role in the triggering of migraine.

  16. Initial clinical experience with scanned proton beams at the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO). (United States)

    Tuan, J; Vischioni, B; Fossati, P; Srivastava, A; Vitolo, V; Iannalfi, A; Fiore, M R; Krengli, M; Mizoe, J E; Orecchia, R


    We report the initial toxicity data with scanned proton beams at the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO). In September 2011, CNAO commenced patient treatment with scanned proton beams within two prospective Phase II protocols approved by the Italian Health Ministry. Patients with chondrosarcoma or chordoma of the skull base or spine were eligible. By October 2012, 21 patients had completed treatment. Immobilization was performed using rigid non-perforated thermoplastic-masks and customized headrests or body-pillows as indicated. Non-contrast CT scans with immobilization devices in place and MRI scans in supine position were performed for treatment-planning. For chordoma, the prescribed doses were 74 cobalt grey equivalent (CGE) and 54 CGE to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2, respectively. For chondrosarcoma, the prescribed doses were 70 CGE and 54 CGE to PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Treatment was delivered five days a week in 35-37 fractions. Prior to treatment, the patients' positions were verified using an optical tracking system and orthogonal X-ray images. Proton beams were delivered using fixed-horizontal portals on a robotic couch. Weekly MRI incorporating diffusion-weighted-imaging was performed during the course of proton therapy. Patients were reviewed once weekly and acute toxicities were graded with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Median age of patients = 50 years (range, 21-74). All 21 patients completed the proton therapy without major toxicities and without treatment interruption. Median dose delivered was 74 CGE (range, 70-74). The maximum toxicity recorded was CTCAE Grade 2 in four patients. Our preliminary data demonstrates the clinical feasibility of scanned proton beams in Italy.

  17. Study on Co-pyrolysis of Laminated Paper-PE-Al Packaging Material%纸塑铝复合包装材料各组分共热解行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟进胜; 钱杨; 任学勇; 王文亮; 常建民


    Paper, PE and A1 were separated from pillow Tetra Pak with formic acid and used as materials for experiment. TG-FTIR analysis technique was applied to study the synergism of components during pyrogena tion process, so as to understand the co pyrolysis behavior, which will provide an experimental basis and scien- tific reference to achieve resource utilization of abandon Tetra Pak. The results showed that there is synergism between paper and PE during co pyrolysis, especially near the decomposing peak; the aluminum promotes and restrains the reaction in different stage of co-pyrolysis as catalyst.%用甲酸分离枕型利乐包所得的纸、聚乙烯、铝作为实验材料,采用热重红外联用(TG—FTIR)分析技术,研究了各组分在热解过程中的协同作用,以探索纸塑铝复合包装各组分共热解机理,为实现废弃利乐包材料的资源化利用提供科学参考和实验依据。结果表明:共热解时纸和聚乙烯之间存在协同作用,在失重峰位置表现得尤为明显;铝在共热解时具有一定的催化作用,在反应的不同阶段起到了相应的促进或者抑制热解的作用。

  18. Oceanic mafic magmatism in the Siletz terrane, NW North America: Fragments of an Eocene oceanic plateau? (United States)

    Phillips, Bethan A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mullen, Emily K.; Weis, Dominique


    The Siletz terrane, a predominantly mafic accreted oceanic terrane, is located in the Cascadia forearc region of Oregon, Washington and Vancouver Island. The terrane represents a late Palaeocene-Eocene large igneous province that consists of pillow lavas, massive flows and intrusive sheets. Previously it has been proposed that the Siletz terrane represents either an accreted oceanic plateau, hotspot island chain, backarc basin, island arc, or a sequence of slab window volcanics. A province-wide geochemical reassessment of the terrane, including new high precision Sr-Pb-Nd-Hf isotope data, has been used to assess the validity of the proposed tectonomagmatic models for the Siletz terrane. The trace element data show little evidence of crustal contamination, or an arc signature, and the samples have rare earth element (REE) patterns that are flat to light REE enriched. These features are similar to other oceanic plateaus such as the Ontong Java and the Caribbean. Initial isotope ratios range from 206Pb/204 Pb: 18.751 to 19.668, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.507 to 15.661, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.294 to 39.2128, 176Hf/177Hf: 0.28300 to 0.28316 (εHf: 9.0 to 14.5), 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51282 to 0.51299 (εNd: 5.0 to 8.1) and 87Sr/86Sr: 0.70302 to 0.70380. These data are consistent with a mantle source of the Siletz terrane that appears to have been heterogeneous and slightly enriched. The enriched signature has characteristics of both EM2 and HIMU components and this, combined with a calculated mantle potential temperature well above ambient mantle, indicates derivation of the Siletz magmatism from a mantle plume, possibly the Yellowstone Hotspot. We therefore conclude that the Siletz terrane represents an accreted oceanic plateau.

  19. Estimating parameters of generalized integrate-and-fire neurons from the maximum likelihood of spike trains. (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Mihalas, Stefan; Russell, Alexander; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Niebur, Ernst


    When a neuronal spike train is observed, what can we deduce from it about the properties of the neuron that generated it? A natural way to answer this question is to make an assumption about the type of neuron, select an appropriate model for this type, and then choose the model parameters as those that are most likely to generate the observed spike train. This is the maximum likelihood method. If the neuron obeys simple integrate-and-fire dynamics, Paninski, Pillow, and Simoncelli (2004) showed that its negative log-likelihood function is convex and that, at least in principle, its unique global minimum can thus be found by gradient descent techniques. Many biological neurons are, however, known to generate a richer repertoire of spiking behaviors than can be explained in a simple integrate-and-fire model. For instance, such a model retains only an implicit (through spike-induced currents), not an explicit, memory of its input; an example of a physiological situation that cannot be explained is the absence of firing if the input current is increased very slowly. Therefore, we use an expanded model (Mihalas & Niebur, 2009 ), which is capable of generating a large number of complex firing patterns while still being linear. Linearity is important because it maintains the distribution of the random variables and still allows maximum likelihood methods to be used. In this study, we show that although convexity of the negative log-likelihood function is not guaranteed for this model, the minimum of this function yields a good estimate for the model parameters, in particular if the noise level is treated as a free parameter. Furthermore, we show that a nonlinear function minimization method (r-algorithm with space dilation) usually reaches the global minimum.

  20. Syndrome Differentiation Nursing on Vertigo of Liver-fire Flaring-up Syndrome for 56 Cases%56例肝火上炎型眩晕的辨证施护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 钱艳; 王冰


    目的:探讨肝火上炎型眩晕患者的辨证施护效果。方法通过对56例肝火上炎型眩晕患者以平肝潜阳、清火熄风、滋养肝肾为辨证施护原则,进行环境、生活、饮食、情志护理以及针灸、耳穴压豆、拔罐、足浴、药枕等中医特色护理,观察护理效果。结果显效30例,有效20例,无效6例。结论中医辨证施护对肝火上炎型眩晕临床护理效果肯定。%Objective To explore the effect of syndrome differentiation nursing on vertigo of liver-fire flaring-up syndrome .Method 56 cases of patients with vertigo of liver-fire flaring-up syndrome was treated according to principle of repressing hyperactive liver yang , clearing fire and extinguishing wind , nourishing liver and kidney , combined with some specific traditional Chinese medicine nursing methods , like life nursing , diet nursing , emotional nursing , acupuncture , auricular points plaster therapy , cupping , foot-bathing pediluvium and Chinese herbs pillow.Result 30 cases showed marked improvement , 20 cases were effective, 6 cases were invalid.Conclusion TCM syndrome differentiation nursing on vertigo of liver-fire flaring-up syndrome has definite effect .

  1. Analisis stratigrafi awal kegiatan Gunung Api Gajahdangak di daerah Bulu, Sukoharjo; Implikasinya terhadap stratigrafi batuan gunung api di Pegunungan Selatan, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono


    Full Text Available, Tertiary volcanisms in the Southern Mountains, Central Jawa were started with the formation of pillow lavas having basalt to basaltic andesite in composition. This initial stage volcanism developed into a  construction period of composite volcanoes that consist of alternating basaltic to andesitic lava flows, breccias, and tuffs. The construction period could be followed by a destructive phase, producing pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias, lapillistones, and tuffs of high silica andesite to dacite, or even rhyolite in composition. A stratigraphic measuring section at Bulu area, Sukoharjo Regency, presents an alternat- ing fine-grained andesitic volcaniclastic material and some limestones, with the total thickness is 143.33 m. The thickness of bedded volcaniclastic material tends to be thickening upward from 35 m until 90 m. The grain size of the volcaniclastic material also tends to be coarsening upward from clay size through silt and fine sand to coarse sand and granules. Paleontological analysis on fossils contained in the lime- stone gives an age of Early Miocene (N7 - N9. The volcaniclastic rocks is conformably overlain by the Mandalika Formation, comprising alternating andesitic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. These data imply that the fine-grained volcaniclastic material is an initial product of the construction period of Gajahdangak Volcano in the area, that formed the Mandalika Formation. This Formation is overlain by the Semilir Formation, composed of pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias and tuffs with dacitic composition. This as- sociated volcanic rock reflects a product of a caldera explosion or a destructive phase. Based on the characteristics of lithology of volcanic products from the initial stage, to a construction and destruction period, and compiled age data, the Southern Mountains represent formal volcanic rock units that are able to be divided into many formations.  

  2. The character and significance of basement rocks of the southern Molucca Sea region (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Nichols, Gary; Ballantyne, Paul; Charlton, Tim; Ali, Jason

    Pre-Neogene basement rocks in the southern Molucca Sea region include ophiolitic rocks, arc volcanic rocks and continental rocks. The ophiolitic complexes are associated with arc and forearc igneous and sedimentary rocks. They are interpreted as the oldest parts of the Philippine Sea Plate with equivalents in the ridges and plateaux of the northern Philippine Sea. In the Molucca Sea region igneous components include rocks with a "supra-subduction zone" character, bonintic volcanic rocks and basic volcanic rocks with a "within-plate" character; "MORB-type" rocks are rare or absent. The ophiolitic rocks are overlain by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Plutonic rocks of island arc origin which intrude the ophiolites yield Late Cretaceous radiometric ages and amphibolites with ophiolitic protoliths yield Eocene ages. The "supra-subduction zone" ophiolites are speculated to have originated during a mid-Cretaceous plate reorganization event. For the Late Cretaceous and Eocene the present-day Marianas arc and forearc provides an attractive model. Volcanic rocks from the basement of Morotai, western Halmahera and much of Bacan. These also have an island arc character and are probably of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene age. Both the arc volcanic rocks and the ophiolitic complexes are overlain by shallow water Eocene limestones and an Oligocene rift sequence including basaltic pillow lavas and volcaniclastic turbidites. The distribution of the Eocene-Oligocene sequences indicate pre-Mid/Late Eocene amalgamation of the ophiolitic and arc terranes. Mid Eocene-Oligocene extension appears to be synchronous with opening of the central West Philippine Basin. Continental crust probably arrived in this region in the Late Paleogene-Early Neogene, either due to collision of the Australian margin with Pacific arc-ophiolite terranes or by terrane movement along the Sorong Fault Zone.

  3. Snow water equivalent mapping in Norway (United States)

    Tveito, O. E.; Udnæs, H.-C.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.; Isaksen, K.; Mengistu, Z.


    In high latitude area snow covers the ground large parts of the year. Information about the water volume as snow is of major importance in many respects. Flood forecasters at NVE need it in order to assess possible flood risks. Hydropower producers need it to plan the most efficient production of the water in their reservoirs, traders to estimate the potential energy available for the market. Meteorologists on their side use the information as boundary conditions in weather forecasting models. The Norwegian meteorological institute has provided snow accumulation maps for Norway for more than 50 years. These maps are now produced twice a month in the winter season. They show the accumulated precipitation in the winter season from the day the permanent snow cover is established. They do however not take melting into account, and do therefore not give a good description of the actual snow amounts during and after periods with snowmelt. Due to an increased need for a direct measure of water volumes as snow cover, and NVE initialized a joint project in order to establish maps of the actual snow cover expressed in water equivalents. The project utilizes recent developments in the use of GIS in spatial modeling. Daily precipitation and temperature are distributed in space by using objective spatial interpolation methods. The interpolation considers topographical and other geographical parameters as well as weather type information. A degree-day model is used at each modeling point to calculate snow-accumulation and snowmelt. The maps represent a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. The modeled snow reservoir is validated by snow pillow values as well traditional snow depth observations. Preliminary results show that the new snow modeling approach reproduces the snow water equivalent well. The spatial approach also opens for a wide use in the terms of areal analysis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman


    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  5. Radiolarian biochronology of upper Anisian to upper Ladinian (Middle Triassic) blocks and tectonic slices of volcano-sedimentary successions in the Mersin Mélange, southern Turkey: New insights for the evolution of Neotethys (United States)

    Tekin, U. Kagan; Bedi, Yavuz; Okuyucu, Cengiz; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Sayit, Kaan


    The Mersin Ophiolitic Complex located in southern Turkey comprises two main structural units; the Mersin Mélange, and a well-developed ophiolite succession with its metamorphic sole. The Mersin Mélange is a sedimentary complex including blocks and tectonic slices of oceanic litosphere and continental crust in different sizes. Based on different fossil groups (Radiolaria, Conodonta, Foraminifera and Ammonoidea), the age of these blocks ranges from Early Carboniferous to early Late Cretaceous. Detailed fieldwork in the central part of the Mersin Mélange resulted in identification of a number of peculiar blocks of thick basaltic pillow-and massive lava sequences alternating with pelagic-clastic sediments and radiolarian cherts. The oldest ages obtained from the radiolarian assemblages from the pelagic sediments transitional to the volcano-sedimentary succession in some blocks are middle to late Late Anisian. These pelagic sediments are overlain by thick sandstones of latest Anisian to middle Early Ladinian age. In some blocks, sandstones are overlain by clastic and pelagic sediments with lower Upper to middle Upper Ladinian radiolarian fauna. Considering the litho- and biostratigraphical data from Middle Triassic successions in several blocks in the Mersin Mélange, it is concluded that they correspond mainly to the blocks/slices of the Beysehir-Hoyran Nappes, which were originated from the southern margin of the Neotethyan Izmir-Ankara Ocean. As the pre-Upper Anisian basic volcanics are geochemically evaluated as back-arc basalts, this new age finding suggest that a segment of the Izmir-Ankara branch of the Neotethys was already open prior to Middle Triassic and was the site of intraoceanic subduction.

  6. Late Caledonian microdiorites and felsic porphyrites from Northern Scotland: implications for the petrogenesis of high Ba-Sr granites (United States)

    Fowler, Mike; Jacklin, Holly


    A suite of sharply cross-cutting microdiorite - felsic porphyrite dykes, emplaced into the southern part of the Northern Highlands Terrane, is thought to be coeval with the local Caledonian high Ba-Sr granites. On occasion they can be seen to pillow into, and mix with the granites (e.g. Strontian) in the manner of synplutonic dykes. In the least-deformed examples small-scale mixing and mingling textures are preserved between basic and acid variants, and the felsic porphyrites (rarely) have mafic marginal facies. Microdiorites also grade into rocks of the appinite suite. Thus, the compositional range of the suite is considerable, linking mafic magmas to more evolved compositions via many intermediate stages. These therefore offer a window into the processes of Caledonian magma evolution. A selection of some 50 dykes has ben collected and analysed for major and trace elements, mostly from the environs of Strontian, but also as far north as Loch Quoich and west to Arisaig. They show a continuous chemical range from 47% to 74% SiO2, 18% to high-Mg andesite of sanukite affinity. Petrogenetically-informative trace elements bear the hallmarks of a subduction-related source, with general enrichment in LILEs and relative depletion in HFSEs (in particular Nb-Ta). The chemistry of the felsic porphyrites is closely comparable with the local Strontian and Cluanie granites, and cumulus-enriched mafic microdiorites are chemically similar to local discrete appinites. Such data can therefore be used to test alternative petrogenetic hypotheses: that the high Ba-Sr granites evolved by crystal fractionation (± crustal contamination) from mantle-derived appinitic parents, or that they are crustal melts associated with genetically unrelated but contemporaneous mafic magmas.

  7. Comprehensive environmental management of asthma and pediatric preventive care. (United States)

    Roy, Angkana; Downes, Martin J; Wisnivesky, Juan P


    Indoor environmental triggers can increase asthma morbidity. National guidelines recommend comprehensive use of environmental control practices (ECPs) as a component of asthma management. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between preventive asthma care and comprehensive ECP use among children with asthma. We used data from the National Asthma Survey, including 1,921 children with asthma. Comprehensive use was defined as using at least five of eight ECPs: (i) air filter, (ii) dehumidifier, (iii) mattress cover, (iv) pillow cover, (v) pet avoidance, (vi) smoke avoidance, (vii) removing carpets, and (viii) washing sheets in hot water. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between comprehensive use of ECPs and receipt of preventive asthma care, as measured by number of routine asthma visits in the prior year and physician advice to modify the environment. Overall, 17% (95% CI: 14-19%) of participants had comprehensive ECP use. The most commonly used practices were 'smoke avoidance' (85%), 'pet avoidance' (59%), and 'washing sheets in hot water' (46%). Comprehensive use of ECPs was associated with having received physician advice [odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% CI: 2.2-4.4] and increased asthma visits (1-2 visits: OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4; 3-4 visits: OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8; ≥5 visits: OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8). Only a minority of parents implement comprehensive ECPs, and receipt of preventive asthma care is associated with comprehensive use. Further research is needed to determine the factors mediating these associations in order to inform more effective asthma counseling.

  8. MR imaging of neurofibromatosis Ⅱ in central nervous system%神经纤维瘤病Ⅱ型中枢神经系统MRI分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宁; 程敬亮; 杨波; 关方霞; 焦红亮


    目的 探讨神经纤维瘤病Ⅱ型(NF-Ⅱ)的MRI表现,提高对本病的认识.方法 收集8例经临床及病理证实的NF-Ⅱ患者的临床资料进行分析总结.结果 双侧听神经瘤6例,其中合并多发脑膜瘤4例,多发神经鞘瘤2例;脊膜瘤并侧脑室室管膜瘤1例;一侧听神经瘤合并枕颈部皮下神经纤维瘤,合并多发脑膜瘤1例.结论 MRI是检查NF-Ⅱ中枢神经系统病变理想的影像学检查方法,可较好的显示其多发性及多灶性病变.%Objective To investigate the MRI findings of neurofibromatosis-Ⅱ and improve diagnosis of the disease.Methods The clinical data and MR feathures of 8 patients with neurofibromatosisⅡ were analyzed retrospectively.Conventional MR plain scan and enhanced scan were performed in all patients.Results Six,cases with bilateral acoustic neuroma,in which 4 cases combined with multiple meningioma,2 cases with multiple schwannoma; 1 case with meningioma and lateral ventricle ependymoma; 1 case with acoustic neuroma and pillow neck subcutaneous neurofibromas and multiple meningioma.Conclusions MR can show the shape and signal features of neurofibromatosis-Ⅱ lesions and therefore it has an important value for detecting the lesions in CNS whereas enhanced scan is helpful to show the lesions missed on plain scan.

  9. Economic and employment potential in textile waste management of Faisalabad. (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhary, Muhammad Nawaz


    The aim of this study is to characterize the waste from the textile industry, to identify the sources and types of waste generation and to find out the economic and employment potential in this sector. Textile waste, its management, and the economic and employment potential in this sector are unrevealed facts in developing countries such as Pakistan. The textile industry is ranked first in export earning in Pakistan. Textile export of yarn and cloth from Faisalabad is US$3 billion per year. On average 161 325 people are employed in the textile sector in Faisalabad, of which 11 860 are involved in solid waste handling and management. The textile industries generate solid wastes such as fibre, metal, plastic and paper waste. A total of 794 209 kg day(-1) (289 886 285 kg year(-1)) solid waste is produced from this sector and purchased by cotton waste junkshop owners at US$125 027 day(-1) (US$45 634 855 year(-1)). Only pre-consumer textile waste is considered. Interestingly no waste is sent to landfill. The waste is first segregated into different categories/ types by hand and then weighed. Cotton waste is sold to brick kilns where it is used as an alternative fuel as it is cheaper than wood/coal. Iron scrap is sold in the junk market from where it is resold to recycling industries. Paper waste is recycled, minimizing the virgin material used for producing new paper products. Iron and plastic drums are returned to the chemical industries for refilling, thus decreasing the cost of dyes and decreasing the demand for new drums. Cutting rags are used for making different things such as ropes and underlay, it is also shredded and used as fillings for pillows and mattresses, thus improving waste management, reducing cost and minimizing the need for virgin material. As no system of quality control and no monitoring of subsequent products exist there is a need to carry out quality control and monitoring.

  10. End-expiration Respiratory Gating for a High Resolution Stationary Cardiac SPECT system (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi


    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual-respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or 8 cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (pdefect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (pdefect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the patient with defect. The results showed that the proposed methods can effectively reduce motion blur in the images caused by both respiratory and cardiac motions, which may lead to more accurate defect detection and

  11. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi


    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the patient with defect. The results showed that the proposed methods can effectively reduce motion blur in the images caused by both respiratory and cardiac motions, which may lead to more accurate defect detection and

  12. A palmar pressure sensor for measurement of upper limb weight bearing by the hands during transfers by paraplegics. (United States)

    Kunju, Nissan; Ojha, Rajdeep; Devasahayam, Suresh R


    Paraplegic patients have to effect transfer from one seat to another by using their upper limbs. In this process the hands bear almost the entire weight of the body in at least some phases of the transfer. It is desirable to train patients, especially those who are elderly and otherwise weak, to distribute their weight so as to avoid large forces being sustained on any one hand for an extended period. It is also desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of assistive devices like lower limb FES in sharing the load on the hand. This study presents a simple and versatile method of measuring palmar hand force during transfers by paraplegic patients. It is important that this force sensor should not interfere with the grasping and stabilizing properties of the hands and should permit normal transferring. The force sensor comprises an air-filled pouch or pillow that can be placed on any surface. This pneumatic sensor feels like upholstery padding on the surface on which it is placed. The sensor integrates the total pressure applied to the surface of the pouch, thereby obtaining the total force exerted by the palm/hand. The fabrication of the sensor is described, as well as the associated measurement circuit. The static calibration shows that the sensor is linear up to 350 N and the dynamic calibration shows that it has a bandwidth of 13 Hz. The sensor was fabricated using an inflated inelastic airbag attached to a pressure transducer. An automatic offset correction circuit in the preamplifier module ensures that any offset due to initial pressure or sensor drift is removed and the output is zero under no load condition. The key to this sensor arrangement is the ease of fitting it into the intended location without disturbing the existing arrangement for the subject's activities of daily living (ADL).

  13. The Relationship between Planned and Reported Home Infant Sleep Locations among Mothers of Late Preterm and Term Infants (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra


    Objective To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥ 37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Methods Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a U.S. hospital following birth and by phone at one month postpartum during 2010–2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Results Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. Conclusions The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women’s preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep. PMID:25626714

  14. [House dust mite allergy]. (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C


    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a diapiric and magmatic cycle associated to the on-set of sea-floor and the exhumation of both Jurassic deposits and the core of their controlling diapirs. The nature of the outcrops and richness in sedimentary environments, related with the different phases of rifting, is a remarkable case for extensional basin studies. Geological sites can be of regional, national or international importance due to scientific, educational, economical, social or historical reasons. The present proposal can be considered as a model for the establishment of tourist/educational routes with a strong component in communication on Earth Sciences, integrating social and historical aspects at a regional level. The recognition of those sites as geoheritage may contribute to a more sustainable management, in particular because it allows the achievement of a critical dimension for the investment in human resources and marketing. In Portugal, recent legal evolution might be considered promising. Nevertheless, since implementation of the concept of protected site depends on the approval of detailed management programs, there are frequent delays, misinterpretations and disrespect of legislation. The strategy to be adopted must integrate conservation, scientific studies and science communication in projects with economic and social interest.

  16. Fu Yin and Suppressing Yang method in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder%扶阴抑阳法治疗广泛性焦虑症体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chinese medicine ,generalized anxiety disorder is depression ,insomnia ,affliction ,palpitations ,upset ,insomnia ,dizziness ,head-ache ,parts of the frontal ,occipital ,sweating ,dry mouth ,pharyngeal foreign body sensation ,tongue tongue body vibration ,red tongue ,thin white fur or thin yellow ,sublingual vein dark purple ,the number of vein .TCM syndrome of yin and Yang is the imbalance of yin and Yang ,yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity .Yin ,yin and Yang Yang does not enter not ,Yin insomnia ,mental tension and yang hyperactivity ,mental tension at the head Yintang Qi stasis ,neck stiffness ,so the amount of pain ,pillows ,Yin Yang and yang hyperactivity unhealing astringent diminished capacity is sweating ,palpitation .The disease belongs to deficiency and excess ,disease in the pericardium .%中医认为广泛焦虑症属郁证、不寐范畴,病症表现为,心悸、心烦,失眠、头昏、头痛,部位在额、枕部,汗出、口干,咽部异物感,伸舌时舌体振颤,舌质红,舌苔薄白或薄黄,舌下脉络紫暗,脉数。中医阴阳辨证为阴阳失调、阴虚阳亢。阴虚,阴不敛阳,阳不入阴则失眠,精神紧张为阳亢的表现,精神紧张导致头部印堂处气机淤滞,颈项部僵硬,所以额、枕头痛,阴不敛阳阳亢固涩能力减弱则出汗、心跳。病性属虚实夹杂,病位在心包。

  17. Hydrothermal Alteration of Hyaloclastites Adjacent to Sill-Like Intrusives in the HSDP 3-km Core Hole. (United States)

    McClain, J. S.; Schiffman, P.; Walton, A. W.; Yin, Q.; Pauly, B.


    Hyaloclastites at present depths below1880 mbsl on the submarine flanks of Mauna Kea volcano have been intruded by numerous, < 10 m-thick, sill-like bodies. The contact metamorphism of the hyaloclastites has resulted in up to 1 m-thick bleached zones, characterized by the presence of Na-and Mg-enriched alteration rinds on sideromelane clasts as well as the precipitation of drusy hydrothermal clinopyroxene (calcic augite to hedenbergite) and analcime within void spaces. The intrusive activity associated with contact metamorphism appears to have occurred early in the diagenetic history of the hylaoclastites, when they possessed porosities of 40-50%, because (1) early induration and pore-filling by hydrothermal minerals apparently strengthened them, preventing significant grain compaction during subsequent burial, (2) hydrothermal minerals have been coated or overgrown by smectite, zeolites, and palagonite during subsequent diagenesis and microbial innoculation, and (3) 87Sr/86Sr ratios of hydrothermal rinds on glass shards, averaging .7069 ± .0006, imply extensive interaction with seawater, whereas 87Sr/86Sr ratios of adjacent palagonitized glass, averaging .7042 ± .0002, imply interaction with comparatively less fluid, presumably after diagenetic pore-filling. Thermal modeling, which assumes (1) convective cooling, (2) that hydrothermal clinopyroxenes formed at minimum temperatures of 350°C, and (3) that hyaloclastite porosities approached 50% at the time of intrusion, implies that the observed contact aureoles must have been produced by mafic intrusions that maintained temperatures above the solidus rather than being rapidly cooled and frozen. This may have occurred because magma continued to flow in the intrusion conduit, consistent with the suggestion that these intrusions fed overlying pillow flows (Garcia et al., 2007). If this intrusive activity occurred at shallow depths within the edifice of Mauna Kea (Seaman et al. 2004), then hydrothermal clinopyroxene

  18. Zircon U-Pb age and geochemical constraints on the origin of the Birjand ophiolite, Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran (United States)

    Zarrinkoub, Mohammad Hossein; Pang, Kwan-Nang; Chung, Sun-Lin; Khatib, Mohammad Mahdi; Mohammadi, Seyyed Saeid; Chiu, Han-Yi; Lee, Hao-Yang


    The Birjand ophiolite is one of the ophiolitic complexes in the northern Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran, which marks the closure of an enigmatic branch of the Neotethys Ocean (called the Sistan Ocean) associated with the collision between the Lut and Afghan continental blocks. Ophiolitic rocks in the suture zone occur as collisional block-to-block geological terranes, or as blocks within tectonic mélange. We present zircon U-Pb age, and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data of the Birjand ophiolite to understand its formation age and magma genesis in this poorly constrained part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Varieties of the ophiolitic rocks include clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites, harzburgites, dunites, massive and pillow basalts, dolerites, gabbros and leucogabbros. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, zircon separates from two leucogabbros yield U-Pb ages of 113 ± 1 and 107 ± 1 Ma, which are interpreted to represent the formation ages of the ophiolite. The clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites can be explained as melting residues after low to moderate extraction of MORB-type melts, whereas the harzburgites require more than one melting event to explain their trace element depletion. Most mafic rocks of the ophiolite display MORB-like trace element patterns and high ɛNd(t) (+ 3.4 to + 8.4), features consistent with derivation from MORB-source mantle. Magma genesis can be explained by low to moderate degrees of melting of moderately depleted spinel peridotite and variable interaction with enriched mantle melts. The Birjand ophiolite represents a MORB-type ophiolite and part of the Middle Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere of the Sistan Ocean that closed during the destruction of a narrow arm of the Neotethys Ocean.

  19. [Brief history of recent hemp cultivation in Switzerland and subsequent medico-legal problems resulting from hemp cultivation]. (United States)

    Giroud, C; Broillet, A; Augsburger, M; Bernhard, W; Rivier, L; Mangin, P


    In March 1995, a decision about cultivation of cannabis was issued by the Swiss Federal Offices of Public Health, Police and Agriculture in order to satisfy the growing interest of farmers and other people in hemp farming. It pointed out that 1)... each hemp plant contains THC and must be therefore considered a drug, 2)... no permission is required for those who grow hemp without the intention to produce drugs ... meaning that the choice of the plant variety was not restricted to those which are characterized by a low THC concentration and grown in a few countries belonging to the European Union. Claiming that natural hemp must contain significant amounts of THC and thanks to the Swiss legislation, areas dedicated to hemp cultivation develop considerably. Most hemp plants which are submitted to our laboratories by the police for THC quantification belong to the drug-type. Nowadays, a great deal of goods (food and beverages, cosmetics, drugs) made of hemp are marketed in Switzerland. Strong suspicions exist however that several of these products could be used as a screen for the illegal market of cannabis. For instance, despite financial support from the state, fiber hemp cultivation remains unsuccessful. No advantage with regard to seed productivity, edible seed and essential oils qualities and yields have been found for drug hemp over fiber hemp by agricultural research stations up to now. Several clues about the possible illicit use of hemp goods rich in THC, especially hemp tea made of flower tops and "therapeutic" pillows filled with cannabis exist. Recently, two Federal edits were issued in order to restrict the selling of hemp seedlings and of hemp foods and beverages to those containing only low amounts of THC. However, the marketing of hemp plants used for decorating remains free partly explaining the recent success of these "beautiful" plants. Broadly speaking, the Swiss and European legislations about hemp have approached mutually during the last years.

  20. Postoperative Rehabilitation After Rotator Cuff Repair (United States)

    Mollison, Scott; Shin, Jason J.; Glogau, Alexander; Beavis, R. Cole


    Background: Postoperative rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) remains controversial and suffers from limited high-quality evidence. Therefore, appropriate use criteria must partially depend on expert opinion. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine and report on the standard and modified rehabilitation protocols after ARCR used by member orthopaedic surgeons of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) and the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA). We hypothesized that there will exist a high degree of variability among rehabilitation protocols. We also predict that surgeons will be prescribing accelerated rehabilitation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A 29-question survey in English language was sent to all 3106 associate and active members of the AOSSM and the AANA. The questionnaire consisted of 4 categories: standard postoperative protocol, modification to postoperative rehabilitation, operative technique, and surgeon demographic data. Via email, the survey was sent on September 4, 2013. Results: The average response rate per question was 22.7%, representing an average of 704 total responses per question. The most common immobilization device was an abduction pillow sling with the arm in neutral or slight internal rotation (70%). Surgeons tended toward later unrestricted passive shoulder range of motion at 6 to 7 weeks (35%). Strengthening exercises were most commonly prescribed between 6 weeks and 3 months (56%). Unrestricted return to activities was most commonly allowed at 5 to 6 months. The majority of the respondents agreed that they would change their protocol based on differences expressed in this survey. Conclusion: There is tremendous variability in postoperative rehabilitation protocols after ARCR. Five of 10 questions regarding standard rehabilitation reached a consensus statement. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a trend toward later

  1. An Overview of Recent Observations on Lava-H2Ointeractions (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.


    Lava flows can be sensitive recorders of their environments of formation (e.g., pillow lava). However, while deposits formed during interactions between lava and frozen water are increasing critical for constraining paleoclimate reconstructions on Earth and Mars, those interactions are subtle and complex. Fortunately, recent observations made during eruptions (2010 Fimmvorduhals/Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland; 2012-13 Tolbachik, Russia; 2013 Veniaminof, Alaska), during large-scale experiments (Syracuse Lava Lab), and on ancient deposits are shedding new light on these complexities. To understand these observations, it is critical to constrain the nature (porosity, permeability, ability to deform) of the boundary between the lava and the substrate. When lava travels directly on top of non-permeable ice, meltwater is produced rapidly enough to significantly accelerate lava movement (e.g., 'hydroplaning' or 'Leidenfrost effect'). The lack of surface permeability also facilitates ingestion of steam into the base of the lava for several minutes on the scale of experiments (dm); anomalously large gas cavities are also present in modern and ancient lava flow deposits inferred to have formed in water/ice-rich environments. When lava is emplaced directly on snow, the permeability of the substrate controls meltwater accumulation, which can facilitate/hinder heat transfer but can also weaken the substrate. Finally, the presence of basal lava flow breccia ('a'a flows) or an earlier erupted tephra blanket at the lava-H2O boundary acts to significantly slow heat transfer. The speed of lava emplacement may also be important. The lavas emplaced during most of the eruptions above were not able to cover a large enough area to quickly generate significant volumes of meltwater. However, at the high discharge rates for the first few days of the Tolbachik eruption (~400 m3 s-1), effusion onto a less permeable surface (e.g., ice instead of snow) could generate significant volumes of meltwater.

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman


    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  3. Magmatic inclusions in rhyolites, contaminated basalts, and compositional zonation beneath the Coso volcanic field, California (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Metz, J.


    Basaltic lava flows and high-silica rhyolite domes form the Pleistocene part of the Coso volcanic field in southeastern California. The distribution of vents maps the areal zonation inferred for the upper parts of the Coso magmatic system. Subalkalic basalts (Coso volcanic field contain sparse andesitic inclusions (55-61% SiO2). Pillow-like forms, intricate commingling and local diffusive mixing of andesite and rhyolite at contacts, concentric vesicle distribution, and crystal morphologies indicative of undercooling show that inclusions were incorporated in their rhyolitic hosts as blobs of magma. Inclusions were probably dispersed throughout small volumes of rhyolitic magma by convective (mechanical) mixing. Inclusion magma was formed by mixing (hybridization) at the interface between basaltic and rhyolitic magmas that coexisted in vertically zoned igneous systems. Relict phenocrysts and the bulk compositions of inclusions suggest that silicic endmembers were less differentiated than erupted high-silica rhyolite. Changes in inferred endmembers of magma mixtures with time suggest that the steepness of chemical gradients near the silicic/mafic interface in the zoned reservoir may have decreased as the system matured, although a high-silica rhyolitic cap persisted. The Coso example is an extreme case of large thermal and compositional contrast between inclusion and host magmas; lesser differences between intermediate composition magmas and inclusions lead to undercooling phenomena that suggest smaller ??T. Vertical compositional zonation in magma chambers has been documented through study of products of voluminous pyroclastic eruptions. Magmatic inclusions in volcanic rocks provide evidence for compositional zonation and mixing processes in igneous systems when only lava is erupted. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Thermo-mechanical stress analysis of cryopreservation in cryobags and the potential benefit of nanowarming. (United States)

    Solanki, Prem K; Bischof, John C; Rabin, Yoed


    Cryopreservation by vitrification is the only promising solution for long-term organ preservation which can save tens of thousands of lives across the world every year. One of the challenges in cryopreservation of large-size tissues and organs is to prevent fracture formation due to the tendency of the material to contract with temperature. The current study focuses on a pillow-like shape of a cryobag, while exploring various strategies to reduce thermo-mechanical stress during the rewarming phase of the cryopreservation protocol, where maximum stresses are typically found. It is demonstrated in this study that while the level of stress may generally increase with the increasing amount of CPA filled in the cryobag, the ratio between width and length of the cryobag play a significant role. Counterintuitively, the overall maximum stress is not found when the bag is filled to its maximum capacity (when the filled cryobag resembles a sphere). Parametric investigation suggests that reducing the initial rewarming rate between the storage temperature and the glass transition temperature may dramatically decrease the thermo-mechanical stress. Adding a temperature hold during rewarming at the glass transition temperature may reduce the thermo-mechanical stress in some cases, but may have an adverse effect in other cases. Finally, it is demonstrated that careful incorporation of volumetric heating by means on nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field, or nanowarming, can dramatically reduce the resulting thermo-mechanical stress. These observations display the potential benefit of a thermo-mechanical design of the cryopreservation protocols in order to prevent structural damage.

  5. Conservative treatment of thoracic-lumbar vertebral compressed fractures in 36 elderly cases%保守治疗老年胸腰椎压缩骨折36例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项先和; 方继红


    目的 探讨老年骨质疏松性脊柱骨折保守治疗的方法及疗效.方法 不能耐受手术或不愿接受手术的老年骨质疏松性脊柱骨折患者36例,采用卧硬板床、后背骨折处垫枕头,骨质疏松药物治疗和理疗,疼痛减轻后行腰背肌功能锻炼等保守治疗.结果 36例老年骨质疏松性脊柱骨折患者治疗6~12个月,按疗效评定标准,优良率80.56%,无死亡病例.结论 保守治疗老年骨质疏松性脊柱骨折简单易行,疗效可靠,减少了手术治疗的风险性和术后并发症.%Objective To explore the efficacy of conservative treatment for the elderly osteoporotic spine fractures. Methods Thirty-six elderly patients with osteoporotic spinal fractures who could not tolerate operation or would not accept operation were selected. Conservative treatment included lying on the horizontal hard bed, cushioning pillow behind back fracture, using osteoporosis drugs, physical therapy, and doing functional exercise for dorsal muscles after pain relief. Results Thirty-six elderly patients with osteoporotic spinal fracture were treated for 6 ,12 months. According to the evaluation standards , the excellent and good rate was 80. 56% . No dead case appeared. Conclusion Conservative treatment of elderly osteoporotic spinal fracture is simple and easy to operate, and the curative effect is reliable. It can also reduce the operation risk and postoperative complication.

  6. How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.


    Background: In a prior article, “Perioperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spinal surgery: A review,” Epstein documented that postoperative visual loss (POVL) occurs in from 0.013% to 0.2% of spine procedures performed in the prone position. POVL is largely attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), cortical blindness (CB), direct compression (prone pillows/horseshoe, eye protectors), and rarely, acute angle closure glaucoma. Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged surgery, extensive fusions, anemia, hypotension, hypovolemia, diabetes, obesity, use of the Wilson frame, male sex, and microvascular pathology. CRAO may result from improper prone positioning (e.g., eye compression or rotation contributing to jugular/venous or carotid compression), while CB more typically results from both direct compression and obesity. Results: Several preventive/prophylactic measures should limit the risk of POVL. The routine use of an arterial line and continuous intraoperative monitoring document intraoperative hypotension/hypovolemia/anemia that can be immediately corrected with appropriate resuscitative measures. Application of a 3-pin head holder completely eliminates direct eye compression and maintains the neck in a neutral posture, thus avoiding rotation that can contribute to jugular/venous obstruction and/or inadvertent carotid compression. In addition, elevating the head 10° from the horizontal directly reduces intraocular pressure. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position. PMID:27274406

  7. Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.


    Background: Postoperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spine surgery occurs in from 0.013% to 1% of cases and is variously attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION: anterior ION or posterior ION [reported in 1.9/10,000 cases: constitutes 89% of all POVL cases], central retinal artery occlusion [CRAO], central retinal vein occlusion [CRVO], cortical blindness [CB], direct compression [horseshoe, prone pillows, and eye protectors Dupaco Opti-Gard]), and acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG). Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged operative times, long-segment spinal instrumentation, anemia, intraoperative hypotension, diabetes, obesity, male sex, using the Wilson frame, microvascular pathology, decreased the percent of colloid administration, and extensive intraoperative blood loss. Risk factors for CRAO more typically include improper positioning during the surgery (e.g., cervical rotation), while those for CB included prone positioning and obesity. Results: POVL may be avoided by greater utilization of crystalloids versus colloids, administration of α-2 agonists (e.g., decreases intraocular pressure), avoidance of catecholamines (e.g., avoid vasoconstrictors), avoiding intraoperative hypotension, and averting anemia. Patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects may undergo preoperative evaluation by ophthalmologists to determine whether they require prophylactic treatment prior to prone spinal surgery and whether and if prophylactic treatment is warranted. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP. PMID:27274409


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During daily usage of textiles, humidity and warmth conditions provide appropriate living conditions for bacteria and microorganisms in textile products. Bacteria growth, infection and cross infection by pathogens might develop due to usage of textile products. Especially since World War II, antibacterial textile products have developed as a result of the hygiene demand of the society. In this study, triclosan (sample A, quaternary ammonium plus triclosan (sample B, dichlorophenol (sample C, silver (sample D, quaternary ammonium (sample E and chitosan (sample F based six different antibacterial additives were applied on 100% cotton fabrics for antibacterial treatment. All six treated fabrics and the untreated fabric (control sample were washed for 40 cycles; the antibacterial efficacies were tested; changes in tear strength and Berger whiteness values of the samples were recorded prior to washing and after 1st, 5th, 10th, 20th and 40th washing cycles. Regarding all washing cycles, a decrease in tear strength results is observed between unwashed and 40 cycle washed samples. Textile materials such as bedlinen, pillow cases, surgeon gowns for which tear strength values are important and that have antibacterial treatments should be tested for tear strength values for different washing cycles to see if they meet minimum tear strength requirements. The change in tear strength and Berger whiteness of samples shows differences according to the antibacterial agent treated and washing cycle applied. Generally, slight decreases in tear strength values are observed. And slight decreases in whiteness, except for sample F which is treated with chitosan, are observed as well. Textile materials having antibacterial treatments should be tested for the special antibacterial agent they are treated and for the number of washing cycles that is required for their product life.

  9. Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards (United States)


    Flame retardant (FR) chemicals have often been added to polyurethane foam to meet required state and federal flammability standards. However, some FRs (e.g., PBDEs and TDCIPP) are associated with health hazards and are now restricted from use in some regions. In addition, California’s residential furniture flammability standard (TB-117) has undergone significant amendments over the past few years, and TDCIPP has been added to California’s Proposition 65 list. These events have likely led to shifts in the types of FRs used, and the products to which they are applied. To provide more information on the use of FRs in products containing polyurethane foam (PUF), we established a screening service for the general public. Participants residing in the US were allowed to submit up to 5 samples from their household for analysis, free of charge, and supplied information on the product category, labeling, and year and state of purchase. Between February 2014 and June 2016, we received 1141 PUF samples for analysis from various products including sofas, chairs, mattresses, car seats and pillows. Of these samples tested, 52% contained a FR at levels greater than 1% by weight. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) was the most common FR detected in PUF samples, and was the most common FR detected in all product categories. Analysis of the data by purchasing date suggests that the use of TDCIPP decreased in recent years, paralleled with an increase in the use of TCIPP and a nonhalogenated aryl phosphate mixture we call “TBPP.” In addition, we observed significant decreases in FR applications in furniture products and child car seats, suggesting the use of additive FRs in PUF may be declining, perhaps as a reflection of recent changes to TB-117 and Proposition 65. More studies are needed to determine how these changes in FR use relate to changes in exposure among the general population. PMID:27552529

  10. Identificación de ácaros del polvo casero en colchones y almohadas de niños alérgicos de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jainy Meza Navarro


    Full Text Available ResumenLa prevalencia elevada de alergias en Colombia hace necesario investigar los factores que influye sobre su etiología. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la fauna de ácaros presente en los hogares de niños alérgicos de Santa Marta. Un total de 70 muestras de polvo fueron colectadas desde 42 casas por medio de la aspiración de colchones y almohadas, durante los meses de Julio a Octubre de 2007. Los ácaros fueron identificados bajo la luz de un microscopio usando claves taxonómicas, contados y expresados como ácaros por gramo de polvo. Los ácaros de la familia Pyroglyphidae fueron los más predominantes (84,58%, teniendo a Dermatophagoides farinae (23,85% como la especie más abundante, seguido por Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (7,31%. Otros ácaros prevalentes fueron Cheyletus spp, Euroglyphus maynei y Blomia tropicales, con niveles superiores a los 500 ácaros/ gramo, considerado como de alto riesgo para sensibilización alérgica. Estos resultados contribuyen al conocimiento de la fauna de ácaros del polvo casero de Santa Marta, importante para el diagnóstico y terapia de las alergias. (Duazary 2008; 1: 24 - 31.AbstractThe increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in Colombia makes necessary to research about factors that influence their etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the mite fauna present in homes of allergic child from Santa Marta. A total of 70 samples were collected from 42 houses through vacuuming mattresses and pillows, during the months of July to October 2007. Mites were identified under light microscopy using taxonomic keys, count and expressed as mites per gram of dust. The prevalent mite family was Pyroglyphidae (84.58%, having Dermatophagoides farinae as the major specie (23.85%, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Other mites prevalent were Cheyletus spp, Euroglyphus maynei and Blomia tropicalis, with levels up to 500 mites/ gram, considered like of high risk for the allergic sensitization

  11. Natural History of a Complex Hybrid Picrite-Ferrobasalt with Gabbro Clots at IODP Site U1349, Shatsky Rise, Western Pacific (United States)

    Natland, J. H.; Hellebrand, E.


    Strongly altered basalt from IODP Site U1349, Shatsky Rise, shows remarkable lithologic and mineralogic evidence for mixing between hot and primitive spinel-bearing magma on the one hand, and much cooler, strongly differentiated basalt on the other. The spinel survived almost unscathed but host olivine was nearly completely obliterated by the alteration, and is now replaced by secondary minerals. Most spinel has low CrNo (~20) but variable MgNo (70-40), which suggests an initial stage of mixing, before encountering the differentiated basalt. The differentiated basalt, which in places on the cored surface forms swirls that can be distinguished from the capturing picrite, has abundant microphenocrysts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene, many of which are intergrown and which thus crystallized along a low-pressure cotectic at a much lower temperature than the olivine and spinel. Also present are coarse-grained plagioclase-clinopyroxene clots in ophitic intergrowths, some of which enclose irregularly shaped ilmenite-magnetite plates, now modified by oxyexsolution to other oxide minerals. These clots give the rocks an "ophimottled" texture in thin section. Recalculation of clinopyroxene compositions using program QUILF (1) indicates that the clots re-equilibrated to subsolidus temperatures from 100-300 degrees lower than phenocrysts, so that they now resemble pyroxenes in abyssal gabbros from both slow- and fast-spreading ridges. The pyroxene is strongly zoned, however, with Cr-rich inner zones and Ti-rich outer zones revealing the effects of former percolating and differentiating intergranular melts. Picritic magma thus scavenged bits of a frozen but still hot magma body containing oxide gabbro before reaching a shallow reservoir or rift system laden with basaltic magma of intermediate composition. The rocks contain streaks and swirls of picrite entangled with the more differentiated lava, and erupted as pillow lava at or near sea level, with the differentiated lava

  12. East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate basalts or rift basalts related to the Ontong Java plume? (United States)

    Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.


    Studies of seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns suggest the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in a large area in the western Pacific that includes the East Mariana, Nauru and Pigafetta Basins. Sampling of the igneous crust in this area by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) allows direct evaluation of the age and petrogenesis of this crust. ODP Leg 129 drilled a 51 m sequence of basalt pillows and massive flows in the central East Mariana Basin. 40Ar 39Ar ages determined in this study for two Leg 129 basalts average 114.6 ?? 3.2 Ma. This age is in agreement with the Albian-late Aptian paleontologic age of the overlying sediments, but is distinctively younger than the Jurassic age predicted by magnetic anomaly patterns in the basin. Compositionally, the East Mariana Basin basalts are uniformly low-K tholeiites that are depleted in highly incompatible elements compared to moderately incompatible ones, which is typical of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) erupted near hotspots. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the tholeiites ( 87Sr 86Srinit = 0.70360-0.70374; 143Nd 144Ndinit = 0.512769-0.512790; 206Pb 204Pbmeas = 18.355-18.386) also overlap with some Indian Ocean Ridge MORB, although they are distinct from the isotopic compositions of Jurassic basalts drilled in the Pigafetta Basin, the oldest Pacific MORB. The isotopic compositions of the East Mariana Basin tholeiites are also similar to those of intraplate basalts, and in particular, to the isotopic signature of basalts from the nearby Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. The East Mariana Basin tholeiites also share many petrologic and isotopic characteristics with the oceanic basement drilled in the Nauru Basin at DSDP Site 462. In addition, the new 110.8 ?? 1.0 Ma 40Ar 39Ar age for two flows from the bottom of Site 462 in the Nauru Basin is indistinguishable from the age of the East Mariana Basin flows. Thus, while magnetic anomaly patterns predict that the igneous

  13. 基于栅格法的多体六面体网格自动生成%An Automatic Mesh Generator for Hexahedral Mesh of Multi-solid Models Using a Grid-based Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于长华; 熊敏; 方维; 郑澎; 张先红


    Because of the complicated boundary geometric features of multi-solid models, the algorithm for grid-based hexahedral mesh generation had very weak stability and generated some poor boundary elements. Ac-cording to these problems, an algorithm for the automated generation of grid based all-hexahedral element meshes is developed. In the surface matching process, a surface matching algorithm combining the embedding technique is proposed, establishing the corresponding the boundary element relation between solid models and core mesh, and making the hexahedral mesh accurately describe the geometric features of multi-solid models. In the topological optimization process, an optimization technique eliminating the hexahedral elements with bad topological connection is proposed. The effectiveness and robustness of the algorithm in this paper are tested by means of some solid model examples.%基于栅格法的六面体网格生成算法由于多体模型复杂的边界几何特征,导致稳定性较差和产生一些质量较差的边界六面体单元。针对这一问题,提出一套以栅格法为基础的全六面体网格自动生成算法。在边界拟合环节,利用 Embedding 技术提出一种边界拟合算法,建立了实体模型边界元素和核心网格外围边界元素的对应关系,使得六面体网格很好地描述实体模型的几何特征;在拓扑优化环节,利用 Pillowing 技术给出一种消除网格中拓扑连接关系较差的六面体单元的方法。若干实体模型算例结果表明,该算法实用性强,效果良好。

  14. Extensive young dacite lava flows between boninite and BABB in a backarc setting: NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.


    Several hundred square kilometers of young dacite lava flows mapped by their high acoustic backscatter erupted in several batches in proximity to boninite and back-arc basin basalt (BABB) in the NE Lau Basin, the world's fastest opening back-arc region and a site proposed as a modern analogue in some ophiolite models. Where sampled, these lavas are aphyric, glassy dacites and are not associated with andesite extrusives (commonly observed elsewhere). Several flow fields occur on the flank of the large silicic Niuatahi seamount. Two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones (~220 km2) erupted as far as 60 km north of Niuatahi. Their occurrence is likely controlled by crustal fractures from the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Determining thickness of these flows is problematic, but relief of 30-100 m on flow fronts and in collapsed areas yields volume estimates as high as ~7-18 km3 for the northern group. The mean silica content of the largest and best sampled dacite flow field (LL-B) is 65.6 ±0.2%, a remarkably consistent composition for such an extensive flow (~140 km2). Camera tows show lower viscosity flow forms, including many anastomatosing pillow tubes and ropey surfaces, as well as endogenous domes, ridges and lobes (some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures). An enigmatic 2 x 1.5 km, 30-m deep collapse depression could mark an eruption center for the LL-B flow field. Low viscosity flow morphologies on portions of LL-B and a nearby smaller flow field implies high effusion rates during some phases of the eruption(s), which in turn implies some combination of higher than normal liquidus temperature and high water content. Submarine dacite flows have been described in ancient sequences from the Archaean through the Miocene but this is the first modern occurrence of large volume submarine dacite flows. The volume of these young dacite flows implies the presence of large differentiated melt

  15. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to concomitant use of olanzapine and fluvoxamine%奥氮平联用氟伏沙明致恶性综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振晓; 李景君


    1例72岁男性抑郁症患者应用奥氮平(7.5 mg/ d)合并氟伏沙明(125 mg/ d)口服治疗2个月后出现发热、意识障碍、肌强直、多汗、心动过速,WBC 12.3×109/ L,血清 CK 737 U/ L。停用所有口服药物,给予持续吸氧、心电监护、保持呼吸道通畅、物理降温、维持水电解质及酸碱平衡、控制感染等处置,并静脉滴注氯硝西泮1 mg/ d,口服多巴胺受体激动剂吡贝地尔100 mg/ d。3 d 后患者体温恢复正常,意识转清,5 d 后肌张力及血常规各项指标和血清 CK 恢复正常。%A 72-year-old man with depression received oral olanzapine 7. 5 mg/ d and fluvoxamine 125 mg/ d. Two months after the drug administration,the patient developed fever,consciousness,rigidity, sweating,and tachycardia. Blood tests showed that the white blood cell count was 12. 3 × 109 / L and creatine kinase( CK ) level was 737 U/ L. All drugs were stopped and continuous oxygen inhalation, electrocardiographic monitoring and measures for keeping the respiratory tract unobstructed were given. Ice pillows and ice packs were used to lower his temperature. Treatments such as fluid infusion,correction of water-electrolyte balance,infection prevention,intravenous infusion of clonazepam 1 mg once daily,and oral dopamine receptor agonist piribedil 100 mg once daily were also given. Three days later,his temperature returned to normal and his consciousness turned clear. Five days later,his muscle tension,routine blood test,and CK level returned to normal.

  16. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby


    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  17. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Einen


    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004. The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group

  18. Initiation of long-term coupled microbiological, geochemical, and hydrological experimentation within the seafloor at North Pond, western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Edwards, K.J.; Backert, N.; Bach, W.; Becker, K.; Klaus, A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Anderson, L.; Haddad, A.G.; Harigane, Y.; Campion, P.L.; Hirayama, H.; Mills, H.J.; Hulme, S.M.; Nakamura, K.; Jorgensen, S.L.; Orcutt, B.; Insua, T.L.; Park, Y.-S.; Rennie, V.; Salas, E.C.; Rouxel, O.; Wang, F.; Russel, J.A.; Wheat, C.G.; Sakata, K.; Brown, M.; Magnusson, J.L.; Ettlinger, Z.


    massive pillow flows with occasional hyaloclastites in the upper part.

  19. An example of deep crustal brines effecting large-scale chemical modification of the crust during assembly of the Paleoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Glassley, W. E.; Korstgard, J. A.; Sørensen, K.


    The Nagssugtoqidian Mobile Belt (NMB) is a 300 km wide, 800 km long orogenic zone in central Greenland. It is part of the >20,000 km long complex of orogenic belts that formed between 1.7 and 2.0 Gya during assembly of the first supercontinent, Columbia,. The NMB is composed of several major crustal-scale shear zones that intervene between coherent blocks of high-grade metamorphic rocks. By combining detailed field, laboratory and aeromagnetic studies along the most northern of the shear zones (the Nordre Stromfjord Shear Zone - NSSZ), we have been able to document large scale chemical modification of the crust caused by the invasion of brines generated during continent-continent collision. The tectonic framework for this process is the following: 1. At 1,923 +/- 20 Mya: Emplacement of a calc-alkaline complex within and on ca. 2.8 Gya continental crust. The basal cumulate portion of the complex is well preserved and records invasion of multiple magma pulses. Coeval pillow basalts and cogenetic porphyritic mafics are also present. 2. 1,900 to 1,800 Mya: Tectonic emplacement of mafic and ultramafic rocks under high pressure (>2.5 GPa), eclogite facies conditions. The emplacement of these lenses probably occurred prior to or during thrust stacking associated with continent-continent collision. The age of the high pressure metamorphism makes these the oldest known eclogite facies metamorphic rocks in the world. 3. 1760 to 1720 Mya: Development of the transcurrent NSSZ, with displacements in excess of a hundred kilometers. Profound chemical enrichment of potassium and phosphorus along the entire length of the NSSZ unequivocally demonstrates that the shear zone was the focus of massive fluid movement. Detailed analysis of phase relationships documents a P-T path identical in form to that of Alpine metamorphic rocks, but displaced toward higher temperatures. These observations provide compelling evidence that assembly of this segment of Columbia involved subduction of

  20. Plio-pleistocene volcano-tectonic evolution of la Reforma Caldera, Baja California, Mexico (United States)

    Demant, Alain; Ortlieb, Luc


    La Reforma volcanic complex, in east-central Baja California, shows a characteristic caldera structure, 10 km in diameter. The first eruptive stage, during the Pliocene, was manifested by ash and pumice falls and by subaqueous pumitic flows. In a second stage basic flows were deposited in a near-shore environment (subaerial and pillow lavas). During the early Pleistocene a large ignimbritic eruption, producing mainly pantelleritic tuffs, immediately predated the formation of the caldera itself. Afterwards, along marginal fractures of the caldera, some rhyolitic domes and flows partially covered the thick ignimbritic sheet. A block of Miocene substratum, in the center of the caldera, has been uplifted, nearly 1 km, by "resurgent doming". Small outcrops of diorite might constitute the top of coarse-grained crystallized magmatic bodies, and thus support the "resurgent doming" interpretation. A few basaltic cones were finally built on the flanks of the caldera complex; the latter are not related to the caldera history but to the extension tectonics of the Gulf of California which are also responsible for the Tortuga Island and the Holocene Tres Virgenes tholeiitic cones. South of la Reforma are found the highest (+300 m) Pleistocene marine deposits of the Gulf coast of Baja California. The uplift of this area is due in part to the positive epeirogenic movements of the whole peninsular crustal block, and also to the late doming of the caldera. On the coastal (eastern) flank of La Reforma complex up to seven stepped wave-cut terraces have been preserved, the highest reaching more than +150 m and the lowest ones +25 m. Lateral correlations of the marine terraces along the whole Gulf of California suggest that this volcano-tectonic uplift, that is still active, is of the order of 240 mm/10 3 y. The set of terraces is interpreted to be Middle (700-125 × 10 3y) to Upper (125-80 × 10 3y) Pleistocene, and is tentatively correlated with the paleoclimatic chronology of deep

  1. Melt-rock interaction near the Moho: Evidence from crystal cargo in lavas from near-ridge seamounts (United States)

    Coumans, Jason P.; Stix, John; Clague, David A.; Minarik, William G.; Layne, Graham D.


    The Taney Seamounts are a NW-SE trending linear, near mid-ocean ridge chain consisting of five volcanoes located on the Pacific plate 300 km west of San Francisco, California. Taney Seamount-A, the largest and oldest in the chain, is defined by four well-exposed calderas, which expose previously infilled lavas. The calderas can be differentiated in time by their cross-cutting relationships, creating a relative chronology. The caldera walls and intracaldera pillow mounds were sampled systematically by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to obtain stratigraphically-controlled samples, a unique aspect of this study. The geochemistry of the seamount varies from more differentiated to more primitive with time (6.2-8.6 wt.% MgO), suggesting that the sub-caldera reservoir is open and undergoes periodic collapse, replenishment, crystallization, and eruption. The youngest and least differentiated lavas entrained a crystal cargo of plagioclase (An80-90) with melt inclusion volatile saturation pressures indicating entrapment in the lower oceanic crust and upper mantle (6-12 km, with 45% between 8 and 10 km below the sea floor). Melt inclusions exhibit high Al2O3, low SiO2, positive Sr and Eu anomalies and negative Zr and Nb anomalies when normalized to typical Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). In comparison, the host lavas exhibit positive Sr anomalies, but no concurrent Zr, and Nb anomalies. Based on thermodynamic modeling using alphaMELTS, we develop a melt-rock interaction model defined by melting and assimilation of plagioclase-rich cumulates by hot, primitive mantle-derived melts. Significantly, the variability of the negative Zr and Nb anomalies cannot be explained by either cumulate melting or AFC alone. We propose that the melt inclusions record the interaction between cumulate partial melts and the assimilating melt, demonstrating the importance of cumulate melting during the assimilation process. Later percolating melts underwent diffusive interaction with, and

  2. The Stratigraphy and Lithofacies of the Paleoproterozoic Volcaniclastic Sequences in the Cape Three Points Area- Akodda section of the Southern in Ashanti Belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana (United States)

    Yoshimaru, S.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Nyame, F. K.; Tetteh, G. M.


    The Paleoproterozoic Era is thought to have experienced one of the most significant changes in earth's environment during earth history. Early continents started to diverge and collide accompanied by first major oxidation of the atmosphere-oceanic system known as the Great Oxidation Environment (GOE). Due to their well-preserved oceanic sedimentary sequences, Paleoproterozoic belts are usually good targets for studies on the history of earth's past environment. In addition, these belts provide great help to understand the nature of the Paleoproterozoic deeper oceanic environments. Birimian greenstone belt in southwestern Ghana is likely to have made up of subduction of oceanic basin to form a volcanic island arc. Birimian rocks are separated by nonconformity from the Tarkwaian Group which is a younger paleoplacer deposit (Perrouty et al., 2012). The Birimian is made up of island-arc volcanic rocks; foreland basin made up of shale, sandstone, quartzite and turbidities derived from 2.17 Ga granite intrusions during Birimian volcanism. In this study, we focused on the coastal area around Cape Three Points at the southernmost part of the Ashanti (Axim-Konongo) belt in Ghana. In the eastern part of the area, excellently preserved Paleoprotorozoic deeper oceanic sedimentary sequences extensively outcrop for over 4km stretch. This volcano-sedimentary sequence has been affected by greenschist facies metamorphism. Structurally, this region preserves S1 cleavage and asymmetrical synform with west vergence and S0 younging to the east. Provisional stratigraphy is very continuous up to more than 2000m thick and, in addition, suggests at least four different fining upward sequences in the area to the east and west of Atwepo, west of Kwetakora and Akodda. These sub-sequences are mainly composed of volcaniclasitc, sandstone, black shale and rare volcanics such as pillow basalt or massive volcanic lava. In other words, this continuous sequence suggests distal submarine

  3. Effect of meridian differentiation scrapping on headache in mixed hemorrhoid patients with lumbar anesthesia%经络辨证刮痧法对混合痔手术腰麻后头痛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨经络刮痧法对混合痔手术腰麻后头痛患者的作用.方法 选择接受肛肠手术、腰麻后头痛的患者86例,随机分为实验组和对照组各43例.对照组予去枕平卧、多饮水等常规处理,实验组在此基础上予经络辨证刮痧法,比较2组研究前后头痛程度视觉模拟评分法(VAS)得分和头痛干预疗效.结果 实验组研究前后、实验组与对照组比较,头痛程度差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);2组头痛干预总有效率实验组93.02%,对照组16.28%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 经络辨证刮痧法干预腰麻后头痛针对性强、疗效确切、无不良反应,可作为腰麻后头痛的优先干预手段之一.%Objective To explore the effect of meridian differentiation scrapping on headache in mixed hemorrhoid patients with lumbar anesthesia. Methods 86 patients with headache after hemorrhoid surgery by lumbar anesthesia were randomly divided into experimental group and control group,each group contained 43 patients. The control group was conducted with conventional process such as horizontal position without pillow and drinking of water,while experimental group was treated with meridian differentiation scrapping on the basis of control group. VAS score of headache degree and effect of headache intervention were compared between two groups. Results About headache degree,there was significant difference before and after treatment in experimental group(P<0.05),also there was significant difference between the two groups(P<0. 05). The total curative rates in experimental group and control group were 93. 02 % and 16.28 % respectively,and there was statistical difference(P<0.05). Conclusion Meridian differentiation scrapping can be one of the priority interventions to treat headache after hemorrhoid surgery by humbar anesthesia,which has strong pertinence,exact curative effect and less adverse reactions.

  4. A new interpretation of the structure of the Sept Iles Intrusive suite, Canada (United States)

    Higgins, Michael D.


    The layered mafic intrusion at Sept Iles, Canada, is one of the largest intrusions in the world. A new interpretation of its structure is proposed, based on a review of its geology and a comparison with the Skaergaard intrusion, Greenland. Several different magmatic components are recognized; hence the name Sept Iles Intrusive suite (SIIS) is proposed. Emplacement of the suite may have been preceded by eruption of flood basalts. The first magmas of the suite rose in the crust to accumulate beneath the density filter afforded by the basalts. The largest component is the Sept Iles Mafic intrusion (SIMI). The Lower series of the SIMI is dominated by leucotroctolites and leucogabbros. Above it lie the Layered series, which is largely comprised of gabbro and troctolite. Both these units are unchanged from earlier interpretations. The anorthosites (s.l.), gabbros and monzogabbros, formerly called the Transitional series, are now considered to be the Upper Border series, developed by floatation of plagioclase. Common autoliths in the Layered series are parts of the hydrothermally altered Upper Border series from towards the interior of the intrusion, which have foundered and settled through the magma. The contamination of the magma that accompanied this event oxidised iron in the magma and led to the precipitation of magnetite around the periphery of the intrusion. The subsequent depletion of Fe 3+ and/or increase in SiO 2, CaO and P 2O 5 may have induced apatite saturation and accumulation to form two layers rich in apatite, near the base and at top of the Layered series. Granitic magma was developed by fractional crystallisation and was emplaced along the roof of the chamber, where it acquired large quantities of xenoliths. These were probably derived from the flood basalts, their evolved members and fragments of mafic dykes chilled by the granitic magma. Accumulations of monzonite pillows in this unit testify to another magmatic event and a floor to the granitic magma

  5. The Maliac Ocean: the origin of the Tethyan Hellenic ophiolites (United States)

    Ferriere, Jacky; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Chanier, Frank


    The Hellenides, part of the Alpine orogeny in Greece, are rich in ophiolitic units. These ophiolites and associated units emplaced during Jurassic obduction, testify for the existence of one, or several, Tethyan oceanic realms. The paleogeography of these oceanic areas has not been precisely described. However, all the authors now agree on the presence of a main Triassic-Jurassic ocean on the eastern side of the Pelagonian zone (Vardar Domain). We consider that this Maliac Ocean is the most important ocean in Greece and Albania. Here, we limit the detailed description of the Maliac Ocean to the pre-convergence period of approximately 70 Ma between the Middle Triassic rifting to the Middle Jurassic convergence period. A quick overview on the destiny of the different parts of the Maliac Ocean during the convergence period is also proposed. The studied exposures allow to reconstruct: (1) the Middle to Late Triassic Maliac oceanic lithosphere, corresponding to the early spreading activity at a Mid-Oceanic Ridge; (2) the Western Maliac Margin, widely exposed in the Othris and Argolis areas; (3) the Eastern-Maliac Margin in the eastern Vardar domain (Peonias and Paikon zones). We established the following main characteristics of the Maliac Ocean: (1) the Middle Triassic rifting marked by a rapid subsidence and volcanism seems to be short-lived (few My); (2) the Maliac Lithosphere is only represented by Middle to Late Triassic units, especially the Fourka unit, composed of WPB-OIB and MORB pillow-lavas, locally covered by a pelagic Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentary cover; (3) the Western Margin is the most complete and our data allow to distinguish a proximal and a deeper distal margin; (4) the evolution of the Eastern Margin (Peonias and Paikon series) is similar to that of the W-Margin, except for its Jurassic terrigenous sediments, while the proximal W-Margin was dominated by calcarenites; (5) we show that the W- and E-margins are not Volcanic Passive

  6. 学龄儿童支气管哮喘危险因素的调查%Risk factors for bronchial asthma in school children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东明; 肖晓雄; 何晓玲; 崔碧云; 汪叶红; 李小琳; 付四毛


    Objective To investigate the roles of the residential environment and eating habits in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in school children. Methods One hundred and twenty-nine children between 6-12 years who were diagnosed with asthma were enrolled. Two hundred and fifty-eight healthy age- and gender-matched children were used as the control group. A questionaire which included 23 factors related to respiratory tract anaphylactic diseases such as residential environment and eating habits were completed by the children's parents. Results Logistic regression analysis showed that 6 variances out of 16 agents of the residential environment, the experience of raising pets, the type of floor, the type of pillow, the type of quilts, the heating equipments and the house area, were entered into the regression equation;none of the 7 variances of eating inhabits was entered into it. Conclusions The residential environment plays an impotent role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children. The incidence of bronchial asthma in children can be reduced by the improvement of the residential environment.%目的 探讨居住环境和饮食习惯对学龄儿童哮喘发生的影响,为临床提供指导.方法 选择符合儿童支气管哮喘诊断标准的129名6~12岁学龄儿童为研究对象(哮喘组),选择258名年龄和性别匹配的健康儿童为对照,同时填写包括居住环境和饮食习惯等共23个因素的呼吸道过敏性疾病调查问卷.结果 Logistic回归分析显示,在16个居住环境因素中,以前是否饲养宠物、地板类型、枕头类型、被子类型、取暖装置、房屋面积等6个因素进入回归方程,而7个饮食习惯因素均没有进入回归方程.结论 居住环境在儿童支气管哮喘的发生中起着重要作用,加强对居住环境的控制,有助于降低儿童支气管哮喘的发生率.

  7. Oroclines of the Variscan orogen of Iberia: Paleocurrent analysis and paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Shaw, Jessica; Johnston, Stephen T.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Weil, Arlo B.


    Coupled structural and paleomagnetic analyses have shown that the northern Iberian bend of the Variscan orogen, referred to as the Cantabrian Orocline, developed by vertical axis rotation of an originally linear orogen. However, palinspastic restoration of the orocline has proven difficult owing to (1) an unusually great orogenic width of over 700 km and (2) exposure of shallow water strata of the Gondwanan margin in the northern and southern portions of the orogen. We present paleocurrent data from Lower Ordovician shallow marine clastic sedimentary rocks across the Variscan of northern and central Iberia collected to constrain palinspastic restoration of the orogen. Paleocurrent data were collected from over 50 sites, and include cross bed foresets, ripple crests and casts, as well as rare ball and pillow structures, syn-sedimentary slump folds, and incised channels. Paleocurrent directions fan around the Cantabrian Orocline, are consistently oriented at a high angle to structural strike, and yield a consistent offshore direction outward from the oroclinal core. Similarly, changes in structural strike and paleocurrent direction across central Iberia imply the presence of a second more southerly orocline, the Central Iberian Orocline, that is continuous with, but convex in the opposite direction of the Cantabrian Orocline. Together, the Cantabrian and Central Iberian oroclines define an S-shaped pair of continental-scale buckle folds. Palinspastic restoration of the oroclines yields a linear continental margin > 1500 km long characterized by consistent offshore paleoflow to the west, defining a westerly oceanic domain (presumably the Rheic Ocean) and an easterly landward direction (presumably Gondwana). Recognition of the southern orocline explains the unusual width of the orogen, the geometry of aeromagnetic anomalies attributable to Variscan rocks, and is consistent with available structural data, paleomagnetic declination data, and the distribution of

  8. Localization Accuracy and Immobilization Effectiveness of a Stereotactic Body Frame for a Variety of Treatment Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ryan, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Meyer, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Puneeth; Pistenmaa, David; Timmerman, Robert; Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Solberg, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pretreatment setup errors and intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy patients immobilized and localized with a stereotactic body frame for a variety of treatment sites. Methods and Materials: Localization errors were recorded for patients receiving SBRT for 141 lung, 29 liver, 48 prostate, and 45 spine tumors representing 1005 total localization sessions. All patients were treated in a stereotactic body frame with a large custom-molded vacuum pillow. Patients were first localized to the frame using tattoos placed during simulation. Subsequently, the frame was aligned to the room lasers according to the stereotactic coordinates determined from the treatment plan. Every patient received a pretreatment and an intrafraction CBCT. Abdominal compression was used for all liver patients and for approximately 40% of the lung patients to reduce tumor motion due to respiration. Results: The mean ± standard deviation pretreatment setup errors from all localizations were −2.44 ± 3.85, 1.31 ± 5.84, and 0.11 ± 3.76 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean pretreatment localization results among all treatment sites were not significantly different (F test, P<.05). For all treatment sites, the mean ± standard deviation intrafraction shifts were 0.33 ± 1.34, 0.15 ± 1.45, and −0.02 ± 1.17 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean unidimensional intrafraction shifts were statistically different for several of the comparisons (P<.05) as assessed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Conclusions: Despite the varied tumor locations, the pretreatment mean localization errors for all sites were found to be consistent among the treatment sites and not significantly different, indicating that the body frame is a suitable immobilization and localization device for a variety of

  9. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harald Furnes; Maarten de Wit; Yildirim Dilek


    We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimi-nation systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%), linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%). The remaining 25%Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74%) of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type), in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals), starting in late Paleo-to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0e1.8 Ga), exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incom-patible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles) in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50% of all known

  10. Tectonic Evolution of the Cretaceous Sava-Klepa Massif, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, based on field observations and microstructural analysis - Towards a new geodynamic Model (United States)

    Altmeyer, Tobias; Peternell, Mark; Prelević, Dejan; Köpping, Jonas


    The Balkan Peninsula was formed during the Mesozoic collision of Gondwana and Eurasia, associated with the closure of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. As a result, two ophiolitic belts were formed: Dinaride-Hellenide ophiolitic belt in the southwest and the Vardar ophiolitic belt in the northeast. The bulk of Balkan ophiolites originated in the Jurassic (Robertson & Karamata, 1994), and only recently the Late Cretaceous Sava-zone ophiolites are discovered. Ophiolit-like outcrops of Mount Klepa in the Central Macedonia represents a part of Late Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere within the Sava Zone, comprising of pillow lavas, sheet flows, columns, hyaloclastites, dikes as well as cumulates. In this study we investigate the geodynamic setting and evolution of the Late Cretaceous Klepa Massif. Our working hypotheses we want to test is that Klepa Massif represents a new ocean opened through rifting after the closure of Tethyan ocean(s) and collision of Europe and Gondwana already in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. This hypothesis contradicts the accepted model suggesting that Sava ophiolites represent a relic of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean that closed in the Late Cretaceous. During detailed structural geology field studies, the ophiolitic rock sequence of Klepa Mountain area was mapped in several profiles and about 60 rock samples were taken. These field data in addition to the north-south trending outcrops of the Klepa ophiolite and the north-south trending shear zones which bound the Klepa basalt, lead to the assumption of the existence of a pull apart basin. With the help of microstructural analyses we will determine the deformation history and temperatures which also will be confirmed by the analyses of calcite twins (Ferril et al., 2004). Quartz grain size analysis of quartz bearing rocks, were used for stress piezometry. Furthermore, quartz crystal geometry and crystallographic orientations, which were measured with the Fabric Analyser G60 (Peternell et al., 2010), reveal

  11. Widespread assimilation of a seawater-derived component at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, A.J.R.; Clague, D.A.; Honda, M.; Stolper, E.M.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Norman, M.D.


    Many tholeiitic and transitional pillow-rim and fragmental glasses from Loihi seamount, Hawaii, have high Cl contents and Cl/K{sub 2}O ratios (and ratios of Cl to other incompatible components, such as P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, H{sub 2}O, etc.) relative to other Hawaiian subaerial volcanoes (e.g., Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, and Kilauea). The authors suggest that this results from widespread contamination of Loihi magmas by a Cl-rich, seawater-derived component. Assimilation of high-Cl phases such as saline brine or Cl-rich minerals (halite or iron-hydroxychlorides) with high Cl/H{sub 2}O ratios can explain the range and magnitude of Cl contents in Loihi glasses, as well as the variations in the ratios of Cl to other incompatible elements. Brines and Cl-rich minerals are thought to form from seawater within the hydrothermal systems associated with submarine volcanoes, and Loihi magmas could plausibly have assimilated such materials from the hydrothermal envelope adjacent to the magma chamber. Their model can also explain semiquantitatively the observed contamination of Loihi glasses with atmospheric-derived noble gases, provided the assimilant has concentrations of Ne and Ar comparable to or slightly less than seawater. This is more likely for brines than for Cl-rich minerals, leading the authors to favor brines as the major assimilant. Cl/Br ratios for a limited number of Loihi samples are also seawater-like, and show no indication of the higher values expected to be associated with the assimilation of Cl-rich hydrothermal minerals. Although Cl enrichment is a common feature of lavas from Loihi, submarine glasses from other Hawaiian volcanoes show little (Kilauea) or no (Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea) evidence of this process, suggesting that assimilation of seawater-derived components is more likely to occur in the early stages of growth of oceanic volcanoes. Summit collapse events such as the one observed at Loihi in October 1996 provide a ready mechanism for depositing brine

  12. Biogenic versus metamorphic origins of diverse microtubes in 2.7 Gyr old volcanic ashes: Multi-scale investigations (United States)

    Lepot, Kevin; Benzerara, Karim; Philippot, Pascal


    Titanite-bearing microtubes in metabasalts have been interpreted as evidence for early microbial life thriving in the oceanic crust up to 3.5 Ga ago based on similarities with microtubular pitting occurring in modern volcanic glass. An alternative abiogenic origin as ambient inclusions trails (AITs) has been debated but textural evidence such as the absence of diagnostic terminal inclusions was used to discard this possibility. Here, we describe a variety of microtubes occurring in pyroclastic tuff of the 2.72 Ga Tumbiana Formation, Western Australia, some of which resemble titanite-filled microtubes reported in metamorphosed Archean pillow basalts. To assess the origin of the Tumbiana microtubes, we investigated their structure and chemistry and their root zone down to the sub-micrometer scale using a combination of Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) milling and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS). We report four types of microtubes. Type 1 comprises calcite microtubes. Type 2 comprises AITs showing terminal pyrite and trails with negative crystal shapes. Type 3 comprises titanite microtubes in chlorite displaying morphologies similar to those reported in ~ 3.5 Ga old Archean lavas. At the sub-micrometer scale, they display a dendritic structure. Depending on their localization, Type 3 microtubes have been divided in three main sub-types: i) Type 3A extends in pores filled by chloritized cement, ii) Type 3B occurs in pyroclasts, and iii) Type 3C overgrows and thus post-dates Type 2 AITs. Type 4 comprises titanite microtubes confined to quartz and calcite rims. Types 3 and 4 microtubes are terminated by sub-micrometric carbonaceous and/or mineral inclusions. Altogether, these features suggest that the Tumbiana titanite microtubes have formed as dendritic AITs associated with displacement of mineral and/or organic inclusions in pyroclasts and in

  13. Systematic Nursing Intervention on Treatment Compliance of Patients with Cervical Spondyllosis%系统化护理干预对颈型颈椎病患者治疗依从性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To observe the influence of systematic nursing intervention on treatment compliance of patients with cervical spondyllosis. Methods: A total of 110 cervical spondyllosis patients were enrolled and randomly divided into the experimental group and control group(55 patients in each group)in our hospital from August 2010 to April 2011. The patients in the experimental group were treated with systematic nursing intervention by health education talks based on the acupuncture treatment, while the patients in the control group only received the acupuncture treatment. Treatment compliance was compared between the two groups. Results:Systematic nursing of the experimental group was far higher than that of the control group in wearing neck collar, science pillow,reasonable diet,healthy lifestyle,functional exercise and taking correct medication(P <0.01). Conclusion,;Systematic nursing intervention can significantly improve the treatment compliance of cervical spondyllosis patients, with important effects on restraining cervical spondyllosis development, reducing rates of recurring and preventing the other kinds of cervical spondyllosis.%目的:探讨系统化护理干预对颈型颈椎病患者治疗依从性的影响.方法:选择颈椎病患者110例,随机分为对照组和干预组各55例,对照组仅采用以针灸疗法为主的综合治疗,干预组在采用以针灸治疗为主的基础上,由专科护士通过门诊瞬间健康教育讲座方式实施系统化的护理干预,比较两组患者治疗前后的依从性及颈椎病颈椎功能.结果:干预组患者在戴颈托、科学用枕、合理饮食、日常生活方式、运动疗法和正确服药方面的依从性明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论:系统化护理干预能显著提高颈型颈椎病患者治疗的依从性,降低了疾病的复发率,预防了其他类型颈椎病的进一步发生.

  14. Design, implementation and hydrologic evaluation of a snow-measurement network using wireless sensors in the American River basin of California (United States)

    Rice, R.; Bales, R. C.; Marks, D. G.; Conklin, M. H.; Zhang, Z.; Glaser, S. D.


    American River Hydrologic Observatory in the Sierra Nevada of California, comprising of portions of the American River basin that receive significant snow, is the site for the deployment of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that provides distributed estimates of water balance and a full-basin, well-instrumented research platform. The WSN is a set of sensors integrated into a single instrument to make spatial measurements to capture the landscape variability, and provide both spatially distributed and representative values of snowcover and the energy that drives snowmelt across the basin. Each local WSN has 10 snow-depth, air-temperature and relative-humidity sensors placed in a ~1-km2 area, and is centered on existing snow-pillow, snow-course and meteorological-station. A subset of the nodes are equipped with 15-20 soil-moisture and soil-temperature sensors. The temporal resolution of all measurements are 15-minutes. Results indicate that the aggregate of all measurement nodes are representative of the landscape variability across the American River basin, as well as the three forks of the American River. Snow measurements across elevation gradients and at each local WSN show similar trends but different magnitudes. Across elevation gradients snow amounts can vary as much as 60%-80%, while variability across a 1-km2 10 measurement network range by as much as 60%. Additionally, spatially distributed sensors distinguish temperature and humidity differences across topographic and vegetation variables, which control variable snowmelt rates across the terrain. Snowmelt rates across a 1-km2 can ranged from 8 to 70 mm day-1. The Hydrologic data from the WSN is being used for research, and for modernizing forecasting and decision-support systems through spatially explicit modeling, and by enhancing existing physically and statistically based snowmelt and hydrologic models. Data are available through the American River Hydrologic Observatory ( and real

  15. First Recovery of Submarine Basalts from the Chukchi Borderland and Alpha / Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Andronikov, A.; Mukasa, S.; Mayer, L. A.; Brumley, K.


    In addition to multibeam bathymetric mapping of the Amerasia Basin in the high Arctic Ocean, the August- September 2008 cruise of USCGC Icebreaker HEALY (HLY0805) conducted a total of seven dredging profiles along the southern sectors of the Alpha/Mendeleev Ridge and in the northernmost region of Northwind Ridge of Chukchi Borderland. Five of the seven dredges were recovered on relatively gentle slopes (30-40°) and yielded mostly mud with a small number of fragments of sedimentary rocks and ice rafted debris (IRD), which indicates either rapid sedimentation rates on the bathymetrically high features sampled or lack of recently active volcanism on these features. Two dredges taken from steep escarpments with slopes (> 55°) at >3.5 km depth recovered some of the first known submarine basaltic samples from the Arctic Ocean floor away from the Gakkel Ridge. Ragged, freshly exposed edges indicate that these samples were broken from outcrop rather than being IRD. In some cases (e.g., a rise on the ocean floor between the Alpha/Mendeleev Ridge and Northwind Ridge) the samples have well-preserved pillow-basalt structures with fresh glassy rims up to 4 cm thick. Inward from the rims, the rocks are dark-grey lavas, some with visible plagioclase laths and rare phenocrysts up to 0.5 mm in length, some with visible signs of alteration such as local occurrence of chlorite. Surfaces that were exposed to water can be covered with a thin black film of Mn oxides. Occurrence of this volcanism away from any obvious spreading centers compels us to hypothesize that forthcoming geochemical analyses are likely to identify these rocks as the first Arctic Ocean floor samples to exhibit ocean island basalt compositions. The dredge taken from the northern slope of Northwind Ridge, along slopes as steep as > 45°, recovered a variety of rock types including sedimentary and basaltic rocks. Some of the basalts have columnar jointing (the size of the columns is only up to 5-6 cm across

  16. Submarine intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Geological setting and petrology of the society and the austral regions (United States)

    Hekinian, Roger; Bideau, Daniel; Stoffers, Peter; Cheminee, Jean Louis; Muhe, Richard; Puteanus, Doris; Binard, Nicolas


    The southeastern prolongations of the Society and Austral islands volcanic chains are terminated by several recent submarine volcanoes (300-3800 m in height) built on irregularly shaped crustal swells or bulges (3600-3950 m in depth). The crustal swells (about 100 km in width) is bounded by deeper abyssal hill regions (>4000 m in depth) where old volcanoes with thick Fe-Mn coatings are encountered. The rocks sampled on this ancient oceanic crust are depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) similar to modem volcanics encountered on the East Pacific Rise. The volcanics of the Society hot spot consist of ankaramites, picrites, alkali-basalts, basanites, tephrites, and trachytes. Highly vesiculated pillow lavas show a wide compositional range in their large ion lithophile elements (LILE) (K2O=1-4%, Nb=25-80 ppm, Zr=200-400 ppm, Ba=300-840 ppm) and compatible element variations (Mg #=40-70, Ni=80-500 ppm), and low Zr/Nb ratios (5-8). Low-K tholeiites (K2OQueensland's xenoliths) and spinel-lherzolites, was tested as being a possible origin for the studied rocks. This model provides adequate Zr/Nb ratios and suggests that the Society mantle source contained smaller amount of homblendite (<5 wt %) and underwent lower degree of partial melting (about 5 %) than that of the Austral hot spot (10 wt % and 10-20% respectively). However, the complementary mantle source in the Society hot spot requires larger amount of LREEs than it is necessary for the Austral volcanoes. While the Zabargad amphibole-peridotites are reasonable candidates, the metasomatized peridotite xenoliths from continental alkali-basalts and the amphibole-peridotite mylonites from St. Paul's Rocks are more suitable as a potential source for the Society parental melts enriched in Ce and La. Hence the intraplate lava compositions could be the result of recycling and remelting of an ancient oceanic upper mantle which is partially metasomatized during its lateral transfer off the ridge axis. Local mantle

  17. Geochemical constraints on komatiite volcanism from Sargur Group Nagamangala greenstone belt, western Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for Mesoarchean mantle evolution and continental growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We present field, petrographic, major and trace element data for komatiites and komatiite basalts from Sargur Group Nagamangala greenstone belt, western Dharwar craton. Field evidences such as crude pillow structure indicate their eruption in a marine environment whilst spinifex texture reveals their komatiite nature. Petrographic data suggest that the primary mineralogy has been completely altered during post-magmatic processes associated with metamorphism corresponding to greenschist to lower amphibolite facies conditions. The studied komatiites contain serpentine, talc, tremolite, actinolite and chlorite whilst tremolite, actinolite with minor plagioclase in komatiitic basalts. Based on the published Sm-Nd whole rock isochron ages of adjoining Banasandra komatiites (northern extension of Nagamangala belt and further northwest in Nuggihalli belt and Kalyadi belt we speculate ca. 3.2–3.15 Ga for komatiite eruption in Nagamangala belt. Trace element characteristics particularly HFSE and REE patterns suggest that most of the primary geochemical characteristics are preserved with minor influence of post-magmatic alteration and/or contamination. About 1/3 of studied komatiites show Al-depletion whilst remaining komatiites and komatiite basalts are Al-undepleted. Several samples despite high MgO, (Gd/YbN ratios show low CaO/Al2O3 ratios. Such anomalous values could be related to removal of CaO from komatiites during fluid-driven hydrothermal alteration, thus lowering CaO/Al2O3 ratios. The elemental characteristics of Al-depleted komatiites such as higher (Gd/YbN (>1.0, CaO/Al2O3 (>1.0, Al2O3/TiO2 (18 together with higher HREE, Y, Zr suggest their derivation from shallower upper mantle without garnet involvement in residue. The observed chemical characteristics (CaO/Al2O3, Al2O3/TiO2, MgO, Ni, Cr, Nb, Zr, Y, Hf, and REE indicate derivation of the komatiite and komatiite basalt magmas from heterogeneous mantle (depleted to primitive mantle at

  18. Fingerprinting fluid sources in Troodos ophiolite complex orbicular glasses using high spatial resolution isotope and trace element geochemistry (United States)

    Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Kirchenbaur, Maria; Ballhaus, Chris; Münker, Carsten; Zirner, Aurelia; Gerdes, Axel; Heuser, Alexander; Botcharnikov, Roman; Lenting, Christoph


    The Troodos igneous complex (Cyprus) is a ca. 90 Ma old, well preserved supra-subduction zone ophiolite. Troodos is unique in that it shows evidence of fluid-saturation throughout the complex, from its base (i.e. podiform chromitites) to its uppermost units - the upper pillow lavas (UPL). However, it is unclear what the source of dissolved water in UPL tholeiites is, with possibilities including shallow seawater infiltration, assimilation of altered Troodos oceanic crust, recycled serpentinized oceanic crust, or subducted pelagic sediments. In order to identify and characterize these components we have carried out a detailed high-resolution study on tholeiitic lavas on orbicular structures and glasses from the UPL in Troodos. Basaltic orbicules were measured for their Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions, and in situ for their B isotopes using LA-MC-ICP-MS. UPL orbicules display a very narrow range in ɛ Nd and ɛ Hf (+7 to +8 and +13 to +15, respectively) indicating melting of a depleted mantle source. Lead isotopes, specifically 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, form a mixing array with pelagic sediments. Furthermore, high-resolution characterization of individual orbicules revealed that UPL tholeiites display strong variability in 87Sr/86Sr (0.7039-0.7060) at the outcrop scale. Samples display δ11 B between -8.2 (± 0.5)‰ and +5.9 (± 1.1)‰ with an average B content of ca. 5 μg/g. Contrary to expectation, altered orbicules and their associated hyaloclastite matrixes display lower δ11 B (down to -10‰) and higher B contents (max. 200 μg/g) when compared to fresh glass. Furthermore, the orbicules studied here show little or no evidence of interaction with seawater, which is supported by their trace element contents and isotope compositions. When all isotope systems are taken into account, UPL lavas reflect melting of a depleted mantle source that was overprinted by hydrous sediment melts, and potentially, fluid-like subduction components that in part originate

  19. Why Quark Rhymes with Pork (United States)

    Mermin, N. David


    Part I. Reference Frame Columns, Physics Today, 1988-2009: 1. What's wrong with this Lagrangean? April 1988; 2. What's wrong with this library? August 1988; 3. What's wrong with these prizes? January 1989; 4. What's wrong with this pillow? April 1989; 5. What's wrong with this prose? May 1989; 6. What's wrong with these equations? October 1989; 7. What's wrong with these elements of reality? June 1990; 8. What's wrong with these reviews? August 1990; 9. What's wrong with those epochs? November 1990; 10. Publishing in computopia, May 1991; 11. What's wrong with those grants, June 1991; 12. What's wrong in computopia, April 1992; 13. What's wrong with those talks? November 1992; 14. Two lectures on the wave-particle duality, January 1993; 15. A quarrel we can settle, December 1993; 16. What's wrong with this temptation, June 1994; 17. What's wrong with this sustaining myth, March 1996; 18. The golemization of relativity, April 1996; 19. Diary of a Nobel guest, March 1997; 20. What's wrong with this reading, October 1997; 21. How not to create tigers, August 1999; 22. What's wrong with this elegance? March 2000; 23. The contemplation of quantum computation, July 2000; 24. What's wrong with these questions? February 2001; 25. What's wrong with this quantum world? February 2004; 26. Could Feynman have said this? May 2004; 27. My life with Einstein, December 2005; 28. What has quantum mechanics to do with factoring? April 2007; 29. Some curious facts about quantum factoring, October 2007; 30. What's bad about this habit, May 2009; Part II. Shedding Bad Habits: 31. Fixing the shifty split, Physics Today, July 2012; 32. What I think about Now, Physics Today, March 2014; 33. Why QBism is not the Copenhagen interpretation, lecture, Vienna, June 2014; Part III. More from Professor Mozart: 34. What's wrong with this book? Unpublished, 1992; 35. What's wrong with these stanzas? Physics Today, July 2007; Part IV. More to be said: 36. The complete diary of a Nobel guest

  20. Combining low-cost GPS receivers with upGPR to derive continuously liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent in Alpine snow covers (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Schmid, Lino; Prasch, Monika; Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram


    The temporal evolution of Alpine snowpacks is important for assessing water supply, hydropower generation, flood predictions and avalanche forecasts. Especially in high mountain regions with an extremely varying topography, it is until now often difficult to derive continuous and non-destructive information on snow parameters. Since autumn 2012, we are running a new low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) snow measurement experiment at the high alpine study site Weissfluhjoch (2450 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland. The globally and freely broadcasted GPS L1-band (1.57542 GHz) was continuously recorded with GPS antennas, which are installed at the ground surface underneath the snowpack. GPS raw data, containing carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) as well as elevation and azimuth angle information for each time step of 1 s, was stored and analyzed for all 32 GPS satellites. Since the dielectric permittivity of an overlying wet snowpack influences microwave radiation, the bulk volumetric liquid water content as well as daily melt-freeze cycles can be derived non-destructively from GPS signal strength losses and external snow height information. This liquid water content information is qualitatively in good accordance with meteorological and snow-hydrological data and quantitatively highly agrees with continuous data derived from an upward-looking ground-penetrating radar (upGPR) working in a similar frequency range. As a promising novelty, we combined the GPS signal strength data with upGPR travel-time information of active impulse radar rays to the snow surface and back from underneath the snow cover. This combination allows determining liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent from beneath the snow cover without using any other external information. The snow parameters derived by combining upGPR and GPS data are in good agreement with conventional sensors as e.g. laser distance gauges or snow pillows. As the GPS sensors are cheap, they can easily

  1. 婴儿Chiari畸形II型1例报告%Chiari II malformation in infant:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:分析婴儿Chiari畸形Ⅱ型的临床资料,加深儿科医师的认识。方法回顾性分析1例确诊为Chiari畸形Ⅱ型患儿的临床、实验室、影像学资料,并复习相关文献。结果患儿,男,2个月,因颈部肿物2个月入院。颅脑MRI示小脑扁桃体部分疝入枕骨大孔。予手术治疗后一直间断发热,不能竖头、独坐,前囟门进行性增大,CT诊断脑积水。结论 Chi-ari畸形Ⅱ型会导致神经功能异常,预后差,病死率高;早期诊断,积极手术,可改善预后。%Objective To analyze the clinical data of an infant with Chiari II malformation so as to deepen understanding of this disease in pediatrics. Methods The clinical, laboratory and imaging data of an infant with Chiari II malformation were retrospectively analyzed and a literature review was performed. Results A 2-month-old male infant was admitted to our hospital due to a neck tumor for two months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed herniation of the cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum. The infant was finally diagnosed with Chiari II malformation based on the result of MRI and the presence of myelomeningocele. After repair of spinal cord and meninges and decompression of pillow macroporous by surgery, the infant presented with intermittent fever and progressively enlarged anterior fontanel, with culture-positive cerebrospinal fluid for bacte-ria and hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT, and intracranial infection was considered. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was not performed due to uncontrolled intracranial infection after treatment, and motor retardation was found during the follow-up. Conclusions Chiari II malformation may results in nervous system dysfunction with poor diagnosis and high case fatality rate. Early diagnosis and operation may be helpful to the improvement of prognosis.

  2. Mapping the Piccard Hydrothermal Field - The World's Deepest Known Vent Area (United States)

    Kinsey, J. C.; German, C. R.


    We report the recent mapping and exploration of the Piccard Hydrothermal Field on the Mid-Cayman Rise. Two previous expeditions in 2009 and 2010 led to the discovery of the site, which at 5000m hosts the world's deepest known vents. The site was mapped and explored in January 2012 and the Piccard Field was found to be larger than previously appreciated. The site includes 3 separate currently active hydrothermal mounts together with 4 additional extinct depo-centers. The 3 active centers are the Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods, and Beebe Sea sites. Beebe Vents is an active black smoker system with maximum temperatures of 400-403 degrees Celsius. Beebe Woods contains a set of tall beehive smokers with temperatures of approximately 353 degrees Celsius. Beebe Sea, the largest sulfide mound in the field, contains diffuse venting together with numerous extinct chimneys that indicate significant past active focused flow. Observations of the 4 extinct mounds indicate differences in their apparent ages based on the texture and morphology of the extinct sulfides at the summit of each mound. The entire field is located on top of an axial volcanic ridge with extrusive pillow mounds prominent. A major fault traverses the mound along its long axis, from Southwest to Northeast. Beebe Woods, Beebe Sea, and extinct Beebe mound D abut this fault directly with an apparent monotonic age progression from youngest (Beebe Woods) in the SW to relict mound 'D' in the NE. Similarly, the Beebe Vents site and mound is located at the SW limit of a parallel set of mounds, offset from the fault by approximately 100m, which also ages progressively through extinct Beebe Mounds 'E', 'F' and 'G'. The major fault that bisects the axial volcanic ridge at Piccard evidently serves as a controlling mechanism for the mounds abutting that fault however the mechanism for the second line of mounds remains to be determined. Bathymetry suggests the presence of a second, smaller fault which may serve as the control

  3. 显微手术治疗大型听神经瘤的临床疗效分析%Microscopic analysis of operation treatment of large acoustic neuromas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective: to study the clinical effect of treatment of large acoustic neuroma surgery microscope.Methods:our hospital in February 2014 - February 2014, 12 patients with large acoustic neuroma treated as the research object. All of the patients are made under the pillow after sigmoid sinus approach surgery under microscope.Results: the treatment, according to the results of 10 cases of total excision of the tumor, total resection was 83.3%, the anatomy of the facial nerve to keep 9 cases, 8 function reserves, retained the auditory nerve in 1 case, there was no death patients. In patients with dysphagia after surgery in 3 cases, 1 case of postoperative bleeding, 1 case of cerebrospinal lfuid leakage.Conclusion: patients with large acoustic neuroma, after using the occipital sigmoid sinus approach tumors were resected under a microscope, is an effective treatment method and the preservation of the facial nerve is of great significance, as well as to reduce morbidity and mortality, improve clinical therapeutic effect.%目的:研究探讨显微镜手术治疗大型听神经瘤的临床效果.方法:将我院2014年2月-2015年2月收治的大型听神经瘤患者12例为研究对象.所有患者均采用枕下乙状窦后入路显微镜下进行手术治疗.结果:治疗结果显示,肿瘤全切除10例,全切除率为83.3%,面部神经解剖保留9例,功能保留8例,保留听神经1例,并未出现死亡患者.在患者手术后出现吞咽困难的有3例、术后出血的有1例,脑脊液渗漏的有1例.结论:大型听神经瘤患者,采用枕下乙状窦后入路显微镜下切除肿瘤,是一种有效的治疗方法,对面部神经的保留具有重要意义,同时还有利于降低致残率与死亡率,提高临床治疗效果.

  4. The tungsten isotopic composition of Eoarchean rocks: Implications for early silicate differentiation and core-mantle interaction on Earth (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Sahoo, Yu Vin; Takamasa, Asako; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori


    We have measured 182W/ 184W for Eoarchean rocks from the Itsaq Gneiss Complex (3.8-3.7 Ga pillow meta-basalts, a meta-tonalite, and meta-sediments) and Acasta Gneiss Complex (4.0-3.6 Ga felsic orthogneisses) to assess possible W isotopic heterogeneity within the silicate Earth and to constrain W isotopic evolution of the mantle. The data reveal that 182W/ 184W values in the Eoarchean samples are uniform within the analytical error and indistinguishable from the modern accessible mantle signature, suggesting that the W isotopic composition of the upper mantle has not changed significantly since the Eoarchean era. The results imply either that chemical communication between the mantle and core has been insignificant in post-Hadean times, or that a lowermost mantle with a distinctive W isotope signature has been isolated from mantle convective cycling. Most terrestrial rock samples have a 0.2 ɛ142Nd/ 144Nd higher than the chondrite average. This requires either the presence of a hidden enriched reservoir formed within the first 30 Ma of the Solar System, or the bulk Earth having a ˜ 5% higher Sm/Nd than the chondrite average. We explored the relevance of the 182Hf- 182W isotope system to the 146Sm- 142Nd isotope system during early silicate differentiation events on Earth. In this context, we demonstrate that the lack of resolvable 182W excesses in the Itsaq rocks, despite 142Nd excesses compared to the modern accessible mantle, is more consistent with the view that the bulk Earth has a non-chondritic Sm/Nd. In the non-chondritic Sm/Nd Earth model, the 182W- 142Nd chronometry constrains the age of the source mantle depletion for the Itsaq samples to more than ˜ 40 Ma after the Solar System origin. Our results cannot confirm the previous report of 182W anomalies in the Eoarchean Itsaq meta-sediments, which were interpreted as reflecting an impact-derived meteoritic component.

  5. a New Application of a Fiber Optic Gyro in Magnetic Borehole Logging (United States)

    Stoll, J. B.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.


    A borehole magnetometer from the Institute of Geophysics, University of Goettingen, Germany, was employed in Hole 1203A on Detroit Seamount. The tool consists of three fluxgate sensors which log the two horizontal (X, Y) and the vertical (Z) component of the magnetic induction with depth. For the first time, a fiber optic angular rate sensor was employed in a borehole tool to measure the rotation history during a log run in combination with fluxgate sensors. This rate sensor is an unconventional gyro since it does not have a spinning wheel. This is why it is free from the effects of gravity-induced errors, and with no moving parts, this sensor is insensitive to shock and vibration. It detects and measures angular rates by measuring the frequency difference between two contra-rotating light beams. A magnetic log was run in Hole 1203A on Detroit seamount from the rig floor to the total depth at 925 mbsf. The rotation history of the tool is determined by the accumulation of the rate during a log run. In Hole 1203A the tool rotated almost 60 times about its vertical body axis between the rig floor and the bottom of the hole. On its run back to the floor the tool followed nearly the same rotation history as on the downward run. Aligning to the ship axis and double checking the orientation with the initial orientation enabled changes in the heading of the ship and the Earth's rotation, which also affects the angular rate to be taken into account. It revealed that the difference between the initial and final orientation was less than 5 degrees. During the log run many strongly magnetized layers were encountered in the volcanic basement, which correlate well with sequences of massive and pillowed basalts recovered in the drill core. The anomalous field variations of the vertical component always points towards negative values, which indicates a general magnetic polarisation direction parallel to the present geomagnetic field. The natural remanent magnetization and

  6. Melt extraction and mantle source at a Southwest Indian Ridge Dragon Bone amagmatic segment on the Marion Rise (United States)

    Gao, Changgui; Dick, Henry J. B.; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Huaiyang


    This paper works on the trace and major element compositions of spatially associated basalts and peridotites from the Dragon Bone amagmatic ridge segment at the eastern flank of the Marion Platform on the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The rare earth element compositions of basalts do not match the pre-alteration Dragon Bone peridotite compositions, but can be modeled by about 5 to 10% non-modal batch equilibrium melting from a DMM source. The Dragon Bone peridotites are clinopyroxene-poor harzburgite with average spinel Cr# ~ 27.7. The spinel Cr# indicates a moderate degree of melting. However, CaO and Al2O3 of the peridotites are lower than other abyssal peridotites at the same Mg# and extent of melting. This requires a pyroxene-poor initial mantle source composition compared to either hypothetical primitive upper mantle or depleted MORB mantle sources. We suggest a hydrous melting of the initial Dragon Bone mantle source, as wet melting depletes pyroxene faster than dry. According to the rare earth element patterns, the Dragon Bone peridotites are divided into two groups. Heavy REE in Group 1 are extremely fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by ~ 7% fractional melting in the garnet stability field and another ~ 12.5 to 13.5% in the spinel stability field from depleted and primitive upper mantle sources, respectively. Heavy REE in Group 2 are slightly fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by ~ 15 to 20% fractional melting in the spinel stability field from a depleted mantle source. Both groups show similar melting degree to other abyssal peridotites. If all the melt extraction occurred at the middle oceanic ridge where the peridotites were dredged, a normal ~ 6 km thick oceanic crust is expected at the Dragon Bone segment. However, the Dragon Bone peridotites are exposed in an amagmatic ridge segment where only scattered pillow basalts lie on a partially serpentinized mantle pavement. Thus their depletion requires an

  7. Late Precambrian Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite — a slice of the Pan-African ocean crust?: geochemical and tectonic insights from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan massifs, Bulgaria and Serbia (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Ryan, Jeff; Haydoutov, Ivan; Schijf, Johan


    The Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite (BCO), which outcrops in Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania, is a Late Precambrian (563 Ma) mafic/ultramafic complex unique in that it has not been strongly deformed or metamorphosed, as have most other basement sequences in Alpine Europe. Samples collected for study from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan segments of BCO include cumulate dunites, troctolites, wehrlites and plagioclase wehrlites; olivine and amphibole-bearing gabbros; anorthosites; diabases and microgabbros; and basalts representing massive flows, dikes, and pillow lavas, as well as hyaloclastites and umbers (preserved sedimentary cover). Relict Ol, Cpx and Hbl in cumulate peridotites indicate original orthocumulate textures. Plagioclase in troctolites and anorthosites range from An 60 to An 70. Cumulate gabbro textures range from ophitic to poikilitic, with an inferred crystallization order of Ol-(Plag+Cpx)-Hbl. The extrusive rocks exhibit poikilitic, ophitic and intersertal textures, with Cpx and/or Plag (Oligoclase-Andesine) phenocrysts. The major opaques are Ti-Magnetite and Ilmenite. The metamorphic paragenesis in the mafic samples is Chl-Trem-Ep, whereas the ultramafic rocks show variable degrees of serpentinization, with lizardite and antigorite as dominant phases. Our samples are compositionally and geochemically similar to modern oceanic crust. Major element, trace element and rare earth element (REE) signatures in BCO basalts are comparable to those of MORB. In terms of basalt and dike composition, the BCO is a 'high-Ti' or 'oceanic' ophiolite, based on the classification scheme of Serri [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 52 (1981) 203]. Our petrologic and geochemical results, combined with the tectonic position of the BCO massifs (overlain by and in contact with Late Cambrian island arc and back-arc sequences), suggest that the BCO may have formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting. If the BCO records the existence of a Precambrian ocean basin, then there may be a relationship

  8. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass (United States)

    Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.


    Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic

  9. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (III) Evidence for amphibolite grade contact metamorphism in an active geothermal system (United States)

    Marks, N.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Franzson, H.


    One of the scientific goals of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project is to reach the depths of transition from greenschist to amphibolite grade metamorphism in an active geothermal system. The deepest borehole to date in the Reykjanes system is RN-17, which was drilled to a depth of 3082 m. This well had been considered as a candidate for deepening by the IDDP until it collapsed during a flow test in November 2005. Temperatures in the lower portion of the borehole were never recorded due to an obstruction at 2100 m depth, but are estimated to be approximately 340°C. Epidote, albite, and actinolite are ubiquitous within pillow basalt, hyaloclastite, and in veins, implying that greenschist grade conditions have been attained throughout much of the well below approximately 1200 m. Intrusive lithologies constitute approximately 50% of the observed cuttings between 2600 and 2700 m. These intrusive rocks have produced small, but recognizable contact metamorphic effects characterized by granoblastic hornfels consisting of amphibolite grade assemblages of quartz + anorthite + diopside + magnetite + titanite. These have, in turn, been locally cut by actinolite veins, presumably reflective of the present-day, thermal state of the hydrothermal system at these depths. Based on their siliceous bulk composition, we believe the hornfels represent the thermally- recrystallized products of earlier-formed, hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz, epidote, and actinolite. The metamorphic plagioclase is distinctly more anorthitic (An90 to An98) than igneous plagioclase in adjacent mafic intrusives (An33 to An80) and also exhibits consistently lower Mg content and higher iron (up to 2.07 wt.% as Fe2O3). Stoichiometry implies that much of the iron in hydrothermal anorthite is Fe3+, which may imply recrystallization from precursor epidote under relatively oxidizing conditions. Diopside compositions (average Wo0.48En0.27Fs0.25) are consistently less calcic than hydrothermal clinopyroxenes

  10. The Alarcón Rise: detail mapping and preliminary results on the geometry, distribution and kinematics of faults and fissures on a ridge-transform system (United States)

    Spelz, R. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Santa Rosa-del Rio, M.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.; Guardado-France, R.


    The Alarcón Rise, the northernmost segment of the East Pacific Rise before it enters the Gulf of California, is the oldest and perhaps most active spreading ridge-transform system along the oblique-divergent Pacific-North America plate boundary in the southern Gulf of California. Magnetic anomalies along the main ridge axis, which stretches for nearly 50 km long in a NE-SW (034o) direction, suggest that spreading with new oceanic crust was fully established ca. 2.5 Ma, and that its modern configuration as the main plate boundary initiated ca. 2 Ma (Umhoefer, P.J. et al., 2007 Basin Research). High resolution (1m lateral/0.2m vertical) bathymetry data and direct observations of the entire ridge segment, collected and performed by MBARI's autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and ROV dives, respectively, during the 2012 Expedition to the Gulf of California, have revealed the presence of an intense array of fault-scarps and fissures displacing numerous neovolcanic landforms such as huge lava domes and smaller cones, pillow mounds and large sheet flows along the entire ridge. The relative age of the surface ruptures is wide-ranging. At some places the fractures appear to be relatively recent, as evident by the apparent young age of the fractured flows, based on having few sessile organisms and/or relatively thin sediment cover. In contrast, fractures and fault-scarps elsewhere are observed to have been partially or totally overrun by lava flows, suggesting their preexistence and relatively older age. The ridge parallel faults and fissures change orientation dramatically as they approach and wrap around the bordering Pescadero and Tamayo fracture zones, which limit the northern and southern flanks of the rise, respectively, giving the ridge a sigmoidal geometry with a Z-shaped symmetry. Moreover, the presence of an en echelon volcanic fissure system near the southern end of the ridge, measuring several kilometers long and oriented somewhat obliquely (~15o clockwise) to

  11. Geology of East Egypt greenstone field in Neoproterozoic isoand arc: Reconstruction of Iron formation sedimentary environment. (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.


    Geology of East Egypt greenstone-granit belt which is northern part of Nubia shield was identified neoproterozoic island arc amalgamated sections. There are several iron formation within these greenstone belt. Age data shows this iron formation may be overlaped during 700 Ma Snowball period, how ever, there is no detail report of well preserved ice related evidences. We now started detail field work for identified tectonic reconstruction, original stratigraphy around Iron formation and sedimentary environment during the iron formation sedimentation area. East Egyptian shield was divided three geology, Proterozoic greenstone complex, 700-600 Granitic domes and cover sequence (Hammamet Group). We focus three area to identified sedimentary environment of iron sedimentation. Along the north-south trend of Wadi EL Dabban area are, we named Wadi branch as West site is RW-0 ~ 12, East site is RE-0 ~ 12 from north to south. Northern area is structurally moderate, southern portion is north dipping. Southern portion was intruded by granite and several place contain granitic dikes. Northeast to eastern area are identified younger sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group) which is unconformablly overlay on the other iron formation bearing greenstone belt. Structurally these area is divided four units. Wadi was divided by right-lateral strike-ship fault. The displacement are more than 3 km. Also north dipping faults are identified.East-West trend fault are divided two units. It is divided NE, SE, NW and NS units.SW unit is most well preserved thick sequence of the Iron formation. SW unit is well preserved iron formation sequence within thick volcaniclastics. This unit mostly north dipping around 40-60 degree. Structural repetition in not well understand. Reconstract stratigraphy in this unit is at least 4000m in thickness. 5 member is identified in this sequence. Several thin iron formations are observed with in pillow lava and volcaniclastic sequence. These very thick

  12. Monitoring snow cover and its effect on runoff regime in the Jizera Mountains (United States)

    Kulasova, Alena


    The Jizera Mountains in the northern Bohemia are known by its rich snow cover. Winter precipitation represents usually a half of the precipitation in the hydrological year. Gradual snow accumulation and melt depends on the course of the particular winter period, the topography of the catchments and the type of vegetation. During winter the snow depth, and especially the snow water equivalent, are affected by the changing character of the falling precipitation, air and soil temperatures and the wind. More rapid snowmelt occurs more on the slopes without forest oriented to the South, while a gradual snowmelt occurs on the locations turned to the North and in forest. Melting snow recharges groundwater and affects water quality in an important way. In case of extreme situation the snowmelt monitoring is important from the point of view of flood protection of communities and property. Therefore the immediate information on the amount of water in snow is necessary. The way to get this information is the continuous monitoring of the snow depth and snow water equivalent. In the Jizera Mountains a regular monitoring of snow cover has been going on since the end of the 19th century. In the 80s of the last century the Jizera Mountains were affected by the increased fallout of pollutants in the air. There followed a gradual dieback of the forest cover and cutting down the upper part of the ridges. In order to get data for the quantification of runoff regime changes in the changing natural environment, the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) founded in the upper part of the Mountains several experimental catchments. One of the activities of the employees of the experimental basis is the regular measurement of snow cover at selected sites from 1982 up to now. At the same time snow cover is being observed using snow pillows, where its mass is monitored with the help of pressure sensors. In order to improve the reliability of the continuous measurement of the snow water

  13. Structural and alteration controls on gold mineralization the of the amphibolite facies Detour Lake Deposit, Canada (United States)

    Dubosq, Renelle; Schneider, David


    The 15M oz Detour Lake deposit is a Neoarchean orogenic gold ore body located in the northern most region of the Abitibi district within the Superior Province. The mine is an open pit design in the high strain zone of the Sunday Lake Deformation Zone (SLDZ). The ductile-brittle SLDZ parallels the broadly E-W Abitibi greenstone belt and the deposit is situated in a dilation zone between volcanoclastic rocks of the Caopatina Assemblage and Lower Detour Lake Formation, consisting of ultramafic talc-chlorite-sericite schist. The Upper Detour Lake Formation consists of pillowed and massive flows and hyloclastic units crosscut by minor felsic to intermediate dykes. All of the formations are sub-vertical, north-dipping units with stretching lineations indicating dip-slip motion. The Detour deposit differs from other classic ore deposits in the dominantly greenschist facies Abitibi Subprovince by possessing an amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblage of actinolite-biotite-plagioclase-almandine. Consequently, the typical indicator minerals used to identify alteration and mineralization, such as secondary biotite, may not be useful. Petrological and geochemical analyses have revealed at least four populations of biotite: 1) large euhedral crystals located within quartz-carbonate veins, 2) small, euhedral zoned crystals present as alteration haloes, 3) very small, anhedral to subhedral indistinct crystal present in mafic volcanic host rock, and 4) large euhedral crystals defining the main metamorphic foliation in the metasediments. Extensive examination of mineral assemblages, alteration products, and vein structure in rock core across barren and mineralized zones has documented over a dozen vein types which can be grouped into two main categories: 1) sulfidized quartz-carbonate veins associated with biotite alteration and 2) late carbonate veins. Gold grades do not prove to be dependent on vein type but rather on the host rock composition: the highest ore grades are present

  14. Snowmelt and sublimation: field experiments and modelling in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schulz


    Full Text Available Snow in the High Atlas Mountains is a major source for freshwater renewal and for water availability in the semi-arid lowlands of south-eastern Morocco. Snowfall- and snow-ablation monitoring and modelling is important for estimating potential water delivery from the mountain water towers to the forelands. This study is part of GLOWA-IMPETUS, an integrated management project dealing with scarce water resources in West Africa. The Ameskar study area is located to the south of the High Atlas Mountains, in their rain shadow. As a part of the M’Goun river basin within the upper Drâa valley, the study area is characterised by high radiation inputs, low atmospheric humidity and long periods with sub-zero temperatures. Its altitude ranges between 2000 m and 4000 m, with dominant north- and south-facing slopes. Snowfall occurs mainly from November to April but even summit regions can become repeatedly devoid of snow cover. Snow cover maps for the M’Goun basin (1240 km2 are derived from calculations of NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index from MODIS satellite images and snow depth is monitored at four automatic weather stations between 2000–4000 m. Snowfall events are infrequent at lower altitudes. The presence of snow penitentes at altitudes above 3000 m indicates that snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation. Snow ablation was modelled with the UEB Utah Energy Balance Model (Tarboton and Luce, 1996. This single layer, physically-based, point energy and mass balance model is driven by meteorological variables recorded at the automatic weather stations at Tounza (2960 m and Tichki (3260 m. Data from snow pillows at Tounza and Tichki are used to validate the model’s physical performance in terms of energy and water balances for a sequence of two snowfall events in the winter of 2003/4. First UEB modelling results show good overall performance and timing of snowmelt and sublimation compared to field investigations. Up to 44

  15. Emplacement of the Jurassic Mirdita ophiolites (southern Albania): evidence from associated clastic and carbonate sediments (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Ionescu, Corina; Hoeck, Volker; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim; Bucur, Ioan I.; Ghega, Dashamir


    Sedimentology can shed light on the emplacement of oceanic lithosphere (i.e. ophiolites) onto continental crust and post-emplacement settings. An example chosen here is the well-exposed Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite in southern Albania. Successions studied in five different ophiolitic massifs (Voskopoja, Luniku, Shpati, Rehove and Morava) document variable depositional processes and palaeoenvironments in the light of evidence from comparable settings elsewhere (e.g. N Albania; N Greece). Ophiolitic extrusive rocks (pillow basalts and lava breccias) locally retain an intact cover of oceanic radiolarian chert (in the Shpati massif). Elsewhere, ophiolite-derived clastics typically overlie basaltic extrusives or ultramafic rocks directly. The oldest dated sediments are calpionellid- and ammonite-bearing pelagic carbonates of latest (?) Jurassic-Berrasian age. Similar calpionellid limestones elsewhere (N Albania; N Greece) post-date the regional ophiolite emplacement. At one locality in S Albania (Voskopoja), calpionellid limestones are gradationally underlain by thick ophiolite-derived breccias (containing both ultramafic and mafic clasts) that were derived by mass wasting of subaqueous fault scarps during or soon after the latest stages of ophiolite emplacement. An intercalation of serpentinite-rich debris flows at this locality is indicative of mobilisation of hydrated oceanic ultramafic rocks. Some of the ophiolite-derived conglomerates (e.g. Shpati massif) include well-rounded serpentinite and basalt clasts suggestive of a high-energy, shallow-water origin. The Berriasian pelagic limestones (at Voskopoja) experienced reworking and slumping probably related to shallowing and a switch to neritic deposition. Mixed ophiolite-derived clastic and neritic carbonate sediments accumulated later, during the Early Cretaceous (mainly Barremian-Aptian) in variable deltaic, lagoonal and shallow-marine settings. These sediments were influenced by local tectonics or eustatic sea

  16. Sediments overlying exhumed continental mantle: a proxy for the morphotectonic evolution of the Ocean Continent Transition in magma-poor rifted margins (United States)

    Karpoff, A. M.; Manatschal, G.; Bernoulli, D.; Lagabrielle, Y.


    Observations from ancient and present-day magma-poor rifted margins in the Alps and Iberia provide compelling evidence that within the ocean-continent transition (OCT) crustal and sub-continental mantle rocks were exhumed along downward-concave faults which were active during final rifting and accommodated high amounts of extension. The faults are overlain by stranded allochthons of continental origin, pillow basalts, and pelagic sediments, i.e. radiolarites and/or pelagic limestones, and hemipelagic shales. Associated with the faults are tectono-sedimentary breccias and various types of clastic sediments, ranging from debris flow deposits to laminated sandstone, and quartz-rich silt- and claystones. Mineralogical studies of the shales, red jaspers, and red cherts overlying mantle rocks in the Alps of eastern Switzerland are typically quartz-rich and contain variable amounts of phyllosilicates (chlorite and/or mica), feldspars, ± calcite, oxides, pyrite, and epidote. Their main geochemical characteristic is the high silica and low iron and manganese content, which contrasts with that of "metalliferous" Fe-Mn-Si-rich sediments overlying oceanic basalts. High Fe, Ba, REE, U/Th values measured in black shales overlying mantle rocks in the proximal OCT point to a strong hydrothermal activity associated with mantle exhumation. The clastic sediments in the OCT show a wide range of compositions related to mantle, continental crust, and/or pelagic contributions. In particular, the fact that these sediments contain abundant material derived from continental basement rocks seems at odds with their occurrence on top of tectonized mantle rocks. However, drilling in the Iberia margin, where tectonized mantle rocks are overlain by sedimentary breccias (e.g. ODP Sites 1068, 1070), shed new light on the observations in the Alps. Based on drill-hole and seismic data, the tectono-sedimentary breccias drilled in the OCT off Iberia may be interpreted to result from a conveyor

  17. The Transition from Initial Rifting to Ultra-Slow Seafloor Spreading within Endeavor Deep (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Larson, R. L.; Popham, C. T.; Natland, J. H.


    Endeavor Deep is a NW-SE trending, 3 km-deep rift basin located along the divergent portion of the Nazca/Juan Fernandez plate boundary. The rift basin is the result of the propagation of the East Ridge toward the northwest with relative motion across the ridge defined by a rapidly rotating (5.5 degrees/myr) Euler Pole located ~100 km to the northwest. The close proximity of Endeavor Deep to this Euler Pole results in a rapidly varying velocity field along the length of the deep and represents a unique location to study the effect of varying divergence rates on initial crustal extension. Recently collected EM300 bathymetry, DSL120 sidescan, surface-towed magnetics and JASON II observations have documented 4 distinct stages of rifting along the 70 km length of Endeavor Deep. These stages include (from NW to SE): amagmatic rifting, distributed initial volcanism, centralized waxing volcanism, and crustal formation by ultra-slow seafloor spreading. Amagmatic extension, evolving to rifting, occurs at spreading rates less than 13 km/myr and is characterized by rapidly deepening rift depths from NW to SE with an overall increase in depth of about 2.5 km. Extension is accommodated over a width of about 10-15 km and some flexural uplift of the defining scarps is observed. Distributed initial volcanism occurs at spreading rates from 13-14 km/myr and is characterized by coalesced volcanic constructs (100-200 m-high, 1-2 km-wide) across the width of the rift floor. The depth of the rift basin becomes fairly constant, but the cross-sectional area of the deep continues to increase. Centralized waxing volcanism occurs at spreading rates from 14-17 km/myr and is characterized by pillow ridges and tectonic lineations along the central portion of the rift floor which are oriented parallel to the long axis of the rift basin (orthogonal to the direction of extension). The floor of the rift basin begins to shoal and the cross-sectional area of the deep decreases initially and then

  18. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.


    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  19. Active tectonics in the NW-German Basin: Evidence from correlations between the modern landscape and deep geological structures (Lower Saxony, river Hunte) (United States)

    Szeder, T.; Sirocko, F.


    The catchment basin of the river Hunte (NW-German Basin, Lower Saxony) was studied on a mesoscale (length of ˜90 km) to investigate if tectonic movements in the upper crust influence modern landscape formation. Crustal movements led to upwarping of the Lower Weichselian Terrace above the transition zone of a major crustal boundery of the NW-German Basin (Lower Saxony Basin/Pompeckj Block) with an average vertical velocity of about 0,5 mm/a over the last 12 ka. The Lower Weichselian Terrace and the Hunte catchment basin are narrowest at the same position. Even the Holocene Alluvial Plain is affected by active tectonics. The Holocene Alluvial Plain is narrower and shows a negative gradient directly above a deep seated Permian salt pillow which can be traced over a vertical distance of about 4000 m as an anticline structure to the uppermost Tertiary (100 m b.s.l.). The spatial similarity of fluvial anomalies with anomalies of the geological subground indicates that crustal movements still exercise control on fluvial dynamics and are coupled to the geological predesign. Basin subsidence is thought to have triggered primarily the aggradation of the Lower Weichselian Terrace, because there is an accordance between the mean recent velocity of basin subsidence (˜-0,21 mm/a), calculated from repeated geodetic fine levelling and the mean sedimentation rate of the Lower Weichselian Terrace (˜0,2--0,4 mm/a). In addition, sedimentation rates of the Lower Weichselian Terrace were nearly constant over a time span of about 35 ka (˜47--12 ka BP). During these times the climate has changed rapidly over Northern Europe (Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles) which affected river morphology, hydrology and sediment supply. However, the observation that no change of the mean sedimentation rate is observable indicates a long term subsiding tendency which enables accumulation of longer fluvial sequences independent of short scale climatic fluctuations. Most likely northward tilting of the NW

  20. Raising the continental crust (United States)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Davies, D. Rhodri


    The changes that occur at the boundary between the Archean and Proterozoic eons are arguably the most fundamental to affect the evolution of Earth's continental crust. The principal component of Archean continental crust is Granite-Greenstone Terranes (GGTs), with granites always dominant. The greenstones consist of a lower sequence of submarine komatiites and basalts, which erupted onto a pre-existing Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) crust. These basaltic rocks pass upwards initially into evolved volcanic rocks, such as andesites and dacites and, subsequently, into reworked felsic pyroclastic material and immature sediments. This transition coincides with widespread emplacement of granitoids, which stabilised (cratonised) the continental crust. Proterozoic supra-crustal rocks, on the other hand, are dominated by extensive flat-lying platform sequences of mature sediments, which were deposited on stable cratonic basements, with basaltic rocks appreciably less abundant. The siliceous TTGs cannot be produced by direct melting of the mantle, with most hypotheses for their origin requiring them to be underlain by a complimentary dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root, which we suggest acted as ballast to the early continents. Ubiquitous continental pillow basalts in Archean lower greenstone sequences require the early continental crust to have been sub-marine, whereas the appearance of abundant clastic sediments, at higher stratigraphic levels, shows that it had emerged above sea level by the time of sedimentation. We hypothesise that the production of komatiites and associated basalts, the rise of the continental crust, widespread melting of the continental crust, the onset of sedimentation and subsequent cratonisation form a continuum that is the direct result of removal of the continent's dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite roots, triggered at a regional scale by the arrival of a mantle plume at the base of the lithosphere. Our idealised calculations suggest

  1. Petrological and tectono-magmatic significance of ophiolitic basalts from the Elba Island within the Alpine Corsica-Northern Apennine system (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Principi, G.


    Two distinct ophiolitic units, which represent remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, crop out in the Elba Island. They are the Monte Strega unit in central-eastern Elba and the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit in western Elba. Ophiolitic rocks from the Monte Strega unit are commonly affected by ocean floor metamorphism, whereas those from the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit are affected to various extent by thermal metamorphism associated with the Late Miocene Monte Capanne monzogranitic intrusion. Both ophiolitic units include pillow lavas and dykes with compositions ranging from basalt to basaltic andesite, Fe-basalt, and Fe-basaltic andesite. Basaltic rocks from these distinct ophiolitic units show no chemical differences, apart those due to fractional crystallization processes. They display a clear tholeiitic nature with low Nb/Y ratios and relatively high TiO2, P2O5, Zr, and Y contents. They generally display flat N-MORB normalized high field strength element patterns, which are similar to those of N-MORB. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns show light REE / middle REE (LREE/MREE) depletion and marked heavy (H-) REE fractionation with respect to MREE. This HREE/MREE depletion indicates a garnet signature of their mantle sources. Accordingly, they can be classified as garnet-influenced MORB (G-MORB), based on Th, Nb, Ce, Dy, and Yb systematics. We suggest that the Elba Island ophiolitic basalts were generated at a magma starved, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. REE, Th, and Nb partial melting modelling shows that the compositions of the relatively primitive Elba Island ophiolitic basalts are compatible with partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle (DMM) source bearing garnet-pyroxenite relics. Hygromagmatophile element ratios suggest that basalts from both ophiolitic units were originated from chemically very similar mantle sources. A comparison with basalts and metabasalts from Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine ophiolitic units shows

  2. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Furnes


    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  3. Volcanic stratigraphy of DSDP/ODP Hole 395A: An interpretation using well-logging data (United States)

    Bartetzko, Anne; Pezard, Philippe; Goldberg, David; Sun, Yue-Feng; Becker, Keir


    Deep Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program Hole 395A was drilled approximately 500 m deep into young oceanic crust west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Core recovery is very poor in this hole and therefore continuous downhole measurements are important to understand the drilled lithology. Geophysical downhole measurements were carried out during several cruises. A new set of logs was recorded during Leg 174B in summer 1997. The new logging data show a significant improvement in data quality compared to older measurements from Leg 109. The lithostratigraphy established from cores gives only limited information because of the poor core recovery in this hole. The gaps in the core lithostratigraphy are filled by reconstructing a synthetic lithological profile using the standard well-logging data. Three types of lava morphologies, massive basalts, altered lava flows, and pillow basalts, may be distinguished using the logs because the lava morphologies show differences in their physical properties due to differences in fracturing and alteration. The synthetic lithological profile gives a more detailed and precise vertical definition of single layers than the core profile. The integration of further logging and core data enables a detailed reconstruction of the accretion history at the drill site. Cyclic, upward decreasing trends in the resistivity logs were already observed during earlier cruises and were referred to magmatic cycles. Similar trends occur in the density log and, inversely, in the total gamma ray log. The trends reflect gradual changes in fracturing, porosity, permeability, and alteration and cover depth intervals of several tens of meters. Boundaries between cycles are interpreted to correspond to periods of volcanic quiescence. Two types of boundaries may be identified. Boundaries correlating with reversals in the magnetic field and/or changes in the geochemical composition of the basalts are interpreted as long pauses. Basalts separated by these

  4. Risk factors of childhood asthma in Wuhan city%武汉市儿童支气管哮喘的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洋; 杨磊; 龙珍


    Objective To conform the risk factors of childhood asthma and to provide accordance for the healthy management of children with asthma.Methods A cross-section investigation was carried out by multi-stage random sampling in Wuhan city.The investigation included questionnaire and clinic examination.The study population was the infant and children whose age were 0 to 14 years old,and the sample size was 4 132.One hundren and seventyfour children were diagnosed as asthma,and 173 non-asthma children with similar age in the same region were selected as controls.Chi-square test and multiple Logistic regression analysis were used to screen the risk factors of childhood asthma in Wuhan city.Results Family allergy history,allergic rhinitis,eczema,food allergy and drug allergy were the risk factors of childhood asthma.Furthermore,dust mites,mould,anther dust,mugwort,cat/dog hair were main allergize source.In addition,premature delivery,abdominal delivery,mildew stain in ceiling or floor,raise pets especially cat,chemical fiber pillow and blanket bedclothes will increase the incidence,while spontaneous delivery and breast feeding were with protection effect.The results of multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that children who were with allergic rhinitis,familiar allergic history,dust mites positive test,drug allergy and blanker bedclothes were the high risk group of childhood asthma.Conclusions Childhood asthma is high relative with atopy,and these children who are with allergic rhinitis,familiar allergic history and dust mites positive test should be strictly health management.Chemical fiber pillow,blanket bedclothes,raising pet cats and mould in ceiling and floor in atopy children family should be avoided.%目的 探讨儿童支气管哮喘(哮喘)的危险因素,为哮喘儿童的健康管理提供依据.方法 对武汉地区儿童哮喘的发病现状进行多阶段随机整群抽样调查,开展问卷调查及临床体检.研究对象为武汉地区0 ~14

  5. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of the «ophites» from the external zones ofthe Betic Cordilleras (S. Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, L.


    Full Text Available Mesozoic basic magmatism in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras (S. Spain is represented by small tectonic bodies (ophites in Triassic formations, and submarine flows with abundant pillow-lavas interbedded with Jurassic sediments. Both basic igneous manifestations suffered very low- to low-grade metamorphism, more intense in the case of the ophites. Two types of ophites are distinguished on the basis of their primary mineralogy. In the first type, orthopyroxene is present in the less differentiated products. Clinopyroxene and Ca-plagioclase are the main primary phases and quartz appears in the more evolved rocks. In the second type, olivine is present in the less differentiated products. Ti-rich augite and Ca-plagioclase are also important primary minerals, but quartz is absent. Whole-rock chemistry (major and trace elements, including REE also allows us to discriminate between these two groups. The first group has higher SiO2, and lower TiO2, P2O5 and lower Na2O/K2O ratios than the second. Normative quartz is almost invariably present in this first group, whereas normative nepheline (lower than 5% is characteristic of the second group. Both groups are Sr, K, Ba, Rb, Th, Nb and Ce enriched with respect to normal MORB, but the first group has higher K, Rb, Ba, Th and lower Nb, Ce contents than the alkaline group. Nb/Y and Ti/V ratios are also different and show a tholeiitic affinity for the first group and transitional to alkaline for the second. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns in both groups are similar and characterized by LREE enrichment with respect to HREE. LREE/HREE ratios are, however, slightly higher in the transitional to alkaline group. Various discriminant tectonic diagrams indicate a continental intraplate setting for both ophite groups. This magmatism is related to the first extensional period of the Betic Cordilleras, during the Triassic-Jurassic. Geochemical differences between the two groups could evidence different

  6. Preventive effect of evidence-based nursing intervention program in patients at high risk of pres-sure ulcer in intensive care unit%循证护理干预方案在ICU压疮高危患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海燕; 喻姣花; 谭翠莲; 罗凯燕; 乐格芬; 李素云


    Objective To explore preventive effect of evidence-based nursing intervention program in patients at high risk of pressure ulcer in intensive care unit.Methods A total of 227 patients with risk evaluation score of Braden leas than 12 were randomly divided into the observation group (125 cases) and the control group (102 cases).The control group was only given regular nursing interventions.Patients in the observation group received evidence-based nursing interventions : including turning over per 2 hours, turning prostration to 30 degree left to fight inclined position, raising patient's head lower than 30 degree and putting a soft pillow under his/her heels; the patients whose risk evaluation score of Braden was less than 7, with cervical fracture or turning ever was limited by her/his situation needed to use air bed; comfeel transparent paste was used on the surface probably suffered from skin ulcer;, giving PN or EN according to patients' nutritional condition; keepping the skin around anus dryness.The incidence of pressure ulcer be-tween the two groups was compared.Results The incidence rate of pressure ulcer was siguificantly lower in the observation group than that in the control group.The occurring time significantly delayed and the sit-uation significantly better.Conclusions The evidence- based nursing inventions can lower the incidence rate of unavoidable pressure ulcer,reflect the scientific and artistic characteristics of nursing care, also effi-cient allocate limited nursing resources and reduce the incidence of pressure ulcer.%目的 探讨循证护理干预方案在ICU压疮预防中的作用.方法 将227例Braden评分≤12分的压疮高危患者按照入院的顺序分为对照组102例和观察组125例.对照组采用常规护理方法.观察组进行循证护理干预,予每2 h翻身1次,左右30°侧卧位交替进行;平卧位时抬高患者床头不超过30°,足跟处垫软枕;对Braden评分<7分、颈椎骨折及病情限制翻身的患

  7. Effects of patient position and depth of urinary catheterization on complications%体位和插入留置导尿管的深度对并发症的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷红菊; 罗美菊; 罗水仙


    目的 探讨体位和插导尿管的深度对一次过置管的影响.方法 将2010年8月至2011年8月在神经内科和肾内科住院的132例需要留置尿管的男性老年患者分为对照组(68例)和实验组(64例).对照组按常规导尿法导尿,并留置导尿管.实验组在对照组的基础上注重体位姿势:协助患者取平仰卧位,臀高(10 ~ 20 cm)屈膝,可在其臀部垫一软枕,双下肢保持弯屈曲呈钝角微向外展位,以患者舒适为宜.和改变插尿管深度:直插导尿管20~22cm,见尿液流出,再继续插至尿管三叉分头处才注水入囊,再将尿管往外拉至不动为止.观察两组一次过管率.结果 观察组插入导尿一次置管率为98.4%,对照组为92.6%,经Wilcoxon 秩和检验,z=-2.489.结论 男性老年患者在插导尿管时稍注意体位姿势和将插尿管至三叉分头处才注水入囊,可以提高一次过置管率.%Objective To explore the effect of patient position and depth of urinary catheterization on primary catheter placement.Methods 132 elderly patients who had been hospitalzed during August 2010 to August 2011 in the Department of Neurology and Department of Nephrology who needed urinary catheterization were divided into control group ( 68 patients ) and study group ( 64 patients ).The control group received conventional urinary catheterization with indwelling catheter.The study group improved postural position,the patient in flat supine with hip elevation ( 10 ~ 20cm ) and knee bend using a soft pillow under their buttom; the lower limbs remaining bent at an obtuse angle with slight abduction,making patients.The depth of the inserted catheter was changed with a depth of 20 ~ 22cm.Aftera a flow of urine occurred,the catheter continued to be inserted into the trigeminal ends and water was injected into the sac,then the catheter was pulled until it did not moved.The primary rate of catheterization was observed in the two groups.Results The primary rate of


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛江炜; 葛忻声; 杨勇; 蔡景珞


    Reference on lateral load test and numerical simulation of large diameter pipe pile by using cast-in-place concrete(PCC),finite element model of a single pile with or without pile partner under lateral load is established. Comparison calculations show that pile partner can ensure lateral loads delivering from pile cap to foundation soil, and double reduce stress and displacement of pile. Pile partner can also make some improvement on lateral bearing characters for the pile foundation with low cap even though the modulus of foundation soil is small. When pile partner is equipped,and the connection mode between pile cap and pile changing from rigid connection to hinge joint,pile body internal force can also be drastically reduced;and pile and pile caps by distance can only be considered to meet the requirement of vertical bearing capacity or optimization design of pile foundation stiffness to reduce differential settlement. Pillow is not necessary and can be cancelled in composite foundation when pile partner is applied. The height of pile partner has little influence on internal force and displacement of pile. Under rare earthquake action,pile partner may sacrifice firstly to keep pile perform well.%借鉴现浇混凝土大直径管桩(PCC 桩)水平承载足尺试验和数值模拟的成果,建立水平荷载作用下多个构造形式有无伴侣的单桩有限元数值模型。对比计算与分析表明,对于低承台桩基设置桩伴侣可确保承台向地基土传递水平荷载,成倍减小基桩的应力和位移;对于桩身范围地基土模量低的低承台桩基的水平承载性状也有一定的改善;配备桩伴侣后,将桩与承台的连接方式由刚接改为铰接也能大幅度减小桩身内力,桩顶与承台的距离可单纯考虑竖向承载力和变刚度调平基础底板沉降的需要;设置桩伴侣后可取消褥垫层;桩伴侣的高度变化对水平荷载作用下桩内力和位移影响很小;在罕遇

  9. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soto


    peperites, as examples of spatial and temporal coexistence of magmatism and sedimentation in Costa Rica. The cases are presented in basic igneous complexes (ophiolites, mixtures varying from incomplete (megablocks of radiolarite with diabase in the Nicoya Complex to complete mixes in various stages of Maastrichtian-Paleocene (Golfito Formation or Paleocene pelagic limestones with basalts (Quepos Subcomplex or Tulín Formation to form brechoid and pillowed peperites. Within the Oligo-Miocene arc, there are examples extended along the Talamanca range and its foothills, as well as Sarapiquí’s plains represented for brechoid and bulbous (fluidal peperites in latiandesitic lavas (Pacacua Formation or brechoid peperitic pipes in ignimbrites (Mata de Limón Member or possible brechoid peperites in lavas in the Crucitas mining prospect (Cureña Formation, or simple brechoid peperites in andesitic flow (Pacacua Formation, in Talamanca or as hydroclastic breccias with fragments of dacitic composition in lava flow deposits of Carbonal Guanacaste, just between the beaches Cabuyal and Naranjo. All these rocks represented proximal equivalents of the explosive, effusive and subvolcanic volcanism (endogenous domes and criptodomes and his concomitance with the fluvial sedimentation. In Quaternary period, we have a sample in the base of Tiribí Formation in contact with Palmares Lacustrine. Also this paper included possible and potential cases. It hopes that the description and interpretation of this type of rocks helps to its identification in other regions of Costa Rica and Central America in general, as well as a potential source for the exploration of valuable metals.

  10. 革兰阴性菌与NSICU医院感染的关系%Relationship between gram-negative bacteria and nosocomial infections in neurological intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于垚; 元艺; 元小冬; 许亚茹; 王淑娟; 刘顺莉; 王小玲; 郑秀芬; 徐应军


    accounted for 25. 9% and 23. 3% respectively. They were both susceptible to levofloxacin. Bacteria were also detected in ward environment, most of them were gram-negative bacilli,especially ABA. There was no difference of the distributions among indoor air, pillow and quilt (P>0. 05). CONCLUSION Gram-negative bacilli are the predominate pathogens in the NICU which would cause nosocomial infections. Lower respiratory tract is the most susceptible location, the major pathogens are K. Pneumoniae and P. Aeruginosa. The NICU ward environment is one of the most important transmission routes of gram-negative bacilli but not K. Pneumoniae. The K . Pneumoniae is susceptible to most antibiotic,other gram-negative bacilli have different levels of antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Etiology of nosocomial infections in NICU patients and its correlation with ward environment%NICU患者医院感染的病原学类型与病房环境的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元艺; 于垚; 许亚茹; 王淑娟; 刘顺利; 关毅


    目的 研究神经内科重症监护病房(NICU)发生医院感染的病原学与病房环境因素的关系,为有效切断致病菌的传播途径提供依据.方法 选取2010年9月-2011年9月唐山市某三甲医院NICU住院患者为监测对象,监测其医院感染的发生情况,同时监测发生感染患者室内空气及床单位(枕头、被服)等环境.结果 224例住院患者中有65例发生医院感染,感染率为29.02%,感染部位以下呼吸道为主,占90.24%;感染病原菌中革兰阴性杆菌占77.01%,主要为铜绿假单胞菌和肺炎克雷伯菌,革兰阳性球菌占16.67%,主要为金黄色葡萄球菌,真菌占6.32%;感染患者病房环境主要以革兰阳性球菌为主.结论 铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、金黄色葡萄球菌等是引发NICU医院感染的主要病原菌,病房空气或床单位等环境因素是这些致病菌的重要传播途径之一,因此应加强病房环境和病床单位的消毒,以防止医院感染的传播.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the type of etiology of nosocomial infections and its relationship with the environmental factors of the ward in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU) and to provide the basis for hospital infection control. METHODS The patients in the NICU of a hospital in Tangshan from Sep 2010 to Oct 2011 were selected as the objects of this study. The incidence of nosocomial infection was monitored, and the indoor air and bed units (pillows, bedding and clothing) environment of patients with nosocomial infection were monitored as well. RESULTS There were 65 cases of nosocomial infections in 224 patients. The infection rate was 29. 02%. Lower respiratory tract was the main site of infections and the constituent ratio was 90. 24%. The gram-negative bacilli were the main pathogens and the constituent ratio was 16. 67% . They were mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The gram-positive cocci accounted for 16. 67% ,and mainly Staphylococcus

  12. Emplacement and Solidification of Inter-Layerd Silicic and Mafic Magmas, Isle au Haut Igneous Complex, Maine (United States)

    Patwardhan, K.; Marsh, B. D.


    The Isle au Haut Igneous Complex, Maine, presents an intriguing association of basaltic and granitic rocks in the form of a composite layered sequence of alternating gabbroic and dioritic units. The 413 Ma complex may have formed by periodic replenishment or invasion of mafic magma into an evolving, more silicic magma chamber (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; JVGR). The interaction of a denser magma overlying a less dense magma promotes Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI), resulting in overturning initiated through pipes and the eventual formation of a stable configuration of diorite over gabbro (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; JVGR). Field exposures on the southern parts of the island covering a 160 m section through the sequence shows four gabbroic-dioritic pairs (i.e., gabbro over diorite) exhibiting strong interaction between the two in the forms of diapiric pipes of diorite intruding gabbro and gabbro pillows caught in diorite. It is clear that the two magmas were simultaneously molten, and this presents an opportunity to observe the physics and chemistry of interaction between gabbroic magma and partly molten diorite. Emplacement of denser, sill like gabbroic magma over solidifying, less dense dioritic magma may also have given rise to structures resembling load casts and flame structures common to sedimentary rocks. That the diorite was significantly solidified (e.g., ~55% crystals) at the time of intrusion of the gabbroic magma is reflected in field and textural relationships suggesting that overturning due to gravitational instability was initiated but did not go to completion. That is, the diorite was strong enough to act as a rigid medium for gabbro emplacement and subsequent support without wholesale mixing, but at the same time was weak enough to yield low density melt, perhaps through compaction, to undergo RTI at the interfaces and form extensive ensembles of diapiric pipes in the overlying gabbro. We examine the physics and chemistry of this process beginning with

  13. Metallogeny of The Sierra de Guanajuato Range, Central México (United States)

    Pedro F., Z. D.


    The Sierra de Guanajuato Range (SGR), trending N315° at Central México, is an orographic feature extending over a distance of 80 km. SGR comprises three well defined lithostratigraphic units: (1) a cretaceous basement including an arc-derived terrane named Guanajuato Arc (GA) made of gabbro, diorite and basaltic pillowed lava, and volcano-sedimentary rocks belonging to Arperos fore-arc basin which are geochemically anomalous in Au (0.15 ppm), Ag (3 ppm), Cu (40 ppm), Pb (50 ppm) and Zn (15 ppm); (2) Early Tertiary intrusive rocks, e.g., Comanja Granite which is affected by the presence of tourmalinized (schörl) aplito-pegmatite dykes mineralized with rare earths elements, and (3) Eocene redbeds (1,500-2000 m) and Oligocene-Miocene volcanics cover. The metallogeny of the SGR shows a multiple origin in time and space: volcano-sedimentary, granitic and volcanic, being possible to define three metallogenic epochs: cretaceous, paleocene and oligocene. Cretaceous epoch includes: (a) volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (VMS) of bimodal-siliclastic type belonging to León-Guanajuato district; wallrock of VMS is made of felsic-internediate volcanics and black argillite; at Los Gavilanes deposit paragenesis is next: chalcopyrite > sphalerite > galena, pyrite > pyrrhotite > marcasite; grade is as follows: Au: .02-.07 g/t; Ag: 157-18.5 g/t; Cu: 2.24-0.81%, Pb: 4.16-0.03%; Zn: 10.35-3.02 %; (b) lens-shaped stratiform bodies of massive pyrite (i. ex., San Ignacio prospect; ˜ 4,000 ton) of exhalative-sedimentary origin with chalcopyrite and sphalerite microveins. Paleocene epoch includes both quartz-cordierite-sanidine veins and replacement bodies of hydrothermal metamorphic filliation (W +Se-Bi, Pb, Zn, Cu), and pyrometasomatic bodies [Cu, Pb, Zn (Ag), W] which genetically are linked to Comanja Granite emplacement. The wallrock at El Maguey mine (35,000 ton; 0.6% WO3) is made of hornfel and the vein (1.8-3.2m width) has a banding structure made of : \\{quartz & K

  14. Ca isotope fingerprints of early crust-mantle evolution (United States)

    Kreissig, K.; Elliott, T.


    The utility of 40Ca/ 44Ca as a tracer of pre-existing crustal contributions in early Archaean cratons has been explored to identify traces of Hadean crust and to assess the style of continental growth. The relatively short half-life of 40K (˜1.3 Gy) means that its decay to 40Ca occurs dominantly during early Earth History. If Archaean crust had a significant component derived from a more ancient protolith, as anticipated by "steady state" crustal evolution models, this should be clearly reflected in radiogenic 40Ca/ 44Ca ratios (or positive initial ɛ Ca) in different Archaean cratons. A high precision thermal ionisation technique has been used to analyse the 40Ca/ 44Ca ratios of plagioclase separates and associated whole rocks in ˜3.6 Ga (early Archaean) samples from Zimbabwe and West Greenland. Three out of four tonalite, trondhjemite, granodiorite (TTG) suite samples from Zimbabwe display initial 40Ca/ 44Ca ratios indistinguishable from our measured modern MORB value (i.e., ɛ Ca(3.6) ˜ 0). Greenland samples, however, are very diverse ranging from ɛ Ca(3.7) = 0.1 in mafic pillow lavas and felsic sheets from the Isua supracrustal belt, up to very radiogenic signatures (ɛ Ca(3.7) = 2.9) in both mafic rocks of the Akilia association and felsic TTG from the coastal Amîtsoq gneisses. At face value, these results imply the Zimbabwe crust is juvenile whereas most Greenland samples include an earlier crustal component. Yet the west Greenland craton, as with many Archaean localities, has experienced a complex geological history and the interpretation of age-corrected initial isotope values requires great care. Both felsic and mafic samples from Greenland display ɛ Ca(3.7) so radiogenic that they are not readily explained by crustal growth scenarios. The presence of such radiogenic 40Ca/ 44Ca found in low K/Ca plagioclases requires Ca isotope exchange between plagioclase and whole rock during later metamorphic event(s). In addition the unexpectedly radiogenic Ca

  15. High-Resolution AUV Mapping Reveals Structural Details of Submarine Inflated Lava Flows (United States)

    Paduan, J.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Thompson, D.; Conlin, D.


    the inflated flows. An even larger, 2.3 km long, up to 550 m wide, and up to 25 m high, inflated flow lies in the axial valley at North Cleft. Its cross-section is similar to the large one at Axial, but has been subsequently rifted by long tectonic fractures parallel to the axis of spreading. Five small inflated flows also occur within two large sheet flows at CoAxial. An inflated flow at Davidson Seamount off California is 690 by 180 m, and stands 18m above the floor of a steep valley 430 m below the summit. It differs from all the others mapped in that downslope is a part of the same flow that has complex collapse features within pillowed margins. The lava composition here is viscous mugearite rather than MORB.

  16. Optimization of backfill pellet properties AASKAR DP2 - Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Linus; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)


    's ability to buffer the inflowing groundwater during the installation phase was investigated in two types of tests. In the first test the wetting behavior was observed at small scale in a Plexiglas tube. The second test was performed in an artificial pellet slot with Plexiglas sides. The ASHA extruded 6 mm pellet seem to be the superior in water storing capacity, though it is suggested that this result may be more related to the presence of a fine grained material within the pellet mass than the pellets themselves. 4. Installation test. The pellets will most likely be installed with a shotcrete machine blowing them into place. This method was tested at full scale in order to investigate how much of the pellet filling that would be crushed into fine grained material if there is no water used during their placement. ASHA extruded 6 mm was the most durable pellet type with 5% of the material being crushed. 7 - 8% of the IBECO extruded pellet types (6 and 10 mm) were crushed into finer grains. The least durable pellets were the ASHA compacted pellets (pillow and almond shaped) with a crushing ratio of 53 to 61%. These results may have significance in terms of subsequent water uptake behavior. Large scale tests at repository-scale still need to be done utilizing shotcrete equipment so that more experience is obtained in how to control the installation of the pellet filling and identify the key influences on its composition and as-placed condition.

  17. 不同卧位结合呼吸机辅助呼吸支持管理在预防先天性食道闭锁术后并发症的临床效果分析%The analysis of clinical results of different supine combination of mechanical ventilation ;supporting the management for preventing postoperative complications of esophageal ;atresia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To study the prophylactic effect of combined supine mechanical ventilation supporting the management of esophageal atresia in postoperative complications. Methods:80 patients were selected from January 2015 to June 2016 in the hospital for treatment of congenital esophageal atresia surgery, and divided into control group and observation group with 40 cases each according to the postoperative management method. The control group was treated by holding pillow supine posture and implement routine care, and the observation group was maintained 30º supine mechanical ventilation support management, in order to compare incidence of postoperative complications between them. Results:The incidence of postoperative complications in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (x2=6.03, P0.05). The children SaO2 levels in the observation group were significantly higher than that in the control group (t=19.24, P<0.05). The patient care satisfaction rate of observation group was 95.0%, significantly higher than 77.5%in the control group (x2=6.38, P<0.05). Conclusion:It works well for patients with esophageal atresia surgery after using 30º supine intervention and mechanical ventilation support management. It can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications, and should be widely applied.%目的:探讨不同卧位结合呼吸机辅助呼吸支持管理在先天性食道闭锁术后并发症中的预防效果。方法:选取80例行先天性食道闭锁术的患儿,根据术后管理方法不同将其分为对照组与观察组,每组40例。对照组患儿术后保持去枕平卧位姿势并实施常规护理;观察组患儿术后保持30 o卧位干预及呼吸机辅助呼吸支持管理。比较两组呼吸机辅助呼吸时间、心率(HR)、平均动脉压(MAP)及动脉血氧饱和度(SaO2)指标以及术后并发症的发生率。结果:观察组术后并发症发生率低于对照组(x2=6.03,P<0.05);两组患儿呼吸机

  18. Geochemistry of the Bela Ophiolite, Pakistan (United States)

    Khan, M.; Nicholson, K. N.; Mahmood, K.


    The Bela ophiolite complex of Balochistan, Pakistan has been the subject of several geochemical and tectonic studies in the past. However until now there has never been a combined structural, geochemical and tectonic assimilation study which adequately explains the observed geochemistry and structural geology in a global tectonic framework. Here we present the geochemical findings of our work. The Bela ophiolite complex consists of two major units: the basal section or Lower Unit, and the Upper Unit, between the two is a mélange zone. The Lower Unit is relatively homogeneous and consists almost entirely of flow basalts and pillow basalts. The base of the Upper Unit is the metamorphic sole which is overlain by a sequence of massive basalts flows and intrusions of gabbro and granites. The entire Upper Unit is cut by doleritic dykes and sills. Geochemically the Lower Unit is comprised of basaltic lavas with E-MORB affinities. These lavas are tholeiitic, low-K series lavas with trace element signatures of E-type MORB. For example ratios such as V/Ti, Zr/Y, Nb/Th, Th/La and Nb/U all suggest these lavas are E-MORB. Previous workers have suggested these lavas are back-arc basin (BAB) however the samples lack the characteristic signatures of subduction modified MORB. This conclusion is supported by chondrite and N-MORB normalized spider diagrams where the Lower Unit lavas are enriched in the LILE with respect to the HFSE. The Upper Unit of the Bela Ophiolite sequence has a slightly more complex history. The older lavas sequences, the massive basalt flows, gabbros and granites, all formed in an oceanic arc environment. These lavas exhibit classic arc signatures such as a negative Nb and Ti anomalies, are enriched in LILE and LREE relative to HSFE, and plot in the volcanic arc and island arc fields in classic ternary plots such as 2Nb- Zr/4-Y and Y/15-La/10-Nb/8. The younger sequence of intrusions found in the Bela ophiolite appear to have BAB signatures. These lavas have

  19. The Guerrero suspect terrane (western Mexico) and coeval arc terranes (the Greater Antilles and the Western Cordillera of Colombia): a late Mesozoic intra-oceanic arc accreted to cratonal America during the Cretaceous (United States)

    Tardy, M.; Lapierre, H.; Freydier, C.; Coulon, C.; Gill, J.-B.; de Lepinay, B. Mercier; Beck, C.; Martinez R., J.; O. Talavera, M.; E. Ortiz, H.; Stein, G.; Bourdier, J.-L.; Yta, M.


    The Guerrero suspect terrane, composed of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous sequences, extends from Baja California to Acapulco and is considered to be coeval with the late Mesozoic igneous and sedimentary arc sequences of the Greater Antilles, the West Indies, Venezuela and the Western Cordillera of Colombia. These sequences represent the remnants of an arc which accreted to the North American and northern South American cratons at the end of the Cretaceous. In western Mexico, the arc sequences built on continental crust consist of high-K calc-alkaline basalts, andesites and rhyolites enriched in LREE with abundant siliceous pyroclastic rocks interbedded either with Aptian-Albian reefal limestones or red beds. They do not show magmatic changes during the arc development. In contrast, the arc sequences built on oceanic crust show an evolution with time. Arc activity began with the development of depleted low K-tholeiitic mafic suite (Guanajuato igneous sequence), followed first by mature tholeiitic basalts and then by calc-alkaline olivine basalts interbedded with micritic limestones and radiolarian oozes of Early Cretaceous age. At the end of the arc growth, during Aptian-Albian times, calc-alkaline pillow basalts and and esites poured out in the volcanic front while shoshonitic olivine basalts extruded in the back arc. The tholeiitic and shoshonitic mafic rocks as well as the calc-alkaline lavas are mildly enriched in LREE, Y and Nb and show high ɛNd ratios, typical of oceanic arcs. In contrast, the calc-alkaline mafic suite enriched in LREE, Y and Nb exhibits lower ɛNd ratios suggesting that it was derived by the partial melting of a mantle source contaminated either by Paleozoic subducted sediments or old source enrichments (OIB). The Cretaceous arc rocks of the Greater Antilles, interbedded with and/or capped by Aptian-Albian limestones, the Cretaceous andesites of northern Colombia, the Cretaceous tholeiitic and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks of Venezuela, and

  20. The Eocimmerian history of Central Iran: the accretionary wedge of Anarak (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchi, Andrea; Berra, Fabrizio; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Koohpeyma, Meysam; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Sheikholeslami, Mohammad Reza; Bergomi, Maria; Tunesi, Annalisa; Zanchetta, Stefano


    contact between the Lakh Marble and the Patyar unit is invariably tectonic. The Lakh Marble occupies the upper structural position and forms a huge nappe, extending for tens of kilometres across the area. Also, the strong deformation, low grade metamorphism and the occurrence of serpentinite tectonic slices in the footwall of this nappe, evidence that the emplacement of the Lakh nappe postdated the metamorphic event. The observed relationships between the Chah Gorbeh unit and the mafic/ultramafic rocks exposed in the Anarak mountain indicate that they were tectonically juxtaposed after reaching high pressure peak conditions. This is evidenced by the occurrence of blue schist mineral assemblages in metabasites which preserve pillow basalts. Geochemical analyses of these rocks indicate a relative depletion in HREE, different from the flat patterns of metabasites from Chah Gorbeh. Greenschist facies ductile shear zones evolving into discrete semi-brittle to brittle fault zones indicate different PT-paths. The occurrence of late Teriary sediments within the main thrust contacts suggest that the entire nappe pile was reactivated causing further complexity in the final tectonic structure. The results of our fieldwork carried out during the last years in Central Iran in the Anarak region add several new constraints on the evolution of the area which can be now directly compared with the history of the Palaeotethys suture zone in NE Iran.

  1. 体位干预配合呼吸训练缓解腹腔镜胆囊切除术后颈肩疼痛的效果观察%The effects of treatment for neck shoulder pain with position intervention combined with respiratory training after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋侠; 李娟


    目的:观察体位干预配合呼吸训练缓解腹腔镜胆囊切除术(LC)后颈肩疼痛的效果.方法:选择LC术后患者100例,随机分为观察组与对照组,各50例.2组术后均常规吸氧3 h,氧流量3 L/min.对照组采用传统去枕平卧位,出现颈肩疼痛时协助其早期下床活动锻炼;观察组术后回病室6 h内采用低半卧位,患者出现颈肩疼痛时指导其进行深呼吸、缩唇呼吸.观察2组LC术后颈肩疼痛发生率和疼痛程度.结果:观察组患者术后颈肩疼痛发生率为10.0%,明显低于对照组的34.0%(P<0.01);观察组患者术后6、12、24、48、72 h疼痛视觉模拟评分均明显低于对照组(P<0.01).结论:LC术后早期采用低半卧位配合呼吸训练可降低LC术后颈肩疼痛的发生率,缓解颈肩疼痛的程度.%Objective: To investigate the effects of treatment for neck shoulder pain with position intervention combined with respiratory training after laparoscopic cholecystectomy ( LC). Methods: One hundred cases with LC were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. Two groups were treated with routinely conventional oxygen 3 hours by 3 L/min oxygen flow. The experimental group were adopted semi-reclining position within 6 hours, who took deep breath at the time of neck shoulder pain, while the control group were adopted horizontal position without pillow, who exercised as early as possible at the time of neck shoulder pain. The incidences and degree of neck shoulder pain of two groups were observed after LC. Results: The incidences of neck shoulder pain of the experimental group ( 10. 0% ) were lower than that of the control group ( 34. 0% ) ( P < 0. 01 ). The visual analogue scale of experimental group was lower than that of control group at 6,12,24,48 and 72 hours after LC(P <0. 01) . Conclusions: Modified semi-reclining position combined with respiratory training can reduce and relieved the incidence and degree of neck shoulder pain.

  2. Influência do biofeedback respiratório associado ao padão quiet breathing sobre a função pulmonar e hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais Influence of respiratory biofeedback associated with a quiet breathing pattern on the pulmonary function and habits of functional mouth breathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EF Barbiero


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos da utilização do biofeedback respiratório (BR associado ao padrão quiet breathing sobre a perimetria torácica, função pulmonar, força dos músculos respiratórios e os seguintes hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais (RBF: vigília de boca aberta, boca aberta durante o sono, baba no travesseiro, despertar difícil, ronco e sono inquieto. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 20 crianças RBF, as quais foram submetidas a 15 sessões de BR por meio do biofeedback pletsmovent (MICROHARD® V1.0, o qual proporciona o biofeedback dos movimentos tóraco-abdominais. Perimetria torácica, espirometria e medidas das pressões respiratórias máximas estáticas foram realizadas antes e após a terapia. Questões respondidas pelos responsáveis foram utilizadas para avaliar os hábitos dos RBF. Os dados foram analisados por meio de teste t de Student para dados pareados e testes não paramétricos. RESULTADOS: O uso do BR associado ao padrão quiet breathing não produziu alterações significativas na perimetria torácica e nos valores de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1, capacidade vital forçada (CVF, pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE, índice de Tiffeneau (IT e na pressão expiratória máxima (PEmáx. Entretanto, a pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (-53,6 ± 2,9 cmH2O vs. -65,0 ± 6,0 cmH2O; pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of using respiratory biofeedback associated with a quiet breathing pattern, on chest circumference, pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and the following functional mouth-breathing habits: watching things with mouth open, sleeping with mouth open, dribbling on the pillow, difficulty in waking up, snoring and restlessness during sleep. METHOD: Twenty functional mouth-breathing children were evaluated. They underwent 15 sessions of respiratory biofeedback by means of the biofeedback pletsmovent (MICROHARD® V1

  3. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal) (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge


    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  4. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia (United States)

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.


    A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy

  5. Multi-stage accretion of high pressure rocks and thermal changes in a subduction channel: evidence from Diego de Almagro Island (Chilean Patagonia) (United States)

    Hyppolito, Thais; Angiboust, Samuel; Juliani, Caetano; Glodny, Johannes; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Calderon, Mauricio; Chopin, Christian


    The remote Diego de Almagro Island, Chile (51° 30' S) exposes one of the rare vestiges of the Cretaceous paleo-subduction system of western South America. It is constituted by two main tectonic units formed by mafic rocks and metasediments: the high temperature/middle pressure Lázaro unit to the East and the high pressure-low temperature Almagro Complex to the West. We herein focus on the Almagro Complex, a pluri-kilometer thick subducted sequence comprising dominantly metatuffs, but also Grt-micaschists, meta-pillow lavas (showing MORB and OIB signatures) and metacherts (transformed to quartz+garnet-rich layers). Despite its apparent homogeneity, the Almagro Complex is actually composed of two distinct units (Willner et al., 2004) with distinct pressure-temperature-time paths. The Garnet Amphibolite unit (GA) shows three chemically and microstructurally distinct garnet generations that grew and (re)-equilibrated between 1.1 GPa and 1.7 GPa (35-55 km) and between 500°C and 600°C. We report for the first time in Chilean Patagonia the presence of rare relicts of omphacite in equilibrium with garnet in mafic layers together with the finding of chloritoid inclusions in garnet from metasediments, and omphacite and glaucophane inclusions in metatuffs. Our P-T estimates, based on pseudosection modeling, single/multi-equilibrium estimates and Raman spectroscopy of organic matter, demonstrate that rocks from the GA unit reached eclogite facies at around 1.7 to 1.8 GPa. Rb-Sr mineral data for Grt-amphibolites indicates that the amphibolitization overprint - which varies in intensity throughout the GA unit - took place at c. 120 Ma. The Blueschist unit, structurally below the GA unit, comprises lithologies similar to the GA unit but finer grained than the former. On other hand, the Blueschist unit (i) does not show garnet with multiple overgrowths and omphacite crystals as seen in the in GA unit; (ii) exhibits slightly lower peak metamorphic conditions than the GA unit (c

  6. Clinical Study on Tuina Therapy for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis of the Lumbar Spine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志泉; 孙波; 陈建华; 吴云定


    Objective:There is definite therapeutic effect in tuina treating low back pain.The comparative observation was performed on the two types of tuina manipulation for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis,in order to explore the best tuina manipulation for lumbar spondylolisthesis.Methods:All of 121 cases with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis were divided into the experimental group and control group randomly by the visit orders and pathological gradations,61 cases in the experimental group,including 34 cases of grade Ⅰ and 27 cases of grade Ⅱ,and 60 in the control group,including 34 cases of grade Ⅰ and 26 cases of grade Ⅱ.There was no significant difference in the general materials of the two groups.Based upon the similar tuina therapy applied on the soft tissues in the two groups,micro-regulating manual technique of the spine was applied in the experimental group,and the hip and knee-flexed and pillow method was applied in the control group.The treatment was given 3 sessions a week,with 10 sessions as one course of the treatments.The therapeutic effects were assessed after one course of the treatments.Results:There was significant difference (P<0.01) in the total effective rate and in the remarkable effective rate and curative rate of the patients with grade Ⅰ between the experimental group and control group,also there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the total effective rate of the patients with grade Ⅱ.Conclusions:The therapeutic effects by the micro-regulatory manual technique are comparatively better for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis,and the milder the pathological condition is,the better the therapeutic effects would be.%目的:推拿治疗腰痛有确切疗效,进行两种推拿手法治疗退行性腰椎滑脱症的疗效对比观察,以期探索推拿治疗腰椎滑脱症的最佳手法.方法:将121例退行性腰椎滑脱症患者,按就诊顺序及病情分级随机分为实验组和对照组.实验组61

  7. Professor Fan Binghua's A Piece of Experience in Treating Spondylolisthesis of Lumbar%范炳华教授诊治腰椎滑脱症经验探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘高之胤; 邹善林; 柯奇朝; 范炳华


    [目的]探究范炳华教授治疗腰椎滑脱症的临床经验。[方法]通过跟随范炳华教授临诊和学习范炳华教授的医案,总结范炳华教授临床诊治腰椎滑脱症的学术思想和治疗方法,并附两例不同方法治疗的典型验案进行对比,从中体会其在治疗腰椎滑脱症方法选取上的差异性和相关的学术思想。[结果]范炳华教授基于“症因相关”的理论,提出“有症必有因,症因要相关,治因为先”的学术思想,临诊时把抓住病因作为治疗的关键,从细微处区分真性滑脱和假性滑脱,然后针对腰椎滑脱症的特点,创新性地将滚腰扳法和臀部垫枕矫正法运用于临床治疗并取得明显的临床疗效。[结论]范炳华教授临床治疗腰椎滑脱症的经验,为临床治疗腰椎滑脱症提供了新方法和新思路,值得借鉴和学习。%Objective]To summarize the clinical experience of Professor Fan Binghua in treating spondylolisthesis. [Method] From following Professor Fan Binghua clinical and studying experienced cases ,summarizing the academic viewpoints and methods of curing of Professor Fan Binghua treating spondylolisthesis of lumbar, with two different cases in different ways for comparing and learning the different choosing between them in curing, and the related academic ideas. [Result]Based on theory of relationship between symptoms and etiology, Professor Fan came up with concept of where there is symptom, there is reason and curing etiology should be put forward. As the key of etiology should be held on in clinic, making a distinction between true and pseudo-spondylolisthesis from slight spots, to the points of spondylolisthesis of lumbar, Professor Fan Binghua created method of curing spondylolisthesis of lumbar by combining rolling pulling manipulation of lumbar with hip on a pillow for correcting and that has obtained significant effectiveness.[Conclusion] Pro.Fan has flexible thoughts, clear

  8. The Clinical and Radiologic Presentation of X-ray on Unstable Cervical Vertebra Disease%颈椎不稳症的X线临床与影像表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维久; 艾阳平; 付建华


    目的:通过X线探讨和分析颈椎不稳的临床与影像表现.方法:对我院的100例诊断为颈椎不稳症的患者实施X线拍片,拍颈椎正侧位片、双斜位片及侧位过伸过曲片.结果:100例颈椎不稳患者的X线表现结果:上颈椎不稳有32例,占32%,其中环枕不稳定的例数有4例,有3例为外伤引起,1例为先天畸形;环枢椎不稳定的有28例,有2例为发育畸形,炎症导致不稳定的有4例,手术原因引起的有2例,退行性病变引起的有20例;下颈椎不稳症的例数有68例,占68.00%,其中外伤引起的有45例,退行性病10例,手术原因引起的有4例,炎症导致的有1例,先天性发育异常有8例.颈椎不稳定病变主要发生在下颈椎,从X线片可知,下颈椎的C3、C4、C5 发生不稳定症的机会大,它们向前的位移均超过2mm.结论:通过颈椎X线分析发现颈椎不稳定症主要发生在下颈椎,并且主要发生在C3、C4、C5.%Objective: To analyse the clinical and radiologic presentation of X-ray on unstable cervical vertebra disease through X-ray. Method: Chose 100 diagnosed unstable cervical vertebra disease patients in our hospital with X-ray inspection, took anterio posterio rand lateral film, Double inclined a piece of and ide had a reach of bowed. Result: 100 patients with unstable cervical X - ray performance. The upper cervical spine instability was 32 cases, accounting for 32% , among which ring pillow unstable number was 4 cases, 3 cases were caused by traumatic injury and 1 case was congenital malformation; Ring of vertebral instability of coffins was 28 cases, there were 2 cases of malformations, inflammation in the stable was 4 cases, 2 cases was causedby surgery, 20 cases were caused by degenerative diseases; The cervical vertebra disease instability out was 68 cases, accounting for 68. 00% , with traumatic cause was 45 cases, retreat a venereal was 10 cases, the cause of surgery was 4 cases, inflammation of the lead to one example

  9. New access to the deep interior of the Nankai accretionary complex and comprehensive characterization of subduction inputs and recent mega splay fault activity (IODP-NanTroSEIZE Expedition 338) (United States)

    Strasser, Michael; Moore, Gregory F.; Kanagawa, Kyuichi; Dugan, Brandon; Fabbri, Olivier; Toczko, Sean; Maeda, Lena


    at Site C0002 shed new light on this debatable unconformity boundary and suggest variable erosional processes active on small spatial scales. Results from riserless drilling at input Site C0012 include 178.7 m of detailed LWD characterization of the oceanic basement, indicating an upper ~100 m zone of altered pillow basalts and sheet flow deposits, and a lower, presumably less altered basement unit without indication for interlayered sediment horizons. Low angle faults identified in X-ray Computed Tomography images and structural investigation on cores from Site C0022, located in the slope basin immediately seaward of the megasplay fault zone, indicate splay-fault-related, out-of-sequence thrusting within slope basin sediments and shed new light on recent activity of the megasplay. Lastly, Exp. 338 added additional coring to improve our understanding of submarine landslides in the slope basins seaward of the splay fault and yields new LWD data to characterize in situ internal structures and properties of mass-transport deposits as it relates to the dynamics and kinematics of submarine landslides.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practice on cell phone radiation among college freshmen and sophomores%某高校低年级大学生手机辐射危害知识态度行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎艺然; 曾洁; 石璐; 代子豪; 俞天杰; 卢晓翠


    Objective To understand the knowledge-attitude-practice on cell phone radiation among college freshmen and sophomores,and to provide useful information for the development of the college students' health education.Methods By using cluster random sampling method,one class of freshmen and one class of sophomores were selected in one medical university and one non-medical university.A total of 345 participants filled in the self-designed questionnaire.Results About 98.84% of the students were aware of cell phone radiation.More than 70% of them knew that cell phone radiation was strongest when the signal was very weak,the moment connected and calling.The awareness rate among medical students and sophomores was higher than freshmen from non medical students (P<0.01).More than 80% of students cared about cell phone radiation and paid attention to protection information.Female (73.53%) were more likely to make a phone call when walking than male (62.62%).About 60% of students slept with cell phones under their pillows,with students from non-medical university being higher than that from medical university (P<0.01).Conclusion Education should be strengthened to promote awareness of cell phone radiation among college students,and protect them through changing incorrect cell phone using behaviors.%目的 了解大学生有关手机辐射的知识、信念、行为现状,为开展大学生健康教育提供依据.方法 整群随机抽取某高校医学专业和非医学专业的大一、大二各1个班学生共345名,现场填写自行设计的调查问卷.结果 98.84%的学生知晓手机可以产生辐射;对于信号弱时、刚接通时以及通话时手机辐射大的知晓率超过70%;多数医学生和大二学生对手机辐射危害知识的知晓率更高(P<0.05或P<0.01);80%以上的学生介意手机辐射危害并关注手机辐射危害防护知识;女生(73.53%)较男生(62.62%)更喜欢打电话时走动(P<0.05);60

  11. Volcanology and Geochemistry of the Taney Seamounts northeast Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Coumans, J. P.; Clague, D. A.; Stix, J.


    The Taney seamounts are a NW-SE trending, linear, near-ridge chain consisting of five submarine volcanoes located on the Pacific plate 300 km west of San Francisco, California. Morphologically, the seamounts are characterized as truncated cones with nested calderas decreasing in age towards the ridge axis. This study examines the volcanology and geochemistry of the largest and oldest seamount, (Taney A, ~26 Ma), which is comprised of four well-exposed nested calderas. Each successive collapse event exposes previously infilled lavas, defining a relative chronology. The caldera walls and intracaldera pillow mounds were carefully sampled by the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Doc Ricketts to obtain stratigraphically-controlled samples. Whole rock samples were analyzed for major and trace elements, volcanic glasses were analyzed for major and volatile elements(S, Cl), and plagioclase phenocrysts were separated for mineral and glass inclusion microprobe analysis. Overall, the erupted lavas are mostly subalkalic mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) varying from differentiated to more primitive (6.0 - 8.2 wt. % MgO) with decreasing age. Incompatible elements and REE profiles normalized to primitive mantle suggest that the lavas are transitional to slightly enriched (0.1 - 0.3 wt. % K2O; 1.1 - 2.2 wt. % TiO2), which is unusual for near-ridge seamounts. Sc, which is compatible in clinopyroxene, increases linearly with TiO2 at primitive compositions (>7.0 wt. % MgO). In more evolved seamount basalts (<7.0 wt. % MgO), the low CaO and Sc contents and decreasing CaO/Al2O3 suggest that there is either extensive clinopyroxene fractionation, or mixing with magmas that have undergone extensive clinopyroxene fractionation. MELTS modeling suggests that clinopyroxene fractionation occurs at <6.0 wt. % MgO, inconsistent with the observed clinopyroxene imprint at <7.0 wt. % MgO. The discrepancy could indicate magma mixing. Although whole rock ICP-MS data have some scatter, especially for

  12. Newly discovered hydrothermal system on the Alarcón Rise, Mexico (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.


    observations; 40 more were not visited but are presumed inactive, as turbid bottom waters were only observed in the vicinity of the active vents). Most are almost 10km NE of the Ja sít active field in a ridge-parallel array stretching 2.3km. These were deeper (to 2392m) and associated with older flows. Some had only recently ceased venting, as clam shell fragments and relatively fragile vent orifices were still present. Inactive chimneys are also intermingled with the active chimneys. Some of the recovered samples have abundant chalcopyrite, but most are predominantly zinc and iron sulfide. Inactive chimneys stand tall in the AUV maps but as they are no longer venting, would not be detected by traditional water-column surveys. Elsewhere, however, sulfide-bearing sediments were also recovered, evidence of prior hydrothermal activity that would not be detected in the AUV maps. Features that could be mistaken for sulfide chimneys also appear in the maps, but morphology distinguishes them as lava pillars along margins of collapsed flows, fault blocks, pressure ridges, or steep summits of pillow mounds.

  13. "大洋板块地层"的重建与意义——以藏南仲巴地区为例%The reconstruction of oceanic plate stratigraphy and its impli-cations:A case study of Zhongba area, southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉帅; 李亚林; 陈曦; 王成善; 李祥辉; 李鑫; 钟瀚涏


    混杂岩是古增生楔存在的标志之一,一般由枕状玄武岩、灰岩、放射虫硅质岩、硅质页岩、砂岩等混乱无序组成.目前"大洋板块地层"(OPS)运用放射虫地层学方法对混乱的增生楔断片进行重建取得了良好效果,并清晰地展示了大洋板块俯冲和洋底物质连续增生的历史.在西藏仲巴地区填图过程中,结合放射虫年代学分析鉴定结果,以OPS重建的思路和理论作为指导,重建了仲巴地区混杂岩的大洋板块地层,并恢复了该区域特提斯洋在洋中脊大洋板块增生至消亡的岩石序列,自下而上分别为侏罗纪海山玄武岩、海山覆盖物侏罗系—白垩系碳酸盐岩、海山周围沉积的侏罗系—白垩系放射虫硅质岩和硅质页岩,以及海沟附近的白垩系陆源碎屑岩等,为特提斯洋大洋板块俯冲的方向、持续时间和古大地构造环境提供了信息.%Mélange generally consists of such chaotic blocks as pillow lava, limestones, radiolarian cherts, siliceous shales and sand-stones, which tectonically contact with each other. Mélange serves as a piece of evidence of the accretionary prism (AP) related to the subduction zones. Recently, by using radiolarian biostratigraphy, the theory of ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS) is referred to as an ap-proach to the accretionary process of these blocks. In order to reconstruct the process of subduction and successive accretion of ocean floor material of Neo-tethys, the authors used the theory to mapping the accretionary prism related to the Yalung Zangbo suture zone in Zhongba area, southern Tibet. The OPS of AP in Zhongba area consists of Jurassic basalt of sea mountain, Jurassic-Creta-ceous reefs on the sea mountain, the pelagic sediments such as siliceous shales and radiolarian cherts and the Cretaceous terrigenous clasts close to the trough. This study provides new information on the direction, duration and the tectonic settings of the subduction of the Neo

  14. Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.


    An extraordinary lava pond complex is located on Axial Volcano's distal south rift. It was discovered in EM300 multibeam bathymetry collected in 1998, and explored and sampled with ROVs Tiburon in 2005 and Doc Ricketts in 2013. It was surveyed with the MBARI Mapping AUV D. Allan B. in 2011, in a complicated mission first flying above the levees at constant depth, then skimming ~5 m over the levees at a different constant depth to survey the floors, then twice switching to constant altitude mode to map outside the ponds. The AUV navigation was adjusted using the MB-System tool mbnavadjust so that bathymetric features match in overlapping and crossing swaths. The ~1-m resolution AUV bathymetry reveals extremely rough terrain, where low-resolution EM300 data had averaged acoustic returns and obscured details of walls, floors, a breach and surrounding flows, and gives context to the ROV observations and samples. The 6 x 1.5 km pond complex has 4 large and several smaller drained ponds with rims 67 to 106 m above the floors. The combined volume before draining was 0.56 km3. The ponds overflowed to build lobate-flow levees with elongate pillows draping outer flanks, then drained, leaving lava veneer on vertical inner walls. Levee rim depths vary by only 10 m and are deeper around the southern ponds. Deep collapse-pits in the levees suggest porosity of pond walls. The eastern levee of the northeastern pond breached, draining the interconnected ponds, and fed thick, rapidly-emplaced, sheet-flows along the complex's east side. These flows travelled at least 5.5 km down-rift and have 19-33 m deep drained ponds. They extended up-rift as well, forming a 10 x 2.5 km ponded flow with level 'bathtub rings' as high as 35 m above the floor marking that flow's high-stand. Despite the breach, at least 0.066 km3 of the molten interior of the large ponds also drained back down the eruptive fissures, as the pond floors are deeper than the sill and sea floor outside the complex. Tumulus

  15. Effect of Improved Bird-nest-shaped Package on Nursing of Premature Infants%早产儿应用改良鸟巢体位包的护理效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋玉; 张莉; 苏敏谊


    Objective To observe the effect of improved bird-nest-shaped package on the nursing of premature infants. Methods 100 premature were randomly divided into control group with bird-nest-shaped package and experiment group with improved bird-nest-shaped package. Homoeothermic water-pillows were applied in both groups. Apnea, sclerema neonatorum, SpO2 heart rate and rectal temperature changes 7 days after hospitalization between two groups were compared. Results No sclerema neonatorum occurred in two groups and no statistic significance exist in the comparison of' apnea but there were statistical differences between the comparisons of SpO2, heart rate and rectal temperature of infants in two groups. Conclusion Improved bird-nest-shaped package is beneficial to keeping a stable temperature and the SpO2, controlling the heart rate and maintaining a stable vital sign and the development of the normal physiology functions.%目的 观察改良鸟巢体位包在早产儿护理中的应用效果.方法 2009年7月-2010年10月100例早产儿根据入院的单双日分为对照组和研究组,分别采用传统棉布环形包绕四周的鸟巢和改良鸟巢体位包,即除了四周有棉布环绕外,还配有帽子,背部也有柔软温暖的海绵作为底垫,两组均予恒温水枕垫高头颈部,观察比较两组早产儿入院7 d内发生新生儿硬肿、呼吸暂停、经皮测SpO2<85%、心率>160次/min的例数,及每2 h内肛温<36℃的例数.结果 早产儿入院7 d内研究组与对照组发生呼吸暂停的例数差异无统计学意义,对照组经皮测SpO2<85%、心率>160次/min、入院2h内肛温<36℃的例数较多,差异均有统计学意义,但两组新生儿均未发生新生儿硬肿.结论 改良鸟巢体位包有利于维持患儿体温,维持较高血氧饱和度,能较好控制心率,从而促进早产儿适应宫外环境.

  16. Giant rafted pumice blocks from the most recent eruption of Taupo volcano, New Zealand: Insights from palaeomagnetic and textural data (United States)

    von Lichtan, I. J.; White, J. D. L.; Manville, V.; Ohneiser, C.


    as the dome grew and deformed then rising buoyantly to the surface. Parts of the carapace could also be released by local magma-water explosions. Some textures of the pumice, however, suggest fresher magma released from beneath the carapace. This may suggest that silicic dikes and pillows/pods intruded into a growing mound of silicic hyaloclastite, itself formed by quench fragmentation and thermal granulation of the dike margins. This fragmental cover would have inhibited cooling of a still-hot and actively vesiculating interior, which was then released to float to the surface by gravitational destabilisation and collapse of the growing pile. Following their formation, the large fragments of pumice floated to the lake's surface, where they were blown ashore to become embedded in accumulating transgressive shoreface sediments and continue cooling.

  17. Review of external ocular compression: clinical applications of the ocular pressure estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenfeld MS


    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd. Washington, MO, USA; 2Washington University Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: The authors have previously validated an Ocular Pressure Estimator (OPE that can estimate the intraocular pressure (IOP during external ocular compression (EOC. The authors now apply the OPE in clinical states where EOC is clinically important. The original work is described for two periods of risk: during sleep and during the digital ocular massage (DOM maneuver used by surgeons after trabeculectomy to keep the operation functional. Other periods of risk for external ocular compression are then reviewed.Methods: The first protocol estimated the IOP in the dependent eye during simulated sleep. Subjects had their IOPs initially measured in an upright-seated position, immediately upon assuming a right eye dependent side sleeping position (with nothing contacting the eye, and then 5 minutes later while still in this position. While maintaining this position, the fluid filled bladder of the OPE was then placed between the subject’s closed eye and a pillow during simulated sleep. The IOP was continuously estimated in this position for 5 minutes. The subjects then had the IOP measured in both eyes in an upright-seated position. The second protocol determined if a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio was more common on the side that patients reported they preferred to sleep on. The hypothesis was that chronic asymmetric, compression induced, elevations of IOP during sleep would be associated with otherwise unexplained asymmetry of the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. The third protocol assessed the IOP during DOM. The OPE was used to characterize the IOP produced during the DOM maneuver of five glaucoma surgeons. After this, 90 mmHg was chosen as a target pressure for DOM. The surgeons were then verbally coached

  18. AUV Mapping and ROV Sampling of Ridges and Seamounts: No Longer Wandering Around in the Dark (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.


    Exploration by submersible has been described as akin to dangling from a helicopter, at night, in a snowstorm, with a flashlight. Until recently, the divers were further hampered by not knowing where they were: the best bathymetric maps had resolution the length of a football field, and detailed maps could be constructed only after considerable investment in ship time to deploy and calibrate long baseline networks on the sea floor. Since then, maps have greatly improved with the use of high-frequency multibeam sonars flown close to the bottom, reliable navigation systems on the vehicles and surface ships, and sophisticated software to process the data. Our submersible dives are now guided, and older dives reinterpreted, using 1-meter resolution maps made with the MBARI Mapping AUV. We have utilized this combo at 7 sites along NE Pacific mid-ocean ridges, 3 seamounts off California, and 2 back-arc volcanoes in the Lau Basin. Among these, on the northern Cleft Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, four ROV dives were conducted over six years on a 30 km-long section of the ridge axis that was mapped with the AUV in two 18-hour surveys in 2009. Our experiences there will be used to illustrate advantages and challenges of studying the sea floor armed with better maps. The AUV maps are at a resolution where individual sulfide chimneys, lava pillars, eruptive fissures, lava channels and flow margins can be distinguished. Inflated flows and tectonically faulted seamounts can be examined in detail. Characteristic progressions in flow morphology from eruptive fissures through collapsed channels to pillowed margins can be traced along lava flow units. Relative age relationships can be determined from truncations of flow channels and tectonic fractures. The ROV's HD camera and array of samplers permit ground-truthing and refining of our interpretations of the maps. The mapped relationships of flows allow us to focus ROV sampling efforts and give wider context to the camera

  19. AUV Mapping of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge: The Southern Caldera Floor and Upper South Rift (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D.; Paduan, J. B.; Chadwick, W. W.; Butterfield, D. A.; Thomas, H.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D. R.


    During September 2006 and August 2007 NOAA NeMO cruises, we conducted 7 high-resolution near-bottom seafloor mapping surveys of Axial Seamount using the MBARI Mapping AUV D. Allan B. The 200 kHz multibeam and 110 kHz sidescan surveys of the south caldera and upper south rift, conducted at 50 m vehicle altitude, achieved sub-meter resolution bathymetry and sidescan imagery. Numerous previous and concurrent submersible or ROV dives provide ground-truth of what the maps depict. A companion poster presents the AUV surveys of the north caldera and northeastern caldera rim. The southern caldera wall is buried beneath at least 5 voluminous lava flows, including the 1998 flow, each erupted from fissures extending along the southeastern edge of the caldera roughly parallel to the upper south rift zone. The caldera wall here was not as tall as on the southwest, north, and northeast of the caldera, and may have been as low as 35 m tall before it was buried. Active and inactive hydrothermal vents are generally located along the inferred buried caldera wall. Eruptive fissures are characterized by series of depressions aligned along each fissure; no ramparts or other constructional edifices were constructed along them. The aligned depressions suggest that lava drained back down the fissures at the end of the eruptions. The fissure eruptions were large volume and had large effusion rates as seen by their interwoven channels and the extent of the flows. Most of these flows have central channels of lineated sheet flows, bordered by folded and then jumbled sheet flows, surrounded by lobate flows with lava pillars and collapse structures and pillowed flow margins. As an example, the 1998 eruption in and near the caldera issued from 5 en echelon fissures extending at least 3 km. The largest flow lobe extending to the south was mapped along its entire western boundary using JASON II, but the flow extends to the southeast beyond the mapped region. An unusual km-across feature was mapped

  20. Geological and geochemical evolution of the Trincheira Complex, a Mesoproterozoic ophiolite in the southwestern Amazon craton, Brazil (United States)

    Rizzotto, Gilmar José; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo


    We document the first-known Mesoproterozoic ophiolite from the southwestern part of the Amazon craton, corresponding to the Trincheira Complex of Calymmian age, and propose a tectonic model that explains many previously enigmatic features of the Precambrian history of this key craton, and discuss its role in the reconstruction of the Columbia supercontinent. The complex comprises extrusive rocks (fine-grained amphibolites derived from massive and pillowed basalts), mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks, chert, banded iron formation (BIFs), pelites, psammitic and a smaller proportion of calc-silicate rocks. This sequence was deformed, metasomatized and metamorphosed during the development of the Alto Guaporé Belt, a Mesoproterozoic accretionary orogen. The rocks were deformed by a single tectonic event, which included isoclinal folding and metamorphism of the granulite-amphibolite facies. Layered magmatic structures were preserved in areas of low strain, including amygdaloidal and cumulate structures. Metamorphism was pervasive and reached temperatures of 780-853 °C in mafic granulites and 680-720 °C in amphibolites under an overall pressure of 6.8 kbar. The geochemical composition of the extrusive and intrusive rocks indicates that all noncumulus mafic-ultramafic rocks are tholeiitic basalts. The mafic-ultramafic rocks display moderate to strong fractionation of light rare earth elements (LREE), near-flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns and moderate to strong negative high field strength element (HFSE) anomalies (especially Nb), a geochemical signature typical of subduction zones. The lowest units of mafic granulites and porphyroblastic amphibolites in the Trincheira ophiolite are similar to the modern mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), although they locally display small Ta, Ti and Nb negative anomalies, indicating a small subduction influence. This behavior changes to an island arc tholeiite (IAT) signature in the upper units of fine-grained amphibolites and

  1. Incidência da síndrome da morte súbita em coorte de lactentes The incidence of sudden death syndrome in a cohort of infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena T. C. Geib


    process of being adopted or had died before data collection. 2,411 children were included from the total of 2,634 live births and 2,285 (94.8% of these were followed-up. Data were obtained from the Live Births Information System (Sistema de Informações Sobre Nascidos Vivos, death registers, records of the Committee on Infant Mortality and from interviews with the social mother during home visits. Data collection instruments were adapted from previously validated forms. Data were analyzed on Epi-Info with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Ten deaths were registered (0.4%. Four deaths of unknown causes could be included in sudden infant death syndrome category III. These deaths took place at home, between 4 and 6 months of age.The children slept on their sides, sharing a bed with adults, and had soft mattresses, pillows and diapers on the surface. They were the children of young mothers, smokers, with incomplete prenatal care and previous births from underprivileged economic classes. The incidence of suspicion of this syndrome was 1.75/ 1000. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of suspected sudden infant death syndrome in Passo Fundo is comparable with the highest international coefficients, which suggests the need for vigilance and risk prevention measures.

  2. Rifting, volcanism, and magma genesis at the northern end of the Danakil Depression: The Alid volcanic center of Eritrea (Invited) (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Clynne, M. A.; Duffield, W. A.; Smith, J. G.; Woldegiorgis, L.


    The Alid volcanic center, Eritrea, is a structural dome formed by subvolcanic intrusion of pyroxene-bearing rhyolite, subsequently erupted as pumice and lava, during the period 40,000 to 15,000 years ago. The northern Danakil Depression is thought to be the most recently developed part of the Afar, and represents an active continental rift subparallel to the Red Sea spreading center. The location of Alid may be controlled by the intersection of the structural grain of the NE trending Senafe-Alid lineament with the NW trending Danakil Depression. Our work began as a geothermal assessment (Duffield et al., 1997, USGS Open-file 97-291) that found evidence for 300 meters of vertical offset of early Pleistocene basalt flows over the past 1.1 million years. Structural uplift at Alid reveals Proterozoic metamorphic basement rocks overlain by Quaternary marine sediments including siltstone, and sandstones interbedded with pillow lavas and hyaloclastites. These units are overlain by subaerial amphibole-bearing rhyolites (dated at ~200 ka), basalts, and andesites that were deposited on a relatively flat surface and before significant growth of a large volcanic edifice. About 1 km of structural uplift of the marine sediments began 40 ka when pyroxene-bearing rhyolitic magma intruded close to the surface. Uplift was accompanied by contemporaneous eruptions of pumice falls and more common obsidian domes and lava flows over the next 20,000 years. Uplift apparently ceased after eruption of pyroclastic flows and vent-clogging lava about 15 ka. The pumice deposits contain cognate xenoliths of granophyric pyroxene-granite (Lowenstern et al., 1997, J. Petrol. 38:1707). Our geochronology of the uplift is consistent with the idea that growth of the Alid volcanic center played a role in isolating the southern Danakil Depression from the Red Sea, helping to initiate dessication of the rift and producing the young evaporites found today at Baddha and further south at Dallol. U

  3. Evolution of fluid-rock interactions: fluid inclusion, isotopic, and major/minor element chemistry of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock in core RN-17B, Reykjanes, Iceland (United States)

    Fowler, A. P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Fridleifsson, G. O.


    The Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, hosts a seawater-dominated geothermal system. Previous studies indicate an evolution of the system from meteoric to seawater. The inclined 4-inch diameter RN-17B drill core was collected from 2798.5 m to 2808.5 m (~2555 m below surface) at in situ temperature of approximately 330°C. Samples for this study were obtained from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The core contains hydrothermally altered rocks of basaltic composition. Hydrothermal alteration ranges from upper greenschist to lower amphibolite grade, dependent on protolith size and composition. Veins in the core grade inward from radial epidote + acicular hornblende + titanite + pyrite, to clearer equant and compositionally zoned epidote vein centers. Felted amphibole replaces hyaloclastite and smaller crystalline clasts within the core, but is absent from the centers of crystalline pillow basalt fragments. Amphibole in vein selvages and vesicle fillings is green and acicular. Electron microprobe analyses of amphibole indicate it spans a compositional range of ferrohornblende through paragasite. The pistacite component (Xps) of vein epidote ranges from 16.5 to 36.7. The Xps component shows both normal and reverse zoning within single epidote crystals across this range, and follows no distinct pattern. Vein epidote adjacent to the wall rock has a higher aluminum concentration than vein centers. This may be due to mobilization of aluminum from plagioclase in the wall rock during albitization. Solutions flowing through open fractures may have lower Al-content and thus precipitate more Fe-rich epidote than those next to the fracture walls. Primary fluid inclusions in epidote range in size from <1 to 10 μm in diameter. Secondary fluid inclusions are <1 μm in diameter and not measurable. Calculated fluid inclusion salinities range from 0.5 to 7.6 weight percent NaCl, with lower salinities adjacent to the wall rock and higher salinities in the vein centers

  4. Fluvial dissection, isostatic uplift, and geomorphological evolution of volcanic islands (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Menéndez, Inmaculada; Silva, Pablo G.; Martín-Betancor, Moises; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco José; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, S.


    drier Southern sectors, the maximum values are under 0.015 mm/yr. Mean uplift rates obtained in this study are within the range of those inferred from stratigraphical markers, as is the case for horizons of raised Pliocene pillow-lavas (c.a. 4 Ma) uplifted between 46 and 143 m (0.014-0.024 mm/yr). The estimation of the bulk uplift promoted by fluvial unloading is of + 143 m for the entire island, and of + 71 m for the wet NE sector. These data explain 73% to 99% of the maximum uplift recorded by the raised Pliocene sea-level markers. This reflects that erosional unloading is a critical control factor in the uplift of the oceanic island, but is not capable of explaining the full recorded uplift in Gran Canaria. Additional sources of uplift, such as gravitational unloading, lithospheric flexure induced by adjacent islands, and/or volcanic underplating, are required. The theoretical onset of lithospheric bulging beneath Gran Canaria, as exerted by Tenerife, promoted a broad westwards tilting of the former from 3.8-3.5 Ma ago. This overall tilting accelerated fluvial incision, erosional unloading, and, therefore, the sustained differential uplift on the Eastern slope of the island over its last erosional stage. Considering mean uplift rates for the East and West sectors, Eastern values (0.024 mm/yr) are double than those in the West (0.011 mm/yr), supporting the role of lithospheric flexure of adjacent islands as an additional source of uplift. Complex feedback between fluvial unloading, differential uplift, orographic effect, lithospheric flexure, and volcanic underplating, seems to control the geomorphological development of hot-spot volcanic islands, after the gravitational collapse of stratovolcanos during their rejuvenation stage.

  5. The Snowcloud System: Architecture and Algorithms for Snow Hydrology Studies (United States)

    Skalka, C.; Brown, I.; Frolik, J.


    relation of local variations in accumulation to environmental parameters such as slope, micro-topography and vegetation cover. The relative importance of such factors is likely to change over the snow season, for example as deposition fills depressions reducing surface roughness due to micro-topography and low lying vegetation. Snowcloud has also been deployed to support the acquisition of satellite imagery from Radarsat-2 and TanDEM-X missions. In capturing spatial variability Snowcloud provides better validation data than single node systems. An important use case of Snowcloud is its application to modeling snow-water equivalent SWE evolution, and more accurate areal average SWE estimation in locations with a typical paucity of snowpack data. We are especially interested in applying machine learning techniques to find relations between average SWE in remote areas and regional infrastructure data (e.g. regional snow pillows). These techniques leverage a combination of data provided by Snowcloud systems and periodic manual snow courses in short field campaigns. Furthermore, using machine learning we can explore the importance of snowpack variables for synthetic aperture radar backscatter at co- and cross-polarizations to better understand scattering processes and unify models of scattering with in situ observations at high resolution.

  6. Characteristics of Offshore Hawai';i Island Seismicity and Velocity Structure, including Lo';ihi Submarine Volcano (United States)

    Merz, D. K.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Thurber, C. H.


    the regional velocity model (HG50; Klein, 1989) in the shallow lithosphere above 16 km depth. This is likely a result of thick deposits of volcaniclastic sediments and fractured pillow basalts that blanket the southern submarine flank of Mauna Loa, upon which Lo';ihi is currently superimposing (Morgan et al., 2003). A broad, low-velocity anomaly was observed from 20-40 km deep beneath the area of Pahala, and is indicative of the central plume conduit that supplies magma to the active volcanoes. A localized high-velocity body is observed 4-6 km deep beneath Lo';ihi's summit, extending 10 km to the North and South. Oriented approximately parallel to Lo';ihi's active rift zones, this high-velocity body is suggestive of intrusion in the upper crust, similar to Kilauea's high-velocity rift zones.

  7. Spatial downscaling and correction of precipitation and temperature time series to high resolution hydrological response units in the Canadian Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Kienzle, Stefan


    , because the true, sloped area, has a larger area than the planimetric area derived from a GIS. The omission of correcting for sloped areas would result in incorrect calculations of interception volumes, soil moisture storages, groundwater recharge rates, actual evapotranspiration volumes, and runoff coefficients. Daily minimum and maximum air temperatures are estimated for each HRU by downscaling the 10km time series to the HRUs by (a) applying monthly mean lapse rates, estimated either from surrounding climate stations or from the PRISM climate normal dataset in combination with a digital elevation model, (b) adjusting further for aspect of the HRU based on monthly mean incoming solar radiation, and (c) adjusting for canopy cover using the monthly mean leaf area indices. Precipitation estimates can be verified using independent snow water equivalent measurements derived from snow pillow or snow course observations, while temperature estimates are verified against either independent temperature measurements from climate stations, or from fire observation towers.

  8. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of the Triassic and Jurassic magmatic and volcanic rocks of southeastern Ecuador (United States)

    Villares, Fabián; Eguez, Arturo; Yanez, Ernesto


    Formely, the subandean zone in the southeastern Ecuador involved large volcanic and magmatic rocks included in the Misahualli Formation and Zamora batholith, both as expression of the Jurassic cal-alcaline volcanic arc. The aim of the project carried out by the INIGEMM (Instituto Nacional de Investigación Geológico Minero Metalúrgico) was discriminate the volcanic products including a continuous set going from basalts to ryolithes and volcanoclastic rocks. Geochemical characterization was done using representative 16 whole - rock chemical analysis. The oldest rocks of the investigated area called Pachicutza Unit, include greenish to black, massive basalts and basaltic andesites, locally showing pillows structures. The texture is aphanitic to microporphyritic with slight crystal growth of plagioclase and pyroxenes. The Unit include also local pyroclastic breccias and tuffs showing variable skarnification related to the intrusion of the jurassic Zamora Batholith. Two samples of basalts show tholeiitic affinity, corresponding to an N- MORB, probably representing an early stage in opening of a regional Triassic rift reported since Colombia to Peru in the Andes. These geochemical characteristics are similar to the amphibolites of Monte Olivo Unit in the Real Cordillera. The Jurassic large volcanic assembly of the Misahualli Formation was also differenciated. Basal volcanics include green, subporphyritic andesites and volcanic breccias possibly generated at an early stage of the volcanic arc, caused by a change of extensive to compressive regime. Continental volcano sedimentary and sedimentary rock were discriminate as Nueva Esperanza and Suarez Units, respectively. The volcanosedimentary sequence include massive to laminate tuffs and tuffites of intermediate composition. The sediments of the Suarez Unit include dominant conglomerats and sandstones of fluvial domain. The regional volcanic sequence is completed by the Las Peñas Unit that includes aphanitic to

  9. Age dependent variation of magnetic fabric on dike swarms from Maio Island (Cape Verde) (United States)

    Moreira, Mário; Madeira, José; Mata, João.; Represas, Patrícia


    Maio is one of the oldest and most eroded islands of Cape Verde Archipelago. It comprises three major geological units: (1) an old raised sea-floor sequence of MORB covered by Jurassic(?)-Cretaceous deep marine sediments; (2) an intrusive 'Central Igneous Complex' (CIC), forming a dome-like structure in the older rocks; and (3) a sequence of initially submarine, then subaerial, extrusive volcanic formations and sediments. Based on the trend distribution of 290 dikes, we performed magnetic sampling on 26 basic and one carbonatite dikes. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured to infer geometries of magmatic flow. Dikes were sampled in both chilled margins were larger shear acting on particles embedded in the magmatic flow is expected. Sampling involved 11 dikes (N=195) intruding MORB pillows from the Upper Jurassic 'Batalha Formation' (Bt fm); 6 dikes (N=95) intruding the Lower Cretaceous 'Carquejo Formation' (Cq fm), and 10 dikes (N=129) intruding the submarine sequence of the Neogene 'Casas Velhas Formation' (CV fm). The studied hypabissal rocks are usually porphyritic, with phenocrysts of clinopyroxene and/or olivine set on an aphanitic groundmass. Dikes intruding CV fm trend N-S to NE-SW and plunge to SW. In Bt fm, dikes make ≈ 99% of the outcrops, span all directions and include frequent low dip sills. Dikes intruding Cq fm are shallow (mostly parallel to the limestone strata), dip 30o- 40o to the E, and trend N-S to NE-SW. Bulk susceptibility of the 26 basic dikes presents an average value of k = 47 ± 26 (×10-3) SI. The carbonatite dike intruding Bt fm has lower susceptibility: k = 4.6 ± 1.2 (×10-3) SI. More than 80% of the dikes show normal and triaxial magnetic fabric. Anisotropy is usually low, with P' < 1.08, but in CV fm dikes the anisotropy is higher and grows (up to P' ≈ 1.5) towards the centre of the volcano. Dominant magnetic fabric in CV fm is planar but in dikes from Cq fm and Bt fm it varies between oblate and prolate

  10. Iridium anomaly in the Cretaceous section of the Eastern Kamchatka (United States)

    Savelyev, Dmitry; Savelyeva, Olga


    The origin of iridium anomalies is widely discussed with regard to massive fauna and flora extinction at several geologic boundaries. Two hypotheses are most popular, cosmogenic and volcanogenic. Anomalies of iridium are known at many stratigraphic levels, both at the geologic series borders and within geologic series. Our studies revealed increased content of iridium in a section of Cretaceous oceanic deposits on the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). The investigated section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) includes interbedded jaspers and siliceous limestones overlaying pillow-basalts. These deposits belong to the Smagin Formation of the Albian-Cenomanian age. In the middle and upper parts of the section two beds of black carbonaceous rocks with sapropelic organic matter were observed. Their formation marked likely episodes of oxygen depletion of oceanic intermediate water (oceanic anoxic events). Our geochemical studies revealed an enrichment of the carbonaceous beds in a number of major and trace elements (Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, K2O, P2O5, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, V, Mo, Ba, Y, Zr, Nb, REE, U, Au, Pt etc.) in comparison with associating jaspers and limestones. There are likely different sources which contributed to the enrichment. It is possible however to correlate the excess of Al, Ti, Zr, Nb with volcanogenic admixture, which is absent in limestones and jaspers. A possible source of the volcanogenic material was local volcanism as suggested by the close association of the investigated section with volcanic rocks (basaltic lavas and hyaloclastites). The basalts of the Smagin Formation were previously proposed to originate during Cretaceous activity of the Hawaiian mantle plume (Portnyagin et al., Geology, 2008). Neutron activation analysis indicated increased up to 9 ppb concentration of Ir at the bottom of the lower carbonaceous bed (inorganic part of the sample was analyzed comprising 46% of the bulk rock). In other samples Ir content was below

  11. First evidence of the Oceanic Anoxic Events in Cenomanian paleoceanic deposits of the Eastern Kamchatka (United States)

    Savelyeva, Olga; Palechek, Tatiana; Savelyev, Dmitry


    They are a few stratigraphical levels corresponding to OAEs in the deep-water drilling sites in the Pacific ocean. Discoveries of ОАЕs evidences in fold-thrust belt of Pacific are important for correlation of Pacific ocean sections with well investigated sections of Europe. We studied Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic carbonate-siliceous deposits of the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). They are deposited in association with pillow-basalts and hyaloclastites. The thickness of the studied section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) is about 10 m. The deposits are represented mainly by rhythmical intercalation of red-brown radiolarian jaspers, pink nannoplancton limestones as well as siliceous limestones. In the middle and upper parts of the section there are two thin beds enriched by organic carbon. The thickness of the beds is about 2 cm and 5 cm. Such carbon-rich beds were also found in several other exposures. Near the carbonaceous beds jaspers and limestones lose red and pink colours and become gray and black (on the weathered surface almost white). The content of the mineral matter in the carbon-rich beds amounts 27-75%. It consists of biogenic silica and clay minerals (likely altered hyaloclactites). Carbonaceous beds contain pyrite, barite, phosphates in the form of pellets and fish bone detritus. Mo/Mn ratio in the mineral matter of carbon-rich beds corresponds to euxinic conditions. Total organic carbon contents change from 18 to 53%. The calculated values of the hydrogen and oxygen indexes indicate that the organic carbon originated from marine (sapropelic) organic matter. In studied section the curve of d13C (analyzed in limestones) is characterized by a clearly expressed positive shift at the level of the lower carbonaceous bed. Below it and in the overlapping stratum of siliceous limestone (1 cm thickness) d13C has the values of 1.9-2.1 pro mil, and above it d13C increases up to 2.5-3 pro mil. The radiolarian assemblages are dominated by

  12. Carbon isotope curve and iridium anomaly in the Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic deposits of the Eastern Kamchatka (United States)

    Savelyev, D. P.; Savelyeva, O. L.; Palechek, T. N.; Pokrovsky, B. G.


    We studied Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic carbonate-siliceous deposits of the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). They are deposited in association with pillow-basalts and hyaloclastites. The thickness of the studied section is about 10 m. The deposits are represented mainly by rhythmical intercalation of red-brown radiolarian jaspers, pink nannoplankton limestones as well as siliceous limestones. In the middle and upper parts of the section there are two beds enriched by organic carbon. The largest organic matter contents in this beds amount to 68%. The calculated values of the hydrogen and oxygen indexes indicate that the carbonaceous beds consist of marine organic matter. The accumulation of the carbonaceous beds reflects oxygen depletion in intermediate oceanic waters (ocean anoxic events, OAE). The structure of the studied section emphasizes its similarity to the contemporary deposits recovered by ODP and DSDP sites on Hess and Shatsky Rises. Two orders of rhythmicity were observed in the section. The rhythmicity of the first order (average thickness of a rhythm is 5-7 cm) is an alternation of reddish brown radiolarian jaspers and pink nannofossil limestones. The rhythmicity of the second order is characterized by an increase in thickness of the jasper or limy layer in every 4th-5th rhythm of the first order and marked by an elevation of the silica content in calcareous layers. The rhythmicity formation can be attributed to fluctuation of astronomical parameters (Milankovitch cycles) with periods of 21 and 100 kyr. The character of atmospheric circulation and ocean currents served as transmission link. The section was sampled layerwise and more than 100 samples were taken. The radiolarians were extracted from the samples of jaspers and siliceous limestones lying between carbonaceous beds. The educed radiolarian complexes allowed us to define the age of the deposits as Cenomanian. For more detailed dating of members of the section we have

  13. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project, a 5 km Deep Drillhole Underway to Investigate Deep Geothermal Resources on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Pope, E. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Schiffmann, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J.


    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a long-term study of high-temperature hydrothermal systems on the Reykjanes Peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge emerges on to the SW tip of Iceland. The IDDP is a collaborative effort, by a consortium of Icelandic power companies and the Icelandic government, to investigate if utilizing supercritical geothermal fluids would improve the economics of power production from geothermal fields. Over the next decade this will involve drilling a series of wells >4 km deep, to reach temperatures ~450°C. The deepest of these wells so far was completed at 3.1 km in February 2005. The rocks penetrated consist of Holocene basaltic lavas, subglacial hyaloclastites, marine sediments, submarine pillow basalts, and diabase dikes. In 2006, the IDDP will rotary drill and spot core this, or another candidate well, to 4.0 km, and in 2007, the IDDP will deepen the borehole from 4.0 km to 5.0 km, using continuous wireline coring. Such deep, hot wells present both technical challenges and opportunities for important scientific studies. For example, preliminary analyses of rock samples and fluids from the existing geothermal wells indicate that the shallow geothermal system is complex, as indicated by paragenetic relations and strong compositional zoning in calc-silicate minerals, such as epidote. Calculation of local equilibria between calc-silicates and calcite suggests that the CO2 content of the geothermal fluids increased during the evolution of this geothermal system. Zoned hydrothermal amphiboles at 3.1 km depth include tschermakitic hornblende (~13 wt. % Al2O3), suggesting temperatures in the upper 300°C range. Similarly, analyses of hydrogen isotopic ratios of epidotes and amphiboles currently underway indicate that meteoric water has mixed with seawater during the evolution of the Reykjanes geothermal system. The Reykjanes Peninsula is a superb location for scientific investigations of the deeper levels of a high enthalpy

  14. Faults, Post-1720 Explosion Craters, and the Remains of a Lava Lake at Castro Bank Seamount (E Azores) (United States)

    Wunderman, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Nishimura, C.; Pacheco, J. M.; Vogt, P. R.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Santos, R.


    During 25-28 July 2003 the US Navy submarine NR-1 dove on the seamount D. Joao de Castro Bank, compiling reconnaissance sonar and visual data. Castro Bank sits along strike and between the eastern Azorian islands of Terceira and S. Miguel, occupying a seismically active region ˜60 km from each of these islands and apparently controlled by the same underlying tectonics as other islands found along the Azores' northern margin. Castro Bank's last recorded eruptions built a ˜1 km diameter ephemeral island in the 1720s. The bathimetry of the uppermost 40 m or so of the Bank is rather well known via single beam sonar, scuba diving and AUV surveys (IH, DOP/UA and ISR/IST, unpublished work). Our dives compiled data in concentric rings along contours, collecting side- and forward-looking sonar along an overall track length of ˜20 km, with the deepest ring approaching ˜200 m depth. To document key features we came near the sea floor and took videos in water with typical visibility of ˜10-15 m. This is the first progress report on our work, which found the edifice morphologically complex and irregular. We noted that the seamount was often covered by aerially extensive yellow-brown hyaloclastic tuffs that were presumably products of the 1720s eruption, but also cut by faults and fissures (with offsets of ten's of meters) exposing abundant areas of older edifice. The faults typically lacked sediment cover, and in one case a very fresh, sediment-free fault trended along the base of a steep cliff. This suggested the faults were much younger than the 1720 eruption, an observation in accord with intense seismicity recorded in this area. The faults provided exposures of older rocks, which included abundant breccia and lesser clearly identified pillows or thick lava flows. The NW quadrant contains two small, shallow, elliptical craters. These lie side-by-side and crosscut inferred 1720s-age tuffs. One crater held a lava lake, the body of which apparently withdrew or subsided

  15. Geologic Evolution of the eastern Panama Isthmus from biostratigraphic, tectonic and geophysical data (United States)

    Barat, F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Sosson, M.; Müller, C.


    Panama is located at the junction of Nazca, Cocos, Caribbean and South America Plates, and reflects a complex geological history: the isthmus is mainly an island arc, formed by the convergence between the oceanic Farallon and Caribbean Plates during Late Cretaceous-Paleogene, deformed by extension from the beginning of the Miocene, and shortened during the Middle Miocene collision of the Panama-Choco block with the South America Plate. We focused our researches on the eastern part of Panama, mainly in the Darien province, the least explored territory of the country, combining field work data, remote sensing analyses (SAR images) and geophysical data in order to better constrain the geological history of Panama since the Late Cretaceous. New field observations and detailed biostratigraphic data (nannoflora) allow us to precise the stratigraphic units of eastern Panama. We recognize from bottom to top: (1) the Upper Cretaceous basement of the Caribbean plate consists of basalts, pillow basalts, with minor intercalations of radiolarian cherts, outcropping in the Gulf of San Miguel, San Blas Massif and Sapo Massif; (2) an early volcanic arc, Upper Cretaceous in age, composed by breccias, basalts, intrusive volcanic rocks, limestones and siliceous tuffs, outcropping in the Portobelo Peninsula and San Blas-Darien Massif, attributed to the Ocù formation; (3) a Paleocene-Middle Eocene island-arc magmatic rock suite, outcropping in the Massifs of San Blas-Darien, Mahé and Sapo, attributed to the San Blas Formation; (4) a thick package of Lower-Middle Eocene-Oligocene epiclastic volcanosedimentary rocks, tuffs, with few basaltic lavas, observed in the Mahé Massif, attributed to the Darien Formation; (5) Several sedimentary formations, composed by carbonated and siliceous fine sediments and conglomerates, Upper Middle Eocene to Upper Miocene in age, which outcrop in the basins of Chucunaque-Tuira and Sambu (Porcona, Clarita, Tapaliza, Tuira, Chucunaque formations). We also

  16. Analysis Effect of 120 Cases With Continuous Epidural Anesthesia for Labor Analgesia on Birth Process%持续硬膜外阻滞麻醉分娩镇痛对产程的影响120例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analysis the effect of continuous epidural anesthesia for labor analgesia on birth process.Methods Clinical data of 120 cases with continuous epidural anesthesia for labor analgesia and 120 cases without continuous epidural anesthesia for labor analgesia were respectively analyzed. birth process, pain, satisfaction, and adaptability of two groups were compared.ResultsPain, satisfaction, and adaptability scores of two groups,P<0.01, had difference statistically significance. In non pillow before entering the basin of maternal, the average time of miyaguchi 2 cm wide to full of labor analgesia group was longer than non-labor analgesia group,P<0.01, had difference statistically significance. In outlet diameter < BPD, the second stage of labor of labor analgesia group was longer than non-labor analgesia group,P<0.01, had difference statistically significance.Conclusion Continuous epidural anesthesia for labor analgesia can release maternal pain, and improve maternal degree of cooperation and satisfaction, and with less effect on birth process.%目的分析持续硬膜外阻滞麻醉分娩镇痛对产程的影响。方法回顾性分析采用持续硬膜外阻滞麻醉分娩产妇120例及选择分娩镇痛的产妇120例的临床资料。比较两组产妇产程、产程过程的疼痛程度、满意度、配合度情况。结果两组产程疼痛程度、分娩过程中配合度评分、产程过程的满意度评分比较,P<0.01,差异具有统计学意义。非枕前位入盆的产妇,镇痛组产妇平均宫口开大2 cm到开全时间长于未镇痛产妇,P<0.01,差异具有统计学意义。出口横径<双顶径的产妇,镇痛组第二产程时间长于未镇痛组的产妇,P<0.01,差异具有统计学意义。结论持续硬膜外阻滞麻醉分娩镇痛能够缓解产妇疼痛程度,提高产妇配合度及满意度,对产程的影响较小。

  17. Frequency of event deposits reflecting glacial/interglacial conditions during the last ca. 50,000 years in the south Patagonian maar lake Laguna Potrok Aike, Argentina (United States)

    Kliem, Pierre; Hahn, Annette; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team


    Laguna Potrok Aike is a 100m deep maar lake located in the dry steppe of southern Patagonia. The catchment area of >200km² mainly consists of till from Bella Vista and Río Ciaike Glaciations as well as of alkali-olivine basalts of the Pali Aike Volcanic Field. Today's regional climate is affected by the Southern Hemispheric Westerlies and the rainshadow effect of the north-south striking Andean mountain chain. Since lakes are valuable terrestrial paleoclimate archives, sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike should reflect shifts of mid latitude wind and pressure fields as well as precipitation changes in southeastern South America. Aiming at the reconstruction of past climate, the deep drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike was accomplished in the framework of the ICDP project PASADO during Sept. to Dec. 2008. By correlation of three holes drilled at Site 2 ca. 700 m south of the lake's center, a composite profile of 106.09 mcd (meters composite depth) was established. According to the lowermost 14C-age of aquatic macro remains from 80.6 mcd, the entire record comprises at least 50,000 years. The initial lithological description indicates that 50.74 m (i.e. 47.8%) of the sediment record consists of remobilized sediment (turbidity currents; homogenites; ball and pillow structures, gravel layers, slumps). Such deposits are almost absent in the top 12 mcd, where laminated clays and silts dominate. Correlation with an existing piston core allows a temporal relation to the Holocene. Apart from obviously remobilized deposits Holocene sediments are distinguished from Late Glacial deposits by a lower frequency of coarse silt/fine sand layers within a silt/clay matrix. Frequency and thickness of remobilized deposits increase with sediment depth. Most reworked sections are composed of three units: (1) a dark, coarse and fining upward base overlain by (2) a homogeneous layer of silt and (3) clay capped by a relatively thin light colored clay layer. Such sequences were often described as

  18. The study of major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry in Shahrestanak Mn deposit, south of Qom: Implications for genesis

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    Mohammad Maanijou


    source. As (Co/Zn-(Co+Cu+Ni diagram, the samples from Shahrestanak deposit show close similarities with hydrothermal deposits which in turn show common genesis. Using Pb versus Zn diagram, dubhite (deposits derived from previous mineralized sequence can be distinguished from other Mn oxide (hydrothermal or supergene deposits. The dubhite deposits have high Pb/Zn ratios and more than 1 percent Pb and Zn contents. Meanwhile, other types of deposits like shallow marine deposit, hot springs, SEDEX, weathered deposits have lower contents of Pb and Zn. The Shahrestanak deposit has more similarities with SEDEX and shallow marine deposits. Conclusion Geological and geochemical evidences show that deposition of ore occurred by submarine hydrothermal activities in Neotethys oceanic basin during Middle to Upper Eocene in calcareous tuff with intercalation of micrite and calcareous limestone. For the genesis of the deposit, it can be stated that the pillow basalt and andesite lavas were leached by hydrothermal activities and Mn, Fe, Si, Ba, Sr and As entered in sedimentary basin by exhalative – volcanic activities through faults, then by regression of the sea and forming oxidizing condition, primary oxide-hydroxide Mn-minerals are deposited. Acknowledgement We gratefully thank the Research and Technology Department of Bu-Ali Sina University for supporting the research. References Bonatti, E., Kraemer, T. and Rdell, H., 1972. Classification and genesis of submarine iron- manganese deposits of the ocean floor. In: D.R. Horn (Editor, Ferromanganese Deposits of the Ocean Floor. Aren House Harriman, pp. 149-166. Cann, J.R., Winter, C.K. and Pritchard R.G., 1977. A hydrothermal deposit from the floor of the Gulf of Aden. Mineralogical Magazine, 41(318: 193-199. Nicholson, K., 1992. Genetic types of manganese oxide deposits in Scotland: Indicators of paleo-ocean-spreading rate and a Devonian geochemical mobility boundary. Economic Geology 87(5: 1301-1309.

  19. 生活方式对神经根型颈椎病患者术后早期康复的影响%The influence of lifestyle on early postoperative rehabilitation patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李衍朋; 孟纯阳


    /good) and unsatisfactory group (fair/poor).The influencing factors included general information and the lifestyle such as smoking,drinking,sleep time,the height of the pillow,working time and frequency of physical exercise.The chi-square test and Logistic multivariate regression analysis were used to analyze the effects of lifestyle on early postoperative rehabilitation patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.Results Postoperative efficacy satisfaction of patients evaluated by modified MacNab standard was 88.4% in 3 months.There were differences in age(x2 =5.819),smoking(x2 =5.074) and frequence of physical exercise(x2 =4.430),and the differences were statistically significant (all P< 0.05).Logistic analysis showed that age more than 50 years old(OR=3.913,95% CI =1.321-11.594,P=0.014),smoking(OR=3.217,95% CI =1.126-9.195,P =0.029) and frequence of physical exercise less than or equal to 3 times a week (OR=3.906,95% CI =1.026-14.869,P=0.046) were the risk factors affecting the satisfaction of clinical curative effect of early postoperative cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.Conclusion Age,smoking and physical exercise are related to early postoperative rehabilitation of patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy,and then more than 50 years old,smoking and exercise less than 3 times a week have adverse effects on the early postoperative rehabilitation.

  20. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

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    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)


    hydrocarbons in the Toender area. The resistivity variations clearly reflect the presence of salt tectonics in the survey area. Another achievement from the test is the information on electromagnetic noise sources. The noise in the survey area was highly variable both spatially and with time. At some MT stations high quality data could be obtained. Other MT stations did not provide data of sufficiently quality to be included in the modelling. Some tentative comments with respect to interpretation of the acquired MT data are provided. We do not enter into an in-depth interpretation of the data and derived model, but we conclude that the MT data provide valuable information on the regional variations of resistivity. A number of anomalies are evident which point to significant variations in resistivity laterally. Some inconsistencies in relation to information from deep wells are noted with respect to depth to stratigraphic units. This is particularly the case at the location of the Borg-1 well. The salt pillow around at Toender is mapped well by the MT data. The reporting of the test is structured as follows: after a short introduction (with some basic information on MT for readers unfamiliar with the method) follows the report by L.B. Pedersen and J. Shan, Uppsala University, which represents the core of the test. It includes a description of field work, noise conditions and data quality, data processing techniques and modelling. The report by Pedersen and Shan and accompanying appendix is included as chapter 3 in this report. The last part of this report places the modelling results in context with geological information and other geophysical data publically available from the survey area. The purpose of this last part of the report is to provide information and considerations useful for further interpretation on the acquired new data. A section on the geology of the area is included with some key references and finally, another section includes displays of the model derived

  1. 质子磁共振波谱分析创伤性蛛网膜下腔出血腰大池持续引流患者脑代谢的变化%Analysis of cerebral metabolic changes by hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with lumbar continuous drainage of cerebrospinal fluid on traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海滨; 赵冬青; 王科


    .After admission, two groups were 3, 8 ,14 days to examination cerebral blood flow changes by Transcranial doppler and compared the clinical efficacy each other.Two groups of patients on day 14 of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, pillow leaf NAA, Cho, Cr and NAA /Cr, Cho /Cr value changes, the indexes were statistically analyzed.Results The observation group of patients with cerebral blood flow velocity, clinical efficacy and the main symptoms of the disappearance rate was significantly better than the control group, P <0.05.The frontal lobe, basal ganglia area and occipital lobe NAA/Cr in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the controlgroup,and the /Cr Cho values were lower than those in the control group,P<0.05.Conclusion Continuous drainage of lumbar can relieve cerebral vasospasm in patients with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, improve the clinical symptoms,1 H-MRS has important reference value for evaluating clinical curative effect and prognosis.

  2. Geología y vulcanología de La Palma y El Hierro, Canarias Occidentales

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    Pérez Torrado, F. J.


    Full Text Available The western Canaries, relatively little studied until a few years ago from the geological point of view, have however provided decisive data for understanding many of the most important geological problems of the Archipelago, which would probably have been dilucidated earlier, had the study begun with the most recent islands, as occurs in similar chains of oceanic volcanic islands in other parts of the world. To summarize the main geological features and evolutionary characteristics of both islands we emphasize the following stages of development: During the Pliocene, a submarine volcanic edifice or seamount formed in the island of La Palma, made up of pillow lavas, pillow breccias and hyaloclastites, intruded by trachytic domes, plugs of gabbros, and a highly dense dyke swarm. The intense magmatic and dyke intrusion uplifted the searnount up to 1,500 m, tilting it 45-50" to the SW. This intrusive phase was followed by a period of quiescence and erosion of the emerged submarine edifice. The definitive consolidation and progression of the construction of the island continued from at least 1.77 ma in angular and erosive discordance over the submarine basement. The subaerial volcanic reactivation, in which explosive volcanism predominated during the initial stages, producing abundant volcanoclastic and phreatomagmatic materials at the base of the subaerial edifice, persisted in a highly continuous manner until at least 0.41 ma. This initial subaerial stage shaped the northern volcanic shield, formed by the accumulation of several superimposed volcanoes, approximately concentric in relation to one another and the submarine basement. The initial stage of the northern volcanic shield lasted between 1.77 and 1.20 ma, during which period the Garafía volcano was built to a height of 2,500-3,000 m, with steeply sloping flanks, formed predominantly by alkaline basalts with abundant pahoehoe lavas. The rapid growth and progressive instability of the Garaf

  3. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

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    Fariborz Khodadadi


    samples carried out in the chemistry laboratory of the University of Urmia. All water sampling procedures were performed based on standard protocols (SMEWW, 2010. The maximum concentration of heavy metal contamination of drinking water with EPA, WHO and national standards were compared. In this study, the chemical analysis of heavy metals, were used by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (at ppb for the elements Cu, Mg, Fe and Zn. Concentration of the heavy metals in acidified water samples (pH value of 2, using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer were analyzed. Discussion There are enormous amounts of Fe and magnesium in groundwater from the north and northwest Khoy plain, and the amount of Cu and zinc are in the normal range in water resources. The source of iron and magnesium in the groundwater of the study area is ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Khoy ophiolite complex. Weathering of ultramafic and mafic igneous rocks such as peridotite, olivine basalt, gabbro and pillow lava and then soil formation, high concentrations of the elements Mg and Fe were transferred to soil. Ferromagnesian olivine is formed Mg2+ and Fe2+ ions and tetrahedral silicon. If sufficient amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ ions combine with silicon and oxygen, silicon into the soil, forms silicic acid (H4SiO4, or magnesium or iron smectite (clay minerals (Alexander et al., 2007. Several types of pyroxene are more stable than olivine. Orthopyroxene during weathering decompose into talc and smectite. Magnesite (MgCO3 is present in some serpentine soils. With respect to the empirical relationship (Kierczak et al., 2007 and based on temperature and rainfall, the study area with a drought index of 12.48 places in the category of semi-arid-cold climate between 10 and 19.9. Temperature changes in the condition cause weathering and leaching of serpentine soils, and subsequently can remove large amounts of magnesium. Weathering and leaching serpentine soils, releases immediately magnesium and

  4. Ascertainment and environment of the OIB-type basalts from the Dongbo ophiolite in the western part of Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone%雅鲁藏布江缝合带西段东波蛇绿岩OIB型玄武岩的厘定及其形成环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 杨经绥; 陈松永; 梁凤华; 牛晓露; 李兆丽; 连东洋


    The western part of the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) is divided into two sub-belts ; the genesis of the south plays a crucial role in the interpretation of the geological setting,magmatic and tectonic processes of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean.Previous research about the Dongbo ophiolite was poor,due to harsh natural environment and traffic inconvenience.This paper reports the data on petrography and geochemistry of OIB-ty-pe basalts and associated sedimentary rocks in the Dongho ophiolite and discusses their source characteristics and geological significance.Dongbo ophiolite consists of peridotite (including harzburgite,minor Cpx enriched harzburgite and dunite),mafic dikes and submarine volcanic-sendimentary rock sequences,no typical cumulates and pillow lavas.The stable marine volcanic-sedimentary sequences mainly composed of siliceous limestone,red chert,shale interbedded sandstone,basalt and basaltic volcaniclastie rocks.OIB-type basalts are characterized by low SiO2 and MgO,high TiO2,P2O5 and (K2O + Na2O)content,enrichment of Nb,Ta and REE,depletion of Th,K,Pb,Sr.Trace elements and Sr,Nd,Pb isotope data show that these basaltic lavas were derived from 2% to 5% partial melting of garnet spinel lherzolite.Siliceous rocks are of biogenlc origin,and show a close relation to terrigenous component and seamount or island arc basalts.Above evidences indicate that the Dongbo volcanosedimentary sequences have the typical seamount features,and the Dongbo ophiolite probably is related to a plume hotspot.Therefore,it can be considered,the plume hotspot underplating and interacting with the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the Gondwana northern margin not only promoted opening the Daba-Xiugugabu Tethyan oceanic basin,but also prompted diamonds and other abnormal mantle minerals to be migrated upper mantle and wrapped in peridotite and chromite.%雅鲁藏布江缝合带(YZSZ)西段分为两支,南带蛇绿岩的成因对整个缝合带的性质和构造背景的探

  5. Geología de la región del Río Bonete en el antepaís andino (27º30'LS: extremo norte del Terreno de Precordillera Geology of the region of Rio Bonete: Northern edge of the Precordillera terrane

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    Federico Martina


    Precordillera al margen occidental de Gondwana. El marcado contraste geológico observado al norte y sur de la faja de deformación de Jagüé es consistente con la hipótesis de límite norte del terreno de Precordillera.The Jagüé shear zone is an important structure with NW strike within the Andean foreland in the La Rioja Province (28º31'S - 68º30'W, partly exposed along the Río Bonete. It has been suggested that this structure represents the northern boundary of the Precordillera Terrane. Consists of intensely deformed foliated ortho-amphibolites locally grading into gabbros, Grenville mylonitized and ultramylonitized granites and pods of banded, fine grained, calcitic and dolomitic marbles. These rocks were traditionally included within the Río Bonete Formation, whereas the marbles were separated as Member Caliza Las Damas. In addition, the Río Bonete Formation included a rhythmic succession of greywackes and shales of Late Ordovician age, affected by very low-grade metamorphism. According to new mapping these would represent two different units separated by an unconformity. For this reason, we suggest the use of Río Bonete Metamorphic Complex for the highly-sheared metamorphic unit and Chuscho Formation for the metasedimentary rocks, which are in turn, overlain by basic pillow lavas included in the Famatinan ophiolite belt. Also in order to avoid confusions, we propose replacing the term Caliza Las Damas for Mármol Las Damas that better represents their composition. Considering that the Chuscho Formation, despite its subgreenschist facies metamorphism, has not been affected by the ductile deformation and the fact that given the banded composition the marbles would correlate with the Cambrian units of the Precordillera terrane platform, the age of the shear zone is restricted to the Lower Paleozoic, and included within the Ocloyic Orogeny. Structural analysis allows interpreting a left-lateral to normal kinematics for the regional ductile shear linked to the

  6. Arc-rift transition volcanism in the Volcanic Hills, Jacumba and Coyote Mountains, San Diego and Imperial Counties, california (United States)

    Fisch, Gregory Zane

    proximity could possibly reflect the opening of a slab window produced by the collision of the spreading center and continued subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the North American continent. However, evidence presented here suggests that crustal contamination and metasomatic processes in the Coyote Mountains are the primary source of the geochemical variations. Trace-element signatures are similar in samples from all of the study regions, with pronounced Nb depletion typical of island-arc volcanism. The distinguishing features of samples from the Coyote Mountains are the high amount of alteration and their high levels of K2O (4-5 wt%). This study will examine the possibility that these characteristics result from the interaction of the basalt with a highly alkaline body of water and/or sediments. Supporting data for such a model include pillow structures and spiracle formations within the basalt flows exposed in the Fossil Canyon and Butaca Canyon regions of the Coyote Mountains. Future studies of the olivine-basalt samples within the central region of the Coyote Mountains, away from the altered exposures, would provide a more complete understanding of their genesis. While the geochemical data were initially analyzed using standard geochemical techniques, the data are also analyzed statistically using a relatively new multivariate analysis technique known as Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA). Using the CoDA techniques, a clearer insight into the actual changes of the chemical composition can be seen. It also provides statistically valid correlation between the various regions in the study area. The CoDA processes, CLR BiPlots in particular, show which elements vary from one region to the next. It also differentiates elemental groups that correlate with typical rock-forming processes (e.g., fractional crystallization) from those that result from contamination from other sources or processes. Two examples illustrate the application: 1) In the Volcanic Hills, a

  7. 培美曲赛联合IL-2治疗恶性胸腔积液的临床研究%Treatment of malignant pleural effusion by Pemetrexed combined with Interleukin-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良; 张道良; 张颖; 顾月清


    OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of intrapleural injection of Pemetrexed combined With Intcrlcukin-2 for malignant pleural effusion. METHOSDS; Thirty-five patients with malignant pleural effusion were divided into combination group(20 cases , including 13 with lung Qdcnocarcinoms.,4 with malignant pleural rne5Otneliorna,3 with hreast cancer) and single-drug group(15 cases,including 12 with lung adenocarcinoma, 1 with malignant pleural mes-Othelbma,2 with breast cancer). All of the patients received closed drainage after percutaneous thoracocentesis. And 200 mg of Pemetrexed and 3 million units of Interleukin-2 were injected through catheter iiitn thoracic cavity in combination group,and 3 million units of interleukin-2 only were done in single-drug group afer the effusion had been drained cleanly and the lung was reexpanded completely. The patients must rotate positions every 10-15 min in bed without pillows for total of 3 cycles. The residual effusion would be drawn out after the drugs had been reserved for 48 h,and the catheter would been pulled out finally. RESULTS; In combination group,14(70. 0%) cases were determined for CR(com-plete response), 4(20. 0%) cases for PRCpartial response), 2(10. 0%) cases for NC( no change),and the ORRCoverall response rate) was 90.0%. In single-drug group,3(20. 0%) cases were determined for CR,4(26. 7%) cases for PR,8 (53. 3%) cases for NCand the ORR was 46. 7%. After 3-month and 6-month follow-up,the rate of SD(stable disease) in combination group were 88. 9% and 77. 8% respectively,and that in single-drug group were 57. 1% and 28. 6%. There were no bone marrow suppression, anaphylaxis and pleural thickening large than 2 cm occurred m two groups. Only 3 (15. 0%) cases in combination group and none in Single-drug group occurred mild nausea and slightly reduction of appetite which acquired improvement after the treatment by Metocloprarnide and Vitamin B. There were 6(30. 0%) cases in combination group,4(26. 7

  8. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi


    -rich sediment distribution in drill holes and trenches indicates that the titaniferous placers are distributed in an area of about 0.8 km2 and follow the Upper Jogaz river system. The titaniferous placers are concentrated mainly in three beds with thicknesses of 30 to 100 cm. The study of heavy minerals shows that ilmenite is the main ore mineral and titanomagnetite, rutile and sphene are present as trace minerals. The ilmenite concentration varies in the Upper Jogaz Valley fluvial sediments, in which the concentration of ilmenite generally increases away from source rock to reach a maximum concentration downstream. The geological evidence indicates that the titaniferous placers were deposited as a fluvial placer and originated from weathering and erosion of ilmenite-rich gabbros. The presence of low-grade deposits and sparse heavy minerals in the Upper Jogaz river coarse sediments is probably related to hydraulic equilibrium (Robb, 2005. Entrainment sorting created thin layers of heavy minerals (i.e., ilmenite on the Upper Jogaz streambed. The occurrence of Ti-rich layers in fine sand and silt beds is probably due to shear sorting. (5The ophiolite sequence is well exposed in the study area. This sequence is composed of cumulative peridotites, layered and massive gabbros, diabasic sheeted dikes, basaltic pillow lavas and pelagic sediments. The layered gabbros were the main source of the ilmenite Ti mineralization. The highest concentration of Ti was observed in the eastern and northern parts of Upper Jogaz Valley area, which are mainly covered by olivine- and hornblende-gabbros (6. The western part of the area is covered by an unaltered diabase unit. The study of several polished sections from the Upper Jogaz Valley gabbros shows ilmenite as the main Ti-bearing mineral with anhedral to subhedral crystals 5 to 400 microns in size. The drill hole and trench data suggest that the deposits follow the morphology of the present-day Upper Jogaz river. The Ti placer beds accumulated

  9. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)


    hydrocarbons in the Toender area. The resistivity variations clearly reflect the presence of salt tectonics in the survey area. Another achievement from the test is the information on electromagnetic noise sources. The noise in the survey area was highly variable both spatially and with time. At some MT stations high quality data could be obtained. Other MT stations did not provide data of sufficiently quality to be included in the modelling. Some tentative comments with respect to interpretation of the acquired MT data are provided. We do not enter into an in-depth interpretation of the data and derived model, but we conclude that the MT data provide valuable information on the regional variations of resistivity. A number of anomalies are evident which point to significant variations in resistivity laterally. Some inconsistencies in relation to information from deep wells are noted with respect to depth to stratigraphic units. This is particularly the case at the location of the Borg-1 well. The salt pillow around at Toender is mapped well by the MT data. The reporting of the test is structured as follows: after a short introduction (with some basic information on MT for readers unfamiliar with the method) follows the report by L.B. Pedersen and J. Shan, Uppsala University, which represents the core of the test. It includes a description of field work, noise conditions and data quality, data processing techniques and modelling. The report by Pedersen and Shan and accompanying appendix is included as chapter 3 in this report. The last part of this report places the modelling results in context with geological information and other geophysical data publically available from the survey area. The purpose of this last part of the report is to provide information and considerations useful for further interpretation on the acquired new data. A section on the geology of the area is included with some key references and finally, another section includes displays of the model derived

  10. Stratigraphic position, origin and characteristics of manganese mineralization horizons in the Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence, south-southwest of Sabzevar

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    Sajjad Maghfouri


    Full Text Available Introduction The Mn mineralization occurs in the northeastern segment of the Sabzevar zone (SZ, north of the Central Iranian Microcontinent (CIM. This Zone (SZ is located between the CIM fragmentation in the south and the Kopeh dagh sedimentary sequence in the north. The ore deposits of the northeastern segment of the Sabzevar zone can be divided into three groups, each with different metal association and spatial distribution and each related to