Sample records for 3075ma ocelli-hosting pillow

  1. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.; Frei, Robert;


    The Mesoarchean (ca. 3075 Ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt in southern West Greenland includes variably deformed and metamorphosed pillow basalts, ultramafic flows (picrites), serpentinized ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sulphide-rich siliceous layers, and minor siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Primary....... The belt underwent at least two stages of calc-silicate metasomatic alteration and polyphase deformation between 2963 and 3075 Ma. The stage I metasomatic assemblage is composed predominantly of epidote (now mostly diopside) + quartz + plagioclase ± hornblende ± scapolite, and occurs mainly in pillow cores...... + garnet + amphibole + plagioclase + quartz ± vesuvianite ± scapolite ± epidote ± titanite ± calcite ± scheelite. Given that the second stage of metasomatism is closely associated with shear zones and replaced rocks with an early metamorphic fabric, its origin is attributed to regional dynamothermal metamorphism. The least altered pillow basalts, picrites, gabbros, and diorites are characterized by LREE...

  2. Unassisted smothering in a pillow. (United States)

    Schmeling, Andreas; Fracasso, Tony; Pragst, Fritz; Tsokos, Michael; Wirth, Ingo


    We report the case of a 33-year-old man admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of paranoid schizophrenia. The man was found dead lying in his bed with the face pressed against a pillow and with elevated buttocks. The autopsy did not reveal a cause of death. The histological findings displayed the signs of the haemorrhagic-dysoric syndrome with acute emphysema; these findings are pathognomonic of obstructive asphyxia. The adverse effects of the neuroleptics demonstrated by the toxicological findings may have accelerated the loss of consciousness and facilitated the unusual position of the body. On the basis of the clinical history, the autopsy findings, the histological features and the toxicological results, asphyxia due to smothering was diagnosed as the cause of death.

  3. Pillow seal system at the BigRIPS separator (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Inabe, N.; Yoshida, K.; Kusaka, K.; Kubo, T.


    We have designed and installed a pillow seal system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) to facilitate remote maintenance in a radioactive environment. The pillow seal system is a device to connect a vacuum chamber and a beam tube. It allows quick attachment and detachment of vacuum connections in the BigRIPS separator and consists of a double diaphragm with a differential pumping system. The leakage rate achieved with this system is as low as 10-9 Pa m3/s. We have also designed and installed a local radiation-shielding system, integrated with the pillow seal system, to protect the superconducting magnets and to reduce the heat load on the cryogenic system. We present an overview of the pillow seal and the local shielding systems.

  4. Evaluation of radiation exposure from a consumer product. A pillow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure from a pillow was analyzed. According to an advertisement of the pillow, this radioactive consumer product contains enough amounts of radioactive materials to induce radiation hormesis effects. The pillow consists of the filling chips made from kneading mineral ores and the polynosic linings contains natural radioactive ores. A γ-ray analysis of the pillow using pure Ge-MCA reveals that there exist radioactivities of thorium and uranium series mixtures in it at concentration of 0.58% by the weight. The observations of a chip surface by a scanning electron microscope show that the shapes of two sides are different each other. There are lots of sharp protuberances on the outside of the chip. To determine the direct external exposures from the pillow, film badges were placed on the pillow for 210 h and 2555 h. The dose equivalents of 210 h exposure was under 0.1 mSv which is a detection limit of a γ-ray by the film badges. However, that of 2555 h exposure was over 0.1 mSv less than 0.15 mSv. Quantities of internal exposures from inhalation of the vaporized Rn were measured by a Lucas Cell. It was 79 Bq/m3. There is no necessity for anxious about being broken in health inhaling the Rn-gass. (author)

  5. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany. (United States)

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J


    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  6. A randomized, comparative trial: does pillow type alter cervico-thoracic spinal posture when side lying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon SJ


    Full Text Available Susan J Gordon1, Karen A Grimmer-Somers2, Patricia H Trott31School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Science, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD; 2Centre for Allied Health Sciences, 3School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Many patients ask for advice about choosing a pillow. This research was undertaken to determine if pillow type alters cervico-thoracic spine position when resting in the side-lying position.Aim: To investigate the effect of different pillow shape and content on the slope of cervico-thoracic spine segments when side lying.Materials and methods: The study was a randomized blinded comparative trial set in a laboratory that replicated a bedroom. The subjects were side sleepers aged over 18 years. Exclusion criteria were history of surgery to the cervico-thoracic spine, an injury or accident to the cervico-thoracic spine in the preceding year, or currently receiving treatment for neck symptoms. Each participant rested in a standardized side-lying position for 10 minutes on each of the trial pillows: regular shaped polyester, foam, feather, and latex pillows, and a contour shaped foam pillow. Reflective markers were placed on external occipital protuberance (EOP, C2, C4, C7, and T3, and digital images were recorded of subjects at 0 and 10 minutes on each pillow. Images were digitized using each reflective marker and the slope of each spinal segment calculated. Univariate analysis of variance models were used to investigate slope differences between pillows at 0 and 10 minutes. Significance was established at P < 0.01 to take account of chance effects from repeated measures and multiple comparisons.Results: At 0 and 10 minutes, the EOP-C2, C2-C4, and C4-C7 segmental slopes were significantly different across all pillows. Significant differences were identified when comparing the feather pillow with the latex, regular and contour foam pillows, and when

  7. Hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis of terrestrial lacustrine pillow basalts: Coordination of hyperspectral imaging with laboratory measurements (United States)

    Greenberger, Rebecca N; Mustard, John F; Cloutis, Edward A; Mann, Paul; Wilson, Janette H.; Flemming, Roberta L; Robertson, Kevin; Salvatore, Mark R; Edwards, Christopher


    We investigate an outcrop of ∼187 Ma lacustrine pillow basalts of the Talcott Formation exposed in Meriden, Connecticut, USA, focusing on coordinated analyses of one pillow lava to characterize the aqueous history of these basalts in the Hartford Basin. This work uses a suite of multidisciplinary measurements, including hyperspectral imaging, other spectroscopic techniques, and chemical and mineralogical analyses, from the microscopic scale up to the scale of an outcrop.

  8. Prediction and control of pillow defect in single point incremental forming using numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidore, B. B. Lemopi [Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa (Turkmenistan); Hussain, G.; Khan, Wasim A. [GIK Institute of Engineering, Swabi (Pakistan); Shamachi, S. Pourhassan [University of Minho, Guimaraes (Portugal)


    Pillows formed at the center of sheets in Single point incremental forming (SPIF) are fabrication defects which adversely affect the geometrical accuracy and formability of manufactured parts. This study is focused on using FEA as a tool to predict and control pillowing in SPIF by varying tool size and shape. 3D Finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments are carried out using annealed Aluminum 1050. From FEA, it is found out that the stress/strain state in the immediate vicinity of the forming tool in the transverse direction plays a determinant role on sheet pillowing. Furthermore, pillow height increases as compression in the sheet-plane increases. The nature of in-plane stresses in the transverse direction varies from compressive to tensile as the tool-end geometry is changed from spherical to flat. Additionally, the magnitude of corresponding in-plane stresses decreases as the tool radius increases. According to measurements from the FEA model, flat end tools and large radii both retard pillow formation. However, the influence of changing tool end shape from hemispherical to flat is observed to be more important than the effect of varying tool radius, because the deformation zone remains in tension in the transverse direction while forming with flat end tools. These findings are verified by conducting a set of experiments. A fair agreement between the FEM and empirical results show that FEM can be employed as a tool to predict and control the pillow defect in SPIF.

  9. Petrogenesis of pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen


    The pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan have been inferred to bear Dupal signautres based on their Th/Ce ratio, linking the Baolai basalts to the South China Sea (SCS) seamounts that are characterized by Dupal Pb isotope signatures (Smith and Lewis, 2007). In this study, thirty-two Baolai basalt samples were analyzed for abundances of major and trace elements as well as Pb and Nd isotope ratios to verify their Dupal characters and to constrain their petrogenesis significance. The Baolai basalts contain 4-10 % L.O.I.. Three stages of alteration are inferred from plots of L.O.I. abundance versus concentrations major oxides as well as mineral textures and compositions. The first alteration stage was characterized by albitization that converted Ca-rich plagioclase to albite. The second alteration stage was dominated by chloritization of olivine and augite, resulting in increases in L.O.I. abundance. The last alteration stage is represented by formation of secondary calcite in vesicles and cracks. These alteration processes reflect interaction with seawater and apparently did not affect the magmatic Pb isotope composition for the low Pb concentration in seawater. Relative to the North Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL), the Baolai pillow basalts have higher 208Pb/204Pb ratios at a given 206Pb/204Pb value, showing Dupal anomaly. For their relatively higher 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the Baolai basalts are distinct from majority of the Cenozoic basalts in the Hainan-Leizhou peninsula, the Indochina peninsula, and the SCS seamounts, for which derivation from the Hainan mantle plume has been recently proposed (Wang et al., 2013). In contrast, the Baolai basalts and the Cenozoic basalts from eastern Guangdong at southeastern China have similar Pb and Nd isotope compositions, indicating derivation from similar mantle sources. However, the Baolai basalts have lower abundance ratios of Zr/Hf (40.3-45.6 versus 46.5-50.5), La/Yb (12

  10. Study on the automatic process of line heating for pillow shape plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper focuses on the process for pillow shape plate by line heating technique, which is widely applied in the production of ship hull. Based on the analysis of primary parameters and experimental data in line heating process, the amount of local contraction generated by line heating has been illustrated. Then, combining with the computational result of local deformation determined by shell plate development, an optimization method for line heating parameters has been studied. This prediction system may provide rational arrangements of heating lines and technical parameters of process. By integrating the prediction system into the line heating robot for pillow shape plate, the automatic process of line heating for pillow shape plate can be achieved.

  11. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height. (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated using a Fit mate. [Results] These findings suggest that a pillow height of 5 cm makes a significant difference in vital capacity (VC). When the three pillow heights were compared, significant differences were seen between 0 cm and 5 cm, and between 5 cm and 10 cm, in terms of vital capacity for the pulmonary functions among the three positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, changing the positions of the subjects produces changes in pulmonary functions. The greatest change occurred in the 5 cm pillow height. Presumably, ventilation is affected by the body structures. The results will provide objective data to establish the most suitable positions for stroke patients when they perform respiratory exercises. PMID:26644649

  12. [Sensitisation to 'poffertjes' as a result of sleeping on a pillow containing buckwheat]. (United States)

    van Ginkel, C J W


    A 19-year-old man suffered an anaphylactic reaction after eating 'poffertjes' (small Dutch pancakes). This reaction appeared to be the result of an IgE-mediated allergy to buckwheat, a principal ingredient of 'poffertjes'. It is highly likely that the patient was sensitised by sleeping on a pillow stuffed with buckwheat husk. PMID:11957384

  13. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric


    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars.

  14. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height


    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, Misuk


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated ...

  15. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric


    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars. PMID:21875356

  16. Media Effects on Lettuce Growth in "Pillows" Designed for the VEGGIE Spaceflight Growth Chamber (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; McCoy, LaShelle; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond


    VEGGIE is a prototype vegetable production unit for space designed by Orbital Technologies Corporation that is being developed to fly on the International Space Station. A modular plant rooting system "pillow" is being designed to support plant growth in VEGGIE under microgravity conditions. VEGGIE pillows are small self-contained packets of media with time-release fertilizer that can wick water passively from a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in pillows and the entire root system of a plant is contained as the crop develops, preventing loss into the spacecraft cabin. This study compared five media types and three lettuce cultivars in pillows growing in a VEGGIE analog environment.. Media consisted of a peat-based potting mix (Fafard #2,Conrad Fafard Inc., Agawam, MA), and a calcined clay, (arcillite, 1-2 mm sifted, Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove IL) as well as three different blends of the two, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70. Lettuce cultivars tested were 'Sierra', a bi-colored French crisp Batavia lettuce, 'Outredgeous', a red romaine lettuce and 'Flandria', a green butter head variety. Plants were grown for 28 days, harvested, biometric data was obtained, and tissue mineral analysis was performed. For all cultivars, lettuce plants grown in the media blends were more productive than those in the individual media types. All cultivars showed bell-shaped curves in response to increases in arcillite / decreases in Fafard #2 for leaf area, fresh, and dry mass. Plants in 100% Fafard #2 and in 100% arcillite were stunted, but only those in higher levels of Fafard #2 (70% and 100%) had reduced shoot percent moisture, possibly indicating that mechanisms causing stunting differed. Variation in tissue nutrient content are consistent with this, with Mg and Mn highest in plants grown in 100% Fafard and decreasing as the concentration of arcillite increased. Color also varied with media, especially in the 'Sierra' lettuce, with plants grown in increasing levels

  17. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla;


    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of HDM...... allergen levels, thereby reducing the need for asthma medication in children with asthma and HDM allergy. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 60 children (age range, 6-15 years) with asthma and HDM allergy were randomized to active (allergy control) or placebo mattress...... children with asthma and HDM allergy....

  18. Nasal pillows as an alternative interface in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome initiating continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke


    Side-effects directly due to the nasal mask are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) commencing continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Recently, nasal pillows have been designed to overcome these issues. Limited evidence exists of the benefits and effectiveness of these devices. Twenty-one patients (19 male, 49+\\/-10years) with the established diagnosis of OSAS [apnoea\\/hypopnoea index (AHI): 52+\\/-22] and who had a successful CPAP titration were commenced on CPAP therapy (10+\\/-2cmH2O), and randomized to 4weeks of a nasal pillow (P) and a standard nasal mask (M) in a crossover design. Outcome measures were objective compliance, AHI, quality of life, Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and CPAP side-effects. There was no difference in compliance (M versus P: 5.1+\\/-1.9h versus 5.0+\\/-1.7h; P=0.701) and AHI (2.6+\\/-2.7 versus 3.0+\\/-2.9; P=0.509). Quality of life and ESS improved with CPAP, but there was no difference in the extent of improvement between both devices. Usage of nasal pillows resulted in less reported pressure on the face and more subjects found the nasal pillow the more comfortable device. However, there was no clear overall preference for either device at the end of the study (mask=57%, pillow=43%; P=0.513). The applied CPAP pressure did not correlate with compliance, AHI and ESS. Furthermore, no differences in outcome parameters were noted comparing groups with CPAP pressure <10 and >\\/=10cm H(2) O. Nasal pillows are equally effective in CPAP therapy, but do not generally lead to improved compliance.

  19. U-series dating of pillow rim glass from recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge (United States)

    Thomas, L. E.; van Calsteren, P. W.; Jc024 Shipboard Party


    Visual observations using camera systems on the tethered ROV Isis deployed during the 2008 JC024 cruise to the Mid Atlantic Ridge at 45°N showed1 numerous monogenetic volcanoes that are essentially piles of lava pillows. The pillows are usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long and form mounds with average dimensions around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on pillows appear to be the youngest regions, were sampled using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. On the surface, any glass crust on the pillow protrusions was chiselled off using clean tools and double bagged in polythene. In the laboratory a portion of the glass was crushed in a jeweller’s roller mill and sieved using stainless steel sieves to obtain a sufficient amount of the fraction 0.125-0.250mm for hand picking, using a binocular microscope with the glass submerged in a mix of water and iso-propyl alcohol. The samples were subsequently leached using the procedure of Standish & Sims2. Samples were spiked with a mixed 229Th-236U spike and the U, Th and Ra fractions were separated and purified using standard chemistry methods. U and Th isotope ratios were determined using a Nu Instruments MC-ICPMS and Ra isotope ratios were determined using a MAT-262-RPQII TIMS instrument. The U-series data were evaluated using a MathCad program based on published4,5,6 equations. The data can be successfully modelled by assuming the ‘accepted’ mantle upwelling rate for the region of 11mm.y-1. The U-Th characteristics are mostly derived during ‘porous flow’ magma upwelling in the garnet stability zone, ranging to a depth of 60km with incipient melting starting at 70km. Above 60km depth the melt fraction will be >3% and the mantle mineralogy devoid of phases that fractionate U-Th significantly. Moreover, at melt fractions >3%, channel flow will be dominant and magma will transit to eruption on time-scales that are

  20. Reconstruction of seawater chemistry from deeply subducted oceanic crust; hydrogen and oxygen isotope of lawsonite eclogites preserving pillow structure (United States)

    Hamabata, D., VI; Masuyama, Y.; Tomiyasu, F.; Ueno, Y.; Yui, T. F.; Okamoto, K.


    In order to understand evolution of life, change of seawater chemistry from Hadean, Archean to present is significant. Pillow structure is well-preserved in the Archean greenstone belt (e.g. Komiya et al., 1999). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope of rims in the pillow is useful conventional tool to decipher chemistry of Paleao-seawater from Archean to Present. However, Archean greenstone belt suffered regional metamorphism from greenschist to Amphibolite facies conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to testify the validity of pillow chemistry from recent (Phanerozoic) metamorphosed greenstone. We have systematically collected pillowed greenstone from blueschist and eclogites. Two eclogite exhibiting pillow structures were chosen for oxygen and hydrogen isotope analysis. One is from Corsica (lawsonite eclogite collected with Dr. Alberto Vidale Barbarone) and another is from Cazadero, Franciscan belt (collected by Dr. Tatsuki Tsujimori). The both are ascribed as MORB from major and trace bulk chemistry and Ca is rich in the core and Na is poor in the rims. The former exhibits garnet, omphacite, lawsonite, and glacophane. Phengite is in core of the pillow and chlorite is in the rims. In the latter, besides garnet, omphacite, epdiote and glaucophane, chlorite is recognized with phengite in the core. Glaucophane is richer in the rims from the both samples, therefore istope analysis of glaucophane was done. Mineral separation was carefully done using micro-mill, heavy liquid and isodynamic separator. 20 mg specimens were used for oxygen isotope analysis and 2mg were for hydrogen analysis. δ18O of the all analysis (7.7 to 8.3) is within the range of unaltered igneous oceanic crust and high temperature hydrothermal alteration although rims (8.3 for Franciscan and 8.0 for Corsica) are higher than cores (7.7 for Franciscan and Corsica). δD data is also consistent with hydrothermal alteration. It is relative higher in core from the Corsica and Franciscan (-45 and -56) than of the

  1. AMS radiocarbon dating of medieval textile relics: The frocks and the pillow of St. Francis of Assisi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since natural textiles usually originate from short-lived organisms, they can represent a useful material to date samples from historical periods with a good accuracy. In this work, we present a set of radiocarbon measurements on medieval textile relics: two woollen habits and a pillow traditionally associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the saint patron of Italy. The strategy in choosing samples for radiocarbon dating is first discussed and the procedures for measurements - performed at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of Laboratorio di Tecniche Nucleari per i Beni Culturali (LABEC), Florence - are described; AMS results for the two frocks showed that only one of them, presently kept in the church of St. Francis in Cortona, is compatible with the Saint's period of life, as is the pillow also kept in Cortona. Another frock attributed to St. Francis appears to date from at least 80 years after his death. However, the goal of these measurements was not a bare authentication/disconfirmation of the relics; they just represent an example of how scientific analysis can integrate with humanistic studies. Indeed, AMS results, combined with a thorough analysis of the textiles typologies, confirmed the historical hypotheses based on documentary studies and on tradition. The overall conclusions contributed to the decisions taken for conservation, and have as a whole enhanced the religious importance of the relics

  2. Analysis of ergonomics conditions of a brand of mattress and pillows. University-industry project, Medellín-Colombia. (United States)

    Sáenz Zapata, Luz M; Arias, Ana María L; Guzmán, Emilio C; Arias de L, Martha


    This project presents an analysis of the ergonomic conditions of three types of mattress and three types of pillow. The products are manufactured by a Colombian company which specializes in flexible polyurethane foam and other products designed for rest and relaxation. The project was developed through the University - Industry relationship: a strategic partnership based on the knowledge and strengths of each component. The conceptual theories that underpin the Ergonomics Research Division of the Design Studies Research Group (GED) provided the methodological approach for the project: the characteristics, the requirements and the relationships that are established between the components that constitute the User - Product - Context system (basic principles of the Ergonomics - Design relationship). An important factor in the project was the conception and measurement of comfort. Comfort can be measured on an objective level (quantitative measurement), and on a subjective level (a user's particular perceptions and tastes). What constitutes 'comfort' can vary from person to person, thus making the identification of criteria for the standardization of consumer products problematic. This project enabled design recommendations to be made to the Company vis-à-vis future proposals for mattress and pillow products. This experience of applied research was carried out by professors and students from the Faculty of Industrial Design at the UPB in Medellín, Colombia.

  3. Impact of a New Nasal Pillows Mask on Patients' Acceptance, Compliance, and Willingness to Remain on CPAP Therapy. (United States)

    Wimms, Alison; Ketheeswaran, Sahisha; Ziegenbein, Claus; Jennings, Laura; Woehrle, Holger


    Aim. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) masks are a key factor in patient compliance. This program assessed the performance of a new nasal pillows mask (NPM) on a variety of new and established obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients using CPAP therapy. Methods. Five programs were developed to assess the new NPM [AirFit P10, ResMed] on naïve patients; patients established on another NPM; patients using a nasal mask; patients with low CPAP compliance; and patients who wished to stop using CPAP therapy. Results. A total of 212 patients were included. In naïve patients, CPAP usage after 3 months was 5.9 ± 1.7 hours/night, compared with the control group at 4.6 ± 2.4 hours/night (p CPAP, 60% continued with therapy using the new NPM. Conclusion. The new NPM mask performed well in a variety of clinical groups of OSA patients receiving CPAP therapy and shows that technical advances in CPAP masks can improve patient compliance.

  4. Soldering Failure Reasons of BGA "Head in Pillow"%BGA"枕头效应"焊接失效原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺光辉; 罗道军


    针对BGA的一类典型的焊接失效模式"枕头效应"选取了一个典型案例进行分析,详细介绍了分析的过程以及采用的手段,通过采用X-ray、金相切片、SEM&EDS和工艺模拟等分析手段,获得了导致BGA"枕头效应"产生的主要原因,即锡膏与焊接工艺不兼容造成其焊接不良.同时,以此总结和分析了其他导致此缺陷的原因和应采取的对策.%Present a typical analysis case on soldering failure of BGA such as "Head in Pillow (HIP) ".The detailed analysis procedure and means such as X-ray inspection, cross section, SEM&EDS and simulated soldering process analysis performed on the samples are introduced. The conclusion is that the root cause of HIP failure is bad compatibility of solder paste and reflow process. Base on some studies and experience of some cases, other cause resulting in HIP Defect and preventive measure are analyzed and summarized.

  5. Zircon U-Pb and geochemical analyses for leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group, north Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN QuanRen; CHEN JunLu; WANG ZongQi; YAN Zhen; WANG Tao; LI QiuGen; ZHANG ZongQing; JIANG ChunFa


    Field observation showed that there are many irregular leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group in the Xiaowangjian area, north Qinling orogenic belt. Photomicrographs indicated that the protoliths of those altered leucocratic intrusive rocks are dioritic rocks. Geochemical analyses showed that pillow lavas have a range of SiO2 from 47.35% to 51.20%, low abundance of TiO2 from 0.97% to 1.72%, and percentages of MgO (MgO#=41-49). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of pillow lavas are even, indicative of a weak differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=1.52-0.99).N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that pillow lavas are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba). Leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas have a wide range of SiO2 from 53.85%-67.20%, low abundances of TiO2 from 0.51%-1.10%, and MgO (MgO#=40-51), and higher percentages of AI2O3 (13.32% -16.62%) and concentration of Sr (342-539 ug/g), ratios of Na2O/K2O (2-7) and Sr/Y (17-28). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of leucocratic intrusive rocks showed highly differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=12.26-19.41). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that leucocratic intrusive rocks are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba), and significantly depleted in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr and Ti), indicative of a to that of MORB (+8.8-+9.7), which indicates that those leucocratic intrusive rocks sourced from depleted mantle most likely. SHRIMP U-Pb analyses for zircon showed that those leucocratic intrusive rocks were formed at 442-+7 Ma, yielding an age of subduction in the early Paleozoic in the north Qinling orogenic belt.

  6. Pillow basalts of Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite: records of seafloor in the midwestern portion of Araguaia Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Jesus Penha Pamplona Miyagawa


    Full Text Available Along the domain of low metamorphic grade (Midwestern portion of the Araguaia Belt, outcrop dozens mafic and/or ultramafic bodies of ophiolitic suites. An example is the Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite, in the surroundings of the city of Araguacema (Tocantins that configures a small isolated body that sustains the Morro do Agostinho and is tectonically emplaced in meta-sandstones, slates and phyllites of Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite consists of serpentinized peridotites, basalts and ferriferous cherts. The association of basalts is characterized by a significant layer of submarine pillow lavas overlying serpentinized peridotites. The basalts were classified into massive and hialobasalts types. Massive basalts are homogenous, with intersertal texture that is essentially composed of thin laths and acicular crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene and present rare crystals of olivine, chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Hyalobasalt shows ultra-fast cooling features (quenching as spherulites, radial, acicular and skeletal crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with forms of swallowtail. Geochemical data, including (La/Ybn and (La/Smn ratios less than 1, indicate a subalkaline-tholeiitic MORB nature of the basalts. These rocks show that during the geological evolution of Araguaia Belt, there was an oceanization stage of Araguaia Basin, with litospheric mantle’s exposure, followed by lava’s extravasation and sedimentation of cherts and banded iron formation in deep ocean environment. After sedimentary filling of the Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group, the tectonic inversion, which led to the exhumation of the ophiolitic bodies, especially along thrust surface, with fragmenting and tectonic mixing with supracrustal rocks, accompanied by regional metamorphism under conditions of low green schist facies. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite therefore represents a small allochthonous

  7. X-ray Analysis in Changes of Neck Pillow Height and Cervical Physiological Curvature%颈枕高度与颈椎生理曲度变化的X线分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾科学; 盖娟娟; 罗凛; 刘文刚; 吴淮


    目的:观察颈枕高度的变化对颈椎生理曲度的影响。方法:从我院选取90例健康受试者,以随机方式分为舒适枕组、高枕组及低枕组各30例,均拍摄颈枕中立位侧位X线DR片,采用Bordens法测量颈椎曲度弧弦距,采用Ishihara法测量颈椎曲率指数(CCI),采用Gore法测量颈椎角(CSA),对测试结果进行统计分析。结果:舒适枕组颈椎X线均呈现生理性向前凸起状态,弧弦距均为正常范围;高枕组颈椎X线呈现生理性反张弯曲状态,弧弦距大于正常值范围;低枕头组颈椎X线呈现生理性变直,弧弦距均小于正常值范围;三组受试者测试结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:颈枕的高度与颈椎生理曲度具有密切关系,选择合适高度的颈枕对于颈生理曲度的保护具有重要意义。%Objective:To observe the effect in changes of neck pillow height on cervical physiological curvature. Methods:90 healthy people in our hospital were randomly divided into comfortable pillow group, high pillow group and low pillow group with each of 30 cases, all with cervical occipi-tal neutral position and lateral X-ray Digital Radiography, Bordens method to measure arc chord distance of cervical curvature, Ishihara method to measure cervical curvature index (CCI), Gore method to measure cervical spine angle (CSA), the test results were statistically analyzed. Results:X-ray of comfortable pillow group showed physiological forward protruding, arc chord distance in normal range;X-ray of high pillow group showed physiological contravariant bending, arc chord distance beyond normal range;X-ray of low pillow group showed physiological straight, arc chord dis-tance less than normal range;There was statistical significance in difference of test results among the three groups (P<0.05). Conclusion:There is a close relationship between neck pillow height and cervical physiological curvature, selecting the

  8. Influence of the Materials of Pillow Core on Sleeping Comfort in Lateral Position%枕芯材料对侧卧睡眠舒适性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建军; 申黎明; 宋杰; 朱宇锭


    通过侧卧时人体头、颈、臂部体压分布测试、舒适感主观评价、主客观相关性分析、材料间方差分析及纵向压力分布曲线等分析方法,研究枕芯材料变化对侧卧睡眠舒适性的影响.结果发现:枕芯材料之间方差分析p=0.005<0.01,表明所选材料间差异性显著,对体压指标及主观舒适度评价有较大影响;乳胶和荞麦皮在作为枕芯材料时弹性及透气性较好,总体舒适性较高,颈部能得到有力支撑,可缓解颈部肌肉疲劳;枕芯材料为记忆海绵、化纤和珍珠棉时,总体舒适性评价一般;充气和中药/茶叶枕舒适性评价最低,透气性较差,弹性较差.%Influences of the materials of pillow core on sleeping comfort in lateral position were examined by using body pressure measuring system, subjective evaluation on ergonomics, the correlativity of subjective and objective results, the variance analysis of materials of pillow core, the longitudinal impedance moment methods. The results of varance analysis showed that significant differences (p = 0. 005<0. 01) in body pressure distribution and subjective evaluation existed among different materials. Latex and buckwheat husks demonstrated good performance in elasticity and the air permeability, which were manifested by their supporting the neck and relieving the fatigue of neck muscles. The pillow with memory foams, chemical fibers and pearl cotton had general performance on comfort evaluation. The inflatable pillow and traditional Chinese medicine/tea pillow had poor permeability, low elasticity and lowest comfort evaluation.

  9. Tubular textures in pillow lavas from a Caledonian west Norwegian ophiolite: A combined TEM, LA-ICP-MS, and STXM study (United States)

    Fliegel, Daniel; Wirth, Richard; Simonetti, Antonio; Schreiber, Anja; Furnes, Harald; Muehlenbachs, Karlis


    Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, in glassy rims of pillow lavas from a Norwegian ophiolite (Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex (SSOC)) are described and characterized by a multimethod approach. Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, have been previously proposed to result from bioalteration. The microstructure of the titanite and the tubes is investigated using focused ion beam milling in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These indicate an assemblage of submicrometer-sized (about 500 nm) titanite single crystals with no organic film or residue in between the grains. In situ U-Pb radiometric dating of the titanite, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS), yielded a metamorphic age of 442 ± 13 Ma. An isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometric age obtained previously for zircons from the SSOC plutonic rocks yielded a magmatic age of 443 ± 3 Ma. The overlap in ages indicates that subseafloor metamorphism, responsible for titanite formation, occurred during seafloor or subseafloor formation of the tubular alteration textures. The rare earth element contents of the titanite were determined using LA-ICP-MS and chondrite-normalized patterns are similar to those of the SSOC volcanics; hence these do not reflect hydrothermal or seawater influence. The Y/Ho ratio of ˜20-30 in the titanite is also consistent with an upper mantle-derived origin. The sum of all of the spatial resolved data reported here neither supports nor refutes a biogenic origin for the tubular textures.

  10. 整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床研究%Clinical Study of Chiropractic Technique Combined With Small Pillow for Treating Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:将86例神经根型颈椎病患者,随机分为对照组和治疗组,每组各43例.对照组采用软组织松解手法治疗;治疗组在对照组的基础上加用整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗.结果:对照组有效率为72%,治疗组有效率为95%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病,可有效改善或解除神经根受到刺激与压迫.%Objective: To analyze the clinical effect of chiropractic technique combined with a small pillow for treating cervical spondyl ic radiculopathy. Methods:86 cases of nerve root type of cervical spondylosis patients randomly divided into treatment group and cont group, each group of 43 cases. The control group using soft tissue release technique treatment; the treatment group was treated with c ropractic technique combined with a small pillow treatment t on the basis ofhe control group. Results:In the control group was 49% ,1 effective rate of treatment group was 72% , the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion: Chiropractic combir treatment of small pillow for treatment of cervical spondylosis of nerve root stimulation and oppression, can effectively improve or reli< nerve root.

  11. Load structures and ball-and-pillow structures on the Lingshan Island, Shandong%山东省灵山岛负载构造和球-枕构造研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风霄; 周瑶琪; 王安东; 于姗姗


    本文运用野外露头考察、沉积岩石学、地质统计等方法,对灵山岛的负载构造和球-枕构造进行研究。这些负载构造和球-枕构造侧向延伸好,在整个剖面上连续分布,具有多尺度、多形态、多组合等特点。形成负载构造和球-枕构造的前提条件是地层密度的倒置(上大下小),变形的根本驱动力是沉积物自身的重力。球-枕构造和负载构造的形成机制相同,只是变形程度和阶段不同。根据不对称负载构造受横向剪切力分析,证明早白垩世时该盆地存在古斜坡,并且SE高、NW低。综合考虑地震触发形成震积岩的标志特征和灵山岛的构造地质背景,认为本研究区的负载构造和球-枕构造系古地震触发形成。%The load structures and ball-and-pillow structures on the Lingshan Island, Shandong are examined in the light of outcrop observation, sedimentary petrology and geostatistical analysis. These load structures and ball-and-pillow structures are laterally extensive in the studied sections, and have the features of multiple scales, multiple morphologies and multiple associations. They are interpreted to be originated from the stratigraphic density inversion (bigger in the upper part and smaller in the lower part). In other words, the gravity-induced overlying deposits with greater densities and earthquake-induced liquification penetrated into the underlying strata, resulting in the formation of the load structures and ball-and-pillow structures. The asymmetrical morphology of the load structures strongly support the existence of the Lingshan palaeoslope during the Early Cretaceous. The statistics of the sizes of the load structures and ball-and-pillow structures may be used to deduce those of earthquake magnitudes. The presence of abundant load structures on the Lingshan Island indicates that frequent structural activities, especially the seismic activities may be responsible for the formation

  12. Development and Clinical Application of Smart Inflatable Nursing Pillow After Cervical Spine Surgery%颈椎术后智能充气护理枕的研制与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪莲; 吴惠冰; 黄铭杰


    Objective To investigate the application effect of smart inflatable nursing pillow after cervical spine surgery. Methods Sixty patients with cervical spine surgery were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. Patients in the experimental group used smart inflatable nursing pillow after surgery, while patients in the control group used cotton ring after surgery. The turning satisfaction, degree of comfort, incidence of pressure sores and wound healing situation were observed, and the effect was evaluated by periodic review of X-rays. Results Compared with the control group, the experimental group had higher turning satisfaction and degree of comfort, and lower incidence of pressure sores; all the differences were statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusions Smart inflatable nursing pillow is easy to operate. It can not only meet the treatment needs of patients with cervical spine surgery, but also increase patients' degree of comfort and reduce the complications and iatrogenic damage.%目的:探讨颈椎术后智能充气护理枕的应用效果。方法将60例颈椎术后患者随机分成试验组和对照组各30例,试验组予使用智能充气护理枕,对照组予使用棉圈,观察两组患者翻身耐受满意度、舒适度、压疮发生率以及伤口愈合情况,并定期复查X光片以了解疗效。结果试验组翻身耐受满意度、舒适度高于对照组,压疮发生率低于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论智能充气护理枕操作方便,不但能满足颈椎术后患者的治疗需求,且可增加患者的舒适度,同时减少并发症和医源性损害。

  13. The Effect Observation of Paper Diapers Ice Pillow for High Fever Neonatal Cooling%纸尿裤冰枕对高热新生儿降温效果的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何有丽; 陈芳; 施永秀; 潘京艳; 黄雪莲; 林媚; 凌志云


    目的:探讨纸尿裤冰枕对高热新生儿的降温效果。方法:选择2010年11月-2012年12月本院新生儿科住院的高热新生儿428例为研究对象,按随机数字表法分为观察组218例和对照组210例。观察组采用纸尿裤冰枕置于高热新生儿头下,对照组采用传统冰袋冰敷,观察两组0.5、1、2、3 h的体温变化情况,并记录体温结果。结果:观察组各个时间段的降温平均度数均高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:纸尿裤冰枕对高热的新生儿降温效果优于传统冰袋冰敷,值得家庭和基层医疗机构推广。%Objective:To explore the effect of diapers ice pillow for high cooling of the newborn.Method:428 cases of high fever neonatal in our hospital from November 2010 to December 2012 were selected as the research object, and they were randomly divided into the observation group(n=218)and the control group(n=210). The observation group used the diapers ice pillow under high neonatal head,the control group with traditional ice,and temperature variation at 0.5,1,2,3 h of the two groups were compared,and the temperature results were recorded.Result:The variety of temperature and average degree of the observation group were higher than the control group,and the differences were statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion:The pillow to heat the newborn diapers ice cooling effect is superior to the traditional ice ice,is worth popularizing family and grassroots medical institutions.

  14. The treatment of stable inflectional vertebral compress fracture of thoracolumbar spine with sandbag pillow and exercise%沙袋垫枕锻炼法治疗胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏建; 杜靖远


    AIM: To treat the stable inflectional vertebral compress fracture of thoracolumbar with sandbag pillow and back extensor exercise .METHODS: After traumatism , the sandbag pillow of four specification from low to high were underlay to the thoracolumbar respectively every other 3 to 5 days, kept excessive extend posture for 8 to 10 weeks. When the sandbag pillow was underlain for 3 hours, trundle the body for sleeping in left or right posture for half an hour. Exercise started after the sandbag pillow were underlay for 1 or 2 days. Supine exercise techniques included 5points shoring and 3 points shoring. The former was 3 times per day, 30minutes to 1 hour once, more than 100 times per day and increased to 2minutes and 5 to 10 times per day gradually. Three weeks later, the latter group started after vertebral compress fracture 4 weeks, pronate exercise started.RESULTS: According to Dennis assess: of the 74 follow-up patients, 4remained low-grade pain on back and waist, 1 remained mid-grade pain, 1remained continued pain and gone with the complications of low limbs anaesthesia and urine incontinence. The rest were cured. Cobb angles decreased 5°- 35° (mean 17°) compared to original by X-ray examination in reexamination.CONCLUSION: This conventional therapy is easy to learn and popularize to treat compression fracture, and attained therapeutic success.%目的:沙袋垫枕加背伸肌锻炼法治疗胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折.方法:胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折100例,外伤后二三天开始,每隔3~5 d,分别应用由低到高4种规格的沙袋垫于胸腰段,维持过伸位至8~10周,每垫枕3 h,用整体滚动法可左右侧卧半小时.锻炼应从垫枕后一两天开始,仰卧锻炼法分为5点支撑法和3点支撑法,前者原则为3次/d,30min~1 h/次,不少于100次/d,渐过渡到逐日增加2min,次数5~10次/d;后者在前者应用3周后开始.俯卧位锻炼法要求在骨折后4周开始.结果:以Dennis评定方法:74

  15. 考虑枕效应的网状可展开天线电性能预测%EM Performance Prediction for Mesh Deployable Antennas Considering Pillow Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A numerical method for electromagnetic (EM)performance prediction for mesh deployable antennas considering pillow deformation is proposed in this article .Accounting for the characteristics of mesh reflecting surface which is faceted by a se-ries of triangles ,the amount of pillow deformation is computed firstly based on the antenna structural parameters ;Secondly ,with the Pascal graph interpolation ,the meshing of the surface facet is accomplished with a given criterion ;The position and orientation of the optimized feed are both obtained using the traditional best-fit paraboloid(BFP)method ;Finally ,the EM performance is predicted un-der the influence of wire mesh leakage .Simulation results of a mesh deployable reflector validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method .%提出了一种预测网状可展开天线电性能的数值计算方法。针对网状可展开天线采用三角形拼合的这一特点,首先从结构力学出发确定天线枕效应变形,然后采用巴斯卡图插值进行面片网格划分,给出了网格划分准则,其次通过最佳吻合抛物面确定最优馈源的位置和指向,最后考虑丝网的电磁漏射对网状天线进行电性能预测。通过仿真算例验证了该方法的可行性和有效性。

  16. Effect of the brake type pillow on preventing the postoperative complication in breast cancer patients%制动式垫枕在预防乳腺癌术后并发症中的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦俊琴; 苏金娜; 谢艳丽


    目的:探讨制动式垫枕在预防乳腺癌术后并发症中的应用效果。方法将160例行乳腺癌改良根治术患者按随机数字表随机分为观察组和对照组各80例,观察组术后使用制动式垫枕,对照组按传统方法护理,比较两组乳腺癌术后皮下引流量、皮下积液、皮瓣坏死和患肢水肿发生情况。结果观察组术后皮下引流总量为(276.59±163.10)ml,与对照组的(431.72±265.18)ml比较,差异有统计学意义(t=3.573,P<0.01);观察组皮下积液发生率为0.25%,对照组皮下积液发生率为1.63%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=8.901,P<0.01);观察组皮瓣坏死发生率为0.25%,对照组皮瓣坏死发生率为1.38%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.782,P<0.01);两组患者患肢水肿发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.592,P>0.05)。结论应用制动式垫枕能减少乳腺癌术后皮下引流量,预防皮下积液和皮瓣坏死的发生,但预防患肢水肿有待进一步研究。%Objective To explore the effect of the brake type pillow on preventing the postoperative complication in breast cancer patients .Methods One hundred and sixty patients with modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer were divided into the control group and the observation group according to the random number table, each with 80 cases.The observation group received the brake type pillow , and the control group received the routine nursing .The incidence of postoperative subcutaneous drainage , the subcutaneous effusion , the skin flap necrosis and the paretic upper-limb edema were compared between two groups .Results The amount of postoperative subcutaneous drainage in the observation group was (276.59 ±163.10) ml, and was (431.72 ± 265.18) ml in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (t=3.573,P0.05).Conclusions

  17. Research in prevention of pressure ulcer for bed-ridden patients by simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress%简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于卧床患者预防压疮的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study the prevention of pressure ulcer for bed-ridden patients by simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress.Methods Self-made simple turn-over pillow and turnover mattress were used in 1300 patients who had high risk of pressure ulcer,and the application effect was observed.Results No pressure ulcer occurred in 1300 patients when they were discharged.Conclusions Simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress showed definite effect to prevent pressure ulcer,they have application value,and are worthy of wide spread.%目的 探讨简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于卧床患者预防压疮的效果.方法 将自行研制的简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于1300例易患压疮患者,观察应用效果.结果 1300例患者出院时均皮肤完好,无压疮发生.结论 简易翻身枕、翻身褥确为一种预防压疮的有效方法,具有一定的应用价值,值得推广.

  18. Bionic Structure Design for Double Tauren EDM Machine Smooth Pillow Reinforcing Plate%双牛头电火花机床平滑枕筋板结构仿生设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛金磊; 李锻能; 丰树礼


    By using bionic principles and methods of force structure,the internal rib structure of the key moving parts-horizontal ram of some EDM machine were designed and analyzed to ensure its structural rigidity,at the same time to make the maximum light-weight. Through the analysis of the distribution pattern of leaf veins structure,combining with the force structure of the smooth pillow member,reasonable layout form of the ribs was designed. By applying SolidWorks,the simulation structure of the entity model was es-tablished,and ANSYS finite element analysis (FEA)software was used for static analysis validation and modal analysis. The research results have an important role to ensure specific stiffness of the machine’s related moving parts,to improve accuracy and the system dy-namics performance.%利用受力结构仿生的原理和方法,对某型号电火花加工机床的关键运动部件---水平滑枕的内部筋板结构进行设计分析,在保证其结构刚度的同时,最大限度地进行轻量化。通过对叶片中叶脉结构分布规律的分析、总结,结合平滑枕部件的受力结构,设计出合理的筋板布局形式。应用SolidWorks建立结构仿真实体模型,并运用ANSYS有限元分析软件进行静力学分析和模态分析验证。研究结果对于保证机床相关运动部件的比刚度、提高机床工作精度以及系统动力学性能具有重要作用。

  19. The Influence Factors and Nursing Interventions on the Compliance of Horizontal Position without Pillow after General Anesthesia in Thoracolumbar Disease Patients%胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素与护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的探讨胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素和干预措施。方法回顾性分析我科2012年8月~12月胸腰椎疾病全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性的影响因素,根据结果进行护理干预。结果胸腰椎疾病并行全麻手术患者术后6h内不能坚持体位指导152例。其中,因麻醉状态导致依从性差65例,占42.8%,医学相关知识缺乏20例,占13.2%,患者想急迫恢复健康15例,占9.9%,对医务人员信任度差17例,占11.2%,不舒适感23例,占15.1%,家属不配合12例,占7.9%。结论通过加强护患沟通,与患者及家属建立良好的医患关系;加强麻醉未清醒期间的安全管理和心理护理;落实责任制护理,重视健康教育等方式能提高胸腰椎疾病患者全麻术后去枕平卧位依从性。%Objective To summarize the influence factors and nursing interventions on the compliance of horizontal posi-tion without pillow after general anesthesia in thoracolumbar disease patients .Methods The influence factors on the compli-ance of horizontal position without pillow after general anesthesia in thoracolumbar disease were reviewed retrospectively , based on which the nursing interventions were given to the patients .Results 152 after -general-anesthesia thoracolumbar disease patients who couldn't adhere to horizontal position were reviewed .65 cases were due to narcotism (42 .8% );20 cases were due to lack of related medical knowledge (13 .2% );15 cases were due to the urgence for recovery (9 .9% );17 cases were due to their low confidence degree with medical staff (11 .2% );23 cases were due to discomfort (15 .1% );12 cases were due to family members'non-compliance (7 .9% ) .Con-clusions Strengthening nurse-patient communication ,establishing good relationships with patients and their family mem-bers ,strengthening the safety management and the psychological nursing before anaesthesia clear

  20. 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效%Efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of patients with cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙其斌; 张崇岳; 冀全谋; 谢永明; 陈国梁


    目的 观察生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 神经根型颈椎病180例,随机分为生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅰ组)和垂直颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅱ组),各组90例.分别采用生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗与垂直颈椎牵引治疗,两组患者每次牵引重量均为3.0~7.0 kg,牵引时间均为20 min.牵引10次为1个疗程,2个疗程后判定疗效.结果 Ⅰ组的优效率61.1%(55/90例)和总有效率93.3%(84/90例)分别高于Ⅱ组的优效率42.2%(38/90例)和总有效率72.2%(65/90例),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效确切,较垂直牵引效果好.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type.Methods One hundred and eighty patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy were randomly divided into group Ⅰ and Ⅱ, 90 cases in each group.Patients were received the treatment with physiological type neck pillow cervical traction in the group Ⅰ ,while received vertical cervical traction in the group Ⅱ.The tractive weight was 3~7 kg and the tractive time was 20 minute in all patients every time, 10 times for a course.The efficacy was evaluated after 2 courses.Resuits The excellent effect and total effective rates in the group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in the group Ⅱ respectively (61.1%, 55/90 cases vs 42.2%, 38/90 cases;93.3%, 84/90 cases vs 72.2%, 65/90 cases) (P < 0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of physiological type cervical traction with neck pillow is definite and superior to the vertical traction in the treatment of patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.

  1. Ti-Cu-W体系Pillow飞片加载铋熔化再凝固过程计算分析%Calculation Analysis of the Impact Melting and Resolidification Process for the Bismuth Using the Ti-Cu-W Pillow Flyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏劲松; 张联盟; 于继东; 戴诚达; 王宇; 刘坤; 罗国强; 沈强; 谭华; 吴强


    采用数值计算设计了Ti-Cu-W材料体系 Pillow飞片,实现金属铋样品的冲击加载和准等熵加载,并通过实验研究铋的冲击熔化再凝固这一复杂的物理过程,实验获得的速度波剖面结果与数值模拟结果基本一致。还建立了金属铋的包含5个固相和1个液相的完全物态方程,计算相图的三相点以及高压区的 Hugoniot线与实验数据吻合较好,计算还获得了冲击加载再凝固实验中的温度信息和相变信息。通过计算分析和对实验数据的解读,认为Ti-Cu-W材料体系Pillow飞片加载可以用于铋的冲击熔化再凝固复杂物理过程研究,为实验探索研究建立了适用的研究方法和有效的技术手段。%Numerical simulations are carried out to design the Pillow flyer of Ti-Cu-W system,and the impact loading and quasi-isentropic loading of the bismuth sample are also carried out.We experimentally investigate the intricate physical process of impact melting and resolidification.Experiment results of wave profiles are similar with numerical ones.The complete equation of state of bismuth including five solid phases and one liquid phase is established.Triple points in phase diagram and the Hugoniot curve in high pressure area agree well with the experiment data.The temperature and phase transition information in impact loading and resolidification experiment are also obtained.According to the calculation analysis and interpretation of the experiment data,the loading experiment based on Ti-Cu-W flyer is available to study the physical process of impact melting and resolidification of bismuth,and an appropriate research method and effective technique means for experiment exploration is established.

  2. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla;


    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Heihe mafic pillow lavas in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Zongqing


    [1]Lee, C. Y., A preliminary study of plate tectonics of China, Bull. Chinese Acad. Geol. Sci. (in Chinese), 1980, 2(1): 11-19.[2]Lee, C. Y., Tectonic evolution of Asia, Bull. Chinese Acad. Geol. Sci. (in Chinese), 1984, 10: 3-11.[3]Ren Jishun, Jiang Chunfa, Zhang Zhengkun et al., The Geotectonic Evolution of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1980.[4]Ren Jishun, Chen Tingyu, Niu Baogui et al., Tectonic Evolution of the Continental Hithospheres and Metallogeny in Eastern China and Adjacent Areas (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1990.[5]Zhang Qiusheng, Zhu Yongzheng, The Paleozoic ophiolite in the east Qinling, J. Changchun College of Geology (in Chi-nese), 1984, 3: 1-13.[6]Xiao Siyun, Zhang Weiji, Song Ziji, The Metamorphic Strata of the Northern Qinling in China (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Jiaotong University Press, 1988.[7]Xu Zhiqin, Lu Yilun, Tang Yaoqing et al., Formation of the Composite Eastern Qinling Chains (in Chinese), Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 1988.[8]Zhang Guowei, Formation and evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1988.[9]Zhang Guowei, Meng Qingren, Yu Zaiping, Orogenesis and dynamics of the Qinling orogen, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(3):225-234.[10]Wu Liren, Xu Guizhong, Geological Evolution in the East Qinling-Dabieshan Collision Orogen (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1988.[11]Sun Yong, Yu Zaiping, A discussion of an ancient ocean and Caledonian in the east Qinling, in A Selection of Papers Pre-sented at the Conference on the Qinling Orogenic Belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1991, 167-173.[12]Zhang Zongqing, Liu Dunyi,Fu Guomin et al., Geochronology of Metamorphic Strata in the North Qinling Area (in Chi-nese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994.[13]Cui Zhilin, Sun Yong, Wang Xueren, Discovery of radiolarian fossils within the Danfeng ophiolite in the Qinling and its significance, Chinese Science Bull., 1995, 40(19):1686-1688.[14]Pei Xianzhi, Composition and Tectinic Evolution of the Shangdan Structural Zone in the East Qinling, China (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Maps Publishing House, 1997.[15]Jiang Changyi, Su Shengrui, Zhao Taiping et al., Intruded Rock Belt in the North Qinling Area and Jinning Movement (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1988.[16]Zhang Zongqing, Zhang Guowei, Fu Guomin et al., Geochronology of metamorpic strata in the Qinling Mountains and its tectonic implications, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(3): 283-292.[17]Zhang Qi, Zhang Zongqing, Sun Yong et al., Trace element and isotopic geochemistry of metebasalts from Danfeng Group in Shangxian-Danfeng area, Shaanxi Province, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1995, 11(1): 43-54.[18]Zhang Benren, Luo Tingchuan, Ouyang Jianping et al., Geochemical Study of the Lithosphere, Tectonism and Metallo-genesis in the Qingling-Dabashan Region (in Chinese), Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1994.[19]Li, S., Hart, S. R., Zheng, S. et al., Timing of collision between the North and South China blocks: The Sm-Nd isotopic age evidence, Science in China, Ser. B, 1989, 32(3): 312-319.[20]Li, S., Chen, Y. Z., Zhang Guowei, A l Ga B. P. Alpine peridotite body emplaced into the Qingling group: Evidence for the existence of the late proterozoic plate tectonics in the North Qinling area, Geol. Review (in Chinese), 1991, 37(3): 235-242.[21]Zhang Guowei, Meng Qingren, Lai Shaocong, Tectonics and structure of Qinling orogenic belt, Science in China, Ser. B, 995, 38(10): 1379.[22]Liu Guohui, Zhang Shouguang, You Zhendong et al., The Major Metamorphic Rock Groups in the Qinling Orogenic Belt and Their Metamorphic Evolution (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.[23]You Zhendong, Suo Shutian, Han Yujing et al., The major characteristcs of the metamorphic complex of the Qinling oro-genic belt and their implication of the construction of the eastern Qinling continental crust, in A Selection of Papers Pre-sented at the Conference on the Qinling Orogenic Belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1991, 1-14.[24]Wang Tao, Li Wuping, Wang Xiaoxia, Zircon age of the Niujiaoshan granitoid gneisses in the Qinling complex of the Qinling orogenic belt, Regional Geology of China (in Chinese), 1998, 17(3): 262-265.[25]Lu Xinxiang, Dong You, Wei Xiangdong, Age of the Tuwushan A-type granite and its tectonic implications, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44(9): 975-978.

  4. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)); Clague, D.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States))


    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in [sup 20]Ne and [sup 21]Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He ratios. The high [sup 20]Ne/[sup 22]Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO[sub 2] well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere.

  5. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth (United States)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.


    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in 20Ne and 21Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high 3He 4He ratios. The high 20Ne 22Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO2 well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. ?? 1993.

  6. Electronic Anti-cutting Function and Control-algorithm Realization of Three-servo Pillow Packaging Machine%三伺服枕式包装机电子防切功能及控制算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于镭; 卫光


    The paper introduced the procession of new model of three-servo packaging machine and its u-nique features electronic anti-cutting function. By elaborating the principle of error-sensor and the electronic anti-cutting technology controlling algorithm, realized the electronic anti-cutting technology of three-servo packaging machine. At last the machine meets the design requirement and customs need through the practice.%介绍了目前新型三伺服枕式包装机的工作过程及其能够实现的特有功能电子防切;通过阐述错位传感器的检测原理和电子防切技术的控制算法,实现三伺服枕式包装机的电子防切功能.通过实际应用达到了设计要求,得到了用户的一致好评.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 李静



  8. Falling into Subversion of Conspiracy— The Pillow Book from the Perspective of Feminism%落入合谋的颠覆——女性主义视角下的《枕边书》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  9. 满族枕顶绣研究——以辽东学院柞蚕丝绸与满族服饰博物馆馆藏为例%Study on Pillow Side Embroidery of Man Nationality by Taking Collections of Tussah Silk and Man Nationality Costume Museum of Eastern Liaoning Universtiy as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  10. Analysis and Study of Φ Expansion Variable for the Fixed Extrusion Pillow and Sheath of 75MN Aluminium Extrusion Machine%75MN铝挤压机固定挤压垫挤压套Φ胀量分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚河省; 高素荷; 祝伟荣




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards On April 24, 2006, Yalong Bay Mangrove Tree Resort proudly received 'Top 10 Resorts in China" at the 3nd Annual China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards. The resort has created an entirely new concept for a Chinese resort, with its South Asia architec-

  12. Three-Year-Olds Can Predict a Noun Based on an Attributive Adjective: Evidence from Eye-Tracking (United States)

    Tribushinina, Elena; Mak, Willem M.


    This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., "soft pillow") as they hear them and to predict the noun ("pillow") on the basis of the adjective meaning ("soft"). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The participants saw two…

  13. Aches and pains during pregnancy (United States)

    Pregnancy strains your back and posture. To avoid or reduce backaches, you can: Stay physically fit, walk, and stretch regularly. Wear low-heeled shoes. Sleep on your side with a pillow between your legs. Sit in a chair ...

  14. Neck pain or spasms -- self care (United States)

    ... it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying on ... you have a firm mattress and supportive pillow. Learn to relax. Try methods such as yoga, tai ...

  15. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (United States)

    ... pillows, cloth-covered or upholstered furniture, or stuffed toys that harbor dust mites (tiny bugs too small ... more asthma-friendly to promote student health and education. Asthma cannot be cured, but it can be ...

  16. Baby supplies you need (United States)

    ... pads to apply Vaseline. Diaper rash cream Rocking Chair with a Footstool Pillow for resting your arm ... at least) Receiving blankets (4 to 6) Hooded bath towel (2) Washcloths (4 to 6) Bathtub, one ...

  17. Shoulder replacement - discharge (United States)

    ... small pillow when lying down. Your doctor or physical therapist may teach you exercises to do at home. ... for at least 4 weeks. Your doctor or physical therapist will tell you when it is ok. Consider ...

  18. В преддверии темных ночей

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tekstiilidisaini üliõpilaste töödest "Moonwalk" (autorid Stella Kalkun ja Luisa Aid), "RE:ME - remind me pillow" (autorid Heleri Alexandra Sits ja Signe Aasoja) ja "Volt" (autor Stella Kalkun)

  19. Epidural injections for back pain (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  20. Aqueous Alteration Rinds in Basalt: Mineralogic Characterization from Hand Sample to Outcrop with Hyperspectral Imaging and Implications for Mars 2020 (United States)

    Greenberger, R. N.; Mustard, J. F.; Cloutis, E. A.; Mann, P.; Wilson, J. H.


    Hydrothermally altered lacustrine pillow basalts show strong gradients in mineralogy, chemistry, and redox state from interior to exterior at thick section, hand sample, and outcrop scales identified with hyperspectral imaging and elemental mapping.

  1. Allergic Rhinitis (United States)

    ... mulches, commercial peat moss, compost piles and leaf litter. This allergy is usually worse during humid and ... use mattress pads. Cover mattress and pillows with plastic covers. Lower the humidity in your home using ...

  2. Determination of radiation levels by neutrons in an accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de niveles de radiacion por neutrones en un acelerador para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.; Salazar B, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Genis S, R. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Torriello Guerra, Tlalpan 14050, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    It was determined the radiation levels by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions ({gamma}, n) which occur in the target, levelling filter, collimators and the small pillow blinding of a medical accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MeV, using thermoluminescent dosemeters UD-802AS and US-809AS. The experimental values were presented for the patient level, inside and outside of the radiation field, as well as for the small pillow. (Author)

  3. Gunung Api purba Watuadeg: Sumber erupsi dan posisi stratigrafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Bronto


    Full Text Available lava flows of pyroxene basalt containing 50 wt.% SiO are exposed at Opak River, west of Watuadeg Village, Sleman - Yogyakarta. The length of flow structures is between 2 – 10 m, with diameter of 0.5 – 1.0 m and it has a glassy skin at the surface body. Flow directions vary from N70E in the northern side, through N 120E in the middle to N 150E in the southern side. About 150 m away from the river to the west, there is a small hill about 15 m high, that has a similar composition with the pillow lavas. Both lava flows and the small hill are composed of pyroxene basalt, dark grey in color, hypocrystalline vitrophyre to porphyritic texture, with fine-grained phenocrysts of pyroxene (10 % and plagioclase (25 % set in glassy groundmass. These data indicate that the small hill was the eruption source of the basaltic pillow lavas. The lavas are overlain by pumice-rich volcaniclastic rocks, composed of tuff, lapillistones and pumice breccias, that are known as the Semilir Formation. Near the contact with lavas, the volcaniclastic rocks contain some fragments of pyroxene basalt, similar composition with the pillow lavas. This fact, together with analyses of petrology, volcanology, and radiometric dating show that the basaltic pillow lavas are unconformably overlain by the Semilir Formation.  

  4. Litostratigrafi dan sedimentasi Formasi Kebo dan Formasi Butak di Pegunungan Baturagung, Jawa Tengah Bagian Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surono Surono


    Full Text Available, the Nampurejo Pillow Lava, Kebo and Butak Formations, which are dominated by volcanic rocks, spread west - eastly, along the northern foot of the Baturagung Mountains. The Nampurejo Pillow Lava, which has an Early Oligocene age, is overlain by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene Kebo and Butak Formations successively. The Nampurejo Pillow Lava consists of basaltic pillow-lavas showing pillow structures and they are intercalated by black sandstones. The Kebo Formation comprises alternating sandstone and pebbly sandstone with intercalations of siltstone, claystone, tuff, and shale. On the other hand, the Butak For- mation is composed of polymic breccia with intercalations of sandstone, pebbly sandstone, claystone, and siltstone/shale. The three units were deposited in a deep – shallow marine basin, which was filled by volcanic prod- ucts. Compared to the lower part of the Kebo Formation, volcanic activities during the deposition of the upper part of the Kebo Formation and the Butak Formation were more active.    

  5. Effect of melt composition and crystal content on flow morphology along the Alarcón Rise, Mexico (United States)

    Martin, J. F.; Lieberg-Clark, P.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Portner, R. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.


    Differences in submarine lava flow morphology have been related to differences in eruption rate; low eruption rates form pillow-flow morphologies whereas high eruption rates form sheet-flow morphologies. Eruption rate is likely controlled by dike intrusion width, exsolved bubble content of the magma, viscosity of the magma, or some combination these three properties. Samples and observations from a 2012 expedition to the Alarcón Rise, Mexico, are used to evaluate the potential control of viscosity due to melt composition and crystal content on observed flow morphologies and associated eruption rates. A 1-m resolution multibeam survey, covering the entire 50 km length of the neovolcanic zone, was completed using the MBARI Mapping AUV. Based on the high-resolution bathymetry, two basic flow morphologies could be distinguished: pillow flows, comprising ~ 40 % of the rise, and sheet flows, comprising the remaining ~ 60 %. A series of dives using the ROVs Doc Ricketts in 2012 and Tiburon in 2003 visually confirmed pillow flows, lobate flows, sheet flows, and jumbled sheet flows at the sampled sites. Over 150 lava samples collected during the dives, spanning the entire length of the rise were analyzed for major-element chemistry, crystal content, and corresponding flow morphology. Lavas selected for this analysis ranged from basalt to basaltic-andesite (100 pa s, only pillow lavas are generated. The majority (> 80 %) of sampled pillow lavas are plagioclase-phyric to ultraphyric whereas the majority of lobate and sheet flow lavas are aphyric. Crystal fractions in the pillow lavas are as high as 30-40%, resulting in magma viscosities ~ 5-15 times the melt viscosities. The majority of pillow lavas (~77%) have magma viscosities > 100 pa s. Only ~ 25 % of lobate and sheet flow lavas have magma viscosities > 100 pa s. Many of the phyric lobate and sheet flow samples show evidence of strong flow segregation of crystals to the outer surface of the flow, resulting in samples

  6. Effects of surface anisotropy on magnetic vortex core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V., E-mail: [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Sheka, Denis D. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine)


    The vortex core shape in the three dimensional Heisenberg magnet is essentially influenced by a surface anisotropy. We predict that depending of the surface anisotropy type there appears barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex core along the magnet thickness. Our theoretical study is well confirmed by spin–lattice simulations. - Highlights: • The shape of magnetic vortex core is essentially influenced by SA (surface anisotropy). • We predict barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex depending on SA. • The variational approach fully describes the vortex core deformation. • We performed spin–lattice simulations to detect SA influence on the vortex core.

  7. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of 235U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U3Si and U3Si2 behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U3Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U3Si-Al plates, up to 50 v/o were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U3Si showed an increase swelling rate around 85% burnup. 5 refs., 10 figs

  8. Snoring (United States)

    ... lose weight, change their diets, or develop regular sleeping patterns to stop snoring. It may be helpful to remove allergy triggers (stuffed animals, pets, and feather/down pillows and comforters) ... someone might have sleep apnea, the doctor will order a test to ...

  9. 75 FR 1336 - First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China... (United States)


    ... Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results, 74 FR 32125 (July 7, 2009) (``Preliminary Results''). The... in sleeping bags, mattresses, ski jackets, comforters, cushions, pillows, and furniture. The... materials or conversion to judicial protective order is hereby requested. Failure to comply with...

  10. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.;


    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  11. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Høy; Permin, Anders;


    pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys....

  12. Effect of Divided Attention on the Production of False Memories in the DRM Paradigm: A Study of Dichotic Listening and Shadowing (United States)

    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro B.


    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling…

  13. Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast? (United States)

    ... You won't be able to take regular baths or showers because you have to keep the cast dry. Take sponge baths instead. Try not to go outside when the ... sitting down, put your leg up on a chair or pillow whenever possible. While you're sleeping, ...

  14. 阅读理解三则(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>(A)Over a third of one1s life is spent sleeping with one1s head on apillow ( 枕头). A good pillow, in its right height and composition, hasimportant effects on one1s sleep and health. There is an old way of

  15. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasgow, Nicholas J.; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha


    Introduction Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. Objective To det

  16. 78 FR 3396 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, From the People's Republic of... (United States)


    ..., 73 FR 8273, 8279 (February 13, 2008) (unchanged in Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's... Administrative Review, Rescission In Part, and Intent To Rescind in Part, 77 FR 40579 (July 10, 2012... incorporating tapered roller bearings; and tapered roller housings (except pillow blocks) incorporating...

  17. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte


    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  18. 每月幽它一默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正> 牙仙子One Sunday evening,my over tired(厌烦的)8-year-old wouldn’t stop crying.Isuggested we put her newly lost tooth un-der the pillow(枕头)(to try to cheer herup)for the tooth fairy.She started crying

  19. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R


    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  20. Lava Cones and Shields on Intermediate-Rate Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Caress, D. W.


    Most eruptions of basalt along mid-ocean ridges produce either sheet flows or pillow mounds and ridges. Rare eruptions on the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges and on the Alarcon Rise (northern East Pacific Rise) produce volcanic cones or shields from point sources. Bathymetric maps at 1-m resolution from an autonomous underwater vehicle enabled classification of these ~circular features. The most common are 290-510m across and inflated flows on their summits. There are 8 of these on the upper south rift, caldera floor, and southwest caldera rim on Axial Seamount; one on North Cleft segment near the 1986 pillow mounds; and one in the axial graben on northern Endeavour Segment. Hundreds of smaller pillow mounds lack craters or tumulus-like inflated flows at their summits. Three 660-1300m across circular cones have either a crater or an inflated tumulus-like structure at their flat to slightly domed summits. One in the axial graben on the northern Endeavour Segment is dissected by extensional faulting. Cage Seamount on the Coaxial Segment south of the 1993 pillow ridge is the most voluminous at 1100m across and >200m tall. Two flat-topped cones are located near the center of Alarcon Rise. A low-relief shield volcano on the northern Alarcon Rise is ~1700m across and only ~45m tall, and is cut by numerous faults and fissures. Two other shields, 860m and 1700m across and 50-70m tall, occur south of the 1996 North Gorda pillow mounds. These shields are decorated with small pillow mounds. Five 100-250m across and 15-30m deep pits collapsed on the northern shield. These constructional cones and shields form during eruptions where the initial fissure consolidated to a point, indicative of long duration activity. They are constructed during uncommon eruptions with flux larger than produces pillow mounds and smaller than produces sheet flows. They are a submarine equivalent of subaerial shield-building eruptions.

  1. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.


    The North Kona slump is an elliptical region, about 20 by 60 km (1000-km2 area), of multiple, geometrically intricate benches and scarps, mostly at water depths of 2000–4500 m, on the west flank of Hualalai Volcano. Two dives up steep scarps in the slump area were made in September 2001, using the ROV Kaiko of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), as part of a collaborative Japan–USA project to improve understanding of the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes. Both dives, at water depths of 2700–4000 m, encountered pillow lavas draping the scarp-and-bench slopes. Intact to only slightly broken pillow lobes and cylinders that are downward elongate dominate on the steepest mid-sections of scarps, while more equant and spherical pillow shapes are common near the tops and bases of scarps and locally protrude through cover of muddy sediment on bench flats. Notably absent are subaerially erupted Hualalai lava flows, interbedded hyaloclastite pillow breccia, and/or coastal sandy sediment that might have accumulated downslope from an active coastline. The general structure of the North Kona flank is interpreted as an intricate assemblage of downdropped lenticular blocks, bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. The undisturbed pillow-lava drape indicates that slumping occurred during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism. All analyzed samples of the pillow-lava drape are tholeiite, similar to published analyses from the submarine northwest rift zone of Hualālai. Relatively low sulfur (330–600 ppm) and water (0.18–0.47 wt.%) contents of glass rinds suggest that the eruptive sources were in shallow water, perhaps 500–1000-m depth. In contrast, saturation pressures calculated from carbon dioxide concentrations (100–190 ppm) indicate deeper equilibration, at or near sample sites at water depths of − 3900 to − 2800 m. Either vents close to the sample sites erupted mixtures of undegassed and degassed magmas, or volatiles were resorbed from

  2. A vestige of Earth's oldest ophiolite. (United States)

    Furnes, Harald; de Wit, Maarten; Staudigel, Hubert; Rosing, Minik; Muehlenbachs, Karlis


    A sheeted-dike complex within the approximately 3.8-billion-year-old Isua supracrustal belt (ISB) in southwest Greenland provides the oldest evidence of oceanic crustal accretion by spreading. The geochemistry of the dikes and associated pillow lavas demonstrates an intraoceanic island arc and mid-ocean ridge-like setting, and their oxygen isotopes suggest a hydrothermal ocean-floor-type metamorphism. The pillows and dikes are associated with gabbroic and ultramafic rocks that together make up an ophiolitic association: the Paleoarchean Isua ophiolite complex. These sheeted dikes offer evidence for remnants of oceanic crust formed by sea-floor spreading of the earliest intact rocks on Earth. PMID:17379806

  3. Pseudofolliculitis corporis: a new entity diagnosed by dermoscopy. (United States)

    Puhan, Manas Ranjan; Sahu, Bharati


    Pseudofolliculitis mainly affects the beard area, but it can occur in any area of hair-bearing skin when traumatic methods like shaving or plucking are used to remove the hair. It can be a simple cosmetic problem or a disturbing medical condition for which the dermatologist must be prepared. It can develop in areas of shaving or depilation and has been seen in the pubic region or the axilla, where it is common to find curly hair that emerges at an acute angle. Here, we are reporting a case of pseudofolliculitis over back, termed as pseudofolliculitis corporis. He used to put a pillow behind the back while driving and the pressure caused the pseudofolliculitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by dermoscopy, which is a simple office procedure. Patient was advised to stop using the pillow and improved with topical adapalene and clindamycin gel for 15 days. This entity has not been described in the literature. PMID:25878447

  4. Capacitance Based Moisture Sensing for Microgravity Plant Modules: Sensor Design and Considerations (United States)

    Schaber, Chad L.; Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar


    Life support systems for growing plants in microgravity should strive for providing optimal growing conditions and increased automation. Accurately tracking soil moisture content can forward both of these aims, so an attempt was made to instrument a microgravity growth module currently in development, the VEGGIE rooting pillow, in order to monitor moisture levels. Two electrode systems for a capacitance-based moisture sensor were tested. Trials with both types of electrodes showed a linear correlation between observed capacitance and water content over certain ranges of moisture within the pillows. Overall, both types of the electrodes and the capacitance-based moisture sensor are promising candidates for tracking water levels for microgravity plant growth systems.

  5. Analysis of X-33 Linear Aerospike Plume Induced Base-Heating Environment During Power-Pack Out (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Williams, Robert; Droege, Alan; Dagnostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Douglas, Stan; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    The objectives of this viewgraph presentation are to predict the following: (1) dual-engine base-heating at 57% PL at sea level, and (2) dual-engine base-heating during PPO at three ascent abort trajectories. A systematically anchored computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer three-dimensional transfer simulation is being used to study the effect of reduced power levels on base-heating environments during sea level testing and during PPO. Preliminary results show the following: (1) convective heating is higher for the 57% PL than for 100% PL on most of the pillows and flex seals during sea level testing; and (2) convective heating on pillows and flex seals on the 'off' engine side is higher than that on the 'on' engine side.

  6. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, G.L.; Neimark, L.A.


    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of /sup 235/U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U/sub 3/Si and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U/sub 3/Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U/sub 3/Si-Al plates, up to 50 v/o were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U/sub 3/Si showed an increase swelling rate around 85% burnup. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  7. 牙仙女%The Tooth Fairy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The American children’s ritual of hiding a lost tooth under a pillow stems from an old German tradition of placing a lost tooth in a mouse or rat hole SO that when a new tooth grew in,it would possess the strong dental qualities of a rodent’S tooth.In America the “tooth rat”was replaced by the“tooth fairy”,who would compensate the child with money for surrendering a tooth to her.

  8. High and Low Temperature Gold Mineralizations in the Fe–Cu–Zn Sulfide Deposits of Corchia Ophiolite, Northern Italian Apennine


    Zaccarini Federica; Giorgio Garuti


    Gold has been found in the Cyprus-type volcanogenic massive sulfide ore (VMS) deposits of Corchia ophiolite (Parma province, Italy) in the Cantiere Donnini, Speranza and Pozzo mining sites. At Cantiere Donnini and Speranza, the mineralization occurs at the contact between pillow lava and sedimentary rocks. The Pozzo mineralization is hosted by a serpentinite. Concentrations of gold up to 3070 ppb have been reported for the Cantiere Donnini and up to 6295 ppb in the Pozzo mine. According to th...

  9. Seamounts - characteristics, formation, mineral deposits and biodiversity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mehta, C.M.; Das, P.; Kalangutkar, N.G.

    lavas, lava lakes, “paving-stones” and hyaloclastites. Bonatti and Harrison (1988) investigated the eruption style of MOR and seamount basalts in relation to magma temperature and viscosity and proposed an eruptive style model for seamounts... (especially intraplate ones) that involved three stages of eruption style. At the base of the seamount, sheet basalt would form during the early stages of its growth and, as the seamount develops, pillow basalt would be more dominant. During its final...

  10. Efectos de la atención dividida en la producción de falsos recuerdos en el paradigma DRM : un estudio con escucha dicótica y ensombrecimiento


    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro Barbas


    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling or recognising studied associates. False memories produced throughout this paradigm are usually seen as vivid, long lasting, and d...

  11. Evaluating the earliest traces of Archean sub-seafloor life by NanoSIMS (United States)

    Mcloughlin, N.; Grosch, E. G.; Kilburn, M.; Wacey, D.


    The Paleoarchean sub-seafloor has been proposed as an environment for the emergence of life with titanite microtextures in pillow lavas argued to be the earliest traces of microbial micro-tunneling (Furnes et al. 2004). Here we use a nano-scale ion microprobe (NanoSIMS) to evaluate possible geochemical traces of life in 3.45 Ga pillow lavas of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We investigated both surface and drill core samples from the original "Biomarker" outcrop in the Hooggenoeg Fm. Pillow lava metavolcanic glass contain clusters of segmented microcrystalline titanite filaments, ~4μm across and inclusions in the microtextures have strongly depleted δ34SVCDT values of -39.8 to +3.2‰ (n= 32). The magnitude, range and spatial heterogeneity of these δ34S values are consistent with an early microbial origin (McLoughlin et al. 2012). In contrast, sulfides cross-cutting the microtextures related to later veining have positive δ34S of +6.7 to +18.0‰ (n=20). These data can be compared to magmatic sulfides (δ34S = +3±3‰), Archean seawater (δ34S ca. +5‰) and Archean sedimentary sulfides (δ34S = +8 to -23‰). We propose that the Hooggenoeg sulfides probably formed during early fluid-rock-microbe interaction involving sulfate-reducing microbes (c.f. Rouxel et al. 2008). The pillow lavas were then metamorphosed, the glass transformed to a greenschist facies assemblage and titanite growth encapsulated the microbial sulfides. In summary, the extreme sulfur isotope fractionations reported here independently point towards the potential involvement of microbes in the alteration of Archean volcanic glass. In situ sulfur isotope analysis of basalt-hosted sulfides may provide an alternative approach to investigating the existence of an Archean sub-seafloor biosphere that does not require the mineralization of early microbial microborings with organic linings.

  12. Macro-encapsulation of heat storage phase-change materials for use in residential buildings. First quarterly progress report, September 29--December 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, G.A.; Kott, A.C.; Rossow, H.E.


    Objectives are to assess the feasibility of macro-encapsulated PCM's for residential solar systems, to develop and evaluate such materials. Five PCM's have been selected from encapsulation studies. Encapsulated storage media were evaluated theoretically in storage beds with air and water as the heat transfer medium. Cylindrical, tetrahedral, and pillow shapes are being evaluated for the encapsulated PCM. Encapsulant materials under consideration are multilayer flexible plastic films, steel cans, and plastic bottles.

  13. Sustainable yoga apparel


    Jason, Helen


    The two major purposes of this study are to establish whether there is an interest in sustainably regarding locally made yoga sports equipment and to create a design concept for a product line of yoga apparel which is genuinely eco-friendly. The product line consists of a yoga mat bag, straps, pillows and a bolster. Research into issues surrounding sustainability and yoga guided the design process. In order to meet user requirements, yoga classes were observed, a survey was conducted and ...

  14. Periorbital Edema Secondary to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy


    Dandekar, F.; Camacho, M; J. Valerio; Ruoff, C.


    Two patients developed bilateral, periorbital edema after initiating positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy with a full face mask. The periorbital edema was more pronounced in the morning and would dissipate throughout the day. This phenomenon seemed to be correlated with the direct pressure of the full face mask, which may have impaired lymphatic and venous drainage. To test this hypothesis, each patient was changed to a nasal pillow interface with subsequent improvement in the periorbital e...

  15. 爱永恒%Only Love Lasts Forever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Yesterday, after telling my brother,Rhys, and me to stop playing like wild animals in the house for what she said was the thousandth time,Mom went to take a bath.That's when it happened.We were playing around,bopping each other with pillows,when one slipped from my brother's grasp and smashed the glass dome on the coffee table,shattering it into a zillion pieces!

  16. Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants in homes of asthmatic children in central Taiwan. (United States)

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Siebers, Robert; Chang, Chin-Fu; Hsieh, Shu-Wen; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chen, Chi-Ying; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian


    Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants play a significant role in asthma symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine levels of house dust mite allergens, bacterial endotoxin, and fungal beta-glucan in homes of 120 asthmatic children in central Taiwan. Dust samples from 120 mattresses (67 double-sided) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5), endotoxin, and beta-glucan. Pillows (n = 118) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens only. Kitchen dust samples were analyzed for the cockroach allergen, Bla g 1. Blo t 5 was detected in 9.3% pillows and 82.2% mattresses, Der p 1 in 95.8% pillows and 93.2% mattresses, and Der f 1 in 82.2% pillows and 83.1% mattresses. Geometric mean levels (95% confidence interval) of endotoxin and beta-glucan in mattresses were 108.4 Eu/mg (81.4-144.2) and 25.2 microg/g (22.7-28.0), respectively. House dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels were significantly lower on the bamboo side of 67 mattresses, compared to the inner sprung mattress side. Geometric mean of kitchen Bla g 1 was 0.61 U/g (95% CI: 0.43-0.85). Given the presence of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in central Taiwan, it is advised to measure allergens of all three house dust mite species to obtain a true index of allergen exposure. Bamboo sides of mattresses had significantly lower house dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels. PMID:19728217

  17. Mapping lava morphology of the Galapagos Spreading Center at 92°W: fuzzy logic provides a classification of high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter (United States)

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S. M.; Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.; Bowles, J. A.


    Differences in axial lava morphology along the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) can indicate variations in magma supply and emplacement dynamics due to the influence of the adjacent Galapagos hot spot. Unfortunately, the ability to discriminate fine-scale lava morphology has historically been limited to observations of the small coverage areas of towed camera surveys and submersible operations. This research presents a neuro-fuzzy approach to automated seafloor classification using spatially coincident, high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data. The classification method implements a Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system trained by a multi-layered adaptive neural network and is capable of rapidly classifying seafloor morphology based on attributes of surface geometry and texture. The system has been applied to the 92°W segment of the western GSC in order to quantify coverage areas and distributions of pillow, lobate, and sheet lava morphology. An accuracy assessment has been performed on the classification results. The resulting classified maps provide a high-resolution view of GSC axial morphology and indicate the study area terrain is approximately 40% pillow flows, 40% lobate and sheet flows, and 10% fissured or faulted area, with about 10% of the study area unclassifiable. Fine-scale features such as eruptive fissures, tumuli, and individual pillowed lava flow fronts are also visible. Although this system has been applied to lava morphology, its design and implementation are applicable to other undersea mapping applications.

  18. Randomized interventions for needle procedures in children with cancer. (United States)

    Hedén, L; VON Essen, L; Ljungman, G


    The aim of this study was to examine whether children experience less fear, distress and pain connected to a routine needle insertion in an intravenous port when subjected to an intervention: blowing soap bubbles or having a heated pillow vs. standard care. Twenty-eight children, 2-7 years, cared for at a paediatric oncology unit, undergoing a routine needle insertion in an intravenous port were included consecutively. All children were subjected to two needle insertions; at the first they received standard care, and at the second standard care + a randomized intervention. Parents and nurses assessed children's fear, distress and pain on 0-100 mm visual analogue scales. According to parents' report, children experienced less fear when subjected to intervention vs. standard care reported by parents (P soap bubbles vs. standard care (n = 14), and less fear when subjected to standard care + heated pillow vs. standard care (P soap bubbles or having a heated pillow is more effective than standard care in reducing children's fear and distress in needle procedures, according to parents' report. PMID:19040458

  19. Crustal structure beneath the Northern Mississippi Embayment from travel time inversion of vintage wide-angle seismic data (United States)

    Guo, L.; Magnani, M.


    The northern Mississippi Embayment (ME) in the central US is located along the southern margin of Laurentia, a region that has been shaped by a long history of tectonic and magmatic events, including episodes of continental rifting, collision and amalgamation. In the ME these events have fundamentally altered the structure and composition of the continental lithosphere, resulting in the formation and failure of the Paleozoic Reelfoot Rift, and in the emplacement of the enigmatic mafic rift pillow at lower crustal and upper mantle depths beneath the Reelfoot Rift. Because of the spatial correlation between the present, historical and prehistorical seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone and the mafic rift pillow, it has been proposed that this magmatic feature plays a key role in localizing strain in the Central US. Emerging evidence, however, shows that Quaternary deformation in the ME is not restricted to the New Madrid seismic zone, but encompasses a region beyond the presently seismogenic area, perhaps suggesting that the mafic rift pillow extends beyond its previously detected location. To test this hypothesis and to better constrain the lateral extent, dimension, and velocity structure of the mafic rift pillow in lower crust and upper mantle beneath the ME, we perform a travel time tomographic inversion using recent modeling codes on two vintage wide-angle seismic datasets available in the region. The data were acquired by the USGS in 1980 and 1991, and are the only seismic wide-angle crustal data constraining the geometry of the rift pillow. The 1980 USGS seismic refraction investigation consisted of a total of 34 900-1800 kg shots gathered in 9 locations and recorded by 100 portable seismographs along a series of profiles targeting the structure of the Reelfoot Rift north of Memphis, Tennessee. The 1991 USGS survey acquired a N-S 400 km-long seismic profile from Memphis, Tennessee to St. Louis, Missouri, and included 3 680-2260 kg shots recorded by ~200

  20. Salt tectonics and associated fluid migration and entrapment in the western part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin (United States)

    Sørig, Simon A.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.


    The western part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin is part of the Northern Permian Basin and encompasses a variety of Zechstein salt structures (pillows, rollers, diapirs and salt walls). The area has been studied for decades with respect to HC prospectively associated to salt structures as well a focus area for studies on conceptual evolution of salt structures and faults associated with the salt structures. Previous local studies on fluid migration and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI's) in the area show a close relation between halo kinetics and local fluid migration. In the present study we have used3D seismic data (approximately 3500 km2) to identify and describe A: large diapirs which have been active until the youngest Cenozoic, B: medium sized diapirs being active until the early Cenozoic, C: salt relicts creating small non active pillows, and D: small satellite structures related to type A. The salt structures are evenly distributed across the studied area, and we conclude that the structures were initiated during the late Triassic due to depositional controlled differential loading combined with differential subsidence. DHI's are identified at various stratigraphic and structural settings associated to the salt structures and each structure type has different types of DHI's associated. The DHIs observed at the type A and B diapirs are located above or at the stem of the diapirs and are here interpreted as classic structural hydrocarbon traps associated with rising salt deforming the strata. However, the DHI's associated to type C salt pillows have a relatively small lateral extent, stratigraphically restricted to the Mesozoic succession; they are located above the apex of the pillow and have in general a seismically disturbed zone located beneath the DHI. The seismically disturbed zone resembles gas chimneys, but may also be related to minor deformation of the Mesozoic strata overlying the type C pillows. A biogenic origin of the gas in at least some of the

  1. Investigating traces of early life in the oldest tectono-sedimentary basin of the 3.5 - 3.1 Ga Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa (United States)

    Grosch, Eugene


    The ca. 3.5 - 3.1 Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) in the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa, contains some of the world's best preserved sequences of volcano-sedimentary and mafic-ultramafic rocks representative of the Paleoarchean. These rocks provide a unique opportunity to investigate dynamic environments and possible evidence for life on the young Earth. Evidence for early microbial life has been argued to be preserved in silicified marine sediments (cherts) and subseafloor pillow lavas of the upper Onverwacht Group of the BGB. This study will focus on the ca. 3.472 - 3.334 Ga Hooggenoeg, Noisy and Kromberg Formations argued to contain textural, geochemical and isotopic evidence for the oldest traces of subseafloor life on Earth. These include filamentous titanite microtextures as candidate 'ichnofossils', X-ray maps of carbon linings associated with these microtextures and negative carbon stable isotope ratios in Archean pillow lava rims (Furnes et al., 2004, 2008; Banerjee et al., 2006). Based on previously reported similarity between these titanite microtextures and partially mineralized microtubes found in altered in-situ oceanic crust, a complex 'bioalteration' model has been proposed, involving microbial-mediated alteration of basaltic glass. Despite numerous claims for the exceptional preservation of early subseafloor alteration in the proposed 'Biomarker' type-section, constraints on the nature and timing of low-temperature alteration are not available for the Hooggenoeg Formation. In this talk, new field and petrological data from the mafic-ultramafic Kromberg, volcano-sedimentary Noisy, and dominantly mafic Hooggenoeg Formations in the southeastern part of the Onverwacht Group anticline are presented. Thermodynamic modelling provides the first metamorphic constraints on low-temperature alteration conditions preserved in the Hooggenoeg pillow metabasites. This includes a new quantitative microscale mapping approach that characterizes metamorphic

  2. The 2008 Puipui eruption and morphology of the Northeast Lau Spreading Center between Maka and Tafu (Invited) (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Paduan, J. B.


    An event plume was discovered in the water column between Maka and Tafu volcanoes on the Northeast Lau Spreading Center in Nov. 2008. A Rapid Response cruise in May 2009 found that eruptive activity had ceased after observations on two Jason II ROV dives and one MBARI Mapping AUV survey that mapped most of the axis and flanks at 1.5-m resolution. Jason II located a recent lava flow, which was named Puipui. The small ridge of mounds aligned along two overlapping fissures extend for 1.8 km. The pillow ridge cuts obliquely across the ridge axis. The dive observations show mainly pillow lavas near the NE end and sheet flows near the SE end. A central 340 m portion observed by Jason II as predominantly ponded lobate flows was not mapped by the AUV. The Puipui and prior eruptions produced abundant vesicular angular glass fragments, Pele’s hair, and less abundant limu o Pele pyroclasts that thinly blanket the axial plateau and cascade down the steep flanks, mixing debris from many eruptions. Electron probe analyses of 91 fragments show that 15 Puipui pyroclasts are compositionally variable (normalized 6.5-7.2% MgO, ~49.6% SiO2) and distinct from prior eruptions in the area that have lower TiO2, K2O, Na2O, and K2O; and 52.3-53.7% SiO2. Pyroclasts of all compositions are highly degassed (morphology changes dramatically over short distances. The 1 km SW end is characterized by multiple extensional faults that parallel the ridge axis. The AUV survey ends on a sheet flow with drained ponds. To the NE, Maka is a 1.2 km diameter central volcano rising 300 m above the adjacent ridge to a summit at 1515 m. The ridge axis deepens steadily to 2140 m at the NE survey end and 1900 m to the SW. Rift zones on Maka parallel the ridge axis and are constructed of overlapping lava deltas. The NW and SE flanks are smooth like those at actively erupting West Mata volcano, where such deposits are clastic eruptive debris. The lava deltas have steep margins and embayments, indicating slumping

  3. Performance prediction of high density nuclear fuel plate containing U-7%Mo/Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent several years, the Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology (PTBN) - BATAN is conducting research and development on new research reactor fuel of U-Mo/Al dispersion containing 7 g U/cm3 as a substitute for the actual U3Si2 fuel of 2.96 g.U/cm3 . The major advantages of this fuel are higher U content than the U3Si2 and easier management, i.e. reprocessing of the spent fuel, while the main drawback is the manufacture of powder that is more difficult because it is more ductile and its thermal conductivity degrade faster during in reactor service. The first difficulties have been solved by hydriding process. Performance prediction should be foreseen in order to obtain permit for irradiation testing of the new fuel. The prediction has been performed on hot spot location by taking into account some effects of fission swelling of fuel particles, formation of interfacial reaction layer, meat densification which feedback to fuel temperature and plate swelling the principal safety parameters of normal operation. The results show that at lower burnup the dominant effect is fission solid swelling but at higher burnup it is replaced by fission gas swelling. At 60% burnup (10.2 x 10⌃21 fission/cm3 ) fuel particle swelling reaches 75.79% and at total burnup swelling rises to 103.1%, which corresponds to 11.6% and 17.2% plate pillowing. The interfacial reaction layer at full burnup is 5.7 µm. Plate pillowing at 60% burnup is below the limit acceptance but plate pillowing at full burnup is beyond the limit acceptance. (author)

  4. A laboratory investigation into the effects of slope on lava flow morphology (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Fink, Jonathan H.


    In an attempt to model the effect of slope on the dynamics of lava flow emplacement, four distinct morphologies were repeatedly produced in a series of laboratory simulations where polyethylene glycol (PEG) was extruded at a constant rate beneath cold sucrose solution onto a uniform slope which could be varied from 1° through 60°. The lowest extrusion rates and slopes, and highest cooling rates, produced flows that rapidly crusted over and advanced through bulbous toes, or pillows (similar to subaerial "toey" pahoehoe flows and to submarine pillowed flows). As extrusion rate and slope increased, and cooling rate decreased, pillowed flows gave way to rifted flows (linear zones of liquid wax separated by plates of solid crust, similar to what is observed on the surface of convecting lava lakes), then to folded flows with surface crusts buckled transversely to the flow direction, and, at the highest extrusion rates and slopes, and lowest cooling rates, to leveed flows, which solidified only at their margins. A dimensionless parameter, Ψ, primarily controlled by effusion rate, cooling rate and flow viscosity, quantifies these flow types. Increasing the underlying slope up to 30° allows the liquid wax to advance further before solidifying, with an effect similar to that of increasing the effusion rate. For example, conditions that produce rifted flows on a 10° slope result in folded flows on a 30° slope. For underlying slopes of 40°, however, this trend reverses, slightly owing to increased gravitational forces relative to the strength of the solid wax. Because of its significant influence on heat advection and the disruption of a solid crust, slope must be incorporated into any quantitative attempt to correlate eruption parameters and lava flow morphologies. These experiments and subsequent scaling incorporate key physical parameters of both an extrusion and its environment, allowing their results to be used to interpret lava flow morphologies on land, on the

  5. Structure, tectonic and petrology of mid-oceanic ridges and the Indian scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Ray, Dwijesh

    due to rapid chilling when the lava contacts seawater. Lavas commonly form pillows (10 ? 100 cm in dia.) when bulbous protru sions of submarine flows detach from the parent flow and come to rest (while still hot and plastic) on the seafloor 24... variations are expressed as Na 8 , Fe 8 , Ca 8 and TiFe 7.3 which are calculated at a constant MgO content (7 ? 8.0 wt%). Magmatic processes Compositionally, the erupted basalts may be quite dif - ferent from its parental source produced at depth...

  6. Isotopic evidence for multiple contributions to felsic magma chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Wiebe, R.A.; Krogstad, E.J.


    by contemporaneous mafic magmas; the transition between the two now preserved as a zone of chilled mafic sheets and pillows in granite. Mafic components have highly variably isotopic compositions as a result of contamination either at depth or following injection into the magma chamber. Intermediate dikes...... exchange between the contemporaneous mafic magmas and the host granite to explain highly variable alkali contents. The felsic enclaves have relatively low Nd isotopic compositions (eNd=+2 - +1) indicative of the involvement of a third, lower eNd melt during granite petrogenesis, perhaps represented...

  7. How to write a story in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>When it comes to writing a story,the first thing that strikes me is fear.Where to start?What is the title of the story?What is it going to be about?After struggling with some monstrous idea of using a first person perspective to tell a story of a horrific murder,I give up before starting to write and resort to my pillow and blanket for warmth and comfort."Not everyone gets to be Dan Brown."I

  8. A new structural model of the Pachitea Basin, Peru: Interaction of thick-skinned tectonics and salt detached thrusting (United States)

    Witte, J.; Rebaza, J.; Westlund, D.; Stratton, M.; Alegria, C.


    We present four new structural transects, a new seismo-stratigraphic correlation, a refined structural model and new shortening rates for the Pachitea Basin (=PB), Peru. Our results are based on the integration and detailed interpretation of newly acquired industry seismic (2D, 2005 vintage), existing well data, existing and proprietary surface geology data and newly acquired aero magnetic data (2007 vintage). Our assessment confirms the presence of at least four distinct structural styles in the area, thick-skinned structures, thin-skinned detachment thrusting, salt-tectonics and localized strike-slip tectonics. Based on seismo-stratigraphic correlations we conclude that the oldest rocks carried to outcrop by the San Matias (=SM) thrust are of Jurassic age. We interpret the thin-skinned master detachment to be located in varying positions, directly below or above, autochtonous salt pillows. Timing assessment of the SM thrust sheet reveals that it has been active from at least ˜5 Ma to post-2 Ma, supporting regionally published timing data for this latitude. Positive topographic surface expressions indicate ongoing contraction along the mountain front of the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera (=EC). Across the PB we calculate between 2.6% and 5.5% for thick-skinned shortening and at least 25.5% for the thin-skinned shortening. For the SM thrust sheet we calculate a slip-rate of ˜1-1.6 mm/yr, which is in line with published slip rates on individual thrusts from around the world. Observations along the SM thrust system indicate that thin- and thick-skinned systems interact mechanically, and that they have been active intermittently. We conclude that the location of salt pillows as well as pre-existing or growing basement-involved structures helped trigger the SM thrust. Different types of salt bodies are present in the PB, autochtonous pillows, slightly thrusted pillows and allochtonous diapirs. Our results provide new insight into the structural interplay, particularly

  9. Neoproterozoic oceans in the Ribeira Belt (southeastern Brazil): The Pirapora do Bom Jesus ophiolitic complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colombo C.G. Tassinari; Jose M.U. Munhá; Antonio Ribeiro; Ciro T. Correia


    @@ Within the Sao Roque Domain of the Neoproterozoic Ribeira Fold Belt (southeastern Brazil) we have identified an ophiolitic complex (Pirapora ophiolite) display ing a characteristic oceanic lithospheric stratigraphy.From bottom to top, it includes: 1) a lower crustal/upper mantle section (dunitic cumulates with chromitite-magnetite layers); 2) a lower crustal section (metagabbro and flasergabbro mafic cumulates with gabbroic pegmatoids); and 3) an upper crustal section (deformed fine-grained, greenschist facies metamafics with remains of a sheeted dike complex, pillow lavas and cherts).

  10. Protection Against Cross Infection in Hospital Beds with Integrated Personalized Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Polak, Marcin; Jiang, Hao;


    to supply air directly to the breathing zone when people are lying in beds, e.g. in a hospital ward. This principle, called "Personalized Ventilation" has shown to be very efficient in the protection of people from cross infection. The system supplies fresh air into the breathing zone through a pillow......Normally we protect ourselves from cross infection by supplying fresh air to a room by a diffuser, and the air is then distributed in the room according to different principles such as: mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, vertical ventilation, etc. However, there is a possibility...

  11. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)


    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  12. 三十年的纪念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    这是一张梦影现代爵士乐团(Pieces of A Dream)成军三十年纪念专辑,取名枕边细语(Pillow Talk)。三十年前,二位对音乐抱持梦想的费城少年,十一岁的James Lloyd与十三岁的Curtis Harmon,引用萨克斯风手Stanley Turrentine的经典专辑《Pieces of a Dream》的名称,成立了“梦影现代爵士乐团”。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson


    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  14. Quality of water from freshwater aquifers and principal well fields in the Memphis Area, Tennessee (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Parks, W.S.; Gaydos, M.W.


    Water from the freshwater aquifers in the Memphis area is suitable for most uses. Freshwater aquifers are the alluvium and fluvial (terrace) deposits of Quaternary age, the Memphis Sand and Fort Pillow Sand of Tertiary age, and the Ripley Formation and McNairy Sand of Cretaceous age. About 180 million gallons/day (mgd) of freshwater are withdrawn from the Memphis Sand, primarily for municipal and industrial use; the Memphis Sand is the principal aquifer supplying the City of Memphis. The alluvium provides water for irrigation and some industrial uses, and the fluvial deposits provide water for domestic use in rural areas. The Fort Pillow Sand supplies water for some municipal and industrial uses. The Ripley-McNairy aquifer is not used as a source of water. Water from the alluvium, fluvial deposits, and Memphis Sand is a calcium bicarbonate type, and water from the Fort Pillow Sand and Ripley-McNairy aquifer is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved solids concentrations are low in the Memphis Sand, with a median value of 83 mg/L, and are high in the Ripley-McNairy aquifer with a value of about 1,000 mg/L. Water is very soft in the Fort Pillow Sand with a median hardness value of 9 mg/L as CaCO3 and is very hard in the alluvium with a median value of 285 mg/L. Iron concentrations are low in the fluvial deposits with a median value of 50 micrograms/L and are high in the alluvium with a median value of 5,200 micrograms/L. Temperature of the water generally increases with depth, ranging from 16.0 C in the alluvium and fluvial deposits to about 32.0 C in the Ripley-McNairy aquifer. Water from the Memphis Sand at Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division well fields has very low mineralization. Median values are 79 mg/L dissolved solids concentrations, 56 mg/L alkalinity as CaCO3, 46 mg/L hardness as CaCO3, 4 mg/L chloride, 3.5 mg/L sulfate, and 600 micrograms/L iron. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos


    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  16. Components of Variance when Assessing the Reproducibility of Body Composition Measurements using Bio-Impedance and the Hologic QDR-2000 DXA Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Hessov, Ib;


    This study evaluated the reproducibility of measuring lean tissue mass (LTM), fat mass(FM(DXA)), bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) with a Hologic QDR-2000 DXA scanner, and both fat free mass (FFM(bio)) and fat mass (FM(bio)) with an impedance meter. Furthermore, the study aimed to assess...... for the other measurements the day to day variation could be accounted for by just measurement variance. Pillows systematically changed the estimates of bone mineral and soft tissue, but sheets did not....

  17. Study for comfortable supine for patients with partial nephrectomy by robot-assisted laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery%机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除患者术后舒适卧位探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英娜; 周秀彬


    目的:探讨机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后患者最舒适的卧位。方法抽取80例行机器人腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后的患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组患者手术后经医生允许采用早期舒适卧位,即颈部垫软枕、腰部垫20 cm ×20 cm硬枕仰卧位;对照组患者术后按传统方法采用平卧位。术后前2 d进行观察比较,找出患者最舒适卧位。结果观察组患者睡眠、情绪稳定及腰肌酸痛情况明显优于对照组( P<0.05)。结论机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后卧床期间采取颈部垫软枕、腰部垫20 cm ×20 cm硬枕的仰卧位方式,患者最舒适。%Objective To study the most comfortable lying position for post-operative patients with robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy .Method 80 post-operative patients with robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrec-tomy surgery were randomly divided into observation group and the control group ,patients observed by doctors after surgery to allow the use of early comfort lying ,that is ,a soft pillow neck cushion ,waist cushion 20 cm × 20 cm hard pillow supine position ,tupatients in control group by traditional methods in supine position ,after 2 days of ob-servation and comparison ,to find the most comfortable lying position .Result The sleep ,comfort and lumbar pain in observation group was obviously better than that of control group (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Robot assisted laparoscop-ic partial nephrectomy surgery took the neck cushion soft pillow ,lumbar pillow pad 20 cm × 20 cm hard way the su-pine position ,the patient feels most comfortable .

  18. Iceland as a Model for Chemical Alteration on Mars (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Schiffman, P.; Murad, E.; Southard, R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    Subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland has led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may serve as a model for chemical alteration on Mars. Multiple palagonitic tuffs, altered pillow lavas, hydrothermal springs and alteration at glacial run-off streams were observed during a recent field trip in Iceland. Formation of alteration products and ferrihydrite in similar environments on Mars may have contributed to the ferric oxide-rich surface material there. The spectral and chemical properties of Icelandic alteration products and ferrihydrites are presented here.

  19. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sein Sein Win


    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  20. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants. (United States)

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran


    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely. PMID:26825249

  1. Radiation dose to the eye lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Christina; Falch Braas, Kirsten; D. Nielsen, Kamilla;


    might avoid including the eye in the CT scan without losing sufficient visualization of the scull base. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the radiation dose to the eye lens, simply by changing the head position, when doing the PET/CT scan from the base of the scull...... to the proximal femur. Methods and materials: The study was performed using a human like whole body phantom with electronic dosimetry units placed upon each eye to detect the exact radiation dose to the eye lens during each scan. The phantom’s head was placed in two different positions, (a) elevated with a small...... pillow below the head (standard), and (b) kipped backwards with the pillow below the neck (kipped). For each head position, CT scans were repeated 5 times with both a low dose and a high dose CT protocol; in this way, a total of 20 CT scans were performed. Robust standard errors were used in order...

  2. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ophiolite suite, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Srivastava; R Chandra; Anant Shastry


    A complete dismembered sequence of ophiolite is well exposed in the south Andaman region that mainly comprises ultramafic cumulates, serpentinite mafic plutonic and dyke rocks, pillow lava, radiolarian chert, and plagiogranite. Pillow lavas of basaltic composition occupy a major part of the Andaman ophiolite suite (AOS). These basalts are well exposed all along the east coast of southern part of the south AOS. Although these basalts are altered due to low-grade metamorphism and late hydrothermal processes, their igneous textures are still preserved. These basalts are mostly either aphyric or phyric in nature. Aphyric type exhibits intersertal or variolitic textures, whereas phyric variety shows porphyritic or sub-ophitic textures. The content of alkalies and silica classify these basalts as sub-alkaline basalts and alkaline basalts. A few samples show basaltic andesite, trachybasalt, or basanitic chemical composition. High-field strength element (HFSE) geochemistry suggests that studied basalt samples are probably derived from similar parental magmas. Al2O3/TiO2 and CaO/TiO2 ratios classify these basalts as high-Ti type basalt. On the basis of these ratios and many discriminant functions and diagrams, it is suggested that the studied basalts, associated with Andaman ophiolite suite, were derived from magma similar to N-MORB and emplaced in the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting.

  3. Evaluation of NVE's snow station network; Subreport in R et D project 302H15 Good snow data; Evaluering av NVE sitt snoestasjonsnettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, Bjoerg Lirhus; Landroe, Hilde; Trondsen, Elise; Moeen, Knut M.


    NVE has measured snow water equivalent of snow pillow in forty years. Our snow station network has risen since 1997 from 6 to 25 stations. It was therefore absolutely necessary to do a review and quality assurance of NVE's snow data. This report discusses the snow data measured continuously - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Each station and the parameters it measures are described and evaluated. It is concluded in relation to whether stations should be continued or not. Stations technical solutions are well described, both of NVE's standard stations and the two test stations, Filefjell and Svarttjoernbekken. It has been o importance to bring out what problems the instruments have or may have and provide suggestions for solutions to them. Problems related to measure the water equivalent under Norwegian conditions, with the challenges and winter rain and re-freezing provides, is also reviewed. Alternatives to water equivalent measurements with a snow pillow, which is the traditional way in this country, are presented. Some of the alternative methods NVE tests out, for the others only description and our opinion is given. (Author)

  4. Radiometric dating of bioalteration textures in Archean basaltic metaglasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Direct in-situ U-Pb dating of titanite which infills tubular bioalteration textures in pillow basalt rims from the ∼ 3.35 Ga Euro basalt of the Pilbara craton, W. Australia (PWA) confirms their Archean age. A novel in situ laser ablation multi-collector-ICP-MS technique is here reported that has enabled the first radiometric age determination of an Archean biosignature. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that these tubular bioalteration textures formed by microbial etching of formerly glassy Archean lavas that were subsequently mineralized by titanite. Firstly, there are striking morphological similarities between tubular structures from both the Pilbara and Barberton (BGB) cratons and bioalteration textures in modern glasses. Secondly, x-ray mapping indicates C enriched along the margins of the tubular structures from both the BGB and PWA. Thirdly, disseminated carbonates in the BGB pillow rims have C-isotopes depleted by as much as -16 %o, which is consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. A pre-metamorphic age for these microtubes is indicated by their segmentation caused by metamorphic chlorite overgrowths. A laser ablation spot size of ∼ 40 μm was used to analyze titanite in the 'root zones' at the centre of microtube clusters. Thirteen analyzes upon three thin sections gave a weighted average 206Pb/238U age of 2921 ± 110 Ma. This corresponds to the oldest metamorphic episode that has affected the PWA rocks and gives a minimum, late Archean age estimate for the bioalteration. (author)

  5. Soft-sediment Deformation Structures Related to Earthquake from the Devonian of the Eastern North Qilian Mts. and Its Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; XU Yajun; YANG Jianghai


    Devonian in the North Qilian orogenic belt and Hexi Corridor developed terrestrial molasse of later stage of foreland basin caused by collision between the North China plate and Qaidam microplate. The foreland basin triggered a intense earthquake, and formed seismites and earthquake- related soft-sediment deformation. The soft-sediment deformation structures of Devonian in the eastern North Qilian Mts. consist of seismo-cracks, sandstone dykes, syn-depositional faults, microfolds (micro-corrugated lamination), fluidized veins, load casts, flame structures, pillow structures and brecciation. The seismo-cracks, syn-depositional faults and microfolds are cracks, faults and folds formed directly by oscillation of earthquake. The seismic dykes formed by sediment instilling into seismic cracks. Fluidized veins were made by instilling into the seismo-fissures of the fluidized sands. The load casts, flame structures and pillow structures were formed by sinking and instilling caused from oscillation of earthquake along the face between sandy and muddy beds. The brecciation resulted from the oscillation of earthquake and cracking of sedimentary layers. The seismites and soft-sediment deformations in Devonian triggered the earthquake related to tectonic activities during the orogeny and uplift of North Qilian Mts.

  6. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India: A mineralchemical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Saha; Avik Dhang; Jyotisankar Ray; Suvankar Chakraborty; David Moecher


    Field studies supplemented by petrographic analyses clearly reveal complete preservation of ophiolite suite from Port Blair (11° 39′ N: 92° 45′E) to Chiriyatapu (11° 30′ 24′′N: 92° 42′ 30′′E) stretch of South Andaman. The ophiolite suite reveals serpentinite at the base which is overlain unconformably by cumulate ultramafic–mafic members with discernible cumulus texture and igneous layering. Basaltic dykes are found to cut across the cumulate ultramafic–mafic members. The succession is capped by well exposed pillow basalts interlayered with arkosic sediments. Olivine from the basal serpentinite unit are highly magnesian (Fo80.1–86.2). All clinopyroxene analyses from cumulate pyroxenite, cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke are discriminated to be `Quad’ and are uniformly restricted to the diopside field. Composition of plagioclase in different lithomembers is systematically varying from calcic to sodic endmembers progressively from cumulate pyroxenite to pillow basalt through cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke. Plagioclase phenocrysts from basaltic dyke are found to be distinctly zoned (An60.7–An35.5) whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An33–An23.5). Deduced thermobarometric data from different lithomembers clearly correspond to the observed preservation of complete ophiolite suite.

  7. Texto e têxtil em O Livro de Travesseiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Cunha


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This text is a three-part reflection upon the theme of “clothing” as it is found in a literary work of Ancient Japan — on the importance of garment-making skills as a device for the production of difference in the context of the Imperial Court; on how the theme from the book resonates in the context of 20th century fashion; and on how it is brought up to date and amplified, working as a metaphor for writing, in the film adaptation of the ancient text. In The Pillow Book of Sei Shônagon (Japan, 10th–11th centuries, text, textile and memory merge into an extended, web-like metaphor that is also a commentary on the status of women in Imperial Heian. The adaptation of the written work for the cinema (The Pillow Book, by Peter Greenaway, 1996 features clothes by deconstructivist Martin Margiela, adding new interpretative layers to this cluster of images, relating them to the acts of writing, weaving, reading, translating, adapting and deconstructing. The fragmentary character of Sei Shônagon’s work also resonates with fashion journalism of the 20th century. The aesthetic ideal of okashi, a concept from classical Japanese literature, resonates with 20th century conceptions of fashion, such as Diana Vreeland’s pizzazz, and with the aesthetics of modernist poetry. Clothing as a metaphor for text and the idea of clothing as text are present in those three interpretative moments.

  8. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants. (United States)

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran


    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely.

  9. Carbonate Cements from the Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell Volcanoes, Svalbard Norway: Analogs for Martian Carbonates (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Treiman, A. H.; Morris, R.; Bish, D.; Amundsen, H.E.F.; Steele, A.


    The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell volcanic complexes erupted at 1Ma on Svalbard, Norway. Sverrefjell is a cone of cinders, pillow lavas and dikes; Sigurdfjell is elongate in outcrop and may represent a fissure eruption [1]. The lavas of both volcanos were volatile rich. The volcanos erupted under ice and were subsequently dissected by glaciation (glacial eratics are present on most of Sverrefjell, even on its summit). Eruption beneath an ice sheet is inferred, based on the presence of pillow lavas from near sea level to 1000 m above sea level. Sverrefjell contains the largest fraction of ultramafic xenoliths of any volcanic complex in the world, in places accounting for as much as 50% of the volume of the outcrop. The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfell volcanos contain carbonate cements of several varieties: (1) Amundsen [2] reported Mg-Fe-rich carbonate in sub-mm globules in basalts and ultramafic xenoliths from the volcanos. These globules are the best terrestrial analogs to the carbonate globules in the Mars meteorite ALH84001 [3]. (2) Thick (1-3 cm) coatings of carbonate cement drape the walls of vertical volcanic pipes or conduits on the flanks and near the present summit of Sverrefjell. Similar occurrences are found on Sigurdfjell. (3) Breccia-filled pipes or vents occur on Sverrefjell and Siggurdfjell in which the breccia fragments are cemented by carbonate. The fragments themselves commonly contain carbonate globules similar to those found in the basalts and ultramafic xenoliths.

  10. Volcanology of the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California (United States)

    Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.


    The Alarcon Rise is a ~50 km long intermediate-rate (~50mm/a) spreading center at the southern end of the Gulf of California. In Spring 2012, an MBARI-led expedition to Alarcon Rise mapped a ~1.5- 3km wide swath of the ridge axis at 1-m resolution and completed 9 dives with the ROV Doc Ricketts (Clague et al., this session). Pillow, lobate, and sheet flows occur along the entire axis. An inflated zone of the axis south of the midpoint along the Rise is dominated by a large sheet/lobate flow that erupted from en echelon fissures that extends for 8 km. This flow extends laterally away from the fissures for at least 2 km and covered nearly all prior flows and pillow mounds in its path. The middle of the segment contains a 1km across flat-topped volcano, virtually unmodified by fissures and faults, which dissect a 2.5 km across shield 5 km to the north. The NE and SW parts of the axis are characterized by more abundant pillow mounds and less voluminous sheet flows. Many of the pillow mounds, especially those in the northern third of the axis are small, steep sided mounds. Examination of sand and slit sized fractions of the basal cm of 87 cores collected by the ROV shows that basaltic pyroclasts with fluidal or bubble-wall (limu o Pele) morphologies are ubiquitous along the entire ridge. A rugged dome-like structure about 0.5x1.2kmx75m tall occurs about 9 km from the northern end of the ridge axis. Its crest is at a depth of 2330 m. Linear ridge-parallel faults and ridges cross-cut or terminate into the dome. These ridges extend several km both NE and SW along strike from the dome. Extensive sampling during two ROV dives shows that the entire dome is constructed of coarse blocky breccia and minor lineated flows of rhyolite. Dacite, andesite, and basaltic andesite flows occur on adjacent slopes to the north, south and west, and exhibit medium- to large-diameter pillow morphologies. Many of these flows and the flanks of the dome are mantled by abundant coarse- to fine

  11. 埕岛粉喷桩复合地基应力比试验%Experiment of pile-soil stress ratio of DJM pile composite foundation in Chengdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜庆智; 闫相祯; 江立群


    桩土应力比是反映桩体和桩间土协同工作的重要指标,也是复合地基承载力和沉降计算的重要参数,与地基土的物理力学性质密切相关,影响因素复杂.结合某大型工程,首次对埕岛软土上粉喷桩复合地基进行大型应力比试验,得到埕岛粉喷桩复合地基应力比随荷载、时间、褥垫层厚度、褥垫层刚度的变化规律,并进行有限元分析,对两种结果进行对比.结果表明:粉喷桩复合地基桩土应力比值没有时间效应;粉喷桩复合地基桩土应力比与褥垫层厚度负相关,一定厚度褥垫层可协调桩土工作,宜试验确定最佳厚度范围;应力比与褥垫层弹性模量正相关,模量达到某一值时桩土应力比不再变化,应根据桩体材料选用适当弹性模量褥垫材料;该地区粉喷桩复合地基桩土应力比主要分布在6.5~9.0.%Pile-soil stress ratio is a very important indicator to reflect the level of the together-work of the pile and soil, also a major parameter calculating bearing capacity of composite foundation and settlement, and it is interrelated with the physical and mechanical properties of the soil, whose influencing factor is also complicated. Combined with a large-scale project, the large stress ratio test to the DJM pile composite foundation in the soft clay of Chengdao was conducted. The regulations of the pile-soil stress ratio of DJM pile composite foundation with the change of load, time, thickness and stiffness of pillow in Chengdao region were obtained. The finite element analysis was carried out, and these two results were compared. The results show that there is no time effect to the pile-soil stress ratio of DJM pile composite foundation. The pile-soil stress ratio of DJM pile composite foundation is negative correlation to the thickness of pillow. The pillow with a certain thickness could coordinate the work of the pile-soil, and the best thickness range should be confirmed by

  12. Basaltic Magma-Water Interaction on Earth: Recognition Criteria To Aid Planetary Mapping on Mars (Invited) (United States)

    Skilling, I. P.; Graettinger, A. H.; Mercurio, E.; McGarvie, D.; Edwards, B. R.


    The interaction of basaltic magma with frozen/liquid water or wet sediment is a very common process on Earth, resulting in a wide array of explosively and non-explosively generated products at the micron to kilometre scale. A variety of products and edifices on Mars have also been interpreted as having formed by such interaction, but with the exception of rootless cones, such interpretations are rarely unequivocal. This talk focuses on terrestrial process recognition criteria at a scale, orientation (vertical) and erosion level that is relevant to Mars geological mapping. In this context, we emphasise intrusions with peperite margins and wide hydrothermal haloes, steep margins of ice-contact lava flows, subaerial-subaqueous lava delta transitions, lava domains with distinctive water-cooled jointing, edifices that are dominated by slumped and rotated beds, and the presence of surrounding fluvial deposits and erosion. The most common products of magma-water interaction on Earth are subaqueously emplaced lava flows, which are dominated by pillow lavas. Though pillows are not easy to distinguish from subaerial pahoehoe toes at the resolution of most remote imagery, they are commonly associated with distinctively jointed lava domains, which are usually on a larger scale, including areas of water-cooled jointing (curvicolumnar, blocky etc), lava-filled tubes, which often display radial jointing, and steep talus deposits of joint-block breccia. Subaqueous basaltic lavas emplaced in an ice-confined environment may also display near-vertical ice-contact margins, draped by curtains of elongate pillows or cavities formed from melting of included ice-blocks. Subaerial lava flows that transition into water also develop large-scale foreset-bedding close to the angle of repose, which should be easily visible, at least in oblique imagery. As the majority of the Martian surface is more deeply eroded than most areas of terrestrial basaltic volcanism, it is important to discuss

  13. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F. Raith


    Full Text Available At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium–magnesium salts (K-Mg salts carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt

  14. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.


    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  15. Geochemistry and petrology of andesites from the north rift zone of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Smithka, I. N.; Perfit, M. R.; Clague, D. A.; Wanless, V. D.


    In 2013, the ROV Doc Ricketts onboard R/V Western Flyer explored ~4 km of an elongate pillow ridge up to ~300 m high along the eastern edge of the north rift zone of Axial Seamount. The steep-sided volcanic ridge is constructed of large pillow lavas up to 2-3 m in diameter and smaller elongated pillow tubes. Of the 27 samples collected during dive D526, all but one are andesites making it one of the largest confirmed high-silica exposures along a mid-ocean ridge (MOR). Based on radiocarbon ages of sediment on top of flows, the mounds are at least ~1390 years old. This minimum age is much younger than the 56 Ka age calculated based on distance from the rift axis, indicating eruption off-axis through older, colder crust and supporting the hypothesis and model calculations that extensive fractional crystallization (>85%) caused the high silica content. The andesitic lavas are primarily glassy, highly vesicular, crusty, and sparsely phyric with small (~1 mm) plagioclase crystals and olivine, clinopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide microphenocrysts. Microprobe analyses of glasses are similar to wax-core samples previously collected from this area but are more compositionally variable. Excluding one basalt (7.7 wt% MgO) sampled between mounds, the lavas are basaltic andesites and andesites (53-59 wt% SiO2) with <3 wt% MgO and 12.8-15.7 wt% FeO concentrations. Incompatible trace element abundances are ~4-6 times more enriched than in Axial Seamount T-MORB. Primitive mantle-normalized patterns are similar to those of high-silica lavas from other MORs (southern Juan de Fuca Ridge, 9N East Pacific Rise) with significant positive U anomalies, large negative Sr anomalies, small negative Eu anomalies, and slight positive Zr-Hf anomalies. The andesites are more enriched in light rare earth elements than basalts from Axial Seamount ((La/Yb)N 1.35-1.4 vs. 0.7-1.27) and N-MORB from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The andesites also have high Cl (~0.3-0.6 wt%) and H2O (~1.60-1.71 wt

  16. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore


    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  17. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the NE Netherlands (United States)

    Raith, A. F.; Strozyk, F.; Visser, J.; Urai, J. L.


    The growth of salt structures is controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. The potassium-magnesium salts (K-Mg salts) carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than halite: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, intrasalt anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers) are much stronger than halite. These rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important control on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. In this study, we use high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, thus we are able to assess the role of extreme rheological heterogeneities on salt structure growth. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that faulting and the generation of depressions on the top Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under the influence of differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the

  18. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent


    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  19. Geologic mapping on the deep seafloor: Reconstructing lava flow emplacement and eruptive history at the Galápagos Spreading Center (United States)

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S.; Colman, A.; Sinton, J. M.; Bowles, J. A.


    The deep seafloor imposes significant difficulties on data collection that require the integration of multiple data sets and the implementation of unconventional geologic mapping techniques. We combine visual mapping of geological contacts by submersible with lava flow morphology maps and relative and absolute age constraints to create a spatiotemporal framework for examining submarine lava flow emplacement at the intermediate-spreading, hotspot-affected Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC). We mapped 18 lava flow fields, interpreted to be separate eruptive episodes, within two study areas at the GSC using visual observations of superposition, surface preservation and sediment cover from submersible and towed camera surveys, augmented by high-resolution sonar surveys and sample petrology [Colman et al., Effects of variable magma supply on mid-ocean ridge eruptions: Constraints from mapped lava flow fields along the Galápagos Spreading Center; 2012 G3]. We also mapped the lava flow morphology within the majority of these eruptive units using an automated, machine-learning classification method [McClinton et al., Neuro-fuzzy classification of submarine lava flow morphology; 2012 PE&RS]. The method combines detailed geometric, acoustic, and textural attributes derived from high-resolution sonar data with visual observations and a machine-learning algorithm to classify submarine lava flow morphology as pillows, lobates, or sheets. The resulting lava morphology maps are a valuable tool for interpreting patterns in the emplacement of submarine lava flows at a mid-ocean ridge (MOR). Within our study area at 92°W, where the GSC has a relatively high magma supply, high effusion rate sheet and lobate lavas are more abundant in the oldest mapped eruptive units, while the most recent eruptions mostly consist of low effusion rate pillow lavas. The older eruptions (roughly 400yrs BP by paleomagnetic intensity) extend up to 1km off axis via prominent channels and tubes, while the

  20. U-series data of recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge (Invited) (United States)

    van Calsteren, P. W.; Thomas, L. E.; Jc024 Shipboard Party


    The spreading rate of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, at the area around 45°N is 11mm/y. This is appropriate scaling for mantle horizontal flow and vertical upwelling. However, the accretion of oceanic crust within the median valley graben (MVG), occurs episodically on timescales much longer than years. During the 2008 JC024 cruise various geophysical and bathymetry datasets were collected as well as photographic and video evidence and some 270 rock samples, using ship-borne instruments, a deep-towed platform TOBI and a tethered ROV Isis both in demersal mode and 'flying' at 100m above the seafloor. We1 could identify the overall 'hour-glass' shape of the MVG, the location of the AVR, 'flat-top' features and some smooth areas on either side. Overall we1 counted some 8000 conical or dome-shaped hummocks, which are arranged in lineaments, mostly parallel to the spreading axis. We1 deduced that each hummock is an individual monogenetic volcano. Smooth areas between the AVR and the median valley boundary faults may indicate sheet flows which are probably burying the subsiding hummocks. For Dive 91, we1 used a MS2000 high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry echo-sounder on Isis flying at an altitude of 100m above the seafloor; to construct a bathymetry map with a vertical resolution of 20cm and a horizontal precision of 5m over an area of ˜3km2. The high-resolution bathymetry allows us to deduce that volcano dimensions average around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume and to count ˜100 volcanoes. Visual observations using the camera systems on Isis showed that individual volcanoes are essentially piles of pillow lavas, usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long of various types, sometimes leaving >10% gaps between pillows, sometimes interlocking somewhat deformed pillows. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on some pillows, could be fairly easily broken off using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. Uncertainty remains

  1. Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.


    The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

  2. Rodingitization and carbonization processes in Triassic ultramafic cumulates and lavas, Othris Mt, Central Greece (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Magganas, Andreas; Economou, Georgios


    A Triassic magmatic sequence from the south Othris region is comprised of early stage basaltic pillow lavas, as well as late stage ultramafic rocks, lava flows, high-Mg doleritic dykes and pyroclastic tuffs. The ultramafic rocks include slightly serpentinized wehrlites and lavas consisting of cumulate olivine, variably textured clinopyroxene (cumulate, quench, hollow, skeletal or blade shaped), magnesiohornblende, tremolite, phlogopite, spinel, chlorite, garnet, serpentine, calcite and devitrified glass[1]. Part of their secondary mineralogy developed due to percolation of metasomatic fluids during rodingitization and carbonization processes. In ultramafic rocks from Agia Marina and Mili, rodingitization was rather penetratively and expressed with crystallization of hydrogarnets, accompanied by secondary diopside and chlorite. Hydrogarnets are characterized by their low Ti-contents (recycling thermal carbonated seawater, leached from the rifted Triassic platform carbonates. References. [1] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Ntaflos 2012: Lithos 144-145, 177-193; [2] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis, Ntaflos 2013: Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

  3. Pediculosis palpebrarum initially diagnosed as blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ebeigbe


    Full Text Available Pediculosis is an infestation of lice. Eyelid involvement is uncommon, but can be caused by pediculus humanus capitis (head louse, rarely by  pediculus humanus corporis (body louse and commonly by phthirus pubis (pubic louse. Signs and symptoms are similar to those of blepharitis. A diagnosis of any type of pediculosis requires the finding of live specimen of lice and/or a viable nit.The immediate and effective treatment of pediculosis palpebrarum is removal of the lice and nits manually with forceps and treating the patient withvaseline, twice daily for seven to ten days. Also, fomites such as pillow cases, bedsheets, towels and hats  need to be washed in hot water and dried. This is to avoid further spread of lice or reinfestation.

  4. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment. (United States)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Andersen, Leif Percival


    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys.

  5. Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan, Southern Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viniegra-O, F.


    Since 1972, numerous large and giant oil fields have been discovered in the Reforma area of Chiapas and Tabasco States, southern Mexico, and on the offshore Campeche shelf west of Campeche State. The huge carbonate bank with which these discoveries are associated is called the Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan. Present trap structures are mainly fractured and faulted domal salt pillows created during the Laramide orogeny. The Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan is believed to include not just the Yucatan Peninsula, but also a part of coastal Veracruz State, where several discoveries have been made in carbonate rocks of Early to Middle Cretaceous ages in thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, which are now buried beneath the coastal plain. It is probable that large, subthrust, anticlinal structures underlie the thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, and these when drilled, may contain important hydrocarbon accumulations. (JMT)

  6. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke;


    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of eczema suggests the role of environmental factors triggering a genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of environmental exposures in early life and genetic predisposition on the development of eczema before age 3 years. METHODS...... assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat...... and dog at home; feather pillow; nicotine in infant's hair; and temperature and humidity in bedroom. RESULTS: Eczema developed in 43.5% of the infants. Filaggrin mutation (odds ratio [OR], 3.20; 95% CI, 1.46-7.02; P = .004), mother's eczema (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63; P

  7. A perfect launch viewed across Banana Creek (United States)


    Space Shuttle Discovery seems to burst forth from a pillow of smoke as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-92 to the International Space Station. The brilliant light from the solid rocket booster flames is reflected in nearby water. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 7:17 p.m. EDT, sending a crew of seven on the 100th launch in the history of the Shuttle program. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  8. Estructura y organización de las coladas submarinas: características de las lavas almohadilladas de edad cretácica que afloran en la Cordillera Vasco- Cantábrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, A.


    Full Text Available In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, an important submarine volcanic activity of alkaline character was developed during the upper Cretaceous. This vulcanism was related to a rift and/or transform fault in the continental crust associated to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. Pillow lava flows are noteworthy among the other volcanic materials by their volume and excellent preservation state. The lava flows are formed by the pile up of small flow-and cooling units, i.e. tubes or lava tubes, characterized by: i coarse cylindrical morphology with abundant constrictions, ii diameter less than 1 meter in a transversal section, iii smooth or striated surface, iv concentric and/or radial internal structure, and iv the branches and direction changes during the outflow. Lava flows/tubes shape and surface characteristics depend on the viscosity, effusion rate and the thickness of quenched crust during growth. The Tubes are moted directly on feeder dykes or are connected in tabular flows. The expanding and advancement of the tubes was the result of stretching or breaking of the quenched surface crust and spreading of the molten lava from the interior. Stretching features and cracks appear mainly at the flow front, but lobes of lava developed from the top and the flanks of the tubes are not uncommon. Only scarce pillowed lavas are truly isolated magma sacks separated from their sources. Related to the tabular flows and the biggest pillow lavas, some breccias were occasionally formed by the gravitational collapse of the roof of the draining tunnels.Durante el Cretácico superior se desarrolló en la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica una importante actividad volcánica submarina de naturaleza alcalina. Este vulcanismo estuvo relacionado con el funcionamiento de un rift y/o una falla transformante en corteza continental asociado a la apertura del Atlántico Norte. Entre los productos volcánicos destacan, por su notable volumen y excelente grado de preservación, las

  9. An overview of the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean (ca. 3075) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Frei, Robert; Appel, P.W.U.;


    -silicate metasomatism, between 3075 and 2961 Ma. The trace element systematics of the least altered rocks are consistent with a subduction zone geodynamic setting. On the basis of lithological similarities between the Ivisaartoq greenstone belt and Phanerozoic forearc/backarc ophiolites, and intra-oceanic island arcs......, we suggest that the Ivisaartoq greenstone belt represents a relic of dismembered Mesoarchean suprasubduction zone oceanic crust. The Sm-Nd isotope system appears to have remained relatively undisturbed in picrites, tholeiitic pillow lavas, gabbros, and diorites. As a group, picrites have more...... depleted initial Nd isotopic signatures ( Nd = +4.2 to +5.0) than gabbros, diorites, and tholeiitic basalts ( Nd = +0.3 to +3.1), consistent with a strongly depleted mantle source. In some areas gabbros include up to 15 cm long white inclusions (xenoliths). These inclusions are composed primarily (>90...

  10. Imaging designs of occipitocervical fusion for reversed transplantation of occipital outer plate flap%枕骨外板翻转行枕颈融合术的影像学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 王文军


    Objective By analyzing and measuring adult pillow neck midline sagittal CT image data and to investigate preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap. Methods Ninety pillow neck sagittal CT image datas from the patients un-derwent CT examination in Hengyang Center Hospital from August to November in 2013 were conducted preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap by method A(through 1 cm above the midpoint of the trailing edge of the foramen magnum,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image)and method B(through pillow inside and outside carina midpoint,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image) respectively. It was determined the feasibility of methods A and B and to obtain preoperative imaging parameters of the flipping of the occipital outer plate through the measurement of relevant indicators of methods A and B. Results There was statistical significance between the flip ratio (desired flap length/maximum flap length available )according to method A or B and the maximum flip ratio(100%)(P0.05). There was statistical significance between methods A and B to flip the occipital outer plate for the same person(P<0.05). Conclusion Both methods A and B are feasible,and method B is better than A. Preoperative measurement of the pillow neck sagittal CT can provide imaging parameters for the intraoperative flip-ping of occipital outer plate.%目的:测量及分析成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT,探讨枕骨外板翻转的术前设计。方法选取2013年8~11月在衡阳市中心医院行CT检查的90例健康成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT影像资料,分别用甲法(经枕骨大孔后缘中点上方1 cm处作板障圆弧的切线)及乙法(经枕内外隆凸连线中点作板障圆弧的切线)进行枕骨外板翻转的术前设计,通过对2种设计相关指标的测量,比较甲、乙法的可行性及枕骨外板翻转的影像学参数。结果成人依据甲法或乙法的翻转比值(所需骨瓣长度/可获取最大

  11. Obtaining procedure for hydrophilic super-absorbents. The patent RO 115 805/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ionizing and non ionizing radiation to obtain polymeric super-absorbents which have the swelling capacity between 100-800 gram/gram, mechanical resistance, 7 years of preservation in soils and an extremely reduced content in residual monomers (5 ppm) is described. It is used: - in soil management, environmental protection and work protection of radioactive, toxic, dangerous liquid substance manipulation, for treatment, recycling and storing in case of accidental spreading; - in treatment of solid waste (as mixed with polyurethane granules), as rolls, pillows or in bulk form (granules and powder), for interventions for oil and derivates recovery in case of accidental spreading on water or soil surface. We mention that these hydrophilic absorbents have been certified and licensed sanitarily for use. (author)

  12. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples. (United States)

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J


    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  13. Composition and formation of Palaeozoic Erlangping ophiolitic slab, North Qinling: Evidence from geology and geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勇; 卢欣祥; 韩松; 张国伟


    The analyses based on the protolith formation, metamorphic and deformation reveal that the Erlangping Group is composed of different lithological slices, without any significance in stratigraphy. It is therefore to discard the Erlangping Group into the Damiao slab, the Erlangping ophiolitic slab and the Xiaozhai slab. The Erlangping ophiolitic slab only includes the former Huoshenmiao Formation and it is mainly composed of massive basalts, pillow basalts, sheet dikes, gabbro and a few of ultramafic intrusions with patches of plagiogranite, overlain by radiolarian silicolites. A lot of microfossils were discovered in the silicolites that mark the Erlangping ophiolitic slab mainly formed in the Early to Middle Ordovician. In geochemistry, most of the basalts and diabase dikes are consistent with N-MORB except a few of samples effected by alteration. The Erlangping ophiolitic slab represents a remnant piece of ancient ocean crust which is most suitable to a back-arc basin setting. A mean 207Pb/206Pb age of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL


    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  15. Evaluation of skin colouring properties of curcuma longa extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Arct


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin colouring properties of curcuma extract in cosmetic formulations. Objective measurements of the skin colour changes were done by Chromameter using the CIE LFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 colour space parameters. These measurements were correlated with the results of the sensory analysis. The observations showed permanent, visible and statistically significant changing of bFNx01 component after one application of emulsions containing 12% and 25% of turmeric extract. The change of skin color remained also after removing the emulsion. Sensory analysis indicated that the tested emulsions with curcuma extract have a significant impact on skin smoothness, spreadability, cosmetic absorption and pillow effect.

  16. Feasible metabolisms in high pH springs of the Philippines. (United States)

    Cardace, Dawn; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Woycheese, Kristin M; Arcilla, Carlo A


    A field campaign targeting high pH, H2-, and CH4-emitting serpentinite-associated springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to rank feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs between sampling years, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms. In all, this geochemistry-based assessment of feasible metabolisms indicates methane cycling, hydrogen oxidation, some iron and sulfur metabolisms, and ammonia oxidation are feasible reactions in this continental site of serpentinization.

  17. Feasible Metabolic Schema Associated with High pH Springs in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A field campaign targeting high pH springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to evaluate feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms.

  18. Geosphere migration of radionuclides released from a rock-salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch safety assessment and evaluation study on the disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations concerns possible release of radionuclides from repositories in such formations, migration of these nuclides via groundwater through the geosphere, and the effects of surface release on the biosphere. With the METROPOL computer programme radionuclide migration through the geosphere was simulated in one-dimensional models of the typical flowpaths for migration to the surface, taking into account the processes of radioactive decay and adsorption of the nuclides at the rock matrix. Typical flowpaths were obtained from two-dimensional geohydrological models of the overburden for three typical situations in the study area, i.e., bedded salt, salt pillows, and shallow salt domes. Results were expressed in terms of time-dependent surface release curves for all nuclides concerned. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. High and Low Temperature Gold Mineralizations in the Fe–Cu–Zn Sulfide Deposits of Corchia Ophiolite, Northern Italian Apennine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccarini Federica


    Full Text Available Gold has been found in the Cyprus-type volcanogenic massive sulfide ore (VMS deposits of Corchia ophiolite (Parma province, Italy in the Cantiere Donnini, Speranza and Pozzo mining sites. At Cantiere Donnini and Speranza, the mineralization occurs at the contact between pillow lava and sedimentary rocks. The Pozzo mineralization is hosted by a serpentinite. Concentrations of gold up to 3070 ppb have been reported for the Cantiere Donnini and up to 6295 ppb in the Pozzo mine. According to the field relationships, gold composition, mineralogical assemblage and sulfur isotope data, we can conclude that two different types of gold mineralization have been recognized in the Corchia ophiolite: (1 formed at low temperature in submarine environment (Cantiere Donnini and Speranza and (2 formed at high temperature in the oceanic mantle (Pozzo by segregation of an immiscible sulfide liquid.

  20. Correction of the field distortion in embedded laser marking system (United States)

    Wang, Dongyun; Yu, Qiwei; Ye, Xinpiao


    Because of inherent and random errors, the pillow-shaped and barrel-shaped distortions are occurred in the embedded laser marking system. These seriously affect marking quality. However, the existed correcting approaches are almost all used on PC based laser marking controller. They require very high processing speeds of the processor which cannot be satisfied in the embedded controller. In order to find a suitable method, the causes of distortions were analyzed deeply. After that, a linear compensation method is put forward herein. It needs to determine two coefficients by standard process and tries to improve the marking quality by compensating the marking data before converted to voltage by digital-to-analogue converter. It is not complex as the PC based one, but can correct the distortions to some extent. Experiments show that this method can efficiently decrease the distortions and improve the marking quality.

  1. About the book by Riitta V. Lahtinen and Russ C. Palmer. The Body Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomatina I.V.


    Full Text Available The study carried out by a married couple, specialists in the sphere of deafblindness (one of whom has got an Usher syndrome, is devoted to the development of means of non-verbal communication and music perception for people with double sensory defect — deafblindness. Russ Palmer is a professional musician who had lost his hearing capacity under the influence of Usher syndrome. At present together with his wife he is inventing new ways of widening the contacts with the external world for people who found themselves in the same difficult situation. The authors of the book prove that any welfare item like a pillow or a toy balloon can sometimes dramatically change the situation for better.

  2. Static magnetotherapy for the treatment of insomnia. (United States)

    Shieh, Yao Y; Tsai, Fong Y


    Magnets have been used for centuries to treat a number of physical disorders. The vast majority of research, however, on static magnet therapy for insomnia has been confined to the auricular type of therapy, with publications limited to Chinese journals. Most of these studies have depended on the subjective self-assessment of participants rather than objective scientific measurements. In this study, the authors report the positive preliminary results of insomnia treatment using pillows with embedded magnets, magnetic insoles and TriPhase bracelets. The analysis is based on objective actigraphic and polysomnographic data. A theory of accelerated transition from wakefulness to sleep is proposed to explain the process of insomnia relief through low-strength static magnetic fields. Analysis by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to further investigate the theory. PMID:19174368

  3. An electronic communication system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients - biomed 2013. (United States)

    Murakami, Atsushi; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Patients with the disease lose their ability to speak and to use their hands as the disease progresses. We have developed a new electronic communication system that enables communication by blinking of the eyes. The system consists of a light emitting diode (LED), two silicone rubber electrodes, an electrooculogram (EOG) recorder, a microcontroller, a sound reproduction board, a pillow speaker and a low power mobile phone. The two silicone rubber electrodes record the EOG induced by blinking the eyes synchronized with LED flashing. The EOG is amplified by the EOG recorder. The microcontroller detects the blinking from the amplified EOG, and then their meanings are confirmed by voice. After that, the patient’s intention is transmitted to the nurse by a low power mobile phone so the care giver is kept in the loop.

  4. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Brazinski


    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  5. Development of a new antibacterial biomaterial by tetracycline immobilization on calcium-alginate beads. (United States)

    Ozseker, Emine Erdogan; Akkaya, Alper


    In recent years, increasing risk of infection, caused by resistant microorganism to antibiotics, has become the limelight discovery of new and natural antibacterial materials. Heavy metals, such as silver, copper, mercury and titanium, have antibacterial activity. Products, which improved these metals, do not have stable antibacterial property. Therefore, use of these products is restricted. The aim of this study was to immobilize tetracycline to alginate and improve an antibacterial biomaterial. For this purpose, calcium-alginate beads were formed by dropping to calcium-chloride solution and tetracycline was immobilized to beads using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide at optimum conditions. After immobilization, actualization of immobilization was investigated by analyzing ATR-FTIR spectrum and SEM images. Also, antibacterial property of obtained product was tested. Improved product demonstrated antibacterial property. It has potential for open wound, surgical drapes, bed and pillow sheath in hospitals and it may also be used for increasing human comfort in daily life. PMID:27474587

  6. Morphotectonics of the Carlsberg Ridge between 62 degrees 20 minutes and 66 degrees 20 minutes E, northwest Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Chaubey, A.K.; Amarnath, D.; Mudholkar, A.

    °31.080′ 2080 5. 03°48.910′ 63°21.031′ 4400 5, 6, 7, 8 — Fresh pillow basalts 6. 03°47.283′ 63°28.977′ 3600 7. 03°54.704′ 63°03.375′ 3012 8. 04°13.977′ 62°40.769′ 3768 9. 03°42.574′ 63°50.560′ 3800 9 — Serpentinites with different macroscopic characters. 10. 03... section with the deepest valley floor, while the shallowest valley floor is documented in Segment III. A well-defined transform fault separates Segment III from Segment IV. The average depth along each segment (Fig. 2) indicates that Segment I and Fig. 2. a...

  7. Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks in the Khabr-Marvast Tectonized Ophiolite: Evidence for Subduction Processes in the South-Western Margin of Central Iranian Microcontinent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Late Cretaceous Khabr-Marvast tectonized ophiolite is located in the middle part of the Nain-Baft ophiolite belt, at the south-western edge of the central Iranian microcontinent. Although all the volcanic rocks in the study area indicate subduction-related magmatism (e.g. high LILE (large ion lithophile elements)/ HFSE (high field strenght elements) ratios and negative anomalies in Nb and Ta), geological and geochemical data clearly distinguish two distinct groups of volcanic rocks in the tectonized association: (1) group 1 is comprised of hyaloclustic breccias, basaltic pillow iavas, and andesite sheet flows. These rocks represent the Nain-Baft oceanic crust; and (2) group 2 is alkaline iavas from the top section of the ophiolite suite. These lavas show shoshonite affinity, but do not support the propensity of ophiolite.

  8. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment. (United States)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Andersen, Leif Percival


    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys. PMID:26591334

  9. Some recent observations on the radiation behavior of uranium silicide dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, G.L.


    Addition of B{sub 4}C burnable poison results in higher plate swelling in both U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and U{sub 3}Si-Al dispersion fuel plates and also decreases the blister threshold temperature of these plates. Prolonged annealing of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuel plates produced no blister after 696 hours at 400{degrees}C. Blister formation started between 257 hours and 327 hours at 425{degrees}C and between 115 hours and 210 hours at 450{degrees}C. Operation with breached cladding resulted in pillowing of an U{sub 3}Si-Al fuel plate due to reaction of the fuel core with coolant water. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation - Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates (United States)

    Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Rice, F. J.; Kraft, N. C.; Taylor, S. C.; Lillo, M.; Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G. A.


    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008-2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm2 peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm3 peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  11. New slim automotive taillight using HiPerVision lamps (United States)

    Haenen, Ludo; Ansems, Johan; Schuurmans, Jelle; de Montureux, Philippe


    HiPerVision is a new automotive signaling range of lamps (clear and colored) developed by Philips. These lamps offer car life service, reduced size and - consequently - new design opportunities. HiPerVision aims at progressively replacing P21W lamps and at being an economic alternative to LEDs. All lamp dimensions are significantly smaller than P21W's. The HiPerVision 16W lamp produces less heat than the P21W lamp (9 W less dissipation at 13.5 V), what enables a reduced reflector size, the use of low cost plastic or a combination of both. With a luminous flux of 300 lm (instead of 460 lm for P21W), the legal requirements can be easily fulfilled because of the smaller dimensions and tolerances. In order to illustrate the lamps benefits, a complete automotive taillight with 4 functions was designed and made. This paper describes the reflector design process for that taillight with HiPerVision. According to a current styling trend, the reflectors are based on Pillow Shaped Facets and on a clear front lens with no optical structure. With this design method, the whole reflector area is filled with sparkling light. The basic shape of the reflector was used to optimize heat management. By changing the shape and/or number of the pillows the desired light distribution was made. The HiPerVision lamp was measured with a Luminance Goniometer. The measurements were converted to ASAP ray sets as input for accurate simulations. The legal requirements were easily met which was confirmed by actual measurements. The total depth of the complete designed taillight was 53 mm, which is small compared to existing P21W based designs. If the lamp is placed transversal the requirements are still met and the depth of the complete taillight could be reduced to 33 mm, which is comparable with a taillight based on LEDs.

  12. Indian Ocean-MORB-type isotopic signature of Yushigou ophiolite in North Qilian Mountains and its implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Qingye; ZHAO; Zhidan; ZHANG; Hongfei; ZHANG; Benren; CHEN; Yuelong


    In order to explore the disputed issue concerning the tectonic affinity of the ancient ocean mantle of North Qilian Mountains (NQM), geochemical and Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic compositions of pillow basalts of the Yushigou Ophiolite (YSGO) suite from NQM have been analyzed systematically. The pillow basalts exhibit tholeiitic characteristics, with flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 0.98―1.27). They display no Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf negative anomalies, and show MORB features in 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and Ti/100-Zr-Y×3 tectonic discrimination diagrams. These results indicate that the Yushigou ophiolite is most likely to be formed in a mid-ocean ridge or mature back-arc basin. Their isotopic data show a relatively broad and enriched 87Sr/86Sr (0.70509―0.70700), restricted 143Nd/144Nd (0.512955―0.512978). Pb isotopes are in the range of 206Pb/204Pb (18.054―20.562), 207Pb/204Pb (15.537―15.743) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.068―38.530). These isotopic data imply that the basalts originated from the depleted mantle (DMM), with the involvement of enriched mantle components (mainly EMII). Geochemical comparisons between the basalts in YSGO and the MORB-type basalts of ophiolite suites occurring in the known ancient Tethyan tectonic domain indicate that the ancient oceanic mantle represented by YSGO suite forming in early Paleozoic in the North Qilian Moutains is very similar to the Tethyan mantle in both trace elements and isotopic compositions. The North Qilian Mountains should be a part of the Tethyan tectonic domain in early Paleozoic. This further implies that the Tethyan tectonic domain can be deduced to early Paleozoic in the study area, which will be helpful to discussing the tectonic affinity and evolution of the North Qilian Mountains.

  13. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond


    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  14. Volcano-sedimentary processes operating on a marginal continental arc: the Archean Raquette Lake Formation, Slave Province, Canada (United States)

    Mueller, W. U.; Corcoran, P. L.


    The 200-m thick, volcano-sedimentary Raquette Lake Formation, located in the south-central Archean Slave Province, represents a remnant arc segment floored by continental crust. The formation overlies the gneissic Sleepy Dragon Complex unconformably, is laterally interstratified with subaqueous mafic basalts of the Cameron River volcanic belt, and is considered the proximal equivalent of the turbidite-dominated Burwash Formation. A continuum of events associated with volcanism and sedimentation, and controlled by extensional tectonics, is advocated. A complex stratigraphy with three volcanic and three sedimentary lithofacies constitute the volcano-sedimentary succession. The volcanic lithofacies include: (1) a mafic volcanic lithofacies composed of subaqueous pillow-pillow breccia, and subaerial massive to blocky flows, (2) a felsic volcanic lithofacies representing felsic flows that were deposited in a subaerial environment, and (3) a felsic volcanic sandstone lithofacies interpreted as shallow-water, wave- and storm-reworked pyroclastic debris derived from explosive eruptions. The sedimentary lithofacies are represented by: (1) a conglomerate-sandstone lithofacies consistent with unconfined debris flow, hyperconcentrated flood flow and talus scree deposits, as well as minor high-energy stream flow conglomerates that formed coalescing, steep-sloped, coarse-clastic fan deltas, (2) a sandstone lithofacies, interpreted as hyperconcentrated flood flow deposits that accumulated at the subaerial-subaqueous interface, and (3) a mudstone lithofacies consistent with suspension sedimentation in a small restricted lagoon-type setting. The Raquette Lake Formation is interpreted as a fringing continental arc that displays both high-energy clastic sedimentation and contemporaneous effusive and explosive mafic and felsic volcanism. Modern analogues that develop along active plate margins in which continental crust plays a significant role include Japan and the Baja California

  15. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  16. Microscale mapping of alteration conditions and potential biosignatures in basaltic-ultramafic rocks on early Earth and beyond. (United States)

    Grosch, Eugene G; McLoughlin, Nicola; Lanari, Pierre; Erambert, Muriel; Vidal, Olivier


    Subseafloor environments preserved in Archean greenstone belts provide an analogue for investigating potential subsurface habitats on Mars. The c. 3.5-3.4 Ga pillow lava metabasalts of the mid-Archean Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, have been argued to contain the earliest evidence for microbial subseafloor life. This includes candidate trace fossils in the form of titanite microtextures, and sulfur isotopic signatures of pyrite preserved in metabasaltic glass of the c. 3.472 Ga Hooggenoeg Formation. It has been contended that similar microtextures in altered martian basalts may represent potential extraterrestrial biosignatures of microbe-fluid-rock interaction. But despite numerous studies describing these putative early traces of life, a detailed metamorphic characterization of the microtextures and their host alteration conditions in the ancient pillow lava metabasites is lacking. Here, we present a new nondestructive technique with which to study the in situ metamorphic alteration conditions associated with potential biosignatures in mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation. Our approach combines quantitative microscale compositional mapping by electron microprobe with inverse thermodynamic modeling to derive low-temperature chlorite crystallization conditions. We found that the titanite microtextures formed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies conditions. Two chlorite temperature groups were identified in the maps surrounding the titanite microtextures and record peak metamorphic conditions at 315 ± 40°C (XFe3+(chlorite) = 25-34%) and lower-temperature chlorite veins/microdomains at T = 210 ± 40°C (lower XFe3+(chlorite) = 40-45%). These results provide the first metamorphic constraints in textural context on the Barberton titanite microtextures and thereby improve our understanding of the local preservation conditions of these potential biosignatures. We suggest that this approach may prove to be an important tool in future

  17. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashima Saikia; Bibhuti Gogoi; Mansoor Ahmad; Talat Ahmad


    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, crosscutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  18. Detection of high-silica lava flows and lava morphology at the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California, Mexico using automated classification of the morphological-compositional relationship in AUV multibeam bathymetry and sonar backscatter (United States)

    Maschmeyer, C.; White, S. M.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.


    An automated compositional classification by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed to study volcanic processes that create high-silica lava at oceanic ridges. The objective of this research is to determine the existence of a relationship between lava morphology and composition. Researchers from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) recorded morphologic observations and collected samples for geochemical analysis during ROV dives at the Alarcon Rise in 2012 and 2015. The Alarcon Rise is a unique spreading ridge environment where composition ranges from basaltic to rhyolitic, making it an ideal location to examine the compositional-morphologic relationship of lava flows. Preliminary interpretation of field data indicates that high-silica lavas are typically associated with 3-5 m, blocky pillows at the heavily faulted north end of the Alarcon. Visual analysis of multibeam bathymetry and side-scan sonar backscatter from MBARI AUV D. Allen B. and gridded at 1 m suggests that lava flow morphology (pillow, lobate, sheet) can be distinguished by seafloor roughness. Bathymetric products used by ANFIS to quantify the morphologic-compositional relationship were slope, aspect, and bathymetric position index (BPI, a measure of local height relative to the adjacent terrain). Sonar backscatter intensity is influenced by surface roughness and previously used to distinguish lava morphology. Gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were applied to backscatter to create edge-detection filters that recognized faults and fissures. Input data are slope, aspect, bathymetric value, BPI at 100 m scale, BPI at 500 m scale, backscatter intensity, and the first principle component of backscatter GLCM. After lava morphology was classified on the Alarcon Rise map, another classification was completed to detect locations of high-silica lava. Application of an expert classifier like ANFIS to distinguish lava composition may become an important tool in oceanic

  19. Archean hydrothermal oceanic floor sedimentary environments: DXCL drilling project of the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, Pilbara, Australia (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Suganuma, Y.


    Many place in Archean greenstone belts have been reported of the black chert to Iron rich sediments above volcanic sequence. The chemical sedimentary sequence has been recognized to form by as hydrothermal siliceous sequence. These sediments contain the hint to understand the Archean ocean and earth surface environments. Here, we will focus the Dixon Island and Cleaverville formations, which are one of the best preserved Archean hydrothermal sedimentary sequence in the world, to recognized detail stratigraphy and restored deep ocean environment. We did scientific drilling, which is called ‘DXCL drilling project’, at 2007 summer. This drilling project had been selected two coastal sites; CL site at lower part of the Cleaverville Formation, and another is DX site at the upper Dixon Island Formation. A systematic combinations of geological, sedimentological, geochemical, and geobiological approaches will be applied to the fresh samples. Here we will show the recent result of this sequence, which will be key evidence to understand the nature of the middle Archean (3.2 Ga) marine environment influenced by hydrothermal activity. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island -Cleaverville formations composed of volcanic rock units and chemical-volcanosedimentary sequence which are identified by accreted immature island arc setting. The ~350m-thick Dixon Island Formation which is overlie by pillow basalt consists mainly of highly silicified volcanic-siliceous sequences that contain apparent microbial mats and bacterial fossil-like structure within black chert and also includes a komatiite-rhyolite sequences bearing hydrothermal veins. The >300m-thick Cleaverville Formation, which conformably overlay pillow basalt, contains a thick unit of reddish shale, bedded red-white chert and banded iron formation. It partly contains chert fragments-bearing pyroclastic beds. In detail lithology from the drill cores, the CL and DX contain different type of organic rocks. The CL 1 and CL2 core samples

  20. Geology and Petrology of the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Anthony, E. Y.; Bloomer, S. H.; Girard, G.; Ishizuka, O.; Kelley, K. A.; Manton, W. I.; Martinez, F.; Merle, S. G.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ren, M.; Stern, R. J.


    The southernmost Mariana convergent margin is tectonically and magmatically very active, with submarine arc volcanoes that are sub-parallel to the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge backarc spreading center at ~110km from the trench axis. This activity reflects widening of the S. Mariana Trough. Stretching formed 3 southeast-facing, broad rifts extending from the trench to an extinct arc volcano chain (~80km from the trench axis) that is mostly composed of outcrops and fragments of pillow lavas partially covered by sediments. The 3 rifts comprise the S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) and are 50-56km long and 3600 to 8200m deep, with axial valleys that narrow near the extinct arc. We studied the SEMFR using one Shinkai 6500 dive in 2008 and two Shinkai 6500 dives and 7 deep-tows in 2010. Near the trench, the SEMFR flanks are very steep and dominated by talus slopes of lava, fine-grained gabbro, diabase and peridotite, sometimes covered by thin volcaniclastic sediments. Few outcrops of pillow lavas, lava flows and volcaniclastics are observed, strongly suggesting that SEMFR morphology is dominated by faulting and landsliding. Lava outcrops are smoother and better preserved towards the extinct arc, suggesting that magmatic activity dominates that part of the rift. 40Ar-39Ar ages of 3 SEMFR lavas are 3.0-3.7Ma, so post-magmatic rifting is younger than ~3Ma. SEMFR pillow lavas are vesicular and microporphyritic with crystallite-rich glassy rinds, indicating they erupted underwater at near-liquidus conditions. In contrast, the lava flows are more crystallized and less vesicular. SEMFR lavas exhibit similar ranges in mineral composition with 2 kinds of plagioclase (An>80% and An90 and Fo<90), suggesting magma mixing. Gabbroic rocks are slightly altered and have olivine and clinopyroxene compositions similar to those of the lavas, but contain less anorthitic plagioclase with a wider range in composition (An20-70) than the lavas. One sample of the extinct arc lava is vesicular and

  1. Lava Flow Ages and Geologic Mapping on Mid-ocean Ridges (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.


    Geologic mapping of mid-ocean ridges has been hindered by a lack of high-resolution bathymetry and age data. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) with multibeam sonars now produce maps with 1-m resolution. MBARI has collected data since 2006 along the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges, including the 1998 eruptions in summit caldera and upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount, the 1993 and 1982-1991 eruptions on the CoAxial segment, the 1986 pillow mounds and “young sheet flow” on the north Cleft segment, the 1996 eruption on the North Gorda segment, and part of the Endeavour Ridge. The 1-m data allows identification of flow internal structure, boundaries, and emplacement sequences using superposition and abundance of fissures. Geologic maps of young volcanoes on land are constructed using the same principles, constrained by observations of flow contacts and 14C age dates on charcoal from beneath flow margins. In the deep sea, we collect sediment on top of the flows that contains planktic and benthic foraminifera that can be dated using AMS 14C dating. We sampled sediment on flows from the Axial, CoAxial, and North Cleft areas using 30-cm long pushcores deployed from remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The coring is done with collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition. Cores are inserted until they hit the underlying lava and can be recovered between pillow lobes when the sediment is >~10 cm thick. We recover the basal 1 cm of sediment, sieve to recover foraminifera, and hand-pick for 14C dating. The North Gorda neovolcanic zone at ~3150 m lacks carbonate sediment and therefore ages. Ages of planktic foraminifera are marine calibrated in years before present (aBP). Benthic foraminifera are calibrated against planktic foraminifera from 5 samples. 14C ages obtained from basal sediment from over 40 sites represent minimum ages as there is probably a small amount of unrecovered basal sediment. Ages

  2. Earthquake-related Tectonic Deformation of Soft-sediments and Its Constraints on Basin Tectonic Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hongbo; ZHANG Yuxu; ZHANG Qiling; XIAO Jiafei


    The authors introduced two kinds of newly found soft-sediment deformation-syn-sedimentary extension structure and syn-sedimentary compression structure, and discuss their origins and constraints on basin tectonic evolution. One representative of the syn-sedimentary extension structure is syn-sedimentary boudinage structure, while the typical example of the syn-sedimentary compression structure is compression sand pillows or compression wrinkles. The former shows NW-SE-trending contemporaneous extension events related to earthquakes in the rift basin near a famous Fe-Nb-REE deposit in northern China during the Early Paleozoic (or Mesoproterozoic as proposed by some researches), while the latter indicates NE-SW-trending contemporaneous compression activities related to earthquakes in the Middle Triassic in the Nanpanjiang remnant basin covering south Guizhou, northwestern Guangxi and eastern Yunnan in southwestern China. The syn-sedimentary boudinage structure was found in an earthquake slump block in the lower part of the Early Paleozoic Sailinhudong Group, 20 km to the southeast of Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, north of China. The slump block is composed of two kinds of very thin layers-pale-gray micrite (microcrystalline limestone) of 1-2 cm thick interbedded with gray muddy micrite layers with the similar thickness. Almost every thin muddy micrite layer was cut into imbricate blocks or boudins by abundant tiny contemporaneous faults, while the interbedded micrite remain in continuity. Boudins form as a response to layer-parallel extension (and/or layer-perpendicular flattening) of stiff layers enveloped top and bottom by mechanically soft layers. In this case, the imbricate blocks cut by the tiny contemporaneous faults are the result of abrupt horizontal extension of the crust in the SE-NW direction accompanied with earthquakes. Thus, the rock block is, in fact, a kind of seismites. The syn-sedimentary boudins indicate that there was at least a strong earthquake

  3. Geology of the Alarcón Rise Based on 1-m Resolution Bathymetry and ROV Observations and Sampling (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.; Portner, R. A.; Bowles, J. A.; Castillo, P. R.; Dreyer, B. M.; Guardado-France, R.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Rivera-Huerta, H.; Santa Rosa-del Rio, M.; Spelz-Madero, R.


    Alarcón Rise is a ~50 km-long segment of the northernmost East Pacific Rise, bounded on the north and south by the Pescadero and Tamayo Fracture Zones. In April 2012, the MBARI AUV D. Allan B. completed a 1.5-3.1-km wide bathymetric map along the neovolcanic zone between the two fracture zones during 10 surveys. A single AUV survey was also completed on Alarcón Seamount, a near-ridge seamount with 4 offset calderas. Bathymetric data have 1 m lateral and 0.2 m vertical resolution. The maps guided 8 dives of the ROV Doc Ricketts on the ridge and 1 on the seamount. The morphology of the rise changes dramatically along strike and includes an inflated zone, centered ~14 km from the southern end, paved by a young sheet flow erupted from an 8-km-long en echelon fissure system. A young flat-topped volcano and an older shield volcano occur near the center of the ridge segment. Areas nearer the fracture zones are mainly pillow mounds and ridges, some strongly cut by faults and fissures, but others have few structural disruptions. More than 150 of the 194 lava samples recovered from the neovolcanic zone are aphyric to plagioclase-phyric to ultraphyric N-MORB with glass MgO ranging up to 8.5%. The basal cm from 87 short cores contain common limu o Pele and adequate foramifers to provide minimum radiocarbon ages for the underlying lava flows. A rugged lava dome of rhyolite (based on glass compositions) is surrounded by large pillow flows of dacite, centered ~8 km from the north end of the Rise. Pillow flows are steeply uptilted for 2-3 km north and south of the dome, possibly reflecting intrusion of viscous rhyolitic dikes along strike. Near the southern end of this deformed zone, an andesite flow crops out in a fault scarp. Mapping data also reveal the presence of about 110 apparent hydrothermal chimney structures as tall as 18 m, scattered along roughly the central half of the Rise. Subsequent ROV dives observed 70 of these structures and found active venting at 22 of them

  4. Interpretation of 1.5-m resolution AUV bathymetry using ROV observations and samples at Davidson and Rodriguez Seamounts (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.


    The summits and upper flanks of Rodriguez and Davidson Seamounts off California were mapped at 1.5-m resolution by the MBARI Mapping AUV. The seamounts were built by episodic eruptions on abandoned spreading ridges 10-12 and 10-15 Ma, respectively. They consist of ridges and elongate cones that parallel the old spreading axes, yet have strikingly different summit morphologies. Video observations and samples from prior ROV Tiburon dives are used to interpret the textures revealed in the AUV data, and are extrapolated to make geologic maps of the seamounts. The summit of Davidson is rugged and studded with cones of three general classes: completely smooth cones with nearly circular bases, mounds elongated into subparallel ridges, and disorganized mounds of rounded shapes. The elongated mound ridge-lines are roughly rectangular in cross-section, and smooth apron-like slopes descend below. They and the smooth cones occupy the highest points on the seamount but also occur deeper, whereas the disorganized mounds occur only deeper. Smooth, flat pockets lie between the cones. The disorganized mounds were identified as pillow lavas during ROV dives. The mounds that form ridges are blocky ’a’a-like flows, probably oriented over eruptive fissures. Lava samples vary from basalt to trachyte, and there is no correlation between the presumed fluidity of the lavas and occurrence of pillows. The smooth aprons below the blocky flows, and presumably the smooth cones, are glass-rich, volcaniclastic debris produced by explosive activity above. The debris has bedding parallel to the steep slopes, and has lithified into pavement. Pelagic sediment has accumulated between the cones. An inflated flow drained at its distal end in a valley between two ridges; collapses in the flow have drainback veneers like bath-tub rings on the inner surfaces. The summit of Rodriguez has no cones, but they dot the flanks. They are smooth with nearly circular bases and mounds elongated into ridges with

  5. Building the Volcanic Oceanic Crust One Eruption at a Time (Invited) (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.; White, S. M.; Colman, A.; Bowles, J. A.; Gronvold, K.


    magma supply, moderately large-volume eruptions with very low eruption rates produce steep-sided pillow mounds that locally coalesce into larger seamounts that are dominated by more mafic, porphyritic lavas apparently derived from more crystal-rich magma reservoirs. Pillow lavas dominate both areas but are less common at high magma supply. Volumes of individual eruptive units can be up to an order of magnitude greater in the low magma supply area. These results generally accord with global variations in MORB composition and poorly known eruptive characteristics, except that in this case magma supply is governed by proximity to the Galápagos hotspot, rather than spreading rate.

  6. The Role of Late-Cenozoic Lava Flows in the Evolution of the Owyhee River Canyon, Oregon (United States)

    Brossy, C. C.; House, P. K.; Ely, L. L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Safran, E. B.; Bondre, N.; Champion, D. E.; Grant, G.


    Over the last 2 Ma, at least six lava flows entered the canyon of the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon, dramatically and repeatedly altering the river's course and profile. A combination of geochronologic, geochemical, and paleomagnetic analyses accompanied by extensive field mapping shows that these lava flows erupted from upland vents 10s of km from the river, entered the canyon via tributary or rim, and formed blockages sufficient to create lakes. Thick deltas of pillow lavas and rising passage zones in the head of the dams and subaerial lavas downstream of the dam indicate effective damming. The presence of fine grained laminated sediments deposited in the lakes suggests the dams were fairly long lived. Pending OSL dates and ongoing field study of these sediments will shed light on the nature and duration of dam construction and removal. Lava-water interaction during dam construction was extensive, and thick pillow lava deltas are common. In contrast to rivers in other locations, we did not find evidence of pyroclastics such as cinders associated with the dams. The three oldest intracanyon lava flows: the lower undivided Bogus lavas (>1.92 ± 0.22 Ma), the Bogus Rim (1.92 ± 0.22 Ma), and the Greeley Bar lavas (>780 ka), all record the filling of a wide, deep canyon, damming of the Owyhee River, and creation of extensive lakes at elevations 230 to 310 m above the modern river. The three younger lava flows, the Clarks Butte (248 ± 45 ka), the Saddle Butte (~125 ka), and the West Crater (60-90 ka), record the occurrence of similar events but in a narrower, deeper canyon similar to the modern one. Overall, this array of late Cenozoic intracanyon lava flows provides key insights into the long-term incision history of the canyon, possibly including the effect of integration with the Snake River, and supports a model of long-term, regional landscape evolution that is strongly linked to lava-water interactions.

  7. A Novel Approach to Characterize Compositional Variability through Time at Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Gill, J. B.


    The temporal, spatial, and compositional variability of eruptive products illuminates the scales of magmatic sources and processes. Prior methods to evaluate this variability rely on extensive sampling of lava flows. We describe a novel approach to assess the variability of submarine volcanics using material recovered in pushcores at a mid-ocean ridge. Pushcores collected from the west flank of Endeavour in 2011 with ROV Doc Ricketts were extruded in 1- or 2-cm intervals and volcaniclastic glass shards and foraminifera were extracted for electron microprobe and radiocarbon analyses, respectively. 14C ages and glass compositions from two cores provide chemical stratigraphies we compare to compositions of proximal lavas to assess local variability and volcaniclast dispersal. A 20-cm core from the north slope of Summit Seamount ~100m above the axial valley floor has a basal age of 4.5ka and 10-12 cm is ~1.5ka. Shards in the bottom 6cm are chemically distinct from the lava flow that it overlies. These basal shards are bimodal in MgO and the more differentiated mode is similar to flows on the valley floor on the opposite side of the faulted remnants of Summit Seamount. Most shards in the top 14 cm are similar to the underlying lava flow and have uniform MgO of 7.3 ×0.1. This composition is dominant in shards from 6-12 cm, which may represent a single eruption. Nearby flows encompassing three additional distinct lava types are also present as rare random shards; one additional lava type ~1km distant is absent. A 24-cm core from NW of Main Endeavour Field overlies a compositionally distinct low pillow mound on the west flank; no shards with this composition are found. The core is dated at 10.5ka (basal), ~4.8ka (15-17 cm), and ~2.0ka (9-11 cm). From 10.5 to 4.8 ka, most shards are compositionally similar to, but slightly more evolved than, extensive sheet lavas that flowed around the pillow mounds. A subordinate amount of shards that are compositionally similar, but more

  8. Age and nature of deposits on the submarine flanks of Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island) (United States)

    Lénat, Jean-François; Boivin, Pierre; Deniel, Catherine; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Bachèlery, Patrick; Fournaise 2 Team


    Debris-avalanche deposits are by far the most extensive and voluminous formations in the submarine domain around Reunion Island. 21 sites sampled offshore of Piton de la Fournaise were studied. All the dredged rocks have a volcanic origin and often consist of blocks buried in a finer-grained matrix. Both massive and vesiculated samples were found, but only rare fragments of pillow lavas were encountered. All the lavas are basalts with variable amounts of olivine. A few plagioclase-bearing basalts were also found. These lithologies are known among Piton de la Fournaise subaerial lavas. A set of fresh samples representing the various rock types was further studied. The microscopic characteristics of these lavas confirm their great similarity with lavas from the subaerial volcano. Major elements show that all the submarine lavas are transitional basalts, with compositions very similar to those of Piton de la Fournaise subaerial lavas. The petrological and geochemical similarity of the dredged samples with Piton de la Fournaise subaerial lavas indicates that they belong to this volcano. The sulfur contents of the dredged samples and of various subaerial lavas from Piton de la Fournaise were determined on whole rocks. The results suggest that massive or slightly vesiculated dredged lavas (0.005-0.010 wt.% S) probably correspond to the internal parts of slowly cooled and subaerially degassed lava flows. The dredged pillow lavas display sulfur contents (0.013-0.020 wt.% S) similar to those of the external parts of recent subaerial lavas. This indicates that they were primarily degassed in the atmosphere, as also suggested by noble gases data, or in shallow water. Only one dredged sample has a relatively high S content (0.034 wt.%) suggesting that it may have been an early lava of a subaerial eruption or a lava directly emplaced under water, though at shallow depth. Thus, both the nature of the dredged samples and their sulfur contents indicate that these lavas were

  9. Surgical treatment of Chiari malformation and discussion of related questions%Chiari畸形的外科治疗及相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 刘宏毅; 章文斌; 邹元杰


    Objective To study the surgical treatment of the Chiari malformation and relevant clinical problems. Methods The clinical data of 35 patients with Chiari malformation ,in whom 26 with syringomyelia were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were operated after posterior fossa decompression, C1 bow decompression, pillow big pool expand forming, cerebellar tonsillar next hernia dissection or electricity coagulation resection. Results All patients were followed up from 1to 4 years. The clinical symptoms were ameliorated and dynamic review images were obtained a good result. Conclusion According to the clinical symptoms and radiologic features, personalized choices in the posterior fossa decompression of big or small bone window, pillow big pool expand forming and and resection of downward hernia of cerebellar tonilar were an effective method in the surgical treatment of Chiari malformation.%目的 探讨Chiari 畸形的外科手术治疗和相关临床问题.方法 回顾分析35 例Chiari 畸形(26 例合并脊髓空洞)的外科治疗经验.全部病例均行后颅窝减压,C1 后弓减压,枕大池扩大成形,小脑扁桃体下疝切除术或电灼术.结果 全部病例随访6 个月~ 4 年,获得不同程度的临床症状改善,动态复查影像均获得良好的效果.结论 Chiari 畸形的外科治疗中根据临床症状和影像特点,个性化的选择行后颅窝大或小的骨窗减压,枕大池扩大成形和小脑扁桃体下疝切除手术治疗,是处理该种畸形获得临床疗效的好方法.

  10. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic study of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex, southern Chile (United States)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Calderón, M.; Singer, S.; Hervé, F.; Cordani, U.


    A paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Late Jurassic Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex (SOC) exposed in the Magallanes fold and thrust belt in the southern Patagonian Andes (southern Chile). This complex, mainly consisting of a thick succession of pillow-lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, is a seafloor remnant of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin that developed along the south-western margin of South America. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization permitted the isolation of a post-folding characteristic remanence, apparently carried by fine grain (SD?) magnetite, both in the pillow-lavas and dikes. The mean "in situ" direction for the SOC is Dec: 286.9°, Inc: - 58.5°, α95: 6.9°, N: 11 (sites). Rock magnetic properties, petrography and whole-rock K-Ar ages in the same rocks are interpreted as evidence of correlation between remanence acquisition and a greenschist facies metamorphic overprint that must have occurred during latest stages or after closure and tectonic inversion of the basin in the Late Cretaceous. The mean remanence direction is anomalous relative to the expected Late Cretaceous direction from stable South America. Particularly, a declination anomaly over 50° is suggestively similar to paleomagnetically interpreted counter clockwise rotations found in thrust slices of the Jurassic El Quemado Fm. located over 100 km north of the study area in Argentina. Nevertheless, a significant ccw rotation of the whole SOC is difficult to reconcile with geologic evidence and paleogeographic models that suggest a narrow back-arc basin sub-parallel to the continental margin. A rigid-body 30° westward tilting of the SOC block around a horizontal axis trending NNW, is considered a much simpler explanation, being consistent with geologic evidence. This may have occurred as a consequence of inverse reactivation of old normal faults, which limit both the SOC exposures and the Cordillera Sarmiento to the East. The age of tilting

  11. Rocas Verdes Ophiolite Complexes in the Southernmost Andes: Remnants of the Mafic Igneous Floor of a Back-arc Basin that Rifted the South American Continental Crust in the Late Jurrassic and Early Cretaceous (United States)

    Stern, C. R.


    The Rocas Verdes are an en echelon group of late Jurassic and early Cretaceous igneous complexes in the southernmost Andes. They consist of mafic pillow lavas, dikes and gabbros interpreted as the upper portions of ophiolite complexes formed along mid-ocean-ridge-type spreading centers. When secondary metamorphic affects are accounted for, the geochemistry of mafic Rocas Verdes rocks are similar to ocean-ridge basalts (MORB). The spreading centers that generated the Rocas Verdes rifted the southwestern margin of the Gondwana continental crust, during the start of break-up in the southern Atlantic, to form the igneous floor of a back-arc basin behind a contemporaneous convergent plate boundary magmatic arc. Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous sediments from both the magmatic arc on the southwest and the continental platform on the northeast of the basin were deposited in the Rocas Verdes basin, and these sediments are interbedded with mafic pillow lavas along the margins of the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. Also, mafic dikes and gabbros intrude older pre-Andean and Andean lithologies along both flanks of the Rocas Verdes, and leucocratic country rocks are engulfed in the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. These relations indicate that the Rocas Verdes complexes formed in place and are autochthonous, having been uplifted but not obducted, which may explain the lack of exposure of the deeper ultramafic units. Zircon U/Pb ages of 150+/-1 Ma for the Larsen Harbour Formation, a southern extension of the Rocas Verdes belt on South Georgia Island, and 138+/-2 Ma for the Sarmiento complex, the northernmost in the Rocas Verdes belt, indicate that this basin may have formed by "unzipping" from the south to the north, with the southern portion beginning to form earlier and developing more extensively than the northern portion of the basin. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the Rocas Verdes basin developed in conjunction with the displacement of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening of

  12. Lavas from Active Boninite and Very Recent Basalt Eruptions at Two Submarine NE Lau Basin Sites (United States)

    Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.; Clague, D. A.; Resing, J. A.; Michael, P. J.; Keller, N. S.; Baker, E. T.


    Very young submarine lava flows were discovered at two sites in the NE Lau Basin during a May 2009 NSF-NOAA expedition. The multidisciplinary rapid response expedition was organized to investigate these sites based on chemical and physical water column signatures observed during a NOAA-led regional study in Nov. 2008. An active eruption was discovered and observed for 5 days in May 2009 at W. Mata volcano, just behind the northernmost segment of the Tofua arc. The ongoing eruption produced extrusive and pyroclastic deposits from multiple vents near the 1200m depth summit of the volcano. Lavas were sampled from the summit and volcano flanks using the ROV Jason II. The samples indicate that W. Mata is currently erupting orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-olivine porphyritic boninite magmas, which is also the predominant rock composition elsewhere on the seamount. The youngest lavas are very fresh, highly vesicular (up to ~30%) and occur as predominantly pillow and lobate forms, sometimes mantled by very young pyroclastic deposits and/or thin chemical coatings of presumed microbial and/or inorganic origin. The coatings and pyroclast apron make it difficult to map the extent of the youngest deposits by visual indicators alone, so we are currently dating 7 well-distributed samples from the W. Mata summit by 210Po-210Pb chronology. Very preliminary age results indicate that samples collected near the active vents are ridge axis, transitional to pillows in distal locations. Very preliminary 210Po-210Pb data on 5 NELSC lavas suggest the eruption occurred over at least a few months, with significant chemical heterogeneity (e.g., ~1 wt% MgO variation), and with highly enriched compositions (e.g., Th=3.3 ppm, Th/U >3.8). 210Po activity in 3 samples suggest a Nov 2008 eruption, consistent with interpretations from water column physical and chemical characteristics measured in Nov. 2008. 210Po in 2 other lavas suggest early 2009 and mid 2008 eruptions, respectively. Some young lavas

  13. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Clay Rich Volcano-Sedimentary Units from South of Elazıǧ Basin (Eastern Turkey) (United States)

    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Bakır, Zülfü


    The investigated area covers Upper Cretaeous Elazıǧ Magmatics and Middle Eocene Maden Group in the southern of Elazıǧ. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS were performed on three sections samples belonging to Elazıǧ Magmatics (Yemişlik and Kavallı sections) and Maden Group (Alıncık section), to investigate the depositional environment of volcano-sediments. The Elazıǧ magmatic rocks are composed of diorites, monzodiorites, quartz-diorites, and tonalites, basaltic pillow-lavas, andesitic lavas, and andesitic pyroclastic rocks. The Maden Group has a complex lithology consisting of limestones, red-green clayey limestones, sandstone, agglomerate, tuffs, reddish mudstone and basaltic-andesitic pillow lavas. Yemişlik section is composed mainly of altered grey tuffites, Kavallı section is represented by brown altered sediments, intercalated with basaltic, andesitic lava flows. Reddish mudstones constiture the Alıncık section. All samples consist of clay minerals (chlorite, illite), quartz, and feldspar. Yemişlik and Kavallı sections also contain calcite. Chlorite is the dominant clay in three sections. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O contents show that Kavallı, Yemişlik and Alıncık samples are convenient with Fe shales and shales. The ratios of TiO2, Zr, Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, Y/Ni-Cr/V, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn) show dominance of neutral-basic volcanism in the area. REE concentrations of samples are normalized to chondrite values. It is determined that low light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched in comparison to high rare earth elements (HREEs), and the absence of Eu anomalies shows that our samples are generally mafic in composition. Rare earth elements (REE) of samples were compared with North American shale composite (NASC), European shale (ES) and Post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS). Elements are not in concurrence with these compositions. Th-Hf/3-Nb/16 tectono-magmatic discrimination diagram for samples in the study area indicate that all samples were

  14. Testing a new approach to differentiate oxidation degree from the primitive composition of titanomagnetites from oceanic basalts (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Almeida, Francisco; Waerenborgh, João; Madureira, Pedro; Mirão, José; Henry, Bernard; Neres, Marta; Petrovsky, Eduard


    Low-field magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature - χ(T) is one of the most powerful techniques to assess the main magnetic mineralogy of rocks from distinct geological settings. For the specific case of titanomagnetite solid solution, the dependence of Curie temperature (Tc) on their composition and oxidation degree imposes limits to the application of thermomagnetic methods as a tool to assess independently one of the variables, i.e., the pristine composition and/or quantification of the oxidation degree. In order to overcome this ambiguity several authors resorted to independent methods, like microprobe, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The study here presented seeks to establish a new approach able to correlate the oxidation degree with Tc variations of partially oxidized submarine basalts, only supported by the thermomagnetic analyses conducted between -190°C and 650°C. 40 thermomagnetic signatures were evaluated along cross-section profiles of four pillow-lavas, sampled from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and from the Terceira Rift (Azores plateau). For each one a lamellae with a thickness of 2 to 3 mm was collected along each centimeter of the profile. All the experiments were made using the same experimental conditions (atmosphere, heating rate). Our thermomagnetic curves of partially oxidized oceanic basalts are characterized by a peak of susceptibility between 300-350°C and 520-550°C, which mostly results from the inversion of the thermally metastable titanomaghemite into a complex multiphase intergrowth. From our experiments, we were able to obtain a good linear correlation (positive) between the amplitude of this peak and the Tc for each sample profile. Moreover, these results are well correlated with the oxidation degree determined by Mössbauer Spectroscopy analyses and with microscopic observations, which show an increase of oxidation degree towards the margins of the pillow lavas

  15. Correction of patient positioning errors based on in-line cone beam CTs: clinical implementation and first experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häring Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT for setup correction in radiotherapy. Patients and methods For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI, was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. Results and discussion Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point

  16. Liquid Immiscibility of Boninite in Xiangcheng, Southwestern China, and Its implication to Genetic Relationship between Boninite and Komatiitic Basalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Boninitic rocks and associated high-magnesian basalt and high-iron tholeiite in the Xiangcheng area constitute the basal horizon of the arc volcanic sequence in the Triassic Yidun Island-Arc, southwestern China. The boninite occurs as pillow, massive and ocellar lavas; the last one possesses well-developed globular structure and alternates with the former two. The boninite is characterized by the absence of phenocrysts of olivine and low-Ca pyroxenes and by low CaO/Al2O3 ratios (1000 ppm) and Ni (>250 ppm). The normalized abundance patterns (NAP) of trace elements to primitive mantle are similar to the NAP of low-Ca modern boninites and SHMB in the Archaean and Proterozoic. As a mechanism of ocellar texture, liquid immiscibility in boninite is supported by the following lines of evidence: (a) sharp contact between ocelli and matrix, (b) constant volumetric ratios of ocelli/matrix and common coalescence of ocelli in ocellar rocks, (c) identical micro-spinifex textures and mineral assemblages with different modal mineral contents in ocelli-matrix pairs, (d) bubbles and acicular clinopyroxene crystal strand over the boundary between ocelli and matrix, and (e) chemical compositions of ocelli and matrix corresponding to high-Mg andesite and komatiitic basalt, respectively. The close association and geochemical similarities between ocellar boninites and pillow boninite/massive boninite suggest that these are comagmatic rocks. The primary features of the ocellar boninite indicated by high Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) ratio and high Cr and Ni abundance show that liquid immiscibility took place in the early evolution stage of the boninitic magma. The miscibility gap in boninite which is smaller than that in tholeiite is likely to be due to the low FeO*/MgO+FeO* ratio and high MgO content of the boninitic magma. The association of komatiite-komatiitic basalt-boninite (or SHMB) and the immiscibility phenomenon in high-Mg lavas in some Archaean greenstone belts and ophiolites is also

  17. Plate Tectonics at 3.8-3.7 Ga: Field Evidence from the Isua Accretionary Complex, Southern West Greenland. (United States)

    Komiya; Maruyama; Masuda; Nohda; Hayashi; Okamoto


    A 1&rcolon;5000 scale mapping was performed in the Isukasia area of the ca. 3.8-Ga Isua supracrustal belt, southern West Greenland. The mapped area is divided into three units bounded by low-angle thrusts: the Northern, Middle, and Southern Units. The Southern Unit, the best exposed, is composed of 14 subunits (horses) with similar lithostratigraphy, bound by layer-parallel thrusts. Duplex structures are widespread in the Isua belt and vary in scale from a few meters to kilometers. Duplexing proceeded from south to north and is well documented in the relationship between link- and roof-thrusts. The reconstructed lithostratigraphy of each horse reveals a simple pattern, in ascending order, of greenstone with low-K tholeiitic composition with or without pillow lava structures, chert/banded iron-formation, and turbidites. The cherts and underlying low-K tholeiites do not contain continent- or arc-derived material. The lithostratigraphy is quite similar to Phanerozoic "oceanic plate stratigraphy," except for the abundance of mafic material in the turbidites. The evidence of duplex structures and oceanic plate stratigraphy indicates that the Isua supracrustal belt is the oldest accretionary complex in the world. The dominantly mafic turbidite composition suggests that the accretionary complex was formed in an intraoceanic environment comparable to the present-day western Pacific Ocean. The duplex polarity suggests that an older accretionary complex should occur to the south of the Isua complex. Moreover, the presence of seawater (documented by a thick, pillow, lava unit at the bottom of oceanic plate stratigraphy) indicates that the surface temperature was less than ca. 100 degrees C in the Early Archean. The oceanic geotherm for the Early Archean lithosphere as a function of age was calculated based on a model of transient half-space cooling at given parameters of surface and mantle temperatures of 100 degrees and 1450 degrees C, respectively, suggesting that the

  18. CUES - A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada (United States)

    Bair, Edward; Dozier, Jeff; Davis, Robert; Colee, Michael; Claffey, Keran


    Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) established the “CUES” snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We give an

  19. CUES – A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H. Bair


    Full Text Available Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB established the CUES snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We

  20. Alkali element enrichments on the BABBs at the IODP Expedition 333 Site C0012 in the northern Shikoku Basin (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Fujinaga, K.


    The Shikoku Basin is a back arc basin located westside of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc, spreading was from 25 to 15 Ma. The drilling of the DSDP, ODP and IODP recovered the backarc basin basalt (BABB) of the Shikoku Basin. Site C0012, south of the Kii Peninsula, was operated during the IODP Exp 333, and BABB was recovered 100m thickness under the 520m of sediment. This BABB is divided into upper aphyric pillow (Unit 1) and lower massive flow (Unit 2) divided at the 560 mbsf, and show variable degree of alteration, clay mineral and zeolite depositions. SiO2 and MgO contents of these basalts are 47-55 and 5-8 wt%. These basalts show wide variation of enrichment of alkali elements, 2.3-7.5 and 0.4-4.2 wt% of Na2O and K2O. Na2O+K2O contents show 3.2-8.0 wt%, and 2 wt% higher trends than other BABBs in the Shikoku Basin at the same SiO2 contents. Na2O and K2O show proportional and anti-proportional trends with increasing LOI. Therefore, both alkali element enrichments in these rocks are caused by secondary mineralization, and host phase of Na2O is hydrous and that of K2O is anhydrous minerals. Secondary mineral phases was mainly identified by XRD. The identified host phases of Na are analcime and thomsonite. Analcime is observed in rocks of more than 4 wt% of Na2O. Chlorite and smectite are identified to clay minerals. This mineral assemblage indicates the high-temperature zeolite facies alteration. The host phases of K are mainly identified into K-feldspar. We assume that secondary mineralization of K-fd is associated with low-temperature albitization. Compared to the lithostratigraphy, the Na enrichment is prominent in the Unit 1 and upper 20 m of the Unit 2, and the K enrichment is prominent in lower part of the Unit 2. We consider that the Na enrichment associated with zeolite depositions occurred under high water/rock ratio with active hydrothermal circulation because of high water permeability of pillow lava, and K enrichment associated with albitization occurred

  1. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Mark R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  2. Faunes du Jurassique supérieur dans les séries pélagiques de l'escarpement de Malte (Mer Ionienne. Implications paléogéographiques Upper Jurassic Fauna in the Pelagic Series of the Malta Escarpment (Lonian Sea. Paleogeographic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enay R.


    Full Text Available Au cours d'une campagne de plongée sur les escarpements qui bordent le bassin Ionien profond, des roches sédimentaires d'âge jurassique supérieur ont pu être récoltées dans l'escarpement de Malte, associées à des coulées de pillow-lavas. Les faunes d'Ammonites, typiquement mésogéennes, indiquent des âges oxfordien et tithonique. Elles peuvent correspondre à un milieu de dépôt profond. Les foraminifères recueillis dans les niveaux équivalents, riches en radiolaires, sclérites d'holothuries, fragments d'aptychus et rares Ostracodes, indiquent un âge oxfordien au sens large et un milieu de dépôt relativement profond. Cette série, relativement condensée et profonde, est comparable aux séries du même âge connues en Sicile. Elle s'oppose aux séries de calcaires de plate-forme néritiques du Trias-Lias inférieur qui constituent la base de la coupe. II y a donc eu un changement radical de milieu de sédimentation entre le Lias et le Callovo-Oxfordien, accompagné d'une distension révélée par un magmatisme important. During a diving campaing along the escarpments bordering the deep lonian Basin, Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks were gathered from the Malta escarpment, associated with pillow-lava. Typically Mesogean ammonite fauna indicate Oxfordian and Tithonian ages. They correspond to a relatively deep deposition environment. The Foraminifers gathered in the equivalent levels, which proved to be rich in radiolarians, holothuroid sclerites, aptychus fragments and sparse ostracodes, indicate an Oxfordian age and a relatively deep deposition environnent. This relatively condensed and deep series can be compared with series of the same age known in Sicily. It is opposed to the Lower Triassic-Lias neritic platform limestone series making up the bottom of the section. A radical change in sedimentation thus occured between the Lias and the Callovo-Oxfordain, accompanied by a distension revealed by extensive magmatism.

  3. Extraction of the respiratory signal from small-animal CT projections for a retrospective gating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ChavarrIas, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; RodrIguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; GarcIa-Barreno, P; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Anexo PsiquiatrIa, 1 Planta. C/Ibiza, 43. Madrid 28007 (Spain)


    We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%.

  4. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard


    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study.

  5. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, J.B.; Bryan, W.B.


    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-25/sup 0/N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus.

  6. Halocinèse précoce associée au rifting jurassique dans l'Atlas central de Tunisie (région de Majoura El Hfay) (United States)

    Tanfous Amri, Dorra; Bédir, Mourad; Soussi, Mohamed; Azaiez, Hajer; Zitouni, Lahoussine; Hédi Inoubli, M.; Ben Boubaker, Kamel


    Seismic and sequence stratigraphy analyses, petroleum-well control and surface data studies of the Majoura-El Hfay region in the Central Atlas of Tunisia had led to identify and calibrate Jurassic seismic horizons. Seismic stratigraphic sections, seismic tectonics analyses, isochron and isopach mapping of Jurassic sequences show a differentiated structuring of platform and depocentre blocks limited by deep-seated NE-SW, north-south east-west and NW-SE faults intruded by Upper Triassic salt. The early salt migration seems to have started by the platform fracturing during the Lower Liassic rifting event. These movements are fossilized by thickness variations of Jurassic horizons, aggrading and retrograding onlap and toplap structures between subsiding rim-syncline gutters and high platform flanks intruded by salt pillows and domes. The salt migration is also attested by Middle and Upper Jurassic space depocentre migrations. Around the Majoura-El Hfay study blocks bounded by master faults, Triassic salt have pierced the Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary cover in a salt diapir extrusion and salt wall structures. To cite this article: D. Tanfous Amri et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Slovenec


    Full Text Available The samples of partly or completely altered basaltic extrusive rocks from Mt. Medvednica ophiolite mélange were analysed by the optical microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The chemical composition of minerals from different paragenetic assembleges were determinated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and the measured microdomains were documented by back-scattered electrons (BSE imagery. The most widespread alteration processes that affected analysed rocks are albitization, chloritization, epidotization, prehnitization, pumpellyitization, zeolitization and titanitization. Subordinate processes that include formation of limonite, calcite, zoisite, siderite, hematite, Mn-oxydes, pyrite and SiO2-phases were not constrained in this paper. Albitization is fairly dominant alteration process in all rock and its progradation throughout a plagioclase grain is clearly documented by BSE microphotographs and microprobe chemical analysis. Prehnite and laumontite are sporadic alteration products of plagioclases. The chemical components released during the alterations of plagioclases and/or clinopyroxenes along with components from circulating and percolating heated see water and fluids enable formation of chlorites, epidote and pumpellyite. Chlorites and pumpellyite formed also by devitrification of volcanic glass in vitric rim of pillow lavas. Small patches of leucoxene, that is abundant in all samples, represent dense aggregates of titanite nanocrystals replacing ilmenite and/or Ti-magnetite. Epidote-bearing paragenesis in the analyzed rocks record comparatively the highest alterations grade that correspond to the middle grade of greenschist facies metamorphism typical of upper sequence of a see floor crust (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Takinami


    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy under general anesthesia. A 75-year-old man was intubated without excessive retroflexion, and his upper body was held in place by lateral body positioners with protective cushions over the chest and acromioclavicular joints. The patient’s head was maintained at the center and held on the operation table with a memory-foam pillow to prevent hyperextension of the neck. The arms, abducted 80° with the forearms supinated, were held in place on the armrests with protective cushions. The surgical position was a 20° head-down lithotomy position with the right side of the body lowered by 15°. Surgery was completed successfully with no complications, and anesthesia time was 7 h and 37 min. After surgery, however, the patient complained of numbness and hypoesthesia on the radial and ulnar side, respectively, of the right arm from the elbow to the fingertips, with the boundary running between fingers 3 and 4. Dysesthesia was observed in the right fingertips of fingers 1–3. After 3 months of silver spike point low-frequency electrotherapy, hypoesthesia improved, while dysesthesia partially improved, in the dorsal area between right fingers 1 and 2.

  9. Untangling metabolic and spatial interactions of stress tolerance in plants. 1. Patterns of carbon metabolism within leaves. (United States)

    Biel, Karl Y; Fomina, Irina R; Nazarova, Galina N; Soukhovolsky, Vladislav G; Khlebopros, Rem G; Nishio, John N


    The localization of the key photoreductive and oxidative processes and some stress-protective reactions within leaves of mesophytic C(3) plants were investigated. The role of light in determining the profile of Rubisco, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, catalase, fumarase, and cytochrome-c-oxidase across spinach leaves was examined by exposing leaves to illumination on either the adaxial or abaxial leaf surfaces. Oxygen evolution in fresh paradermal leaf sections and CO(2) gas exchange in whole leaves under adaxial or abaxial illumination was also examined. The results showed that the palisade mesophyll is responsible for the midday depression of photosynthesis in spinach leaves. The photosynthetic apparatus was more sensitive to the light environment than the respiratory apparatus. Additionally, examination of the paradermal leaf sections by optical microscopy allowed us to describe two new types of parenchyma in spinach-pirum mesophyll and pillow spongy mesophyll. A hypothesis that oxaloacetate may protect the upper leaf tissue from the destructive influence of active oxygen is presented. The application of mathematical modeling shows that the pattern of enzymatic distribution across leaves abides by the principle of maximal ecological utility. Light regulation of carbon metabolism across leaves is discussed.

  10. Stratigraphic and Petrological Constraints of Cretaceous Subduction Initiation and Arc-Continent Collision in the Northern Andes (United States)

    Leon, S.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Parra, M.


    Middle to Late-Cretaceous orogenic events in the northern Andes have been commonly reconstructed from the analysis of inland basins or the integration of regional scale thermochronological, geochronological and geochemical datasets from the accreted blocks. In contrast, limited studies have been developed on the stratigraphic and deformational record of magmatic and sedimentary sequences exposed near the suture zones. New field and petrologic data are used to characterize an ophiolite type sequence that outcrops in the western flank from the northwestern segment of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Stratigraphic analysis indicate the existence of Albian-Aptian deep marine pelitic sequence interbedded with minor chert and thin quartz sandstone beds that apparently change to a volcanic dominate stratigraphy. Deformed ophiolite-like mafic and ultramafic plutonic rocks and isolated pillow lavas are also exposed to the east in fault contact with the pelitic sequence. The pelitic and interlayered volcanic rocks represent the growth of an extensional Early-Cretaceous basin that followed a Late-Jurassic magmatic quiescence in the Northern Andes. The volcano-sedimentary record is probably related to the growth of a fore-arc basin in a new subduction zone that extends until the Late Cretaceous. The deformation and obduction of the ophiolitic association and the fore-arc basin were probably triggered by the Late Cretaceous collision with an allocthonous plateau-arc associated to the migration of the Caribbean plate.

  11. Back-Arc Extension in the Southern Andes: A Review and Critical Reappraisal (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.


    The interpretation that the mafic 'rocas verdes' (green rocks) complex of the southern Andes represents part of the uplifted floor of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous back-arc basin has proved particularly useful in understanding the geological evolution of the southern Andes, the north Scotia Ridge and the Antarctic Peninsula. Clear field evidence of the back-arc setting of the 'rocas verdes' gabbro-sheeted dyke - pillow lava ophiolitic assemblages has encouraged fruitful petrological and geochemical comparison with mid-ocean ridge and marginal basin basalts, other onshore ophiolite complexes, and Archaean greenstone belts. Uncertainty still surrounds estimates of the original width and depth of the basin, as well as the proportion of new mafic crust, compared with relict sialic crust, in the basin floor. These questions are unresolved, owing mainly to the considerable Lower Cretaceous turbiditic basin infill and the effects of mid-Cretaceous compressional deformation. While the field relations clearly indicate that the 'rocas verdes' basin is not an older piece of ocean floor 'trapped' behind a volcanic arc, it is not yet clear whether the basin is directly subduction-related or falls in the category of back-arc 'leaky transforms' like the proto-Gulf of California or apparent 'rip-off' features like the Andaman Sea.

  12. Geochemistry of Andaman Ophiolite: Evidence for a Mid-Oceanic Ridge origin (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Ray, J. S.


    "Ophiolite conundrum" deals with the unresolved puzzle of the origin of ophiolite, whether they have primarily formed in mid-oceanic ridge (MOR) or supra subduction zone (SSZ) settings. This attracts considerable debate because most of the ophiolites are located along the present day suture zones. The Andaman Ophiolite is a Cretaceous complex that occurs on the Andaman accretionary prism of the Indian-Eurasian convergent plate boundary. Here, we present whole rock trace element and isotope (Sr-Nd) data from the crustal section of the ophiolite comprising of pillow basalt, basalt, dolerite and gabbro from Rutland Island, south and middle Andaman Islands. Trace element patterns for a majority of our samples show N-MORB affinity barring enrichments in Rb and Ba, which could be attributed to secondary alteration. Comparison of trace element patterns and isotopic compositions of these rocks (eNd (t = 95 Ma) = 7.5 to 9.4; 87Sr/86Sri = 0.703 to 0.704) with that of the 127- 64 Ma Indian Ocean MORB suggest strong similarities thus, implying that a large section of Andaman Ophiolite represents the subducting Indian Oceanic Plate. If so, then this ophiolite complex possibly represents an obducted Indian oceanic lithosphere that formed at the Indian Ocean MOR.

  13. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope systematics and geochemical studies on metavolcanic rocks from Peddavura greenstone belt: Evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in easternmost part of Dharwar Craton, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Rajamanickam; S Balakrishnan; R Bhutani


    Linear, north–south trending Peddavura greenstone belt occurs in easternmost part of the Dharwar Craton. It consists of pillowed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites (BBA) and rhyolites interlayered with ferruginous chert that were formed under submarine condition. Rhyolites were divided into type-I and II based on their REE abundances and HREE fractionation. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope studies were carried out on the rock types to understand the evolution of the Dharwar Craton. Due to source heterogeneity Sm–Nd isotope system has not yielded any precise age. Rb–Sr whole-rock isochron age of 2551 ± 19 (MSWD = 1.16) Ma for BBA group could represent time of seafloor metamorphism after the formation of basaltic rocks. Magmas representing BBA group of samples do not show evidence for crustal contamination while magmas representing type-II rhyolites had undergone variable extents of assimilation of Mesoarchean continental crust (< 3.3 Ga) as evident from their initial Nd isotope values. Trace element and Nd isotope characteristics of type I rhyolites are consistent with model of generation of their magmas by partial melting of mixed sources consisting of basalt and oceanic sediments with continental crustal components. Thus this study shows evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in Peddavura area in eastern part of Dharwar Craton.

  14. Photon Sail History, Engineering, and Mission Analysis. Appendix (United States)

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley


    This Appendix summarizes the results of a Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc. report to the In-Space propulsion research group of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that was authored by Taylor et al. in 2003. The subject of this report is the technological maturity, readiness, and capability of the photon solar sail to support space-exploration missions. Technological maturity for solar photon sail concepts is extremely high high for rectangular (or square) solar sail configurations due to the historical development of the rectangular design by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). L'Garde Inc., ILC Dover Inc., DLR, and many other corporations and agencies. However, future missions and mission analysis may prove that the rectangular sail design is not the best architecture for achieving mission goals. Due to the historical focus on rectangular solar sail spacecraft designs, the maturity of other architectures such as hoop-supported disks, multiple small disk arrays, parachute sails, heliogyro sails, perforated sails, multiple vane sails (such as the Planetary Society's Cosmos 1), inflated pillow sails, etc., have not reached a high level of technological readiness. (Some sail architectures are shown in Fig. A.1.) The possibilities of different sail architectures and some possible mission concepts are discussed in this Appendix.

  15. Hydrophilic superabsorbants and hydrophobic absorbents for environmental protection and minimization of industrial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superabsorbents obtained by gamma Co-60 processing with swelling capacity from 40 g/g to 500 g/g have been used for: 1. land management, 2. toxic and hazardous materials in aqueous state management in emergency situations, 3. deuterated and tritiated water accidentally spread on different surfaces. The hydrophilic absorbents obtained from rigid polyurethane reused from wastes have been used in the management of risks when oil and oil - derived materials, all in a liquid state, are spread on the soil, surface of water (rivers, lakes, sea, etc) or in work places. The absorbent capacity are at least 4 g/g and upmost 10 g/g. All absorbents hydroxylic or hydrophobic are in bulk form or in pillows (40 x 40 x 10)cm; tubes (Φ ≤ 30 cm, length ≤ 3m with fast catching/detaching systems for emergency situations. For the case of forest and wood buildings fires, ecological systems based on aqueous polymeric solutions and ester fatty acid have been prepared. (authors)

  16. Hydrophilic superabsorbents and hydrophobic absorbents for environmental protection and minimization of industrial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superabsorbents obtained by gamma Co-60 processing, with swelling capacity from 40 g/g to 500 g/g have been used in the: land management; toxic and hazardous materials in aqueous state management in emergency situations; deuterated and tritiated water accidentally released in various places. The hydrophobic absorbents obtained from rigid polyurethane retrieved from wastes have been used in the management of risks when oil and derived - petroleum materials, all in liquid state, are spread on the soil, surface of water (rivers, lakes, sea, etc.) or in work places. The absorbent capacity is at least 4 g/g and max 10 g/g. All hydrophilic and hydrophobic absorbents are in form of bulk or pillows (40 x 40 x 10) cm, tubes (Φ = 30 cm (max), Length = 3 m (max)) with fast catching/detaching systems for emergency situations. For the case of fires in forests and wood buildings ecological systems based on aqueous polymeric solutions and ester fatty acids have been prepared. (authors)

  17. Paleomagnetism of mesozoic red chert from Cedros Island and the San Benito Islands, Baja California, Mexico revisited (United States)

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Sedlock, Richard L.


    Previous paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic subduction-complex rocks on Cedros Island and the San Benito Islands, Mexico, shows that these rocks have been remagnetized; a single-polarity magnetization was found in chert sections and underlying pillow basalt deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. Reanalysis of the Cedros and San Benito chert samples (101 total) shows that 13 samples also retain a high blocking-temperature component of magnetization (600° to 680°C) indicating a polarity stratigraphy and deposition of the bedded chert near 2° ± 3° paleolatitude. These data are similar to those for red chert in California and Japan implying that many of the Mesozoic ophiolitic chert sequences now exposed around the Pacific rim were initially deposited within the equatorial zone of high biologic productivity. These new data also support accretion of the Cedros and San Benito chert to the American margin at tropical paleolatitudes requiring significant northward translation (and clockwise rotation) to bring them to their present position with respect to the continental interior.

  18. Determination of ancient volcanic eruption center based on gravity methods (3D) in Gunungkidul area Yogyakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Santoso, Agus; Sismanto, Setiawan, Ary; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo


    Ancient eruption centers can be determined by detecting the position of the ancient volcanic material, it is important to understand the elements of ancient volcanic material by studying the area geologically and prove the existence of an ancient volcanic eruption centers using geophysics gravity method. The measuring instrument is Lacoste & Romberg gravimeter type 1115, the number of data are 900 points. The area 60×40 kilometers, the modeling 3D software is reaching depth of 15 km at the south of the island of Java subduction zone. It is suported by geological data in the field that are found as the following: 1. Pyroclastic Fall which is a product of volcanic eruptions, and lapilli tuff with felsic mineral. 2. Pyroclastic flow with Breccia, tuffaceous sandstone and tuff breccia. 3. Hot springs near Parangwedang Parangtritis. 4. Igneous rock with scoria structure in Parang Kusumo, structured amigdaloida which is the result of the eruption of lava/volcanic eruptions, and Pillow lava in the shows the flowing lava into the sea. Base on gravity anomaly shows that there are strong correlationship between those geological data to the gravity anomaly. The gravblox modeling (3D) shows the position of ancient of volcanic eruption in this area clearly.

  19. Sinkholes, collapse structures and large landslides in an active salt dome submerged by a reservoir: The unique case of the Ambal ridge in the Karun River, Zagros Mountains, Iran (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Lizaga, Iván


    Ambal ridge, covering 4 km2, is a salt pillow of Gachsaran Formation with significant salt exposures in direct contact with the Karun River, Zagros Mountains. The highly cavernous salt dome is currently being flooded by the Gotvand Reservoir, second largest in Iran. Geomorphic evidence, including the sharp deflection of the Karun River and defeated streams indicate that Ambal is an active halokinetic structure, probably driven by erosional unloading. Around 30% of the salt dome is affected by large landslides up to ca. 50 × 106 m3 in volume. Slope oversteepening related to fluvial erosion and halokinetic rise seems to be the main controlling factor. A total of 693 sinkholes have been inventoried (170 sinkholes/km2), for which a scaling relationship has been produced. The depressions occur preferentially along a belt with a high degree of clustering. This spatial distribution is controlled by the proximity to the river, slope gradient and halite content in the bedrock. A large compound depression whose bottom lies below the normal maximum level of the reservoir will likely be flooded by water table rise forming a lake. The impoundment of the reservoir has induced peculiar collapse structures 220-280 m across, expressed by systems of arcuate fissures and scarps. Rapid subsurface salt dissolution is expected to generate and reactivate a large number of sinkholes and may reactivate landslides with a significant vertical component due to lack of basal support.

  20. High-resolution seismic analysis of the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (North German Basin): the pre-Alpine evolution (United States)

    Zöllner, H.; Reicherter, K.; Schikowsky, P.


    The pre-Alpine structural and geological evolution in the northern part of the North German Basin have been revealed on the basis of a very dense reflection seismic profile grid. The study area is situated in the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (Germany), part of the southwestern Baltic Sea. From the central part of the North German Basin to the northern basin margin in the Grimmen High area a series of high-resolution maps show the evolution from the base Zechstein to the Lower Jurassic. We present a map of basement faults affecting the pre-Zechstein. The pre-Alpine structural evolution of the region has been determined from digital mapping of post-Permian key horizons traced on the processed seismic time sections. The geological evolution of the North German Basin can be separated into four distinct periods in the Rerik study area. During Late Permian and Early Triassic evaporites and clastics were deposited. Salt movement was initiated after the deposition of the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk. Salt pillows, which were previously unmapped in the study area, are responsible for the creation of smaller subsidence centers and angular unconformities in the Late Triassic Keuper, especially in the vicinity of the fault-bounded Grimmen High. In this area, partly Lower Jurassic sediments overlie the Keuper unconformably. The change from extension to compression in the regional stress field remobilized the salt, leading to a major unconformity marked at the base of the Late Cretaceous.

  1. Pinch-and-swell structures at the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary (Triassic): evidence of earthquake effects (seismites) in the Germanic Basin (United States)

    Knaust, D.

    A limestone bed with synsedimentary deformations is described from the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary (Middle Triassic) of Thuringia, Germany. The deformation structures have an elongated geometry in a preferential N-S to NNW-SSE direction and are several metres across in size. They are similar to ball-and-pillow structures but differ from these by absence of significant loading into underlying beds. Their development is interpreted as a result of bed-internal deformation with bed thickening due to lateral contraction and bed thinning due to stretching. This deformation mechanism is comparable to the one producing boudinage structures, in particular pinch-and-swell structures. The deformation style and size of these structures and their widespread occurrence together with other synsedimentary deformation structures support their interpretation as earthquake-induced structures (seismites). Synsedimentary deformation structures are common features that occur in a narrow stratigraphic unit at the Middle/Upper Muschelkalk boundary in different parts of the Germanic Basin and point to tectonically influenced changes in the depositional regime and basin organization. Further examples of pinch-and-swell structures from the Lower and Upper Muschelkalk suggest that tectonics significantly influenced the sedimentation in the Germanic Basin during Middle Triassic time.

  2. Escrita filmí­ca de O livro de cabeceira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Garcia


    Full Text Available Este texto objetiva apontar alguns fragmentos do discurso intertextual no filme O livro de cabeceira, (1995, de Peter Greenaway. O presente ensaio apoia-se na intertextualidade como um procedimento teórico metodológico para refletir acerca dessa obra contemporânea, em um exercí­cio suplementar do meu trabalho de mestrado. Com isso, proponho explorar algumas redes de interstí­cios do objeto filmico, ao utilizar a noção poética como uma possibilidade de leitura. Palavras-chave cinema, imagem, intertextualidade Abstract This text aims to show some fragments of intertextual discourse in the Peter Greenaway's film Pillow Book, 1995. The present essay subscribes to the notion of intertextuality, as a theorical methodological procedure in order to think about this contemporary art-work. The essay is also a suplementary exercise of my Master degree. In doing so, I propose to explore some net of intertstate of movie, using a poetic notion, as a possibility of reading. Key words cinema, image, intertextuality

  3. Salt-related structural styles of Kuqa foreland fold belt, northern Tarim basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Liangjie; JIA; Chengzao; PI; Xuejun; CHEN; Suping; W


    The salt beds of Lower Tertiary developed in the mid-segment of Kuqa foreland fold belt, northern Tarim basin. They considerably controlled structural deformation of the belt.According to the field observation, seismic profile interpretation and drilling data, three different structural styles of supra-salt, intra-salt and sub-salt occurred in the Kuqa foreland fold belt. Supra-salt structural styles mainly include thrust faults and fault-related sags. Intra-slat structural styles essentially are salt-pillows, intra-salt faults and folds, and salt weld structures. Sub-salt structural styles mainly consist of imbricated thrust faults, duplex structures, pop-up and fault-related folds. It is indicated that great differences exist among supra-salt, intra-salt and sub-salt structures of Kuqa foreland fold belt. The salt-related structures were formed in the same structural stress field. The dynamic mechanism of the salt-related structures is mainly associated with gravitation, compression and plastic flow of salt beds.

  4. From unwitnessed fatality to witnessed rescue: Nonpharmacologic interventions in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Fergus; Duncan, John; Hjalgrim, Helle; Seyal, Masud; Bateman, Lisa


    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) risk reduction remains a critical aim in epilepsy care. To date, only aggressive medical and surgical efforts to control seizures have been demonstrated to be of benefit. Incomplete understanding of SUDEP mechanisms limits the development of more specific interventions. Periictal cardiorespiratory dysfunction is implicated in SUDEP; postictal electroencephalography (EEG) suppression, coma, and immobility may also play a role. Nocturnal supervision is protective against SUDEP, presumably by permitting intervention in the case of a life-threatening event. Resuscitative efforts were implemented promptly in near-SUDEP cases but delayed in SUDEP deaths in the Mortality in Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Study (MORTEMUS) study. Nursing interventions--including repositioning, oral suctioning, and oxygen administration--reduce seizure duration, respiratory dysfunction, and EEG suppression in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU), but have not been studied in outpatients. Cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillator devices may be of benefit in a few select individuals. A role for implantable neurostimulators has not yet been established. Seizure detection devices, including those that monitor generalized tonic-clonic seizure-associated movements or cardiorespiratory parameters, may provide a means to permit timely periictal intervention. However, these and other devices, such as antisuffocation pillows, have not been adequately investigated with respect to SUDEP prevention.

  5. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Ozcelik


    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptuniandykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitationalinstabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  6. Evidence of Late Quaternary seismicity from Yunam Tso, Lahaul and Spiti, NW Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archna Bohra; B S Kotlia; Amzad H Laskar; M G Yadava


    A relict fluvio-lacustrine sediment of an 8 m thick section exposed at Kilang Sarai along Yunam river, near Baralacha La shows presence of cycloids or pseudonodules, ball and pillow structures, flame-like and pocket structures, sand dyke injections, bed dislocation/faulting and flow folds. Within this section four deformed levels of soft sediment structures have been identified which were dated ca. 25 ka BP at level 1 (∼0.4 m from the modern river level (mrl), 20.1 ka BP at level 2 (∼1.8 m mrl), 17.7 ka BP at level 3 (∼2.56 m mrl) and 12.2 ka BP at level 4 (∼4.25 m mrl)). Detailed study of these soft sediment structures allow us to demonstrate that deformation level 3 is not related to seismic trigger, but remaining three deformation levels (1, 2 and 4) are ascribed to seismic origin. From compilation of earlier palaeoseismological studies using soft sediment deformational structures (SSDS) in the palaeolake deposits in the adjoining area, suggest that the deformational events identified in the present study are regional in nature and thus tectonic process plays an important role in the evolution of landform in the Spiti region.

  7. Formation and tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Jurassic Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex, Pakistan: Implications for the composite tectonic setting of ophiolites (United States)

    Khan, Mehrab; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mahmood, Khalid


    The Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex Balochistan, Pakistan is comprised of an upper and lower nappe and represents one of a number of ophiolites in this region which mark the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. These ophiolites were obducted onto the Indian continental margin around the Late Cretaceous, prior to the main collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The upper nappe contains mantle sequence rocks with numerous isolated gabbro plutons which we show are fed by dolerite dykes. Each pluton has a transitional dunite-rich zone at its base, and new geochemical data suggest a similar mantle source region for both the plutons and dykes. In contrast, the lower nappe consists of pillow basalts, deep-marine sediments and a mélange of ophiolitic rocks. The rocks of the upper nappe have a geochemical signature consistent with formation in an island arc environment whereas the basalts of the lower nappe contain no subduction component and are most likely to have formed at a mid-ocean ridge. The basalts and sediments of the lower nappe have been intruded by oceanic alkaline igneous rocks during the northward drift of the Indian plate. The two nappes of the Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex are thus distinctively different in terms of their age, lithology and tectonic setting. The recognition of composite ophiolites such as this has an important bearing on the identification and interpretation of ophiolites where the plate tectonic setting is less well resolved.

  8. Unconstrained monitoring of long-term heart and breath rates during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unconstrained method for the long-term monitoring of heart and breath rates during sleep is proposed. The system includes a sensor unit and a web-based network module. The sensor unit is set beneath a pillow to pick up the pressure variations from the head induced by inhalation/exhalation movements and heart pulsation during sleep. The measured pressure signal was digitized and transferred to a remote database server via the network module. A wavelet-based algorithm was employed to detect the heart and breath rates, as well as body movement, during sleep. The overall system was utilized for a total six-month trial operation delivered to a female subject. The profiles of the heart and breath rates on a beat-by-beat and daily basis were obtained. Movements during sleep were also estimated. The results show that the daily average percentage of undetectable periods (UPs) during 881.6 sleep hours over a 180 day period was 17.2%. A total of 89.2% of sleep hours had a UP of not more than 25%. The profile of the heart rate revealed a periodic property that corresponded to the female monthly menstrual cycle. Our system shows promise as a long-term unconstrained monitor for heart and breath rates, and for other physiological parameters related to the quality of sleep and the regularity of the menstrual cycle. (note)

  9. Plume-proximal mid-ocean ridge origin of Zhongba mafic rocks in the western Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Southern Tibet (United States)

    He, Juan; Li, Yalin; Wang, Chengshan; Dilek, Yildirim; Wei, Yushuai; Chen, Xi; Hou, Yunling; Zhou, Aorigele


    The >2000 km-long Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) in southern Tibet includes the remnants of the Mesozoic Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, and is divided by the Zhada-Zhongba microcontinent into northern and southern branches in its western segment. Zircon U-Pb dating of a doleritic rock from the northern branch has revealed a concordant age of 160.5 ± 1.3 Ma. All of the doleritic samples from the northern branch and the pillow basalt and gabbro samples from the southern branch display consistent REE and trace element patterns similar to those of modern OIB-type rocks. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures of these OIB-type rocks from the western segment are identical with those of OIB-type and alkaline rocks from other ophiolite massifs along the central and eastern segments of the YZSZ, suggesting a common mantle plume source for their melt evolution. The enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic character of the gabbroic dike rocks from the southern branch points to a mantle plume source, contaminated by subducted oceanic crust or pelagic sediments. We infer that the mafic rock associations exposed along the YZSZ represent the remnants of a Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, which was developed as part of a plume-proximal seafloor-spreading system, reminiscent of the seamount chains along-across the modern mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific Ocean.

  10. A garage sale bargain: A leaking 2.2 GBq source, Phase III - The radiological cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As described in a previous paper, a private residence in Bristol, Tennessee, was extensively contaminated when the owner unknowingly handled a leaking 226Ra source of about 60 mCi. Contamination was found on both floors of the two-story house and in the yard. The most extensively contaminated area was a back porch where the owner initially opened the source containment box. Contamination was probably spread most by open-quotes trackingclose quotes by the owner, his wife, and several pet cats. One of the most contaminated objects found was a pillow, a favorite napping place for the cats, which read 25 mR h-1 at contact. Several decon techniques were tried including stripable paints, washing with various agents, etc. However, decontamination was primarily accomplished by physical removal techniques, such as removing carpeting, scraping and sanding wooden surfaces, and by disposal of contaminated objects (much to the owners' dismay). The house and the yard were cleaned up to meet the recommended guidelines for unrestricted release with the expenditure of about 550 hours of effort. The groups assisting the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health included the Department of Energy, Tennessee Valley Authority's Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Scientific Ecology Group. All of the assistance was provided at no cost to the home owner or the State of Tennessee

  11. Relationship between salt diapirism and faulting in the central structural belt of the Dongying sag, Bohai Gulf basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianguo; LI Sanzhong; WANG Jinduo; TIMOTHY M Kusky; WANG Xinhong; LU Shengqiang


    Many growth faults developed in the Dongying sag of the Jiyang depression of the Bohai Gulf basin, China. These normal growth faults consist of flower-like grabens in the hanging walls of the major faults, accompanied by reverse dragging. The central structural belt is an important structural unit in the Dongying sag, and is divided into a series of small blocks by these faults. These internal blocks can be classified into five structural classes, including parallel blocks, arc-shape blocks, plume-like blocks, ring-radial blocks,and splay blocks. It is shown that these complicated block classes and the "negative flower-like" fault associations in the central structural belt resulted from regional NNW-SSE extension accompanying local salt diapirism and related reverse dragging, rather than strike-slip faulting. On the basis of the diapirism strength, diapers in the central structural belt can be divided into lower salt ridges and pillows, and blind piercing structures. Diapirs are mainly composed of some salts with a little soft mudstone and gypsum. These structures began forming during deposition of the Sha 3 member and terminated during deposition of the Guangtao formation.

  12. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedzińska D.


    Full Text Available A vibratory pile hammer (VPH is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE, whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  13. Magmatic activity at Islas Marias Archipelago, Gulf of California: Oceanic lithosphere with gabbroic sills versus Jurassic-Cretaceous arc components. (United States)

    Schaaf, P. E. G.; Solis-Pichardo, G.; Hernandez-Trevino, T.; Villanueva, D.; Arrieta, G. F.; Rochin, H.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Bohnel, H.; Weber, B.


    Islas Marias Archipelago consists of four islands located in the mouth of the Gulf of California. Lithologically three of them (Maria Madre, San Juanito, and Maria Cleofas) are quite similar with a 165-170 Ma metamorphic basement, 75-85 Ma intrusive and extrusive rocks, and a sedimentary sandstone cover, which according to its foraminiferous content recorded multiple uplift and subsidence events related to the opening of the Gulf. However, these units are absent on Maria Magdalena island which is positioned between the other islands. Here, instead, oceanic lithosphere with pillow lavas and gabbroic sills, intercalated with sandstones form the dominant outcrops. Their geochemical and isotopic characteristics are similar to N-MORB with epsilon Nd values around +10 and 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70290. The gabbros are not older than 22 Ma. Magdalena island was obviously uplifted separately from the other islands of the archipelago, probably along a now hidden transform fault system along the East Pacific Rise. Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the other islands can be correlated to lithologically similar units in the Los Cabos Block, Baja California, or to the continental margin units in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Jalisco states when looking at their geochemical and geochronological signatures. Paleomagnetic studies on 35 sampling sites from all 4 islands give evidence for relatively small scale tectonic movements.

  14. Getinge系列清洗消毒器对集中式床单位分级消毒效果的比较研究%Comparison of the efficiency of classified disinfections with Getinge washer-disinfector for centralized bed unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勤; 范培红; 史煜波


    目的:调查Getinge系列清洗消毒器对集中式床单位消毒灭菌的效果,并比较3种分级消毒灭菌法的效果,细菌数量明显下降,达到满意的消毒效果。方法用Getinge9100系列清洗消毒器对床体进行清洗和消毒,用Getinge111226压力蒸汽消毒器对床垫、被褥、枕芯进行消毒,在清洗消毒前后对床单位采样,做细菌定性、定量检测,并设计了3种清洗消毒程序(超短、快速、一般),分3个阶段进行,最后做清洗消毒效果的统计分析。结果床体、床垫、被褥、枕芯在清洗消毒前细菌超标率为16.7%~75.7%,清洗消毒后的超标率为3.3%;在清洗消毒前,97张床体检出金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、假单胞菌属共52株、床垫检出病原菌51株、被褥检出病原菌40株、枕芯检出共39株,清洗消毒后,床体、床垫、被褥、枕芯未检出金黄色葡萄球菌和假单胞菌属;3个程序对床体、床垫、被褥、枕芯的消毒效果,差异无统计学意义。结论床单位经Getinge系列清洗消毒器集中式消毒后,细菌数量明显下降,致病力强的细菌杀灭效果明显,3种消毒程序消毒床单位均可,用超短程序亦能达到满意的消毒效果。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficiency of the Getinge washer-disinfector for centralized bed unit and compare the efficiency of three kinds of disinfection methods so as to significantly decrease the number of bacteria and achieve satisfactory disinfection effects . METHODS The Getinge9100 disinfector was used to clean and disinfect the bed body ,and the Getinge111226 pressure steam sterilizer was used to disinfect the mattress ,the quilt ,and the pillow .Samples from bed unit before and after cleaning and disinfecting were collected ,then the quantitative and qualitative detections of bacteria were performed . And three procedures of disinfection (ultrashort ,fast

  15. Air lifted and propelled vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.E.; Johnson, R.A.


    This patent describes a vehicle which rides on air cushion and which is propelled by air, comprising: upper deck means, having a bottom edge which defines the periphery of an area; a thin, flexible sheet located below the upper deck means, extending beneath the bottom edge and secured beneath the bottom edge for defining a plenum that is defined by and closed off by the upper deck means and the sheet. The deck means is shaped within the area defined by its bottom edge for causing the plenum to always be an open space and the upper deck means is rigid enough to maintain that open condition of the plenum; the sheet being secured in a manner permitting the sheet to pillow when air is pressurized in the plenum; and the sheet being perforated below the upper deck means for permitting exit of air from the plenum at a controllable rate through the perforations; the sheet having a large plurality of the perforations dispersed over most of its area below the upper deck means; each of the perforations being a hole.

  16. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury. (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H


    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  17. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in Imam Khomayni Hospital, Ilam, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azizian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causes of hospital infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common agent of urinary tract infections. Hospital acquired infection as an old challenge has high importance in hospital infection control and Staphylococcus spp. play main role among routine pathogens. this study designed to investigate the of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus among ICU, Men and Children wards. Materials and methods: Samples collected randomly from ICU, Men and Children wards. Through 203 sampling of wall, floor, bed, pillow and blanket, 75 Staphylococcus spp. isolated. Species recognizes base on culture on Mannitol salt agar and Novobiocin susceptibility determination. Result: Among 75 positive samples, 62 (82.7%, and 13 isolates were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. 51% of bacteria isolated from ICU, 29% from children ward and 20% from men surgery ward. Staphylococcus saprophyticus comprised 87%, 82% and 73% of isolates pertaining to ICU, pediatric and men surgery wards, in a row. Conclusion: Our funding indicate there is an inappropriate instrument to deal with infection in hospital specially ICU. Regards to this issue that Staphylococcus spp. as a main pathogen which has potency to form biofilm and show high resistance to extended broad antibiotics therefore it is suggested to prepare proper guideline to cope with bacteria dissemination and resistance emergence in hospital.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative characteristic ofthe population of mesenchymal cells in structural components from conotruncal region of the embryo heart on its early hystogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyagovets K.I.


    Full Text Available Character of the distribution of the mesenchymal’s cellspopulation was analysed during the early hystogenesis of the conotruncal region of the mouse embr yo heart. Conotruncalregion is the predecessor of the proximal part of the aorta and pulmonary trunk, of the aortic ruff and conus arteriosus and semilunar valves. Violation of its transformations leading to the formation of congenital heart disease,which named «conotruncal defects». The material was used embryos mice by the C57BL / 6 line, which covers the period of from 10 to 12.5th day, which corresponded to a 16-21 Teilor stages. Quantify the planar and volumetric distribution of a population of mesenchymal stem cells conotruncus’s pillows and ridges by the original method; on the basis of serial pictures of embryo heart with the use of the computer providing Photoshop Cs5, Amira of for microscopy 5.0, 3ds max 8.0, we created the three-dimensional models of structural components of the conotruncus embryonic mouse heart. During this research noted the phased settlement condensed esenchymal stem fraction first and then tapered sections, given the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the distribution of the conotruncus’s mesenchyme embryonic mouse heart.

  19. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onah Isegbe Emmanuel


    Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.

  20. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia collision zone based on 40Ar-39Ar thermochronology in Ladakh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Bhutani; Kanchan Pande; T R Venkatesan


    New 40Ar-39Ar thermochronological results from the Ladakh region in the India-Asia collision zone provide a tectono-thermal evolutionary scenario. The characteristic granodiorite of the Ladakh batholith near Leh yielded a plateau age of 46.3 ± 0.6Ma (2 ). Biotite from the same rock yielded a plateau age of 44.6 ± 0.3Ma (2 ). The youngest phase of the Ladakh batholith, the leucogranite near Himya, yielded a cooling pattern with a plateau-like age of ∼36 Ma. The plateau age of muscovite from the same rock is 29.8 ± 0.2Ma (2 ). These ages indicate post-collision tectonothermal activity, which may have been responsible for partial melting within the Ladakh batholith. Two basalt samples from Sumdo Nala have also recorded the post-collision tectono-thermal event, which lasted at least for 8MY in the suture zone since the collision, whereas in the western part of the Indus Suture, pillow lava of Chiktan showed no effect of this event and yielded an age of emplacement of 128.2 ± 2.6Ma (2 ). The available data indicate that post-collision deformation led to the crustal thickening causing an increase in temperature, which may have caused partial melting at the base of the thickened crust. The high thermal regime propagated away from the suture with time.

  1. Base-Bleed Effect on X-33 Aerospike Plume Induced Base-Heating Environment During Power-Pack Out (United States)

    Wang, Tee-See; Droege, Alan; D'Agostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert


    A computational heat transfer methodology was developed to study the dual-engine linear aerospike plume induced base-heating environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. One power-pack out results in reduction of power levels for both engines. That, in turn, reduces the amount of base-bleed and changes the distribution of base-bleed on the two pillows. Hence, the concern of increased base-heating during power-pack out. The thermo-flowfield of the entire vehicle was computed. The computational methodology for the convective heating is based on a three-dimensional, finite-volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation. The computational methodology for the radiative heating is based on a three-dimensional, finite-volume, and spectral-line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation heat transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. In this study, near-base radiative heat fluxes were computed and they compared well with those measured from an installed linear aerospike engine tests. The base-heating environment of 18 trajectory points selected from three power-pack out ascent scenarios was computed and is presented here. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective base-heating when it happens early in flight. The some of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced base-bleed.

  2. Milestone 5 test report. Task 5, subtask 5.2: Tile to foam strength tests (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.


    This report summarizes work that has been performed to date on the strength of a cryotank insulation system using Rohacell foam and TUFI-coated AETB-12 ceramic tiles directly bonded to a simulated graphite-epoxy tank wall. Testing utilized a custom specimen design which consists of a long tensile specimen with eccentric loading to induce curvature similar to the curvature expected due to 'pillowing' of the tank when pressurized. A finite element model was constructed to predict the specific element strains in the test article, and to assist with design of the test specimen to meet the specific goals of curvature and laminate strain. The results indicate that the heat treated 3.25-pcf density Rohacell foam does not provide sufficient strength for the induced stresses due to curvature and stress concentration at the RTV bondline to the TUFI tile. The test was repeated using higher density non-heat treated Rohacell foam (6.9 pcf) without foam failure. The finite element model was shown to predict specimen behavior, and validation of the model was successful. It is pertinent to mention that the analyses described herein accurately predicted the failure of the heat treated foams and based on this analysis method it is expected that the untreated 3.25 pcf Rohacell foam will be successful.

  3. MRI Findings of Causalgia of the Lower Extremity Following Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ryan Ormond


    Full Text Available Background. Causalgia is continuing pain, allodynia, or hyperalgesia after nerve injury with edema, changes in skin blood flow, or abnormal sudomotor activity. Here we report a case of lower extremity causalgia following elective transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary tumor in a young man. Clinical Presentation. A 33-year-old man with acromegaly underwent elective sublabial transsphenoidal resection of his pituitary tumor. During the three-hour surgery, the lower limbs were kept in a supine, neutral position with a pillow under the knees. The right thigh was slightly internally rotated with a tape to expose fascia lata, which was harvested to repair the sella. Postoperatively, he developed causalgia in a distal sciatic and common peroneal nerve distribution. Pain was refractory to several interventions. Finally, phenoxybenzamine improved his pain significantly. Conclusions. Malpositioning in the operating room resulted in causalgia in this young man. Phenoxybenzamine improved, and ultimately resolved, his symptoms. Improvement in his pain symptoms correlated with resolution of imaging changes in the distal sciatic and peroneal nerves on the side of injury.

  4. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony (United States)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine


    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  5. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element (United States)

    Miedzińska, D.; Gieleta, R.; Osiński, J.


    A vibratory pile hammer (VPH) is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  6. Interpretation results of the western Algerian Atlas Megaregional Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagne, A.J.; Smith, N.G. [CGG American Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gouri, A. [Sonatrach, Boumerdes (Algeria)


    The International Megaregional Project is a worldwide project involving the compilation and interpretation of long regional seismic lines which cross several basins with the same transect. The goal of the project is to synthesize the current geologic knowledge of the areas traversed and to identify new areas of exploration interest. The international Megaregional framework which has been established serves as a focus for the geologic efforts and seismic data compilation. This project is conducted with the cooperation of a consortium of multinational oil companies as well as Sonatrach and CGG. Megaregional lines can provide new insights into: (1) what is and is not basement, (2) maturation history and migration pathways, (3) regional structure, and (4) regional stratigraphy. The lines can thereby lead to the development of new exploration concepts. The poster session discusses the interpretation of a seismic segment that traverses the Saharan Atlas, Hauts Plateaux, Telagh Basin, Cheliff Basin and terminates in the deep Mediterranean. The line shows the complex history of the area and varying thicknesses of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. After the Hercynian Orogeny, during the Triassic, crust was extended and thinned slightly. During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, salt flowage resulted in the formation of pillows and extensional faults. This was locally followed by tectonic overprinting in the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic (Alpine Orogeny). Although the tectonic history of the area is complex, selected parts of the western Algerian Atlas may be prospective.

  7. Boojums All the Way through (United States)

    Mermin, N. David


    Preface; Part I. Reflections on the Pursuit of Physics: 1. E. pluribus boojum: the physicist as neologist; 2. Commencement address; 3. One of the great physicists ... and great characters; 4. My life with Landeau; 5. What's wrong with this lagrangean?; 6. What's wrong with this library?; 7. What's wrong with this prose?; 8. What's wrong with these equations?; 9. What's wrong with these prizes?; Part II. The Quantum Theory: 10. Quantum mysteries for anyone; 11. Can you help your team tonight by watching on TV?; 12. Spooky actions at a distance: mysteries of the quantum; 13. A bolt from the blue: The Eistein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox; 14. The philosophical writings of Neils Bohr; 15. The great quantum muddle; 16. What's wrong with this pillow?; Part III. Relativity: 17. Cruel nature: a relativistic tragicomedy; 18. The amazing many coloured relativity engine; 19. Relativistic addition of velocities directly from the constancy of the velocity of light; 20. Relativity without light; 21. E = Mc2 (written with M. J. Feigenbaum); Part IV Mathematical Musings: 22. Logarithms!; 23. Stirling's formula!; 24. Pi in the sky; 25. Variational principles in dynamics and quantum theory; 26. Special functions: a group theoretic approach.

  8. Geochronology and Geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Aoyougou Ophiolite in the North Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Aoyougou ophiolite lies in an early Palaeozoic orogenic belt of the western North Qilian Mountains, near the Aoyougou valley in Gansu Province, northwestern China. It consists of serpentinite, a cumulate sequence of gabbro and diorite, pillow and massive lavas, diabase and chert. Ages of 1840±2 Ma, 1783±2 Ma and 1784±2 Ma on three zircons from diabase, indicate an early Middle Proterozoic age. The diabases and basalts show light rare-earth element enrichment and have relatively high TiO2 contents, characteristic of ocean island basalts. All of the lavas have low MgO, Cr, Ni contents and Mg numbers indicating a more evolved character. They are believed to have been derived from a more mafic parental magma by fractionation of olivine, Cr-spinel and minor plagioclase. Based on the lava geochemistry and regional geology, the Aoyougou ophiolite was probably believed to have formed at a spreading centre in a small marginal basin. Subduction of the newly formed oceanic lithosphere in the Middle Proterozoic produced a trench-arc-basin system, which is preserved in the North Qilian Mountains.

  9. The Neoproterozoic Malani magmatism of the northwestern Indian shield: Implications for crust-building processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal K Sharma


    Malani is the largest event of anorogenic felsic magmatism (covering ∼50,000km2) in India. This magmatic activity took place at ∼750Ma post-dating the Erinpura granite (850 Ma) and ended prior to Marwar Supergroup (680 Ma) sedimentation. Malani eruptions occurred mostly on land, but locally sub-aqueous conditions are shown by the presence of conglomerate, grits and pillow lava. The Malani rocks do not show any type of regional deformation effects. The Malanis are characterised by bimodal volcanism with a dominant felsic component, followed by granitic plutonism and a terminal dyke phase. An angular unconformity between Malani lavas and basement is observed, with the presence of conglomerate at Sindreth, Diri, and Kankani. This indicates that the crust was quite stable and peneplained prior to the Malani activity. Similarly, the absence of any thrust zone, tectonic m´elange and tectonised contact of the Malanis with the basement goes against a plate subduction setting for their genesis. After the closure of orogenic cycles in the Aravalli craton of the northwestern shield, this anorogenic intraplate magmatic activity took place in a cratonic rift setting under an extensional tectonic regime.

  10. Accuracy of positioning the cervical spine for radiation therapy and the relationship to GTV, CTV and PTV. (United States)

    Kippenes, Hege; Gavin, Patrick R; Sande, Ronald D; Rogers, Dennis; Sweet, Vaughn


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of a rigid positioning device for repositioning the cervical spine accurately and precisely during conformal radiation therapy of dogs. Fifteen purpose bred research dogs in a radiation therapy study were included. The dogs were positioned using a head holder and a deflatable pillow attached to the treatment table. Port films were reviewed retrospectively, and repositioning precision was recorded by measurements in three orthogonal planes of the head, 2nd cervical vertebra and 1st thoracic spinous process. Mean treatment position was compared to the planning position for a measurement of systematic set-up error. Mean interfraction position variation of the 2nd cervical vertebra was 0.2, 0.1 and 0.2 cm for the ventrodorsal, caudocranial and laterolateral directions respectively, and the average systematic set up error was 0.2, 0.1 and 0.2 cm for the ventrodorsal, caudocranial and laterolateral directions respectively. Knowledge of the magnitude of reposition errors should be included when determining the margins around the tumor. PMID:14703256

  11. Titanite mineralization of bioalteration textures - the possible Ti precursor (United States)

    Fliegel, D.; Wirth, R.; Simonetti, A.; McLoughlin, N.; Furnes, H.


    Bioalteration textures in the glassy rims of pillow basalts are found in in-situ oceanic crust of any age, in Phanerozoic ophiolites and from Precambrian greenstone belts. In ancient and metamorphosed rocks, these bioalteration textures are often mineralized by titanite (CaSiTiO5). The presence of titanite provides a way to constrain the age of these tracefossils using in-situ U-Pb dating with LA-MC-ICPMS. Until now the pathway for mineralization by titanite was unclear. We investigate here bioalteration textures from in-situ oceanic crust (DSDP 418A) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Using high spatial resolved spectroscopy, Ti enrichments and the Ti speciation was determined in the bioalteration textures. In addition TEM and EELS revealed the microstructure of the bioalteration textures and with STXM the redox chemistry at the interface between texture and host glass was examined. The observed Ti can serve as precursor for subsequent titanite mineralization during sub-seafloor and/or later regional metamorphism. We present here therefore a model for the mineralization and thus preservation of bioalteration textures in the oceanic crust.

  12. Evaluation of effects of groundwater withdrawals at the proposed Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant, Shelby County, Tennessee (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.


    The Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study groundwater-flow model was used to simulate the potential effects of future groundwater withdrawals at the proposed Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant in Shelby County, Tennessee. The scenario used in the simulation consisted of a 30-year average withdrawal period followed by a 30-day maximum withdrawal period. Effects of withdrawals at the Allen plant site on the Mississippi embayment aquifer system were evaluated by comparing the difference in simulated water levels in the aquifers at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and at the end of the scenario to a base case without the Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant withdrawals. Simulated potentiometric surface declines in the Memphis aquifer at the Allen plant site were about 7 feet at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and 11 feet at the end of the scenario. The affected area of the Memphis aquifer at the Allen plant site as delineated by the 4-foot potentiometric surface-decline contour was 2,590 acres at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and 11,380 acres at the end of the scenario. Simulated declines in the underlying Fort Pillow aquifer and overlying shallow aquifer were both less than 1 foot at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and the end of the scenario.

  13. Description of a Simple Method of Stoma Protection During Prone Positioning. (United States)

    Mackert, Gina A; Reid, Christopher M; Dobke, Marek K; Tenenhaus, Mayer


    Surgeries conducted with the patient in the prone position are frequent and can be lengthy. Abdominal stomas and su- prapubic catheters require protection for the complete duration of the procedure to avoid complications such as stomal ischemia, bleeding, or mucocutaneous separation. Standard protection strategies such as pillows and wedges can eas- ily fail. In the course of managing several patients who had sustained ostomy complications following surgery in a prone position, a simple method of stoma protection was devised. Instead of discarding the foam headrest typically used dur- ing induction by anesthesia staff, this device is placed with its central recess over the stoma and secured to the patient's abdominal wall with gentle tape just before turning the patient into a prone position. This method, used in more than 80 patients, has been found to effectively relieve pressure, and no complications have been observed. The foam shape also enables unobstructed drainage of fluids, facilitating collection and preventing leakage and contamination of the surgical field. Because the device is widely used by anesthesia, it is readily available and does not add any extra cost. PMID:27356146

  14. Pile-soil stress ratio in bidirectionally reinforced composite ground by considering soil arching effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹新军; 杨眉; 赵明华; 杨小礼


    To discuss the soil arching effect on the load transferring model and sharing ratios by the piles and inter-pile subsoil in the bidirectionally reinforced composite ground, the forming mechanism, mechanical behavior and its effect factors were discussed in detail. Then, the unified strength theory was introduced to set up the elastoplastic equilibrium differential equation of the subsoil under the limit equilibrium state. And from the equation, the solutions were derived with the corresponding formulas presented to calculate the earth pressure over and beneath the horizontal reinforced cushion or pillow, the stress of inter-pile subsoil and the pile-soil stress ratio. Based on the obtained solutions and measured data from an engineering project, the influence rules by the soil property parameters (i.e., the cohesion c and internal friction angle φ) and pile spacing on the pile-soil stress ratio n were discussed respectively. The results show that to improve the load sharing ratio by the piles, the more effective means for filling materials with a larger value of φ is to increase the ratio of pile cap size to spacing, while to reduce the pile spacing properly and increase the value of cohesion c is advisable for those filling materials with a smaller value of φ.

  15. Backarc rifting, constructional volcanism and nascent disorganised spreading in the southern Havre Trough backarc rifts (SW Pacific) (United States)

    Wysoczanski, R. J.; Todd, E.; Wright, I. C.; Leybourne, M. I.; Hergt, J. M.; Adam, C.; Mackay, K.


    High resolution multibeam (EM300 and SEABEAM) data of the Southern Havre Trough (SHT), combined with observations and sample collections from the submersible Shinkai6500 and deep-tow camera, are used to develop a model for the evolution and magmatism of this backarc system. The Havre Trough and the associated Kermadec Arc are the product of westward subduction at the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Detailed studies focus on newly discovered features including a seamount (Saito Seamount) and a deep graben (Ngatoroirangi Rift, > 4000 m water depth floored with a constructional axial volcanic ridge > 5 km in length and in excess of 200 m high), both of which are characterised by pillow and lobate flows estimated at Mass balance modelling indicates a maximum crustal thickness of ~ 11 km to magmatism within deep SHT rifts, we propose that the SHT is in an incipient phase of distributed and "disorganised" oceanic crustal accretion in multiple, ephemeral, and short but deep (> 4000 m) spreading systems. These discontinuous spreading systems are characterised by failed rifts, rift segmentation, and propagation. Successive episodes of magmatic intrusion into thinned faulted arc basement results in defocused asymmetrical accretion. Cross-arc volcanic chains, isolated volcanoes and underlying basement plateaus are interpreted to represent a "cap" of recent extrusives. However, they may also be composed entirely of newly accreted crust and the spatially extensive basement fabric of elongated volcanic ridges may be the surface expression of pervasive dike intrusion that has thoroughly penetrated and essentially replaced the original arc crust with newly accreted intrusives.

  16. Rehabilitation exercise for treatment of vestibular disorder: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Feazadeh


    Full Text Available Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, there are different interpretations of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of a 56 year old woman with complains of positional vertigo for 35 consecutive years. She suffered from a sudden onset of rotatory, unilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The symtoms started a day after falling from a bus, where she injured her head. Otherwise her medical history was unremarkable. She was treated with an individualized home exercise program of eye movement exercises, Brandt/Daroff exercises, and general conditioning exercises (i.e., laying on the left side from sitting on the bed, while the head rotated 45 degrees to the right, waiting for about one minue; twice a day on gradual basis, not laying on the side all the way, but to use enough pillows to lay about at 60 degrees. Four weeks from the start of physical therapy, the patient was free of symptoms, even when her neck was in the extended position.

  17. High-resolution AUV mapping and lava flow ages at Axial Seamount (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.; Martin, J.


    Mapping along mid-ocean ridges, as on land, requires identification of flow boundaries and sequence, and ages of some flows to understand eruption history. Multibeam sonars on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) now generate 1-m resolution maps that resolve lava pillars, internal flow structures and boundaries, and lava flow emplacement sequences using crosscutting relations and abundance of fissures. MBARI has now mapped the summit caldera floor and rims and the upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. With the advent of the high-resolution bathymetry and the ability to observe flow contacts to determine superposition using ROVs and submersibles, the missing component has been determining absolute ages of the flows. We used the MBARI ROV Doc Ricketts to collect short push cores (<30 cm) of the thin sediment nestled between pillow lava lobes and sieve and then hand-pick planktic foraminifera from the base of the cores to date by AMS 14C. Ages of planktic foraminifera are marine-calibrated in years before present, and provide minimum ages for the underlying flows, as there is probably some basal sediment that is not recovered. 14C ages have been determined for 10 cores near the summit of Axial Seamount and for 6 from the lowermost south rift. Ages of nearby samples commonly yield statistically identical ages, and 2 cores near the center of the caldera had multiple layers dated. These ages systematically increase with depth, indicating that redistribution of sediment by bottom currents does not significantly affect the stratigraphy. We will expand these collections in summer 2011. The coring is accompanied by collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition inferred from the mapping data. Six ages from the lowermost part of the south rift of Axial Seamount include samples on a cone with deep summit crater that is ~16,580 aBP and on 5 flows between 950 and 1510 aBP. Two

  18. Modified Large Craniotomy for Decompression of Frontal Parietal Temporal and Occipital Lobes for Treatment of Patients with Supra-tentorial Malignant Infarcts%额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术对幕上恶性脑梗塞的临床疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎乾科; 姚庆宁; 唐协林; 刘胜华; 罗静; 肖奎; 钟俊; 赵超


    Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy for supra-tentorial malignant infarcts ( STMBI ) of craniotomy surgery in pillow top frontotemporal .Method:Using the prospective study , the STMBI patients diagnosed in clinical and radiographic were divided into surgery group and the control group , and compared the postoperative mortality of the two groups .After 1-year follow-up, compared the Glasgow outcome scale ( GOS) and Barthal index between the two groups .Result:The present study included a total of 26 subjects, 13 cases in surgery group and 13 in control group .There's no significant difference in age and GCS between two groups.The results of 1-year follow-up showed that the survival rate in surgery group and the control group were 84.6%and 69.2%respectively ( P>0.05) .GOS and Barthal index in surgery group were better than control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion: Compared with conservative treatment , supra-tentorial malig-nant infarcts ( STMBI) of craniotomy surgery in pillow top frontotemporal can not only reduce mortality but also improve the prognosis .%目的:评估额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术对幕上恶性脑梗塞( supra-tentorial malignant in-farcts,STMBI)的临床疗效。方法:采用前瞻性研究的方法,将临床和放射学诊断为STMBI的患者分为手术组和对照组,比较两组的术后死亡率;随访1年后比较两组患者的格拉斯哥预后评分( GOS)、Bar-thal指数。结果:本次研究共纳入共26例研究对象,其中手术组13例,对照组13例。术前两组年龄、GCS比较差异无统计学意义。随访1年结果显示,手术组和对照组1年生存率分别为为84.6%和69.2%(p>0.05)。格拉斯哥预后评分(GOS)、Barthal 指数在手术组更好(p<0.05)。结论:STMBI 患者早期行额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术与保守治疗相比,不仅降低了死亡率,还改善了预后。

  19. 伴与不伴 ADHD的多发性抽动患儿静态平衡功能研究%Stability index of TS children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓玲; 王澈; 王春妮


    Objective To explore the stability index of children with Tourette syndrome ( TS ) with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD) .Methods According to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, the study involved TS children with ADHD, pure TS children and normal controls.Each group consisted of 39 subjects, and the groups were matched by gender and age.The stability indexes were measured by Tetrax balance system.Results Compared with the controls, pure TS children were not significantly different in stability indexes of normal position with eyes open, normal position with eyes closed, opened eyes on pillows and closed eyes on pillows ( t value was 0.533, 0.721, 1.535 and 0.324, respectively, all P>0.05).But they were significantly different from TS children with ADHD (t value was 14.829, 15.090, 15.763 and 15.7889, respectively, all P<0.01).The differences in the stability indexes of these gestures were also significant between TS children with ADHD and normal children ( t value was 15.057, 14.410, 16.888 and 15.823, respectively, all P<0.01).Conclusion The pathogenic mechanisms may be different between TS children with ADHD and those without ADHD.%目的:探讨伴与不伴注意缺陷多动障碍( ADHD)的多发性抽动障碍( TS)患儿静态平衡功能特点。方法采用美国《精神障碍诊断与统计手册(第4版)》( DSM-IV)诊断标准,并按照性别年龄配对的不伴ADHD的TS、共患ADHD的TS及正常儿童各39例为研究对象,应用静态平衡测试系统测定其稳定性系数( ST)。结果不伴ADHD的TS患儿与正常对照组在睁眼自然站立、闭眼自然站立、睁眼脚垫站立、闭眼脚垫站立等各姿势稳定系数比较,均无显著性差异( t值分别为0.533、0.721、1.535、0.324,均P>0.05);不伴ADHD的TS患儿与共患ADHD的TS组在睁眼自然站立、闭眼自然站立、睁眼脚垫站立、闭眼脚垫站立等各姿势的稳定系数

  20. Stress perturbation associated with the Amazonas and other ancient continental rifts (United States)

    Zoback, M.L.; Richardson, R.M.


    The state of stress in the vicinity of old continental rifts is examined to investigate the possibility that crustal structure associated with ancient rifts (specifically a dense rift pillow in the lower crust) may modify substantially the regional stress field. Both shallow (2.0-2.6 km depth) breakout data and deep (20-45 km depth) crustal earthquake focal mechanisms indicate a N to NNE maximum horizontal compression in the vicinity of the Paleozoic Amazonas rift in central Brazil. This compressive stress direction is nearly perpendicular to the rift structure and represents a ???75?? rotation relative to a regional E-W compressive stress direction in the South American plate. Elastic two-dimensional finite element models of the density structure associated with the Amazonas rift (as inferred from independent gravity modeling) indicate that elastic support of this dense feature would generate horizontal rift-normal compressional stresses between 60 and 120 MPa, with values of 80-100 MPa probably most representative of the overall structure. The observed ???75?? stress rotation constrains the ratio of the regional horizontal stress difference to the rift-normal compressive stress to be between 0.25 and 1.0, suggesting that this rift-normal stress may be from 1 to 4 times larger than the regional horizontal stress difference. A general expression for the modification of the normalized local horizontal shear stress (relative to the regional horizontal shear stress) shows that the same ratio of the rift-normal compression relative to the regional horizontal stress difference, which controls the amount of stress rotation, also determines whether the superposed stress increases or decreases the local maximum horizontal shear stress. The potential for fault reactivation of ancient continental rifts in general is analyzed considering both the local stress rotation and modification of horizontal shear stress for both thrust and strike-slip stress regimes. In the Amazonas

  1. Etiologia, manifestações clínicas e alterações presentes nas crianças respiradoras orais Etiology, clinical manifestations and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rafael Abreu


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a etiologia, as principais manifestações clínicas e as alterações presentes em crianças de 3 a 9 anos, respiradoras orais, residentes na região urbana de Abaeté (MG. MÉTODOS: Estudo com amostra aleatória representativa da população do município de 23.596 habitantes. Clinicamente, foram consideradas respiradoras orais as crianças que roncavam, dormiam com a boca aberta, babavam no travesseiro e apresentavam queixas de obstrução nasal freqüente ou intermitente. As crianças com diagnóstico clínico de respirador oral foram submetidas a endoscopia nasal, teste alérgico cutâneo e raio X do cavum, hemograma, contagem de eosinófilos, dosagem de IgE total e parasitológico de fezes. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa SPSS® versão 10.5. RESULTADOS: As principais causas da respiração oral foram: rinite alérgica (81,4%, hipertrofia de adenóides (79,2%, hipertrofia de amígdalas (12,6% e desvio obstrutivo do septo nasal (1,0%. As principais manifestações clínicas do respirador oral foram: dormir com a boca aberta (86%, roncar (79%, coçar o nariz (77%, babar no travesseiro (62%, dificuldade respiratória noturna ou sono agitado (62%, obstrução nasal (49% e irritabilidade durante o dia (43%. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas manifestações clínicas são muito freqüentes na criança respiradora oral. Essas manifestações devem ser reconhecidas e consideradas no diagnóstico clínico da respiração oral.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the etiology, main clinical manifestations and other concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children aged 3 to 9 years and resident in the urban area of Abaeté (MG, Brazil. METHODS: This study was based on a representative random sample of the town population, of 23,596 inhabitants. Clinical diagnosis of mouth-breathing was defined as a combination of snoring, sleeping with mouth open, drooling on the pillow and frequent or intermittent nasal obstruction. Children with a

  2. Calcitriol Therapy for Treating Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets in Children%骨化三醇治疗佝偻病的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立君; 杜秋影; 姚笠


    Objective To observe calcitriol for treating infantile vitamin D deficiency rickets in children. Methods One hundred and fifty infants with vitamin D deficiency rickets were randomly divided into three groups,treatment group 1(50 cases) ,were treated with oral calcitriol 0.25μg·d-1 for 30 days; treatment group 2 (50 cases) , were treated with 0.50μg·d-1 for 30 days; and treatment group 3(50 cases) , were . Treated with vitamin D2 2000 IU·d-1 for 30 days. The changes in correlation symptoms(night terrors,sweat,vexed make,pillow bald) ,height and weight,serum calcium,bone alkaline phosphatase(BALP),serum 25 - (OH) vitamin D3 and changes in the bone mineral density were observed in 3 groups. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results The clinical symptoms (night terrors,sweat,vexed make,pillow bald) in each group were all improved; height, weight in each group also grew and had no statistical difference among them; the serum calcium in 3 groups had no statistical difference. After treatment, the decline of BALP and the increase of serum 25-( OH) vitamin D, and bone mineral density had statistically significant changes (Pa <0.01). Treatment group 2 changed the most. Conclusion Treatment of calcitriol in infantile rickets has curative effect,and 0.50μg·d-1 in northern area children is proved to be a very good therapy.%目的 探讨骨化三醇治疗小儿佝偻病的效果.方法 选取150例1~3岁的佝偻病患儿,随机分为3组,每组50例,治疗1组每日口服骨化三醇1粒(0.25 μg),治疗2组每日2粒(0.50 μg),对照组则每日给予普通维生素D22000 IU.治疗1个月后比较各组患儿治疗前后临床表现(夜惊、多汗、烦闹、枕秃等)改善情况,以及身高、血清钙、骨碱性磷酸酶(BALP)、血清25羟维生素D3、骨密度的变化情况.采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 各组患儿临床表现(夜惊、多汗、烦闹、枕秃)均有改善;各组患儿身高、体质量均有增长,

  3. 低位产钳助产术的助产指征及并发症141例分析%Analysis of 141 cases of low forceps midwifery indications and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 马秀华


    Objective Discusses low forceps midwifery indications and complications, and the value of clinical appli-cation in obstetric delivery . Method Retrospective analysis of clinical data in our hospital in 2009~2013 years 141 cases of patients with low forceps. Result In the implementation of low forceps midwifery, the indications of mid-wifery are abnormal fetal distress, pillow, weakness of contractions, gestational hypertension disease, antepartum haemorrhage, hyperthyroidism merger, sinus tachycardia, expired pregnancy, pregnancy second prolonged labor. Mainly the indications of midwifery for abnormal fetal distress and pillow, both accounted for 90. 1% of the indica-tions of midwifery. Major maternal complication is vaginal injury, serious complication of neonatal is only 1. 4%. Fe-tal aspiration after failed forceps delivery group and directly for forceps delivery group, there are significant differ-ence in the maternal complications and neonatal complications (P<0. 05). The two groups in neonatal birth weight have significant difference(P<0. 05). Conclusion Correct evaluation and decision making, correct and skilled in the use of low forceps technique on mother and infant, small trauma. Low forceps delivery is to solve the head posi-tion dystocia, shorten the second stage of labor of the important operation method, it has the irreplaceable in obstet-rics childbirth.%目的:探讨低位产钳助产术的助产指征和并发症以及在产科分娩中的临床应用的价值。方法对本院2009~2013年实施的141例低位产钳术的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果在实施低位产钳助产技术中助产指征有:胎儿窘迫、枕位异常、宫缩乏力、妊娠期高血压疾病、产前出血、甲亢合并妊娠、窦性心动过速、过期妊娠和第二产程延长。其中主要助产指征为胎儿窘迫及枕位异常,两者占助产指征的90.1%。母体并发症主要为阴道壁裂伤,而新生儿发

  4. Caldera Formation on the Vance Seamounts (United States)

    Clague, D.; Paduan, J.; Cousens, B.; Cornejo, L.; Perfit, M.; Wendt, R.; Stix, J.; Helo, C.


    The Vance Seamounts are a chain of near-ridge volcanoes located just west of the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The six volcanoes are built on ocean crust ranging from 0.78 Ma at the southeastern end to 2.55 Ma in the northwest. Morphologic analysis indicates that the volcanoes were constructed sequentially and get younger to the southeast towards the ridge axis. Like many near-ridge volcanoes, some of the Vance Seamounts have large offset calderas that presumably formed above evacuated shallow magma chambers within the upper ocean crust. In summer 2006, we completed 6 dives using MBARI's ROV Tiburon to study the formation of these calderas. The floor of each caldera consists of flat-lying volcaniclastite, under about 25 cm of pelagic sediment. Some caldera floors have mounds of post-caldera pillow flows. The caldera walls have a lower section covered by talus and an upper section of interbedded massive flows with columnar joints (to 11 m thick) and pillow basalts. The top of each caldera wall has a unit of volcanic mudstone to sandstone ranging from 20 cm to 2 m thick. The fine matrix of many of these samples is green hydrothermal clay. The finest siltstone to mudstone samples appear to be layers of massive tan hydrothermal clays. Talus fragments, lava and volcaniclastite outcrops are universally coated and cemented by 1 to 4 cm-thick deposits of hydrothermal Mn-oxide crusts, even on the youngest of the volcanoes. Volcanic particles in the sandstones are mostly dense angular glass, but bubble-wall fragments (limu o Pele) are present and indicate formation during low-energy pyroclastic eruptions. Without the few percent limu o Pele fragments, the glass fragments would resemble those inferred to form by quench granulation. We suggest that quench granulation is actually pyroclastic fragmentation that occurs as coalesced magmatic gas bubbles disrupt the molten lava surface at the vents. Our observations confirm that the more southeasterly offset calderas truncated thick

  5. Wide-angle seismic reflections as direct indictors of partial melt beneath an andesite arc (United States)

    Stern, T. A.; Benson, A.; Stratford, W. R.; Gamble, J. A.


    Quasi-linear arcs of andesite volcanoes that erupt above 120 ± 40 km deep Waditi-Benioff zones are one of the most striking surface manifestations of plate tectonics. The prevailing view is that andesite magma that feed these arcs are an end-product of fluid-assisted melting in the mantle wedge1. Two key questions remain unresolved: why is the line of an active arc so sharply defined? and where do parental mantle-derived melts pool and differentiate into mafic restite and more felsic magma components that are so distinctive of continental magmatic arc systems ? Here we present seismic evidence from the MORC (mantle or crust?) project for a focused zone of melt below the andesite arc within northern New Zealand. Nine ~ 0.4 - 1.3 tonne dynamite shots were recorded on ~ 700 seismographs spaced along a 120 km long array across, and normal to the axis of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). Two important features of the ray tracing solution are: (i) a lower-crustal, 10 km thick, "rift-pillow" of rocks where the P-wave seismic velocities (Vp) are ~ 6.8-7.1 km/s. Seismic reflections from top and bottom of the pillow are termed R1 and R2 respectively. (ii) Strong seismic reflections (termed R3 reflector) are recorded from a relatively short (12 -18 km-long) reflector at a depth of ~ 32 ± 2 km. An analysis of interval velocities between the R2 and R3 reflectors show a P-wave speed of 7.6 +/- 0.2 km/s, which is interpreted as anomalous upper mantle. Thus R3 is regarded as being a reflector within the upper mantle. Ray-tracing locates R3 beneath the eastern margin of the TVZ and directly beneath the active volcanic (andesite) front and geothermal fields. A causal relationship between the R3 reflector and the andesite arc is therefore implied. The amplitude ratio of the R3/R2 reflections along common traces is as high as 4-6 for incidence angles of reflection of 45-60 degrees. These data suggest R3 is best explained with numerical methods by an interface across which there is a

  6. Effect of different body position care combined with early rehabilitation training on the functional recovery of knee joint after surgery for fracture of patella%髌骨骨折术后不同体位护理联合早期康复训练对膝关节功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余敏; 刘长英


    目的:探讨髌骨骨折术后不同体位护理联合早期康复训练对膝关节功能恢复的影响。方法:将47例髌骨骨折患者随机分为实验组24例和对照组23例,实验组内固定术后局部弹力绷带包扎,膝后垫软枕,予屈曲膝关节90°~120°体位放置;常规组内固定术后常规抬高患肢15°~20°,膝后垫软枕,膝关节屈曲5°~10°体位。两组患者术后均实施冷敷,第2天由主管医生、护士和康复师对其进行康复指导,分别于术后第3天、第14天、第30天比较两组患者不同体位护理效果。结果:实验组患肢肿胀、疼痛程度明显轻于对照组,功能锻炼主动配合、膝关节功能恢复情况明显优于对照组,患者平均住院天数明显短于对照组(P﹤0.05);实验组早期体位舒适度较对照组差( P﹤0.05)。结论:髌骨骨折患者术后正确的体位、早期及时正确的功能锻炼是膝关节功能康复的关键。%Objective:To investigate the effect of different body position care combined with early rehabilitation training on the function-al recovery of knee joint after fracture of patella. Methods:47 patients with patellar fracture were randomly divided into the experimental group(n=24)and the control group(n=23). The local bandage was adopted with elastic bandages and soft pillow was used to cushion the knee flexion(90 °~120 °)after internal fixation in the experimental group;the affected limb was lifted about 15 °~ 20 °and soft pil-low was put under the knee in the position of knee flexion(5 ° ~ 10 °)after internal fixation in the control group. The patients in both groups were treated with cold compress after operation and they were given rehabilitation guidance by the doctor and nurse in charge and physical therapist on the second day,the effect of different body position care was compared respectively on the 3rd,14th and 30th day after operation. Results:The severity of swelling and

  7. 全膝关节置换术后不同体位和引流方法的失血量比较%Comparison on blood loss between different position and drainage method after total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红嫣; 王利宏; 卢福娇


    Objective To study the effect of different position and drainage method on blood loss after total knee arthro-plasty. Method Select 30 patients after total knee arthroplasty. Divide them into Group A, B and C according to random number table. Patients in Group A take the position of extension knee with pillow under the ankle of affected extremity and indwelling vacuum-drainage bag. Patients in Group B take the position of extension knee with pillow under the ankle of affected extremity and indwelling unvacuum-drainage bag. Patients in Group C lift affected extremity at the angle of 30 degree, bend knee at the angle of 45 degree and indwelling unvacuum-drainage bag. Compare the volumes of drain 24h after operation, total blood transfusion and change of prc - operation and post - operation total protein and hemoglobin of three groups. Result The volumes of drain 24h after operation of Group A, B and C arc (970. 00±79. 54)ml, (719. 00 ± 83. 91) ml and (419. 00 ± 38. 74)ml (F=15. 36, P<0. 05). The total blood transfusion and loss of total protein and hemoglobin arc less in Group C. There is significant difference on comparison between Group C and other two groups. Conclusion Bent and lifting position and unvacuum-drainage for patients after total knee arthroplasty can help reduce postoperative blood loss.%目的 探讨全膝关节置换术后不同体位和引流方法对减少失血量的影响.方法 选择30例全膝关节置换术后患者,按随机数字表分为A组、B组和C组各10例.A组术后患肢踝后垫枕,膝关节伸直位,留置负压引流袋引流;B组术后患肢踝后垫枕,膝关节伸直位,留置非负压引流袋引流;C组术后患肢抬高30°、屈膝45°,留置非负压引流袋引流.比较3组术后24 h 切口引流量、术前和术后总蛋白及血红蛋白差值、总输血量.结果 A、B、C 3组术后24 h 切口引流量分别为(970.00±79.54)ml、(719.00±83.91)ml和(419.00±38.74)ml,经比较,F=15.36,P<0.05;C组患者

  8. Origins of Carbonaceous Matter, Hematite, and Pyrite in the 3.46Ga Marble Bar Chert/Jasper/Basalt Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D. C.; Watanabe, Y.; Otake, T.


    The 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert/Jasper unit in the Pilbara district, W.A. was probably deposited in a deep (>500 m) ocean during the accumulation of a thick (>5 km) submarine basalt. Debate focuses on whether organic matter in pre-2.0 Ga cherts is a remnant of marine organisms or the product of abiotic synthesis in hydrothermal systems, whether the hematite crystals in jaspers were primary or products of modern oxidation of siderite and pyrite, and whether the pyrite crystals formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria, hydrothermal fluids, or atmospheric sulfur. At the drilling site, the Marble bar Chert/Jasper is over turned diping about 80 degrees. A continuous 264 m- long core, drilled at 50 degrees, was recovered. The major chert/jasper unit, comprising alternating beds (0.1 - 5 cm thick) of white/green/gray/black/red chert, is 105 m thick. The abundance of red jasper beds increases down hole, indicating that the hematite crystals were not produced by subaerial oxidation of ferrous minerals. Petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations of the core samples, especially using an X-ray chemical microscope, have revealed that the dominant Fe-bearing minerals are siderite, magnetite, and hematite, in the green, gray-black, and red cherts, respectively. These Fe-bearing minerals and disseminated pyrite crystals (ubiquitous in all cherts) are typically very fine grained (less than 10 microns). The basalts (pillows and tuffs), which occur below, above, and interbedded with the chert/jasper unit, are in places heavily hematitized with various characteristics of submarine hydrothermal alteration, such as chloritization, silicification, pyritization, large variations in the contents of Fe, Mg, Ba, and depletions in Ca, Sr, and Na. Veinles containing quartz and pyrite are abundant in the chert/jaster beds and also in the heavily hematitized basalts. These data suggest the hematite, magnetie, siderite, pyrite and silica in the chert/jasper unit, basalt tuffs, and pillow

  9. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.


    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  10. Low temperature alteration of basalts in oceanic domain and behaviour of rare earth elements (SEADMA 1 cruise, Mid-Atlantic ridge, 20-24 deg. N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Zero-age'' tholeiitic pillow basalts were dredged from the axial zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the vicinity of 20 deg. and 24 deg. N during SEADMA l cruise. These basalts underwent three types of alteration: a deuteric alteration, during which protruding purple Ti - rich diopside crystallized in primary voids; a low temperature alteration, which is responsible for the formation of black bands and halos, where celadonite -nontronite, and iron oxy-hydroxides replaced the mesostasis and filled primary voids. These minerals formed at low temperature from mixed fluids (sea water / hydrothermal fluids). This alteration process is characterized by an increase of K20, Rb/Ba, H2O+, Fe2O3t, the oxidation ratio and δ18O in black halos and black bands with respect to the adjacent fresher part of the samples. The water / rock ratio is very low (0.2 in mass), a very discrete low temperature alteration, responsible for the crystallization of saponite, and then calcite. This process is thought to be mainly due to seawater circulation. Black bands and black halos are either richer or poorer in light rare earth elements (La and Ce) than their fresher equivalent. It is shown that the mobilization of light REE is related to alteration, and that LREE are trapped in secondary minerals, e.g. iron oxy-hydroxides. The LREE mobilization is not linked to the formation of black halos and is due to another alteration process, in which hydrothermal fluids are probably involved. (authors). 46 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs

  11. [Brief history of recent hemp cultivation in Switzerland and subsequent medico-legal problems resulting from hemp cultivation]. (United States)

    Giroud, C; Broillet, A; Augsburger, M; Bernhard, W; Rivier, L; Mangin, P


    In March 1995, a decision about cultivation of cannabis was issued by the Swiss Federal Offices of Public Health, Police and Agriculture in order to satisfy the growing interest of farmers and other people in hemp farming. It pointed out that 1)... each hemp plant contains THC and must be therefore considered a drug, 2)... no permission is required for those who grow hemp without the intention to produce drugs ... meaning that the choice of the plant variety was not restricted to those which are characterized by a low THC concentration and grown in a few countries belonging to the European Union. Claiming that natural hemp must contain significant amounts of THC and thanks to the Swiss legislation, areas dedicated to hemp cultivation develop considerably. Most hemp plants which are submitted to our laboratories by the police for THC quantification belong to the drug-type. Nowadays, a great deal of goods (food and beverages, cosmetics, drugs) made of hemp are marketed in Switzerland. Strong suspicions exist however that several of these products could be used as a screen for the illegal market of cannabis. For instance, despite financial support from the state, fiber hemp cultivation remains unsuccessful. No advantage with regard to seed productivity, edible seed and essential oils qualities and yields have been found for drug hemp over fiber hemp by agricultural research stations up to now. Several clues about the possible illicit use of hemp goods rich in THC, especially hemp tea made of flower tops and "therapeutic" pillows filled with cannabis exist. Recently, two Federal edits were issued in order to restrict the selling of hemp seedlings and of hemp foods and beverages to those containing only low amounts of THC. However, the marketing of hemp plants used for decorating remains free partly explaining the recent success of these "beautiful" plants. Broadly speaking, the Swiss and European legislations about hemp have approached mutually during the last years.

  12. Reconstructing lava flow emplacement processes at the hot spot-affected Galápagos Spreading Center, 95°W and 92°W (United States)

    McClinton, Tim; White, Scott M.; Colman, Alice; Sinton, John M.


    Volcanic eruptions at mid-ocean ridges (MORs) control the permeability, internal structure, and architecture of oceanic crust, thus establishing the foundation for the evolution of the ocean basins. To better understand the emplacement of submarine lava flows at MORs, we have integrated submersible-based geologic mapping with remote sensing techniques to characterize the lava flow morphology within previously mapped lava flow fields produced during single eruptive episodes at the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC). Detailed attributes describing the surface geometry and texture of the lava flows have been extracted from high-resolution sonar data and combined with georeferenced visual observations from submersible dives and camera tows; based on signatures contained in these data, a fuzzy logic-based classification algorithm categorized lava flow morphology as pillows, lobates, or sheets. The resulting digital thematic maps offer an unprecedented view of GSC lava morphology, collectively covering 77 km2 of ridge axis terrain at a resolution of 2 m × 2 m. Error assessments with independent visual reference data indicate approximately 90% agreement, comparable to subaerial classification studies. The digital lava morphology maps enable quantitative, spatially comprehensive measurements of the abundance and distribution of lava morphologies over large areas of seafloor and within individual eruptive units. A comparison of lava flow fields mapped at lower- and higher-magma-supply settings (95° and 92°W, respectively) indicates that effusion rates increase along with magma supply and independent of spreading rate at the GSC, although a complete range of eruptive behavior exists at each setting.

  13. Constructing mid-ocean ridge flat-topped volcanoes: First evidence from AUV mapping in the Woodlark Basin (United States)

    Devey, C. W.; Petersen, S.; Hannington, M.; Klaucke, I.; Lackschewitz, K. S.; Mahlke, J.; Rothenbeck, M.; Sticklus, J.


    The style of volcanic activity at many of the global spreading axes is dominated or at least strongly influenced by the construction of circular volcanoes with a flat, sometimes cratered, summit plateau. Such volcanoes are an important constituent of the upper oceanic crust in many ocean basins and so knowledge of their formation process and the rock types which constitute them is important for understanding the rheology and hydrology of the upper crust on a regional to ocean basin scale. Based on previous ship-mounted multibeam sonar cartography, deep-towed side-scan sonar and submersible investigations, a range of models for their formation has been proposed varying from construction above ring-dykes, with the central crater being either a product of this eruption style or of later caldera collapse, to successive eruptions of ever-smaller sheet flows ("pancake-stack"). Here we present the results of the first high resolution (<1m) mapping of such volcanoes using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The maps, combined with visual ground truthing, clearly show that the summit plateau was generated by lavas flowing laterally from a central lava lake. In the case of cratered volcanoes, this lake has drained (fully or partially) post-eruption, volcanoes with no crater (which are in the majority) appear to have retained the lake, which is now solidified. The solidified lake will form a massive, doleritic plug whose seismic, mechanical and hydrological characteristics will differ greatly (both at the axis itself and during crustal ageing) from those of pillow or sheet lava flows, with important consequences for bulk crustal properties both at the ridge axis and in older crust.

  14. Precipitation trends in the High Sierra of California inferred from streamflow and snowpack observations (United States)

    Henn, B. M.; Clark, M. P.; Kavetski, D.; McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.; Lundquist, J. D.


    Directly observing basin-mean precipitation in the high-elevation basins of the Sierra Nevada of California is challenging, due to the sparse network of precipitation gauges at these altitudes and due to snow undercatch errors. However, numerous observations of streamflow and snowpack are also made in the Sierra, which offer additional information about the water balance of the basin with which to estimate precipitation. We develop and apply a Bayesian methodology for inferring basin-mean precipitation from streamflow and snowpack observations, in multiple snow-dominated Sierra basins. To do this, we calibrate semi-lumped hydrologic models representing each basin, using streamflow and snowpack to infer multiplicative corrections to precipitation forcing data, and thus improve basin-mean precipitation estimates. We use unimpaired streamflow observations from multiple basins across the Sierra from the mid-20th century to the present, as well as snowpack observations combined from snow pillows, courses and airborne LIDAR observations (ASO). For each basin, mean precipitation is inferred both as a long-term average and for individual water years. We investigate the inferred spatial patterns of precipitation in comparison to standard climatological and daily gridded precipitation datasets, finding significant differences in some basins and in some water years. For example, see figure of different estimates of 1982-2006 mean annual precipitation for several Yosemite-area basins (figure from manuscript currently in review at Water Resources Research). We also investigate the precision and robustness of inferring basin-mean precipitation rates from streamflow and snowpack observations. Uncertainties in this approach are associated with uncertainties in lumped hydrologic model structure and in the methodology of translating point snow observations to the basin scale. Using both snowpack and streamflow observations in the inference likely reduces these uncertainties


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During daily usage of textiles, humidity and warmth conditions provide appropriate living conditions for bacteria and microorganisms in textile products. Bacteria growth, infection and cross infection by pathogens might develop due to usage of textile products. Especially since World War II, antibacterial textile products have developed as a result of the hygiene demand of the society. In this study, triclosan (sample A, quaternary ammonium plus triclosan (sample B, dichlorophenol (sample C, silver (sample D, quaternary ammonium (sample E and chitosan (sample F based six different antibacterial additives were applied on 100% cotton fabrics for antibacterial treatment. All six treated fabrics and the untreated fabric (control sample were washed for 40 cycles; the antibacterial efficacies were tested; changes in tear strength and Berger whiteness values of the samples were recorded prior to washing and after 1st, 5th, 10th, 20th and 40th washing cycles. Regarding all washing cycles, a decrease in tear strength results is observed between unwashed and 40 cycle washed samples. Textile materials such as bedlinen, pillow cases, surgeon gowns for which tear strength values are important and that have antibacterial treatments should be tested for tear strength values for different washing cycles to see if they meet minimum tear strength requirements. The change in tear strength and Berger whiteness of samples shows differences according to the antibacterial agent treated and washing cycle applied. Generally, slight decreases in tear strength values are observed. And slight decreases in whiteness, except for sample F which is treated with chitosan, are observed as well. Textile materials having antibacterial treatments should be tested for the special antibacterial agent they are treated and for the number of washing cycles that is required for their product life.

  16. An Overview of Recent Observations on Lava-H2Ointeractions (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.


    Lava flows can be sensitive recorders of their environments of formation (e.g., pillow lava). However, while deposits formed during interactions between lava and frozen water are increasing critical for constraining paleoclimate reconstructions on Earth and Mars, those interactions are subtle and complex. Fortunately, recent observations made during eruptions (2010 Fimmvorduhals/Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland; 2012-13 Tolbachik, Russia; 2013 Veniaminof, Alaska), during large-scale experiments (Syracuse Lava Lab), and on ancient deposits are shedding new light on these complexities. To understand these observations, it is critical to constrain the nature (porosity, permeability, ability to deform) of the boundary between the lava and the substrate. When lava travels directly on top of non-permeable ice, meltwater is produced rapidly enough to significantly accelerate lava movement (e.g., 'hydroplaning' or 'Leidenfrost effect'). The lack of surface permeability also facilitates ingestion of steam into the base of the lava for several minutes on the scale of experiments (dm); anomalously large gas cavities are also present in modern and ancient lava flow deposits inferred to have formed in water/ice-rich environments. When lava is emplaced directly on snow, the permeability of the substrate controls meltwater accumulation, which can facilitate/hinder heat transfer but can also weaken the substrate. Finally, the presence of basal lava flow breccia ('a'a flows) or an earlier erupted tephra blanket at the lava-H2O boundary acts to significantly slow heat transfer. The speed of lava emplacement may also be important. The lavas emplaced during most of the eruptions above were not able to cover a large enough area to quickly generate significant volumes of meltwater. However, at the high discharge rates for the first few days of the Tolbachik eruption (~400 m3 s-1), effusion onto a less permeable surface (e.g., ice instead of snow) could generate significant volumes of meltwater.

  17. Formation of the soft-sediment deformation structures and its constraints on dinosaur fossil burial of the Cretaceous in Zhucheng, Shandong province, East China (United States)

    He, Bizhu; Qiao, Xiufu; Cai, Zhihui; Tian, Hongshui; Chen, Shuqing


    The triangular-shaped Zhucheng depression is located in the southwestern part of the Jiaolai basin, Jiaodong peninsula, East China. Various soft-sediment deformation structures are recognized in the southern Zhucheng depression, which have behaviour are plastic and/or brittle. Soft-sediment deformation structures mainly include undulate fold, mound and sag, diapir, convolute deformation and seismic-unconformity in the Lower Cretaceous, which are composed of fine-grained sediments in lacustrine environment, while load structure, ball and pillow structure, plunged sediment mixtures structure, fault-graded occurred in the Upper Cretaceous, which formed in a conglomeratic or coarse arenaceous alluvial fan and flood-plain setting. These soft-sediment deformation structures are proposed triggered by paleoearthquake. The deformed layers and undeformed layers developed in intervals, suggesting frequent seismic activities. In studied area, numerous giant hadrosaurid skeleton fossils have been found in the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group science 1958, and unusual and abundant dinosaur track fossils have been discovered in the Lower Cretaceous Yangzhuang Formation of Laiyang Group. The widespread identified soft-sediment deformation structures are proximately underlying or overlying these dinosaur fossil bearing strata. The depositional setting changed while multiple paleo-seismic events and tectonic activity happened. In the Early Cretaceous, after the occurrence of paleo-earthquakes and environmental changes, dinosaurs migrated and a lot of tracks with similar orientation on lacustrine offshore were preserved. In the Late Cretaceous, a large-scale dinosaur fossil layers and paleo-earthquake records occurred in intervals, indicating that the dinosaur fossils may be associated with large-scale debris flow and frequent earthquake events. Based on regional tectonic setting, distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures and predicted magnitude of paleo-earthquakes, the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman


    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  19. Seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin and their spatial stratigraphic distribution (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhong, Yijiang; Chen, Hongde; Xu, Changgui; Wu, Kui


    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) have been identified from well cores in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin, China. These deposits formed as interbedded sand and mud at a delta front or on the slope toe of the prodelta. According to criteria proposed by previous research, we established that these SSDS were induced by earthquakes and that they can be divided into two groups: ductile deformation structures (plastic intrusions, ball-and-pillow structures, flame structures, boudinage structures, irregular convolute stratifications, and synsedimentary faults and folds) and brittle deformation structures (sand dykes and autoclastic breccias). Based on their level of deformation, size, and complexity, the SSDS were divided into three Groups, from weak to strong, to reflect the intensity of palaeo-earthquakes. With consideration of the palaeo-sedimentary environment, we proposed a model to account for the production and preservation of these SSDS. According to the classification adopted in this study and the spatial stratigraphic distribution of the SSDS, the tectonic activities of the Tan-Lu faults in the Bohai Bay basin were investigated. The A and B oilfields (assumed names) are located in the tectonically active zones of the west and east branches of these faults, respectively. The extension tectonic activities in the A oilfield region exhibit a sharply decreasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and increase again in E3d2; whereas the strike-slip tectonic activities in the B oilfield region exhibit an increasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and finally, reach a maximum to E3d3. The results of this study show that the method of analysis of the spatial stratigraphic distribution of SSDS is suitable for determining the evolution of tectonic activity and thus, it can provide a new perspective for basin analysis.

  20. MR imaging of neurofibromatosis Ⅱ in central nervous system%神经纤维瘤病Ⅱ型中枢神经系统MRI分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宁; 程敬亮; 杨波; 关方霞; 焦红亮


    目的 探讨神经纤维瘤病Ⅱ型(NF-Ⅱ)的MRI表现,提高对本病的认识.方法 收集8例经临床及病理证实的NF-Ⅱ患者的临床资料进行分析总结.结果 双侧听神经瘤6例,其中合并多发脑膜瘤4例,多发神经鞘瘤2例;脊膜瘤并侧脑室室管膜瘤1例;一侧听神经瘤合并枕颈部皮下神经纤维瘤,合并多发脑膜瘤1例.结论 MRI是检查NF-Ⅱ中枢神经系统病变理想的影像学检查方法,可较好的显示其多发性及多灶性病变.%Objective To investigate the MRI findings of neurofibromatosis-Ⅱ and improve diagnosis of the disease.Methods The clinical data and MR feathures of 8 patients with neurofibromatosisⅡ were analyzed retrospectively.Conventional MR plain scan and enhanced scan were performed in all patients.Results Six,cases with bilateral acoustic neuroma,in which 4 cases combined with multiple meningioma,2 cases with multiple schwannoma; 1 case with meningioma and lateral ventricle ependymoma; 1 case with acoustic neuroma and pillow neck subcutaneous neurofibromas and multiple meningioma.Conclusions MR can show the shape and signal features of neurofibromatosis-Ⅱ lesions and therefore it has an important value for detecting the lesions in CNS whereas enhanced scan is helpful to show the lesions missed on plain scan.

  1. Distributed energy-balance modeling of snow-cover evolution and melt in rugged terrain: Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, USA (United States)

    Letsinger, S.L.; Olyphant, G.A.


    A distributed energy-balance model was developed for simulating snowpack evolution and melt in rugged terrain. The model, which was applied to a 43-km2 watershed in the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, USA, used measured ambient data from nearby weather stations to drive energy-balance calculations and to constrain the model of Liston and Sturm [Liston, G.E., Sturm, M., 1998. A snow-transport model for complex terrain. Journal of Glaciology 44 (148), 498-516] for calculating the initial snowpack thickness. Simulated initial snow-water equivalent ranged between 1 cm and 385 cm w.e. (water equivalent) with high values concentrated on east-facing slopes below tall summits. An interpreted satellite image of the snowcover distribution on May 6, 1998, closely matched the simulated distribution with the greatest discrepancy occurring in the floor of the main trunk valley. Model simulations indicated that snowmelt commenced early in the melt season, but rapid meltout of snow cover did not occur until after the average energy balance of the entire watershed became positive about 45 days into the melt season. Meltout was fastest in the lower part of the watershed where warmer temperatures and tree cover enhanced the energy income of the underlying snow. An interpreted satellite image of the snowcover distribution on July 9, 1998 compared favorably with the simulated distribution, and melt curves for modeled canopy-covered cells mimicked the trends measured at nearby snow pillow stations. By the end of the simulation period (August 3), 28% of the watershed remained snow covered, most of which was concentrated in the highest parts of the watershed where initially thick accumulations had been shaded by surrounding summits. The results of this study provide further demonstration of the critical role that topography plays in the timing and magnitude of snowmelt from high mountain watersheds. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic and employment potential in textile waste management of Faisalabad. (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhary, Muhammad Nawaz


    The aim of this study is to characterize the waste from the textile industry, to identify the sources and types of waste generation and to find out the economic and employment potential in this sector. Textile waste, its management, and the economic and employment potential in this sector are unrevealed facts in developing countries such as Pakistan. The textile industry is ranked first in export earning in Pakistan. Textile export of yarn and cloth from Faisalabad is US$3 billion per year. On average 161 325 people are employed in the textile sector in Faisalabad, of which 11 860 are involved in solid waste handling and management. The textile industries generate solid wastes such as fibre, metal, plastic and paper waste. A total of 794 209 kg day(-1) (289 886 285 kg year(-1)) solid waste is produced from this sector and purchased by cotton waste junkshop owners at US$125 027 day(-1) (US$45 634 855 year(-1)). Only pre-consumer textile waste is considered. Interestingly no waste is sent to landfill. The waste is first segregated into different categories/ types by hand and then weighed. Cotton waste is sold to brick kilns where it is used as an alternative fuel as it is cheaper than wood/coal. Iron scrap is sold in the junk market from where it is resold to recycling industries. Paper waste is recycled, minimizing the virgin material used for producing new paper products. Iron and plastic drums are returned to the chemical industries for refilling, thus decreasing the cost of dyes and decreasing the demand for new drums. Cutting rags are used for making different things such as ropes and underlay, it is also shredded and used as fillings for pillows and mattresses, thus improving waste management, reducing cost and minimizing the need for virgin material. As no system of quality control and no monitoring of subsequent products exist there is a need to carry out quality control and monitoring.

  3. Tectonic significance of the Dongqiao ophiolite in the north-central Tibetan plateau: Evidence from zircon dating, petrological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characterization (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhai, Qing-guo; Wang, Jun; Bao, Pei-sheng; Qiangba, Zhaxi; Tang, Suo-han; Tang, Yue


    The Dongqiao ophiolite occurs in the central segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, in north-central Tibet, China. It is still debated on the tectonic setting of the Dongqiao ophiolite despite after more than 30 years' studies. The Dongqiao ophiolite has a complete section of a typical ophiolite, composed of harzburgite, dunite, layered and isotropic gabbros, pillow and massive basalts, as well as radiolarian chert. Whole-rock geochemical analyses show that harzburgite displays a broad U-shaped REE pattern and has a fore-arc affinity, whereas basalts show affinities of E-MORB, OIB and IAB. The basalts were probably formed in different tectonic settings, that is, mid-ocean ridge, oceanic island and island arc. The gabbros and basalts are characterized by positive εNd(t) (+1.6 to +6.7) and εHf(t) (+8.1 to +13.9) values. Zircon U-Pb dating yielded ages of 188 ± 1 Ma for the layered gabbro and 181 ± 1 Ma for the amphibole gabbro. The new ages and the published age data of the Dingqing and Dong Co ophiolites led us to conclude that the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean existed from the Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The new geochemical data also suggested that the Dongqiao ophiolite was a typical SSZ-type ophiolite formed in an initial fore-arc oceanic basin. Fore-arc ophiolites are probably widely distributed along the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone. If so, the Tethys Ocean of the Bangong-Nujiang area probably existed as a fore-arc oceanic basin during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

  4. Analisis stratigrafi awal kegiatan Gunung Api Gajahdangak di daerah Bulu, Sukoharjo; Implikasinya terhadap stratigrafi batuan gunung api di Pegunungan Selatan, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono


    Full Text Available, Tertiary volcanisms in the Southern Mountains, Central Jawa were started with the formation of pillow lavas having basalt to basaltic andesite in composition. This initial stage volcanism developed into a  construction period of composite volcanoes that consist of alternating basaltic to andesitic lava flows, breccias, and tuffs. The construction period could be followed by a destructive phase, producing pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias, lapillistones, and tuffs of high silica andesite to dacite, or even rhyolite in composition. A stratigraphic measuring section at Bulu area, Sukoharjo Regency, presents an alternat- ing fine-grained andesitic volcaniclastic material and some limestones, with the total thickness is 143.33 m. The thickness of bedded volcaniclastic material tends to be thickening upward from 35 m until 90 m. The grain size of the volcaniclastic material also tends to be coarsening upward from clay size through silt and fine sand to coarse sand and granules. Paleontological analysis on fossils contained in the lime- stone gives an age of Early Miocene (N7 - N9. The volcaniclastic rocks is conformably overlain by the Mandalika Formation, comprising alternating andesitic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. These data imply that the fine-grained volcaniclastic material is an initial product of the construction period of Gajahdangak Volcano in the area, that formed the Mandalika Formation. This Formation is overlain by the Semilir Formation, composed of pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias and tuffs with dacitic composition. This as- sociated volcanic rock reflects a product of a caldera explosion or a destructive phase. Based on the characteristics of lithology of volcanic products from the initial stage, to a construction and destruction period, and compiled age data, the Southern Mountains represent formal volcanic rock units that are able to be divided into many formations.  

  5. The relationship between planned and reported home infant sleep locations among mothers of late preterm and term infants. (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra


    To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a US hospital following birth and by phone at 1 month postpartum during 2010-2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women's preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep. PMID:25626714

  6. ESOLIP – estimate of solid and liquid precipitation at sub-daily time resolution by combining snow height and rain gauge measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mair


    Full Text Available Measuring precipitation in mountain areas is a demanding task, but essential for hydrological and environmental themes. Especially in small Alpine catchments with short hydrological response, precipitation data with high temporal resolution are required for a better understanding of the hydrological cycle. Since most climate/meteorological stations are situated at the easily accessible bottom of valleys, and the few heated rain gauges installed at higher elevation sites are problematic in winter conditions, an accurate quantification of winter (snow precipitation at high elevations remains difficult. However, there are an increasing number of micro-meteorological stations and snow height sensors at high elevation locations in Alpine catchments. To benefit from data of such stations, an improved approach to estimate solid and liquid precipitation (ESOLIP is proposed. ESOLIP allows gathering hourly precipitation data throughout the year by using unheated rain gauge data, careful filtering of snow height sensors as well as standard meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, global shortwave radiation, wind speed. ESOLIP was validated at a well-equipped test site in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria, comparing results to winter precipitation measured with a snow pillow and a heated rain gauge. The snow height filtering routine and indicators for possible precipitation were tested at a field site in Matsch Valley (South Tyrol, Italy. Results show a good match with measured data because variable snow density is taken into account, which is important when working with freshly fallen snow. Furthermore, the results show the need for accurate filtering of the noise of the snow height signal and they confirm the unreliability of heated rain gauges for estimating winter precipitation. The described improved precipitation estimate ESOLIP at sub-daily time resolution is helpful for precipitation analysis and for several hydrological applications

  7. Seismic structure of oceanic crust at ODP borehole 504B: Investigating anisotropy and layer 2 characteristics (United States)

    Gregory, E. P. M.; Hobbs, R. W.; Peirce, C.; Wilson, D. J.


    Fracture and fault networks in the upper oceanic crust influence the circulation of hydrothermal fluids and heat transfer between crust and ocean. These fractures form by extensional stresses, with a predominant orientation parallel to the ridge axis, creating porosity- and permeability-derived anisotropy that can be measured in terms of seismic velocity. These properties change as the crust ages and evolves through cooling, alteration and sedimentation. The rate at which these changes occur and their effects on oceanic crustal structure and hydrothermal flow patterns are currently not well constrained. The NERC-funded OSCAR project aims to understand the development of upper oceanic crust, the extent and influence of hydrothermal circulation on the crust, and the behavior of fluids flowing in fractured rock. We show P-wave velocity models centered on DSDP/ODP Hole 504B, located ~200 km south of the Costa Rica Rift, derived from data acquired during a recent integrated geophysics and oceanography survey of the Panama Basin. The data were recorded by 25 four-component OBSs deployed in a grid, that recorded ~10,000 full azimuthal coverage shots fired by a combined high- and low-frequency seismic source. Both reflection and refraction data are integrated to reveal the seismic velocity structure of the crust within the 25 km by 25 km grid. The down-hole geological structure of 6 Ma crust at 504B comprises 571.5 m of extrusive basalts overlying a 209 m transition zone of mixed pillows and dikes containing a clear alteration boundary, which grades to >1050 m of sheeted dikes. Our model results are compared with this lithological structure and other previously published results to better understand the nature of velocity changes within seismic layer 2. The data provide a 3D framework, which together with analysis of the S-wave arrivals and particle motion studies, constrain estimates of the seismic anisotropy and permeability structure of the upper oceanic crust as it

  8. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin) (United States)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.


    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  9. Multiphase salt tectonic evolution in NW Germany: seismic interpretation and retro-deformation (United States)

    Mohr, M.; Kukla, P. A.; Urai, J. L.; Bresser, G.


    The Central European Basin is a classic area of salt tectonics, characterized by heterogeneous structural evolution and complex salt movement history. We studied an area on its SW margin, based on prestack depth-migrated 2D and 3D seismic data. We use seismic interpretation and retro-deformation to obtain a better understanding of salt tectonics, structural control, and sedimentary response in this region. The first phase of salt tectonic evolution started with two main events of NW-SE extension and rafting in the Triassic before the Upper Bunter and before the Upper Muschelkalk. Rafting was accompanied by first salt diapirism and an increased sedimentary thickness adjacent to the salt structure. After salt supply ceased updip to the salt structure, a mini-basin grew in the intra-raft area. This sedimentary differential loading caused salt movement and growth of a pillow structure basinward. The second phase of salt movement was initiated by the formation of a NNW-SSE striking basement graben in the Middle Keuper that triggered reactive diapirism, the breakthrough of the pillow’s roof and salt extrusion. The following downbuilding process was characterized by sedimentary wedges with basal unconformities, onlap structures and salt extrusions that ceased in the Jurassic. The third and latest phase of salt tectonic evolution was activated in the Late Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary by compressional tectonics indicated by salt rise and a small horizontal shortening of the diapir. The interpreted salt tectonic processes and the resulting geometries can now be better tied in with the regional heterogeneous framework of the basin.

  10. Volcano-ice interactions in the Arsia Mons tropical mountain glacier deposits (United States)

    Scanlon, Kathleen E.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel; Marchant, David R.


    Fan-shaped deposits (FSD) superposed on the sides of the Tharsis Montes volcanic edifices are widely interpreted to have been formed by cold-based glaciation during the Late Amazonian, a period when the Tharsis Montes were volcanically active. We survey the ∼166,000 km2 Arsia Mons FSD using new, high-resolution image and topography data and describe numerous landforms indicative of volcano-ice interactions. These include (1) steep-sided mounds, morphologically similar to terrestrial tindar that form by subglacial eruptions under low confining pressure; (2) steep-sided, leveed flow-like landforms with depressed centers, interpreted to be subglacial lava flows with chilled margins; (3) digitate flows that we interpret as having resulted from lava flow interaction with glacial ice at the upslope margin of the glacier; (4) a plateau with the steep sides and smooth capping flow of a basaltic tuya, a class of feature formed when subglacial eruptions persist long enough to melt through the overlying ice; and (5) low, areally extensive mounds that we interpret as effusions of pillow lava, formed by subglacial eruptions under high confining pressure. Together, these eruptions involved hundreds of cubic kilometers of subglacially erupted lava; thermodynamic relationships indicate that this amount of lava would have produced a similar volume of subglacial liquid meltwater, some of which carved fluvial features in the FSD. Landforms in the FSD also suggest that glaciovolcanic heat transfer induced local wet-based flow in some parts of the glacier. Glaciovolcanic environments are important microbial habitats on Earth, and the evidence for widespread liquid water in the Amazonian-aged Arsia Mons FSD makes it one of the most recent potentially habitable environments on Mars. Such environments could have provided refugia for any life that developed on Mars and survived on its surface until the Amazonian.

  11. 桩伴侣与基桩抗震的概念设计%Pile Partner and the Conceptual Earthquake-resistant Design of Foundation Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛江炜; 葛忻声; 蔡景珞; 杨勇


    It is uncertain that the lateral components such as basement wall and cap side wall bearing horizontal load,so the conventional pile foundation with low cap might endure lateral force that is larger,and even cause its damage.The applying of pile partner to improve traditional foundation pile structure form is put for ward,especially when there is few frictional force between pile cap and soil,or the soil modulus is small.The partner can be component for anti-earthquake concept design under rare earthquake action,pile partner may be sacrificed firstly to keep pile perform well.The improper design of composite foundation will destroy or weaken the isolation effect of pillow,and can be solved by reserving buffer space between pile and partner.%地下室外墙、承台侧壁等侧向构件承担水平荷载具有很大的不确定性,常规采用的低承台桩基有可能承受较大的甚至导致破坏的水平力,建议用桩伴侣改善传统基桩的构造形式,特别是对于承台与桩间土摩擦力小或者桩身范围地基土模量低的两类状况.在罕遇地震时,作为抗震概念设计的耗能构件,首先牺牲伴侣,避免或延迟桩头的破坏;复合地基如果设计不当会破坏或削弱褥垫层隔震的效果,可在伴侣与桩之间预留缓冲空间.

  12. Study on Co-pyrolysis of Laminated Paper-PE-Al Packaging Material%纸塑铝复合包装材料各组分共热解行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟进胜; 钱杨; 任学勇; 王文亮; 常建民


    Paper, PE and A1 were separated from pillow Tetra Pak with formic acid and used as materials for experiment. TG-FTIR analysis technique was applied to study the synergism of components during pyrogena tion process, so as to understand the co pyrolysis behavior, which will provide an experimental basis and scien- tific reference to achieve resource utilization of abandon Tetra Pak. The results showed that there is synergism between paper and PE during co pyrolysis, especially near the decomposing peak; the aluminum promotes and restrains the reaction in different stage of co-pyrolysis as catalyst.%用甲酸分离枕型利乐包所得的纸、聚乙烯、铝作为实验材料,采用热重红外联用(TG—FTIR)分析技术,研究了各组分在热解过程中的协同作用,以探索纸塑铝复合包装各组分共热解机理,为实现废弃利乐包材料的资源化利用提供科学参考和实验依据。结果表明:共热解时纸和聚乙烯之间存在协同作用,在失重峰位置表现得尤为明显;铝在共热解时具有一定的催化作用,在反应的不同阶段起到了相应的促进或者抑制热解的作用。

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman


    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  14. Evidence for long-term uplift on the Canary Islands from emergent Mio Pliocene littoral deposits (United States)

    Meco, Joaquín; Scaillet, Stéphane; Guillou, Hervé; Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Carlos Carracedo, Juan; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan-Francisco; Cilleros, Antonio


    Several islands in the Canarian archipelago show marine deposits with identical fossil faunas, which are generally assigned to different glacioeustatic marine episodes: mainly Pleistocene episodes in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, and Mio-Pliocene ones in Gran Canaria. Three fossil species ( Saccostrea chili, Nerita emiliana and Strombus coronatus) characterize all the marine deposits from southern Lanzarote, to the west and south of Fuerteventura and northeast of Gran Canaria. Three other species ( Ancilla glandiformis, Rothpletzia rudista and Siderastraea miocenica) confirm the chronostratigraphic attribution of these deposits. Other more occasional fossils (as Chlamys latissima, Isognomon soldanii and Clypeaster aegyptiacus) fit an upper Miocene and lower Pliocene age. This agrees with new K/Ar ages obtained from pillow lavas emplaced into the marine deposits (ca. 4.1 Ma in Gran Canaria, ca. 4.8 Ma in Fuerteventura) and from underlying (ca. 9.3 Ma in Gran Canaria) or overlying (ca. 9.8 Ma in Lanzarote) lava flows. The marine deposits are eroded but large continuous segments are preserved sloping gently towards the coast. Variations in the highest and the lowest elevations of the deposits apsl (above present sea level) indicate post-depositional uplift movements. Glacioeustatic causes are unlikely to be responsible for these variations on the basis of the coastal location of the deposits and their equatorial fauna characteristic of Mio-Pliocene corals. Differential uplift of the deposits across the archipelago is argued to result from the progressive seaward tilting of the islands along the insular volcanic trail marking the westward migration of hot spot head since 20 Ma. Successive westward accretion of younger volcanic edifices resulted in increasing lithostatic load of the crust with progressive (diachronous) tilting of the older edifices and their palaeo-shorelines marked by past coastal deposits.

  15. Measuring Snow Precipitation in New Zealand- Challenges and Opportunities. (United States)

    Renwick, J. A.; Zammit, C.


    Monitoring plays a pivotal role in determining sustainable strategy for efficient overall management of the water resource. Though periodic monitoring provides some information, only long-term monitoring can provide data sufficient in quantity and quality to determine trends and develop predictive models. These can support informed decisions about sustainable and efficient use of water resources in New Zealand. However the development of such strategies is underpinned by our understanding and our ability to measure all inputs in headwaters catchments, where most of the precipitation is falling. Historically due to the harsh environment New Zealand has had little to no formal high elevation monitoring stations for all climate and snow related parameters outside of ski field climate and snow stations. This leads to sparse and incomplete archived datasets. Due to the importance of these catchments to the New Zealand economy (eg irrigation, hydro-electricity generation, tourism) NIWA has developed a climate-snow and ice monitoring network (SIN) since 2006. This network extends existing monitoring by electricity generator and ski stations and it is used by a number of stakeholders. In 2014 the network comprises 13 stations located at elevation above 700masl. As part of the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), NIWA is carrying out an intercomparison of precipitation data over the period 2013-2015 at Mueller Hut. The site was commissioned on 11 July 2013, set up on the 17th September 2013 and comprises two Geonor weighing bucket raingauges, one shielded and the other un-shielded, in association with a conventional tipping bucket raingauge and conventional climate and snow measurements (temperature, wind, solar radiation, relative humidity, snow depth and snow pillow). The presentation aims to outline the state of the current monitoring network in New Zealand, as well as the challenge and opportunities for measurement of precipitation in alpine

  16. Preliminary Results of Crustal Structure beneath the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone Using Teleseismic Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Aziz Zanjani, A.; Hu, S.; Liu, Y.; Herrmann, R. B.; Conder, J. A.


    As part of a on-going EarthScope FlexArray project, we deployed 45 broadband seismographs in a 300-km-long linear profile across the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone (WVSZ). Here we present preliminary results of crustal structure beneath WVSZ based on teleseismic receiver functions and ambient noise tomography. We combined waveform data of the temporary stations in 2014 with those of permanent seismic stations and the transportable array stations in our study area since 2011. We found 656 teleseismic events with clear P-wave signals and obtained 2657 good-quality receiver functions of 84 stations using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method. We estimated crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath each station using the H-κ stacking method. A high-resolution crustal structural image along the linear profile was obtained using the Common-Conversion-Point (CCP) stacking method. We also measured Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities from 5 to 50 s by cross-correlating ambient noises between stations and did joint-inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersions for S-velocity structures beneath selected stations. The results show that the average crustal thickness in the region is 47 km with a gentle increase of crustal thickness from southeast to northwest. A mid-crustal interface is identified in the CCP image that also deepens from 15 km in the southeastern end to >20 km in the northwest. The CCP image shows that the low-velocity sedimentary layer along the profile is broad and is thickest (~10 km) near the center of the Wabash Valley. Beneath the center of the Valley there is a 40-km-wide positive velocity discontinuity at a depth of 40 km in the lower crust that might be the top of a rift pillow in this failed continental rift. Further results using 3D joint inversion and CCP migration will be presented at the meeting.

  17. Reconstruction of ocean plate stratigraphy in the Gwna Group, NW Wales: Implications for the subduction-accretion process of a latest Proterozoic trench-forearc (United States)

    Asanuma, Hisashi; Okada, Yoshihiro; Fujisaki, Wataru; Suzuki, Kazue; Sato, Tomohiko; Sawaki, Yusuke; Sakata, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori; Windley, Brian F.


    The Gwna Group in Anglesey island and Lleyn peninsula, Wales consists of a latest Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary trench mélange, which has a complicated accretionary structure, and is poorly constrained by isotopic ages. The mélange contains oceanic-trench rocks including pillow basalts, cherts, mudstones and sandstones, which have not previously been interpreted as ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). We reconstructed imbricated OPS at 5 localities in the coastal Lleyn peninsula. In order to constrain the depositional U-Pb age of the upper clastic sediments, detrital zircons, separated from 9 clastic sediments, were analyzed with a Nu AttoM single-collector inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The ages indicate that there are two Gwna Groups (maximum depositional ages of: 1 at 608-601 Ma, and 2 at 564-539 Ma) that were deposited between the late Neoproterozoic and the Middle Cambrian contemporaneously with dated calc-alkaline arc magmatism and regional metamorphism in the Anglesey-Lleyn complex. The age spectra of the detrital zircons show a prominent peak at ca. 650-600 Ma, and several Proterozoic and Archean ages. To account for the older ages, we integrated our new isotopic data with published radiometric and fossil ages, and conclude that the clastic sediments at the top of the OPS were deposited in a trench on the western active margin of Avalonia when it was close to the Amazonian craton, and that the Gwna Group OPS began to be incorporated into an accretionary wedge in an active subduction zone in the latest Proterozoic.

  18. Effects of coal composition and flotation reagents on the water resistance of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motaung, S.R.; Mangena, S.J.; de Korte, G.J. [Syngas & Coal Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)


    The difference in the physical properties, particularly the water resistance or wet strength, of the binderless coal briquettes produced from flotation feed and concentrate was investigated using six bituminous coals from two collieries in the Witbank Coalfield. The coal samples were analyzed for their proximate, petrographic, and mineralogical properties. The presence, in the flotation concentrates, of the reagents used during the froth flotation process was also investigated using gas chromatography. Pillow-shaped binderless briquettes were produced from coal samples at various moisture contents and a pressure of approximately 17 MPA using a Komarek B-100A double-roll press. The briquettes were tested for some physical properties (i.e., dry- and wet-compressive strengths), which were thereafter compared with the properties determined for the coal samples. The binderless briquettes produced from the flotation concentrates were more water-resistant than those produced from the flotation feed. The flotation feed and concentrates of the coals tested were found to have similar petrographic properties. As expected, the ash and kaolinite contents were found to be lower in the flotation concentrates than in the flotation feed. Flotation reagents were detected in the flotation concentrates from both collieries. From the results obtained it is concluded that the increased water resistance of the binderless briquettes produced from flotation concentrates of the coals tested is due to a combination of the fineness of the coal particles, assisted by the amount of reactive macerals (most particularly vitrinite) with the lower ash and kaolinite contents, together with the presence of the flotation reagents, particularly the collector, in the flotation concentrate.

  19. Numerical modeling on progressive internal deformation in down-built diapirs (United States)

    Fuchs, Lukas; Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro


    A two-dimensional finite difference code (FDCON) is used to estimate the finite deformation within a down-built diapir. The geometry of the down-built diapir is fixed by using two rigid rectangular overburden units which sink into a source layer of a constant viscosity. Thus, the model refers to diapirs consisting of a source layer feeding a vertical stem, and not to other salt structures (e.g. salt sheets or pillows). With this setup we study the progressive strain in three different deformation regimes within the “salt” material: (I) a squeezed channel-flow deformation regime and (II) a corner-flow deformation regime within the source layer, and (III) a pure channel-flow deformation regime within the stem. We analyze the evolution of finite deformation in each regime individually, progressive strain for particles passing all three regimes, and total 2D finite deformation within the salt layer. Model results show that the material which enters the stem bears inherited strain accumulated from the other two domains. Therefore, finite deformation in the stem differs from the expected channel-flow deformation, due to the deformation accumulated within the source layer. The stem displays a high deformation zone within its center and areas of decreasing progressive strain between its center and its boundaries. High deformation zones within the stem could also be observed within natural diapirs (e.g. Klodowa, Polen). The location and structure of the high deformation zone (e.g. symmetric or asymmetric) could reveal information about different rates of salt supplies from the source layer. Thus, deformation pattern could directly be correlated to the evolution of the diapir.

  20. Suffocation deaths associated with use of infant sleep positioners--United States, 1997-2011. (United States)


    Unintentional suffocation is the leading cause of injury death among children aged deaths annually. Since 1984, an estimated fourfold increase has been observed in accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, with many of these deaths linked to unsafe sleep environments. Infant sleep positioners (ISPs) are devices intended to keep an infant in a specific position while sleeping, yet ISPs have been reported to have been present in the sleep environment in some cases of unintentional infant suffocation. Some specific ISPs have been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of gastroesophageal reflux or plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull). However, many unapproved ISPs have been marketed to the general public with claims of preventing sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), improving health, and enhancing sleep comfort. To characterize infant deaths associated with ISPs, FDA, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), and CDC examined information reported to CPSC about 13 infant deaths in the past 13 years associated with the use of ISPs. In this case series, all infants but one were aged ≤3 months, and most were placed on their sides to sleep. Many were found prone (i.e., lying on their abdomens). Accompanying medical issues included prematurity and intercurrent respiratory illnesses. When providing guidance for parents of newborns, health-care providers need to emphasize the importance of placing infants to sleep on their backs in a safe sleep environment. This includes reminders about the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations against side sleep position, ISPs and pillows, comforters, and other soft bedding. PMID:23169313

  1. Active control of transmitted sound in buildings (United States)

    Thompsett, Russell Harvey George

    The problem of noise from neighbours has increased dramatically over the last few years. Many of the noise complaints are due to the high level, low frequency noise from modern stereo equipment, and are often described in terms of the low frequency characteristics of the music; the repetitive, booming, bass beat. The objective of this research was to establish the feasibility of applying active noise control to alleviate this problem. The initial approach was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting the dominance of individual modes in the response of rooms at low frequency to effect global control. However, initial investigations using a modal model of the sound field revealed that this would be difficult due to the contribution of many acoustic modes excited off resonance. This conclusion was supported by measurements of acoustic room responses in typical buildings, illustrating a non-resonant characteristic. Consequently, attention was turned to the feasibility of using local active control systems to create zones of quiet by concentrating control at a specific location near the observers ears, for example in a seat headrest, or near the pillows of a bed. The lack of a reference signal in either approach requires the use of a feedback control strategy. With a typically non-resonant system, the predictability in the disturbance necessary for successful feedback control must be contained in the primary excitation, namely the music. Examples of different music styles were investigated and of those with the potential to be a nuisance surprisingly few were significantly more predictable than a random disturbance. As expected the most encouraging control performance simulations were found for modern dance music, with a strong repetitive beat. A real-time, local controller was demonstrated in the laboratory with such a disturbance signal and the properties of the quiet zone were measured. The subjective response when hearing the controller in operation was found to be

  2. Petrology and tectonic significance of seamounts within transitional crust east of Orphan Knoll, offshore eastern Canada (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Meredyk, Shawn; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Piper, David J. W.; Edinger, Evan


    The Early Cretaceous separation of Newfoundland from Iberia-Ireland is a classic example of a magma-poor continental margin with hyperextension and with widespread minor magmatism resulting in seamounts. This study defines the distribution of seamounts east of Orphan Knoll, and documents and interprets the geochemical character of the one recovered lava sample. Video imagery of lava outcrops, and the sample, were obtained by ROV from Orphan seamount, one of a linear series of small seamounts overlying transitional thinned continental crust on the seaward side of Orphan Knoll. New multibeam bathymetry and legacy seismic data show several seamounts that extend irregularly along the fault-bound NE margin of Orphan Knoll. Whole rock geochemistry shows the sample to be highly alkaline basanite or possibly tephrite. Diopside-hedenbergite, kaersutite and K-feldspar phenocrysts were analyzed by electron microprobe and scanning electron microscope, and alteration minerals including kaolinite were identified by X-ray diffraction. The highly alkaline character of the basanite is similar only to Early Cretaceous volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks erupted through thick continental crust of the Mesoproterozoic Grenville Orogeny. The location of the linear set of seamounts is related to margin-parallel faults on the seaward side of Orphan Knoll that provided a pathway for magma, although ENE-trending lineaments in individual seamounts or seamount groups suggest the influence of oceanic fracture zones. A lower gradient crest to Orphan seamount above 2,200 m suggests subaerial erosion, consistent with the presence of kaolinite as an alteration product and the absence of lava pillows at and above this depth.

  3. Development of colorimetric field screening methods for munitions compounds in soil (United States)

    Jenkins, Thomas F.; Walsh, Marianne E.; Schumacher, Patricia W.; Thorne, Philip G.


    Simple colorimetric tests have been developed to screen for the presence of TNT, TNB, DNT, DNB, tetryl, RDX, HMX, nitroglycerine (NG), PETN, nitrocellulose (NC), nitroguanidine (NQ), picric acid and ammonium picrate in soil. Soils are extracted by manual shaking with acetone. For the nitroaromatics, the extracts are reacted with potassium hydroxide and sodium sulfite to form their colored Janowsky complexes. For RDX, HMX, NG, PETN, NC and NQ, extracts are passed through an anion exchange resin to remove nitrate, and then acidified with acetic acid; the nitramines and nitrate esters are reduced with zinc to form nitrous acid. The nitrous acid is detected by the Griess reaction using a Hach Nitriver 3 powder pillow, which produces a highly colored azo dye. Detection of these analytes can be obtained visually and concentrations estimated from absorbance measurements at 540 nm for TNT, TNB and tetryl, 570 nm for DNTs and DNB, and at 510 nm for RDX, HMX, NG, PETN, NC and NQ. For picric acid/ammonium picrate, the acetone extract is passed through a basic ion-exchange column that retains picrate ion. The column is rinsed with methanol to elute interferences, and the picrate is desorbed with acetone containing several drops of sulfuric acid. The extract is diluted with deionized water, and the concentration of picrate is obtained from the absorbance at 400 nm. Detection limits are about 1 (mu) g/g for all analytes except NG, NC and NQ, which are slightly higher. Results from field screening at a number of sites have been correlated with laboratory analyses for TNT and RDX. The results indicate that the field screening methods do not suffer from false negatives and the rate of false positives is low. Concentration estimates from field screening compared favorably with results from the standard laboratory methods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a diapiric and magmatic cycle associated to the on-set of sea-floor and the exhumation of both Jurassic deposits and the core of their controlling diapirs. The nature of the outcrops and richness in sedimentary environments, related with the different phases of rifting, is a remarkable case for extensional basin studies. Geological sites can be of regional, national or international importance due to scientific, educational, economical, social or historical reasons. The present proposal can be considered as a model for the establishment of tourist/educational routes with a strong component in communication on Earth Sciences, integrating social and historical aspects at a regional level. The recognition of those sites as geoheritage may contribute to a more sustainable management, in particular because it allows the achievement of a critical dimension for the investment in human resources and marketing. In Portugal, recent legal evolution might be considered promising. Nevertheless, since implementation of the concept of protected site depends on the approval of detailed management programs, there are frequent delays, misinterpretations and disrespect of legislation. The strategy to be adopted must integrate conservation, scientific studies and science communication in projects with economic and social interest.

  5. Errors in Transcription and Notes of Poems on Red Leaves in Snuff Pot’s Book%子弟书《红叶题诗》校录指瑕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    “子弟书”是我国满族中下层人民的曲艺作品,是民族文化艺术的瑰宝。《子弟书丛钞》的校录与注释均有可商之处。“遇拙”当为“愚拙”,意为愚昧无知;“扑地岸”当为“赴堤岸”,意为“奔向河沿”;“赴床捣枕”当为“扑床捣枕”,意为“锤击床枕”;“急理便”的本字当为“机灵便”。%As a folk vocal art form originated among the middle and lower class Manchu people,the Snuff Pot’ s Book(zǐdì shū)is a treasure of culture and art of Chinese ethnic minorities. However,possible errors worthy of deliberation exist in the transcription and notes of the Collection of Snuff Pot’s Book (zǐdì shūcóng chāo). For example,遇拙could be愚拙,meaning ignorant and foolish,扑地岸could be赴堤岸,meaning heading for the riverbank,赴床捣枕could be扑床捣枕,meaning thumping the bed and pillow,and急理便could be机灵便.

  6. Vulcanismo submarino del Santoniense en el Subbético: datación con nannofósiles e interpretación (formación Capas Rojas, Alamedilla, provincia de Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gea, G.


    Full Text Available Submarine volcanic rocks (pillow lavas appear into the marly limestones and marls of the Capas Rojas Formation in the Median Subbetic. The dating with nannoplankton of the immediately underlying and overlying materials to these volcanic rocks has allow us to precise the age of this volcanic activity as Late Santonian (nannofossil biozone of Rucinolithus hayi. This volcanic event arose 84 million years ago, according to the absolute age obtained with the calibration of this biozone. It is the last Mesozoic volcanic activity registered until now in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras. The age of this event corresponds to the ending part of the interval of the Sudiberian continental margin evolution as an extensive margin, relatively nearly to the time in which it evolved to a convergent marginRocas volcánicas submarinas (lavas almohadilladas aparecen intercaladas entre calizas margosas y margas de la Formación Capas Rojas del Subbético Medio. La datación con nannoplancton de los materiales inmediatamente infrayacentes y suprayacentes a estas rocas volcánicas ha permitido precisar la edad de este vulcanismo como Santoniense superior (biozona de nannofósiles de Rucinolithus hayi. Este evento volcánico ocurrió hace unos 84 millones de años de acuerdo con la calibración a tiempos absolutos de la biozona indicada. Se trata por tanto de la actividad volcánica mesozoica más moderna datada hasta el momento en el conjunto de las Zonas Externas de las Cordilleras Béticas. La edad de este evento corresponde a la parte terminal del intervalo de tiempo durante el cual el margen continental sudibérico constituyó un margen extensivo, relativamente cercano al momento en que ocurrió su transformación a un margen convergente.

  7. Interplay between tectonic and volcanic processes along the East Pacific Rise, 16°N (United States)

    Le Saout, M.; Thibaud, R.; Gente, P.


    The East-Pacific Rise (EPR) is a fast spreading ridge. Between 15°22'N and 16°15'N the spreading rate is 87 mm/year. This segment is the most inflated of the EPR due to its interaction with the Mathematician hotspot. The French PARISUB ("Panache Ridge Submersible") cruise in 2010 acquired high-resolution geophysical data using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Aster-X and the manned submersible Nautile (Ifremer). The goal was to investigate in detail the magmatic and tectonic processes at the intersection between the hotspot and the ridge. We investigate tectonic and volcanic processes using high-resolution data along the 16°N segment of the EPR. Near bottom bathymetric data (1 meter grid spacing) are improved by photos, videos and human observations from submersible survey. Data are used : 1/ to characterize in detail tectonic feature (faults and fissures) geometries (e.g., dip and vertical throw), 2/ to distinguish between different lava flows (pillow, lobate and sheet flows) and to locate lava sources defined in particular by flow front orientations and lava channels. In a context of an unusual spreading segment under influence of a hot spot, these data allow us to evaluate how small-scale volcanic and tectonic processes near ASTs, interact for nucleation and evolution of faulting patterns, and affect tectonic stain evaluation. The distinction between eruptive and non-eruptive tectonic features allows to estimate the distribution of tectonic feature affected by magnetic overprinting. We propose two origins for nucleation and evolution of faults around the AST, and define relations between faults, lava flows and seismic layer 2A.

  8. Volcanic Structure of the Gakkel Ridge at 85°E (United States)

    Willis, C.; Humphris, S.; Soule, S. A.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Shank, T.; Singh, H.


    We present an initial volcanologic interpretation of a magmatically-robust segment of the ultra-slow spreading (3- 7 mm/yr) Gakkel Ridge at 85°E in the eastern Arctic Basin based on surveys conducted during the July 2007 Arctic GAkkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE). A previous expedition (2001 AMORE) and seismic stations in the area found evidence for active hydrothermal circulation and seismicity that suggested volcanic activity may be ongoing at 85°E. We examine multi-beam bathymetric data, digital imagery, and rock and sediment samples in order to determine the nature of volcanic accretion that is occurring in this environment including the distribution of flow types and their relationship to features of the axial valley. Raw multi-beam bathymetric data was logged by the Kongsberg EM 120 1°x1° multi-beam echo sounder aboard the icbreaker IB Oden. Digital imagery was recorded on five video and still cameras mounted on the CAMPER fiber-optic wireline vehicle, which was towed 1-3m above the seafloor. Digital imagery was recorded on thirteen CAMPER drift-dives over interesting bathymetry including: a volcanic ridge in the axial valley named Duque's Hill, and Oden and Loke volcanoes that are part of the newly discovered Asgard volcanic chain. Talus, lava flows, and volcaniclastics were sampled with the clamshell grabber and slurp suction sampler on CAMPER. A variety of lava morphologies are identified in the imagery including large basalt pillows with buds and other surface ornamentation, lava tubes, lobates, sheet flows, and a thick cover of volcaniclastic sediment over extensive areas suggestive of explosive volcanic activity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Mobile phone usage has created undeniable health problems. The purpose of the current study is to describe patterns of mobile phone usage and associated effects on health. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study questionnaire was administered to (n = 213 the Medical students of ACS Medical College which covered the socio - demographic profile, behavior patterns like repeated checking, midnight checking etc., benefits as well as health problems encountere d due to mobile phone usage. RESULTS: In Our study 213 students have participated with the mean age of 17.8 and 67% were females. As far as the behavioral pattern associated with mobile usage was concerned about 90% (192 study participants keep the mobile under the pillow or near the bed, 45% (96 of them frequently (at least once or twice check the mobile for any missed calls or messages at midnight (in between sleep, 48.8% (104 of them were checking the mobile as soon they get up from the bed, 19.2% ( 41 were using during class hours, 25.4% (54 rest room usage, 35.7% (76 usage while driving and 56.3% (120 were using the mobile while it is in charging mode. Majority 137 (64.3% have experienced health problems like headache, sleep disturbance, ear pa in, irritability and (111 52% of the students replied that they were addicted to mobile phones. CONCLUSION : This study has explored that the young students have become addictive towards the mobile phone usage in spite of development of health problems and poor academic performance.

  10. Core evidence of paleoseismic events in Paleogene deposits of the Shulu Sag in the Bohai Bay Basin, east China, and their petroleum geologic significance (United States)

    Zheng, Lijing; Jiang, Zaixing; Liu, Hui; Kong, Xiangxin; Li, Haipeng; Jiang, Xiaolong


    The Shulu Sag, located in the southwestern corner of the Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin of east China, is a NE-SW trending, elongate Cenozoic half-graben basin. The lowermost part of the third member of the Shahejie Formation in this basin is characterized by continental rudstone and calcilutite to calcisiltite facies. Based on core observation and regional geologic analysis, seismites are recognized in these lacustrine deposits, which include soft-sediment deformation structures (sedimentary dikes, hydraulic shattering, diapir structures, convolute lamination, load-flame structures, ball-and-pillow structures, loop bedding, and subsidence structures), synsedimentary faults, and seismoturbidites. In addition, mixed-source rudstones, consisting of the Paleozoic carbonate clasts and in situ calcilutite clasts in the lowermost submember of Shahejie 3, appear in the seismites, suggesting an earthquake origin. A complete representative vertical sequence in the lowermost part of the third member found in well ST1H located in the central part of the Shulu Sag shows, from the base to the top: underlying undeformed layers, synsedimentary faults, liquefied carbonate rocks, allogenetic seismoturbidites, and overlying undeformed layers. Seismites are widely distributed around this well and there are multiple sets of stacked seismites separated by undeformed sediment. The nearby NW-trending Taijiazhuang fault whose fault growth index is from 1.1 to 1.8 and the NNE-trending Xinhe fault with a fault growth index of 1.3-1.9 may be the source of the instability to create the seismites. These deformed sedimentary layers are favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas; for example, sedimentary dikes can cut through many layers and serve as conduits for fluid migration. Sedimentary faults and fractures induced by earthquakes can act as oil and gas migration channels or store petroleum products as well. Seismoturbidites and mixed-source rudstones are excellent reservoirs due to

  11. End-expiration Respiratory Gating for a High Resolution Stationary Cardiac SPECT system (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi


    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual-respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or 8 cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (pdefect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (pdefect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the patient with defect. The results showed that the proposed methods can effectively reduce motion blur in the images caused by both respiratory and cardiac motions, which may lead to more accurate defect detection and

  12. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi


    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the patient with defect. The results showed that the proposed methods can effectively reduce motion blur in the images caused by both respiratory and cardiac motions, which may lead to more accurate defect detection and

  13. Initial clinical experience with scanned proton beams at the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the initial toxicity data with scanned proton beams at the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO). In September 2011, CNAO commenced patient treatment with scanned proton beams within two prospective Phase II protocols approved by the Italian Health Ministry. Patients with chondrosarcoma or chordoma of the skull base or spine were eligible. By October 2012, 21 patients had completed treatment. Immobilization was performed using rigid non-perforated thermoplastic-masks and customized headrests or body-pillows as indicated. Non-contrast CT scans with immobilization devices in place and MRI scans in supine position were performed for treatment-planning. For chordoma, the prescribed doses were 74 cobalt grey equivalent (CGE) and 54 CGE to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2, respectively. For chondrosarcoma, the prescribed doses were 70 CGE and 54 CGE to PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Treatment was delivered five days a week in 35-37 fractions. Prior to treatment, the patients' positions were verified using an optical tracking system and orthogonal X-ray images. Proton beams were delivered using fixed-horizontal portals on a robotic couch. Weekly MRI incorporating diffusion-weighted-imaging was performed during the course of proton therapy. Patients were reviewed once weekly and acute toxicities were graded with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Median age of patients =50 years (range, 21-74). All 21 patients completed the proton therapy without major toxicities and without treatment interruption. Median dose delivered was 74 CGE (range, 70-74). The maximum toxicity recorded was CTCAE Grade 2 in four patients. Our preliminary data demonstrates the clinical feasibility of scanned proton beams in Italy. (author)

  14. A palmar pressure sensor for measurement of upper limb weight bearing by the hands during transfers by paraplegics. (United States)

    Kunju, Nissan; Ojha, Rajdeep; Devasahayam, Suresh R


    Paraplegic patients have to effect transfer from one seat to another by using their upper limbs. In this process the hands bear almost the entire weight of the body in at least some phases of the transfer. It is desirable to train patients, especially those who are elderly and otherwise weak, to distribute their weight so as to avoid large forces being sustained on any one hand for an extended period. It is also desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of assistive devices like lower limb FES in sharing the load on the hand. This study presents a simple and versatile method of measuring palmar hand force during transfers by paraplegic patients. It is important that this force sensor should not interfere with the grasping and stabilizing properties of the hands and should permit normal transferring. The force sensor comprises an air-filled pouch or pillow that can be placed on any surface. This pneumatic sensor feels like upholstery padding on the surface on which it is placed. The sensor integrates the total pressure applied to the surface of the pouch, thereby obtaining the total force exerted by the palm/hand. The fabrication of the sensor is described, as well as the associated measurement circuit. The static calibration shows that the sensor is linear up to 350 N and the dynamic calibration shows that it has a bandwidth of 13 Hz. The sensor was fabricated using an inflated inelastic airbag attached to a pressure transducer. An automatic offset correction circuit in the preamplifier module ensures that any offset due to initial pressure or sensor drift is removed and the output is zero under no load condition. The key to this sensor arrangement is the ease of fitting it into the intended location without disturbing the existing arrangement for the subject's activities of daily living (ADL).

  15. 液氢加注系统漏热故障对火箭发射的影响%Impact of Liquid Hydrogen Injection System Heat Leakage Fault on the Rocket Launch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昕晖; 栾骁; 陈景鹏; 孙克


    Using AMEsim modeling object-oriented software, with resistance to fluid and friction loss equation (Darcy-Weisbach) formula, extrusion and heat leakage model, based on liquid hydrogen injection system of the launch range, the paper establishes liquid flow and gas-liquid two-phase flow model, and analyzes the different heat leakage rate, pipe and device thermal failure, which affect the rocket changes in the tank. The results show that high-purity hydrogen flow compared with the actual value, in the two-phase flow model gasification hydrogen pressure, resistance, flow and other parameters have changed the role of the rocket tank's injection height and air pillow pressure; the two-phase flow model can simulate the heat leakage fault and can also indicate injection system failure process and results.%以AMEsim面向对象软件作为建模工具,以液阻与摩擦损失方程Darcy Weisbach公式、挤压与漏热模型为基础,基于发射场液氢加注系统,建立液相流动和气液两相流动模型,分析了不同漏热率,管路、器件漏热故障时对火箭贮箱的影响变化情况.研究结果表明:与液氢流动实际数值相比,两相流模型中气化液氢的压力、阻力、流量等参数的作用,改变了火箭贮箱的加注工位高度和贮箱气枕压力;两相流模型可进行加注系统漏热故障仿真,并能预示加注故障过程与结果.

  16. Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards (United States)


    Flame retardant (FR) chemicals have often been added to polyurethane foam to meet required state and federal flammability standards. However, some FRs (e.g., PBDEs and TDCIPP) are associated with health hazards and are now restricted from use in some regions. In addition, California’s residential furniture flammability standard (TB-117) has undergone significant amendments over the past few years, and TDCIPP has been added to California’s Proposition 65 list. These events have likely led to shifts in the types of FRs used, and the products to which they are applied. To provide more information on the use of FRs in products containing polyurethane foam (PUF), we established a screening service for the general public. Participants residing in the US were allowed to submit up to 5 samples from their household for analysis, free of charge, and supplied information on the product category, labeling, and year and state of purchase. Between February 2014 and June 2016, we received 1141 PUF samples for analysis from various products including sofas, chairs, mattresses, car seats and pillows. Of these samples tested, 52% contained a FR at levels greater than 1% by weight. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) was the most common FR detected in PUF samples, and was the most common FR detected in all product categories. Analysis of the data by purchasing date suggests that the use of TDCIPP decreased in recent years, paralleled with an increase in the use of TCIPP and a nonhalogenated aryl phosphate mixture we call “TBPP.” In addition, we observed significant decreases in FR applications in furniture products and child car seats, suggesting the use of additive FRs in PUF may be declining, perhaps as a reflection of recent changes to TB-117 and Proposition 65. More studies are needed to determine how these changes in FR use relate to changes in exposure among the general population. PMID:27552529

  17. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus (United States)

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg


    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  18. Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives (United States)

    Paropkari, Anil L.; Ray, Durbar; Balaram, V.; Surya Prakash, L.; Mirza, Imran H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Gnaneshwar Rao, T.; Kaisary, Sujata


    An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform 'the pedestal' with several 'small' chimneys on its periphery and one 'main mound' superposed over it. The surrounding region is carpeted with lava pillows having ferromanganese 'precipitate' as infillings. The adjoining second field consisted of small chimney like growths termed as 'Christmas Tree' Field. The basal pedestal, the peripheral chimneys and small 'Christmas Tree' like growths (samples collected by MIR submersibles), though parts of the same hydrothermal field, differ significantly in their mineralogy and elemental composition indicating different history of formation. The pedestal slab consisting of chalcopyrite and pyrite as major minerals and rich in Cu is likely to have formed at higher temperatures than sphalerite dominated peripheral chimney. Extremely low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field have two distinct layers, Fe rich orange-red basal part which seems to have formed at very low temperature as precipitates from diffused hydrothermal flows from the seafloor whereas Mn rich black surface coating is formed from hydrothermal fluids emanated from the seafloor during another episode of hydrothermal activity. Perhaps this is for the first time such unique hydrothermal oxide growths are being reported in association with hydrothermal system. Here, we discuss the possible processes responsible for the formation of these different hydrothermal deposits based on their mineralogy and geochemistry.

  19. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenaers, A., E-mail: [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V. [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)


    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK• CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% {sup 235}U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL–matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium–Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)–matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  20. Re-evaluation of Pre-pump Arterial Pressure to Avoid Inadequate Dialysis and Hemolysis: Importance of Prepump Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Hemodialysis Patients. (United States)

    Shibata, Eriko; Nagai, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Risa; Noda, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomomi; Chikata, Yusuke; Hann, Michael; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ono, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Sayo; Tamaki, Masanori; Murakami, Taichi; Matsuura, Motokazu; Abe, Hideharu; Doi, Toshio


    Prepump arterial pressure (PreAP) is monitored to avoid generating excessive negative pressure. The National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for vascular access recommend that PreAP should not fall below -250 mm Hg because excessive negative PreAP can lead to a decrease in the delivery of blood flow, inadequate dialysis, and hemolysis. Nonetheless, these recommendations are consistently disregarded in clinical practice and pressure sensors are often removed from the dialysis circuit. Thus far, delivered blood flow has been reported to decrease at values more negative than -150 mm Hg of PreAP. These values have been analyzed by an ultrasonic flowmeter and not directly measured. Furthermore, no known group has evaluated whether PreAP-induced hemolysis occurs at a particular threshold. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the importance of PreAP in the prediction of inadequate dialysis and hemolysis. By using different diameter needles, human blood samples from healthy volunteers were circulated in a closed dialysis circuit. The relationship between PreAP and delivered blood flow or PreAP and hemolysis was investigated. We also investigated the optimal value for PreAP using several empirical monitoring methods, such as a pressure pillow. Our investigation indicated that PreAP is a critical factor in the determination of delivered blood flow and hemolysis, both of which occured at pressure values more negative than -150 mm Hg. With the exception of direct pressure monitoring, commonly used monitoring methods for PreAP were determined to be ineffective. We propose that the use of a vacuum monitor would permit regular measurement of PreAP. PMID:25940509

  1. Magmatic inclusions in rhyolites, contaminated basalts, and compositional zonation beneath the Coso volcanic field, California (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Metz, J.


    Basaltic lava flows and high-silica rhyolite domes form the Pleistocene part of the Coso volcanic field in southeastern California. The distribution of vents maps the areal zonation inferred for the upper parts of the Coso magmatic system. Subalkalic basalts (Coso volcanic field contain sparse andesitic inclusions (55-61% SiO2). Pillow-like forms, intricate commingling and local diffusive mixing of andesite and rhyolite at contacts, concentric vesicle distribution, and crystal morphologies indicative of undercooling show that inclusions were incorporated in their rhyolitic hosts as blobs of magma. Inclusions were probably dispersed throughout small volumes of rhyolitic magma by convective (mechanical) mixing. Inclusion magma was formed by mixing (hybridization) at the interface between basaltic and rhyolitic magmas that coexisted in vertically zoned igneous systems. Relict phenocrysts and the bulk compositions of inclusions suggest that silicic endmembers were less differentiated than erupted high-silica rhyolite. Changes in inferred endmembers of magma mixtures with time suggest that the steepness of chemical gradients near the silicic/mafic interface in the zoned reservoir may have decreased as the system matured, although a high-silica rhyolitic cap persisted. The Coso example is an extreme case of large thermal and compositional contrast between inclusion and host magmas; lesser differences between intermediate composition magmas and inclusions lead to undercooling phenomena that suggest smaller ??T. Vertical compositional zonation in magma chambers has been documented through study of products of voluminous pyroclastic eruptions. Magmatic inclusions in volcanic rocks provide evidence for compositional zonation and mixing processes in igneous systems when only lava is erupted. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Compression strength of composite primary structural components (United States)

    Johnson, Eric R.


    The linear elastic response is determined for an internally pressurized, long circular cylindrical shell stiffened on the inside by a regular arrangement of identical stringers and identical rings. Periodicity of this configuration permits the analysis of a portion of the shell wall centered over a generic stringer-ring joint; i.e., a unit cell model. The stiffeners are modeled as discrete beams, and the stringer is assumed to have a symmetrical cross section and the ring an asymmetrical section. Asymmetery causes out-of-plane bending and torsion of the ring. Displacements are assumed as truncated double Fourier series plus simple terms in the axial coordinate to account for the closed and pressure vessel effect (a non-periodic effect). The interacting line loads between the stiffeners and the inside shell wall are Lagrange multipliers in the formulation, and they are also assumed as truncated Fourier series. Displacement continuity constraints between the stiffeners and shell along the contact lines are satisfied point-wise. Equilibrium is imposed by the principle of virtual work. A composite material crown panel from the fuselage of a large transport aircraft is the numerical example. The distributions of the interacting line loads, and the out-of-plane bending moment and torque in the ring, are strongly dependent on modeling the deformations due to transverse shear and cross-sectional warping of the ring in torsion. This paper contains the results from the semiannual report on research on 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell'. The results of the new work are illustrated in the included appendix.

  3. Economic and employment potential in textile waste management of Faisalabad. (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhary, Muhammad Nawaz


    The aim of this study is to characterize the waste from the textile industry, to identify the sources and types of waste generation and to find out the economic and employment potential in this sector. Textile waste, its management, and the economic and employment potential in this sector are unrevealed facts in developing countries such as Pakistan. The textile industry is ranked first in export earning in Pakistan. Textile export of yarn and cloth from Faisalabad is US$3 billion per year. On average 161 325 people are employed in the textile sector in Faisalabad, of which 11 860 are involved in solid waste handling and management. The textile industries generate solid wastes such as fibre, metal, plastic and paper waste. A total of 794 209 kg day(-1) (289 886 285 kg year(-1)) solid waste is produced from this sector and purchased by cotton waste junkshop owners at US$125 027 day(-1) (US$45 634 855 year(-1)). Only pre-consumer textile waste is considered. Interestingly no waste is sent to landfill. The waste is first segregated into different categories/ types by hand and then weighed. Cotton waste is sold to brick kilns where it is used as an alternative fuel as it is cheaper than wood/coal. Iron scrap is sold in the junk market from where it is resold to recycling industries. Paper waste is recycled, minimizing the virgin material used for producing new paper products. Iron and plastic drums are returned to the chemical industries for refilling, thus decreasing the cost of dyes and decreasing the demand for new drums. Cutting rags are used for making different things such as ropes and underlay, it is also shredded and used as fillings for pillows and mattresses, thus improving waste management, reducing cost and minimizing the need for virgin material. As no system of quality control and no monitoring of subsequent products exist there is a need to carry out quality control and monitoring. PMID:23439877

  4. Permo-Triassic hypabyssal mafic intrusions and associated tholeiitic basalts of the Kolyuchinskaya Guba, Chukotka (NE Russia): Significance for interregional correlations (United States)

    Ledneva, G. V.; Pease, V. L.; Sokolov, S. D.


    In order to test tectonic hypotheses regarding the evolution of the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka microplate prior to the opening of the Amerasian basin, we investigated rocks exposed near Kolyuchinskaya Guba, eastern Chukotka. Hypabyssal mafic rocks and associated basaltic flows enclose terrigenous sediments, minor cherts and limestones in pillow interstices. The hypabyssal mafic rock yields a U-Pb zircon age of 252+/-4 Ma and indicates intrusion of basic magma at the Permo-Triassic boundary, contemporaneous with voluminous magmatism of the Siberian large igneous province (LIP). The lava flows and hypabyssal mafic rocks of the Kolyuchinskaya Guba region have major and trace element compositions identical the tholeiitic flood basalts of the main plateau stage of the Siberian LIP. They are strongly differentiated, the result of high-pressure equilibrium crystallization of a low-Ti/Y tholeiitic melt, and contaminated. The compositional variations in these rocks, however, neither proves nor disproves a correlation between the Permo-Triassic tholeiitic flood basalts of eastern Chukotka and the Siberian LIP. Thus, two alternative geodynamic interpretations are possible: 1) The hypabyssal mafic rocks and associated tholeiitic flows crystallized from a plume-derived melt; 2) The rocks are not related to plume activity, consequently eastern Chukotka was probably part of a passive rifted or extensional continental margin in the Permo-Triassic. Nonetheless, we prefer the first of these two possibilities. Funding for this work is gratefully acknowledged from the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat ("Beringia-2005"), the Swedish Research Council, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No 08-05-00547), Leading Scientific School (NSH-3172.2008.5) and ONZ RAS. Thanks are also extended to M.J. Whitehouse and the Nordsim facility - the Nordsim facility is funded by the research councils of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the Geological Survey of Finland, and the Swedish Museum of

  5. Evolución geoquímica y temporal del magmatismo básico mesozoico en las Zonas Externas de las Cordilleras Béticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, L.


    Full Text Available The Mesozoic basic magmatism found in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras (ZECB is represented either as «ophites» forming small dimension tectonic blocks intercalated in the Keuper gypsum-rich, clay sediments, or also as lava ilow bodies, most of them with pillow structures, within the Jurassic sedimentary rocks. Geochemical characteristics of these rocks indicate sorne differences between these two magmatic series. Two different chemical affinities have been carried out within the «ophites»: a with modal orthopyroxene and tholeiitic affinity; and b with modal olivine and transitionalalkaline affinity. Chemical characteristics of this last group are similar to those of the volcanic rocks from the Jurassic sediments. The field relationships found in sorne «ophite» outcrops al!ow us to deduce that the tholeiitic rocks are mostly present as extrusive rocks. However, their older whole-rock K-Ar ages range between 182 ± 9 and 187 ± 4 M.a., and do not correctly represent Upper Triassic ages. Transitional-alkaline «ophites» occur as subvolcanic rocks and their older obtained radiometric age is 137 ± 4 M.a. Al! these radiometric ages obtained may be intepreted as a result of the hybridization between the age of the Triassic magmatism and the very low- to low-grade metamorphism present in these rocks. This metamorphism is responsable for the new formed secondary paragenesis, made of prehnite + pumpel! yite + sericitie + mafic phyl!osicates. Radiometric age obtained in sorne intra-Jurassic volcanic rocks range between 155 ± 3 to 166 ± 4 M.a. These new radiometric data and field relationships are used to define the Mesozoic magmatic evolution in the ZECB. Tholeiitic magmatism was generated during an initial Triassic distensive stage. After this magmatic event, and as a consequence of an increment of the distensive regime, with important continental crust thickening, transitionalalkaline magmatism occurS. This

  6. 'Snake River (SR)-type' volcanism at the Yellowstone hotspot track: Distinctive products from unusual, high-temperature silicic super-eruptions (United States)

    Branney, M.J.; Bonnichsen, B.; Andrews, G.D.M.; Ellis, B.; Barry, T.L.; McCurry, M.


    A new category of large-scale volcanism, here termed Snake River (SR)-type volcanism, is defined with reference to a distinctive volcanic facies association displayed by Miocene rocks in the central Snake River Plain area of southern Idaho and northern Nevada, USA. The facies association contrasts with those typical of silicic volcanism elsewhere and records unusual, voluminous and particularly environmentally devastating styles of eruption that remain poorly understood. It includes: (1) large-volume, lithic-poor rhyolitic ignimbrites with scarce pumice lapilli; (2) extensive, parallel-laminated, medium to coarse-grained ashfall deposits with large cuspate shards, crystals and a paucity of pumice lapilli; many are fused to black vitrophyre; (3) unusually extensive, large-volume rhyolite lavas; (4) unusually intense welding, rheomorphism, and widespread development of lava-like facies in the ignimbrites; (5) extensive, fines-rich ash deposits with abundant ash aggregates (pellets and accretionary lapilli); (6) the ashfall layers and ignimbrites contain abundant clasts of dense obsidian and vitrophyre; (7) a bimodal association between the rhyolitic rocks and numerous, coalescing low-profile basalt lava shields; and (8) widespread evidence of emplacement in lacustrine-alluvial environments, as revealed by intercalated lake sediments, ignimbrite peperites, rhyolitic and basaltic hyaloclastites, basalt pillow-lava deltas, rhyolitic and basaltic phreatomagmatic tuffs, alluvial sands and palaeosols. Many rhyolitic eruptions were high mass-flux, large volume and explosive (VEI 6-8), and involved H2O-poor, low-??18O, metaluminous rhyolite magmas with unusually low viscosities, partly due to high magmatic temperatures (900-1,050??C). SR-type volcanism contrasts with silicic volcanism at many other volcanic fields, where the fall deposits are typically Plinian with pumice lapilli, the ignimbrites are low to medium grade (non-welded to eutaxitic) with abundant pumice lapilli

  7. Snowmelt and sublimation: field experiments and modelling in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schulz


    Full Text Available Snow in the High Atlas Mountains is a major source for freshwater renewal and for water availability in the semi-arid lowlands of south-eastern Morocco. Snowfall- and snow-ablation monitoring and modelling is important for estimating potential water delivery from the mountain water towers to the forelands. This study is part of GLOWA-IMPETUS, an integrated management project dealing with scarce water resources in West Africa. The Ameskar study area is located to the south of the High Atlas Mountains, in their rain shadow. As a part of the M’Goun river basin within the upper Drâa valley, the study area is characterised by high radiation inputs, low atmospheric humidity and long periods with sub-zero temperatures. Its altitude ranges between 2000 m and 4000 m, with dominant north- and south-facing slopes. Snowfall occurs mainly from November to April but even summit regions can become repeatedly devoid of snow cover. Snow cover maps for the M’Goun basin (1240 km2 are derived from calculations of NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index from MODIS satellite images and snow depth is monitored at four automatic weather stations between 2000–4000 m. Snowfall events are infrequent at lower altitudes. The presence of snow penitentes at altitudes above 3000 m indicates that snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation. Snow ablation was modelled with the UEB Utah Energy Balance Model (Tarboton and Luce, 1996. This single layer, physically-based, point energy and mass balance model is driven by meteorological variables recorded at the automatic weather stations at Tounza (2960 m and Tichki (3260 m. Data from snow pillows at Tounza and Tichki are used to validate the model’s physical performance in terms of energy and water balances for a sequence of two snowfall events in the winter of 2003/4. First UEB modelling results show good overall performance and timing of snowmelt and sublimation compared to field investigations. Up to 44

  8. Structure and development of an axial volcanic ridge: Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 45°N (United States)

    Searle, R. C.; Murton, B. J.; Achenbach, K.; LeBas, T.; Tivey, M.; Yeo, I.; Cormier, M. H.; Carlut, J.; Ferreira, P.; Mallows, C.; Morris, K.; Schroth, N.; van Calsteren, P.; Waters, C.


    We describe the most comprehensive and detailed high resolution survey of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) ever conducted, at 45°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use 3 m resolution sidescan sonar, deep-towed magnetic field measurements, video observations from eleven ROV dives, and two very-high-resolution bathymetry and magnetic surveys. The most recently active AVR has high topographic relief, high acoustic backscatter, high crustal magnetization and little faulting. It is sharp-crested, 25 × 4 km in extent and 500 m high, and is covered by approximately 8000 volcanic "hummocks" whose detailed nature is revealed for the first time. Each is an individual volcano ≤ 450 m in diameter and ≤ 200 m high, ranging from steep-sided (45°) cones to low domes. Many have suffered significant flank collapse. Hummocks tend to align in rows parallel to the AVR axis, parallel to its NE-trending spurs or, on its lower flanks, sub-normal to the AVR trend. These latter are spaced 1-2 km apart and comprise 1-2 km-long rows of single volcanoes. We infer that their emplacement is controlled by down-flank magma transport, possibly via lava tubes. The AVR contains only one large flat-topped seamount. The flanking median valley floor consists of either older hummocky volcanic terrain or flat-lying, mostly sediment-covered lavas. These typically have low-relief lobate surfaces, inflation and collapse structures, and occasional lava tubes and tumuli. The AVR displays open fissures, mostly along its crest. There is direct evidence for only a few small faults on the AVR, though steep, outward-facing slopes draped by elongate pillows may be small normal faults covered by lava. The surrounding median valley floor is heavily fissured. Normal faults cut it and an older AVR, the latter displaying significant outward facing faults. High crustal magnetization, an approximate proxy for crustal age within the Brunhes, is confined to the active AVR. Magnetic palaeointensity measurements are

  9. Widespread assimilation of a seawater-derived component at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, A.J.R.; Clague, D.A.; Honda, M.; Stolper, E.M.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Norman, M.D.


    Many tholeiitic and transitional pillow-rim and fragmental glasses from Loihi seamount, Hawaii, have high Cl contents and Cl/K{sub 2}O ratios (and ratios of Cl to other incompatible components, such as P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, H{sub 2}O, etc.) relative to other Hawaiian subaerial volcanoes (e.g., Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, and Kilauea). The authors suggest that this results from widespread contamination of Loihi magmas by a Cl-rich, seawater-derived component. Assimilation of high-Cl phases such as saline brine or Cl-rich minerals (halite or iron-hydroxychlorides) with high Cl/H{sub 2}O ratios can explain the range and magnitude of Cl contents in Loihi glasses, as well as the variations in the ratios of Cl to other incompatible elements. Brines and Cl-rich minerals are thought to form from seawater within the hydrothermal systems associated with submarine volcanoes, and Loihi magmas could plausibly have assimilated such materials from the hydrothermal envelope adjacent to the magma chamber. Their model can also explain semiquantitatively the observed contamination of Loihi glasses with atmospheric-derived noble gases, provided the assimilant has concentrations of Ne and Ar comparable to or slightly less than seawater. This is more likely for brines than for Cl-rich minerals, leading the authors to favor brines as the major assimilant. Cl/Br ratios for a limited number of Loihi samples are also seawater-like, and show no indication of the higher values expected to be associated with the assimilation of Cl-rich hydrothermal minerals. Although Cl enrichment is a common feature of lavas from Loihi, submarine glasses from other Hawaiian volcanoes show little (Kilauea) or no (Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea) evidence of this process, suggesting that assimilation of seawater-derived components is more likely to occur in the early stages of growth of oceanic volcanoes. Summit collapse events such as the one observed at Loihi in October 1996 provide a ready mechanism for depositing brine

  10. Interfractional Dose Variations in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Breath-Hold for Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the interfractional dose variations for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT) combined with breath-hold (BH) at end-exhalation (EE) for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 10 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled. Each patient was fixed in the supine position on an individualized vacuum pillow with both arms raised. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed before RT, and three additional scans were performed during the course of chemoradiotherapy using a conventional RT technique. The CT data were acquired under EE–BH conditions (BH–CT) using a visual feedback technique. The intensity-modulated RT plan, which used five 15-MV coplanar ports, was designed on the initial BH–CT set with a prescription dose of 39 Gy at 2.6 Gy/fraction. After rigid image registration between the initial and subsequent BH–CT scans, the dose distributions were recalculated on the subsequent BH–CT images under the same conditions as in planning. Changes in the dose–volume metrics of the gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV = GTV + 5 mm), stomach, and duodenum were evaluated. Results: For the GTV and clinical target volume (CTV), the 95th percentile of the interfractional variations in the maximal dose, mean dose, dose covering 95% volume of the region of structure, and percentage of the volume covered by the 90% isodose line were within ±3%. Although the volume covered by the 39 Gy isodose line for the stomach and duodenum did not exceed 0.1 mL at planning, the volume covered by the 39 Gy isodose line for these structures was up to 11.4 cm3 and 1.8 cm3, respectively. Conclusions: Despite variations in the gastrointestinal state and abdominal wall position at EE, the GTV and CTV were mostly ensured at the planned dose, with the exception of 1 patient. Compared with the duodenum, large variations in the stomach volume receiving high-dose radiation were observed, which might be beyond the negligible

  11. Melt-rock interaction near the Moho: Evidence from crystal cargo in lavas from near-ridge seamounts (United States)

    Coumans, Jason P.; Stix, John; Clague, David A.; Minarik, William G.; Layne, Graham D.


    The Taney Seamounts are a NW-SE trending linear, near mid-ocean ridge chain consisting of five volcanoes located on the Pacific plate 300 km west of San Francisco, California. Taney Seamount-A, the largest and oldest in the chain, is defined by four well-exposed calderas, which expose previously infilled lavas. The calderas can be differentiated in time by their cross-cutting relationships, creating a relative chronology. The caldera walls and intracaldera pillow mounds were sampled systematically by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to obtain stratigraphically-controlled samples, a unique aspect of this study. The geochemistry of the seamount varies from more differentiated to more primitive with time (6.2-8.6 wt.% MgO), suggesting that the sub-caldera reservoir is open and undergoes periodic collapse, replenishment, crystallization, and eruption. The youngest and least differentiated lavas entrained a crystal cargo of plagioclase (An80-90) with melt inclusion volatile saturation pressures indicating entrapment in the lower oceanic crust and upper mantle (6-12 km, with 45% between 8 and 10 km below the sea floor). Melt inclusions exhibit high Al2O3, low SiO2, positive Sr and Eu anomalies and negative Zr and Nb anomalies when normalized to typical Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). In comparison, the host lavas exhibit positive Sr anomalies, but no concurrent Zr, and Nb anomalies. Based on thermodynamic modeling using alphaMELTS, we develop a melt-rock interaction model defined by melting and assimilation of plagioclase-rich cumulates by hot, primitive mantle-derived melts. Significantly, the variability of the negative Zr and Nb anomalies cannot be explained by either cumulate melting or AFC alone. We propose that the melt inclusions record the interaction between cumulate partial melts and the assimilating melt, demonstrating the importance of cumulate melting during the assimilation process. Later percolating melts underwent diffusive interaction with, and

  12. Bald Friar Metabasalt and Kennett Square Amphibolite: Two Iapetan Ocean Floor Basalts (United States)

    Smith, R.C., II


    The Bald Friar Metabasalt (BFM) and Kennett Square Amphibolite (KSA) are basaltic units found in the Piedmont of southeastern Pennsylvania. The BFM is also recognized in northern Maryland. Both are believed to represent fragments of the floor of the Iapetus Ocean, but are not known occur in direct association with one another. The BFM typically occurs as small fragments having typical stratigraphic thicknesses of 2.5 m, and composed of greenish, fine-grained chlorite-epidote-actinolite-albite metabasalt in ophiolite me??lange. One bed of pillow basalt has been found at the type locality, Bald Friar, Cecil County, Maryland. Even though outcrops of BFM are highly discontinuous, they have a remarkable chemical uniformity over a strike length of 143 km and appear to be equivalent to the Caldwell Group 1b metabasalt of the Thetford, Quebec, area. The BFM is typically associated with ultramafic fragments and may be affiliated with the Baltimore Mafic Complex (BMC), from which a baddeleyite date of 442 +/- 7 Ma (Silurian) has been obtained. The BFM is probably a back arc basin basalt (BABB). Pod and schlieren chromite compositions suggest an island arc environment for the BMC itself. The poorly defined, informal "Conowingo Creek metabasalt" of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, occurs on the north margin of the BMC and appears to be a fore arc boninite. The BFM and associated ultramafic fragments serve as a field-mappable marker for the structural equivalent of the Baie Verte-Brompton line in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Steatization of the associated ultramafic fragments has produced zones of extremely low competence that facilitated and localized thrusts of presumed Silurian age and later Alleghanian folding. The KSA typically occurs as much larger bodies having lengths of 3 km and composed of dark, medium-grained hornblende-plagioclase-clinopyroxene gneiss. No ultramafic rocks or me??lange have been recognized with the KSA. In Pennsylvania, the KSA

  13. Why Quark Rhymes with Pork (United States)

    Mermin, N. David


    Part I. Reference Frame Columns, Physics Today, 1988-2009: 1. What's wrong with this Lagrangean? April 1988; 2. What's wrong with this library? August 1988; 3. What's wrong with these prizes? January 1989; 4. What's wrong with this pillow? April 1989; 5. What's wrong with this prose? May 1989; 6. What's wrong with these equations? October 1989; 7. What's wrong with these elements of reality? June 1990; 8. What's wrong with these reviews? August 1990; 9. What's wrong with those epochs? November 1990; 10. Publishing in computopia, May 1991; 11. What's wrong with those grants, June 1991; 12. What's wrong in computopia, April 1992; 13. What's wrong with those talks? November 1992; 14. Two lectures on the wave-particle duality, January 1993; 15. A quarrel we can settle, December 1993; 16. What's wrong with this temptation, June 1994; 17. What's wrong with this sustaining myth, March 1996; 18. The golemization of relativity, April 1996; 19. Diary of a Nobel guest, March 1997; 20. What's wrong with this reading, October 1997; 21. How not to create tigers, August 1999; 22. What's wrong with this elegance? March 2000; 23. The contemplation of quantum computation, July 2000; 24. What's wrong with these questions? February 2001; 25. What's wrong with this quantum world? February 2004; 26. Could Feynman have said this? May 2004; 27. My life with Einstein, December 2005; 28. What has quantum mechanics to do with factoring? April 2007; 29. Some curious facts about quantum factoring, October 2007; 30. What's bad about this habit, May 2009; Part II. Shedding Bad Habits: 31. Fixing the shifty split, Physics Today, July 2012; 32. What I think about Now, Physics Today, March 2014; 33. Why QBism is not the Copenhagen interpretation, lecture, Vienna, June 2014; Part III. More from Professor Mozart: 34. What's wrong with this book? Unpublished, 1992; 35. What's wrong with these stanzas? Physics Today, July 2007; Part IV. More to be said: 36. The complete diary of a Nobel guest

  14. Flight Crew Sleep in Long-Haul Aircraft Bunk Facilities: Survey Results (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Dinges, David F.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)


    Modem long-haul aircraft can fly up to 16 continuous hours and provide a 24-hour, global capability. Extra (augmented) flight crew are available on long flights to allow planned rest periods, on a rotating basis, away from the flight deck in onboard crew rest facilities (2 bunks). A NASA/FAA study is under-way to examine the quantity and quality of sleep obtained in long-haul aircraft bunks and the factors that promote or interfere with that sleep. The first phase of the study involved a retrospective survey, followed by a second phase field study to collect standard polysomnographic data during inflight bunk sleep periods. A summary of the Phase I survey results are reported here. A multi-part 54-question retrospective survey was completed by 1,404 flight crew (37% return rate) at three different major US air carriers flying B747-100, 200, 400, and MD- 11 long-haul aircraft. The questions examined demographics, quantity and quality of sleep at home and in onboard bunks, factors that promote or interfere with sleep, and effects on subsequent performance and alertness. Flight crew reported a mean bunk sleep latency of 39.4 mins (SD=28.3 mins) (n=1,276) and a mean total sleep time of 2.2 hrs (SD=1.3 hrs) (n=603). (Different flight lengths could affect overall time available for sleep.) Crew rated 25 factors for their interference or promotion of bunk sleep. Figure I portrays the average ratings for each factor across all three carriers. A principal components analysis of the 25 factors revealed three areas that promoted bunk sleep: physiological (e.g., readiness for sleep), physical environment (e.g., bunk size, privacy), and personal comfort (e.g., blankets, pillows). Five areas were identified that interfered with sleep: environmental disturbance (e.g., background noise, turbulence), luminosity (e.g., lighting), personal disturbances (e.g., bathroom trips, random thoughts), environmental discomfort (e.g., low humidity, cold), and interpersonal disturbances (e

  15. 婴儿Chiari畸形II型1例报告%Chiari II malformation in infant:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:分析婴儿Chiari畸形Ⅱ型的临床资料,加深儿科医师的认识。方法回顾性分析1例确诊为Chiari畸形Ⅱ型患儿的临床、实验室、影像学资料,并复习相关文献。结果患儿,男,2个月,因颈部肿物2个月入院。颅脑MRI示小脑扁桃体部分疝入枕骨大孔。予手术治疗后一直间断发热,不能竖头、独坐,前囟门进行性增大,CT诊断脑积水。结论 Chi-ari畸形Ⅱ型会导致神经功能异常,预后差,病死率高;早期诊断,积极手术,可改善预后。%Objective To analyze the clinical data of an infant with Chiari II malformation so as to deepen understanding of this disease in pediatrics. Methods The clinical, laboratory and imaging data of an infant with Chiari II malformation were retrospectively analyzed and a literature review was performed. Results A 2-month-old male infant was admitted to our hospital due to a neck tumor for two months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed herniation of the cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum. The infant was finally diagnosed with Chiari II malformation based on the result of MRI and the presence of myelomeningocele. After repair of spinal cord and meninges and decompression of pillow macroporous by surgery, the infant presented with intermittent fever and progressively enlarged anterior fontanel, with culture-positive cerebrospinal fluid for bacte-ria and hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT, and intracranial infection was considered. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was not performed due to uncontrolled intracranial infection after treatment, and motor retardation was found during the follow-up. Conclusions Chiari II malformation may results in nervous system dysfunction with poor diagnosis and high case fatality rate. Early diagnosis and operation may be helpful to the improvement of prognosis.

  16. The Maliac Ocean: the origin of the Tethyan Hellenic ophiolites (United States)

    Ferriere, Jacky; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Chanier, Frank


    The Hellenides, part of the Alpine orogeny in Greece, are rich in ophiolitic units. These ophiolites and associated units emplaced during Jurassic obduction, testify for the existence of one, or several, Tethyan oceanic realms. The paleogeography of these oceanic areas has not been precisely described. However, all the authors now agree on the presence of a main Triassic-Jurassic ocean on the eastern side of the Pelagonian zone (Vardar Domain). We consider that this Maliac Ocean is the most important ocean in Greece and Albania. Here, we limit the detailed description of the Maliac Ocean to the pre-convergence period of approximately 70 Ma between the Middle Triassic rifting to the Middle Jurassic convergence period. A quick overview on the destiny of the different parts of the Maliac Ocean during the convergence period is also proposed. The studied exposures allow to reconstruct: (1) the Middle to Late Triassic Maliac oceanic lithosphere, corresponding to the early spreading activity at a Mid-Oceanic Ridge; (2) the Western Maliac Margin, widely exposed in the Othris and Argolis areas; (3) the Eastern-Maliac Margin in the eastern Vardar domain (Peonias and Paikon zones). We established the following main characteristics of the Maliac Ocean: (1) the Middle Triassic rifting marked by a rapid subsidence and volcanism seems to be short-lived (few My); (2) the Maliac Lithosphere is only represented by Middle to Late Triassic units, especially the Fourka unit, composed of WPB-OIB and MORB pillow-lavas, locally covered by a pelagic Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentary cover; (3) the Western Margin is the most complete and our data allow to distinguish a proximal and a deeper distal margin; (4) the evolution of the Eastern Margin (Peonias and Paikon series) is similar to that of the W-Margin, except for its Jurassic terrigenous sediments, while the proximal W-Margin was dominated by calcarenites; (5) we show that the W- and E-margins are not Volcanic Passive

  17. Uplifted ophiolitic rocks on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile: implications for the closure history of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and the tectonic evolution of the Beagle Channel region (United States)

    Cunningham, W. D.


    A succession of mafic rocks that includes gabbro, sheeted dikes and deformed pillow basalts has been mapped in detail on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile and is identified as an upper ophiolitic complex representing the uplifted floor of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. The complex was uplifted, deformed, and regionally metamorphosed prior to the intrusion of an undeformed 90 Ma granodiorite that cuts the complex. The complex appears para-autochthonous, is gently tilted to the northeast and is internally sheared by near-vertical foliation zones. No evidence for obduction was observed although the base of the complex is not exposed. The ophiolitic rocks have been regionally metamorphosed to mid-upper greenschist levels. Isla Gordon is bounded by the northwest and southwest arms of the Beagle Channel, two important structural boundaries in the southernmost Andes that are interpreted to have accommodated north-side-up and left-lateral displacements. Directly north of Isla Gordon is the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex that exposes the highest grade metamorphic rocks in the Andes south of Peru. On the north coast of Isla Gordon a volcaniclastic turbidite sequence that is interpreted to have been deposited above the mafic floor is metamorphosed to lower greenschist levels in strong metamorphic contrast to amphibolite-grade othogneisses exposed in Cordillera Darwin only 2 km away across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The profound metamorphic break across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the regional northeast tilt of the ophiolitic complex are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that Isla Gordon represents the upper plate to an extensional fault that accommodated tectonic unroofing of Cordillera Darwin. However, limited structural evidence for extension was identified in this study to support the model and further work is needed to determine the relative importance of contractional, extensional and

  18. Monitoring snow cover and its effect on runoff regime in the Jizera Mountains (United States)

    Kulasova, Alena


    The Jizera Mountains in the northern Bohemia are known by its rich snow cover. Winter precipitation represents usually a half of the precipitation in the hydrological year. Gradual snow accumulation and melt depends on the course of the particular winter period, the topography of the catchments and the type of vegetation. During winter the snow depth, and especially the snow water equivalent, are affected by the changing character of the falling precipitation, air and soil temperatures and the wind. More rapid snowmelt occurs more on the slopes without forest oriented to the South, while a gradual snowmelt occurs on the locations turned to the North and in forest. Melting snow recharges groundwater and affects water quality in an important way. In case of extreme situation the snowmelt monitoring is important from the point of view of flood protection of communities and property. Therefore the immediate information on the amount of water in snow is necessary. The way to get this information is the continuous monitoring of the snow depth and snow water equivalent. In the Jizera Mountains a regular monitoring of snow cover has been going on since the end of the 19th century. In the 80s of the last century the Jizera Mountains were affected by the increased fallout of pollutants in the air. There followed a gradual dieback of the forest cover and cutting down the upper part of the ridges. In order to get data for the quantification of runoff regime changes in the changing natural environment, the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) founded in the upper part of the Mountains several experimental catchments. One of the activities of the employees of the experimental basis is the regular measurement of snow cover at selected sites from 1982 up to now. At the same time snow cover is being observed using snow pillows, where its mass is monitored with the help of pressure sensors. In order to improve the reliability of the continuous measurement of the snow water

  19. The oldest island arc and ophiolite complexes of the Russian Arctic (Taimyr Peninsula) (United States)

    Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Metelkin, Dmitriy V.; Matushkin, Nikolay Y.; Romanova, Irina V.


    in the mouths of Krasnaya River and Kabachkovaya Hill. The Kabachkovaya ophiolites form near E-W elongated narrow zones of ultramafic rocks and small plutons of fine and medium grained gabbros and diabases among flows of tholeitic basalts forming pillow lavas and tuffs. Ar/Ar dating of amphiboles from metagabbros in the Krasnaya R. mouth yielded an age of 1029 Ma. In conclusion, these data indicate the existence of Meso-Neoproterozoic ophiolites and island arcs in the Russian Arctic, which, with available paleomagnetic data, allows composing more correct plate tectonic reconstructions for the early stages of the evolution of this region.

  20. Geology of East Egypt greenstone field in Neoproterozoic isoand arc: Reconstruction of Iron formation sedimentary environment. (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.


    Geology of East Egypt greenstone-granit belt which is northern part of Nubia shield was identified neoproterozoic island arc amalgamated sections. There are several iron formation within these greenstone belt. Age data shows this iron formation may be overlaped during 700 Ma Snowball period, how ever, there is no detail report of well preserved ice related evidences. We now started detail field work for identified tectonic reconstruction, original stratigraphy around Iron formation and sedimentary environment during the iron formation sedimentation area. East Egyptian shield was divided three geology, Proterozoic greenstone complex, 700-600 Granitic domes and cover sequence (Hammamet Group). We focus three area to identified sedimentary environment of iron sedimentation. Along the north-south trend of Wadi EL Dabban area are, we named Wadi branch as West site is RW-0 ~ 12, East site is RE-0 ~ 12 from north to south. Northern area is structurally moderate, southern portion is north dipping. Southern portion was intruded by granite and several place contain granitic dikes. Northeast to eastern area are identified younger sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group) which is unconformablly overlay on the other iron formation bearing greenstone belt. Structurally these area is divided four units. Wadi was divided by right-lateral strike-ship fault. The displacement are more than 3 km. Also north dipping faults are identified.East-West trend fault are divided two units. It is divided NE, SE, NW and NS units.SW unit is most well preserved thick sequence of the Iron formation. SW unit is well preserved iron formation sequence within thick volcaniclastics. This unit mostly north dipping around 40-60 degree. Structural repetition in not well understand. Reconstract stratigraphy in this unit is at least 4000m in thickness. 5 member is identified in this sequence. Several thin iron formations are observed with in pillow lava and volcaniclastic sequence. These very thick

  1. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Extremely Well-Preserved 2.45-Billion-Year-Old Hydrothermal Systems in the Vetreny Belt, Baltic Shield: Insights into Paleohydrosphere (United States)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.


    The early Paleoproterozoic was an eventful period in the Earth's history. The first portions of free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere, Snowball Earth glaciations happened several times and the first supercontinent broke up due to extensive rifting. These events should have affected the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere. In this study, we use rocks that were altered in underwater hydrothermal systems to investigate the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere 2.39-2.45 billion years ago (hereinafter, Ga). Extremely low-δ18O (down to -27.5‰ SMOW) rocks from 2.39 Ga metamorphosed subglacial hydrothermal systems of the Belomorian belt, Baltic Shield formed at near-equatorial latitudes suggesting a Snowball (or Slushball) Earth glaciation. These results motivated us to look at temporally and geographically close hydrothermal systems from the unmetamorhposed 2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift. The length of the rift is 250 km and it is composed of high-Mg basalts, mafic-ultramafic intrusions and sedimentary successions. We examined several localities of high-Mg basalt flows that include astonishingly fresh pillow lavas, often with preserved volcanic glass, eruptive breccias, and hydrothermal alteration zones. Collected samples serve a great textural evidence of water-rock interaction that occurred in situ while basalts were cooling. The preliminary results from coexisting quartz and epidote (T, D18O=311°C), and from coexisting calcite and quartz (T, D18O=190°C) yield values of δ18O of involved water between -1.6 and -0.9 ‰. The values of δ13C in calcites vary between -4.0 and -2.3 ‰. It is likely that hydrothermal fluids operated in the Vetreny Belt rift were derived from seawater that is no different from modern oceanic water in terms of δ18O. Apparently, the rift was a Paleoproterozoic analog of the modern Red Sea, filled with oceanic water. The result is important because the Vetreny Belt rift predates the onset of Snowball Earth glaciation at 2

  2. Melt extraction and mantle source at a Southwest Indian Ridge Dragon Bone amagmatic segment on the Marion Rise (United States)

    Gao, Changgui; Dick, Henry J. B.; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Huaiyang


    This paper works on the trace and major element compositions of spatially associated basalts and peridotites from the Dragon Bone amagmatic ridge segment at the eastern flank of the Marion Platform on the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The rare earth element compositions of basalts do not match the pre-alteration Dragon Bone peridotite compositions, but can be modeled by about 5 to 10% non-modal batch equilibrium melting from a DMM source. The Dragon Bone peridotites are clinopyroxene-poor harzburgite with average spinel Cr# ~ 27.7. The spinel Cr# indicates a moderate degree of melting. However, CaO and Al2O3 of the peridotites are lower than other abyssal peridotites at the same Mg# and extent of melting. This requires a pyroxene-poor initial mantle source composition compared to either hypothetical primitive upper mantle or depleted MORB mantle sources. We suggest a hydrous melting of the initial Dragon Bone mantle source, as wet melting depletes pyroxene faster than dry. According to the rare earth element patterns, the Dragon Bone peridotites are divided into two groups. Heavy REE in Group 1 are extremely fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by ~ 7% fractional melting in the garnet stability field and another ~ 12.5 to 13.5% in the spinel stability field from depleted and primitive upper mantle sources, respectively. Heavy REE in Group 2 are slightly fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by ~ 15 to 20% fractional melting in the spinel stability field from a depleted mantle source. Both groups show similar melting degree to other abyssal peridotites. If all the melt extraction occurred at the middle oceanic ridge where the peridotites were dredged, a normal ~ 6 km thick oceanic crust is expected at the Dragon Bone segment. However, the Dragon Bone peridotites are exposed in an amagmatic ridge segment where only scattered pillow basalts lie on a partially serpentinized mantle pavement. Thus their depletion requires an

  3. East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate basalts or rift basalts related to the Ontong Java plume? (United States)

    Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.


    Studies of seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns suggest the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in a large area in the western Pacific that includes the East Mariana, Nauru and Pigafetta Basins. Sampling of the igneous crust in this area by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) allows direct evaluation of the age and petrogenesis of this crust. ODP Leg 129 drilled a 51 m sequence of basalt pillows and massive flows in the central East Mariana Basin. 40Ar 39Ar ages determined in this study for two Leg 129 basalts average 114.6 ?? 3.2 Ma. This age is in agreement with the Albian-late Aptian paleontologic age of the overlying sediments, but is distinctively younger than the Jurassic age predicted by magnetic anomaly patterns in the basin. Compositionally, the East Mariana Basin basalts are uniformly low-K tholeiites that are depleted in highly incompatible elements compared to moderately incompatible ones, which is typical of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) erupted near hotspots. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the tholeiites ( 87Sr 86Srinit = 0.70360-0.70374; 143Nd 144Ndinit = 0.512769-0.512790; 206Pb 204Pbmeas = 18.355-18.386) also overlap with some Indian Ocean Ridge MORB, although they are distinct from the isotopic compositions of Jurassic basalts drilled in the Pigafetta Basin, the oldest Pacific MORB. The isotopic compositions of the East Mariana Basin tholeiites are also similar to those of intraplate basalts, and in particular, to the isotopic signature of basalts from the nearby Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. The East Mariana Basin tholeiites also share many petrologic and isotopic characteristics with the oceanic basement drilled in the Nauru Basin at DSDP Site 462. In addition, the new 110.8 ?? 1.0 Ma 40Ar 39Ar age for two flows from the bottom of Site 462 in the Nauru Basin is indistinguishable from the age of the East Mariana Basin flows. Thus, while magnetic anomaly patterns predict that the igneous

  4. Endeavor research into evolving paradigms around ophiolites: the case of the oceanic igneous complexes of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the radiolarite igneous (ophiolitic) complexes were done for more than one century in Costa Rica that range from Jurassic to Eocene. These studies can be grouped in four stages of knowledge: 1) from 1904 to 1957 were recognized the cherts, and the mafic and ultramafic igneous complexes, the first regional maps were done, and the first time were recognized ellipsoidal basalts, now widely known as pillow lavas. 2) From 1958 to 1978 the complexes were seen under the concept of the association of ophiolites (serpentine, gabbro, diabase, basalts, and related rocks) and interpreted the radiolarites as deep-sea sediments. The stage is characterized by the seminal work of Gabriel Dengo and by the first geochemical analyses in the framework of the plate tectonics. 3) A huge amount of geochemical data, paleontological and K/Ar ages were published from 1979 to 1994 and it was the stage of more controversial papers, their interpretation varied for the same locality (i.e. (Nicoya Peninsula) from relative simple stratigraphic model to a very complex nappe slices, and from a simple tectonic evolution (in situ and formed by a mid oceanic ridge volcanism) to a multistage evolution (terrains, and mid oceanic ridge, aseismic ridge, intraplate and island arc volcanism). The situation was similar in the other Costa Rican oceanic complexes. 4) The outlook for 1995 to the present it has been clarified and mutual agreement between the different groups. The stage is characterized by joint collaboration, the use of modern laboratory techniques as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes, major, trace and complete rare earth elements. 40Ar/39Ar dating, and volcanological criteria, together with detailed field mapping. The main new result of these studies was that the radiolarites (164-84 Ma) in the Nicoya Peninsula were significatively older than the basic igneous rocks (140-84 Ma), indicating a complex magmatic event intruding and erupting into the thick sedimentary sequence. For other areas

  5. Patterns of volcanism and tectonism at a slow-spreading segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Lucky Strike, 37N): preliminary results from near-bottom geological and geophysical surveys (United States)

    Escartin, J.; Soule, S.; Bezos, A.; Cannat, M.; Fornari, D. J.; Ballu, V.; Humphris, S.


    Patterns of volcanism and tectonism and the mechanisms that influence them are not well understood at slow- spreading plate boundaries. Is magma supply persistent or episodic? Is tectonic strain symmetric or asymmetric? Are volcanism and tectonism distributed across the rift valley or localized along narrow bands of crust? Systematic, segment-scale observations, measurements, and sampling are needed to address these questions. During a recent cruise (GRAVILUCK, Aug. 2006) we conducted near-bottom surveys across the axial valley of the Lucky Strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (37°N) to determine where active volcanic and tectonic processes are occurring within the rift valley and their relationship with a recently recognized mid-crustal magma body at the segment center beneath Lucky Strike volcano [Singh et al., 2006]. Using a deep-towed digital imaging system (WHOI TowCam) and a submersible (Nautile) we collected still and video imagery, high-resolution bathymetry, magnetic data, and rock samples along 11 across-axis and 3 along-axis profiles covering ~80 km. Preliminary interpretation of the seafloor imagery shows that the majority of the most recent volcanic activity is in the form of jumbled sheet flows that are concentrated within a discontinuous narrow graben along the axis of the rift valley that bisects Lucky Strike volcano. In rare cases we observe young (i.e., less sedimented and unfaulted) pillow ridges up to 3 km from the axis of the rift valley. Recent volcanic activity appears to be more prevalent south of the volcano, and cuts across distinct geologic terrains characterized by extensive sheet flows near the segment center and axial volcanic ridges to the north and south of Lucky Strike Volcano. We will present a preliminary interpretation of the distribution and relative ages of volcanic deposits and fault characteristics across the rift valley, lava compositions, and magnetic intensities. We compare these observations with existing sidescan

  6. Life's a switch. Experiences in NSF undergraduate design projects. (United States)

    Popp, Stephanie A; Barnes, Jennifer R; Barrett, Steven F; Laurin, Kathy M


    During the summer of 2002 Stephanie Popp and Jennifer Barnes developed a manual, "Life's a Switch," through a project funded by the National Science Foundation. This manual teaches people how to build their own cost effective assistive switches. Assistive switches are a form of assistive technology which includes any device that enhances a person's quality of life by improving the individual's mobility, ability to perform daily activities, enhancing communication, or allowing participation in education, vocational activities and recreation. One main goal of assistive technology is to provide opportunities for children with disabilities to explore, play, learn, and communicate with others. Switches are essential tools used to provide these opportunities. When a child with developmental disabilities understands the connection between the activation of a switch and the resulting action it triggers, the knowledge of cause and effect is gained. Therefore, the basis for all future learning is established [1]. One of the current problems facing assistive switch users is the cost of available items. This project provides more affordable solutions for switch users by teaching the families and educators of switch users how to make their own switches and adaptors in the "Life's a Switch" manual. For example, some assistive technology vendors sell large button switches from $25.00 to $45.00, tread switches for $40.00, and pillow switches for $35.00 [2]. Amazingly, all parts and tools used to make these assistive switches can be bought and made into personally designed assistive devices averaging a cost of around $10.00 [3]. A workshop to teach this manual was also developed. This workshop will spread awareness of the more affordable options this project sets forth. In September of 2002, the first workshop was held in a laboratory classroom at the University of Wyoming's College of Engineering. Each attendant was provided with a kit that included all essential tools and

  7. Extensive young dacite lava flows between boninite and BABB in a backarc setting: NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.


    Several hundred square kilometers of young dacite lava flows mapped by their high acoustic backscatter erupted in several batches in proximity to boninite and back-arc basin basalt (BABB) in the NE Lau Basin, the world's fastest opening back-arc region and a site proposed as a modern analogue in some ophiolite models. Where sampled, these lavas are aphyric, glassy dacites and are not associated with andesite extrusives (commonly observed elsewhere). Several flow fields occur on the flank of the large silicic Niuatahi seamount. Two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones (~220 km2) erupted as far as 60 km north of Niuatahi. Their occurrence is likely controlled by crustal fractures from the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Determining thickness of these flows is problematic, but relief of 30-100 m on flow fronts and in collapsed areas yields volume estimates as high as ~7-18 km3 for the northern group. The mean silica content of the largest and best sampled dacite flow field (LL-B) is 65.6 ±0.2%, a remarkably consistent composition for such an extensive flow (~140 km2). Camera tows show lower viscosity flow forms, including many anastomatosing pillow tubes and ropey surfaces, as well as endogenous domes, ridges and lobes (some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures). An enigmatic 2 x 1.5 km, 30-m deep collapse depression could mark an eruption center for the LL-B flow field. Low viscosity flow morphologies on portions of LL-B and a nearby smaller flow field implies high effusion rates during some phases of the eruption(s), which in turn implies some combination of higher than normal liquidus temperature and high water content. Submarine dacite flows have been described in ancient sequences from the Archaean through the Miocene but this is the first modern occurrence of large volume submarine dacite flows. The volume of these young dacite flows implies the presence of large differentiated melt

  8. Disaggregation of primitive cumulates in the Skuggafjöll eruption, Iceland (United States)

    Neave, D.; Maclennan, J.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.


    There are significant limitations in using genetic terms, such as phenocryst and xenocryst, when describing macrocrysts carried by magmas. Despite being largely out of equilibrium with their carrier melt, zoned macrocrysts bring with them a record of their past crystallisation. Furthermore, macrocrysts may have resided in crystal mushes or cumulates prior to being entrained into melts and carried to the surface during eruptions. These entrained macrocrysts can therefore provide insights into the development of plutonic rocks within magmatic plumbing systems paused at the moment of disaggregation. Diverse petrologic observations are therefore required to disentangle the volcanic and plutonic processes operating during the assembly of phyric magmas. Here we present the results of an integrated study performed on glassy pillow basalts from the subglacial Skuggafjöll eruption in the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland. Olivine and plagioclase compositions are strongly bimodal with peaks at Fo86 and Fo80 and An88 and An75 respectively. Both QEMSCAN* and SEM imaging indicate that the most forsteritic and anorthitic compositions are found in the cores of large macrocrysts and are texturally associated with one another, forming a primitive macrocryst population. The lowest forsterite and anorthite contents are present in rims of large macrocrysts and in smaller macrocrysts, which are associated clinopyroxene, forming an evolved macrocryst population. Calculations using published mineral-melt equilibrium models indicate that the evolved population is in equilibrium with the groundmass glass composition. The relationship between the primitive population and the evolved, equilibrium population was investigated using combined whole rock geochemistry and point counting systematics for samples with 5-46 modal % macrocryst contents. Highly incompatible trace element concentrations (e.g. Ce, Zr) correlate negatively with the mass fraction of macrocrysts. Regression lines

  9. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life. (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  10. Origin of Siletzia, a Large Igneous Province in the Cascadia Forearc, and the Early History of the Yellowstone Hotspot (United States)

    Wells, R. E.; Bukry, D.; Friedman, R. M.; Pyle, D. G.; Duncan, R. A.; Haeussler, P. J.


    Siletzia is a Paleogene large igneous province (LIP) forming the oceanic basement of coastal OR, WA and S. BC that was accreted to North America (NAM) in the early Eocene. Crustal thickness from seismic refraction ranges from 10 to 32 km, with 16 km of pillow and subaerial basalt exposed on the Olympic Peninsula. At 1.7-2.4 x 106 km3, Siletzia is at least 10 times the volume of the Columbia River flood basalts. U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages, global coccolith (CP) zones, and magnetostratigraphy allow correlation of Siletzia with the 2012 geomagnetic polarity time scale. Siletzia was erupted 56-49 Ma (Chron 25-22), and accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon. Siletzia's composition, great crustal thickness, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with formation as an oceanic plateau. Eight m.y. after accretion, margin-parallel extension and regional dike swarms accompanied the voluminous tholeiitic to highly alkalic Tillamook magmatic episode in the forearc (41.6 Ma; CP14a; Chron 19r). We examined the origin of Siletzia and the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) in GPlates. In most reference frames, the YHS is ~ 500km offshore S. OR, near an inferred northeast-striking Kula- Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge 60 to 50 Ma. The YHS could have provided the 56-49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which in the model accretes to NAM by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, may have formed on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to British Columbia at about the same time. Following accretion, the leading edge of NAM overrode the YHS ca. 42 Ma. The encounter with an active YHS may explain the voluminous 42-34 Ma Tillamook episode and forearc extension. Clockwise rotation of western Oregon about a pole in the backarc has since moved the Tillamook center and underlying Siletzia northward ~250 km from the likely hotspot track on NAM.

  11. Alternative Sources Of Protein And Bulking Agent For Mass Rearing Of The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.), For The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), larvae by testing alternative sources of protein and bulking agent. Two larval diet groups for laboratory rearing of the medfly were conducted in addition to the control diet. The first group kept the sources of bulking agent constant (wheat bran) while the kind and the ratio of sources of protein were changed (brewer's yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar). In the second group, the fiber (used for filling the pillows) and a paste of cardboard eggs box trays were used instead of wheat bran as bulking agent against the yeast and soybean as protein sources. To investigate the effect of the new sources of bulking agent and the kind or the ratio of the protein sources on the development and viability of the medfly, larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability were checked. The larval duration, pupal weight, adult recovery and flight ability were unaffected when soybean or a mixture from yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar as protein sources for larval diet were used. The larvae reared on diets based on schemed milk or agar as sources of protein did not complete their life cycle. The percent of pupal recovery of larvae reread on diets of soybean or a mixture of protein sources were not affected except when larvae were reared on diets based on a mixture of soybean and schemed milk or schemed milk and agar. Larval duration was extended by one to two days more than the control when the fiber or a mixture of it with bran or paste of cardboard of eggs box was used as bulking agent. A paste of cardboard eggs box as bulking agent led to the extension of the larval duration by more than four days than in control. Pupal recovery was significantly decreased at all diets of the second group except the diet containing a mixture of 4 % fiber and 10 % bran as bulking agent

  12. Research on Physiological Campaign of Chinese Classical Music Bringing out Emotion%中国古典音乐诱发情绪的生理活动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贤敏; 刘昌


    目的 探讨音乐诱发情绪的脑电及自主神经反应.方法 随机抽取20名研究生(8名男生,12名女生),倾听两段旋律相同但用不同乐器演奏的乐曲,采用BIOPAC MP150型多导生理仪,对倾听乐曲时的主观体验和脑电以及一些自主神经生理反应进行研究.结果 ①两段乐曲分别诱发出了愉快情绪和悲伤情绪(t=8.90,P<0.01;t=6.47,P<0.01);②两种情绪下的自主神经生理反应不同(F=5.091,P=0.037);③两种不同情绪下,α波、β波和θ波大能量在不同脑区有所增强.结论 α波、β波和θ波最大能量受情绪影响显著,愉快情绪较多激活枕区和顶区的α波,悲伤情绪较多激活额区的α波.%Objective To discuss the electroencephalogram and autonomous nerve reaction of emotion induced by music. Methods A total of 20 graduate students radomly taken out (8 male and 12 women) listened two melodies of identical composition but different instrument. Listening brain elec,tricity and the subjective experience in composition as well as some autonomous nerve physiological reactions were studied with BIOPAC MP150 model polygraph. Results ①Two compositions brought out happy emotion and sad emotion respectively ( t = 8.90, P < 0. 01; t = 6.47, P < 0. 01 ), ②The autonomous nerve physiological reactions under two moods were different (F= 5. 091,P= 0. 037). ③Under two different emotions, the biggest energy of α wave,β wave and θ wave in different brain area were strengthened. Conclusion The biggest energy of α wave, β wave and θ wave were influenced by emotion, the happy emotion could activate a wave of pillow district and top district, sad emotion could activate α wave of volume district.

  13. Magmatic and tectonic modification of convergent margins: An example from southern Alaska (United States)

    Farris, David W.

    Southern Alaska is an excellent natural laboratory to study forearc/arc subduction zone magmatism and tectonics. Understanding these processes are important to understanding the evolution and modification of continental crust. This thesis focuses on the Kodiak Islands, but also examines larger-scale features throughout southern Alaska and cordilleran tectonics. Kodiak Island intrusive rocks differ in character across the Border Ranges fault system (BRF). North of the BRF is the tilted Triassic-Jurassic Talkeetna island arc. This arc section exposes ultramafic mantle through mid to upper crustal plutonic and volcanic rocks all of which are geochemically related, despite being fault-bounded blocks. South of the BRF lie Paleocene intrusive rocks related to eastward spreadingridge subduction migration. These rocks are distributed in two belts: the Kodiak batholith and the trenchward belt. The Kodiak batholith is composed of granitic plutons emplaced as a series of intermingled, 1-8 km wide, viscoelastic diapirs that ascended by downward transport of aureole rocks through and around the magmatic column, and range in age from 59.2-58.4+/-0.2 Ma (SW-NE). These plutons formed from equilibrium crystallization of an argillite/graywacke derived magma, and contain fractally fragmented meta-sedimentary xenoliths. Trenchward belt rocks lie south of the Contact fault and are composed of small gabbroic to granitic plutons, dikes and pillows that range in age from 62.6+/-0.6-60.15+/-0.86 Ma (SW-NE). They formed by assimilation fractional crystallization of MORB with an argillite assimilant. Trenchward belt rocks intruded when a spreading ridge first entered the accretionary prism, whereas the Kodiak batholith formed when a slab window opened at 15-20 km depth. Age differences between the two Paleocene magmatic belts are explained by oblique ridge subduction and Contact fault displacement. The Kodiak batholith is part of the 2100 km Sanak-Baranof belt of forearc magmatism. Along

  14. Initiation of long-term coupled microbiological, geochemical, and hydrological experimentation within the seafloor at North Pond, western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Edwards, K.J.; Backert, N.; Bach, W.; Becker, K.; Klaus, A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Anderson, L.; Haddad, A.G.; Harigane, Y.; Campion, P.L.; Hirayama, H.; Mills, H.J.; Hulme, S.M.; Nakamura, K.; Jorgensen, S.L.; Orcutt, B.; Insua, T.L.; Park, Y.-S.; Rennie, V.; Salas, E.C.; Rouxel, O.; Wang, F.; Russel, J.A.; Wheat, C.G.; Sakata, K.; Brown, M.; Magnusson, J.L.; Ettlinger, Z.


    single zone in uppermost oceanic crust extending from 90 to 210 mbsf. Hole U1383C was equipped with a three-level CORK observatory that spans a zone of thin basalt flows with intercalated limestone (???70-146 mbsf), a zone of glassy, thin basaltic flows and hyaloclastites (146-200 mbsf), and a lowermost zone (???200-331.5 mbsf) of more massive pillow flows with occasional hyaloclastites in the upper part.

  15. The Stratigraphy and Lithofacies of the Paleoproterozoic Volcaniclastic Sequences in the Cape Three Points Area- Akodda section of the Southern in Ashanti Belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana (United States)

    Yoshimaru, S.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Nyame, F. K.; Tetteh, G. M.


    The Paleoproterozoic Era is thought to have experienced one of the most significant changes in earth's environment during earth history. Early continents started to diverge and collide accompanied by first major oxidation of the atmosphere-oceanic system known as the Great Oxidation Environment (GOE). Due to their well-preserved oceanic sedimentary sequences, Paleoproterozoic belts are usually good targets for studies on the history of earth's past environment. In addition, these belts provide great help to understand the nature of the Paleoproterozoic deeper oceanic environments. Birimian greenstone belt in southwestern Ghana is likely to have made up of subduction of oceanic basin to form a volcanic island arc. Birimian rocks are separated by nonconformity from the Tarkwaian Group which is a younger paleoplacer deposit (Perrouty et al., 2012). The Birimian is made up of island-arc volcanic rocks; foreland basin made up of shale, sandstone, quartzite and turbidities derived from 2.17 Ga granite intrusions during Birimian volcanism. In this study, we focused on the coastal area around Cape Three Points at the southernmost part of the Ashanti (Axim-Konongo) belt in Ghana. In the eastern part of the area, excellently preserved Paleoprotorozoic deeper oceanic sedimentary sequences extensively outcrop for over 4km stretch. This volcano-sedimentary sequence has been affected by greenschist facies metamorphism. Structurally, this region preserves S1 cleavage and asymmetrical synform with west vergence and S0 younging to the east. Provisional stratigraphy is very continuous up to more than 2000m thick and, in addition, suggests at least four different fining upward sequences in the area to the east and west of Atwepo, west of Kwetakora and Akodda. These sub-sequences are mainly composed of volcaniclasitc, sandstone, black shale and rare volcanics such as pillow basalt or massive volcanic lava. In other words, this continuous sequence suggests distal submarine

  16. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby


    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  17. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Einen


    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004. The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group

  18. An example of deep crustal brines effecting large-scale chemical modification of the crust during assembly of the Paleoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Glassley, W. E.; Korstgard, J. A.; Sørensen, K.


    The Nagssugtoqidian Mobile Belt (NMB) is a 300 km wide, 800 km long orogenic zone in central Greenland. It is part of the >20,000 km long complex of orogenic belts that formed between 1.7 and 2.0 Gya during assembly of the first supercontinent, Columbia,. The NMB is composed of several major crustal-scale shear zones that intervene between coherent blocks of high-grade metamorphic rocks. By combining detailed field, laboratory and aeromagnetic studies along the most northern of the shear zones (the Nordre Stromfjord Shear Zone - NSSZ), we have been able to document large scale chemical modification of the crust caused by the invasion of brines generated during continent-continent collision. The tectonic framework for this process is the following: 1. At 1,923 +/- 20 Mya: Emplacement of a calc-alkaline complex within and on ca. 2.8 Gya continental crust. The basal cumulate portion of the complex is well preserved and records invasion of multiple magma pulses. Coeval pillow basalts and cogenetic porphyritic mafics are also present. 2. 1,900 to 1,800 Mya: Tectonic emplacement of mafic and ultramafic rocks under high pressure (>2.5 GPa), eclogite facies conditions. The emplacement of these lenses probably occurred prior to or during thrust stacking associated with continent-continent collision. The age of the high pressure metamorphism makes these the oldest known eclogite facies metamorphic rocks in the world. 3. 1760 to 1720 Mya: Development of the transcurrent NSSZ, with displacements in excess of a hundred kilometers. Profound chemical enrichment of potassium and phosphorus along the entire length of the NSSZ unequivocally demonstrates that the shear zone was the focus of massive fluid movement. Detailed analysis of phase relationships documents a P-T path identical in form to that of Alpine metamorphic rocks, but displaced toward higher temperatures. These observations provide compelling evidence that assembly of this segment of Columbia involved subduction of

  19. Petrological and tectono-magmatic significance of ophiolitic basalts from the Elba Island within the Alpine Corsica-Northern Apennine system (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Principi, G.


    Two distinct ophiolitic units, which represent remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, crop out in the Elba Island. They are the Monte Strega unit in central-eastern Elba and the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit in western Elba. Ophiolitic rocks from the Monte Strega unit are commonly affected by ocean floor metamorphism, whereas those from the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit are affected to various extent by thermal metamorphism associated with the Late Miocene Monte Capanne monzogranitic intrusion. Both ophiolitic units include pillow lavas and dykes with compositions ranging from basalt to basaltic andesite, Fe-basalt, and Fe-basaltic andesite. Basaltic rocks from these distinct ophiolitic units show no chemical differences, apart those due to fractional crystallization processes. They display a clear tholeiitic nature with low Nb/Y ratios and relatively high TiO2, P2O5, Zr, and Y contents. They generally display flat N-MORB normalized high field strength element patterns, which are similar to those of N-MORB. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns show light REE / middle REE (LREE/MREE) depletion and marked heavy (H-) REE fractionation with respect to MREE. This HREE/MREE depletion indicates a garnet signature of their mantle sources. Accordingly, they can be classified as garnet-influenced MORB (G-MORB), based on Th, Nb, Ce, Dy, and Yb systematics. We suggest that the Elba Island ophiolitic basalts were generated at a magma starved, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. REE, Th, and Nb partial melting modelling shows that the compositions of the relatively primitive Elba Island ophiolitic basalts are compatible with partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle (DMM) source bearing garnet-pyroxenite relics. Hygromagmatophile element ratios suggest that basalts from both ophiolitic units were originated from chemically very similar mantle sources. A comparison with basalts and metabasalts from Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine ophiolitic units shows

  20. Cambro-Ordovician Granites in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil: snapshots from a late orogenic collapse (United States)

    De Campos, Cristina P.; Mendes, Júlio Cesar; de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; Ludka, Isabel P.


    Along the Brazilian Coast, surrounding the São Francisco Craton and adjacent mobile belts, deep segments of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo) generated over 120 Ma of successive magmatic episodes of granitic magmatism. The c.630-585 Ma calc-alkaline magmatic arc consists of metatonalite to metagranodiorite, with metadioritic to noritic facies and enclaves. During the syn-collisional and crustal thickening stage (c. 585 to 560 Ma) S-type metagranites have been built by dehydration melting of a diverse package of sediments. Around 545-525 Ma late orogenic crustal remelting formed mostly non-foliated garnet-cordierite leucogranites. In the post-orogenic stage (c. 510-480 Ma) inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutons intruded previous units. This work will focus on the youngest post-orogenic magmatism. It will present the state of the art by reviewing structural measurements, detailed mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data. The architecture of around 10 plutons, ranging from c. 20 to 200 km2 in surface area, unravels deep mushroom- to funnel-like magma chambers and/or conduits. Available data point towards different compositional domains, which are interfingered in complex concentric layers, so that, each pluton depicts a unique internal flow pattern. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented or folded layers of granite, in a hybrid K-gabbroic/dioritic matrix, contrast with predominantly homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by magmatic shear zones where mixing is enhanced, also resulting in hybrid compositions. Sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks locally depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least

  1. Snapshots from deep magma chambers: decoding field observations (United States)

    De Campos, Cristina P.


    During the post-orogenic stage of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo), inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutonic structures intruded previous geologic units. Structural measurements, mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data point towards different compositional domains which have been generated during a time span between 20 to 30 Ma. The result from decades of mapping revealed the architecture of ca. 10 large plutons in more détail. This work will focus on the dynamics of magmatic interaction for six different plutons ranging from c.20 to 200 km2 in outcropping area. Conclusions are based on already published and new unpublished data aiming the state of the art. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented and folded layers of granite in a K-basaltic matrix contrast with predominant more homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by stretched filament regions (magmatic shear zones) where mixing has been enhanced resulting in hybrid compositions. Locally sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least-differentiated rocks suggest generation from predominat large magma bodies of variable composition which crystallized while crossing the middle to lower crust (space, depict frozen moments in their evolution and therefore may explain some of the discrepancies in the different hybridization degrees for different complexes. The combination of detailed mapping of flow patterns in the field, numerical modeling and experimental results using natural magmatic products as end-members may provide new insights into the dynamics of magma chambers, specially for shallow chambers in a volcanic

  2. CT diagnosis and clinical significance of mental disorder caused by brain injury%颅脑外伤所致精神异常的CT诊断及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文胜; 杨青云; 莫金灿


    目的:探讨颅脑外伤所致精神障碍患者的CT诊断及临床意。方法回顾性分析2010年9月至2012年9月在佛山市第三人民医院就诊的86例颅脑外伤所致精神病患者的临床资料,分析颅脑CT检查结果以及病变部位。结果脑外伤所致精神病患者其脑部CT出现异常的机率86%,脑组织病变类型以脑萎缩、脑软化、脑积水、硬膜下积液、脑水肿较多见,病变部位主要以颞叶、额叶、基底节、枕(顶)叶、脑皮质、脑髓质或多部位病变常见。结论各脑叶损伤部位与精神障碍的出现密切相关,因此对颅脑外伤患者进行必要CT检查,为临床医生及时积极的综合治疗伴发的精神障碍,改善颅受损的恢复。%To investigate the clinical significance of CT and diagnosis of patients with mental disorders caused by brain trauma.Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data of the Third People’s Hospital of Foshan from 2010 September to 2012 September, 86 patients with psychiatric disorders were caused by brain trauma, brain CT examination results and analysis of the lesion were studied as well.Results In patients with psychiatric injury, the brain CT abnormal rate was 86% , brain tissue pathological type with cerebral atrophy, cerebromalacia, hydrocephalus, subdural effusion and brain edema were more common, the lesion was mainly in temporal lobe, frontal lobe, basal ganglia, pillow (top) lesions in cerebral cortex and brain matter leaves, or multiple sites.Conclusion The lobes of the brain damage and mental disorders are closely related, so CT examination is necessary for patients with traumatic brain injury, it helps clinicians give comprehensive treatment to patients complicated with mental disorder recover from brain damage.

  3. Oroclines of the Variscan orogen of Iberia: Paleocurrent analysis and paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Shaw, Jessica; Johnston, Stephen T.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Weil, Arlo B.


    Coupled structural and paleomagnetic analyses have shown that the northern Iberian bend of the Variscan orogen, referred to as the Cantabrian Orocline, developed by vertical axis rotation of an originally linear orogen. However, palinspastic restoration of the orocline has proven difficult owing to (1) an unusually great orogenic width of over 700 km and (2) exposure of shallow water strata of the Gondwanan margin in the northern and southern portions of the orogen. We present paleocurrent data from Lower Ordovician shallow marine clastic sedimentary rocks across the Variscan of northern and central Iberia collected to constrain palinspastic restoration of the orogen. Paleocurrent data were collected from over 50 sites, and include cross bed foresets, ripple crests and casts, as well as rare ball and pillow structures, syn-sedimentary slump folds, and incised channels. Paleocurrent directions fan around the Cantabrian Orocline, are consistently oriented at a high angle to structural strike, and yield a consistent offshore direction outward from the oroclinal core. Similarly, changes in structural strike and paleocurrent direction across central Iberia imply the presence of a second more southerly orocline, the Central Iberian Orocline, that is continuous with, but convex in the opposite direction of the Cantabrian Orocline. Together, the Cantabrian and Central Iberian oroclines define an S-shaped pair of continental-scale buckle folds. Palinspastic restoration of the oroclines yields a linear continental margin > 1500 km long characterized by consistent offshore paleoflow to the west, defining a westerly oceanic domain (presumably the Rheic Ocean) and an easterly landward direction (presumably Gondwana). Recognition of the southern orocline explains the unusual width of the orogen, the geometry of aeromagnetic anomalies attributable to Variscan rocks, and is consistent with available structural data, paleomagnetic declination data, and the distribution of

  4. Development of a Distributed In Situ Instrument for Snowpack Monitoring (United States)

    Skalka, C.; Frolik, J.; Walker, M. J.; Moeser, C. D.


    influenced by a variety of independent variables such as latitude, elevation, aspect, slope, canopy cover, wind and solar radiation. Fixed-base SNOTEL sites typically rely on snow pillows for SWE approximation, which requires installation of supporting equipment in flat open areas. This approach is not designed to characterize the highly variable nature of SWE, which may lead to large errors in water supply forecasting. A Snowcloud deployment within the Sagehen Creek Field Station (near Truckee, CA) examines fluctuations in SWE arising from temporal and spatial changes in variables including canopy cover, aspect, wind direction and wind speed. The data are compared to results from snow pits and snow courses carried out with a Mount Rose SWE sampler. Data from the six nodes are combined for areal interpolation using kriging, which also provides a foundation for assessing the likely magnitude of interpolation errors in near realtime.

  5. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harald Furnes; Maarten de Wit; Yildirim Dilek


    We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimi-nation systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%), linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%). The remaining 25%Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74%) of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type), in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals), starting in late Paleo-to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0e1.8 Ga), exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incom-patible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles) in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50% of all known

  6. Mapping the Piccard Hydrothermal Field - The World's Deepest Known Vent Area (United States)

    Kinsey, J. C.; German, C. R.


    We report the recent mapping and exploration of the Piccard Hydrothermal Field on the Mid-Cayman Rise. Two previous expeditions in 2009 and 2010 led to the discovery of the site, which at 5000m hosts the world's deepest known vents. The site was mapped and explored in January 2012 and the Piccard Field was found to be larger than previously appreciated. The site includes 3 separate currently active hydrothermal mounts together with 4 additional extinct depo-centers. The 3 active centers are the Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods, and Beebe Sea sites. Beebe Vents is an active black smoker system with maximum temperatures of 400-403 degrees Celsius. Beebe Woods contains a set of tall beehive smokers with temperatures of approximately 353 degrees Celsius. Beebe Sea, the largest sulfide mound in the field, contains diffuse venting together with numerous extinct chimneys that indicate significant past active focused flow. Observations of the 4 extinct mounds indicate differences in their apparent ages based on the texture and morphology of the extinct sulfides at the summit of each mound. The entire field is located on top of an axial volcanic ridge with extrusive pillow mounds prominent. A major fault traverses the mound along its long axis, from Southwest to Northeast. Beebe Woods, Beebe Sea, and extinct Beebe mound D abut this fault directly with an apparent monotonic age progression from youngest (Beebe Woods) in the SW to relict mound 'D' in the NE. Similarly, the Beebe Vents site and mound is located at the SW limit of a parallel set of mounds, offset from the fault by approximately 100m, which also ages progressively through extinct Beebe Mounds 'E', 'F' and 'G'. The major fault that bisects the axial volcanic ridge at Piccard evidently serves as a controlling mechanism for the mounds abutting that fault however the mechanism for the second line of mounds remains to be determined. Bathymetry suggests the presence of a second, smaller fault which may serve as the control

  7. Experience of complex deformity of skull base by surgical treatment%复杂颅底凹陷畸形的手术治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨复杂颅底凹陷的外科手术治疗效果.方法 对郑州市第三人民医院2005年11月-2011年3月收治的22例复杂颅底凹陷的患者,根据不同的临床表现和影像学特征采取不同的手术方法.结果 两组患者治疗前与治疗后3个月比较疗效均有明显改善.治疗后3个月经影像检查显示脊髓前、后方减压良好,枕颈植骨均已融合.两组患者手术前后SAC的测量结果比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 颅底凹陷畸形是枕骨大孔区、寰枕区畸形较复杂的一种,应当根据不同临床症状、体征及影像学的表现采用不同手术方式.%Objective To explore the experience of complex skull base surgical treatment. Methods The hospital in November 2005 to March 2011 treated 22 patients with complex skull base, depending on the clinical and imaging features to adopt different surgical methods. Results The two groups of patients before treatment and 3 months after treatment compared the efficacy showed significant improvement. 3 months after the treatment period before imaging shows the spinal cord posterior decompression good pillow neck bone have been integrated. Two groups of patients before and after SAC measurements the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The base of the skull deformity is a foramen magnum, atlanto - occipital region of a more complex deformity, should be based on different clinical symptoms, signs and imaging performance to choose different surgical methods.

  8. The tungsten isotopic composition of Eoarchean rocks: Implications for early silicate differentiation and core-mantle interaction on Earth (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Sahoo, Yu Vin; Takamasa, Asako; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori


    We have measured 182W/ 184W for Eoarchean rocks from the Itsaq Gneiss Complex (3.8-3.7 Ga pillow meta-basalts, a meta-tonalite, and meta-sediments) and Acasta Gneiss Complex (4.0-3.6 Ga felsic orthogneisses) to assess possible W isotopic heterogeneity within the silicate Earth and to constrain W isotopic evolution of the mantle. The data reveal that 182W/ 184W values in the Eoarchean samples are uniform within the analytical error and indistinguishable from the modern accessible mantle signature, suggesting that the W isotopic composition of the upper mantle has not changed significantly since the Eoarchean era. The results imply either that chemical communication between the mantle and core has been insignificant in post-Hadean times, or that a lowermost mantle with a distinctive W isotope signature has been isolated from mantle convective cycling. Most terrestrial rock samples have a 0.2 ɛ142Nd/ 144Nd higher than the chondrite average. This requires either the presence of a hidden enriched reservoir formed within the first 30 Ma of the Solar System, or the bulk Earth having a ˜ 5% higher Sm/Nd than the chondrite average. We explored the relevance of the 182Hf- 182W isotope system to the 146Sm- 142Nd isotope system during early silicate differentiation events on Earth. In this context, we demonstrate that the lack of resolvable 182W excesses in the Itsaq rocks, despite 142Nd excesses compared to the modern accessible mantle, is more consistent with the view that the bulk Earth has a non-chondritic Sm/Nd. In the non-chondritic Sm/Nd Earth model, the 182W- 142Nd chronometry constrains the age of the source mantle depletion for the Itsaq samples to more than ˜ 40 Ma after the Solar System origin. Our results cannot confirm the previous report of 182W anomalies in the Eoarchean Itsaq meta-sediments, which were interpreted as reflecting an impact-derived meteoritic component.

  9. 显微手术治疗大型听神经瘤的临床疗效分析%Microscopic analysis of operation treatment of large acoustic neuromas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective: to study the clinical effect of treatment of large acoustic neuroma surgery microscope.Methods:our hospital in February 2014 - February 2014, 12 patients with large acoustic neuroma treated as the research object. All of the patients are made under the pillow after sigmoid sinus approach surgery under microscope.Results: the treatment, according to the results of 10 cases of total excision of the tumor, total resection was 83.3%, the anatomy of the facial nerve to keep 9 cases, 8 function reserves, retained the auditory nerve in 1 case, there was no death patients. In patients with dysphagia after surgery in 3 cases, 1 case of postoperative bleeding, 1 case of cerebrospinal lfuid leakage.Conclusion: patients with large acoustic neuroma, after using the occipital sigmoid sinus approach tumors were resected under a microscope, is an effective treatment method and the preservation of the facial nerve is of great significance, as well as to reduce morbidity and mortality, improve clinical therapeutic effect.%目的:研究探讨显微镜手术治疗大型听神经瘤的临床效果.方法:将我院2014年2月-2015年2月收治的大型听神经瘤患者12例为研究对象.所有患者均采用枕下乙状窦后入路显微镜下进行手术治疗.结果:治疗结果显示,肿瘤全切除10例,全切除率为83.3%,面部神经解剖保留9例,功能保留8例,保留听神经1例,并未出现死亡患者.在患者手术后出现吞咽困难的有3例、术后出血的有1例,脑脊液渗漏的有1例.结论:大型听神经瘤患者,采用枕下乙状窦后入路显微镜下切除肿瘤,是一种有效的治疗方法,对面部神经的保留具有重要意义,同时还有利于降低致残率与死亡率,提高临床治疗效果.

  10. a New Application of a Fiber Optic Gyro in Magnetic Borehole Logging (United States)

    Stoll, J. B.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.


    A borehole magnetometer from the Institute of Geophysics, University of Goettingen, Germany, was employed in Hole 1203A on Detroit Seamount. The tool consists of three fluxgate sensors which log the two horizontal (X, Y) and the vertical (Z) component of the magnetic induction with depth. For the first time, a fiber optic angular rate sensor was employed in a borehole tool to measure the rotation history during a log run in combination with fluxgate sensors. This rate sensor is an unconventional gyro since it does not have a spinning wheel. This is why it is free from the effects of gravity-induced errors, and with no moving parts, this sensor is insensitive to shock and vibration. It detects and measures angular rates by measuring the frequency difference between two contra-rotating light beams. A magnetic log was run in Hole 1203A on Detroit seamount from the rig floor to the total depth at 925 mbsf. The rotation history of the tool is determined by the accumulation of the rate during a log run. In Hole 1203A the tool rotated almost 60 times about its vertical body axis between the rig floor and the bottom of the hole. On its run back to the floor the tool followed nearly the same rotation history as on the downward run. Aligning to the ship axis and double checking the orientation with the initial orientation enabled changes in the heading of the ship and the Earth's rotation, which also affects the angular rate to be taken into account. It revealed that the difference between the initial and final orientation was less than 5 degrees. During the log run many strongly magnetized layers were encountered in the volcanic basement, which correlate well with sequences of massive and pillowed basalts recovered in the drill core. The anomalous field variations of the vertical component always points towards negative values, which indicates a general magnetic polarisation direction parallel to the present geomagnetic field. The natural remanent magnetization and

  11. Active tectonics in the NW-German Basin: Evidence from correlations between the modern landscape and deep geological structures (Lower Saxony, river Hunte) (United States)

    Szeder, T.; Sirocko, F.


    The catchment basin of the river Hunte (NW-German Basin, Lower Saxony) was studied on a mesoscale (length of ˜90 km) to investigate if tectonic movements in the upper crust influence modern landscape formation. Crustal movements led to upwarping of the Lower Weichselian Terrace above the transition zone of a major crustal boundery of the NW-German Basin (Lower Saxony Basin/Pompeckj Block) with an average vertical velocity of about 0,5 mm/a over the last 12 ka. The Lower Weichselian Terrace and the Hunte catchment basin are narrowest at the same position. Even the Holocene Alluvial Plain is affected by active tectonics. The Holocene Alluvial Plain is narrower and shows a negative gradient directly above a deep seated Permian salt pillow which can be traced over a vertical distance of about 4000 m as an anticline structure to the uppermost Tertiary (100 m b.s.l.). The spatial similarity of fluvial anomalies with anomalies of the geological subground indicates that crustal movements still exercise control on fluvial dynamics and are coupled to the geological predesign. Basin subsidence is thought to have triggered primarily the aggradation of the Lower Weichselian Terrace, because there is an accordance between the mean recent velocity of basin subsidence (˜-0,21 mm/a), calculated from repeated geodetic fine levelling and the mean sedimentation rate of the Lower Weichselian Terrace (˜0,2--0,4 mm/a). In addition, sedimentation rates of the Lower Weichselian Terrace were nearly constant over a time span of about 35 ka (˜47--12 ka BP). During these times the climate has changed rapidly over Northern Europe (Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles) which affected river morphology, hydrology and sediment supply. However, the observation that no change of the mean sedimentation rate is observable indicates a long term subsiding tendency which enables accumulation of longer fluvial sequences independent of short scale climatic fluctuations. Most likely northward tilting of the NW

  12. The Transition from Initial Rifting to Ultra-Slow Seafloor Spreading within Endeavor Deep (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Larson, R. L.; Popham, C. T.; Natland, J. H.


    Endeavor Deep is a NW-SE trending, 3 km-deep rift basin located along the divergent portion of the Nazca/Juan Fernandez plate boundary. The rift basin is the result of the propagation of the East Ridge toward the northwest with relative motion across the ridge defined by a rapidly rotating (5.5 degrees/myr) Euler Pole located ~100 km to the northwest. The close proximity of Endeavor Deep to this Euler Pole results in a rapidly varying velocity field along the length of the deep and represents a unique location to study the effect of varying divergence rates on initial crustal extension. Recently collected EM300 bathymetry, DSL120 sidescan, surface-towed magnetics and JASON II observations have documented 4 distinct stages of rifting along the 70 km length of Endeavor Deep. These stages include (from NW to SE): amagmatic rifting, distributed initial volcanism, centralized waxing volcanism, and crustal formation by ultra-slow seafloor spreading. Amagmatic extension, evolving to rifting, occurs at spreading rates less than 13 km/myr and is characterized by rapidly deepening rift depths from NW to SE with an overall increase in depth of about 2.5 km. Extension is accommodated over a width of about 10-15 km and some flexural uplift of the defining scarps is observed. Distributed initial volcanism occurs at spreading rates from 13-14 km/myr and is characterized by coalesced volcanic constructs (100-200 m-high, 1-2 km-wide) across the width of the rift floor. The depth of the rift basin becomes fairly constant, but the cross-sectional area of the deep continues to increase. Centralized waxing volcanism occurs at spreading rates from 14-17 km/myr and is characterized by pillow ridges and tectonic lineations along the central portion of the rift floor which are oriented parallel to the long axis of the rift basin (orthogonal to the direction of extension). The floor of the rift basin begins to shoal and the cross-sectional area of the deep decreases initially and then

  13. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.


    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  14. Localization Accuracy and Immobilization Effectiveness of a Stereotactic Body Frame for a Variety of Treatment Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ryan, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Meyer, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Puneeth; Pistenmaa, David; Timmerman, Robert; Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Solberg, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pretreatment setup errors and intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy patients immobilized and localized with a stereotactic body frame for a variety of treatment sites. Methods and Materials: Localization errors were recorded for patients receiving SBRT for 141 lung, 29 liver, 48 prostate, and 45 spine tumors representing 1005 total localization sessions. All patients were treated in a stereotactic body frame with a large custom-molded vacuum pillow. Patients were first localized to the frame using tattoos placed during simulation. Subsequently, the frame was aligned to the room lasers according to the stereotactic coordinates determined from the treatment plan. Every patient received a pretreatment and an intrafraction CBCT. Abdominal compression was used for all liver patients and for approximately 40% of the lung patients to reduce tumor motion due to respiration. Results: The mean ± standard deviation pretreatment setup errors from all localizations were −2.44 ± 3.85, 1.31 ± 5.84, and 0.11 ± 3.76 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean pretreatment localization results among all treatment sites were not significantly different (F test, P<.05). For all treatment sites, the mean ± standard deviation intrafraction shifts were 0.33 ± 1.34, 0.15 ± 1.45, and −0.02 ± 1.17 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean unidimensional intrafraction shifts were statistically different for several of the comparisons (P<.05) as assessed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Conclusions: Despite the varied tumor locations, the pretreatment mean localization errors for all sites were found to be consistent among the treatment sites and not significantly different, indicating that the body frame is a suitable immobilization and localization device for a variety of

  15. Design, implementation and hydrologic evaluation of a snow-measurement network using wireless sensors in the American River basin of California (United States)

    Rice, R.; Bales, R. C.; Marks, D. G.; Conklin, M. H.; Zhang, Z.; Glaser, S. D.


    American River Hydrologic Observatory in the Sierra Nevada of California, comprising of portions of the American River basin that receive significant snow, is the site for the deployment of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that provides distributed estimates of water balance and a full-basin, well-instrumented research platform. The WSN is a set of sensors integrated into a single instrument to make spatial measurements to capture the landscape variability, and provide both spatially distributed and representative values of snowcover and the energy that drives snowmelt across the basin. Each local WSN has 10 snow-depth, air-temperature and relative-humidity sensors placed in a ~1-km2 area, and is centered on existing snow-pillow, snow-course and meteorological-station. A subset of the nodes are equipped with 15-20 soil-moisture and soil-temperature sensors. The temporal resolution of all measurements are 15-minutes. Results indicate that the aggregate of all measurement nodes are representative of the landscape variability across the American River basin, as well as the three forks of the American River. Snow measurements across elevation gradients and at each local WSN show similar trends but different magnitudes. Across elevation gradients snow amounts can vary as much as 60%-80%, while variability across a 1-km2 10 measurement network range by as much as 60%. Additionally, spatially distributed sensors distinguish temperature and humidity differences across topographic and vegetation variables, which control variable snowmelt rates across the terrain. Snowmelt rates across a 1-km2 can ranged from 8 to 70 mm day-1. The Hydrologic data from the WSN is being used for research, and for modernizing forecasting and decision-support systems through spatially explicit modeling, and by enhancing existing physically and statistically based snowmelt and hydrologic models. Data are available through the American River Hydrologic Observatory ( and real

  16. Melt fractionation during pāhoehoe flow lobe emplacement, Heiðin há lava, SW Iceland (United States)

    Nikkola, Paavo; Thordarson, Thorvaldur


    Melt segregations are vesicular formations of evolved melts generated by in situ closed system fractionation of a host lava. Although they are common in p¯a hoehoe flows, pillow basalts, lava lakes and shallow intrusions, their development is not fully understood. In addition, as the melt segregations are often confined to the scale of a single outcrop, they can be seen as an easily approachable analogue to the crystal-melt fractionation processes generating evolved magmas in the Earth's crust. An eight meter high p¯a hoehoe flow lobe in Heiðin há lava, SW Iceland, was sampled in order to understand the development of the elaborate segregation structures within. The sampled outcrop is a cross-section of a typical Icelandic p¯a hoehoe lava, belonging to a large post-glacial lava shield on Reykjanes Peninsula. The lava core is striped by melt segregations in the form of vertical vesicle cylinders 1-7 cm in diameter, which feed horizontal vesicle sheets higher up in the upper lava core and lower crust. Whole-rock major and trace element results for the 20 samples from the Heiðin há lava reveal a homogenous olivine tholeiitic host lava intersected by segregations of varying composition. The vesicle cylinders in the flow core are only mildly differentiated, but the segregated melt evolves upwards to horizontal vesicle sheets, from which some have experienced an additional enrichment possibly by a gas filter-pressing of the residual liquid in the horizontal sheet. The most evolved segregations are extremely Fe-rich with 19.5 % FeOtot in comparison to the average of 12.4 % FeOtot in the host lava. Consequently, MgO drops from the host lava's 9.5 % to 4.4 % in the segregation sheets. In addition, segregations are enriched by a factor of ˜2-2.5 in TiO2, K2O, P2O5 and incompatible elements Zr, Nb, Y and V. As a consequence of the closed system behavior, geochemical trends are evident between the host lava, vesicle cylinders, and vesicle sheets of different types.

  17. The Mesozoic and cenozoivc evolution of the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg - A part of the NeoBaltic project (United States)

    Hansen, M.; Huebscher, C. P.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Reicherter, K.; Dehghani, A.; Gajewski, D.


    In the frame of the Priority Program 1135 of the German Research Foundation (DFG) "Dynamics of sedimentary systems under varying stress conditions by example of the Central European Basin System", the scientific goal of the NeoBaltic project is to describe the post-Permian to recent structural and sedimentary evolution of the entire western Baltic Sea region, with a special emphasis on neotectonic activity and its relation to salt dynamics and the possible reactivation of deeper inherited structures. In order to investigate these scientific goals the Universities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Hamburg (Germany) has since 1998 completed eight marine campaigns in the western Baltic Sea, collecting 2D high resolution seismic (HRS), gravity and magnetic data in the entire region during different projects. Since 2003 all these data has been available for the NeoBaltic project. All together the data pool have more than 8000 km HRS, 6000 km gravity and 5000 km magnetic data. Until now the project work has been focused on the completion of the data processing and the digital interpretation of important Mesozoic and Cenozoic markers on the seismic sections from the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg. Furthermore several maps have been completed from the potential field data (gravity and magnetic). As a result of the digital interpretation of the HRS data, the overall geological evolution of the northern part of the NGB can be subdivided into four distinct periods. During the Triassic and the Early Jurassic, E-W directed extension and the deposition of clastic sediments initiated the movement of the underlying Zechstein evaporites. This is seen by the presence of several salt pillows in the region. The deposition ceased during the Middle Jurassic, when the entire area was uplifted, due to the Mid North Sea Doming. The uplift resulted in a pronounced erosion of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic strata. This event is marked by a clear unconformity on the seismic sections. The region

  18. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory–cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory–cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased

  19. Sediments overlying exhumed continental mantle: a proxy for the morphotectonic evolution of the Ocean Continent Transition in magma-poor rifted margins (United States)

    Karpoff, A. M.; Manatschal, G.; Bernoulli, D.; Lagabrielle, Y.


    Observations from ancient and present-day magma-poor rifted margins in the Alps and Iberia provide compelling evidence that within the ocean-continent transition (OCT) crustal and sub-continental mantle rocks were exhumed along downward-concave faults which were active during final rifting and accommodated high amounts of extension. The faults are overlain by stranded allochthons of continental origin, pillow basalts, and pelagic sediments, i.e. radiolarites and/or pelagic limestones, and hemipelagic shales. Associated with the faults are tectono-sedimentary breccias and various types of clastic sediments, ranging from debris flow deposits to laminated sandstone, and quartz-rich silt- and claystones. Mineralogical studies of the shales, red jaspers, and red cherts overlying mantle rocks in the Alps of eastern Switzerland are typically quartz-rich and contain variable amounts of phyllosilicates (chlorite and/or mica), feldspars, ± calcite, oxides, pyrite, and epidote. Their main geochemical characteristic is the high silica and low iron and manganese content, which contrasts with that of "metalliferous" Fe-Mn-Si-rich sediments overlying oceanic basalts. High Fe, Ba, REE, U/Th values measured in black shales overlying mantle rocks in the proximal OCT point to a strong hydrothermal activity associated with mantle exhumation. The clastic sediments in the OCT show a wide range of compositions related to mantle, continental crust, and/or pelagic contributions. In particular, the fact that these sediments contain abundant material derived from continental basement rocks seems at odds with their occurrence on top of tectonized mantle rocks. However, drilling in the Iberia margin, where tectonized mantle rocks are overlain by sedimentary breccias (e.g. ODP Sites 1068, 1070), shed new light on the observations in the Alps. Based on drill-hole and seismic data, the tectono-sedimentary breccias drilled in the OCT off Iberia may be interpreted to result from a conveyor

  20. Tectonic Evolution of the Cretaceous Sava-Klepa Massif, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, based on field observations and microstructural analysis - Towards a new geodynamic Model (United States)

    Altmeyer, Tobias; Peternell, Mark; Prelević, Dejan; Köpping, Jonas


    The Balkan Peninsula was formed during the Mesozoic collision of Gondwana and Eurasia, associated with the closure of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. As a result, two ophiolitic belts were formed: Dinaride-Hellenide ophiolitic belt in the southwest and the Vardar ophiolitic belt in the northeast. The bulk of Balkan ophiolites originated in the Jurassic (Robertson & Karamata, 1994), and only recently the Late Cretaceous Sava-zone ophiolites are discovered. Ophiolit-like outcrops of Mount Klepa in the Central Macedonia represents a part of Late Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere within the Sava Zone, comprising of pillow lavas, sheet flows, columns, hyaloclastites, dikes as well as cumulates. In this study we investigate the geodynamic setting and evolution of the Late Cretaceous Klepa Massif. Our working hypotheses we want to test is that Klepa Massif represents a new ocean opened through rifting after the closure of Tethyan ocean(s) and collision of Europe and Gondwana already in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. This hypothesis contradicts the accepted model suggesting that Sava ophiolites represent a relic of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean that closed in the Late Cretaceous. During detailed structural geology field studies, the ophiolitic rock sequence of Klepa Mountain area was mapped in several profiles and about 60 rock samples were taken. These field data in addition to the north-south trending outcrops of the Klepa ophiolite and the north-south trending shear zones which bound the Klepa basalt, lead to the assumption of the existence of a pull apart basin. With the help of microstructural analyses we will determine the deformation history and temperatures which also will be confirmed by the analyses of calcite twins (Ferril et al., 2004). Quartz grain size analysis of quartz bearing rocks, were used for stress piezometry. Furthermore, quartz crystal geometry and crystallographic orientations, which were measured with the Fabric Analyser G60 (Peternell et al., 2010), reveal

  1. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of the «ophites» from the external zones ofthe Betic Cordilleras (S. Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, L.


    Full Text Available Mesozoic basic magmatism in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras (S. Spain is represented by small tectonic bodies (ophites in Triassic formations, and submarine flows with abundant pillow-lavas interbedded with Jurassic sediments. Both basic igneous manifestations suffered very low- to low-grade metamorphism, more intense in the case of the ophites. Two types of ophites are distinguished on the basis of their primary mineralogy. In the first type, orthopyroxene is present in the less differentiated products. Clinopyroxene and Ca-plagioclase are the main primary phases and quartz appears in the more evolved rocks. In the second type, olivine is present in the less differentiated products. Ti-rich augite and Ca-plagioclase are also important primary minerals, but quartz is absent. Whole-rock chemistry (major and trace elements, including REE also allows us to discriminate between these two groups. The first group has higher SiO2, and lower TiO2, P2O5 and lower Na2O/K2O ratios than the second. Normative quartz is almost invariably present in this first group, whereas normative nepheline (lower than 5% is characteristic of the second group. Both groups are Sr, K, Ba, Rb, Th, Nb and Ce enriched with respect to normal MORB, but the first group has higher K, Rb, Ba, Th and lower Nb, Ce contents than the alkaline group. Nb/Y and Ti/V ratios are also different and show a tholeiitic affinity for the first group and transitional to alkaline for the second. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns in both groups are similar and characterized by LREE enrichment with respect to HREE. LREE/HREE ratios are, however, slightly higher in the transitional to alkaline group. Various discriminant tectonic diagrams indicate a continental intraplate setting for both ophite groups. This magmatism is related to the first extensional period of the Betic Cordilleras, during the Triassic-Jurassic. Geochemical differences between the two groups could evidence different

  2. Risk factors of childhood asthma in Wuhan city%武汉市儿童支气管哮喘的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洋; 杨磊; 龙珍


    Objective To conform the risk factors of childhood asthma and to provide accordance for the healthy management of children with asthma.Methods A cross-section investigation was carried out by multi-stage random sampling in Wuhan city.The investigation included questionnaire and clinic examination.The study population was the infant and children whose age were 0 to 14 years old,and the sample size was 4 132.One hundren and seventyfour children were diagnosed as asthma,and 173 non-asthma children with similar age in the same region were selected as controls.Chi-square test and multiple Logistic regression analysis were used to screen the risk factors of childhood asthma in Wuhan city.Results Family allergy history,allergic rhinitis,eczema,food allergy and drug allergy were the risk factors of childhood asthma.Furthermore,dust mites,mould,anther dust,mugwort,cat/dog hair were main allergize source.In addition,premature delivery,abdominal delivery,mildew stain in ceiling or floor,raise pets especially cat,chemical fiber pillow and blanket bedclothes will increase the incidence,while spontaneous delivery and breast feeding were with protection effect.The results of multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that children who were with allergic rhinitis,familiar allergic history,dust mites positive test,drug allergy and blanker bedclothes were the high risk group of childhood asthma.Conclusions Childhood asthma is high relative with atopy,and these children who are with allergic rhinitis,familiar allergic history and dust mites positive test should be strictly health management.Chemical fiber pillow,blanket bedclothes,raising pet cats and mould in ceiling and floor in atopy children family should be avoided.%目的 探讨儿童支气管哮喘(哮喘)的危险因素,为哮喘儿童的健康管理提供依据.方法 对武汉地区儿童哮喘的发病现状进行多阶段随机整群抽样调查,开展问卷调查及临床体检.研究对象为武汉地区0 ~14

  3. Submarine intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Geological setting and petrology of the society and the austral regions (United States)

    Hekinian, Roger; Bideau, Daniel; Stoffers, Peter; Cheminee, Jean Louis; Muhe, Richard; Puteanus, Doris; Binard, Nicolas


    The southeastern prolongations of the Society and Austral islands volcanic chains are terminated by several recent submarine volcanoes (300-3800 m in height) built on irregularly shaped crustal swells or bulges (3600-3950 m in depth). The crustal swells (about 100 km in width) is bounded by deeper abyssal hill regions (>4000 m in depth) where old volcanoes with thick Fe-Mn coatings are encountered. The rocks sampled on this ancient oceanic crust are depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) similar to modem volcanics encountered on the East Pacific Rise. The volcanics of the Society hot spot consist of ankaramites, picrites, alkali-basalts, basanites, tephrites, and trachytes. Highly vesiculated pillow lavas show a wide compositional range in their large ion lithophile elements (LILE) (K2O=1-4%, Nb=25-80 ppm, Zr=200-400 ppm, Ba=300-840 ppm) and compatible element variations (Mg #=40-70, Ni=80-500 ppm), and low Zr/Nb ratios (5-8). Low-K tholeiites (K2OSociety hot spot volcanoes by their lower Zr/Nb (3-5), Rb/Sr (Society volcanoes) have originated from the partial melting of mixed mantle sources made up of lherzolite (MORB mantle source) and another complementary source enriched in LREEs and Nb. A recycling of continental crust or pelagic sediments in subduction zones represents a possible supply of LREEs but not of Nb. Continental metasomatized peridotites and oceanic amphibole-peridotites such as Zabargad and St. Paul's Rocks samples were proposed as potential mantle sources for intraplate magmas. Using modal and chemical (Zr, Nb, Ce, and Yb) data available in the literature, a model of partial melting of a composite mantle, obtained by mixing homblendite (Queensland's xenoliths) and spinel-lherzolites, was tested as being a possible origin for the studied rocks. This model provides adequate Zr/Nb ratios and suggests that the Society mantle source contained smaller amount of homblendite (Society hot spot requires larger amount of LREEs than it is necessary for the

  4. The Eocimmerian history of Central Iran: the accretionary wedge of Anarak (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchi, Andrea; Berra, Fabrizio; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Koohpeyma, Meysam; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Sheikholeslami, Mohammad Reza; Bergomi, Maria; Tunesi, Annalisa; Zanchetta, Stefano


    contact between the Lakh Marble and the Patyar unit is invariably tectonic. The Lakh Marble occupies the upper structural position and forms a huge nappe, extending for tens of kilometres across the area. Also, the strong deformation, low grade metamorphism and the occurrence of serpentinite tectonic slices in the footwall of this nappe, evidence that the emplacement of the Lakh nappe postdated the metamorphic event. The observed relationships between the Chah Gorbeh unit and the mafic/ultramafic rocks exposed in the Anarak mountain indicate that they were tectonically juxtaposed after reaching high pressure peak conditions. This is evidenced by the occurrence of blue schist mineral assemblages in metabasites which preserve pillow basalts. Geochemical analyses of these rocks indicate a relative depletion in HREE, different from the flat patterns of metabasites from Chah Gorbeh. Greenschist facies ductile shear zones evolving into discrete semi-brittle to brittle fault zones indicate different PT-paths. The occurrence of late Teriary sediments within the main thrust contacts suggest that the entire nappe pile was reactivated causing further complexity in the final tectonic structure. The results of our fieldwork carried out during the last years in Central Iran in the Anarak region add several new constraints on the evolution of the area which can be now directly compared with the history of the Palaeotethys suture zone in NE Iran.

  5. Influência do biofeedback respiratório associado ao padão quiet breathing sobre a função pulmonar e hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais Influence of respiratory biofeedback associated with a quiet breathing pattern on the pulmonary function and habits of functional mouth breathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EF Barbiero


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos da utilização do biofeedback respiratório (BR associado ao padrão quiet breathing sobre a perimetria torácica, função pulmonar, força dos músculos respiratórios e os seguintes hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais (RBF: vigília de boca aberta, boca aberta durante o sono, baba no travesseiro, despertar difícil, ronco e sono inquieto. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 20 crianças RBF, as quais foram submetidas a 15 sessões de BR por meio do biofeedback pletsmovent (MICROHARD® V1.0, o qual proporciona o biofeedback dos movimentos tóraco-abdominais. Perimetria torácica, espirometria e medidas das pressões respiratórias máximas estáticas foram realizadas antes e após a terapia. Questões respondidas pelos responsáveis foram utilizadas para avaliar os hábitos dos RBF. Os dados foram analisados por meio de teste t de Student para dados pareados e testes não paramétricos. RESULTADOS: O uso do BR associado ao padrão quiet breathing não produziu alterações significativas na perimetria torácica e nos valores de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1, capacidade vital forçada (CVF, pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE, índice de Tiffeneau (IT e na pressão expiratória máxima (PEmáx. Entretanto, a pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (-53,6 ± 2,9 cmH2O vs. -65,0 ± 6,0 cmH2O; pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of using respiratory biofeedback associated with a quiet breathing pattern, on chest circumference, pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and the following functional mouth-breathing habits: watching things with mouth open, sleeping with mouth open, dribbling on the pillow, difficulty in waking up, snoring and restlessness during sleep. METHOD: Twenty functional mouth-breathing children were evaluated. They underwent 15 sessions of respiratory biofeedback by means of the biofeedback pletsmovent (MICROHARD® V1

  6. Young segment-scale eruption discovered on the eastern Galapagos rift during the GALREX 2011 Expedition (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; White, S. M.; Hammond, S. R.; McClinton, J. T.; Rex, C.


    New high resolution mapping with an EM302 multibeam system and seafloor observations made with the Little Hercules remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the July 2011 GALREX expedition have discovered a very recent eruption along Segment III (Christie et al., 2005) centered at 88 deg 19.5'W on the eastern Galapagos spreading center (GSC). The site was chosen for detailed study after a water column survey using a towed CTD package identified intense particle plumes rising up to 250m above seafloor along the entire segment (see abstracts by Baker et al. and Holden et al., this meeting). The segment is characterized by ridge-and-valley terrain with the most recent neovolcanic ridge extending, respectively, 25 km west and 20 km east of a central low-relief area that is quasi-circular, ~2 km radius, less than 30 m high. The neovolcanic ridge, revealed by the EM302 bathymetry to be a generally hummocky edifice less than 1 km wide and under ~40 m high, is cut by a very small axial graben barely resolved in the EM302 bathymetry. Two areas were surveyed during five ROV dives, four on the central area near 88 deg 18.5'W and one dive at 14 km east at 88 deg 10.8'W. A third high intensity plume target near the western extremity of the segment at 88 deg 27.2'W was not investigated using the ROV. The recent lobate and pillow lava flows were emplaced in narrow grabens along and adjacent to the neovolcanic ridge. In several places, the flow was observed to fill the axial graben. It is likely that the flow thickness ranges from meters to 10's of meters, depending upon the pre-eruption graben size and local effusion variations. However, no long, channel-fed lava flows were found. Flow boundaries based on preliminary ROV navigation average less than 100 meters across-axis. The lobate lavas all had a very similar glassy appearance and negligible sediment cover, making them easy to recognize amid the surrounding, older flows. The age of these lavas appeared visually younger than the

  7. 体位干预配合呼吸训练缓解腹腔镜胆囊切除术后颈肩疼痛的效果观察%The effects of treatment for neck shoulder pain with position intervention combined with respiratory training after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋侠; 李娟


    目的:观察体位干预配合呼吸训练缓解腹腔镜胆囊切除术(LC)后颈肩疼痛的效果.方法:选择LC术后患者100例,随机分为观察组与对照组,各50例.2组术后均常规吸氧3 h,氧流量3 L/min.对照组采用传统去枕平卧位,出现颈肩疼痛时协助其早期下床活动锻炼;观察组术后回病室6 h内采用低半卧位,患者出现颈肩疼痛时指导其进行深呼吸、缩唇呼吸.观察2组LC术后颈肩疼痛发生率和疼痛程度.结果:观察组患者术后颈肩疼痛发生率为10.0%,明显低于对照组的34.0%(P<0.01);观察组患者术后6、12、24、48、72 h疼痛视觉模拟评分均明显低于对照组(P<0.01).结论:LC术后早期采用低半卧位配合呼吸训练可降低LC术后颈肩疼痛的发生率,缓解颈肩疼痛的程度.%Objective: To investigate the effects of treatment for neck shoulder pain with position intervention combined with respiratory training after laparoscopic cholecystectomy ( LC). Methods: One hundred cases with LC were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. Two groups were treated with routinely conventional oxygen 3 hours by 3 L/min oxygen flow. The experimental group were adopted semi-reclining position within 6 hours, who took deep breath at the time of neck shoulder pain, while the control group were adopted horizontal position without pillow, who exercised as early as possible at the time of neck shoulder pain. The incidences and degree of neck shoulder pain of two groups were observed after LC. Results: The incidences of neck shoulder pain of the experimental group ( 10. 0% ) were lower than that of the control group ( 34. 0% ) ( P < 0. 01 ). The visual analogue scale of experimental group was lower than that of control group at 6,12,24,48 and 72 hours after LC(P <0. 01) . Conclusions: Modified semi-reclining position combined with respiratory training can reduce and relieved the incidence and degree of neck shoulder pain.

  8. AUV Mapping and ROV Sampling of Ridges and Seamounts: No Longer Wandering Around in the Dark (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.


    Exploration by submersible has been described as akin to dangling from a helicopter, at night, in a snowstorm, with a flashlight. Until recently, the divers were further hampered by not knowing where they were: the best bathymetric maps had resolution the length of a football field, and detailed maps could be constructed only after considerable investment in ship time to deploy and calibrate long baseline networks on the sea floor. Since then, maps have greatly improved with the use of high-frequency multibeam sonars flown close to the bottom, reliable navigation systems on the vehicles and surface ships, and sophisticated software to process the data. Our submersible dives are now guided, and older dives reinterpreted, using 1-meter resolution maps made with the MBARI Mapping AUV. We have utilized this combo at 7 sites along NE Pacific mid-ocean ridges, 3 seamounts off California, and 2 back-arc volcanoes in the Lau Basin. Among these, on the northern Cleft Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, four ROV dives were conducted over six years on a 30 km-long section of the ridge axis that was mapped with the AUV in two 18-hour surveys in 2009. Our experiences there will be used to illustrate advantages and challenges of studying the sea floor armed with better maps. The AUV maps are at a resolution where individual sulfide chimneys, lava pillars, eruptive fissures, lava channels and flow margins can be distinguished. Inflated flows and tectonically faulted seamounts can be examined in detail. Characteristic progressions in flow morphology from eruptive fissures through collapsed channels to pillowed margins can be traced along lava flow units. Relative age relationships can be determined from truncations of flow channels and tectonic fractures. The ROV's HD camera and array of samplers permit ground-truthing and refining of our interpretations of the maps. The mapped relationships of flows allow us to focus ROV sampling efforts and give wider context to the camera

  9. Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.


    white, highly vesiculated and rich in silica (>60%). This type of fragments was observed only during the first days of the eruption. On 27 November (and later) new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Many of them were "lava balloons", with a huge cavity in the centre or fragments of pillow lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm; all of them have a highly vesiculated outer crust. The composition is basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane could be observed most of the times. In this work, we describe the petrological evolution observed since the beginning of the eruption through the fragments emitted and the geological characteristics of the submarine edifice.

  10. Optimization of backfill pellet properties AASKAR DP2-Laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    buffer the inflowing groundwater during the installation phase was investigated in two types of tests. In the first test the wetting behavior was observed at small scale in a Plexiglas tube. The second test was performed in an artificial pellet slot with Plexiglas sides. The ASHA extruded 6 mm pellet seem to be the superior in water storing capacity, though it is suggested that this result may be more related to the presence of a fine grained material within the pellet mass than the pellets themselves. 4. Installation test. The pellets will most likely be installed with a shotcrete machine blowing them into place. This method was tested at full scale in order to investigate how much of the pellet filling that would be crushed into fine grained material if there is no water used during their placement. ASHA extruded 6 mm was the most durable pellet type with 5% of the material being crushed. 7 - 8% of the IBECO extruded pellet types (6 and 10 mm) were crushed into finer grains. The least durable pellets were the ASHA compacted pellets (pillow and almond shaped) with a crushing ratio of 53 to 61%. These results may have significance in terms of subsequent water uptake behavior. Large scale tests at repository-scale still need to be done utilizing shotcrete equipment so that more experience is obtained in how to control the installation of the pellet filling and identify the key influences on its composition and as-placed condition

  11. New geological data of New Siberian Archipelago (United States)

    Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy


    -bearing unconformably overlies folded basement. The latter encompasses two sedimentary units: the Middle Devonian shallow-marine carbonate and Late-Devonian-Permian olistostrome - flysch deposited in transitional environment from carbonate platform to passive margin. Dating of detrital zircons suggests the Siberian Platform and Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya areas as the most possible provenance. The magmatic activity on Belkovsky Island resulted in formation of Early Triassic gabbro-dolerite similar to the Siberian Platform traps. Proximity of Belkovsky Island to the north of Verkhoyansk foldbelt allows continuation of the latter into the Laptev Sea shelf. The geology of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island is discrepant from the rest of the NSA. In the south of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island the ophiolite crops complex out: it is composed of tectonic melange of serpentinized peridotite, bandedf gabbro, pillow-basalt, and pelagic sediments (black shales and cherts). All the rocks underwent epidot - amphibolite, glaucophane and greenschist facies metamorphism. The ophiolite is intruded by various in composition igneous massifs - from gabbro-diorite to leuco-granite, which occurred at 110-120 Ma. The Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island structure is thought to be a westerly continuation of the South Anui suture of Chukchi.

  12. 山东诸城晚白垩世古地震事件与恐龙化石埋藏%Palaeoearthquake event and dinosaur fossil burial of the Late Cretaceous in Zhucheng of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧竹; 乔秀夫; 田洪水; 陈树清; 张艳霞


    在山东诸城库沟、龙骨涧、西见屯集群恐龙化石埋藏层——上白垩统王氏群辛格庄组与红土崖组中,发现存在脆性、塑性及液化等多种类型的软沉积物变形构造,主要包括负载构造、球一枕构造、挤入构造(火焰构造)、液化卷曲变形、液化脉状构造、混插沉积构造及地震断裂等典型的粗碎屑沉积物形成的古地震记录.多层的软沉积物变形构造及未变形沉积层间互出现,反映晚白垩世诸城地区地震活动频繁,地震活动具有多期性、间歇性及活动能量强-弱转换的脉动性.泥石流、洪泛平原沉积层中埋藏了大规模、顺层分布的恐龙(鸭嘴龙)骨骼化石,其中砂砾岩物源主要来自盆地南缘下白垩统的莱阳组和青山组.多层的古地震软沉积物变形构造层之间夹持着恐龙化石埋藏层,可能与盆地南缘诱发泥石流、埋藏大规模恐龙骨骼的突发性、强能量地震事件有关.%Various and complex styles of soft-sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Upper Cretaceous of the Kugou-Longgujian-Xijiantun district at southwestern area of Zhucheng in Jiaolai Basin, which was located in Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern China. Many types of brittle, plastic and lique fied soft-sediment deformation structures were found including load structure, ball-pillow structure, injec tion structure (flame structure), liquefied deformation, liquefied vein, mixed plunge structure, minor earthquake fault. These deformation structures were typically formed by coarse sediments during palaeo earthquake event. Multi-bed soft-sediment deformation interclated with non-deformed beds, which indicate the earthquakes of the Late Cretaceous in Zhucheng were frequent, multi-stage, periodic and of strong-weak changing. Large scale dinosaur ( hadrosaurs) fossils were found in coarse sediments from flood plain and debris flows were mainly from the Lower Cretaceous Laiyang and Qingshan Formations in

  13. Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project: Objectives, Successes, Surprises and Frustrations (United States)

    Depaolo, D. J.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D. M.


    normal geothermal gradient. In early 1999 when the first drilling campaign was organized, the price of oil was 10 USD (rigs and drilling crews were available and reasonably priced); in early 2003 when hole opening was being arranged, the price of oil was 30 USD, and for the coring campaigns in 2005 and 2007 it was 50 to 70 USD. For these reasons, and because trip times were longer and deeply buried pillow basalts more difficult to drill, the remainder of the project funds (and then some) were needed to deepen the hole from 3.1 to 3.5km. Nevertheless, the project obtained a nearly continuous, and virtually unweathered, core consisting of lava flows, hyaloclastite, minor intrusives and sediment from a 3260m section of the Mauna Kea volcano, covering an age range from 200 to over 600 ka. It also recovered a 250m and a 280m section of the Mauna Loa volcano. A wealth of geological, volcanological, petrological, geochemical, geomagnetic, geodynamic, hydrological, and geobiological data have come from the core and the well, and more are coming in. The unprecedented geochemical-petrological data sets are a major success, as is the fact that geochemists can work together, but the hoped-for detailed geochronology for the core has proven difficult to obtain.

  14. Tectonic impact on the dynamics of CO2-rich fluid migration in Utah (United States)

    Nadine, E. Z.; Jean Luc, F.; Remy, D.; Battani, A.; Olivier, V.


    explain the existence of these distinct provinces? Is it due to the physical properties of the reservoirs, to the evolution of the fracture and fault patterns changing through time in connection with paleostress fields, to the occurrence of a thick salt pillow in the Moab area which has driven the tectonic style and played as local seal, to the shale sealing properties when PCO2 increased at depth to the physical phase of the CO2 during migration or storage (dissolved, super-critical or gas), or finally to the seismic cyclicity. A possible strong linkage between the seismicity and the volcanic activity, corresponding to large CO2-rich gas expel, have been investigated. In order to constrain the architecture of the deep buried reservoirs and traps we analyzed the deformation through analogue models, the models have been acquired with X-Ray tomography at IFP. These parameters have been analysed for the three investigated areas, allowing to propose an integrated model of the local circulation and/or storage of the CO2-enriched fluid for each area.

  15. Volcanology and Geochemistry of the Taney Seamounts northeast Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Coumans, J. P.; Clague, D. A.; Stix, J.


    The Taney seamounts are a NW-SE trending, linear, near-ridge chain consisting of five submarine volcanoes located on the Pacific plate 300 km west of San Francisco, California. Morphologically, the seamounts are characterized as truncated cones with nested calderas decreasing in age towards the ridge axis. This study examines the volcanology and geochemistry of the largest and oldest seamount, (Taney A, ~26 Ma), which is comprised of four well-exposed nested calderas. Each successive collapse event exposes previously infilled lavas, defining a relative chronology. The caldera walls and intracaldera pillow mounds were carefully sampled by the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Doc Ricketts to obtain stratigraphically-controlled samples. Whole rock samples were analyzed for major and trace elements, volcanic glasses were analyzed for major and volatile elements(S, Cl), and plagioclase phenocrysts were separated for mineral and glass inclusion microprobe analysis. Overall, the erupted lavas are mostly subalkalic mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) varying from differentiated to more primitive (6.0 - 8.2 wt. % MgO) with decreasing age. Incompatible elements and REE profiles normalized to primitive mantle suggest that the lavas are transitional to slightly enriched (0.1 - 0.3 wt. % K2O; 1.1 - 2.2 wt. % TiO2), which is unusual for near-ridge seamounts. Sc, which is compatible in clinopyroxene, increases linearly with TiO2 at primitive compositions (>7.0 wt. % MgO). In more evolved seamount basalts (<7.0 wt. % MgO), the low CaO and Sc contents and decreasing CaO/Al2O3 suggest that there is either extensive clinopyroxene fractionation, or mixing with magmas that have undergone extensive clinopyroxene fractionation. MELTS modeling suggests that clinopyroxene fractionation occurs at <6.0 wt. % MgO, inconsistent with the observed clinopyroxene imprint at <7.0 wt. % MgO. The discrepancy could indicate magma mixing. Although whole rock ICP-MS data have some scatter, especially for

  16. High-Resolution AUV Mapping Reveals Structural Details of Submarine Inflated Lava Flows (United States)

    Paduan, J.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Thompson, D.; Conlin, D.


    the inflated flows. An even larger, 2.3 km long, up to 550 m wide, and up to 25 m high, inflated flow lies in the axial valley at North Cleft. Its cross-section is similar to the large one at Axial, but has been subsequently rifted by long tectonic fractures parallel to the axis of spreading. Five small inflated flows also occur within two large sheet flows at CoAxial. An inflated flow at Davidson Seamount off California is 690 by 180 m, and stands 18m above the floor of a steep valley 430 m below the summit. It differs from all the others mapped in that downslope is a part of the same flow that has complex collapse features within pillowed margins. The lava composition here is viscous mugearite rather than MORB.

  17. Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.


    An extraordinary lava pond complex is located on Axial Volcano's distal south rift. It was discovered in EM300 multibeam bathymetry collected in 1998, and explored and sampled with ROVs Tiburon in 2005 and Doc Ricketts in 2013. It was surveyed with the MBARI Mapping AUV D. Allan B. in 2011, in a complicated mission first flying above the levees at constant depth, then skimming ~5 m over the levees at a different constant depth to survey the floors, then twice switching to constant altitude mode to map outside the ponds. The AUV navigation was adjusted using the MB-System tool mbnavadjust so that bathymetric features match in overlapping and crossing swaths. The ~1-m resolution AUV bathymetry reveals extremely rough terrain, where low-resolution EM300 data had averaged acoustic returns and obscured details of walls, floors, a breach and surrounding flows, and gives context to the ROV observations and samples. The 6 x 1.5 km pond complex has 4 large and several smaller drained ponds with rims 67 to 106 m above the floors. The combined volume before draining was 0.56 km3. The ponds overflowed to build lobate-flow levees with elongate pillows draping outer flanks, then drained, leaving lava veneer on vertical inner walls. Levee rim depths vary by only 10 m and are deeper around the southern ponds. Deep collapse-pits in the levees suggest porosity of pond walls. The eastern levee of the northeastern pond breached, draining the interconnected ponds, and fed thick, rapidly-emplaced, sheet-flows along the complex's east side. These flows travelled at least 5.5 km down-rift and have 19-33 m deep drained ponds. They extended up-rift as well, forming a 10 x 2.5 km ponded flow with level 'bathtub rings' as high as 35 m above the floor marking that flow's high-stand. Despite the breach, at least 0.066 km3 of the molten interior of the large ponds also drained back down the eruptive fissures, as the pond floors are deeper than the sill and sea floor outside the complex. Tumulus

  18. Newly discovered hydrothermal system on the Alarcón Rise, Mexico (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.


    observations; 40 more were not visited but are presumed inactive, as turbid bottom waters were only observed in the vicinity of the active vents). Most are almost 10km NE of the Ja sít active field in a ridge-parallel array stretching 2.3km. These were deeper (to 2392m) and associated with older flows. Some had only recently ceased venting, as clam shell fragments and relatively fragile vent orifices were still present. Inactive chimneys are also intermingled with the active chimneys. Some of the recovered samples have abundant chalcopyrite, but most are predominantly zinc and iron sulfide. Inactive chimneys stand tall in the AUV maps but as they are no longer venting, would not be detected by traditional water-column surveys. Elsewhere, however, sulfide-bearing sediments were also recovered, evidence of prior hydrothermal activity that would not be detected in the AUV maps. Features that could be mistaken for sulfide chimneys also appear in the maps, but morphology distinguishes them as lava pillars along margins of collapsed flows, fault blocks, pressure ridges, or steep summits of pillow mounds.

  19. 大灸疗法治疗强直性脊柱炎临床研究%Clinical Research on Moxibustion Therapy for the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵; 王振亮


    目的:观察大灸疗法治疗强直性脊柱炎的临床疗效.方法:将103例患者随机分为治疗组53例和对照组50例,对照组单独使用柳氮磺吡啶;治疗组在使用柳氮磺吡啶基础上加用通督开痹药饼(药物组成:淫羊藿15 g,狗脊30 g,怀牛膝30 g,杜仲15g,独活15 g,青风藤30 g,桂枝12 g,川芎15 g,红花10 g)进行大灸,均治疗3个月,观察治疗前后关节疼痛、腰部晨僵、“4”字试验、扩胸度、枕墙距、接地距;化验室检查C-反应蛋白(CRP)和血沉(ESR).结果:治疗组有效率96.23%,对照组有效率88.00%,两组有效率经统计处理,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对于各个观察指标治疗组与治疗前比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且关节疼痛、腰部晨僵、“4”字试验、CRP优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:大灸疗法治疗强直性脊柱炎疗效显著.%;Objective;To observe the clinical efficacy of moxibustion for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Methods; 103 patients were randomly divided into the treatment group of S3 cases and control group of 50 cases. The control group was given salazosulfapyri-dine alone while the treatment group was given Tongdukaibi medicinal cake for moxibustion (Ingredients of the medicinal cake; Epimedi-um 15 g.Woodwardia 30 g,Achyranthes bidentata 30 g.eucommia 15 g.heracleum hemsleyanum michaux 15 g,Caulis 30 g.cinnamom twig 12 g,hemlock parsley 15 g.safflower 10 g) on the basis of the use of salazosulfapyridine. Both groups were treated for 3 months and then joint pain,lower back morning stiffness,Caenslen's test,degree of chest expanding,pillow-wall distance,ground distance were ob-served before and after treatment; laboratory tests such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) were checked before and after treatment. Results;The effective rate of the treatment group was 96.23% , while that of the control group was 88%. After statistical processing of the effective rates in

  20. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of the Triassic and Jurassic magmatic and volcanic rocks of southeastern Ecuador (United States)

    Villares, Fabián; Eguez, Arturo; Yanez, Ernesto


    Formely, the subandean zone in the southeastern Ecuador involved large volcanic and magmatic rocks included in the Misahualli Formation and Zamora batholith, both as expression of the Jurassic cal-alcaline volcanic arc. The aim of the project carried out by the INIGEMM (Instituto Nacional de Investigación Geológico Minero Metalúrgico) was discriminate the volcanic products including a continuous set going from basalts to ryolithes and volcanoclastic rocks. Geochemical characterization was done using representative 16 whole - rock chemical analysis. The oldest rocks of the investigated area called Pachicutza Unit, include greenish to black, massive basalts and basaltic andesites, locally showing pillows structures. The texture is aphanitic to microporphyritic with slight crystal growth of plagioclase and pyroxenes. The Unit include also local pyroclastic breccias and tuffs showing variable skarnification related to the intrusion of the jurassic Zamora Batholith. Two samples of basalts show tholeiitic affinity, corresponding to an N- MORB, probably representing an early stage in opening of a regional Triassic rift reported since Colombia to Peru in the Andes. These geochemical characteristics are similar to the amphibolites of Monte Olivo Unit in the Real Cordillera. The Jurassic large volcanic assembly of the Misahualli Formation was also differenciated. Basal volcanics include green, subporphyritic andesites and volcanic breccias possibly generated at an early stage of the volcanic arc, caused by a change of extensive to compressive regime. Continental volcano sedimentary and sedimentary rock were discriminate as Nueva Esperanza and Suarez Units, respectively. The volcanosedimentary sequence include massive to laminate tuffs and tuffites of intermediate composition. The sediments of the Suarez Unit include dominant conglomerats and sandstones of fluvial domain. The regional volcanic sequence is completed by the Las Peñas Unit that includes aphanitic to

  1. Age dependent variation of magnetic fabric on dike swarms from Maio Island (Cape Verde) (United States)

    Moreira, Mário; Madeira, José; Mata, João.; Represas, Patrícia


    Maio is one of the oldest and most eroded islands of Cape Verde Archipelago. It comprises three major geological units: (1) an old raised sea-floor sequence of MORB covered by Jurassic(?)-Cretaceous deep marine sediments; (2) an intrusive 'Central Igneous Complex' (CIC), forming a dome-like structure in the older rocks; and (3) a sequence of initially submarine, then subaerial, extrusive volcanic formations and sediments. Based on the trend distribution of 290 dikes, we performed magnetic sampling on 26 basic and one carbonatite dikes. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured to infer geometries of magmatic flow. Dikes were sampled in both chilled margins were larger shear acting on particles embedded in the magmatic flow is expected. Sampling involved 11 dikes (N=195) intruding MORB pillows from the Upper Jurassic 'Batalha Formation' (Bt fm); 6 dikes (N=95) intruding the Lower Cretaceous 'Carquejo Formation' (Cq fm), and 10 dikes (N=129) intruding the submarine sequence of the Neogene 'Casas Velhas Formation' (CV fm). The studied hypabissal rocks are usually porphyritic, with phenocrysts of clinopyroxene and/or olivine set on an aphanitic groundmass. Dikes intruding CV fm trend N-S to NE-SW and plunge to SW. In Bt fm, dikes make ≈ 99% of the outcrops, span all directions and include frequent low dip sills. Dikes intruding Cq fm are shallow (mostly parallel to the limestone strata), dip 30o- 40o to the E, and trend N-S to NE-SW. Bulk susceptibility of the 26 basic dikes presents an average value of k = 47 ± 26 (×10-3) SI. The carbonatite dike intruding Bt fm has lower susceptibility: k = 4.6 ± 1.2 (×10-3) SI. More than 80% of the dikes show normal and triaxial magnetic fabric. Anisotropy is usually low, with P' < 1.08, but in CV fm dikes the anisotropy is higher and grows (up to P' ≈ 1.5) towards the centre of the volcano. Dominant magnetic fabric in CV fm is planar but in dikes from Cq fm and Bt fm it varies between oblate and prolate

  2. Characteristics of Offshore Hawai';i Island Seismicity and Velocity Structure, including Lo';ihi Submarine Volcano (United States)

    Merz, D. K.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Thurber, C. H.


    the regional velocity model (HG50; Klein, 1989) in the shallow lithosphere above 16 km depth. This is likely a result of thick deposits of volcaniclastic sediments and fractured pillow basalts that blanket the southern submarine flank of Mauna Loa, upon which Lo';ihi is currently superimposing (Morgan et al., 2003). A broad, low-velocity anomaly was observed from 20-40 km deep beneath the area of Pahala, and is indicative of the central plume conduit that supplies magma to the active volcanoes. A localized high-velocity body is observed 4-6 km deep beneath Lo';ihi's summit, extending 10 km to the North and South. Oriented approximately parallel to Lo';ihi's active rift zones, this high-velocity body is suggestive of intrusion in the upper crust, similar to Kilauea's high-velocity rift zones.

  3. P-T evolution of slivers of garnet-bearing micaschist in the sole of the Western Vardar Ophiolite Unit at Brezovica, Kosovo (United States)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim


    at a pressure of 11.5 kbar, which is compatible with the aforementioned talc + phengite assemblage. We think that the recognized HP metamorphism of the studied micaschist was caused by the load of the obducting oceanic lithosphere, which must have been as thick as 35 km. Heating of the overridden rocks during this obduction process resulted in the release of H2O, which hydrated the mantle rocks at the base of the obducting oceanic lithosphere. An alternative model, which assigned the location of the hydration to the mantle wedge overlying a subduction zone, was abandoned also because of the existence of higher levels of oceanic crust, such as pillow lavas, in the preserved oceanic lithosphere close to the Brezovica region.

  4. Analysis of inflated submarine and sub-lacustrine Pahoehoe lava flows using high-resolution bathymetric and lidar data (United States)

    Deschamps, A.; Soule, S. A.; Le Saout, M.; Allemand, P.


    The summit of the East Pacific Rise (EPR), 16°N, is investigated based -among others- on high-resolution bathymetry acquired using the AUV Aster-X, and photos and videos collected using the submersible Nautile (Ifremer). HR bathymetry reveals submarine tumuli and inflated smooth lava flows at the summit of the ridge, emplaced on sub-horizontal terrains. They are primarily composed of jumbled and lobate flows with occurrences of sheet flows, and pillows close to the flow margins. They are 5 to 15 meters -high, and their surface ranges 0.2 to 1.5 km2. Their surface is either planar or depressed, likely due to lava drainback during eruption. At their margins, planar slabs of lava, few meters wide, slope down from the top of the flow, at angles ranging 40 to 80°. A series of cracks, 0,5 to 1.5 m deep, separate the horizontal surface of the flow from their inclined flanks. These cracks parallel the sinuous edges of the flows, suggesting the flow flanks tilted outward. Tumuli are also observed. Some of these smooth flows form 80 to 750 m -long sinuous ridges, suggesting the existence of lava tubes. Their morphology indicates that these flows experienced inflationary emplacement styles, but at a much larger scale than Pahoehoe lavas in Hawaii and La Réunion Island. In these two islands, indeed, inflation structures are typically less than 2 meters high and only several tens of meters in length at maximum, suggesting that their mechanism of emplacement and inflation is significantly different. Conversely, we observe comparable inflation flows in Iceland and in Idaho and Oregon, also emplaced onto sub-horizontal terrains. We use high-resolution aerial photographs and lidar data to investigate their morphology. In the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), quaternary basaltic plains volcanism produced monogenetic coalescent shields, and phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions that are directly related to proximity of magmatism to the Snake River or Pleistocene lakes. For example

  5. Giant rafted pumice blocks from the most recent eruption of Taupo volcano, New Zealand: Insights from palaeomagnetic and textural data (United States)

    von Lichtan, I. J.; White, J. D. L.; Manville, V.; Ohneiser, C.


    as the dome grew and deformed then rising buoyantly to the surface. Parts of the carapace could also be released by local magma-water explosions. Some textures of the pumice, however, suggest fresher magma released from beneath the carapace. This may suggest that silicic dikes and pillows/pods intruded into a growing mound of silicic hyaloclastite, itself formed by quench fragmentation and thermal granulation of the dike margins. This fragmental cover would have inhibited cooling of a still-hot and actively vesiculating interior, which was then released to float to the surface by gravitational destabilisation and collapse of the growing pile. Following their formation, the large fragments of pumice floated to the lake's surface, where they were blown ashore to become embedded in accumulating transgressive shoreface sediments and continue cooling.

  6. Preventive effect of evidence-based nursing intervention program in patients at high risk of pres-sure ulcer in intensive care unit%循证护理干预方案在ICU压疮高危患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海燕; 喻姣花; 谭翠莲; 罗凯燕; 乐格芬; 李素云


    Objective To explore preventive effect of evidence-based nursing intervention program in patients at high risk of pressure ulcer in intensive care unit.Methods A total of 227 patients with risk evaluation score of Braden leas than 12 were randomly divided into the observation group (125 cases) and the control group (102 cases).The control group was only given regular nursing interventions.Patients in the observation group received evidence-based nursing interventions : including turning over per 2 hours, turning prostration to 30 degree left to fight inclined position, raising patient's head lower than 30 degree and putting a soft pillow under his/her heels; the patients whose risk evaluation score of Braden was less than 7, with cervical fracture or turning ever was limited by her/his situation needed to use air bed; comfeel transparent paste was used on the surface probably suffered from skin ulcer;, giving PN or EN according to patients' nutritional condition; keepping the skin around anus dryness.The incidence of pressure ulcer be-tween the two groups was compared.Results The incidence rate of pressure ulcer was siguificantly lower in the observation group than that in the control group.The occurring time significantly delayed and the sit-uation significantly better.Conclusions The evidence- based nursing inventions can lower the incidence rate of unavoidable pressure ulcer,reflect the scientific and artistic characteristics of nursing care, also effi-cient allocate limited nursing resources and reduce the incidence of pressure ulcer.%目的 探讨循证护理干预方案在ICU压疮预防中的作用.方法 将227例Braden评分≤12分的压疮高危患者按照入院的顺序分为对照组102例和观察组125例.对照组采用常规护理方法.观察组进行循证护理干预,予每2 h翻身1次,左右30°侧卧位交替进行;平卧位时抬高患者床头不超过30°,足跟处垫软枕;对Braden评分<7分、颈椎骨折及病情限制翻身的患

  7. Additional evidence to the existence of a subducted plate beneath equatorial Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithosphere surrounding the St Paul Fracture Zone (SPFZ) is typically cooler than other areas in the Atlantic Ocean as pointed out by Bonatti (1990). The existence of older lithospheric material in the Equatorial Atlantic was first suggested by the analysis of Re-Pt-Os concentrations and Os isotopic composition of abyssal peridotites (Esperan et al, 1999) from SPFZ. Tomographic evidence, in combination with the geochemical data supports that a fossil subducting slab is present in this region (CIRON, 2000). The existence of a fossil subduction in the Equatorial Atlantic is further corroborated by paleo-reconstructions for the period between 460 and 300 Ma (Maia et al, 2001). The consequences of a cold subducted lithosphere beneath this region are the high ratio of ultramafic to volcanic rocks, the ridge axis morphology, and the petrology of both basalts and uplifted abyssal peridotites (Bonatti, 1992, Schilling et al.1994, Schilling et al., 1995, Hekinian et al, 2000 and Cadoux, 2000). The Equatorial Atlantic is marked by sparse volcanic activity (e.g., pillow lavas, diabase dikes) and intense tectonic activity (e.g., normal faults) at the inter transform ridge axes. These inter transform ridges do not show a sigmoid shape as the fracture zones in the Pacific. Serpentinized peridotites are observed in the flanks of the axial valley and cut by diabase dikes. Significant tectonic movement allowed the exposure of abundant abyssal peridotites some of them exposed in the islets of St. Peter and St. Paul (SPSP). The SPFZ is located at 1 on the MAR and represents one of the largest discontinuities, which offsets the MAR axis roughly by 600 km. The SPFZ is a multiple fracture zone system (Gorini, 1977). The St. Paul transform fault is a triple fracture zone interrupted by four Intra- Transform Ridges (ITR). The ITR display rift valleys showing recent volcanic and tectonic activities at depths of 4700m. A complete geological section from 4500m to 1850m was done based on

  8. Faults, Post-1720 Explosion Craters, and the Remains of a Lava Lake at Castro Bank Seamount (E Azores) (United States)

    Wunderman, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Nishimura, C.; Pacheco, J. M.; Vogt, P. R.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Santos, R.


    During 25-28 July 2003 the US Navy submarine NR-1 dove on the seamount D. Joao de Castro Bank, compiling reconnaissance sonar and visual data. Castro Bank sits along strike and between the eastern Azorian islands of Terceira and S. Miguel, occupying a seismically active region ˜60 km from each of these islands and apparently controlled by the same underlying tectonics as other islands found along the Azores' northern margin. Castro Bank's last recorded eruptions built a ˜1 km diameter ephemeral island in the 1720s. The bathimetry of the uppermost 40 m or so of the Bank is rather well known via single beam sonar, scuba diving and AUV surveys (IH, DOP/UA and ISR/IST, unpublished work). Our dives compiled data in concentric rings along contours, collecting side- and forward-looking sonar along an overall track length of ˜20 km, with the deepest ring approaching ˜200 m depth. To document key features we came near the sea floor and took videos in water with typical visibility of ˜10-15 m. This is the first progress report on our work, which found the edifice morphologically complex and irregular. We noted that the seamount was often covered by aerially extensive yellow-brown hyaloclastic tuffs that were presumably products of the 1720s eruption, but also cut by faults and fissures (with offsets of ten's of meters) exposing abundant areas of older edifice. The faults typically lacked sediment cover, and in one case a very fresh, sediment-free fault trended along the base of a steep cliff. This suggested the faults were much younger than the 1720 eruption, an observation in accord with intense seismicity recorded in this area. The faults provided exposures of older rocks, which included abundant breccia and lesser clearly identified pillows or thick lava flows. The NW quadrant contains two small, shallow, elliptical craters. These lie side-by-side and crosscut inferred 1720s-age tuffs. One crater held a lava lake, the body of which apparently withdrew or subsided

  9. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea (United States)

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.


    similar evolution as the Horn Graben with high sediment thicknesses deposited during the Triassic. This indicates that initiation of rifting started in the central German North Sea already during the Early Triassic and subsequently migrated to the west into the Central Graben. Before the Triassic thick layers of Permian rock salt (Upper Rotliegend and Zechstein) were deposited in the Central European Basin System, which spans from the UK across the Netherlands, southern Denmark, Germany, and into Poland. Salt movements resulted in the formation of salt diapirs, salt pillows, salt walls and intrusions into faults. Analyses of rim-synclines of salt diapirs reveals that most of the salt structures inside the German Central Graben had a main phase of growth during the Late Jurassic while the salt structures situated toward the southeast had their main phase of growth during the Triassic. The final products of the project are accessible at

  10. Mesozoic extension and Cenozoic contraction in an intraplate setting (Maestrat basin, Iberian Chain, E Spain) (United States)

    Nebot Miralles, M.; Guimerà Roso, J.


    The Iberian Chain, located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula, is a fold-and-thrust belt developed during the Cenozoic, because of the contractional inversion of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift System. The extension in the Iberian Chain took place in two major rifting cycles (late Permian to late Triassic and late Oxfordian to late Albian) followed by episodes of lower rifting activity (early and middle Jurassic, and late Albian to Maastrichtian). The Maestrat basin (containing up to 6.5 km of Mesozoic sediments) is one of the most subsident basins during the late Oxfordian to late Albian cycle. A system of listric extensional faults, which involve the basement, bounded the basin, and also divided it into minor sub-basins, containing different thicknesses of the Mesozoic sedimentary fill. An E-W-trending, N-verging, fold-and-thrust belt developed in the northern boundary of the basin, as the result of the Cenozoic inversion. This belt involved the Mesozoic cover in the northern -foreland- areas, with a detachment level located within the Triassic: in the Middle Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) and Keuper (Upper Triassic), both formed by lutites and evaporites. Southwards, the thrust-system also involved the Variscan basement. A study of the region containing the transition between the thin-skinned and the thick-skinned areas is presented, based on seismic profiles, oil-exploration wells and field data. A progressive northward thickening of Jurassic and lower Cretaceous units, related to a S-dipping listric extensional fault located to the N, can be observed both in the field and the seismic profiles. In the Triassic rocks, depositional thickness variations in the Middle Muschelkalk unit are observed, related to sub-vertical faults active during the Triassic rifting. Salt anticlines, pillows and welds are also observed in the Middle Muschelkalk. These halocynetic structures developed during the Keuper, as it is deduced from the onlap geometries of the Keuper seismic reflectors

  11. Experimental approach to form anorthositic melts: phase relations in the system CaAl2Si2O8 - CaMgSi2O6 - Mg2SiO4 at 6 wt.% H2O (United States)

    Zirner, Aurelia Lucretia Katharina; Ballhaus, Chris; Fonseca, Raúl; Müncker, Carsten


    Massive anorthosite dykes are documented for the first time from the Limassol Forest Complex (LFC) of Cyprus, the LFC being a deformed equivalent of the Troodos ultramafic massif. Both the Troodos and LFC complexes are part of the Tethyan realm consisting of Cretaceous oceanic crust that formed within a backarc basin 90 Ma ago and was obduced during late Miocene. From crosscutting relations with the sheeted dyke complex, it follows that the anorthosites belong to one of the latest magmatic events on Cyprus. In hand specimen, the rocks appear massive and unaltered, although in thin section magmatic plagioclase (An93) is partially replaced by albite and thomsonite (zeolite). Where magmatic textures are preserved, plagioclase forms cm-sized, acicular, radially arranged crystal aggregates that remind of spinifex textures. Six major types of anorthosite occurrences have previously been described, none of them matching with the above described anorthosite dykes [1]. The origin of these anorthosite dykes remains poorly understood. Even though they occur as intrusive dykes, it is evident that they cannot represent liquidus compositions, at least under dry conditions. Whole-sale melting of pure An93 would require temperatures in excess of 1450 °C, which is a quite unrealistic temperature of the modern Earth's crust. The working hypothesis is that boninitic melts with approximately 4 wt.% H2O, as found in the cyprian upper pillow lavas (UPL), could produce such rocks by olivine-pyroxene fractionation. Indeed, experiments indicate that such lithologies can be generated by medium-pressure fractional crystallization of hydrous basaltic melts followed by decompression-degassing. High pH2O stabilizes olivine but tends to suppress plagioclase as the highest polymerized phase. Hence the An component is accumulated in the (late-stage) melt. When such a system experiences sudden decompression, the aqueous phase will exsolve and will trigger massive precipitation of anorthite

  12. Stratigraphic position, origin and characteristics of manganese mineralization horizons in the Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence, south-southwest of Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Maghfouri


    Full Text Available Introduction The Mn mineralization occurs in the northeastern segment of the Sabzevar zone (SZ, north of the Central Iranian Microcontinent (CIM. This Zone (SZ is located between the CIM fragmentation in the south and the Kopeh dagh sedimentary sequence in the north. The ore deposits of the northeastern segment of the Sabzevar zone can be divided into three groups, each with different metal association and spatial distribution and each related to a major geodynamic event. The first mineralization with associated Ordovician host rock is characterized by Taknar polymetallic (Fe-rich massive sulfide deposit. The Cretaceous mineralization consists of Cr deposits associated with serpentinized peridotites, Cyprus type VMS, Mn deposit in pillow lava, volcano-sedimentary hosted Besshi type VMS and Mn deposit. Paleogene mineralization in eastern segment of the Sabzevar zone began with porphyry deposits, Cu Red Bed mineralization occurs in the Paleogene sandy red marl. Materials and methods A field study and sampling was performed during the autumn of 2012. To assess the geochemical characteristics of 48 systematic samples (least fractured and altered of ore-bearing layers and host rocks were collected from the deposit for polished thin section examination. In order to correctly characterize their chemical compositions, 15 least-altered and fractured samples were chosen for major elements analysis. Results The Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence in south-southwest of Sabzevar hosts numerous manganese mineralization. The sequence based on the stratigraphic position, age and composition of the rocks, can be divided into two lower and upper parts. The lower part or K2tv unit mainly formed from marine sediments interbedded with volcanic rocks. The sedimentary rocks of this part include silicified tuff, chert, shale and sandstone, and the volcanic rocks involve pyroclastic rocks of various composition, rhyolite, dacite and andesitic lava. The upper


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛江炜; 葛忻声; 杨勇; 蔡景珞


    Reference on lateral load test and numerical simulation of large diameter pipe pile by using cast-in-place concrete(PCC),finite element model of a single pile with or without pile partner under lateral load is established. Comparison calculations show that pile partner can ensure lateral loads delivering from pile cap to foundation soil, and double reduce stress and displacement of pile. Pile partner can also make some improvement on lateral bearing characters for the pile foundation with low cap even though the modulus of foundation soil is small. When pile partner is equipped,and the connection mode between pile cap and pile changing from rigid connection to hinge joint,pile body internal force can also be drastically reduced;and pile and pile caps by distance can only be considered to meet the requirement of vertical bearing capacity or optimization design of pile foundation stiffness to reduce differential settlement. Pillow is not necessary and can be cancelled in composite foundation when pile partner is applied. The height of pile partner has little influence on internal force and displacement of pile. Under rare earthquake action,pile partner may sacrifice firstly to keep pile perform well.%借鉴现浇混凝土大直径管桩(PCC 桩)水平承载足尺试验和数值模拟的成果,建立水平荷载作用下多个构造形式有无伴侣的单桩有限元数值模型。对比计算与分析表明,对于低承台桩基设置桩伴侣可确保承台向地基土传递水平荷载,成倍减小基桩的应力和位移;对于桩身范围地基土模量低的低承台桩基的水平承载性状也有一定的改善;配备桩伴侣后,将桩与承台的连接方式由刚接改为铰接也能大幅度减小桩身内力,桩顶与承台的距离可单纯考虑竖向承载力和变刚度调平基础底板沉降的需要;设置桩伴侣后可取消褥垫层;桩伴侣的高度变化对水平荷载作用下桩内力和位移影响很小;在罕遇

  14. Optimization of backfill pellet properties AASKAR DP2 - Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Linus; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)


    's ability to buffer the inflowing groundwater during the installation phase was investigated in two types of tests. In the first test the wetting behavior was observed at small scale in a Plexiglas tube. The second test was performed in an artificial pellet slot with Plexiglas sides. The ASHA extruded 6 mm pellet seem to be the superior in water storing capacity, though it is suggested that this result may be more related to the presence of a fine grained material within the pellet mass than the pellets themselves. 4. Installation test. The pellets will most likely be installed with a shotcrete machine blowing them into place. This method was tested at full scale in order to investigate how much of the pellet filling that would be crushed into fine grained material if there is no water used during their placement. ASHA extruded 6 mm was the most durable pellet type with 5% of the material being crushed. 7 - 8% of the IBECO extruded pellet types (6 and 10 mm) were crushed into finer grains. The least durable pellets were the ASHA compacted pellets (pillow and almond shaped) with a crushing ratio of 53 to 61%. These results may have significance in terms of subsequent water uptake behavior. Large scale tests at repository-scale still need to be done utilizing shotcrete equipment so that more experience is obtained in how to control the installation of the pellet filling and identify the key influences on its composition and as-placed condition.

  15. 早寒武世初期沂沭断裂带地震效应%Seismic effects from Yishu Fault Zone during the earlier Early Cambrian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洪水; 张邦花; 祝介旺; 张增奇; 李洪奎


    In the earlier Early Cambrian, with the proceeding of the marine invasion from the Paleo-Yishu Strait to west, uneven thick deposits of sandstone, mudstone and carbonate rock of littoral, lagoon and neritic facies were deposited in western Shandong Province. The horizon of these layers belongs to the bottom part of Lower Cambrian consisting of the Liguan and Zhushadong Formations. Together with the depositional and formation processes, tectonic rift-depression was taking place in the Yishu Fault Zone, characterized by frequent submarine earthquakes with different seismic effects within 200 km range from the Yishu Fault Zone to west. Various seismogenetic syndepositional deformation structures are formed in the seismic records. Seismic effect records developed in the Zhushadong Formation are mainly soft-sediment deformations such as diapir structure, carbonate lime-mud volcano, liquefied vein, liquefied brec cia , seismic fold, graded-fault, siliceous vein etc., besides a few brittle deformation of semi-consolidated sediments. Those preserved in the Liguan Formation are not only slump fold, load structure and ball-and pillow structure, but also some seismo-turbidite. Magnitude reflected by submarine seismic effects might be Richater magnitude of 5. 0 ~ 8. 9. These evidences indicate that strong tectonic activities occurred along the Yishu Fault Zone in the Early Cambrian. Analyses from the viewpoint of marine engineering geology show that seismic effects mentioned above are destructive forms of sediment layers caused by earthquake at the sea-bottom. This paper has provided intuitive materials for understanding earthquake destruction to rock-soil layers of seafloor-engineering foundation.%早寒武世初期,随着从古沂沭海峡向西海侵的发展,鲁西地区沉积了厚度不等的主要由砂岩、泥岩和碳酸盐岩组成的滨海、潟湖及浅海相沉积,其层位属下寒武统底部的李官组和朱砂洞组.在它们沉积过程中,沂沭断裂带

  16. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England) (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    interbedded sand layers within the mudstone sequences are often subjected to various types of deformation, depending on the state of dewatering and thus consolidation of the mudstones. Loading of partially dewatered mudstones with thinner sandstone beds results in division of the sand into isolated balls and pillows which frequently sink down into the mud. Burial of still plastic mudstones by thicker sandstones gives rise to intrusion of the mobile clay into the loose sand as domes and pillars. Infilling of mud cracks by sand at the contacts of both lithologies reflects total stabilization of silty-clayey sediments by desiccation during subaerial exposure. The cohesion of the mud in an advanced stage of dewatering is also underlined by the downcutting of bizarre erosional reliefs with steep walls and overhanging, undercut flanks in some negative features and steep residual pillars as positive remnants of degradation. Fluvial floodplain and playa lake sediments comprising mudstones and sandstones originate in lakes, ponds and puddles in overbank plains intersected by alluvial channels and in extensive flood flats of playa type lacking intervening watercourses, with the delimitation between floodplain and plays a lake being arbitrary and fluent. Mudstones are laid down during partially prolonged periods of quiet water which are only occasionally interrupted by invasion of channelized or sheet-type flood surges that result in spreading out of sand blankets at the floor of the lake. The rarity of bioturbation in many parts of the mudstone sequences gives evidence of high rates of suspension fallout over longer periods of time thereby inhibiting the colonization of the ground of the water bodies. Alluvial-fan deposits comprising breccias, sandstones and mudstones originate by stream-flood, sheet-flood and stream-flow in channels and on flats of an alluvial-fan complex. Blankets and drapes of breccias are spread out on the slope of alluvial-fan cones and are spilled onto the sand

  17. Geochemistry of the Bela Ophiolite, Pakistan (United States)

    Khan, M.; Nicholson, K. N.; Mahmood, K.


    The Bela ophiolite complex of Balochistan, Pakistan has been the subject of several geochemical and tectonic studies in the past. However until now there has never been a combined structural, geochemical and tectonic assimilation study which adequately explains the observed geochemistry and structural geology in a global tectonic framework. Here we present the geochemical findings of our work. The Bela ophiolite complex consists of two major units: the basal section or Lower Unit, and the Upper Unit, between the two is a mélange zone. The Lower Unit is relatively homogeneous and consists almost entirely of flow basalts and pillow basalts. The base of the Upper Unit is the metamorphic sole which is overlain by a sequence of massive basalts flows and intrusions of gabbro and granites. The entire Upper Unit is cut by doleritic dykes and sills. Geochemically the Lower Unit is comprised of basaltic lavas with E-MORB affinities. These lavas are tholeiitic, low-K series lavas with trace element signatures of E-type MORB. For example ratios such as V/Ti, Zr/Y, Nb/Th, Th/La and Nb/U all suggest these lavas are E-MORB. Previous workers have suggested these lavas are back-arc basin (BAB) however the samples lack the characteristic signatures of subduction modified MORB. This conclusion is supported by chondrite and N-MORB normalized spider diagrams where the Lower Unit lavas are enriched in the LILE with respect to the HFSE. The Upper Unit of the Bela Ophiolite sequence has a slightly more complex history. The older lavas sequences, the massive basalt flows, gabbros and granites, all formed in an oceanic arc environment. These lavas exhibit classic arc signatures such as a negative Nb and Ti anomalies, are enriched in LILE and LREE relative to HSFE, and plot in the volcanic arc and island arc fields in classic ternary plots such as 2Nb- Zr/4-Y and Y/15-La/10-Nb/8. The younger sequence of intrusions found in the Bela ophiolite appear to have BAB signatures. These lavas have

  18. Variations of dose to the lung during computed tomography (CT) thorax examinations: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study determined the influence of patient individuality on lung organ doses for chest CT examinations. The aim was a statistical statement on the variability as well as the uncertainty caused by the patient individuality. Furthermore, the reproducibility of the mean organ dose value of the lung using the new ICRP 110 voxelized adult female phantom was determined. Calculation of lung doses for 61 female chest CT studies with identical scan parameters (120 kV, 135 mAs, 100 mm collimation, 1.5 pitch) were done. For all patients, the lung was contoured and the geometry was simulated using the Monte Carlo method without patient table and with its original voxel size. The lungs were completely included in the scan area. A so-called user code CTDOSPP was developed which extends the Monte Carlo package EGSnrc and enables rotational simulation of CT X-ray sources. A developed graphical user interface GMctdospp allows easy handling of simulation parameters and CT studies, which are loaded in the DicomRT struct format. The transformation of CT values to material and density values is carried out with a standard relationship. The ICRP adult female material composition of all organs were directly taken from the publication. The patient table and bed and pillow were assumed to be air in order to be similar to patient pool. All simulations were calibrated for better handling and visualisation to a CTDIair value of 22.9 mGy. Simulation values were grouped into 1 mSv classes. The organ dose classes fit well to a Gaussian distribution (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.97). The fit's mean value is 10 mSv with a standard deviation of 2 mSv. The variability is about ± 30 % with minimum at 8 mSv and maximum at 13 mSv. The calculated organ dose to the lungs of the ICRP adult female phantom is about 11 mSv and thus within the calculated standard deviation of the patient pool. For all simulations the statistical uncertainty was between 2 and 3.5 %. This present study shows good

  19. In the footsteps of Darwin at Santiago (Cape Verde Island): new insights from a field reappraisal of the (white sedimentary layer) (United States)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Bertocchini, Federico; Chiesura, Guido; Bini, Monica; Cascella, Antonio; Ribolini, Adriano; Patacca, Etta; Casacchia, Claudia


    -rich deposits, characterized by the abundance of Oyster colony and Turritella, from a white limestone/sandstone layer that commonly shows at its base accumulation of rodholits (the "Nulliporae" of Darwin). This obviously implies that a significant chronological hiatus is recorded in the section. As a whole the white limestone/sandstone layer is organized in a fining and deepening upward sequence that is abruptly truncated by a subaerial basalt unit in the Eastern side of the Praia Harbour and by a subaqueous pillows lava unit to the West. In addition the limestone/sandstone layer outcrops patchily at different quotes, from more than 30 m above sea level down to plunge below the sea. Ours study highlights how the white sedimentary layer, that so much aroused the curiosity of Darwin, records more than one depositional event. At least the position of four palaeoshores can be identified, evidencing how the island undergone to several phases of relative sea-level variations driven by eustatic and/ or tectonic factors.

  20. Molecular Analysis of Endolithic Microbial Communities in Volcanic Glasses (United States)

    di Meo, C. A.; Giovannoni, S.; Fisk, M.


    Terrestrial and marine volcanic glasses become mineralogically and chemically altered, and in many cases this alteration has been attributed to microbial activity. We have used molecular techniques to study the resident microbial communities from three different volcanic environments that may be responsible for this crustal alteration. Total microbial DNA was extracted from rhyolite glass of the 7 million year old Rattlesnake Tuff in eastern Oregon. The DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bacterial primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rDNA was cloned and screened with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 89 total clones screened, 46 belonged to 13 different clone families containing two or more members, while 43 clones were unique. Sequences of eight clones representing the most dominant clone families in the library were 92 to 97% similar to soil bacterial species. In a separate study, young pillow basalts (microbial life. Total DNA was extracted from the basalt glass and screened for the presence of both bacteria and archaea using the PCR. Repeated attempts with different primer sets yielded no bacterial genes, whereas archaeal genes were quite abundant. A genetic fingerprinting technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was used to compare the archaeal community compositions among the six different basalts. Filtered deep-sea water samples (~15 L) were examined in parallel to identify any overlap between rock- and seawater-associated archaea. The six rock community profiles were quite similar to each other, and the background water communities were also similar, respectively. Both the rock and water communities shared the same dominant peak. To identify the T-RFLP peaks corresponding to the individual members of the rock and seawater communities, clone libraries of the archaeal 16S rDNA for one basalt sample (Dive 3718) and its corresponding background water sample were

  1. Effect of Improved Bird-nest-shaped Package on Nursing of Premature Infants%早产儿应用改良鸟巢体位包的护理效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋玉; 张莉; 苏敏谊


    Objective To observe the effect of improved bird-nest-shaped package on the nursing of premature infants. Methods 100 premature were randomly divided into control group with bird-nest-shaped package and experiment group with improved bird-nest-shaped package. Homoeothermic water-pillows were applied in both groups. Apnea, sclerema neonatorum, SpO2 heart rate and rectal temperature changes 7 days after hospitalization between two groups were compared. Results No sclerema neonatorum occurred in two groups and no statistic significance exist in the comparison of' apnea but there were statistical differences between the comparisons of SpO2, heart rate and rectal temperature of infants in two groups. Conclusion Improved bird-nest-shaped package is beneficial to keeping a stable temperature and the SpO2, controlling the heart rate and maintaining a stable vital sign and the development of the normal physiology functions.%目的 观察改良鸟巢体位包在早产儿护理中的应用效果.方法 2009年7月-2010年10月100例早产儿根据入院的单双日分为对照组和研究组,分别采用传统棉布环形包绕四周的鸟巢和改良鸟巢体位包,即除了四周有棉布环绕外,还配有帽子,背部也有柔软温暖的海绵作为底垫,两组均予恒温水枕垫高头颈部,观察比较两组早产儿入院7 d内发生新生儿硬肿、呼吸暂停、经皮测SpO2<85%、心率>160次/min的例数,及每2 h内肛温<36℃的例数.结果 早产儿入院7 d内研究组与对照组发生呼吸暂停的例数差异无统计学意义,对照组经皮测SpO2<85%、心率>160次/min、入院2h内肛温<36℃的例数较多,差异均有统计学意义,但两组新生儿均未发生新生儿硬肿.结论 改良鸟巢体位包有利于维持患儿体温,维持较高血氧饱和度,能较好控制心率,从而促进早产儿适应宫外环境.

  2. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal) (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge


    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  3. Insights into a fossil plate interface of an erosional subduction zone: a tectono-metamorphic study of the Tianshan metamorphic belt. (United States)

    Bayet, Lea; Moritz, Lowen; Li, Jilei; Zhou, Tan; Agard, Philippe; John, Timm; Gao, Jun


    Subduction zone seismicity and volcanism are triggered by processes occurring at the slab-wedge interface as a consequence of metamorphic reactions, mass-transfer and deformation. Although the shallow parts of subduction zones (60km). In order to better understand the plate interface dynamics at these greater depths, one has to rely on the rock record from fossil subduction zones. The Chinese Tianshan metamorphic belt (TMB) represents an ideal candidate for such studies, because structures are well exposed with exceptionally fresh high-pressure rocks. Since previous studies from this area focused on fluid-related processes and its metamorphic evolution was assessed on single outcrops, the geodynamic setting of this metamorphic belt is unfortunately heavily debated. Here, we present a new geodynamic concept for the TMB based on detailed structural and petrological investigations on a more regional scale. A ~11km x 13km area was extensively covered, together with E-W and N-S transects, in order to produce a detailed map of the TMB. Overall, the belt is composed of two greenschist-facies units that constitute the northern and southern border of a large high-pressure (HP) to ultra high-pressure (UHP) unit in the center. This HP-UHP unit is mainly composed of metasediments and volcanoclastic rocks, with blueschist, eclogite and carbonate lenses. Only the southern part of the HP-UHP unit is composed of the uppermost part of an oceanic crust (e.g., pillow basalts and deep-sea carbonates). From south to north, the relative abundance and size of blueschist massive boudins and layers (as well as eclogite boudins) decreases and the sequence is increasingly interlayered with metasedimentary and carbonate-rich horizons. This indicates that the subducted material was dominated by trench filling made of sediments and volcanoclastic rocks, with only subordinate pieces of oceanic crust/lithosphere. The whole sequence is cut by km-scale major shear planes orientated WNW-ESE showing

  4. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soto


    peperites, as examples of spatial and temporal coexistence of magmatism and sedimentation in Costa Rica. The cases are presented in basic igneous complexes (ophiolites, mixtures varying from incomplete (megablocks of radiolarite with diabase in the Nicoya Complex to complete mixes in various stages of Maastrichtian-Paleocene (Golfito Formation or Paleocene pelagic limestones with basalts (Quepos Subcomplex or Tulín Formation to form brechoid and pillowed peperites. Within the Oligo-Miocene arc, there are examples extended along the Talamanca range and its foothills, as well as Sarapiquí’s plains represented for brechoid and bulbous (fluidal peperites in latiandesitic lavas (Pacacua Formation or brechoid peperitic pipes in ignimbrites (Mata de Limón Member or possible brechoid peperites in lavas in the Crucitas mining prospect (Cureña Formation, or simple brechoid peperites in andesitic flow (Pacacua Formation, in Talamanca or as hydroclastic breccias with fragments of dacitic composition in lava flow deposits of Carbonal Guanacaste, just between the beaches Cabuyal and Naranjo. All these rocks represented proximal equivalents of the explosive, effusive and subvolcanic volcanism (endogenous domes and criptodomes and his concomitance with the fluvial sedimentation. In Quaternary period, we have a sample in the base of Tiribí Formation in contact with Palmares Lacustrine. Also this paper included possible and potential cases. It hopes that the description and interpretation of this type of rocks helps to its identification in other regions of Costa Rica and Central America in general, as well as a potential source for the exploration of valuable metals.

  5. Study of 2H and 18O in the Kouris catchment (Cyprus) for the description of the regional groundwater balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kouris catchment covers 300 km2 on the southern side of the Troodos Massif of Cyprus and bounded on the South by the Mediterranean Sea. Elevations range from 2000 m to sea level within a distance of 30 km. The basin consists of an ophiolitic complex in the North (ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sheeted dykes and pillow lavas) and an overlying sedimentary complex in the South (chalks, marls, calcarenites and limestones). The ophiolites highly heterogeneous and contain the major groundwater resources in Cyprus. While the geology of the Troodos Massif is very well documented, the hydrogeology of the area is much less known. The aim of this study is to apply 144 new and 72 published analysis of δD and δ18 in groundwater as well as as new and reported in IAEA database analysis of rainfall samples for better understanding of main mechanisms of ground water flow and for checking the assumptions of the groundwater model, developed at the previous stage. 2H and 18O in Precipitation. 2H and 18O contents in rainfall over the Kouris catchment samples are linearly related by the equation of the local meteoric water line: δD = 6.5*δ18 + 10.6 that differs from the equation of the Global Meteoric Water Line by a smaller slope, indicating partial evaporation of rain drops prior to infiltration. Seasonal variations might be extremely high (-36 per mille for δD and -5.5 per mille for δ18 in 2000/2001). Averaged monthly mixed rainfall samples for October-February 2000/2001 at the two meteostations and some data from springs at the highest altitudes suggest the regression equation for δD(per mille) and the altitude(m): δD = -0.012H(m) - 24,86 (1), where H(m) - the altitude of the rainfall 2H and 18O in groundwater. Almost all points at the 2H versus 18O diagram (except some in the ophiolites) are displaced from the local meteoric water line due to evaporation. Samples taken from the sedimentary rocks seem to be more affected by evaporation than those in ophiolites. Seasonal

  6. Biological and Geological Characteristics of the Gakkel Ridge (United States)

    Shank, T. M.; Bailey, J.; Edmonds, H.; Forte, P.; Helmke, E.; Humphris, S.; Kemp, J.; Nakamura, K.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Singh, H.; Willis, C.


    The Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) is one of the slowest (1.0 cm per yr), deepest (5000 m axial depth), and most hydrographically and tectonically isolated mid-ocean ridge systems on earth. This isolation from the global ridge system should have profound implications for the evolution and ecology of resident chemosynthetic fauna. The July 2007 Arctic GAkkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) sought to define this Arctic biogeographic province and the relationship of Arctic vent fauna to Atlantic, Pacific, and hydrocarbon seep fauna through the use of an new under- ice vehicle `Camper', a fiber-optic video-guided sampling system drift towed 1 to 3 m above the seafloor. The imaging, sampling, and sensing capabilities were used to obtain high-resolution seafloor imagery to identify and collect benthic samples with a clamshell `grab' sampler and a suction 'slurp' sampler. Imagery from five video cameras, including obliquely-mounted video and downlooking digital high-definition color cameras were used to construct maps of seafloor features and faunal composition during 3 dives in the peridotite-hosted 7°E region and 13 dives in the volcanic 85°E region. The 7°E site was dominated by an almost continuous cover of pelagic sediment with abundant animal tracks, brittle stars, anemones, and shrimp. The explored 85°E area was dominated by relatively diverse and young lava morphologies- from large pillows hosting delicate surface ornamentation to lobates, long lava tubes, and fresh sheet flows, all with the upper surfaces covered (often cm thick) of fresh volcanic glass 'sediment' suggestive of explosive volcanic activity in the `recent' past. Fauna in these areas consisted mainly of sponges, anemones, amphipods and shrimp. Characterization of the newly-discovered Asgard volcanic chain, including `Oden', `Thor', and `Loke' volcanoes, in the 85°E axial valley revealed extensive microbial mats in the form of: 1) yellow `fluffy' material (often >5 cm thick) in places; and 2) yellow

  7. A major 2.1 Ga event of mafic magmatism in west Africa: An Early stage of crustal accretion (United States)

    Abouchami, Wafa; Boher, Muriel; Michard, Annie; Albarede, Francis


    Birimian terranes from West Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Niger) comprise two major units: a dominantly mafic bimodal volcanic unit and a volcano-detrital unit with mostly felsic to intermediate protolith. Stratigraphic relationships of these units are still a matter of debate but current work suggest that they both formed in a short time interval around 2.1 Ga. Widespread basaltic magmas from the bimodal unit have been analyzed for REE distributions and Sr-Nd isotopes. Three Sm-Nd isochrons on tholeiitic lavas were obtained at 2.229±0.042 Ga and initial ɛNd = 3.6±1.0 for Mauritania, 2.126±0.024 Ga and initial ɛNd = 2.9±0.7 for Burkina Faso, 2.063±0.041 Ga and initial ɛNd = 3.1± .0 for Eastern Senegal, data which compare with the age of 2.11±0.09 Ga and initial ɛNd = 2.1±1.8 obtained in Guyana by Gruau et al. (1985). Samples from other localities (Ivory Coast, Niger) give generally similar results. Although the variations of Sm/Nd ratios and the scatter of ɛNd(T) values from +1.2 to +4.3 preclude a single origin for these magmas, initial isotopic heterogeneities are unlikely to bias significantly the ages given by the isochrons which are in good agreement with U-Pb zircon ages (Boher et al., 1989; unpublished data, 1990). Presence of lavas with frequent pillow structures and sediments virtually free of older recycled components suggests that Birimian terranes formed in ocean basins far from continental influence. The isotopic heterogeneities are not consistent with a MORB-like mantle source. Most lavas are slightly depleted in LREE and inversion of the data through a melting model suggests 5-15 percent melting of a slightly depleted Iherzolite. Strong depletion (Burkina Faso) and slight enrichment (Senegal) are occasionally observed. With a noticeable trend of Ti enrichment with differentiation intermediate between that of MORB and IAT, the geochemical signature of Birimian basalts does not fit the best known geodynamic

  8. Multi-stage accretion of high pressure rocks and thermal changes in a subduction channel: evidence from Diego de Almagro Island (Chilean Patagonia) (United States)

    Hyppolito, Thais; Angiboust, Samuel; Juliani, Caetano; Glodny, Johannes; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Calderon, Mauricio; Chopin, Christian


    The remote Diego de Almagro Island, Chile (51° 30' S) exposes one of the rare vestiges of the Cretaceous paleo-subduction system of western South America. It is constituted by two main tectonic units formed by mafic rocks and metasediments: the high temperature/middle pressure Lázaro unit to the East and the high pressure-low temperature Almagro Complex to the West. We herein focus on the Almagro Complex, a pluri-kilometer thick subducted sequence comprising dominantly metatuffs, but also Grt-micaschists, meta-pillow lavas (showing MORB and OIB signatures) and metacherts (transformed to quartz+garnet-rich layers). Despite its apparent homogeneity, the Almagro Complex is actually composed of two distinct units (Willner et al., 2004) with distinct pressure-temperature-time paths. The Garnet Amphibolite unit (GA) shows three chemically and microstructurally distinct garnet generations that grew and (re)-equilibrated between 1.1 GPa and 1.7 GPa (35-55 km) and between 500°C and 600°C. We report for the first time in Chilean Patagonia the presence of rare relicts of omphacite in equilibrium with garnet in mafic layers together with the finding of chloritoid inclusions in garnet from metasediments, and omphacite and glaucophane inclusions in metatuffs. Our P-T estimates, based on pseudosection modeling, single/multi-equilibrium estimates and Raman spectroscopy of organic matter, demonstrate that rocks from the GA unit reached eclogite facies at around 1.7 to 1.8 GPa. Rb-Sr mineral data for Grt-amphibolites indicates that the amphibolitization overprint - which varies in intensity throughout the GA unit - took place at c. 120 Ma. The Blueschist unit, structurally below the GA unit, comprises lithologies similar to the GA unit but finer grained than the former. On other hand, the Blueschist unit (i) does not show garnet with multiple overgrowths and omphacite crystals as seen in the in GA unit; (ii) exhibits slightly lower peak metamorphic conditions than the GA unit (c

  9. Quantification of uncertainties in snow accumulation, snowmelt, and snow disappearance dates (United States)

    Raleigh, Mark S.

    Seasonal mountain snowpack holds hydrologic and ecologic significance worldwide. However, observation networks in complex terrain are typically sparse and provide minimal information about prevailing conditions. Snow patterns and processes in this data sparse environment can be characterized with numerical models and satellite-based remote sensing, and thus it is essential to understand their reliability. This research quantifies model and remote sensing uncertainties in snow accumulation, snowmelt, and snow disappearance as revealed through comparisons with unique ground-based measurements. The relationship between snow accumulation uncertainty and model configuration is assessed through a controlled experiment at 154 snow pillow sites in the western United States. To simulate snow water equivalent (SWE), the National Weather Service SNOW-17 model is tested as (1) a traditional "forward" model based primarily on precipitation, (2) a reconstruction model based on total snowmelt before the snow disappearance date, and (3) a combination of (1) and (2). For peak SWE estimation, the reliability of the parent models was indistinguishable, while the combined model was most reliable. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parent models had opposite sensitivities to temperature that tended to cancel in the combined model. Uncertainty in model forcing and parameters significantly controlled model accuracy. Uncertainty in remotely sensed snow cover and snow disappearance in forested areas is enhanced by canopy obstruction but has been ill-quantified due to the lack of sub-canopy observations. To better quantify this uncertainty, dense networks of near-surface temperature sensors were installed at four study areas (≤ 1 km2) with varying forest cover in the Sierra Nevada, California. Snow presence at each sensor was detected during periods when temperature was damped, which resulted from snow cover insulation. This methodology was verified using time-lapse analysis and

  10. U-Th/He Ages of HSDP-2 Submarine Samples (United States)

    Peterson, B. T.; Aciego, S. M.; Kennedy, B. M.; Depaolo, D. J.


    Hawaiian lavas have been used to investigate the life-cycles of hotspot-traversing volcanoes. The ~ 3500m core recovered by the Hawaii Scientific Drill Project, phase 2 (HSDP-2) has proven invaluable in refinement of models that link plume structures and melting rates to subaerial growth and geochemical evolution. Accurate age dating of lavas is critical in linking geochemical observations to plume characteristics; however, young ages and potassium-poor lavas limit the precision of argon methods. The U-Th/He method on olivine phenocrysts has been used to successfully date Hawaiian post-shield alkali basalts and flood basalts from the Snake River Plain. We are applying the method to olivine-rich lithologies in the HSDP-2 core in an attempt to gain further information about the growth rates of Hawaiian volcanoes. Preliminary results indicate that the method could help refine the flow chronology, but that modifications to the analysis procedure may be necessary to optimize the results. A subaerial Mauna Kea tholeiitic basalt from 528m depth yields a U-Th/He age of 485 +/- 100 ka (sample SR0222), slightly older than expected based on previous determinations on stratigraphically bounding flows by the argon isochron method (Sharp et al., Gcubed, 2005). A submarine hyaloclastite sample from 2931m depth (SR930) yields a preliminary age of 650+/-100 ka, which agrees well with previous Ar measurements. A pillow lava, SR0964, was also investigated, but it yielded a complicated He release pattern and no age can be obtained. U and Th concentrations in olivine separates from all three samples are low (2.6 - 5.2 ppb U; 4.5 - 8.0 ppb Th). The submarine samples appear to have a substantial amount of magmatic helium still remaining in the olivine after in vacuo crushing, as evidenced by high R/Ra values in gas released at high temperature. Residual gas left after crushing may be up to 85% magmatic, which makes the determination of radiogenic He less accurate. Sulfur contents of

  11. Architecture and evolution of La Réunion inferred from geophysical data (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie; Lénat, Jean-Francois


    la Fournaise on its northern and eastern flanks. It also indicates the presence of a body of weakly magnetized rocks underneath the central zone, correlated with the presence of a hydrothermal system which is well characterized by a dome of rocks of low resistivity and magma storage structures. Beneath the Ancient Shield, a region of weak resistivity may correspond with an ancient hydrothermal system. The Piton des Neiges is shown as an immense volcano structured around a hypovolcanic system which extends a great distance laterally and vertically. The coverage of the Brunhes formations is incomplete and gives variable thicknesses. Only the western flank, the summit zone and, to a lesser degree the northern flank, present significant thicknesses of these products. Topographical barriers, such as the regions of collapse or landslides could explain the discontinuous distribution of these formations at the scale of the massif. There is an obvious correlation between the lateral spreading of the dense body and the topographical depressions above, suggesting a relationship between the subsidence of the intrusive complex and that of the depressions. At the scale of the immerged system the morphology of two large zones of ancient volcanic constructions is reconstructed to the east of the Piton de la Fournaise and to the south-west of Piton des Neiges. These results bring to question the interpretations of seismic data in these particular sectors. The morphology of the emerged-immerged edifice can be reconstructed. At the land-sea transition, the coastal shelf is interpreted in terms of accumulation of hyaloclastites and pillow-lavas. On the immerged flanks, our analysis confirms that the four submarine bulges are due to the accumulation of avalanches debris deposits of which the internal density contrasts can be correlated with specific geological units observed from the surface.

  12. The Clinical and Radiologic Presentation of X-ray on Unstable Cervical Vertebra Disease%颈椎不稳症的X线临床与影像表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维久; 艾阳平; 付建华


    目的:通过X线探讨和分析颈椎不稳的临床与影像表现.方法:对我院的100例诊断为颈椎不稳症的患者实施X线拍片,拍颈椎正侧位片、双斜位片及侧位过伸过曲片.结果:100例颈椎不稳患者的X线表现结果:上颈椎不稳有32例,占32%,其中环枕不稳定的例数有4例,有3例为外伤引起,1例为先天畸形;环枢椎不稳定的有28例,有2例为发育畸形,炎症导致不稳定的有4例,手术原因引起的有2例,退行性病变引起的有20例;下颈椎不稳症的例数有68例,占68.00%,其中外伤引起的有45例,退行性病10例,手术原因引起的有4例,炎症导致的有1例,先天性发育异常有8例.颈椎不稳定病变主要发生在下颈椎,从X线片可知,下颈椎的C3、C4、C5 发生不稳定症的机会大,它们向前的位移均超过2mm.结论:通过颈椎X线分析发现颈椎不稳定症主要发生在下颈椎,并且主要发生在C3、C4、C5.%Objective: To analyse the clinical and radiologic presentation of X-ray on unstable cervical vertebra disease through X-ray. Method: Chose 100 diagnosed unstable cervical vertebra disease patients in our hospital with X-ray inspection, took anterio posterio rand lateral film, Double inclined a piece of and ide had a reach of bowed. Result: 100 patients with unstable cervical X - ray performance. The upper cervical spine instability was 32 cases, accounting for 32% , among which ring pillow unstable number was 4 cases, 3 cases were caused by traumatic injury and 1 case was congenital malformation; Ring of vertebral instability of coffins was 28 cases, there were 2 cases of malformations, inflammation in the stable was 4 cases, 2 cases was causedby surgery, 20 cases were caused by degenerative diseases; The cervical vertebra disease instability out was 68 cases, accounting for 68. 00% , with traumatic cause was 45 cases, retreat a venereal was 10 cases, the cause of surgery was 4 cases, inflammation of the lead to one example

  13. The Cimmerian accretionary wedge of Anarak, Central Iran (United States)

    Zanchi, Andrea; Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchetta, Stefano; Berra, Fabrizio; Benciolini, Luca; Bergomi, Maria; Cavallo, Alessandro; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Kouhpeyma, Meyssam


    The occurrence in Iran of several ophiolite belts dating between Late Palaeozoic to Triassic poses several questions on the possible existence of various sutures marking the closure of the Palaeotethys ocean between Eurasia and this Gondwana-derived microplate. In this scenario, the Anarak region in Central Iran still represents a conundrum. Contrasting geochronological, paleontological, paleomagnetic data and reported field evidence suggest different origins for the Anarak Metamorphic Complex (AMC). The AMC is either interpreted, as: (1) relict of an accretionary wedge developed at the Eurasia margin during the Palaeotethys subduction as part of the Cimmerian suture zone of NE Iran, displaced to Central Iran by a large counter-clockwise rotation of the central Iranian blocks; (2) autochthonous unit forming a secondary branch of the main suture zone. Our structural, petrographic and geochemical data indicate that the AMC consists of several metamorphic units also including dismembered "ophiolites" which display different tectono-metamorphic evolutions. Three main ductile deformational events can be distinguished in the AMC. The Morghab and Chah Gorbeh complexes preserve a different M1 metamorphism, characterized by blueschist relics in the S1 foliation of the former unit, and greenschist assemblages in the latter. They share a subsequent similar D2 deformational and M2 metamorphic history, showing a prograde metamorphism with syn- to post-deformation growth of blueschist facies mineral assemblages on pre-existing greenschist facies associations. High pressure, low temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism responsible for the growth of sodic amphibole has been recognized also within marble lenses at the contact between the Chah Gorbeh Complex and serpentinites. Evidence of HP/LT metamorphism also occurs in glaucophane-bearing meta-pillow lavas and serpentinites, which contain antigorite and form most of the "ophiolites" within the AMC. Structural relationships show that the

  14. Analysis of inflated submarine and sub-lacustrine Pahoehoe lava flows using high-resolution bathymetric and lidar data (Invited) (United States)

    Deschamps, A.; Van Vliet-Lanoe, B.; Soule, S. A.; Allemand, P.; Le Saout, M.; Delacourt, C.


    The summit of the East Pacific Rise (EPR), 16°N, is investigated based -among others- on high-resolution bathymetry acquired using the AUV Aster-X, and photos and videos collected using the submersible Nautile (Ifremer). HR bathymetry reveals submarine tumuli and inflated smooth lava flows at the summit of the ridge, emplaced on sub-horizontal terrains. They are primarily composed of jumbled and lobate flows with occurrences of sheet flows, and pillows close to the flow margins. They are 5 to 15 meters -high, and their surface ranges 0.2 to 1.5 km2. Their surface is either planar or depressed, likely due to lava topographic downdraining during eruption. At their margins, planar slabs of lava, few meters wide, slope down from the top of the flow, at angles ranging 40 to 80°. A series of cracks, 0,5 to 1.5 m deep, separate the horizontal surface of the flow from their inclined flanks. These cracks parallel the sinuous edges of the flows, suggesting the flow flanks tilted outward. Tumuli are also observed. Some of these smooth flows form 80 to 750 m -long sinuous ridges, suggesting the existence of lava tubes. Their morphology indicates that these flows experienced inflationary emplacement styles, but at a much larger scale than Pahoehoe lavas in Hawaii and La Réunion Islands. In these two islands, indeed, inflation structures are typically less than 2 meters high and only several tens of meters in length at maximum, suggesting that their mechanism of emplacement and inflation is significantly different. Conversely, we observe comparable inflation flows in Iceland and in Idaho and Oregon, also emplaced onto sub-horizontal terrains. We use high-resolution aerial photographs and lidar data to investigate their morphology. In the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), quaternary basaltic plains volcanism produced monogenetic coalescent shields, and phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions that are directly related to proximity of magmatism to the Snake River or Pleistocene lakes

  15. Hábitos de sono relacionados à síndrome da morte súbita do lactente: estudo populacional Sleeping habits related to sudden infant death syndrome: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Teresinha Consalter Geib


    Full Text Available O estudo transversal, que descreve os hábitos de sono com risco potencial para a síndrome da morte súbita do lactente, incluiu todas as crianças nascidas vivas em 2003, em Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com coleta de dados nas Declarações de Nascidos Vivos e em entrevistas, analisados com estatística descritiva e teste de qui-quadrado. Dos 2.634 nascidos vivos, selecionaram-se 2.285 (86,75%, com exclusão de 8,4% e perda de 5,2%. Dentre os hábitos protetores, constatou-se, em 77% dos lactentes, uso de vestuário adequado, 90% envolvidos frouxamente, 69% com cobertas de espessura fina, 98% dormindo no quarto dos pais e 56%, no berço. Dos hábitos com potencial risco, observaram-se decúbito lateral (92%, uso de travesseiro (88% e os pés distanciados da borda inferior do berço (96%. Nas classes econômicas pobres, o hábito da criança de compartilhar a cama foi significativo (p = 0,00. Assim, num município com baixa prevalência de síndrome da morte súbita, os lactentes são expostos tanto a hábitos de sono protetores como de risco, sugerindo que, em populações desfavorecidas de países em desenvolvimento, outros fatores de risco dessa síndrome devam ser considerados.This cross-sectional study on sleeping habits with potential risk for sudden infant death syndrome included all live births in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003 with data collection from Certificates of Live Birth and interviews, analyzed with descriptive statistics and the qui-squared test. From the 2,634 live births, 2,285 children were selected (86.75%, with 8.4% exclusion and 5.2% losses. Protective habits included 77% of infants with appropriate clothing, 90% loosely wrapped, 69% with thin blankets, 98% sleeping in the parents' bedroom, and 56% in the crib. Potentially risky habits included lateral decubitus (92%, use of a pillow (88%, and feet far from the lower edge of the crib (96%. Among low-income families, bed-sharing with other

  16. Chemical and stable isotopic compositions of volatiles in mantle peridotites of the Yushigou ophiolite in Qilian orogenic belt, western China%祁连造山带玉石沟地幔橄榄岩中挥发分的流体化学和稳定同位素组成及古大洋岩石圈演化意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡沛青; 张铭杰; 汤中立; LI Chusi; 王记周


    degassing. In contrast, the volatiles released at 800 ~ 1200℃ are characterized by trace amounts of H2 and CO in dunite and SO2 in harzburgite, much lighter δ13C ( -29.1‰~ - 19.5‰), heavier δ13O (8.8‰) of CO2 and positive relationship between these isotopic ratios and the concentration of CO2. Such features can be best explained by mixing of significant terrestrial crustal (organic) and minor mantle volatiles. We proposed that the Yishigou peridotites are more likely to have derived from a continental lithosphere instead of an oceanic lithosphere comprising the Yishigou gabbros and pillowed basalts. A supra-subduction tectonic setting is thus inferred for the Yushigou ophiolite.

  17. The Post-Permian evolution of the Northern Part of the North German Basin (United States)

    Hansen, M. B.; Huebscher, C.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Gajewski, D.; Dehghani, A.; Reicherter, K.


    In the frame of the Priority Program 1135 of the German Research Foundation (DFG) "Dynamics of sedimentary systems under varying stress conditions by example of the Central European Basin System", the scientific goal of the NeoBaltic project is to describe the post-Permian to recent geological evolution of the entire western Baltic Sea region, with a special emphasis on neotectonic activity and it relation to salt dynamics. The western Baltic Sea comprises the northern part of the North German Basin (NGB), a part of the Central European Basin System (CEBS), and the transitional zone between the NGB and the Baltic Shield. In order to investigate these scientific goals the Universities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Hamburg (Germany) has since 1998 completed seven marine campaigns in the western Baltic Sea, collecting 2D high resolution seismic (HRS), gravity and magnetic data in the entire region during different projects. Since 2003 all these data has been available for the NeoBaltic project. All together the data pool have more than 7000 km HRS, 5000 km gravity and 4000 km magnetic data. Until now the project work has been focused on the completion of the data processing and the digital interpretation of important Mesozoic and Cenozoic markers on the seismic sections from the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg. Furthermore, several maps have been completed from the potential field data (gravity and magnetic). As a result of the digital interpretation of the HRS data, the overall geological evolution of the northern part of the NGB can be subdivided into four distinct periods. During the Triassic and the Early Jurassic, E-W extension and the deposition of clastic sediments initiated the movement of the underlying Zechstein evaporites. This is seen by the presence of several salt pillows in the region. The deposition ceased during the Middle Jurassic, when the entire area was uplifted, due to the Mid North Sea Doming. The uplift resulted in a pronounced erosion of Upper Triassic

  18. Iridium anomaly in the Cretaceous section of the Eastern Kamchatka (United States)

    Savelyev, Dmitry; Savelyeva, Olga


    The origin of iridium anomalies is widely discussed with regard to massive fauna and flora extinction at several geologic boundaries. Two hypotheses are most popular, cosmogenic and volcanogenic. Anomalies of iridium are known at many stratigraphic levels, both at the geologic series borders and within geologic series. Our studies revealed increased content of iridium in a section of Cretaceous oceanic deposits on the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). The investigated section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) includes interbedded jaspers and siliceous limestones overlaying pillow-basalts. These deposits belong to the Smagin Formation of the Albian-Cenomanian age. In the middle and upper parts of the section two beds of black carbonaceous rocks with sapropelic organic matter were observed. Their formation marked likely episodes of oxygen depletion of oceanic intermediate water (oceanic anoxic events). Our geochemical studies revealed an enrichment of the carbonaceous beds in a number of major and trace elements (Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, K2O, P2O5, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, V, Mo, Ba, Y, Zr, Nb, REE, U, Au, Pt etc.) in comparison with associating jaspers and limestones. There are likely different sources which contributed to the enrichment. It is possible however to correlate the excess of Al, Ti, Zr, Nb with volcanogenic admixture, which is absent in limestones and jaspers. A possible source of the volcanogenic material was local volcanism as suggested by the close association of the investigated section with volcanic rocks (basaltic lavas and hyaloclastites). The basalts of the Smagin Formation were previously proposed to originate during Cretaceous activity of the Hawaiian mantle plume (Portnyagin et al., Geology, 2008). Neutron activation analysis indicated increased up to 9 ppb concentration of Ir at the bottom of the lower carbonaceous bed (inorganic part of the sample was analyzed comprising 46% of the bulk rock). In other samples Ir content was below

  19. First evidence of the Oceanic Anoxic Events in Cenomanian paleoceanic deposits of the Eastern Kamchatka (United States)

    Savelyeva, Olga; Palechek, Tatiana; Savelyev, Dmitry


    They are a few stratigraphical levels corresponding to OAEs in the deep-water drilling sites in the Pacific ocean. Discoveries of ОАЕs evidences in fold-thrust belt of Pacific are important for correlation of Pacific ocean sections with well investigated sections of Europe. We studied Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic carbonate-siliceous deposits of the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). They are deposited in association with pillow-basalts and hyaloclastites. The thickness of the studied section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) is about 10 m. The deposits are represented mainly by rhythmical intercalation of red-brown radiolarian jaspers, pink nannoplancton limestones as well as siliceous limestones. In the middle and upper parts of the section there are two thin beds enriched by organic carbon. The thickness of the beds is about 2 cm and 5 cm. Such carbon-rich beds were also found in several other exposures. Near the carbonaceous beds jaspers and limestones lose red and pink colours and become gray and black (on the weathered surface almost white). The content of the mineral matter in the carbon-rich beds amounts 27-75%. It consists of biogenic silica and clay minerals (likely altered hyaloclactites). Carbonaceous beds contain pyrite, barite, phosphates in the form of pellets and fish bone detritus. Mo/Mn ratio in the mineral matter of carbon-rich beds corresponds to euxinic conditions. Total organic carbon contents change from 18 to 53%. The calculated values of the hydrogen and oxygen indexes indicate that the organic carbon originated from marine (sapropelic) organic matter. In studied section the curve of d13C (analyzed in limestones) is characterized by a clearly expressed positive shift at the level of the lower carbonaceous bed. Below it and in the overlapping stratum of siliceous limestone (1 cm thickness) d13C has the values of 1.9-2.1 pro mil, and above it d13C increases up to 2.5-3 pro mil. The radiolarian assemblages are dominated by

  20. Carbon isotope curve and iridium anomaly in the Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic deposits of the Eastern Kamchatka (United States)

    Savelyev, D. P.; Savelyeva, O. L.; Palechek, T. N.; Pokrovsky, B. G.


    We studied Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic carbonate-siliceous deposits of the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). They are deposited in association with pillow-basalts and hyaloclastites. The thickness of the studied section is about 10 m. The deposits are represented mainly by rhythmical intercalation of red-brown radiolarian jaspers, pink nannoplankton limestones as well as siliceous limestones. In the middle and upper parts of the section there are two beds enriched by organic carbon. The largest organic matter contents in this beds amount to 68%. The calculated values of the hydrogen and oxygen indexes indicate that the carbonaceous beds consist of marine organic matter. The accumulation of the carbonaceous beds reflects oxygen depletion in intermediate oceanic waters (ocean anoxic events, OAE). The structure of the studied section emphasizes its similarity to the contemporary deposits recovered by ODP and DSDP sites on Hess and Shatsky Rises. Two orders of rhythmicity were observed in the section. The rhythmicity of the first order (average thickness of a rhythm is 5-7 cm) is an alternation of reddish brown radiolarian jaspers and pink nannofossil limestones. The rhythmicity of the second order is characterized by an increase in thickness of the jasper or limy layer in every 4th-5th rhythm of the first order and marked by an elevation of the silica content in calcareous layers. The rhythmicity formation can be attributed to fluctuation of astronomical parameters (Milankovitch cycles) with periods of 21 and 100 kyr. The character of atmospheric circulation and ocean currents served as transmission link. The section was sampled layerwise and more than 100 samples were taken. The radiolarians were extracted from the samples of jaspers and siliceous limestones lying between carbonaceous beds. The educed radiolarian complexes allowed us to define the age of the deposits as Cenomanian. For more detailed dating of members of the section we have

  1. Perioperative nursing care and rehabilitation for patients with traumatic elbow joint stiffness%创伤性肘关节僵硬的围手术期护理及康复治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红莉; 孔祥燕


    .The surgery with medial and lateral approaches were performed to release the capsular ligament and tendon ,and remove the ectopic ossification .Normal release was performed for the prepositioned ulnar nerve .The center of rotation of the elbow joint was positioned under fluoroscopy .2‐mm Kirschner wire was inserted in the center of rotation .Stryker Dynamic Joint Distractor (DJD II) was used for external fixation .2 screws for external fixation were inserted from the humerus and ulna ,respectively .The screws should be in parallel with the Kirschner wire in the same plane .The screws were connected with the external fixator using clamp .The elbow joint gap was open by rotating the retractor .Key points for nursing :(1) Psychological nursing before surgery :The patients were subject to health education based on the assessment of patients′understanding of the condition .Patients were informed of the surgery objective and outcome ,possible discomforts after surgery and relative measures and the importance of function exercise .Rehabilitation plan was made for patients .They are also motivated to cooperate during surgery ,postoperative nursing care and rehabilitation so that good results could be obtained .(2 ) Postoperative nursing for affected extremity :During stay in bed ,the patients were on the horizontal position with soft pillow elevating the affected extremity .The affected extremity was gently massaged from the distal to the proximal end to promote vein reflux .When the patients are able to get out of the bed ,the forearm was supported by strap .The temperature ,blood supply ,feelings and mobility were assessed to determine whether symptoms of nerve injury developed .(3 ) Pain management after surgery :Long‐term physical therapy and drugs were used to relieve pain .The cold pack was applied to the affected extremity three times per day ,20 min once .The patients in the group had no history of gastrointestinal ulcer before surgery .The patients were

  2. Arc-rift transition volcanism in the Volcanic Hills, Jacumba and Coyote Mountains, San Diego and Imperial Counties, california (United States)

    Fisch, Gregory Zane

    proximity could possibly reflect the opening of a slab window produced by the collision of the spreading center and continued subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the North American continent. However, evidence presented here suggests that crustal contamination and metasomatic processes in the Coyote Mountains are the primary source of the geochemical variations. Trace-element signatures are similar in samples from all of the study regions, with pronounced Nb depletion typical of island-arc volcanism. The distinguishing features of samples from the Coyote Mountains are the high amount of alteration and their high levels of K2O (4-5 wt%). This study will examine the possibility that these characteristics result from the interaction of the basalt with a highly alkaline body of water and/or sediments. Supporting data for such a model include pillow structures and spiracle formations within the basalt flows exposed in the Fossil Canyon and Butaca Canyon regions of the Coyote Mountains. Future studies of the olivine-basalt samples within the central region of the Coyote Mountains, away from the altered exposures, would provide a more complete understanding of their genesis. While the geochemical data were initially analyzed using standard geochemical techniques, the data are also analyzed statistically using a relatively new multivariate analysis technique known as Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA). Using the CoDA techniques, a clearer insight into the actual changes of the chemical composition can be seen. It also provides statistically valid correlation between the various regions in the study area. The CoDA processes, CLR BiPlots in particular, show which elements vary from one region to the next. It also differentiates elemental groups that correlate with typical rock-forming processes (e.g., fractional crystallization) from those that result from contamination from other sources or processes. Two examples illustrate the application: 1) In the Volcanic Hills, a

  3. Elus esinevad asjad. Popkunst lääne eeskujul argipäeva dokumenteerijana

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    Anneli Porri


    Soviet, and was expressed in the attempt to imitate westerners in both behaviour and clothing. Proceeding from the aesthetics and the choice of topics, pop art could be unmistakably associated with the Western society and was therefore publicly condemned. Still, people found ways to put the alluring visual language into proper use: the one-dimensional and transparent aesthetics of pop art was most convenient to apply in the so-called small media: areas of art that remained in the periphery outside the art hierarchy, depicting, among other things, objects characteristic particularly of pop art. Theatre design (Leonhard Lapin, illustrations for youth magazines (Ando Keskküla, Andres Tolts and animated cartoons (L. Lapin, A. Keskküla, Rein Tammik were the most suitable and extensive sublimation channels for talented designers and architects. An interior design magazine Kunst ja kodu, or Art and Home, which was published in Estonia but circulated all over the Soviet Union, often applied the visual language of pop art in its designs. Kunst ja kodu represented an avant-garde achievement, reproducing the creation of consumer artists or offering tips for interior decoration on photos, i.e. the work was not created in the form of an assemblage, object or painting, but the image characteristic of pop art was obtained in the form of a photo reproduction accompanying the article as an illustrative means. Even more progressive compared to the magazine Kunst ja kodu was the youth magazine Noorus, or Youth, which published illustrations by both the initiators of the group SOUP 69 and members of Visarid. Owing to these two magazines it is possible to talk about repro pop in the Estonian context. In their works the artists employed abstract rather than material values, symbols and allegory rather than clearly outlined icons. The most explicit images of the period were bus tickets, tetrahedral milk cartons, vacuum cleaners, pillows and canned soup. In Estonia, pop art did not serve to

  4. The study of major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry in Shahrestanak Mn deposit, south of Qom: Implications for genesis

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    Mohammad Maanijou


    source. As (Co/Zn-(Co+Cu+Ni diagram, the samples from Shahrestanak deposit show close similarities with hydrothermal deposits which in turn show common genesis. Using Pb versus Zn diagram, dubhite (deposits derived from previous mineralized sequence can be distinguished from other Mn oxide (hydrothermal or supergene deposits. The dubhite deposits have high Pb/Zn ratios and more than 1 percent Pb and Zn contents. Meanwhile, other types of deposits like shallow marine deposit, hot springs, SEDEX, weathered deposits have lower contents of Pb and Zn. The Shahrestanak deposit has more similarities with SEDEX and shallow marine deposits. Conclusion Geological and geochemical evidences show that deposition of ore occurred by submarine hydrothermal activities in Neotethys oceanic basin during Middle to Upper Eocene in calcareous tuff with intercalation of micrite and calcareous limestone. For the genesis of the deposit, it can be stated that the pillow basalt and andesite lavas were leached by hydrothermal activities and Mn, Fe, Si, Ba, Sr and As entered in sedimentary basin by exhalative – volcanic activities through faults, then by regression of the sea and forming oxidizing condition, primary oxide-hydroxide Mn-minerals are deposited. Acknowledgement We gratefully thank the Research and Technology Department of Bu-Ali Sina University for supporting the research. References Bonatti, E., Kraemer, T. and Rdell, H., 1972. Classification and genesis of submarine iron- manganese deposits of the ocean floor. In: D.R. Horn (Editor, Ferromanganese Deposits of the Ocean Floor. Aren House Harriman, pp. 149-166. Cann, J.R., Winter, C.K. and Pritchard R.G., 1977. A hydrothermal deposit from the floor of the Gulf of Aden. Mineralogical Magazine, 41(318: 193-199. Nicholson, K., 1992. Genetic types of manganese oxide deposits in Scotland: Indicators of paleo-ocean-spreading rate and a Devonian geochemical mobility boundary. Economic Geology 87(5: 1301-1309.

  5. Provenance analysis and detrital zircon geochronology on the onshore Makran accretionary wedge, SE Iran: implication for the geodynamic setting (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Winkler, Wilfried; Ruh, Jonas


    juvenile magma sources, which are common in continental arc environments. Point counts of 32 sandstone thin sections were performed following the Gazzi-Dikinson method. 300-400 points were counted in each thin section. The sandstones are feldspathic litharenites and litharenites. Feldspar is dominantly plagioclase (> 90%) with minor amounts of K-feldspar. Most of the quartz grains (75%) are mono-crystalline but poly-crystalline ones (maximum 25%) also occur. Rock fragments are represented by sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic grains. Volcanic rock-fragments mostly are andesites and volcanic chert. Sedimentary lithic grains comprise mostly sandstone, siltstone, limestone and dolomite. Metamorphic lithic grains generally are low-grade schists and phyllites. In various compositional ternary diagrams, the sources of the sandstones plot in the transitional to dissected arc and recycled orogenic fields. We selected 26 samples for heavy mineral study. 200-300 grain were identified and counted in each sample. Heavy mineral suites show a highly variable composition including (1) a group of ultra-stable minerals (zircon, monazite, tourmaline, rutile, brookite, anatase and sphene) derived from a granitic continental crust sources, (2) metastable minerals delivered from variable metamorphic-grade source rocks (epidote group, garnet, staurolite, chloritoid, kyanite, andalusite, glaucophane), (3) chromian spinel from ultrabasic rocks, (4) common hornblende either supplied from metamorphic or basic igneous series, and (5) a local pyroxene-rich source in the pyroclastic sandstone formation overlying pillow lavas. Glaucophane (5-20%) occurs in several samples, which indicates high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks in the detrital source areas for Eocene and Miocene sandstones. Earlier work in the Pakistani Makran suggested that pre-Miocene sediments were supplied from the Himalaya, whereas Miocene to Recent deposits were reworked older sediments of the accretionary wedge. Our

  6. Petrography and mineral chemistry of wehrlites in contact zone of gabbro intrusions and mantle peridotites of the Naein ophiolite

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    Farhad Ghaseminejad


    Full Text Available Introduction Geological background Ophiolites have played a major role in our understanding of Earth’s processes ranging from seafloor spreading, melt evolution and magma transport in oceanic spreading centers, and hydrothermal alteration and mineralization of oceanic crust to collision tectonics, mountain building processes, and orogeny. They provide the essential structural, petrological, geochemical, and geochronological evidence to document the evolutionary history of ancient continental margins and ocean basin. Ophiolites include a peridotitic mantle sequence, generally characterized by high-temperature plastic deformation and residual chemistry, and a comagmatic crustal sequence (gabbros, diabase dikes, and submarine basalts, weakly or not deformed. According to this interpretation, ophiolites were allochthonous with respect to their country rocks. They were assembled during a primary accretion stage at an oceanic spreading center, and later tectonically emplaced on a continental margin or island arc (Dilek, 2003. The indigenous dikes of pyroxenites and gabbros that were injected into a melting peridotite, or intrusive dikes of pyroxenite and gabbro that injected when the peridotite was fresh and well below its solidus, are discussed in different ophiolite papers. Pyroxenite formation and contact of gabbro and mantle peridotite are discussed in different articles (Dilek, 2003. When a gabbro intrude a fresh mantle peridotite could not significantly react with it, but if intrusion occurs during the serpentinization, the gabbro will change to rodingite. Geological setting The Naein ophiolitic melanges comprise the following rock units: mantle peridotites (harzburgite, lherzolite, dunite, with associated chromitite, gabbro, pyroxenite, sheeted and swarm dikes, massive basalts, pillow lava, plagiogranite, radiolarian chert, glaubotruncana limestone, rodingite, listvenite, and metamorphic rocks (foliated amphibolitic dike, amphibolite, skarn

  7. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

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    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi


    -rich sediment distribution in drill holes and trenches indicates that the titaniferous placers are distributed in an area of about 0.8 km2 and follow the Upper Jogaz river system. The titaniferous placers are concentrated mainly in three beds with thicknesses of 30 to 100 cm. The study of heavy minerals shows that ilmenite is the main ore mineral and titanomagnetite, rutile and sphene are present as trace minerals. The ilmenite concentration varies in the Upper Jogaz Valley fluvial sediments, in which the concentration of ilmenite generally increases away from source rock to reach a maximum concentration downstream. The geological evidence indicates that the titaniferous placers were deposited as a fluvial placer and originated from weathering and erosion of ilmenite-rich gabbros. The presence of low-grade deposits and sparse heavy minerals in the Upper Jogaz river coarse sediments is probably related to hydraulic equilibrium (Robb, 2005. Entrainment sorting created thin layers of heavy minerals (i.e., ilmenite on the Upper Jogaz streambed. The occurrence of Ti-rich layers in fine sand and silt beds is probably due to shear sorting. (5The ophiolite sequence is well exposed in the study area. This sequence is composed of cumulative peridotites, layered and massive gabbros, diabasic sheeted dikes, basaltic pillow lavas and pelagic sediments. The layered gabbros were the main source of the ilmenite Ti mineralization. The highest concentration of Ti was observed in the eastern and northern parts of Upper Jogaz Valley area, which are mainly covered by olivine- and hornblende-gabbros (6. The western part of the area is covered by an unaltered diabase unit. The study of several polished sections from the Upper Jogaz Valley gabbros shows ilmenite as the main Ti-bearing mineral with anhedral to subhedral crystals 5 to 400 microns in size. The drill hole and trench data suggest that the deposits follow the morphology of the present-day Upper Jogaz river. The Ti placer beds accumulated

  8. The investigation of microfossils in ancient rocks: the comparison of different techniques (United States)

    Astafieva, M.


    about their relationships. The study of fresh rock chips avoids most of these disadvantages. While examining them in the Scanning Electronic Microscope we can observe not only peculiarities, including three-dimensional form of microfossils, but also the interrelationships between the host rock and the biomorphs. Thus we can judge if the microfossils are embedded within and indigenous to the rock matrix or if they "lie" on the surface of rock (in this case the possibility of later contamination is great). Furthermore, the elemental compositions of the possible microfossils and the surrounding rock matrix can be investigated using the microprobe. Investigations of different rock types were conducted in order to compare the different methods of research of ancient (AR) rocks (carbonaceous shales, volcanogenic-sedimentary etc.) of the Khizovaar green-stone structure of Karelia, the Archaean and Proterozoic weathering crusts of Karelia, the Proterozoic pillow-lavas and volcanic glasses of different regions, etc. It is quite clear that in the course of the investigation of rocks and the study of ancient microfossils, we are need to know the chemical composition of the fossil by itself and rock matrix as a whole. In this point of view the method of the study of fresh chips are of intermediate position. Macerates are practically unsuitable for this kind of investigation. Thin-sections are of great value in this respect, because their smooth surfaces are very good for chemical scanning by the microprobe while working in modern scanning electron EPSC Abstracts Vol. 7 EPSC2012-9 2012 European Planetary Science Congress 2012 c Author(s) 2012 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress microscopes. Uneven surfaces of fresh chips are not so good for the need of chemical analyses, but nevertheless it is possible to receive chemical analyses using this method. The bacterial-paleontological study of numerous and diverse samples of fresh chips of Archaean- Proterozoic rocks (metasedimentary

  9. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)


    hydrocarbons in the Toender area. The resistivity variations clearly reflect the presence of salt tectonics in the survey area. Another achievement from the test is the information on electromagnetic noise sources. The noise in the survey area was highly variable both spatially and with time. At some MT stations high quality data could be obtained. Other MT stations did not provide data of sufficiently quality to be included in the modelling. Some tentative comments with respect to interpretation of the acquired MT data are provided. We do not enter into an in-depth interpretation of the data and derived model, but we conclude that the MT data provide valuable information on the regional variations of resistivity. A number of anomalies are evident which point to significant variations in resistivity laterally. Some inconsistencies in relation to information from deep wells are noted with respect to depth to stratigraphic units. This is particularly the case at the location of the Borg-1 well. The salt pillow around at Toender is mapped well by the MT data. The reporting of the test is structured as follows: after a short introduction (with some basic information on MT for readers unfamiliar with the method) follows the report by L.B. Pedersen and J. Shan, Uppsala University, which represents the core of the test. It includes a description of field work, noise conditions and data quality, data processing techniques and modelling. The report by Pedersen and Shan and accompanying appendix is included as chapter 3 in this report. The last part of this report places the modelling results in context with geological information and other geophysical data publically available from the survey area. The purpose of this last part of the report is to provide information and considerations useful for further interpretation on the acquired new data. A section on the geology of the area is included with some key references and finally, another section includes displays of the model derived

  10. The Ellsworth terrane, coastal Maine: Geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd-Pb isotopic composition - Implications for the rifting of Ganderia (United States)

    Schulz, K.J.; Stewart, D.B.; Tucker, R.D.; Pollock, J.C.; Ayuso, R.A.


    The Ellsworth terrane is one of a number of fault-bounded blocks that occur along the eastern margin of Ganderia, the western-most of the peri-Gondwanan domains in the northern Appalachians that were accreted to Laurentia in the Paleozoic. Geologic relations, detrital zircon ages, and basalt geochemistry suggest that the Ellsworth terrane is part of Ganderia and not an exotic terrane. In the Penobscot Bay area of coastal Maine, the Ellsworth terrane is dominantly composed of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanic sequences of the Ellsworth Schist and unconformably overlying Castine Volcanics. We use new U-Pb zircon geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd and Pb isotopes for these volcanic sequences to constrain the petrogenetic history and paleotectonic setting of the Ellsworth terrane and its relationship with Ganderia. U-Pb zircon geochronology for rhyolites indicates that both the Ellsworth Schist (508.6 ?? 0.8 Ma) and overlying Castine Volcanics (503.5 ?? 2.5 Ma) are Middle Cambrian in age. Two tholefitic basalt types are recognized. Type Tb-1 basalt, present as pillowed and massive lava flows and as sills in both units, has depleted La and Ce ([La/Nd]N = 0.53-0.87) values, flat heavy rare earth element (REE) values, and no positive Th or negative Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized diagrams. In contrast, type Th-2 basalt, present only in the Castine Volcanics, has stightly enriched LREE ([La/Yb]N = 1.42-2.92) values and no Th or Th anomalies. Both basalt types have strongly positive ??Nd (500) values (Th-1 = +7.9-+8.6; Th-2 = +5.6-+7.0) and relatively enriched Pb isotopic compositions (206Ph/204Pb = 18.037-19.784; 207/204Pb = 15.531-15.660; 2088Pb/204Pb = 37.810-38.817). The basalts have compositions transitional between recent normal and enriched mid-ocean-ridge basalt, and they were probably derived by partial melting of compositionatly heterogeneous asthenosphenc mantle. Two types of rhyolite also are present. Type R-1 rhyolite, which mostly occurs as tuffs

  11. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

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    Fariborz Khodadadi


    samples carried out in the chemistry laboratory of the University of Urmia. All water sampling procedures were performed based on standard protocols (SMEWW, 2010. The maximum concentration of heavy metal contamination of drinking water with EPA, WHO and national standards were compared. In this study, the chemical analysis of heavy metals, were used by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (at ppb for the elements Cu, Mg, Fe and Zn. Concentration of the heavy metals in acidified water samples (pH value of 2, using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer were analyzed. Discussion There are enormous amounts of Fe and magnesium in groundwater from the north and northwest Khoy plain, and the amount of Cu and zinc are in the normal range in water resources. The source of iron and magnesium in the groundwater of the study area is ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Khoy ophiolite complex. Weathering of ultramafic and mafic igneous rocks such as peridotite, olivine basalt, gabbro and pillow lava and then soil formation, high concentrations of the elements Mg and Fe were transferred to soil. Ferromagnesian olivine is formed Mg2+ and Fe2+ ions and tetrahedral silicon. If sufficient amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ ions combine with silicon and oxygen, silicon into the soil, forms silicic acid (H4SiO4, or magnesium or iron smectite (clay minerals (Alexander et al., 2007. Several types of pyroxene are more stable than olivine. Orthopyroxene during weathering decompose into talc and smectite. Magnesite (MgCO3 is present in some serpentine soils. With respect to the empirical relationship (Kierczak et al., 2007 and based on temperature and rainfall, the study area with a drought index of 12.48 places in the category of semi-arid-cold climate between 10 and 19.9. Temperature changes in the condition cause weathering and leaching of serpentine soils, and subsequently can remove large amounts of magnesium. Weathering and leaching serpentine soils, releases immediately magnesium and

  12. Pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients and related factors%住院患者医院感染病原学类型与相关因素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万兰; 郭晨霞; 邓艳芳; 郑春梅; 祝中年; 余凤姣


    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between the species and distribution of the pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in the hospitalized patients and the ward environment and the medical facilities so as to provide reliable bases for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections in grass-roots hospital. METHODS The patients who were enrolled in the hospital from Jan to Sep 2011 were selected as the monitoring subjects, the etiological examination of the patients with infections was performed, the air of the ward, bed unit and objects and the used medical facilities were set as the microbiologic monitoring indexes. RESULTS Of totally 18 037 case-times of hospitalized patients monitored, nosocomial infections occurred in 227 patients with the infection rate of 1. 26%; the etiological examination showed that the gram-negative bacteria accounted for 52. 01% , higher than 31. 51% of gram-positive bacteria and 16. 44% of the fungi; Esckerichia coli (28. 94%) , Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18. 42%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (10. 53%) were the predominant species of gram-negative bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus (34. 78%) and S. haemolyticus (21. 74%), and S. epidermidis (21. 74%) were the predominant gram-positive bacteria; Micrococcus luteus and S. epidermidis were the predominant species of gram-positive cocci in the ward, followed by Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacilli; medical facilities to Bacillus cereus bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacilli, followed by the gram-positive bacilli such as black variant spores of Bacillus subtilis ; Cereus and black variant spores of Bacillus subtilis were predominant species of gram-positive bacilli on the medical facilities, followed by the gram-positive cocci such as S. epidermidis; the difference in the constituent ratio of the bacterial species between the air, pillow, quilts and thr bedstands was statistically significant. CONCLUSION It is an effective measure to

  13. 培美曲赛联合IL-2治疗恶性胸腔积液的临床研究%Treatment of malignant pleural effusion by Pemetrexed combined with Interleukin-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良; 张道良; 张颖; 顾月清


    OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of intrapleural injection of Pemetrexed combined With Intcrlcukin-2 for malignant pleural effusion. METHOSDS; Thirty-five patients with malignant pleural effusion were divided into combination group(20 cases , including 13 with lung Qdcnocarcinoms.,4 with malignant pleural rne5Otneliorna,3 with hreast cancer) and single-drug group(15 cases,including 12 with lung adenocarcinoma, 1 with malignant pleural mes-Othelbma,2 with breast cancer). All of the patients received closed drainage after percutaneous thoracocentesis. And 200 mg of Pemetrexed and 3 million units of Interleukin-2 were injected through catheter iiitn thoracic cavity in combination group,and 3 million units of interleukin-2 only were done in single-drug group afer the effusion had been drained cleanly and the lung was reexpanded completely. The patients must rotate positions every 10-15 min in bed without pillows for total of 3 cycles. The residual effusion would be drawn out after the drugs had been reserved for 48 h,and the catheter would been pulled out finally. RESULTS; In combination group,14(70. 0%) cases were determined for CR(com-plete response), 4(20. 0%) cases for PRCpartial response), 2(10. 0%) cases for NC( no change),and the ORRCoverall response rate) was 90.0%. In single-drug group,3(20. 0%) cases were determined for CR,4(26. 7%) cases for PR,8 (53. 3%) cases for NCand the ORR was 46. 7%. After 3-month and 6-month follow-up,the rate of SD(stable disease) in combination group were 88. 9% and 77. 8% respectively,and that in single-drug group were 57. 1% and 28. 6%. There were no bone marrow suppression, anaphylaxis and pleural thickening large than 2 cm occurred m two groups. Only 3 (15. 0%) cases in combination group and none in Single-drug group occurred mild nausea and slightly reduction of appetite which acquired improvement after the treatment by Metocloprarnide and Vitamin B. There were 6(30. 0%) cases in combination group,4(26. 7

  14. 宝鸡市城区0~14岁儿童哮喘调查研究%Investigation on asthma in 0~14 years old children in Baoji city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕菊红; 李文君; 魏升云; 汤淑斌; 李武军; 高改兰; 王玉; 柳文婧; 韩丽华


    【Objective】 To understand asthma prevalence in 0~14 years old children in Baoji city. 【Method】 The cluster sampling method was used to select randomly 0~14 years old Baoji children for investigation. 【Results】 Morbidity of asthma was 4. 82% in 0~14 year-old children in Baoji,the morbidity of boys' and girls' were 5. 68% and 3. 82% respec-tivily,the difference of morbidity between different gender was statistically significant (χ2 = 19. 965,P<0. 001). In terms of patients who had asthma attack in near 2 years,predisposing factors were mainly respiratory infections(98. 96%) and changes in the weather (87. 08% ) ,the seasons of asthma onset were autumn (42. 71%) and winter (21. 55%) primarily. An major hour of asthma onset were midnight (43. 13%) and mane primo (29. 38%). The age of the first asthma onset was under 3 years old accounted for 71. 04% ;rate of using antibiotic was 85. 21%. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis presented that in the case of no cold or flu,children had sneezing,runny nose,nasal congestion,nasal itching or eye itching phenomenon were independent risk factors for asthma(P<0. 05) ,and repeated skin itching or joint flexor side rash,allergic rhinitis,allergic symptoms or similar allergies after eating some foods,caesarean,plus protein food within six months, history of using antibiotics,room wall using paint,doors and windows were made from plastic steel,coolingwith natural ventilation in summer,silkworm sand pillow were independent risk factors for asthma (P<0. 05) ; Heater using in winter heating, ventilation or cooling using fans in summer and down duvets were protective factors of asthma (P<0. 05). 【Conclusion】Compared to 2000,the morbidity of asthma in 0 -14 years of children in Baoji markedly rise,there are many risk factors of childhood asthma,and it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of children asthma.%[目的]了解宝鸡市城区0~14岁儿童哮喘流行情况,为有效

  15. Treatment of odontoid fractures using percutaneous cannulated screwing with the help of a novel aiming device%悬臂式齿突导针瞄准器引导下经皮空心螺钉内固定治疗齿状突骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉锋; 刘大勇; 徐兆万; 伦登兴; 冀旭斌; 庄青山


    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a self-designed novel n-shaped aiming device in aiding the percutaneous cannulated screwing for treatment of odontoid fractures of Anderson-D' Alonzo type Ⅱ and shallow type Ⅲ.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of the 17 patients who had been treated at our department for odontoid fracture of Anderson-D' Alonzo type Ⅱ and shallow type Ⅲ between January 2009 and December 2013.They were 13 males and 4 females,with an average age of 37.5 years (from 16 to 61 years).All received surgical treatment after skull traction or jaw pillow traction preoperatively for reduction.Intraoperatively,percutaneous cannulated screwing via the anterior cervical approach was performed with the help of a self-designed novel n-shaped aiming device to fix the odontoid.Postoperatively,X-ray and CT scan were used to check the screw locations and evaluate the fracture healing.Results The 17 cases were followed up for 6 to 15 months (average,10.5 months).No intraoperative injury to the esophagus,artery,spinal cord or nerve root happened.The operating time ranged from 60 to 125 min.The bleeding was from 10 to 40 mL.Intraoperative observation revealed fine locations of the screws.Bony union was achieved in 16 cases 3 months postoperatively while separation and hardening of the fracture ends was found in one ease.Conclusion Our self-designed novel n-shaped aiming device can facilitate the percutaneous cannulated screwing for treatment of odontoid fractures of Anderson-D'Alonzo type Ⅱ and shallow type Ⅲ,given that it has advantages of simple manipulation,accurate insertion,minimal invasion,quick recovery and reliable efficacy.%目的 观察在自行设计研发的悬臂式齿突导针瞄准器辅助下经皮颈椎前路齿状突螺钉内固定术治疗Anderson-D'AlonzoⅡ型、浅Ⅲ型齿状突骨折的疗效. 方法 回顾性分析2009年1月至2013年12月收治的17例Anderson-D'AlonzoⅡ型、浅Ⅲ型

  16. Application of the improved lateral decubitus position in the operation%改良侧卧位在手术体位中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于美华; 何丽云; 谢玮娜; 余晓玲


    Objective To explore the application effect of the improved lateral decubitus position in the operation.Methods 160 cases were randomly divided into the modified lateral surgical group and traditional group two groups (n =80 for each group).Fourth edition of the traditional group was “routine medical care and technical operations” approach placed.Modified group:before anesthesia,a small pad under the chest wall soft pillow,according to lesion location after anesthesia choose left or right lateral position,his hands in front of music was set to sleep like the two arms of a small soft pillowbetween the pad; Front legs apart,on the tuiqu Xi,the next leg straight; head elevated after the first lap put the gap at the ear; Chest and abdomen and the back of each fixed a cylindrical yam bags,and finally tied with fixed hip,knee.Placed in two groups were observed an average completion time position,the incidence of intra-operative movement position,pressure and skin after postoperative follow-up physical fatigue,nerve damage,etc.Results Placed in modified group method average completion time is shorter than the traditional group,skin pressure,body fatigue,nerve injury rate of postoperative complications was significantly lower than the traditional group,intra-operative position more stable than the traditional group [ ( 13.97 ± 1.63 ) vs (6.71 ± 12.9 ),t =31.238,P < 0.01 ; x2 =6.826 7,8.901 1,1 1.756 6,P < 0.01 ).Conclusions Placed by the improved method can shorten the display side of time.For BP,HR,SpO2,respiration rate change had no effect,and complications of place due to improper posture can be significantly reduced and further enhance the quality of surgical care.%目的 探讨常规侧卧手术体位摆放的改进与应用效果.方法 将160例侧卧手术患者随机分为改良组与传统组两组,每组为80例.传统组采用第四版《医疗护理技术操作常规》方法摆放.改良组:麻醉前胸壁下方垫一小软枕,麻醉后根据病变

  17. Geología y vulcanología de La Palma y El Hierro, Canarias Occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Torrado, F. J.


    Full Text Available The western Canaries, relatively little studied until a few years ago from the geological point of view, have however provided decisive data for understanding many of the most important geological problems of the Archipelago, which would probably have been dilucidated earlier, had the study begun with the most recent islands, as occurs in similar chains of oceanic volcanic islands in other parts of the world. To summarize the main geological features and evolutionary characteristics of both islands we emphasize the following stages of development: During the Pliocene, a submarine volcanic edifice or seamount formed in the island of La Palma, made up of pillow lavas, pillow breccias and hyaloclastites, intruded by trachytic domes, plugs of gabbros, and a highly dense dyke swarm. The intense magmatic and dyke intrusion uplifted the searnount up to 1,500 m, tilting it 45-50" to the SW. This intrusive phase was followed by a period of quiescence and erosion of the emerged submarine edifice. The definitive consolidation and progression of the construction of the island continued from at least 1.77 ma in angular and erosive discordance over the submarine basement. The subaerial volcanic reactivation, in which explosive volcanism predominated during the initial stages, producing abundant volcanoclastic and phreatomagmatic materials at the base of the subaerial edifice, persisted in a highly continuous manner until at least 0.41 ma. This initial subaerial stage shaped the northern volcanic shield, formed by the accumulation of several superimposed volcanoes, approximately concentric in relation to one another and the submarine basement. The initial stage of the northern volcanic shield lasted between 1.77 and 1.20 ma, during which period the Garafía volcano was built to a height of 2,500-3,000 m, with steeply sloping flanks, formed predominantly by alkaline basalts with abundant pahoehoe lavas. The rapid growth and progressive instability of the Garaf


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪瑛; 邓宇骁; 刘浩; 龚仁蓉; 安晶晶; 龚全; 李涛; 宋跃明


    after surgery. Methods Between January 2008 and August 2010, 51 patients underwent single segmental PRESTIGE LP replacement, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. During the surgery, the patient was supinely placed and the lordosis of the cervical spine was mantained with a pillow placed beneath the neck. Of them, 28 were male and 23 were female, aged 30-64 years (mean, 45 years); 32 were diagnosed as having cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 7 having radiculopathy, and 12 having myelopathy and radiculopathy. The disease duration was 3-48 months (mean, 15 months). CDR was performed at Co in 5 cases, at C5.6 in 42 cases, and at C6,7 in 4 cases. The Cobb angles of the cervical alignment, targeted functional spinal unit (FSU), and targeted disc were measured by sagittal X-ray film of the cervical spine in neutral position before and after surgery, as well as the intraoperative C-arm fluroscopy of the cervical spine. Linear correlation and regression were performed to analyze the relation between cervical Cobb angle difference at intraoperation and improvement of the Cobb angles at 3 months after operation. Results The cervical Cobb angles at intraoperation and 3 months after operation were larger than those at preoperation (P < 0.05). The difference of the Cobb angle between intra- and pre-operation was (6.72 ± 9.13)° on cervical alignment, (2.10 ± 5.12)° on targeted FSU, and (3.33 ± 3.75)° on targeted disc. At 3 months after operation, the Cobb angle improvement of the cervical alignment, targeted FSU, and targeted disc was (6.30 ± 7.28), (3.99 ± 5.37), and (4.29 ± 5.36)°, respectively. There was no significant difference in the Cobb angle improvement between the targeted FSU and the targeted disc (t=-0.391, P=0.698), and between the targeted disc and the cervical alignment (t=-1.917, P=0.061), but significant difference was found between the targeted FSU and the cervical alignment (t=-2.623, P=0.012). The linear correlation between the Cobb angle

  19. Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN; Naples (Italy; October 12-15, 2016

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    --- Various Authors



  20. Mineralization and trace element distribution in pyrite using EMPA in exploration drill holes from Cheshmeh Zard gold district, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

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    Zahra Alaminia


    systems were recognized east of Arghash. The estimated resources are about 2 million metric tons of potential ore with an average of 1.9 g/t Au (Samadi, 2001;Ashrafpour et al., 2012. Multiple intrusive events are recognized in the region including Precambrian to post-Oligocene-Miocene igneous rocks (Alaminia et al., 2013a. This includes the Arghash diorite pluton, upper Cretaceous granitoids (minor diorite, mainly quartz monzodiorite and granodiorite, early Eocene granite and several lamprophyre and small intrusions of quartz monzodiorite porphyries. Volcanicsinclude andesite, dacite, pillow basalt and tuffs. Sedimentary rocks are conglomerate and minor limestone. Gold veins are hosted by intermediate to silicic volcanic rocks, tuffs, granite, granodiorite, and conglomerate. Veins consist of calcite and quartz. The main alteration zones mapped at the surface and underground are sericite-quartz-pyrite-calcite, withsilicified, propylitic, argillic, and carbonate zones. The mineralization associated with sericiticalteration and silicificationoccurs asveinlets and disseminated in the propylitic zone. Gangue minerals are quartz, chalcedony, calcite, adularia, illite, and kaolinite. Mineralization occurs as veinlets, breccia filling and disseminated. The veinlets are comprised of pyrite, arsenopyrite, minor chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, magnetite and hematite. Pyrite is the main sulfide mineral in the hypogene ore. Samples were collected with the objective of studying the pyrite in the Au (III vein systems. All samples were therefore pyrite rich. The paragenesiswas determined to show four stages of mineralization based on the following microscopic observations: 1. an initial pyrite veinlet stage with associated quartz, chlorite, epidote. Pyrite is fine to medium grained, anhedral and gold-poor. 2. a second pyritic stage (polymetallic sulfide stage contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, quartz and chalcedony, minor adularia and arsenopyrite. 3. An As

  1. Comparison of the risk factors for asthma in children between urban and rural areas in fuzhou city%福州市城乡儿童哮喘危险因素比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐素萍; 王世彪; 郑建云; 刘艳琳; 程潮; 张敏军; 叶雯婧; 陈燊; 董李


    children and was 1.79%.Adding protein supplement before 6 months (OR =1.908,95% CI:1.233-2.959),the use of antibiotics in the treatment of asthma (OR =14.541,95% CI:8.920-23.705),furniture materials (non wood) (OR =2.432,95% CI:1.563-3.785) were the main risk factors of children with asthma in urban.Adding protein supplement before 6 months(OR =3.021,95% CI:1.357-6.711),the use of antibiotics in the treatment of asthma(OR =14.784,95% CI:3.842-56.885),the use of coal as fuel (OR =63.339,95% CI:7.993-501.943),domesticated livestock (OR =13.659,95% CI:1.342-139.068),the family smoking before and after birth (OR =6.226,95% CI:2.674-14.495) and chemical fiber pillow (OR =3.638,95% CI:1.241-10.666) were the main risk factors of children with asthma in rural areas.Conclusion The prevalence of children with asthma in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas.The prevalence of asthma in male children was higher than in female children.Adding protein food supplement before 6 months,the use of antibiotics and non solid wood furniture material were the main risk factors in children with asthma in urban areas.Adding protein supplement before 6 months,the use of antibiotics,domesticated livestock,the use of coal as fuel and the family smoking before and after birth were the main risk factor of asthma in children in rural areas.

  2. Case-paired analysis of the indications for percutaneous laser disc decompression%经皮激光椎间盘减压术适应证的病例配对分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑叶滨; 杜凡; 杨军


    BACKGROUND: In recent years, percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) has been developed gradually in China. But there have been fewer further studies on the indications and contraindications for the use of the therapy.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the therapeutic effect after the choice of the indications for PLDD.DESIGN: A case-paired observational analysis with the patients as the subjects.SETTING: The Department of Radiology and Department of Soft Injuries of the 474 Hospital of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: We recruited inpatients of the 474 Hospital of Chinese PLA after PLDD between August 1998 and December 2004 as subjects for this research. Totally 68 cases were involved. According to the same gender, the closeness in age, the cases were matched and divided into 2 groups (eg. If there were 2 or more than 2 cases with the same age, the case whose disease course is the closest one was chosen): poor indication group (n=34) and good indication group (n=34).METHODS: A pillow was put under the belly of the patient who lay face down on the angiographic bed with the side with serious symptoms near the outside of the bed (the side where doctor operated). Symbols were marked on the body surface under the fluoroscopy. The waist was subjected to conventional sterilization and was paved with a piece of sterile cloth. 5 Ml of lydocaine was used for anesthesia. 8-12 cm to the posterior central midline of the diseased side, an incision was made to insert the needle according to the fat and thinness of the patients, and attention to the angle adjustment was needed to enter the intervertebral disc through "the secure triangle"beneath the nerve root so that 5 mm of the exposed front segment covered the needle end completely. Cautery was made with 15 W laser for every 1s after an interval of 4 s. The total output power of laser was adjusted according to the area of intervertebral disc, which was usually 1 200-1 700joules. The gas produced should be drawn out during the cautery, and

  3. Perioperative nursing care and rehabilitation for patients with traumatic elbow joint stiffness%创伤性肘关节僵硬的围手术期护理及康复治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红莉; 孔祥燕


    based on the assessment of patients′understanding of the condition .Patients were informed of the surgery objective and outcome ,possible discomforts after surgery and relative measures and the importance of function exercise .Rehabilitation plan was made for patients .They are also motivated to cooperate during surgery ,postoperative nursing care and rehabilitation so that good results could be obtained .(2 ) Postoperative nursing for affected extremity :During stay in bed ,the patients were on the horizontal position with soft pillow elevating the affected extremity .The affected extremity was gently massaged from the distal to the proximal end to promote vein reflux .When the patients are able to get out of the bed ,the forearm was supported by strap .The temperature ,blood supply ,feelings and mobility were assessed to determine whether symptoms of nerve injury developed .(3 ) Pain management after surgery :Long‐term physical therapy and drugs were used to relieve pain .The cold pack was applied to the affected extremity three times per day ,20 min once .The patients in the group had no history of gastrointestinal ulcer before surgery .The patients were intravenously administered with flurbiprofen axetil twice at a dose of 50 mg during stay after surgery .In case of flare of pain ,people with pain score≥4 were intramuscularly administered with 50 mg pethidine hydrochloride .After discharge ,the patients were orally administered with celecoxib ,200 mg once ,twice per day .(4 ) Nursing of approaches after surgery :The dressings were immediately changed if exudate was observed after function exercise at early period .75% alcohol was used to sterilize skin around the approaches ,twice per day .The patients were told to keep the affected extremity and external fixator clean .The approaches and external fixator should not be touched at will .If purulent exudate on the approach or red swelling around the approach skin was observed ,it was suspected as approach

  4. 肱骨近端严重骨折半肩关节置换术后护理与康复治疗%Nursing and rehabilitation after shoulder hemi-arthroplasty for severe proximal humeral fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    :Remove pillow,allow the patient to lie on his/her back,allow the affected side arm to flex elbow by 90°and put arm on body side(rest position);The therapist use one hand to hold up the affected side upper arm and use another hand to hold the affected side forearm,make passive anteflexion and uplifting of shoulder joint in scapula plane (30 °-45 ° in front of coronal plane);If pain occurs or resistance is met when flexion motion has proceeded to a certain angle,stop movement for 5s,the gradually return to rest position;with repetition for 4 times as 1 group,respectively exercise for 1 group in the morning and at afternoon respectively.(3)Passive external rotation exercise:Allow the patient to take dorsal position,remove the pillow,perform abduction of upper limb by 30°,keep the limbs in the scapula plane,and perform elbow joint flexion.The therapist uses one hand to hold up the affected side upper arm and uses another hand to hold the affected side wrist to make passive external rotation of shoulder joint in the direction away from the centre line of body.With repetition for 4 times as 1 group,respectively exercise 1 group in the morning and at afternoon.(4)Passive abduction,adduction and internal rotation exercise (Start from the 5th week post operation):Allow the patient to take dorsal position,the therapist help the patient to perform passive abduction, adduction and internal rotation (Abduction by 90°,internal rotation)training on shoulder joint;With repetition for 4 times as 1 group,respectively exercise 1 group in the morning and at afternoon. Muscle strength training:The training of isometric contraction of shoulder girdle is started from the 3rd week post operation.From the 6th week post operation,start isometric contraction training on shoulder int