Sample records for 3075ma ocelli-hosting pillow

  1. Porcelain Pillow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This pillow, 7.3cm high, 13.1cm long and 8.1cm wide, was unearthed in Changsha in 1983. Its pedestal is a male lion lying prostrate with an open mouth. The surface is rectangular. The pillow was glazed in blue with brownish green dots. A poem on the surface written with brown ink reads, "Dressed in a red blouse and slik gauze skirt, she

  2. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.; Frei, Robert


    assemblage is interpreted as relict epidosite. The stage II metasomatic assemblage occurs as concordant discontinuous layered calc-silicate bodies to discordant calc-silicate veins commonly associated with shear zones. The stage II metasomatic assemblage consists mainly of diopside...... + garnet + amphibole + plagioclase + quartz ± vesuvianite ± scapolite ± epidote ± titanite ± calcite ± scheelite. Given that the second stage of metasomatism is closely associated with shear zones and replaced rocks with an early metamorphic fabric, its origin is attributed to regional dynamothermal metamorphism. The least altered pillow basalts, picrites, gabbros, and diorites are characterized by LREE......-enriched, near-flat HREE, and HFSE (especially Nb)-depleted trace element patterns, indicating a subduction zone geochemical signature. Ultramafic pillows and cumulates display large positive initial eNd values of + 1.3 to + 5.0, consistent with a strongly depleted mantle source. Given the geological...

  3. Morphometric study of pillow-size spectrum among pillow lavas (United States)

    Walker, George P. L.


    Measurements of H and V (dimensions in the horizontal and vertical directions of pillows exposed in vertical cross-section) were made on 19 pillow lavas from the Azores, Cyprus, Iceland, New Zealand, Tasmania, the western USA and Wales. The median values of H and V plot on a straight line that defines a spectrum of pillow sizes, having linear dimensions five times greater at one end than at the other, basaltic toward the small-size end and andesitic toward the large-size end. The pillow median size is interpreted to reflect a control exercised by lava viscosity. Pillows erupted on a steep flow-foot slope in lava deltas can, however, have a significantly smaller size than pillows in tabular pillowed flows (inferred to have been erupted on a small depositonal slope), indicating that the slope angle also exercised a control. Pipe vesicles, generally abundant in the tabular pillowed flows and absent from the flow-foot pillows, have potential as a paleoslope indicator. Pillows toward the small-size end of the spectrum are smooth-surfaced and grew mainly by stretching of their skin, whereas disruption of the skin and spreading were important toward the large-size end. Disruption involved increasing skin thicknesses with increasing pillow size, and pillows toward the large-size end are more analogous with toothpaste lava than with pahoehoe and are inferred from their thick multiple selvages to have taken hours to grow. Pseudo-pillow structure is also locally developed. An example of endogenous pillow-lava growth, that formed intrusive pillows between ‘normal’ pillows, is described from Sicily. Isolated pillow-like bodies in certain andesitic breccias described from Iceland were previously interpreted to be pillows but have anomalously small sizes for their compositions; it is now proposed that they may lack an essential attribute of pillows, namely, the development of bulbous forms by the inflation of a chilled skin, and are hence not true pillows. Para-pillow lava is

  4. Unassisted smothering in a pillow. (United States)

    Schmeling, Andreas; Fracasso, Tony; Pragst, Fritz; Tsokos, Michael; Wirth, Ingo


    We report the case of a 33-year-old man admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of paranoid schizophrenia. The man was found dead lying in his bed with the face pressed against a pillow and with elevated buttocks. The autopsy did not reveal a cause of death. The histological findings displayed the signs of the haemorrhagic-dysoric syndrome with acute emphysema; these findings are pathognomonic of obstructive asphyxia. The adverse effects of the neuroleptics demonstrated by the toxicological findings may have accelerated the loss of consciousness and facilitated the unusual position of the body. On the basis of the clinical history, the autopsy findings, the histological features and the toxicological results, asphyxia due to smothering was diagnosed as the cause of death.

  5. Improving the quality of sleep with an optimal pillow: a randomized, comparative study. (United States)

    Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol; Lee, SeungWon; Choi, Wonjae; Park, Jun Hyuck; Tak, Sa Jin; Choi, Dae Ho; Yim, Jongeun


    Because sleep comprises one-third of a person's life, using an optimal pillow for appropriate neck support to maintain cervical curve may contribute to improve quality of sleep. Design of orthopedic pillow conforms to orthopedic guidelines to ensure the right support of the cervical curve. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of different pillow shape and content on cervical curve, pillow temperature, and pillow comfort. A feather pillow is regarded as a standard pillow, and a memory foam pillow is one of the most popular pillows among pillow users. We, therefore, compared these two pillows with an orthopedic pillow. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women; age range, 21-30 years) participated in the study. Each subject was asked to assume the supine position with 3 different pillows for 30 minute in each trial and then cervical curve, pillow temperature, and pillow comfort were measured. When comparing the cervical curve of the 3 different pillows, that of the orthopedic pillow was significantly higher than that of the other 2 pillows (p optimal pillow for sleep quality.

  6. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany. (United States)

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J


    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  7. Design of Maternity Pillow by Using Kansei and Taguchi Methods (United States)

    Ilma Rahmillah, Fety; Nanda kartika, Rachmah


    One of the customers’ considerations for purchasing a product is it can satisfy their feeling and emotion. It because of such product can enhance sleep quality of pregnant women. However, most of the existing product such as maternity pillows are still designed based on companies’ perspective. This study aims to capture the desire of pregnant women toward maternity pillow desired product by using kansei words and analyze the optimal design with Taguchi method. Eight collected kansei words were durable, aesthetic, comfort, portable, simple, multifunction, attractive motive, and easy to maintain. While L16 orthogonal array is used because there are three variables with two levels and four variables with four levels. It can be concluded that the best maternity pillow that can satisfy the customers can be designed by combining D1-E2-F2-G2-C1-B2-A2 means the model is U shape, flowery motive, medium color, Bag model B, cotton pillow cover, filled with silicon, and use double zipper. However, it is also possible to create combination of D1-E2-F2-G2-C1-B1-A1 by using consideration of cost which means that the zipper is switched to single as well as filled with dacron. In addition, the total percentage of contribution by using ANOVA reaches 95%.

  8. The Effect of Different Pillow Heights on the Parameters of Cervicothoracic Spine Segments


    Kim, Hyung Cheol; Jun, Hyo Sub; Kim, Ji Hee; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Chang, In Bok; Song, Joon Ho; Oh, Jae Keun


    Objective To investigate the effect of different pillow heights on the slope of the cervicothoracic spine segments. Methods A prospective analysis of data from 16 asymptomatic adults (aged 20 to 30 years) was carried out. Exclusion criteria were history of injury or accident to the cervicothoracic spine, cervicothoracic spine surgery, or treatment for neck symptoms. We used three different pillow heights: flat (0 cm), 10-cm, and 20-cm pillows. Cervical sagittal parameters, measured with radio...

  9. A randomized, comparative trial: does pillow type alter cervico-thoracic spinal posture when side lying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon SJ


    Full Text Available Susan J Gordon1, Karen A Grimmer-Somers2, Patricia H Trott31School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Science, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD; 2Centre for Allied Health Sciences, 3School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Many patients ask for advice about choosing a pillow. This research was undertaken to determine if pillow type alters cervico-thoracic spine position when resting in the side-lying position.Aim: To investigate the effect of different pillow shape and content on the slope of cervico-thoracic spine segments when side lying.Materials and methods: The study was a randomized blinded comparative trial set in a laboratory that replicated a bedroom. The subjects were side sleepers aged over 18 years. Exclusion criteria were history of surgery to the cervico-thoracic spine, an injury or accident to the cervico-thoracic spine in the preceding year, or currently receiving treatment for neck symptoms. Each participant rested in a standardized side-lying position for 10 minutes on each of the trial pillows: regular shaped polyester, foam, feather, and latex pillows, and a contour shaped foam pillow. Reflective markers were placed on external occipital protuberance (EOP, C2, C4, C7, and T3, and digital images were recorded of subjects at 0 and 10 minutes on each pillow. Images were digitized using each reflective marker and the slope of each spinal segment calculated. Univariate analysis of variance models were used to investigate slope differences between pillows at 0 and 10 minutes. Significance was established at P < 0.01 to take account of chance effects from repeated measures and multiple comparisons.Results: At 0 and 10 minutes, the EOP-C2, C2-C4, and C4-C7 segmental slopes were significantly different across all pillows. Significant differences were identified when comparing the feather pillow with the latex, regular and contour foam pillows, and when

  10. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon. (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Staples, L.W.


    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence. Although the zeolite assemblages are similar to those found in other major zeolite occurrences in basaltic pillow lavas, regional zoning of the zeolite assemblages is not apparent. The formation of the different assemblages is discussed.-D.F.B.

  11. 78 FR 64196 - Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado On August 21... existing activation limit of FTZ 123, on behalf of Pillow Kingdom, Inc., in Aurora, Colorado....

  12. 78 FR 52758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 123-Denver, Colorado; Application for Subzone, Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora... (United States)


    ... Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board... Pillow Kingdom, Inc. (Pillow Kingdom), located in Aurora, Colorado. The application was...

  13. The Effect of Different Pillow Heights on the Parameters of Cervicothoracic Spine Segments. (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Cheol; Jun, Hyo Sub; Kim, Ji Hee; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Chang, In Bok; Song, Joon Ho; Oh, Jae Keun


    To investigate the effect of different pillow heights on the slope of the cervicothoracic spine segments. A prospective analysis of data from 16 asymptomatic adults (aged 20 to 30 years) was carried out. Exclusion criteria were history of injury or accident to the cervicothoracic spine, cervicothoracic spine surgery, or treatment for neck symptoms. We used three different pillow heights: flat (0 cm), 10-cm, and 20-cm pillows. Cervical sagittal parameters, measured with radiography, included; C2-7 Cobb's angle, T1 slope (T1S), thoracic inlet angle (TIA), and neck tilt (NT). Statistical analyses were performed using Spearman correlation coefficients. As the height of the pillow increased, the T1S & C2-7 Cobb's angle increased while the NT values tended to decrease. The TIA values, however, remained constant. Additionally, there was a statistically significant sex difference in T1S with the 0-cm pillow (p=0.01), and in NT with the 20-cm pillow (p=0.01). From the data obtained in this study, we recommend that the most suitable pillow height is 10 cm, considering the normal cervical lordosis.

  14. Assessment of the performance of nasal pillows at high CPAP pressures. (United States)

    Zhu, Xueling; Wimms, Alison J; Benjafield, Adam V


    Compliance with CPAP therapy remains an issue despite its effectiveness. Mask selection is likely to affect a patients experience with CPAP, and multiple mask options are currently available. Nasal pillows have less contact with the face compared to nasal masks and may benefit patients by minimizing side effects; however, they are infrequently used at high CPAP pressures. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of nasal pillows at pressures ≥ 12 cm H2O compared with nasal masks. Twenty-one subjects were recruited. Participants were randomized to Swift FX nasal pillows and their current nasal mask for 7 consecutive nights each in a prospective crossover trial. Objective device data and subjective feedback were collected. There were no differences in objective device data of nasal pillows vs. nasal masks: Daily Usage 7.4 ± 1.4 vs. 7.2 ± 1.4 (h/night); 95(th)%ile Leak 28.6 ± 13.5 vs. 27.9 ± 17.9 (L/min); AHI 1.9 ± 1.3 vs. 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively (all p-values > 0.05). There were no differences between the nasal pillows and nasal masks for subjective ratings of comfort, seal, red marks, side effects such as jetting and dry nose/mouth, and overall performance (all p-values > 0.05). The nasal pillows were rated to be less obtrusive and claustrophobic (both p-values < 0.01), but less stable (p = 0.04). Overall preference was 50% nasal pillows, 45% nasal masks; 5% found no difference. Nasal pillows are as efficacious as nasal masks at CPAP pressures ≥ 12 cm H2O and are a suitable option for patients requiring high CPAP pressures. NIH Clinical Trials Registry. Nasal Pillows at High CPAP Pressure. Identifier: NCT01690923.

  15. Hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis of terrestrial lacustrine pillow basalts: Coordination of hyperspectral imaging with laboratory measurements (United States)

    Greenberger, Rebecca N; Mustard, John F; Cloutis, Edward A; Mann, Paul; Wilson, Janette H.; Flemming, Roberta L; Robertson, Kevin; Salvatore, Mark R; Edwards, Christopher


    We investigate an outcrop of ∼187 Ma lacustrine pillow basalts of the Talcott Formation exposed in Meriden, Connecticut, USA, focusing on coordinated analyses of one pillow lava to characterize the aqueous history of these basalts in the Hartford Basin. This work uses a suite of multidisciplinary measurements, including hyperspectral imaging, other spectroscopic techniques, and chemical and mineralogical analyses, from the microscopic scale up to the scale of an outcrop.

  16. Prediction and control of pillow defect in single point incremental forming using numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidore, B. B. Lemopi [Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa (Turkmenistan); Hussain, G.; Khan, Wasim A. [GIK Institute of Engineering, Swabi (Pakistan); Shamachi, S. Pourhassan [University of Minho, Guimaraes (Portugal)


    Pillows formed at the center of sheets in Single point incremental forming (SPIF) are fabrication defects which adversely affect the geometrical accuracy and formability of manufactured parts. This study is focused on using FEA as a tool to predict and control pillowing in SPIF by varying tool size and shape. 3D Finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments are carried out using annealed Aluminum 1050. From FEA, it is found out that the stress/strain state in the immediate vicinity of the forming tool in the transverse direction plays a determinant role on sheet pillowing. Furthermore, pillow height increases as compression in the sheet-plane increases. The nature of in-plane stresses in the transverse direction varies from compressive to tensile as the tool-end geometry is changed from spherical to flat. Additionally, the magnitude of corresponding in-plane stresses decreases as the tool radius increases. According to measurements from the FEA model, flat end tools and large radii both retard pillow formation. However, the influence of changing tool end shape from hemispherical to flat is observed to be more important than the effect of varying tool radius, because the deformation zone remains in tension in the transverse direction while forming with flat end tools. These findings are verified by conducting a set of experiments. A fair agreement between the FEM and empirical results show that FEM can be employed as a tool to predict and control the pillow defect in SPIF.

  17. Petrogenesis of pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen


    The pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan have been inferred to bear Dupal signautres based on their Th/Ce ratio, linking the Baolai basalts to the South China Sea (SCS) seamounts that are characterized by Dupal Pb isotope signatures (Smith and Lewis, 2007). In this study, thirty-two Baolai basalt samples were analyzed for abundances of major and trace elements as well as Pb and Nd isotope ratios to verify their Dupal characters and to constrain their petrogenesis significance. The Baolai basalts contain 4-10 % L.O.I.. Three stages of alteration are inferred from plots of L.O.I. abundance versus concentrations major oxides as well as mineral textures and compositions. The first alteration stage was characterized by albitization that converted Ca-rich plagioclase to albite. The second alteration stage was dominated by chloritization of olivine and augite, resulting in increases in L.O.I. abundance. The last alteration stage is represented by formation of secondary calcite in vesicles and cracks. These alteration processes reflect interaction with seawater and apparently did not affect the magmatic Pb isotope composition for the low Pb concentration in seawater. Relative to the North Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL), the Baolai pillow basalts have higher 208Pb/204Pb ratios at a given 206Pb/204Pb value, showing Dupal anomaly. For their relatively higher 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the Baolai basalts are distinct from majority of the Cenozoic basalts in the Hainan-Leizhou peninsula, the Indochina peninsula, and the SCS seamounts, for which derivation from the Hainan mantle plume has been recently proposed (Wang et al., 2013). In contrast, the Baolai basalts and the Cenozoic basalts from eastern Guangdong at southeastern China have similar Pb and Nd isotope compositions, indicating derivation from similar mantle sources. However, the Baolai basalts have lower abundance ratios of Zr/Hf (40.3-45.6 versus 46.5-50.5), La/Yb (12

  18. Study on the automatic process of line heating for pillow shape plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper focuses on the process for pillow shape plate by line heating technique, which is widely applied in the production of ship hull. Based on the analysis of primary parameters and experimental data in line heating process, the amount of local contraction generated by line heating has been illustrated. Then, combining with the computational result of local deformation determined by shell plate development, an optimization method for line heating parameters has been studied. This prediction system may provide rational arrangements of heating lines and technical parameters of process. By integrating the prediction system into the line heating robot for pillow shape plate, the automatic process of line heating for pillow shape plate can be achieved.

  19. Analogue experiments of salt flow and pillow growth due basement faulting and differential loading (United States)

    Warsitzka, M.; Kley, J.; Kukowski, N.


    Basement faulting is widely acknowledged as a potential trigger for salt flow and the growth of salt structures in salt-bearing extensional basins. In this study, dynamically scaled analogue experiments were designed to examine the evolution of salt pillows and the kinematics of salt flow due to a short pulse of basement faulting and a long-lasting phase of successive sedimentation. Experiments performed in the framework of this study consist of viscous silicone putty to simulate ductile rock salt, and a PVC-beads-quartz sand mixture representing a brittle supra-salt layer. In order to derive 2-D incremental displacement and strain patterns, the analogue experiments were monitored by an optical image correlation system (Particle Imaging Velocimetry). By varying layer thicknesses and extension rates, the influence of these parameters on the kinematics of salt flow were tested. Model results reveal that significant strain is triggered in the viscous layer by minor basement faulting. During basement extension downward flow occurs in the viscous layer above the basement fault tip. In contrast, upward flow takes place during post-extensional sedimentation. Lateral redistribution of the viscous material during post-extensional sedimentation is associated with subsidence above the footwall block and uplift adjacent to the basement faults leading to the formation of pillow structures (primary pillows). Decoupled cover faulting and the subsidence of peripheral sinks adjacent to the primary pillow causes the formation of additional pillow structures at large distance from the basement fault (secondary pillows). Experimental results demonstrate that the development of salt pillows can be triggered by basement extension, but requires a phase of tectonic quiescence. The potential for pillow growth and the displacement rate in the viscous layer increase with increasing thickness of the viscous layer and increasing extension rate, but decrease with increasing thickness of the

  20. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla


    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  1. Gel pillow designed specifically for obstructive sleep apnea treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. (United States)

    Salvaggio, Adriana; Lo Bue, Anna; Isidoro, Serena Iacono; Romano, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Insalaco, Giuseppe


    To determine whether the use of a gel pillow with side cutouts designed to accommodate a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mask and reduce head temperature improves the efficacy of and adherence to auto-CPAP therapy. Twenty-three consecutive CPAP-naïve patients with obstructive sleep apnea were enrolled in the study. Patients were given an auto-CPAP machine with an appropriate CPAP mask and were instructed to use CPAP for 15 nights. They were instructed to sleep with their own pillow (the control pillow) from nights 1 to 5 and with either a foam pillow or a gel pillow, both of which had side cutouts, for 5 consecutive nights each, in random order. After night 15, auto-CPAP machine data were downloaded and patients rated their satisfaction with each pillow on a visual analog scale. Twenty-two patients completed the protocol. The pressures administered, residual apnea-hypopnea index, air leaks, and mean duration of CPAP use did not differ among the periods during which each pillow was used. Patients were significantly more satisfied with the gel pillow than with the control pillow and the foam pillow (p = 0.022 and p = 0.004, respectively), their level of satisfaction with the gel pillow correlating significantly with excessive daytime sleepiness (r2 = 0.19; p = 0.0443). Among obstructive sleep apnea patients treated with nasal CPAP, the use of a gel pillow with side cutouts appears to have no impact on treatment effectiveness. Nevertheless, such patients seem to prefer a gel pillow over other types of pillows. Determinar se o uso de um travesseiro de gel com recortes laterais para acomodar a máscara de continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas) e diminuir a temperatura em torno da cabeça melhora a eficácia do tratamento com auto-CPAP e a adesão dos pacientes ao tratamento. Foram incluídos no estudo 23 pacientes consecutivos com apneia obstrutiva do sono que nunca haviam recebido tratamento com CPAP. Os

  2. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric


    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars.

  3. Identification of Fungal Colonies on Ground Control and Flight Veggie Plant Pillows (United States)

    Scotten, Jessica E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Spencer, Lashelle E.; Massa, Gioia D.


    The Veggie system focuses on growing fresh produce that can be harvested and consumed by astronauts. The microbial colonies in each Veggie experiment are evaluated to determine the safety level of the produce and then differences between flight and ground samples. The identifications of the microbial species can detail risks or benefits to astronaut and plant health. Each Veggie ground or flight experiment includes six plants grown from seeds that are glued into wicks in Teflon pillows filled with clay arcillite and fertilizer. Fungal colonies were isolated from seed wicks, growth media, and lettuce (cv. 'Outredgeous') roots grown in VEG-01B pillows on ISS and in corresponding ground control pillows grown in controlled growth chambers. The colonies were sorted by morphology and identified using MicroSeq(TM) 500 16s rDNA Bacterial Identification System and BIOLOG GEN III MicroPlate(TM). Health risks for each fungal identification were then assessed using literature sources. The goal was to identify all the colonies isolated from flight and ground control VEG-01B plants, roots, and rooting medium and compare the resulting identifications.

  4. Analogue experiments of salt flow and pillow growth due to basement faulting and differential loading (United States)

    Warsitzka, M.; Kley, J.; Kukowski, N.


    Salt flow in sedimentary basins is mainly driven by differential loading and can be described by the concept of hydraulic head. A hydraulic head in the salt layer can be imposed by vertically displacing the salt layer (elevation head) or the weight of overburden sediments (pressure head). Basement faulting in salt-bearing extensional basins is widely acknowledged as a potential trigger for hydraulic heads and the growth of salt structures. In this study, scaled analogue experiments were designed to examine the kinematics of salt flow during the early evolution of a salt structure triggered by basement extension. In order to distinguish flow patterns driven by elevation head or by pressure head, we applied a short pulse of basement extension, which was followed by a long-lasting phase of sedimentation. During the experiments viscous silicone putty simulated ductile rock salt, and a PVC-beads/quartz-sand mixture was used to simulate a brittle supra-salt layer. In order to derive 2-D incremental displacement and strain patterns, the analogue experiments were monitored using an optical image correlation system (particle imaging velocimetry). By varying layer thicknesses and extension rates, the influence of these parameters on the kinematics of salt flow were tested. Model results reveal that significant flow can be triggered in the viscous layer by small-offset basement faulting. During basement extension downward flow occurs in the viscous layer above the basement fault tip. In contrast, upward flow takes place during post-extensional sediment accumulation. Flow patterns in the viscous material are characterized by channelized Poiseuille-type flow, which is associated with subsidence in regions of "salt" expulsion and surface uplift in regions of inflation of the viscous material. Inflation of the viscous material eventually leads to the formation of pillow structures adjacent to the basement faults (primary pillows). The subsidence of peripheral sinks adjacent to

  5. A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased anesthesiologist discomfort compared to a pillow of 4 cm height during tracheal intubation in adult patients (United States)

    Hong, Hyo Ju; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Won; Lee, Hyung Chul


    Background Neck flexion by head elevation using an 8 to 10 cm thick pillow and head extension has been suggested to align the laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axis and facilitate tracheal intubation. Presently, the laryngeal view and discomfort for tracheal intubation were evaluated according to two different degrees of head elevation in adult patients. Methods This prospective randomized, controlled study included 50 adult patients aged 18 to 90 years. After induction of anesthesia, the Cormack Lehane grade was evaluated in 25 patients using a direct laryngoscope while the patient's head was elevated with a 4 cm pillow (4 cm group) and then an 8 cm pillow (8 cm group). In the other 25 patients, the grades were evaluated in the opposite sequence and tracheal intubation was performed. The success rate and anesthesiologist's discomfort score for tracheal intubation, and laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were assessed. Results There were no differences in the laryngeal view and success rate for tracheal intubation between the two groups. The discomfort score during tracheal intubation was higher in the 8 cm group when the patient's head was elevated 4 cm first and then 8 cm. The alignment of laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were not different between the two degrees of head elevation. Conclusions A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased the anesthesiologist discomfort, compared to a pillow of 4 cm height, during tracheal intubation in adult patients. PMID:27066204

  6. Media Effects on Lettuce Growth in "Pillows" Designed for the VEGGIE Spaceflight Growth Chamber (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; McCoy, LaShelle; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond


    VEGGIE is a prototype vegetable production unit for space designed by Orbital Technologies Corporation that is being developed to fly on the International Space Station. A modular plant rooting system "pillow" is being designed to support plant growth in VEGGIE under microgravity conditions. VEGGIE pillows are small self-contained packets of media with time-release fertilizer that can wick water passively from a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in pillows and the entire root system of a plant is contained as the crop develops, preventing loss into the spacecraft cabin. This study compared five media types and three lettuce cultivars in pillows growing in a VEGGIE analog environment.. Media consisted of a peat-based potting mix (Fafard #2,Conrad Fafard Inc., Agawam, MA), and a calcined clay, (arcillite, 1-2 mm sifted, Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove IL) as well as three different blends of the two, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70. Lettuce cultivars tested were 'Sierra', a bi-colored French crisp Batavia lettuce, 'Outredgeous', a red romaine lettuce and 'Flandria', a green butter head variety. Plants were grown for 28 days, harvested, biometric data was obtained, and tissue mineral analysis was performed. For all cultivars, lettuce plants grown in the media blends were more productive than those in the individual media types. All cultivars showed bell-shaped curves in response to increases in arcillite / decreases in Fafard #2 for leaf area, fresh, and dry mass. Plants in 100% Fafard #2 and in 100% arcillite were stunted, but only those in higher levels of Fafard #2 (70% and 100%) had reduced shoot percent moisture, possibly indicating that mechanisms causing stunting differed. Variation in tissue nutrient content are consistent with this, with Mg and Mn highest in plants grown in 100% Fafard and decreasing as the concentration of arcillite increased. Color also varied with media, especially in the 'Sierra' lettuce, with plants grown in increasing levels

  7. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla


    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of HDM...... allergen levels, thereby reducing the need for asthma medication in children with asthma and HDM allergy. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 60 children (age range, 6-15 years) with asthma and HDM allergy were randomized to active (allergy control) or placebo mattress...... children with asthma and HDM allergy....

  8. Nasal pillows as an alternative interface in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome initiating continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke


    Side-effects directly due to the nasal mask are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) commencing continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Recently, nasal pillows have been designed to overcome these issues. Limited evidence exists of the benefits and effectiveness of these devices. Twenty-one patients (19 male, 49+\\/-10years) with the established diagnosis of OSAS [apnoea\\/hypopnoea index (AHI): 52+\\/-22] and who had a successful CPAP titration were commenced on CPAP therapy (10+\\/-2cmH2O), and randomized to 4weeks of a nasal pillow (P) and a standard nasal mask (M) in a crossover design. Outcome measures were objective compliance, AHI, quality of life, Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and CPAP side-effects. There was no difference in compliance (M versus P: 5.1+\\/-1.9h versus 5.0+\\/-1.7h; P=0.701) and AHI (2.6+\\/-2.7 versus 3.0+\\/-2.9; P=0.509). Quality of life and ESS improved with CPAP, but there was no difference in the extent of improvement between both devices. Usage of nasal pillows resulted in less reported pressure on the face and more subjects found the nasal pillow the more comfortable device. However, there was no clear overall preference for either device at the end of the study (mask=57%, pillow=43%; P=0.513). The applied CPAP pressure did not correlate with compliance, AHI and ESS. Furthermore, no differences in outcome parameters were noted comparing groups with CPAP pressure <10 and >\\/=10cm H(2) O. Nasal pillows are equally effective in CPAP therapy, but do not generally lead to improved compliance.

  9. Conventional Supine MRI With a Lumbar Pillow-An Alternative to Weight-bearing MRI for Diagnosing Spinal Stenosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Grindsted, Jacob


    to conventional MRI were included to an additional positional MRI scan (0.25T G-Scan) performed in: (1) conventional supine, (2) standing, (3) supine with a lumbar pillow in the lower back. LSS was evaluated for each position in consensus on a 0 to 3 semi-quantitative grading scale. Independently, L2-S1 lordosis...... included. The lordosis angle increased significantly from supine to standing (3.2° CI: 1.2-5.2) and with the lumbar pillow (12.8° CI: 10.3-15.3). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between positions (P 

  10. Effect of pillow height on the biomechanics of the head-neck complex: investigation of the cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicong Ren


    Full Text Available Background While appropriate pillow height is crucial to maintaining the quality of sleep and overall health, there are no universal, evidence-based guidelines for pillow design or selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of pillow height on cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment. Methods Ten healthy subjects (five males aged 26 ± 3.6 years were recruited. The average height, weight, and neck length were 167 ± 9.3 cm, 59.6 ± 11.9 kg, and 12.9 ± 1.2 cm respectively. The subjects lay on pillows of four different heights (H0, 110 mm; H1, 130 mm; H2, 150 mm; and H3, 170 mm. The cranio-cervical pressure distribution over the pillow was recorded; the peak and average pressures for each pillow height were compared by one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Cervical spine alignment was studied using a finite element model constructed based on data from the Visible Human Project. The coordinate of the center of each cervical vertebra were predicted for each pillow height. Three spine alignment parameters (cervical angle, lordosis distance and kyphosis distance were identified. Results The average cranial pressure at pillow height H3 was approximately 30% higher than that at H0, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05. The average cervical pressure at pillow height H0 was 65% lower than that at H3, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05. The peak cervical pressures at pillow heights H2 and H3 were significantly different from that at H0 (p < 0.05. With respect to cervical spine alignment, raising pillow height from H0 to H3 caused an increase of 66.4% and 25.1% in cervical angle and lordosis distance, respectively, and a reduction of 43.4% in kyphosis distance. Discussion Pillow height elevation significantly increased the average and peak pressures of the cranial and cervical regions, and increased the extension and lordosis of the cervical spine. The cranio-cervical pressures and cervical

  11. Effect of pillow height on the biomechanics of the head-neck complex: investigation of the cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment. (United States)

    Ren, Sicong; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Ming


    While appropriate pillow height is crucial to maintaining the quality of sleep and overall health, there are no universal, evidence-based guidelines for pillow design or selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of pillow height on cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment. Ten healthy subjects (five males) aged 26 ± 3.6 years were recruited. The average height, weight, and neck length were 167 ± 9.3 cm, 59.6 ± 11.9 kg, and 12.9 ± 1.2 cm respectively. The subjects lay on pillows of four different heights (H0, 110 mm; H1, 130 mm; H2, 150 mm; and H3, 170 mm). The cranio-cervical pressure distribution over the pillow was recorded; the peak and average pressures for each pillow height were compared by one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Cervical spine alignment was studied using a finite element model constructed based on data from the Visible Human Project. The coordinate of the center of each cervical vertebra were predicted for each pillow height. Three spine alignment parameters (cervical angle, lordosis distance and kyphosis distance) were identified. The average cranial pressure at pillow height H3 was approximately 30% higher than that at H0, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p cervical pressure at pillow height H0 was 65% lower than that at H3, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p cervical pressures at pillow heights H2 and H3 were significantly different from that at H0 (p cervical spine alignment, raising pillow height from H0 to H3 caused an increase of 66.4% and 25.1% in cervical angle and lordosis distance, respectively, and a reduction of 43.4% in kyphosis distance. Pillow height elevation significantly increased the average and peak pressures of the cranial and cervical regions, and increased the extension and lordosis of the cervical spine. The cranio-cervical pressures and cervical spine alignment were height-specific, and they were believed to reflect quality of sleep. Our results provide a

  12. U-series dating of pillow rim glass from recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge (United States)

    Thomas, L. E.; van Calsteren, P. W.; Jc024 Shipboard Party


    Visual observations using camera systems on the tethered ROV Isis deployed during the 2008 JC024 cruise to the Mid Atlantic Ridge at 45°N showed1 numerous monogenetic volcanoes that are essentially piles of lava pillows. The pillows are usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long and form mounds with average dimensions around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on pillows appear to be the youngest regions, were sampled using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. On the surface, any glass crust on the pillow protrusions was chiselled off using clean tools and double bagged in polythene. In the laboratory a portion of the glass was crushed in a jeweller’s roller mill and sieved using stainless steel sieves to obtain a sufficient amount of the fraction 0.125-0.250mm for hand picking, using a binocular microscope with the glass submerged in a mix of water and iso-propyl alcohol. The samples were subsequently leached using the procedure of Standish & Sims2. Samples were spiked with a mixed 229Th-236U spike and the U, Th and Ra fractions were separated and purified using standard chemistry methods. U and Th isotope ratios were determined using a Nu Instruments MC-ICPMS and Ra isotope ratios were determined using a MAT-262-RPQII TIMS instrument. The U-series data were evaluated using a MathCad program based on published4,5,6 equations. The data can be successfully modelled by assuming the ‘accepted’ mantle upwelling rate for the region of 11mm.y-1. The U-Th characteristics are mostly derived during ‘porous flow’ magma upwelling in the garnet stability zone, ranging to a depth of 60km with incipient melting starting at 70km. Above 60km depth the melt fraction will be >3% and the mantle mineralogy devoid of phases that fractionate U-Th significantly. Moreover, at melt fractions >3%, channel flow will be dominant and magma will transit to eruption on time-scales that are

  13. Reconstruction of seawater chemistry from deeply subducted oceanic crust; hydrogen and oxygen isotope of lawsonite eclogites preserving pillow structure (United States)

    Hamabata, D., VI; Masuyama, Y.; Tomiyasu, F.; Ueno, Y.; Yui, T. F.; Okamoto, K.


    In order to understand evolution of life, change of seawater chemistry from Hadean, Archean to present is significant. Pillow structure is well-preserved in the Archean greenstone belt (e.g. Komiya et al., 1999). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope of rims in the pillow is useful conventional tool to decipher chemistry of Paleao-seawater from Archean to Present. However, Archean greenstone belt suffered regional metamorphism from greenschist to Amphibolite facies conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to testify the validity of pillow chemistry from recent (Phanerozoic) metamorphosed greenstone. We have systematically collected pillowed greenstone from blueschist and eclogites. Two eclogite exhibiting pillow structures were chosen for oxygen and hydrogen isotope analysis. One is from Corsica (lawsonite eclogite collected with Dr. Alberto Vidale Barbarone) and another is from Cazadero, Franciscan belt (collected by Dr. Tatsuki Tsujimori). The both are ascribed as MORB from major and trace bulk chemistry and Ca is rich in the core and Na is poor in the rims. The former exhibits garnet, omphacite, lawsonite, and glacophane. Phengite is in core of the pillow and chlorite is in the rims. In the latter, besides garnet, omphacite, epdiote and glaucophane, chlorite is recognized with phengite in the core. Glaucophane is richer in the rims from the both samples, therefore istope analysis of glaucophane was done. Mineral separation was carefully done using micro-mill, heavy liquid and isodynamic separator. 20 mg specimens were used for oxygen isotope analysis and 2mg were for hydrogen analysis. δ18O of the all analysis (7.7 to 8.3) is within the range of unaltered igneous oceanic crust and high temperature hydrothermal alteration although rims (8.3 for Franciscan and 8.0 for Corsica) are higher than cores (7.7 for Franciscan and Corsica). δD data is also consistent with hydrothermal alteration. It is relative higher in core from the Corsica and Franciscan (-45 and -56) than of the

  14. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: Oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Budahn, James R.; Murchey, Benita L.


    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippean), Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks (pillow basalt, subordinate diabase, basaltic tuff, and radiolarian chert). Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. Classification based on immobile trace elements confirms the tholeiitic character of most of the basalts but suggests that some had primary compositions transitional to alkali basalt. Although field and petrographic features of the basalts are similar, trace element characteristics allow definition of geographically distinct suites. A central outcrop belt along the crest of the mountains is made up of basalt with relatively flat rare earth element (REE) patterns. This belt is flanked to the north and south by LREE (light rare earth element)-enriched basalts. Radiolarian and conodont ages from interpillow and interlayered chert and limestone indicate that the central belt of basalts is Triassic in age, the southern belt is Jurassic in age, and the northern belt contains a mixture of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Data for most of the basalts cluster in the "within-plate basalt" fields of trace element discriminant diagrams; none have trace-element characteristics of island arc basalt. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted

  15. Interpretation of the relations between massive, pillowed and brecciated facies in an archean submarine andesite volcano — amulet andesite, rouyn-noranda, Canada (United States)

    Cousineau, Pierre; Dimroth, Erich


    The Amulet andesite formation in the Archean terrain of Rouyn-Noranda, P.Q., consists of 19 flows, distinguished by variations in phenocryst content and vesicularity and by the presence of concentric contraction fractures. Detailed mapping of flows revealed the presence of three main facies: (1) massive facies; (2) pillowed facies; and (3) foreset-bedded (brecciated) facies. The massive facies consists of > 50% massive lava overlain by pillow lava and/or pillow breccia. The pillowed facies consists of > 50% pillows. In some flows, the pillowed facies contains a thin sheet of massive lava at the base of the flow (facies 2a). Generally, massive lava fills braided channels 10-50 m wide (facies 2b). Facies 2c consists of pillows and large, irregular, megapillows. Determination of the flow direction shows that facies 1 is proximal, facies 2 distal. The foreset-bedded facies 3 consists of alternating thin (1-2 m) lobes of massive lava, pillow lava and broken-pillow breccia. It makes up flows 16-19 at the top of the sequence. Flow M, a unit entirely composed of massive lava, is ponded against flows 9 and 10. We interpret the growth of the Amulet andesite volcano in the light of new work on ocean-floor basalt and on the 1969-1973 Mauna Ulu eruption. The feeding fissure was located in the area of massive facies. At the beginning of eruptions lava spread laterally as a sheet-flood flow (massive base of facies 2a) but rapidly became channelized. The pillow lava and in particular the facies 2b, 2c and 3 are considered as the subaqueous equivalents of tube-fed pahoehoe. Flow M probably represents a lava lake. Shallowing-upward of the sequence during the built-up of the volcano is indicated by increasing vesicularity of the flows and by an upward increase of the proportion of broken pillow breccia. This increase is gradual from flow 1 to flow 15 but abrupt from flow 15 to 16-19.

  16. The Textualization of Identity in Peter Greeaway’s Cinema. A Semiotic Analysis of The Pillow Book (1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to reassess Peter Greenaway’s filmography, in particular his acclaimed 1996 motion picture The Pillow Book, as a lucid reflection on the postmodern problem of textualized identities. By means of a thorough analysis of the sophisticated narrative, intertextual and aesthetical devices used in this film, this study identifies and interprets for the first time some particularly relevant visual clues, which give proof of a surprising depth and consistency as cinematic metaphors.

  17. Geochemical and Mineralogical Analyses of Palagonitic Tuffs and Altered Rinds of Pillow Lavas on Iceland and Applications to Mars (United States)

    Bishop, Janice; Schiffman, P.; Southard, R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    Samples of altered pillow lavas and hyalotuffs were collected from a volcanic Tuya and hyaloclastite ridge in western Iceland. Altered basaltic material from regions such as Hloudufell Tuya and Thorolfsfell Ridge may be similar to the surface fines on Mars, which are thought to contain altered basaltic components as well. Geochemical and mineralogical analyses have been performed on the Icelandic samples in order to characterize the properties that distinguish palagonitization from other forms of low temperature alteration in this environment. Major elements were measured using an electron microprobe and mineralogy was determined through X-ray diffraction and visible- infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The primary focus in this study was on the less than 2 microns size fractions of the Hloudufell altered pillow and Thorolfsfell palagonitic tuff samples. The palagonitic tuff contained more crystalline clay minerals and has a higher Al/Fe ratio. The altered pillow lava contained higher abundances of nanophase iron oxides/oxyhydroxides. The extended visible region spectra of the less than 2 microns fractions of both Icelandic samples are similar to bright Martian soils measured by Pathfinder.

  18. Along-axis variations in volcanology and geochemistry of a pillow-dominated tindar: Comparison of exposures in Undirhlithar and Vatnsskarth quarries, Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland (United States)

    Was, E.; Edwards, B. R.; Pollock, M.; Hauksdottir, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hiatt, A. R.; Perpalaj, A.; Plascencia, E.; Reinthall, M.; Silverstein, A.


    Quarries at Undirhlithar and Vatnsskarth, which are part of the Krisuvik fissure system in southwestern Iceland, provide exceptional windows into the stratigraphy and emplacement processes for glaciovolcanic, pillow-dominated tindars. The two quarries are approximately three kilometers apart and expose slightly different aspects of the elongate, glaciovolcanic ridge system. At Undirhlithar, the ridge is only 0.5 km in width and the quarry walls expose a section almost across the entire ridge. Based on exposures in the quarry, this part of the ridge is dominated by ';pillow lava flows', which, along with subordinate intrusions and smaller volumes of tuff-breccia, make up six different lithofacies and at least four stratigraphic packages. Quarry walls in the southern half of the quarry approximate cross-sections through three different units of pillow flows, with the majority of pillows plunging less than 20 degrees. Size analysis from field measurements of 69 pillows in the lowermost unit (Lp1) showed an average width of 0.75 m (1 SD = 0.5 m), an average height of 0.5 m (1 SD = 0.25 m); the largest pillow was 2.9 m by 1.3 m, and the smallest pillow was 0.16 by 0.17 m; the average of plunges for 100 measurements was 11.0 degrees. We have also used high resolution images to make detailed maps of the pillow units. After digitally tracing individual pillows, we used ImageJ to analyze the size distribution of pillows in three of the flow units (Lp1 n=2500, Lp2 n=1250, Lp3 n=490). Our preliminary results show two trends: average pillow sizes decrease from east to west within unit Lp1, which has the longest east-west continuous exposure. The average sizes also decrease going up section vertically from Lp1 to Lp2 to Lp3.The northwestern and northeastern quarry walls appear to show more longitudinal sections through individual pillows, as well as a higher proportion of intrusions. Compositionally, the Undirhlíthar units can be divided into two groups: (1) older, plagioclase

  19. Contrasting geochemistry and metamorphism of pillow basalts in metamorphic complexes from Aysén, S. Chile (United States)

    Hervé, F.; Aguirre, L.; Sepúlveda, V.; Morata, D.


    The geochemistry of pillow basalts from the Chonos Metamorphic Complex (CMC) and the Eastern Andes Metamorphic Complex of Aysén (EAMC) indicates contrasting tectonic environments for these basic lavas. They have E-MORB and continental alkaline affinities, respectively. The MORB-like basalts are metamorphosed in the pumpellyite-actinolite metamorphic facies, with mineral associations indicative of relatively high P/T metamorphism. The continental alkali basalts exhibit pumpellyite-chlorite assemblages developed in a low to intermediate P/T regime. These contrasting eruptive and metamorphic settings agree with recently established age differences between the complexes, and invalidate direct correlation between them.

  20. Analysis of ergonomics conditions of a brand of mattress and pillows. University-industry project, Medellín-Colombia. (United States)

    Sáenz Zapata, Luz M; Arias, Ana María L; Guzmán, Emilio C; Arias de L, Martha


    This project presents an analysis of the ergonomic conditions of three types of mattress and three types of pillow. The products are manufactured by a Colombian company which specializes in flexible polyurethane foam and other products designed for rest and relaxation. The project was developed through the University - Industry relationship: a strategic partnership based on the knowledge and strengths of each component. The conceptual theories that underpin the Ergonomics Research Division of the Design Studies Research Group (GED) provided the methodological approach for the project: the characteristics, the requirements and the relationships that are established between the components that constitute the User - Product - Context system (basic principles of the Ergonomics - Design relationship). An important factor in the project was the conception and measurement of comfort. Comfort can be measured on an objective level (quantitative measurement), and on a subjective level (a user's particular perceptions and tastes). What constitutes 'comfort' can vary from person to person, thus making the identification of criteria for the standardization of consumer products problematic. This project enabled design recommendations to be made to the Company vis-à-vis future proposals for mattress and pillow products. This experience of applied research was carried out by professors and students from the Faculty of Industrial Design at the UPB in Medellín, Colombia.

  1. Style and evolution of salt pillows and related structures in the northern part of the Northeast German Basin (United States)

    Kossow, Dirk; Krawczyk, Charlotte; McCann, Tommy; Strecker, Manfred; Negendank, Jörg F. W.


    The northern part of the Northeast German Basin contains a large number of Late Permian (Zechstein) salt pillows, whereas diapiric structures are almost completely absent. This lack of diapirs facilitated the study of early stages of salt movement in the basin. Salt pillows and related structures were investigated in terms of distribution, geometry and time of initiation of salt flow within the regional geological context. The primary Zechstein thickness in the study area was reconstructed to gain more insight into the relationship between the geometry of the salt layer and the style of the salt-related structures. In this study, no clear spatial relationship between the salt structures and basement faults has been found and the location of the salt structures in this area appears to be highly independent of the underlying structural grain. The overburden is affected by minor faulting. We propose that buckling of the overburden due to regional compression significantly contributed to the initiation of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous salt structures in the basin. Reverse faulting of the Gardelegen and Haldensleben Faults is related to inversion tectonics and exerted a compression on the basin fill. During the deformation, the Late Permian salt layer acted as an efficient detachment and led to a marked decoupling of the Mesozoic overburden from the underlying pre-Zechstein rocks.

  2. Impact of a New Nasal Pillows Mask on Patients' Acceptance, Compliance, and Willingness to Remain on CPAP Therapy. (United States)

    Wimms, Alison; Ketheeswaran, Sahisha; Ziegenbein, Claus; Jennings, Laura; Woehrle, Holger


    Aim. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) masks are a key factor in patient compliance. This program assessed the performance of a new nasal pillows mask (NPM) on a variety of new and established obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients using CPAP therapy. Methods. Five programs were developed to assess the new NPM [AirFit P10, ResMed] on naïve patients; patients established on another NPM; patients using a nasal mask; patients with low CPAP compliance; and patients who wished to stop using CPAP therapy. Results. A total of 212 patients were included. In naïve patients, CPAP usage after 3 months was 5.9 ± 1.7 hours/night, compared with the control group at 4.6 ± 2.4 hours/night (p CPAP, 60% continued with therapy using the new NPM. Conclusion. The new NPM mask performed well in a variety of clinical groups of OSA patients receiving CPAP therapy and shows that technical advances in CPAP masks can improve patient compliance.

  3. Zircon U-Pb and geochemical analyses for leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group,north Qinling Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Field observation showed that there are many irregular leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group in the Xiaowangjian area, north Qinling orogenic belt. Photomicrographs indicated that the protoliths of those altered leucocratic intrusive rocks are dioritic rocks. Geochemical analyses showed that pillow lavas have a range of SiO2 from 47.35% to 51.20%, low abundance of TiO2 from 0.97% to 1.72%, and percentages of MgO (MgO#=41―49). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of pillow lavas are even, indicative of a weak differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=1.52―0.99). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that pillow lavas are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba). Leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas have a wide range of SiO2 from 53.85%―67.20%, low abundances of TiO2 from 0.51%―1.10%, and MgO (MgO#=40―51), and higher percentages of Al2O3 (13.32%―16.62%) and concentration of Sr (342-539 μg/g), ratios of Na2O/K2O (2―7) and Sr/Y (17―28). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of leucocratic intrusive rocks showed highly differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=12.26―19.41). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that leucocratic intrusive rocks are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba), and significantly depleted in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr and Ti), indicative of a relationship to subduction. Isotopically, leucocratic intrusive rocks have a similar εNd(t) (+7.45―+13.14) to that of MORB (+8.8―+9.7), which indicates that those leucocratic intrusive rocks sourced from depleted mantle most likely. SHRIMP U-Pb analyses for zircon showed that those leucocratic intrusive rocks were formed at 442±7 Ma, yielding an age of subduction in the early Paleozoic in the north Qinling orogenic belt.

  4. Zircon U-Pb and geochemical analyses for leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group, north Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN QuanRen; CHEN JunLu; WANG ZongQi; YAN Zhen; WANG Tao; LI QiuGen; ZHANG ZongQing; JIANG ChunFa


    Field observation showed that there are many irregular leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas in the Danfeng Group in the Xiaowangjian area, north Qinling orogenic belt. Photomicrographs indicated that the protoliths of those altered leucocratic intrusive rocks are dioritic rocks. Geochemical analyses showed that pillow lavas have a range of SiO2 from 47.35% to 51.20%, low abundance of TiO2 from 0.97% to 1.72%, and percentages of MgO (MgO#=41-49). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of pillow lavas are even, indicative of a weak differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=1.52-0.99).N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that pillow lavas are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba). Leucocratic intrusive rocks in pillow lavas have a wide range of SiO2 from 53.85%-67.20%, low abundances of TiO2 from 0.51%-1.10%, and MgO (MgO#=40-51), and higher percentages of AI2O3 (13.32% -16.62%) and concentration of Sr (342-539 ug/g), ratios of Na2O/K2O (2-7) and Sr/Y (17-28). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of leucocratic intrusive rocks showed highly differentiation between LREE and HREE (La/YbN=12.26-19.41). N-MORB-normalized trace element abundances showed that leucocratic intrusive rocks are enriched in incompatible elements (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba), and significantly depleted in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr and Ti), indicative of a to that of MORB (+8.8-+9.7), which indicates that those leucocratic intrusive rocks sourced from depleted mantle most likely. SHRIMP U-Pb analyses for zircon showed that those leucocratic intrusive rocks were formed at 442-+7 Ma, yielding an age of subduction in the early Paleozoic in the north Qinling orogenic belt.

  5. Pillow basalts of Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite: records of seafloor in the midwestern portion of Araguaia Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Jesus Penha Pamplona Miyagawa


    Full Text Available Along the domain of low metamorphic grade (Midwestern portion of the Araguaia Belt, outcrop dozens mafic and/or ultramafic bodies of ophiolitic suites. An example is the Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite, in the surroundings of the city of Araguacema (Tocantins that configures a small isolated body that sustains the Morro do Agostinho and is tectonically emplaced in meta-sandstones, slates and phyllites of Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite consists of serpentinized peridotites, basalts and ferriferous cherts. The association of basalts is characterized by a significant layer of submarine pillow lavas overlying serpentinized peridotites. The basalts were classified into massive and hialobasalts types. Massive basalts are homogenous, with intersertal texture that is essentially composed of thin laths and acicular crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene and present rare crystals of olivine, chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Hyalobasalt shows ultra-fast cooling features (quenching as spherulites, radial, acicular and skeletal crystals of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with forms of swallowtail. Geochemical data, including (La/Ybn and (La/Smn ratios less than 1, indicate a subalkaline-tholeiitic MORB nature of the basalts. These rocks show that during the geological evolution of Araguaia Belt, there was an oceanization stage of Araguaia Basin, with litospheric mantle’s exposure, followed by lava’s extravasation and sedimentation of cherts and banded iron formation in deep ocean environment. After sedimentary filling of the Couto Magalhães Formation (Tocantins Group, the tectonic inversion, which led to the exhumation of the ophiolitic bodies, especially along thrust surface, with fragmenting and tectonic mixing with supracrustal rocks, accompanied by regional metamorphism under conditions of low green schist facies. The Morro do Agostinho Ophiolite Suite therefore represents a small allochthonous

  6. The Qigong Herbal Pillow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  7. The Qigong Herbal Pillow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Original thought has great and deep effect on the form of the beauty appreciation of the traditional ceramics art. The symbol of the folk porcelain pillow is based on reheriting the combination of original thought and life. It results from interweaving the conscious image thought and developing on entrusting the physical feeling to the image. The article mainly expounds the characters of beauty appreciation of the traditional folk porcelain pillow in terms of symbolic thought.%原始思维对传统陶瓷艺术审美的形成有着重大而深刻的影响。民间瓷枕艺术的象征性就是在继承原始思维生命一体化认知的基础上,经过自觉的图像思维交织,将物化情感寄托于图像之上并定势化、模式化发展的结果。文章主要从象征思维的角度阐述了传统民间瓷枕的审美特征。

  9. 两种外展枕用于人工全髋关节置换术后的疗效观察%Effective observation on application of two kinds of abduction pillow in postoperative artificial total hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾尚琼; 徐支南; 李舜尧; 蒋丽华; 罗红梅; 王丽晖


    Objective To compare the ettects of two kinds of abduction pillow used in postoperative artificial total hip arthro-plasty(THA). Methods 160 cases of artificial THA in our hospital from January 2007 to October 2010 were divided into two groups,80 cases in each group. The experimental group used the introduced new technological ladder-shaped abduction pillow,and the control group was given the improved abduction pillow. The effects of two kinds of abduction pillow used in postoperative artificial total hip replacement were compared. Results In experimental group, the position turning over took 5 - 10 min,the tolerance time of lateral lying position was (10. 0+1. 3)min. The comfort level and the satisfaction level were 31. 2% and 65. 0%. But in the control group,the position turning over took 3 - 5 min,the tolerance time of lateral lying position was (30. 0±2. L)min. The comfort level and the satisfaction level were 56. 2% and 90. 0%. The results showed statistical difference between the two groups(P< 0. 05). Conclusion The improved abduction pillow is better than introduced new technological ladder-like abduction pillow.%目的 比较两种外展枕用于人工全髋关节置换术(THA)后的效果.方法 选择2007年1月至2010年10月行THA的患者160例随机分为实验组和对照组,每组80例,实验组使用引进的新技术梯形外展枕,对照组为改良后的外展枕.比较两组外展枕用于THA后的效果.结果 实验组患者翻身时间(5~10)min、侧卧耐受时间(10.0±1.3)min,舒适度(31.2%)和满意度(65.0%),与对照组[分别为(3~5)、(30.0±2.1)min、56.2%和90.0%]比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 改良后的外展枕更利于THA后的患者.

  10. Design and clinical application of balloon-type head fixation pillow for interventional neuroradiology operation%神经介入手术头颅气囊固定枕的设计与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建华; 段传志; 汪求精; 刘亚杰; 刘玉龙


    目的:为解决患者头颅移动给神经介入手术带来的不便,研制一种头颅气囊固定枕.方法:采用透X线、弹性及强度好的海绵和与皮肤相容性好的透X线的布料制作与人体后颅及颈肩相适应的枕座,用抗拉力的密气尼龙布制成的充气球囊进行下颌固定.结果:使用该头颅固定枕进行手术与使用普通头枕固定治疗的手术比较,在成像次数、所受X线剂量、异常情况的发生上均较少,具有显著的优势.结论:该头颅气囊固定枕在神经介入手术中可缩短手术时间,减少辐射剂量,降低手术并发症的发生几率,值得临床推广.%Objective To develop a balloon-type head fixation pillow for interventional neuroradiology operation.Methods Some radiotransparent sponge with high elasticity and strength and some nonopaque cloth with high skin compatibility were employed to make pillow base adaptable to the posterior fossa, neck and shoulder. A inflatable balloon made of anti-tensile airtight nylon was used to fix the underjaw.Results The fixation pillow gained advantages over the common one in imaging times, X-ray exposure dose and abnormal condition.Conclusion The head fixation pillow may decrease operating time, exposure dose and complications during interventional neuroradiology operation, and thus is worth popularizing clinically.

  11. Design and clinical application of fixed pillow for neonatus%一种新型新生儿头部固定枕的设计与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任瑞莲; 王勤华; 李化兵; 申芳


    目的 探讨自制"U"形枕在预防新生儿头颅畸形、辅助治疗新生儿常见疾病中的作用.方法 自制新生儿"U"形枕,选取住院的新生儿颅内出血、新生儿硬肿症、新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病及急性脱水热患儿各10例,分别根据疾病选择合适的"U"形枕,同时选择相同疾病患儿各10例,不应用"U"形枕,相同住院时间对比头颅外形.结果 治愈出院时头颅外形美观、端正,没有任何一例患儿因枕头而发生体位性水肿现象,受到家属高度赞誉,出院满意度调查达100%,并且对不同的新生儿科疾病起到了辅助治疗的作用.结论 针对病种对症选枕,既有辅助治疗的作用,又保持了患儿头颅的美观外形,既提高了患儿家属的满意度,又经济实用、人性化,具有直接的社会效益与经济效益.%Objective To explore the role of homemade "u-shaped" pillow in preventing neonatal head deformity and ad-junctive therapy of neonatal common diseases. Methods Homemade newborn "u-shaped" pillow for neonatus, 10 neonatus of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 10 neonatus of HIE, 10 neonatus of scleredema neonatorum and 10 neonatus of dehydration fever were selected and chose the appropriate "u-shaped" pillow according to the disease. And the same diseases every 10 children were selected, who didn't use "u-shaped" pillow. The skull shape of the neonatus with same diseses on the same length of stay was compared. Results After cured and discharged, the head appearance of children was beautiful and regular. There were no cases of dependent edema because of pillow, and the pillow won high praise from the parents. The discharge satisfaction reached to 100%. It played adjuvant therapy role in different pediatric diseases. Conclusion Remedy for disease to choose pillow, both auxiliary treatment role, and keep the children of beautiful appearance head, it raises the families of the children of the satisfaction, and economic and practical, human nature

  12. Tubular textures in pillow lavas from a Caledonian west Norwegian ophiolite: A combined TEM, LA-ICP-MS, and STXM study (United States)

    Fliegel, Daniel; Wirth, Richard; Simonetti, Antonio; Schreiber, Anja; Furnes, Harald; Muehlenbachs, Karlis


    Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, in glassy rims of pillow lavas from a Norwegian ophiolite (Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex (SSOC)) are described and characterized by a multimethod approach. Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, have been previously proposed to result from bioalteration. The microstructure of the titanite and the tubes is investigated using focused ion beam milling in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These indicate an assemblage of submicrometer-sized (about 500 nm) titanite single crystals with no organic film or residue in between the grains. In situ U-Pb radiometric dating of the titanite, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS), yielded a metamorphic age of 442 ± 13 Ma. An isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometric age obtained previously for zircons from the SSOC plutonic rocks yielded a magmatic age of 443 ± 3 Ma. The overlap in ages indicates that subseafloor metamorphism, responsible for titanite formation, occurred during seafloor or subseafloor formation of the tubular alteration textures. The rare earth element contents of the titanite were determined using LA-ICP-MS and chondrite-normalized patterns are similar to those of the SSOC volcanics; hence these do not reflect hydrothermal or seawater influence. The Y/Ho ratio of ˜20-30 in the titanite is also consistent with an upper mantle-derived origin. The sum of all of the spatial resolved data reported here neither supports nor refutes a biogenic origin for the tubular textures.

  13. 整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床研究%Clinical Study of Chiropractic Technique Combined With Small Pillow for Treating Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:将86例神经根型颈椎病患者,随机分为对照组和治疗组,每组各43例.对照组采用软组织松解手法治疗;治疗组在对照组的基础上加用整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗.结果:对照组有效率为72%,治疗组有效率为95%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:整脊手法配合小圆枕治疗神经根型颈椎病,可有效改善或解除神经根受到刺激与压迫.%Objective: To analyze the clinical effect of chiropractic technique combined with a small pillow for treating cervical spondyl ic radiculopathy. Methods:86 cases of nerve root type of cervical spondylosis patients randomly divided into treatment group and cont group, each group of 43 cases. The control group using soft tissue release technique treatment; the treatment group was treated with c ropractic technique combined with a small pillow treatment t on the basis ofhe control group. Results:In the control group was 49% ,1 effective rate of treatment group was 72% , the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion: Chiropractic combir treatment of small pillow for treatment of cervical spondylosis of nerve root stimulation and oppression, can effectively improve or reli< nerve root.

  14. 新型鼻腔滴药枕在急性鼻窦炎患者中的应用%Application of a new type of nasal drops pillow in patients diagnosed as acute sinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    底瑞青; 苗金红; 赵玉林; 娄小平; 李星丹; 王鑫; 李雪姣


    目的:比较新型鼻腔滴药枕与传统滴药枕在患者用药5d后鼻塞、脓涕、打喷嚏、头痛及舒适度等方面的差异。方法选取急性鼻窦炎患者86例,随机分为干预组43例和对照组43例,干预组患者应用新型鼻腔滴药枕进行鼻腔滴药,对照组患者应用普通滴药枕进行鼻腔滴药。两组患者在用药5d后,采用SNOT-20量表、疼痛评估表及线性视觉模拟评分标尺进行用药效果评价。结果干预组患者在鼻塞、鼻涕黏稠、打喷嚏、头痛、嗅觉减退、味觉减退、难以入睡及夜间睡眠质量不好方面得分显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);舒适度得分显著高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论新型鼻腔滴药枕能够使药液准确到达窦腔,在减轻急性鼻窦炎患者鼻塞、流脓涕、头痛等症状及提高患者舒适度方面优于传统鼻腔滴药枕。%Objective To compare the differences between a new type of pillow for nasal drops and traditional pillow in alleviating nasal congestion, nasal pus, sneezing and headache in patients suffering from acute sinusitis, and to select a better nasal dropping equipment for clinical nursing. Methods In total 86 acute sinusitis patients in hospital were randomly divided into the observation group and control group ( for each group, n= 43 ) . Patients in both groups were treated with intravenous cephalosporin, and arcelor thiazole and levofloxacin by nasal dropping. Our new type of pillow for nasal drops and the traditional pillow were applied in the observation group and control group respectively. We compared the differences of treatment effect in five days later between two groups by the SNOT-20 scale, pain assessment, and visual analogue scale. Results The scores of a stuffy nose, discharging, sneezing, headache, decreased smell, taste and unable to sleep, and night sleep of the patients in the observation group were significantly

  15. 长圆枕辅助沙袋在脑卒中卧床期患者中的应用效果评价%Evaluation the effect of long round pillow auxiliary sandbags application in bedridden patients with stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾继红; 周取英; 梁丽


    目的:观察和评价长圆枕辅助沙袋作为踝关节支具临床预防脑卒中长期卧床患者发生足下垂的效果。方法:选择GCS评分≤8分的120例脑卒中患者,分为常规康复(无支具)组、丁字鞋组、自制长圆枕辅助沙袋组进行观察,比较三种方法预防足下垂的效果、使用两种支具的不良反应、患者陪护及护士的满意度。结果:使用支具可减少足下垂的发生;两种支具对足下垂的预防效果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);应用自制长圆枕辅助沙袋的患者压疮不良反应明显少于丁字鞋组,患者陪护接受程度及护士满意度高。结论:应用长圆枕辅助沙袋可有效减少脑卒中患者足下垂发生,使用过程中陪护和护士容易接受,是保障患者体位安全的辅助用具,且制作和使用简单,值得推广应用。%Objective To observe and evaluate the long round pillow auxiliary sandbags as joint ankle brace in the prevention of foot drop in bedridden patients with stroke.Methods 120 stroke patients were recruited,whose GCS score≤ 8.They were divided into conventional rehabilitation(no brace) group,T-shoes and long round pillow auxiliary sandbags group,and comparing the difference between the three Methods in prevention of foot drop,adverse reactions as well as the satisfaction of nurse and attendants.Results Using the brace can reduce occurrence of foot drop,but there was no significant difference on the prevention of foot drop between the two brace.The incidence of bedsores was significantly lower in long round pillow auxiliary sandbags group than T- shoes group.On the contrary,the satisfaction of nurse and attendants was higher in long round pillow auxiliary sandbags group than T-shoes group.Conclusion The long round pillow auxiliary sandbags can effectively reduce the occurrence of foot drop in bedridden patients with stroke,and simple to make and use,as well as easily accepted by nursing

  16. Construction Technology of No . 42 Pillow Type High Speed Turnout Passenger Dedicated Railway Tunnel%客专隧道内42号枕式高速道岔施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper summarized the Tunnel No. 42 pillow turnout construction technology, which are rail laying, turnout installation, ballast bed construction technology,proposed in the tunnel space is limited and inconvenient conditions of logistics providing reference for subsequent similar engineering.%文章介绍了42号道岔在隧道内轨枕铺设、道岔安装及道床施工工艺,提出在隧道空间受限和物流不便的条件下,进行长轨枕快速布设和道岔精确组装定位的方法,为类似工程提供了参考。

  17. The treatment of stable inflectional vertebral compress fracture of thoracolumbar spine with sandbag pillow and exercise%沙袋垫枕锻炼法治疗胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏建; 杜靖远


    AIM: To treat the stable inflectional vertebral compress fracture of thoracolumbar with sandbag pillow and back extensor exercise .METHODS: After traumatism , the sandbag pillow of four specification from low to high were underlay to the thoracolumbar respectively every other 3 to 5 days, kept excessive extend posture for 8 to 10 weeks. When the sandbag pillow was underlain for 3 hours, trundle the body for sleeping in left or right posture for half an hour. Exercise started after the sandbag pillow were underlay for 1 or 2 days. Supine exercise techniques included 5points shoring and 3 points shoring. The former was 3 times per day, 30minutes to 1 hour once, more than 100 times per day and increased to 2minutes and 5 to 10 times per day gradually. Three weeks later, the latter group started after vertebral compress fracture 4 weeks, pronate exercise started.RESULTS: According to Dennis assess: of the 74 follow-up patients, 4remained low-grade pain on back and waist, 1 remained mid-grade pain, 1remained continued pain and gone with the complications of low limbs anaesthesia and urine incontinence. The rest were cured. Cobb angles decreased 5°- 35° (mean 17°) compared to original by X-ray examination in reexamination.CONCLUSION: This conventional therapy is easy to learn and popularize to treat compression fracture, and attained therapeutic success.%目的:沙袋垫枕加背伸肌锻炼法治疗胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折.方法:胸腰段稳定型屈曲压缩性骨折100例,外伤后二三天开始,每隔3~5 d,分别应用由低到高4种规格的沙袋垫于胸腰段,维持过伸位至8~10周,每垫枕3 h,用整体滚动法可左右侧卧半小时.锻炼应从垫枕后一两天开始,仰卧锻炼法分为5点支撑法和3点支撑法,前者原则为3次/d,30min~1 h/次,不少于100次/d,渐过渡到逐日增加2min,次数5~10次/d;后者在前者应用3周后开始.俯卧位锻炼法要求在骨折后4周开始.结果:以Dennis评定方法:74

  18. Effect of the brake type pillow on preventing the postoperative complication in breast cancer patients%制动式垫枕在预防乳腺癌术后并发症中的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦俊琴; 苏金娜; 谢艳丽


    目的:探讨制动式垫枕在预防乳腺癌术后并发症中的应用效果。方法将160例行乳腺癌改良根治术患者按随机数字表随机分为观察组和对照组各80例,观察组术后使用制动式垫枕,对照组按传统方法护理,比较两组乳腺癌术后皮下引流量、皮下积液、皮瓣坏死和患肢水肿发生情况。结果观察组术后皮下引流总量为(276.59±163.10)ml,与对照组的(431.72±265.18)ml比较,差异有统计学意义(t=3.573,P<0.01);观察组皮下积液发生率为0.25%,对照组皮下积液发生率为1.63%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=8.901,P<0.01);观察组皮瓣坏死发生率为0.25%,对照组皮瓣坏死发生率为1.38%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.782,P<0.01);两组患者患肢水肿发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.592,P>0.05)。结论应用制动式垫枕能减少乳腺癌术后皮下引流量,预防皮下积液和皮瓣坏死的发生,但预防患肢水肿有待进一步研究。%Objective To explore the effect of the brake type pillow on preventing the postoperative complication in breast cancer patients .Methods One hundred and sixty patients with modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer were divided into the control group and the observation group according to the random number table, each with 80 cases.The observation group received the brake type pillow , and the control group received the routine nursing .The incidence of postoperative subcutaneous drainage , the subcutaneous effusion , the skin flap necrosis and the paretic upper-limb edema were compared between two groups .Results The amount of postoperative subcutaneous drainage in the observation group was (276.59 ±163.10) ml, and was (431.72 ± 265.18) ml in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (t=3.573,P0.05).Conclusions

  19. Research in prevention of pressure ulcer for bed-ridden patients by simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress%简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于卧床患者预防压疮的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study the prevention of pressure ulcer for bed-ridden patients by simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress.Methods Self-made simple turn-over pillow and turnover mattress were used in 1300 patients who had high risk of pressure ulcer,and the application effect was observed.Results No pressure ulcer occurred in 1300 patients when they were discharged.Conclusions Simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress showed definite effect to prevent pressure ulcer,they have application value,and are worthy of wide spread.%目的 探讨简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于卧床患者预防压疮的效果.方法 将自行研制的简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于1300例易患压疮患者,观察应用效果.结果 1300例患者出院时均皮肤完好,无压疮发生.结论 简易翻身枕、翻身褥确为一种预防压疮的有效方法,具有一定的应用价值,值得推广.

  20. 西准噶尔科克萨依OIB型玄武岩地球化学特征及意义%Geochemistry and tectonic significance of OIB-type pillow basalt of Kekesayi in western Jungger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旋; 金瑜


    The Ophiolite of Kekesayi district in western Jungger of XinJiang,is a melange belt formed of serpentinite, pillow basalt,andesite-basaltic tuff lava,gabbro(diabase dyke) and siliceous rock.We have done a detailed geochemical study on the pillow basalt from the association. It turned out that the basalt is characterised by the low magnesium(Mg#=0.27~0.33)and high titanium(1.31%~2.43%);the REE pattern shows the enrichment of LREE(La/Yb)N=9.22~13.01 and unobvious Eu anomaly(δEu=0.95~1.15);Rb and Sr show a little negative anomaly.Comparing to the oceanic island basalt,the high field-strength elements(Nb,Ta,Zr,Hf,Ti,P) show unobvious anomaly.The trace elements and REE distribu-tion patterns are similar to those of the oceanic island basalt(OIB),which indicates they have the characteristics of the typical oceanic island basalt.The comprehensive study suggests that the basalt in the Kekesayi is formed in the oceanic island(seamount) environment within the oceanic plate.This provides a new basis for the hot point activity in oceanic plate of western junggar kekesayi region.%新疆西准噶尔地区的科克萨依蛇绿岩带,为一套由蛇纹岩、枕状玄武岩及安山玄武质凝灰熔岩、辉长岩(辉绿岩墙)、硅质岩构成的混杂岩带。选择组合中的枕状玄武岩进行地球化学研究,结果表明,玄武岩以低镁(Mg#=0.27~0.33)、高钛(1.31%~2.43%)为特征;稀土分布有 LREE 富集(La/Yb)N=9.22~13.01,无明显 Eu 异常(δEu=0.95~1.15);Rb,Sr略显负异常,高场强元素(Nb,Ta,Zr,Hf,Ti,P)相对OIB型玄武岩无明显异常。稀土元素及微量元素分布模式与洋岛玄武岩基本一致,具典型洋岛(海山)型玄武岩特征。综合研究认为,科克萨依玄武岩形成于大洋板内洋岛(海山)环境。

  1. On the Aesthetic Features of "The Pillow Book" from"Annual Events"%从“年中行事”看《枕草子》的审美特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    清少纳言在随笔作品《枕草子》中通过一系列的“年中行事”诠释了日本平安王朝的传统审美意识,我们根据“年中行事”的一些特征,可从一定程度上了解清少纳言对季节的重视程度与审美取向。也就是说,清少纳言并没有被平安王朝传统的审美意识的条框所束缚,而是根据自己审美理念的需要,从不同视角去观察周围的事物和现象,同时凭借自己的感觉去挖掘“美”,进而将这些所谓的“美”充分融入作品之中。%Through a series of"annual events",Sei Shōnagon in-terpreted the traditional aesthetic consciousness during the Heian period in her essay"The Pillow Book". In accordance with some features of "annual events", we can learn Sei Shōnagon's em-phasis on seasons and her aesthetic orientation, to a certain ex-tent. In other words, free from the traditional aesthetic conscious-ness of that dynasty, Sei Shōnagon observed things and phe-nomena around from a different perspective based on the need of her own aesthetic concept, and by means of her own feelings, she sought"beauty"which would be fully integrated into her works.

  2. The clinical study of vacuum-formed jaw-pillow used for teeth fixing in children with traumatic anterior teeth%全牙列牙合垫用于混合牙列期儿童上颌外伤前牙固定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉伟; 李雅; 张峥


    目的:评价全牙列牙合垫用于儿童外伤前牙固定的临床效果。方法:选择58例7~12岁儿童,其中男42例,女16例,随机分为两组,实验组(30例)采用全牙列颌垫固定,对照组(28例)采用弓丝托槽技术固定。比较治疗前及固定4周后的牙松动度、患者舒适指数、牙龈指数和医生临床操作时间,并进行统计学分析。结果:外伤牙固定4周后,疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);患者舒适指数、牙龈指数、临床操作时间全牙列牙合垫优于弓丝托槽(P<0.05)。结论:全牙列牙合垫用于混合牙列期儿童外伤前牙固定效果可靠,且较舒适,对牙周刺激小,可节省时间。%AIM:To evaluate the clinical effects of vacuum-formed jaw-pillow used for teeth fixing in chil-dren with traumatic anterior teeth.METHODS:58 cases of children (42 males and 16 females aged 7 -12 years) with anterior teeth trauma were randomly divided into 2 groups,and respectively treated by vacuum-formed jaw-pillow (30 cases)and arc wire (28 cases).The clinical operation time,tooth mobility,patient comfort index and gingival index were compared between the 2 groups before and 4 weeks after treatment .Tata were statistically analyzed.RE-SULTS:The efficacy between the 2 groups was not statistically different (P>0.05);the comfort index,gingival in-dex and clinical operation time of vacuum-formed jaw-pillow group were obviously better than those of control group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Vacuum-formed jaw-pillow used for teeth fixing in children with traumatic anterior is superior to arc wire .

  3. Clinical Efficacy and Nursing Method in Cervical Vertigo Patients at Acute Stage which were Treated by Heating Pillow Combined Betahistine%加热药枕配合倍他司汀在颈性眩晕急性期疗效观察及护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓春; 李建英


    目的:观察加热药枕配合倍他司汀在颈性眩晕急性期的疗效,分析其作用机理及护理方式.方法:纳入42例颈性眩晕急性期患者,以加热药枕外用配合倍他司汀静滴,观察其在治疗后0.5、1、2h的疗效.结果:治疗0.5hg42例患者中,治愈8例(19.05%),显效12例(28.57%),有效20例(47.62%),无效2例(4.76%),总体有效率95.24%,随着治疗时间延长,2h后总体有效率100%.结论:加热药枕配合倍他司汀能够早期缓解患者症状,同时临床护理方面要注重药枕温度的保持、改进外形等.%Objective: To observe the Efficacy in cervical vertigo the acute stage which was treated by heating pillow with Betahistine, then analysis its mechanism and nursing method. Methods: A total of 42 cases of acute cervical vertigo were treated by heating pillow and intravenous infusion of betahistine, then observed the efficacy. After treatment half an hour, 1 hour, and 2 hours. Results: After half an hour in 42 patients, 8 cases were cured ( 19.05% ), 12 cases obviously valid ( 28.57% ),20 cases effective ( 47.62% ),2 cases invalid ( 4.76% ), the overall effective rate was 95.24% .After 2 hours the overall efficiency is 100%.Conclusion: Heating pillow with betahistine can alleviate the symptoms early, and clinical care should pay attention to ensure the pillow temperature, improve the appearance and so on.

  4. Clinical Observation on 35 Cases of Cervical Vertigo in the Acute Stage Treated by the Heated Medicinal Pillow and Betahistine%加热药枕配合倍他司汀治疗颈性眩晕急性期35例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进忠; 覃小兰; 张晓春


    目的 观察自制药枕经过加热后联合倍他司汀对颈性眩晕急性发作期患者的临床疗效.方法 将70例颈性眩晕急性发作期患者随机分为两组,治疗组采用静脉滴注倍他司汀+加热药枕治疗,对照组采用单纯静脉滴注倍他司汀治疗.通过眩晕疗效评价标准及前庭症状指数(VSI)评分对两组患者眩晕症状改善情况进行比较.结果 眩晕改善情况治疗组痊愈率为17.14%,总有效率为100.00%;对照组分别为8.57%、97.15%,两组痊愈率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),总有效率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).VSI评分方面,治疗组优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在颈性眩晕急性发作期治疗方面,加热药枕疗效肯定,其配合倍他司汀优于单纯倍他司汀治疗.%Objective To observe the clinical effect of self-made heated medicinal pillow and Betahistine on the acute attack of cervical vertigo. Methods The 70 enrolled patients were randomized into two groups. The treatment group was given Betahistine intravenous infusion and heated medicinal pillow treatment, and the control group was simply given Betahistine intravenous infusion. The symptom improvement of two groups was compared with the effect evaluation criteria and VSI vestibular symptom rating scale for analyzing the effect of heated medicinal pillow. Results The cure rate of the treatment group and the control group was 17.14% and 8. 57% respectively, with significant difference (P<0. 05); the total effective rate of the treatment and control group was 100% and 97.15% respectively, without significant difference (P>0. 05). Th treatment group was also better in the VSI vestibular symptom scale score than the control group, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion In the treatment of acute stage of cervical vertigo, the effect of heated medicinal pillow and Betahistine is better than that of single use of Betahistine.

  5. 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效%Efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of patients with cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙其斌; 张崇岳; 冀全谋; 谢永明; 陈国梁


    目的 观察生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 神经根型颈椎病180例,随机分为生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅰ组)和垂直颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅱ组),各组90例.分别采用生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗与垂直颈椎牵引治疗,两组患者每次牵引重量均为3.0~7.0 kg,牵引时间均为20 min.牵引10次为1个疗程,2个疗程后判定疗效.结果 Ⅰ组的优效率61.1%(55/90例)和总有效率93.3%(84/90例)分别高于Ⅱ组的优效率42.2%(38/90例)和总有效率72.2%(65/90例),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效确切,较垂直牵引效果好.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type.Methods One hundred and eighty patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy were randomly divided into group Ⅰ and Ⅱ, 90 cases in each group.Patients were received the treatment with physiological type neck pillow cervical traction in the group Ⅰ ,while received vertical cervical traction in the group Ⅱ.The tractive weight was 3~7 kg and the tractive time was 20 minute in all patients every time, 10 times for a course.The efficacy was evaluated after 2 courses.Resuits The excellent effect and total effective rates in the group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in the group Ⅱ respectively (61.1%, 55/90 cases vs 42.2%, 38/90 cases;93.3%, 84/90 cases vs 72.2%, 65/90 cases) (P < 0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of physiological type cervical traction with neck pillow is definite and superior to the vertical traction in the treatment of patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.

  6. 个体化颈椎刚柔保健枕防治上颈段颈型颈椎病临床研究%Clinical Study on Curative Effect of Individualized Health Care Pillow Coupled Hardness with Softness on Prevention and Treatment of Upper Neck Type Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保新; 黄承军; 徐敏; 唐福宇; 娄宇明; 梁柱; 王继; 梁冬波; 唐汉武


    目的:观察个体化颈椎刚柔保健枕防治上颈段颈型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:2008年11月—2010年1月在本院门诊就诊的上颈段颈型颈椎病患者50例,按照治疗方法分为治疗组(29例)与对照组(21例),分别采用枕颌带牵引与个体化颈椎刚柔保健枕治疗,治疗3周后评价临床疗效与疼痛评分,并观察治疗6个月前后的颈部残障指数评分的改变.结果:治疗3周后,治疗组的疗效与对照组相比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组的疼痛评分均明显下降(均P<0.01),但治疗组优于对照组(P<0.01).两组治疗前的颈部残障指数评分之间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).6个月后,治疗组的颈部残障指数与对照组比较,有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论:个体化颈椎刚柔保健枕防治上颈段颈型颈椎病疗效满意,值得临床推广.%Objective;To explore the effect of individualized health care pillow coupled hardness with softness on the prevention and treatment of the upper neck type cervical spondylosis. Methods: 50 cases with the upper neck type cervical spondylosis were divided into control group ( n=21 )and treatment group ( n=29 ). The patients in control group received cervical traction and the ones in treatment group were treated with individualized health care pillow coupled hardness with softness. The curative effect and the pain scores of the patients in two groups after 3 weeks' treatment and the neck disability index of the patients in two groups before and after 6 months were observed. Results : After three weeks' treatment, among the patients in control group,2 patients got an excellent result, 16 good,3 fair, and 0 poor. In the treatment group, 11 patients got an excellent result, 17 good, 1 fair, and 0 poor. The ridit analysis showed there was a significant difference (P<0.05 ). Before treatment the pain scores and the neck disability index in two groups had no significant difference. The pain scores after 3 weeks

  7. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of pillow lava basalts in southwestern Langshan, Inner Mongolia and their implication%内蒙古狼山西南地区枕状玄武岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进; 李锦轶; 刘建峰; 李岩峰; 曲军峰; 张义平


    报道了新近在华北北缘西段狼山地区发现的枕状玄武岩的初步定年工作.前人将其时代定为早古生代.对选自玄武岩的32颗锆石进行了LA-ICP-MS U-Pb定年结果表明,玄武岩的锆石大量为捕获基底的锆石,其年龄和锆石内部结构复杂多样.根据锆石内部特征将其划分为4类,其中的板状锆石被定为玄武岩的自生锆石,年龄为晚古生代末期—早三叠世早期.其余均为来自阿拉善地块基底的锆石,主要为古元古代—新大古代和古生代锆石.狼山晚古生代末期的玄武岩可能产自古亚洲洋封闭后由于岩石圈拆沉导致的伸展环境,该期伸展贯穿华北北缘直至阿拉善地块,暗示华北板块与阿拉善地块至少在晚古生代之前就已经拼合在一起了.%Recent found pillow lava basalts in the southwestern Langshan and its preliminary dating has been reported here. Previous survey had assigned its age at the Early Paleozoic. 32 zircons from pillow lava basalts have been dated using LA-ICP-MS. Most zircons from basalts are captured from the basement, the distribution of ages and internal structures of which are complicated. Four groups of zircons have been distinguished by their internal structures. Among them the tabular zircons have been believed as the autogenetic zircons of pillow lava basalts, the ages of these zircons range from the end of Permian to the Early Triassic. The rest zircons in the samples are all from the Alashan basement, among which Paleoproterozoic and Newarchaeozoic zircons and Paleozoic zircons are most. The latest Late Permian Langshan basalts may developed in the extensional tectonics resulting from the delamination of the lithosphere after the closure of the Paleoasian Ocean, the extension of this period occurred along the whole north margin of the North China Plate including the Alashan block, which means that the Alashan block jointed with the North China Plate at least before the Late Paleozoic.

  8. Ti-Cu-W体系Pillow飞片加载铋熔化再凝固过程计算分析%Calculation Analysis of the Impact Melting and Resolidification Process for the Bismuth Using the Ti-Cu-W Pillow Flyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏劲松; 张联盟; 于继东; 戴诚达; 王宇; 刘坤; 罗国强; 沈强; 谭华; 吴强


    采用数值计算设计了Ti-Cu-W材料体系 Pillow飞片,实现金属铋样品的冲击加载和准等熵加载,并通过实验研究铋的冲击熔化再凝固这一复杂的物理过程,实验获得的速度波剖面结果与数值模拟结果基本一致。还建立了金属铋的包含5个固相和1个液相的完全物态方程,计算相图的三相点以及高压区的 Hugoniot线与实验数据吻合较好,计算还获得了冲击加载再凝固实验中的温度信息和相变信息。通过计算分析和对实验数据的解读,认为Ti-Cu-W材料体系Pillow飞片加载可以用于铋的冲击熔化再凝固复杂物理过程研究,为实验探索研究建立了适用的研究方法和有效的技术手段。%Numerical simulations are carried out to design the Pillow flyer of Ti-Cu-W system,and the impact loading and quasi-isentropic loading of the bismuth sample are also carried out.We experimentally investigate the intricate physical process of impact melting and resolidification.Experiment results of wave profiles are similar with numerical ones.The complete equation of state of bismuth including five solid phases and one liquid phase is established.Triple points in phase diagram and the Hugoniot curve in high pressure area agree well with the experiment data.The temperature and phase transition information in impact loading and resolidification experiment are also obtained.According to the calculation analysis and interpretation of the experiment data,the loading experiment based on Ti-Cu-W flyer is available to study the physical process of impact melting and resolidification of bismuth,and an appropriate research method and effective technique means for experiment exploration is established.

  9. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Heihe mafic pillow lavas in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Zongqing


    [1]Lee, C. Y., A preliminary study of plate tectonics of China, Bull. Chinese Acad. Geol. Sci. (in Chinese), 1980, 2(1): 11-19.[2]Lee, C. Y., Tectonic evolution of Asia, Bull. Chinese Acad. Geol. Sci. (in Chinese), 1984, 10: 3-11.[3]Ren Jishun, Jiang Chunfa, Zhang Zhengkun et al., The Geotectonic Evolution of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1980.[4]Ren Jishun, Chen Tingyu, Niu Baogui et al., Tectonic Evolution of the Continental Hithospheres and Metallogeny in Eastern China and Adjacent Areas (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1990.[5]Zhang Qiusheng, Zhu Yongzheng, The Paleozoic ophiolite in the east Qinling, J. Changchun College of Geology (in Chi-nese), 1984, 3: 1-13.[6]Xiao Siyun, Zhang Weiji, Song Ziji, The Metamorphic Strata of the Northern Qinling in China (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Jiaotong University Press, 1988.[7]Xu Zhiqin, Lu Yilun, Tang Yaoqing et al., Formation of the Composite Eastern Qinling Chains (in Chinese), Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 1988.[8]Zhang Guowei, Formation and evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1988.[9]Zhang Guowei, Meng Qingren, Yu Zaiping, Orogenesis and dynamics of the Qinling orogen, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(3):225-234.[10]Wu Liren, Xu Guizhong, Geological Evolution in the East Qinling-Dabieshan Collision Orogen (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1988.[11]Sun Yong, Yu Zaiping, A discussion of an ancient ocean and Caledonian in the east Qinling, in A Selection of Papers Pre-sented at the Conference on the Qinling Orogenic Belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1991, 167-173.[12]Zhang Zongqing, Liu Dunyi,Fu Guomin et al., Geochronology of Metamorphic Strata in the North Qinling Area (in Chi-nese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994.[13]Cui Zhilin, Sun Yong, Wang Xueren, Discovery of radiolarian fossils within the Danfeng ophiolite in the Qinling and its significance, Chinese Science Bull., 1995, 40(19):1686-1688.[14]Pei Xianzhi, Composition and Tectinic Evolution of the Shangdan Structural Zone in the East Qinling, China (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Maps Publishing House, 1997.[15]Jiang Changyi, Su Shengrui, Zhao Taiping et al., Intruded Rock Belt in the North Qinling Area and Jinning Movement (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1988.[16]Zhang Zongqing, Zhang Guowei, Fu Guomin et al., Geochronology of metamorpic strata in the Qinling Mountains and its tectonic implications, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(3): 283-292.[17]Zhang Qi, Zhang Zongqing, Sun Yong et al., Trace element and isotopic geochemistry of metebasalts from Danfeng Group in Shangxian-Danfeng area, Shaanxi Province, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1995, 11(1): 43-54.[18]Zhang Benren, Luo Tingchuan, Ouyang Jianping et al., Geochemical Study of the Lithosphere, Tectonism and Metallo-genesis in the Qingling-Dabashan Region (in Chinese), Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1994.[19]Li, S., Hart, S. R., Zheng, S. et al., Timing of collision between the North and South China blocks: The Sm-Nd isotopic age evidence, Science in China, Ser. B, 1989, 32(3): 312-319.[20]Li, S., Chen, Y. Z., Zhang Guowei, A l Ga B. P. Alpine peridotite body emplaced into the Qingling group: Evidence for the existence of the late proterozoic plate tectonics in the North Qinling area, Geol. Review (in Chinese), 1991, 37(3): 235-242.[21]Zhang Guowei, Meng Qingren, Lai Shaocong, Tectonics and structure of Qinling orogenic belt, Science in China, Ser. B, 995, 38(10): 1379.[22]Liu Guohui, Zhang Shouguang, You Zhendong et al., The Major Metamorphic Rock Groups in the Qinling Orogenic Belt and Their Metamorphic Evolution (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.[23]You Zhendong, Suo Shutian, Han Yujing et al., The major characteristcs of the metamorphic complex of the Qinling oro-genic belt and their implication of the construction of the eastern Qinling continental crust, in A Selection of Papers Pre-sented at the Conference on the Qinling Orogenic Belt (in Chinese), Xi'an: Northwest University Press, 1991, 1-14.[24]Wang Tao, Li Wuping, Wang Xiaoxia, Zircon age of the Niujiaoshan granitoid gneisses in the Qinling complex of the Qinling orogenic belt, Regional Geology of China (in Chinese), 1998, 17(3): 262-265.[25]Lu Xinxiang, Dong You, Wei Xiangdong, Age of the Tuwushan A-type granite and its tectonic implications, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44(9): 975-978.

  10. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla


    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  11. Watching Commoners, Performing Class : Images of the Common People in The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon


    ANGLES, Jeffrey


    A common refrain in criticism of the eleventh-century work The Pilloe Book is that Sei Shonagon had nothing but disparaging words to say abaut the liwer slasses. This study re-examiners this idea through an in-depth review of the ppasage in The Pilloe Book that mention commoners, and it finds that the situation is somewhat more complex.This paper begins by looking at the language that identifies people of the lower classes, specifically the noun gesu, the adjeutive waroki, and the prefix ...

  12. Integrable boundary interaction in 3D target space: The “pillow-brane” model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, Sergei L., E-mail: [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849 (United States); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Zamolodchikov, Alexander B. [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849 (United States); Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We propose a model of boundary interaction, with three-dimensional target space, and the boundary values of the field X∈R{sup 3} constrained to lay on a two-dimensional surface of the “pillow” shape. We argue that the model is integrable, and suggest that its exact solution is described in terms of certain linear ordinary differential equation.

  13. Evaluating a seed enhancement technology (seed pillows) for sagebrush restoration efforts across a large elevation gradient (United States)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) restoration is needed across vast areas, especially after large wildfires, to restore important ecosystem services. Sagebrush restoration success is inconsistent with a high rate of seeding failures, particularly at lower elevations. Seed enhancement tech...

  14. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth (United States)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.


    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in 20Ne and 21Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high 3He 4He ratios. The high 20Ne 22Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO2 well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. ?? 1993.

  15. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)); Clague, D.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States))


    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in [sup 20]Ne and [sup 21]Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He ratios. The high [sup 20]Ne/[sup 22]Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO[sub 2] well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere.

  16. 新型颈椎固定枕的设计与使用%Design and Use of New Fixed Cervical Pillow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍新型颈椎固定枕的设计与使用方法。颈椎固定枕内部由弹力棉填充,主要由中间相连的颈枕和枕枕以及侧面分离的侧枕和侧面颈枕构成,每个颈枕或枕枕均有配备沙袋等辅助品。患者可以采取仰卧或侧卧的不同体位,使用时用侧枕包裹沙袋垫在患者颈后避免颈部活动或者用备用枕将枕部调高。经反复临床验证,我科设计的新型颈椎枕能够满足患者仰卧或侧卧对枕高的需求。%Introduce the design and use of the model fixed cervical pil ow. Fixed cervical pil ow is fil ed by elastic cotton,mainly made up by connected neck pil ow and pil ow,and separated neck pil ow formed. Each neck pil ow or pil ow is equipped with sandbags and other auxiliary materials. Patients can take different supine or lateral postures,when used with a side pil ow package sandbag in patients with carotid after avoiding neck activity or spare pil ow wil occipital height adjustment. After repeated clinical verification,we designed model cervical vertebra pil ow,which can satisfy the patient supine or lateral to the occipital high demand.

  17. Electronic Anti-cutting Function and Control-algorithm Realization of Three-servo Pillow Packaging Machine%三伺服枕式包装机电子防切功能及控制算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于镭; 卫光


    The paper introduced the procession of new model of three-servo packaging machine and its u-nique features electronic anti-cutting function. By elaborating the principle of error-sensor and the electronic anti-cutting technology controlling algorithm, realized the electronic anti-cutting technology of three-servo packaging machine. At last the machine meets the design requirement and customs need through the practice.%介绍了目前新型三伺服枕式包装机的工作过程及其能够实现的特有功能电子防切;通过阐述错位传感器的检测原理和电子防切技术的控制算法,实现三伺服枕式包装机的电子防切功能.通过实际应用达到了设计要求,得到了用户的一致好评.

  18. Elastic Painkiller Pillow in Prevention of Chest Incision Pain%弹性止痛枕用于胸部手术切口止痛效果的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建新; 王晓芳


    目的 经过循证了解胸部手术切口疼痛产生的原理,观察弹性止痛枕作用于胸部手术切口的止痛效果.方法 选择50例在我院行胸部切口手术的患者,根据术后是否使用弹性止痛枕分为实验组(26例)和对照组(24例),对比分析两组研究对象的VAS评分,评价弹性止痛枕对胸部手术切口处止痛的效果.结果 实验组中,23例患者术后第7天的VAS评分为(1.85±0.99),而对照组中14例患者的VAS评分为(2.23±1.12).统计学分析显示实验组明显低于对照组(P<0.035).结论 胸部手术切口使用弹性加压止痛枕是一种有效的物理止痛方法.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 李静



  20. Ongeluk basaltic andesite formation in Griqualand West, South Africa: Submarine alteration in a 2222 Ma Proterozoic sea

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cornell, DH


    Full Text Available in the matrix and as amygdale fillings. Chlorite pseudomorphs after clinopyroxene are occasionally Table 2 Chemical analyses of selected samples from the Ongeluk Formation Sample: 77392 77396 77397 77394 77393 88BA6 88BA8 90BA20 90...BAI9 77395 88BA5 90BA28 Detection limit massive chilled massive pillow pillow pillow pillow pillow pillow hyalo- hyalo- hyalo- lava flow lava core rim core rim core rim clastite clastite clastite margin 77393 88BA8 90BA...

  1. 满族枕顶绣研究——以辽东学院柞蚕丝绸与满族服饰博物馆馆藏为例%Study on Pillow Side Embroidery of Man Nationality by Taking Collections of Tussah Silk and Man Nationality Costume Museum of Eastern Liaoning Universtiy as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)





    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards On April 24, 2006, Yalong Bay Mangrove Tree Resort proudly received 'Top 10 Resorts in China" at the 3nd Annual China Hotel Golden Pillows Awards. The resort has created an entirely new concept for a Chinese resort, with its South Asia architec-

  3. Three-Year-Olds Can Predict a Noun Based on an Attributive Adjective: Evidence from Eye-Tracking (United States)

    Tribushinina, Elena; Mak, Willem M.


    This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., "soft pillow") as they hear them and to predict the noun ("pillow") on the basis of the adjective meaning ("soft"). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The participants saw two…

  4. Isentropic compressive wave generator and method of making same (United States)

    Barker, L.M.

    An isentropic compressive wave generator and method of making same are disclosed. The wave generator comprises a disk or flat pillow member having component materials of different shock impedances formed in a configuration resulting in a smooth shock impedance gradient over the thickness thereof for interpositioning between an impactor member and a target specimen for producing a shock wave of a smooth predictable rise time. The method of making the pillow member comprises the reduction of the component materials to a powder form and forming the pillow member by sedimentation and compressive techniques.

  5. Skin care and incontinence (United States)

    ... most or all of the day in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed without changing position TAKING CARE OF ... pillows or foam padding For people in a wheelchair: Make sure the chair fits properly Have them shift their weight every ...

  6. В преддверии темных ночей

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tekstiilidisaini üliõpilaste töödest "Moonwalk" (autorid Stella Kalkun ja Luisa Aid), "RE:ME - remind me pillow" (autorid Heleri Alexandra Sits ja Signe Aasoja) ja "Volt" (autor Stella Kalkun)

  7. A note on sulphide-oxide mineralisation in Carlsberg Ridge basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Pillow basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge at 3 degrees 35'N contain disseminated chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite. The euhedral shape of the pyrite grains indicate them to be early formed and grown unobstructed while magnetite occurs as skeletal...

  8. Narcolepsy (United States)

    ... with narcolepsy don't sleep well at night. Exams and Tests Your health care provider will do ... sure your bed and pillows are comfortable. Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and heavy meals several hours before bedtime. ...

  9. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure (United States)

    ... time and help eliminate false readings. Find out more about how healthy eating can lower your blood pressure with the DASH eating plan . Getting adequate rest To improve your sleep at night, use pillows to prop up your ...

  10. Kidney Biopsy (United States)

    ... an examination table. The technician will place a firm pillow or sandbag under a person’s body to ... Care Professionals Community Outreach and Health Fairs Health Communication Programs FAQs About NIDDK Meet the Director Offices & ...

  11. В преддверии темных ночей

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tekstiilidisaini üliõpilaste töödest "Moonwalk" (autorid Stella Kalkun ja Luisa Aid), "RE:ME - remind me pillow" (autorid Heleri Alexandra Sits ja Signe Aasoja) ja "Volt" (autor Stella Kalkun)

  12. CPAP Machines: Tips for Avoiding 10 Common Problems (United States)

    ... and cheeks. These may make some people feel claustrophobic, but they work well at providing a stable ... uses nasal pillows. If you're still feeling claustrophobic, talk to your doctor or CPAP supplier. A ...

  13. What to include in your birth plan (United States)

    ... unmedicated, or "natural," childbirth, and others know they absolutely do not want to have an unmedicated childbirth. ... want for labor and delivery? Do you want music? Lights? Pillows? Photos? Make a list of items ...

  14. Comprehensive Monitoring Program: Air Quality Data Assessment Report for FY90. Volume 2. Version 3.1 (United States)


    Alltac Corporation 32 80 Pillow Kingdom Co. (2) 33 6 0 W.J. Whatley Co. 34 Stanley Aviation Corp. 35 A.IR-TBLI.9O0 9S000 0 0 0 "Ti Table 4.1-2 Emissions...62429 12.25 Adam- Toluene, MEK C Pillow Kingdom 53237 4.70 Denver Toluene, 1 II TCE, MEK W.J. Whatley Inc. 52671 10.33 Adams Acetone, styrene

  15. Determination of radiation levels by neutrons in an accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de niveles de radiacion por neutrones en un acelerador para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.; Salazar B, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Genis S, R. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Torriello Guerra, Tlalpan 14050, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    It was determined the radiation levels by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions ({gamma}, n) which occur in the target, levelling filter, collimators and the small pillow blinding of a medical accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MeV, using thermoluminescent dosemeters UD-802AS and US-809AS. The experimental values were presented for the patient level, inside and outside of the radiation field, as well as for the small pillow. (Author)

  16. Field Demonstration Report Applied Innovative Technologies for Characterization of Nitrocellulose- and Nitroglycerine Contaminated Buildings and Soils, Rev 1 (United States)


    powder pillow , 25-mL (Hach Company) Acetic acid Glacial acetic acid, J.T. Baker, Baker Instra- Analyzed Reagent, 99.9%. Sodium hydroxide Aqueous sodium...absorbance measurement was developed by adding the contents of a HACH NitriVer 3 powder pillow dissolved in deionized water to the zinc reacted solution...gas chromatography is required for onsite analysis by GC/TID. Instrument costs are about $10,000 and do not require the use of compressed gases

  17. Litostratigrafi dan sedimentasi Formasi Kebo dan Formasi Butak di Pegunungan Baturagung, Jawa Tengah Bagian Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surono Surono


    Full Text Available, the Nampurejo Pillow Lava, Kebo and Butak Formations, which are dominated by volcanic rocks, spread west - eastly, along the northern foot of the Baturagung Mountains. The Nampurejo Pillow Lava, which has an Early Oligocene age, is overlain by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene Kebo and Butak Formations successively. The Nampurejo Pillow Lava consists of basaltic pillow-lavas showing pillow structures and they are intercalated by black sandstones. The Kebo Formation comprises alternating sandstone and pebbly sandstone with intercalations of siltstone, claystone, tuff, and shale. On the other hand, the Butak For- mation is composed of polymic breccia with intercalations of sandstone, pebbly sandstone, claystone, and siltstone/shale. The three units were deposited in a deep – shallow marine basin, which was filled by volcanic prod- ucts. Compared to the lower part of the Kebo Formation, volcanic activities during the deposition of the upper part of the Kebo Formation and the Butak Formation were more active.    

  18. Gunung Api purba Watuadeg: Sumber erupsi dan posisi stratigrafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Bronto


    Full Text Available lava flows of pyroxene basalt containing 50 wt.% SiO are exposed at Opak River, west of Watuadeg Village, Sleman - Yogyakarta. The length of flow structures is between 2 – 10 m, with diameter of 0.5 – 1.0 m and it has a glassy skin at the surface body. Flow directions vary from N70E in the northern side, through N 120E in the middle to N 150E in the southern side. About 150 m away from the river to the west, there is a small hill about 15 m high, that has a similar composition with the pillow lavas. Both lava flows and the small hill are composed of pyroxene basalt, dark grey in color, hypocrystalline vitrophyre to porphyritic texture, with fine-grained phenocrysts of pyroxene (10 % and plagioclase (25 % set in glassy groundmass. These data indicate that the small hill was the eruption source of the basaltic pillow lavas. The lavas are overlain by pumice-rich volcaniclastic rocks, composed of tuff, lapillistones and pumice breccias, that are known as the Semilir Formation. Near the contact with lavas, the volcaniclastic rocks contain some fragments of pyroxene basalt, similar composition with the pillow lavas. This fact, together with analyses of petrology, volcanology, and radiometric dating show that the basaltic pillow lavas are unconformably overlain by the Semilir Formation.  

  19. Paleoarchean trace fossils in altered volcanic glass (United States)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Furnes, Harald; DeWit, Maarten


    Microbial corrosion textures in volcanic glass from Cenozoic seafloor basalts and the corresponding titanite replacement microtextures in metamorphosed Paleoarchean pillow lavas have been interpreted as evidence for a deep biosphere dating back in time through the earliest periods of preserved life on earth. This interpretation has been recently challenged for Paleoarchean titanite replacement textures based on textural and geochronological data from pillow lavas in the Hooggenoeg Complex of the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. We use this controversy to explore the strengths and weaknesses of arguments made in support or rejection of the biogenicity interpretation of bioalteration trace fossils in Cenozoic basalt glasses and their putative equivalents in Paleoarchean greenstones. Our analysis suggests that biogenicity cannot be taken for granted for all titanite-based textures in metamorphosed basalt glass, but a cautious and critical evaluation of evidence suggests that biogenicity remains the most likely interpretation for previously described titanite microtextures in Paleoarchean pillow lavas. PMID:26038543

  20. Paleoarchean trace fossils in altered volcanic glass. (United States)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Furnes, Harald; DeWit, Maarten


    Microbial corrosion textures in volcanic glass from Cenozoic seafloor basalts and the corresponding titanite replacement microtextures in metamorphosed Paleoarchean pillow lavas have been interpreted as evidence for a deep biosphere dating back in time through the earliest periods of preserved life on earth. This interpretation has been recently challenged for Paleoarchean titanite replacement textures based on textural and geochronological data from pillow lavas in the Hooggenoeg Complex of the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. We use this controversy to explore the strengths and weaknesses of arguments made in support or rejection of the biogenicity interpretation of bioalteration trace fossils in Cenozoic basalt glasses and their putative equivalents in Paleoarchean greenstones. Our analysis suggests that biogenicity cannot be taken for granted for all titanite-based textures in metamorphosed basalt glass, but a cautious and critical evaluation of evidence suggests that biogenicity remains the most likely interpretation for previously described titanite microtextures in Paleoarchean pillow lavas.

  1. Effects of surface anisotropy on magnetic vortex core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V., E-mail: [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Sheka, Denis D. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine)


    The vortex core shape in the three dimensional Heisenberg magnet is essentially influenced by a surface anisotropy. We predict that depending of the surface anisotropy type there appears barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex core along the magnet thickness. Our theoretical study is well confirmed by spin–lattice simulations. - Highlights: • The shape of magnetic vortex core is essentially influenced by SA (surface anisotropy). • We predict barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex depending on SA. • The variational approach fully describes the vortex core deformation. • We performed spin–lattice simulations to detect SA influence on the vortex core.

  2. Ophiolitic association of Cape Fiolent area, southwestern Crimea (United States)

    Promyslova, M. Yu.; Demina, L. I.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Gushchin, A. I.; Koronovsky, N. V.; Tsarev, V. V.


    An ophiolitic association consisting of serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentinite, layered mafic-ultramafic complex, gabbro and gabbrodolerite, fragments of parallel dike complex, pillow lava, black bedded chert, and jasper has been identified for the first time by authors in the Cape Fiolent area. The chemistry of pillow lavas and dolerites, including REE patterns and a wide set of other microelements, indicates suprasubduction nature of the ophiolites and their belonging to a backarc basin that has reached the stage of spreading in its evolution.

  3. Effect of melt composition and crystal content on flow morphology along the Alarcón Rise, Mexico (United States)

    Martin, J. F.; Lieberg-Clark, P.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Portner, R. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.


    Differences in submarine lava flow morphology have been related to differences in eruption rate; low eruption rates form pillow-flow morphologies whereas high eruption rates form sheet-flow morphologies. Eruption rate is likely controlled by dike intrusion width, exsolved bubble content of the magma, viscosity of the magma, or some combination these three properties. Samples and observations from a 2012 expedition to the Alarcón Rise, Mexico, are used to evaluate the potential control of viscosity due to melt composition and crystal content on observed flow morphologies and associated eruption rates. A 1-m resolution multibeam survey, covering the entire 50 km length of the neovolcanic zone, was completed using the MBARI Mapping AUV. Based on the high-resolution bathymetry, two basic flow morphologies could be distinguished: pillow flows, comprising ~ 40 % of the rise, and sheet flows, comprising the remaining ~ 60 %. A series of dives using the ROVs Doc Ricketts in 2012 and Tiburon in 2003 visually confirmed pillow flows, lobate flows, sheet flows, and jumbled sheet flows at the sampled sites. Over 150 lava samples collected during the dives, spanning the entire length of the rise were analyzed for major-element chemistry, crystal content, and corresponding flow morphology. Lavas selected for this analysis ranged from basalt to basaltic-andesite (100 pa s, only pillow lavas are generated. The majority (> 80 %) of sampled pillow lavas are plagioclase-phyric to ultraphyric whereas the majority of lobate and sheet flow lavas are aphyric. Crystal fractions in the pillow lavas are as high as 30-40%, resulting in magma viscosities ~ 5-15 times the melt viscosities. The majority of pillow lavas (~77%) have magma viscosities > 100 pa s. Only ~ 25 % of lobate and sheet flow lavas have magma viscosities > 100 pa s. Many of the phyric lobate and sheet flow samples show evidence of strong flow segregation of crystals to the outer surface of the flow, resulting in samples

  4. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary) (United States)

    Kiss, Gabriella B.; Oláh, Erika; Zaccarini, Federica; Szakáll, Sándor


    The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag) occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  5. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte


    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  6. Nightmares (United States)

    ... sleep. Offering something comforting might help change the mood. Try any of these to aid the transition back to sleep: a favorite stuffed animal to hold, a blanket, pillow, nightlight, dreamcatcher, or soft music. Or discuss some pleasant dreams your child would ...

  7. 阅读理解三则(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>(A)Over a third of one1s life is spent sleeping with one1s head on apillow ( 枕头). A good pillow, in its right height and composition, hasimportant effects on one1s sleep and health. There is an old way of

  8. Categorization Is Modulated by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Left Prefrontal Cortex (United States)

    Lupyan, Gary; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.


    Humans have an unparalleled ability to represent objects as members of multiple categories. A given object, such as a pillow may be--depending on current task demands--represented as an instance of something that is soft, as something that contains feathers, as something that is found in bedrooms, or something that is larger than a toaster. This…

  9. Strobilus organization in the enigmatic gymnosperm Bernettia inopinata from the Jurassic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustatscher, E.; van Konijnenburg - van Cittert, J.H.A.; Bauer, K.; Krings, M.


    The enigmatic fossil Bernettia inopinata from Lower Jurassic strata of Upper Franconia, Germany, has been described as a leaf-like structure a leaf-like structure bearing a proximal cluster of densely spaced, pillow-like objects believed to represent ovules or ovule-containing units. The systematic

  10. Petrography of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Petrographic characteristics of basalts collected from a segment of the Carlsberg Ridge (lat. 3 degrees 35'N to 3 degrees 41'N; long. 64 degrees 05'E to 64 degrees 09'E) show typical pillow lava zonations with variable concentrations of plagioclase...

  11. Confederate King of Battle: A Comparison of the Field Artillery Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of Tennessee (United States)


    stubborn, aloof, insubordinate, quarrelsome, and childish .”3 Next in line was Gideon Pillow, Polk’s second in command. He and Polk feuded continually...On this matter Bragg agreed and removed Hill from command as well.80 However, the removal of these two tumors did not stop the cancer of

  12. Positive airway pressure adherence and mask interface in the setting of sinonasal symptoms. (United States)

    Schell, Amy E; Soose, Ryan J


    Despite reports of lower positive pressure adherence rates with oronasal masks, patients with sinonasal problems are often prescribed this interface over a nasal interface. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mask type and therapy adherence in the setting of sinonasal symptoms. Retrospective case series with chart review. We reviewed 328 patients who underwent positive pressure titration between January 2012 and May 2015. Follow-up adherence data were available for 218 patients (66.5%). Multivariate analysis examined whether patients with sinonasal symptoms have improved adherence with oronasal masks compared to nasal or nasal pillow interfaces. At a median follow-up of 95 days, positive pressure adherence in patients with sinonasal symptoms was highest with the nasal pillow interface. When compared with oronasal interfaces, the odds of adequate therapy adherence were >5 times greater with nasal pillow interfaces (odds ratio [OR] = 5.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61-16.80, P = .006) and >3 times greater with nasal interfaces (OR = 3.67, 95% CI = 1.20-11.26, P = .02) in these symptomatic patients. The presence of nasal problems does not predict the need for an oronasal mask. Positive pressure adherence rates are higher with nasal and nasal pillow interfaces compared to oronasal masks, even in patients with sinonasal complaints. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2418-2422, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. A comparison of two pressure-relieving devices on the prevention of heel pressure ulcers. (United States)

    Tymec, A C; Pieper, B; Vollman, K


    The effectiveness of hospital pillows versus a commercial heel elevation device (the Foot Waffle [EHOB incorporated]) in preventing heel pressure ulcers was examined using an experimental balanced factorial design with repeated measures on 52 patients (ages 27 to 90) in randomized groups. Heel interface pressures were taken with patients in supine and right lateral tilt positions. Logistic regression demonstrated a statistically significant difference between interface pressures on left and right heels (p = .004) and a trend toward significance between the pillow and Foot Waffle (p = .069). The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method revealed the Foot Waffle was four times more likely not to suspend the heel off the bed than the pillow, and the left heel was four-and-a-half times more likely to have higher interface pressures than the right. There was no significant difference between groups in incidence of lower-extremity pressure ulcers, but patients using the Foot Waffle developed pressure ulcers significantly sooner (10 days versus 13 days for the pillow). Heels require additional protection beyond the use of specially beds and mattress overlays. In order to provide continuous heel suspension, clinicians must consider proper fit, turning schedules, patient position, patient activity, and presence of additional equipment when selecting heel protection products. This study illustrates how difficult it is to control for all these factors when doing clinical research. Note: This study was done with a Foot Waffle model that has since been redesigned. No research is available on the new model.

  14. Taking a nap is the new white-knuckle ride. (United States)

    Bates, Jane


    I awoke from my afternoon slumber, stretched like a cat on a warm pillow, slept some more, then opened my eyes and contemplated the sheer joy of an afternoon nap in summer, lulled to sleep by the sun and the sound of bees buzzing and doves cooing….

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ...

  16. Environmental Assessment 819th Red Horse Five Year Plan, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana (United States)


    the surface (in one boring). This material is slightly to moderately 11 compressible as indicated by consolidation test results. These...would be required. BMPs could include silt fences to keep disturbed soil 17 on the site and drip pillows under vehicles stored on the site to catch

  17. An Investigation into Ground Effect for an Underwater Biologically Inspired Flapping Foil (United States)


    stronger and stronger, gradually affecting vortex shedding of the foil. When St=0.5, it is most evident that the vortices have been compressed to...The bearings chosen were igubal™ pillow block bearings from igus incorporated. The new bearings are maintenance free and self-lubricating. The

  18. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens (United States)

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2017 ... Inclusion criteria: Individuals who were 18 years or above and those ... Exclusion criteria: Severely ill and non- ... considering 10% non-response rate and design effect of ..... pillow under head and if there is metallic materials ...

  20. Effects of Surface Anisotropy on Magnetic Vortex Core


    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri


    The vortex core shape in the three dimensional Heisenberg magnet is essentially influenced by a surface anisotropy. We predict that depending of the surface anisotropy type there appears barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex core along the magnet thickness. Our theoretical study is well confirmed by spin-lattice simulations.

  1. Effect of Divided Attention on the Production of False Memories in the DRM Paradigm: A Study of Dichotic Listening and Shadowing (United States)

    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro B.


    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling…

  2. Ringworm (United States)

    ... by encouraging your kids to: avoid sharing combs, brushes, hair accessories, pillows, hats, and headphones wear flip-flops at the pool or in the locker room shower wash sports clothing regularly shower after contact sports wash hands well and often Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD ...

  3. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R


    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  4. 每月幽它一默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正> 牙仙子One Sunday evening,my over tired(厌烦的)8-year-old wouldn’t stop crying.Isuggested we put her newly lost tooth un-der the pillow(枕头)(to try to cheer herup)for the tooth fairy.She started crying

  5. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  6. Protection Against Cross Infection in Hospital Beds with Integrated Personalized Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Polak, Marcin; Jiang, Hao


    to supply air directly to the breathing zone when people are lying in beds, e.g. in a hospital ward. This principle, called "Personalized Ventilation" has shown to be very efficient in the protection of people from cross infection. The system supplies fresh air into the breathing zone through a pillow...

  7. Innovation: Attracting and Retaining the Best of the Private Sector (United States)


    or who simply do not want to pay for all the “extras” offered by hotels. They do not want to pay for chocolate on the pillow, a concierge, or valet...good enough” service at a much lower price. The DoD analogy is straightforward: DoD has become addicted to the high end offering, and writes

  8. 77 FR 14055 - Graco Children's Products Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance (United States)


    ... pillow label compliant with the FMVSS No. 213 prior to delivery. Graco believes that the noncompliance of... yards of fabric that is used to make the pad and the ``soft goods'' for the MyRide child restraint... restraint systems \\2\\ that Graco no longer controlled at the time that it determined that a noncompliance...

  9. Lava Cones and Shields on Intermediate-Rate Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Caress, D. W.


    Most eruptions of basalt along mid-ocean ridges produce either sheet flows or pillow mounds and ridges. Rare eruptions on the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges and on the Alarcon Rise (northern East Pacific Rise) produce volcanic cones or shields from point sources. Bathymetric maps at 1-m resolution from an autonomous underwater vehicle enabled classification of these ~circular features. The most common are 290-510m across and inflated flows on their summits. There are 8 of these on the upper south rift, caldera floor, and southwest caldera rim on Axial Seamount; one on North Cleft segment near the 1986 pillow mounds; and one in the axial graben on northern Endeavour Segment. Hundreds of smaller pillow mounds lack craters or tumulus-like inflated flows at their summits. Three 660-1300m across circular cones have either a crater or an inflated tumulus-like structure at their flat to slightly domed summits. One in the axial graben on the northern Endeavour Segment is dissected by extensional faulting. Cage Seamount on the Coaxial Segment south of the 1993 pillow ridge is the most voluminous at 1100m across and >200m tall. Two flat-topped cones are located near the center of Alarcon Rise. A low-relief shield volcano on the northern Alarcon Rise is ~1700m across and only ~45m tall, and is cut by numerous faults and fissures. Two other shields, 860m and 1700m across and 50-70m tall, occur south of the 1996 North Gorda pillow mounds. These shields are decorated with small pillow mounds. Five 100-250m across and 15-30m deep pits collapsed on the northern shield. These constructional cones and shields form during eruptions where the initial fissure consolidated to a point, indicative of long duration activity. They are constructed during uncommon eruptions with flux larger than produces pillow mounds and smaller than produces sheet flows. They are a submarine equivalent of subaerial shield-building eruptions.

  10. Tectonic stress within the New Madrid seismic zone (United States)

    Grana, Jeffrey P.; Richardson, Randall M.


    Refraction data indicate a significant high-density rift pillow beneath the New Madrid seismic zone. We present results of linear and nonlinear viscoelastic finite element modeling to determine whether support of the rift pillow may contribute significantly to the total present-day stress field, and we consider the implications for intraplate seismicity. These models were run for a loading time of 100 m.y. to account for relaxation and transfer of stress since the last reactivation of the rift in the mid-Mesozoic. Results indicate that the nonlinear viscoelastic model with rheological stratification based on composition and temperature agrees well with the observed deformation within the seismic zone and with estimates of regional stress magnitudes. The model predicts a maximum compression of 30-40 MPa above the rift pillow in the center of the rift axis. If the magnitude of local compression predicted by the nonlinear model produces the inferred clockwise rotation of the order of 10°-30° in the direction of SHmax (maximum horizontal compression) near the rift axis, the magnitude of regional compression is a factor of 1 to 2 times the magnitude of local compression and consistent with an origin due to ridge push forces. The addition of the local stress associated with the rift pillow, however, results in an approximately 30% reduction in the resolved maximum horizontal shear stress. Thus, while the stress associated with the rift pillow can rotate the stress field into an orientation favorable for failure, reduction in the resolved shear stress requires a separate mechanism for strength reduction. Results of the modeling indicate that stresses from the load of the rift pillow may still be present in the upper crust even after 100 m.y. and may still play a role in present-day deformation and seismicity of the New Madrid seismic zone. Local stress fields of significant tectonic magnitudes may also occur around other ancient rift pillows and help explain the

  11. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.


    The North Kona slump is an elliptical region, about 20 by 60 km (1000-km2 area), of multiple, geometrically intricate benches and scarps, mostly at water depths of 2000–4500 m, on the west flank of Hualalai Volcano. Two dives up steep scarps in the slump area were made in September 2001, using the ROV Kaiko of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), as part of a collaborative Japan–USA project to improve understanding of the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes. Both dives, at water depths of 2700–4000 m, encountered pillow lavas draping the scarp-and-bench slopes. Intact to only slightly broken pillow lobes and cylinders that are downward elongate dominate on the steepest mid-sections of scarps, while more equant and spherical pillow shapes are common near the tops and bases of scarps and locally protrude through cover of muddy sediment on bench flats. Notably absent are subaerially erupted Hualalai lava flows, interbedded hyaloclastite pillow breccia, and/or coastal sandy sediment that might have accumulated downslope from an active coastline. The general structure of the North Kona flank is interpreted as an intricate assemblage of downdropped lenticular blocks, bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. The undisturbed pillow-lava drape indicates that slumping occurred during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism. All analyzed samples of the pillow-lava drape are tholeiite, similar to published analyses from the submarine northwest rift zone of Hualālai. Relatively low sulfur (330–600 ppm) and water (0.18–0.47 wt.%) contents of glass rinds suggest that the eruptive sources were in shallow water, perhaps 500–1000-m depth. In contrast, saturation pressures calculated from carbon dioxide concentrations (100–190 ppm) indicate deeper equilibration, at or near sample sites at water depths of − 3900 to − 2800 m. Either vents close to the sample sites erupted mixtures of undegassed and degassed magmas, or volatiles were resorbed from

  12. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited (United States)


    physiologic and clin- ical outcomes. Pediatric and adult inhalational injury studies have linked HFPV to an improvement in static lung compliance...sedation–analgesic combinations (usually fentanyl with the individual or combined use of midazolam and propofol and/or dexmedetomidine), patient...1998;84:1174–7. 34. Frantz ID III, Close RH. Alveolar pressure swings during high frequency ventilation in rabbits. Pediatr Res 1985;19:162–6. 35. Pillow

  13. 牙仙女%The Tooth Fairy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The American children’s ritual of hiding a lost tooth under a pillow stems from an old German tradition of placing a lost tooth in a mouse or rat hole SO that when a new tooth grew in,it would possess the strong dental qualities of a rodent’S tooth.In America the “tooth rat”was replaced by the“tooth fairy”,who would compensate the child with money for surrendering a tooth to her.

  14. Obtaining Unique, Comprehensive Deep Seismic Sounding Data Sets for CTBT Monitoring and Broad Seismological Studies (United States)


    is made up of thick diabase sequences with intervening meta-clastic sedimentary and meta-volcanic rocks, together with gabbro and ultramafic rocks...the Late Paleozoic and extended into the early Mesozoic, and it is probably one of the best preserved Paleozoic orogens in the world . It developed...harzburgites below, an overlying layered complex, gabbro , sheeted dikes, pillow lavas, and sediments. Island-arc complexes are distributed over the

  15. 2-D and 3-D Magnetic Inversion Studies in the South Atlantic (United States)


    several portions or the world mid-ocean ridge system. These studies have revealed considerably greater variability and complexity in ridge structure...proposed which features an ephe- microearthquakes occur to depths of 8 ± I km beneath the axis meral AMC and creates the gabbro layer by repeated...Level Chamoer Pillow Sheeted t i /- f " Dikes Gabbros +4++++~ # 4G**D+o, ++ - $+,; ’*:*++++ + + +4*,+0 C5 -Magma+ ,+_ +___:__,._ Pockets B. "INFINITE

  16. Magnetic characterization of synthetic titanomagnetites: Quantifying the recording fidelity of ideal synthetic analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn


    magnetically weak larger Fe3-xTixO4 grains (x ∼ 0.6). The large grains in the pure magnetite sample are shown to be pseudo-single domain in nature. The quenching process involved in synthesis is considered similar to that of pillow basalts found at mid-ocean ridges and hence the reaction products are thought...... ideal in terms of characterization and understanding, for the purpose of studying natural systems....

  17. Reassessing the biogenicity of Earth’s oldest trace fossil with implications for biosignatures in the search for early life


    Eugene G. Grosch; McLoughlin, Nicola


    It has been argued that Archean subseafloor pillow lava sequences provide an environment in which to seek evidence for the earliest traces of life. Candidate titanite biosignatures of microbial activity have been reported in ∼3.45-Ga metavolcanic glass from the Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa. In this paper we present new in situ U–Pb age data, metamorphic constraints, and morphological observations on these titanite microtextures. Our data challenges a biological origin for these o...

  18. Komatiites: From Earth's Geological Settings to Planetary and Astrobiological Contexts


    Nna-Mvondo, Delphine; Martinez-Frias, Jesus


    Komatiites are fascinating volcanic rocks. They are among the most ancient lavas of the Earth following the 3.8 Ga pillow basalts at Isua and they represent some of the oldest ultramafic magmatic rocks preserved in the Earth's crust at 3.5 Ga. This fact, linked to their particular features (high magnesium content, high melting temperatures, low dynamic viscosities, etc.), has attracted the community of geoscientists since their discovery in the early sixties, who have tried to determine their...

  19. Evaluating the earliest traces of Archean sub-seafloor life by NanoSIMS (United States)

    Mcloughlin, N.; Grosch, E. G.; Kilburn, M.; Wacey, D.


    The Paleoarchean sub-seafloor has been proposed as an environment for the emergence of life with titanite microtextures in pillow lavas argued to be the earliest traces of microbial micro-tunneling (Furnes et al. 2004). Here we use a nano-scale ion microprobe (NanoSIMS) to evaluate possible geochemical traces of life in 3.45 Ga pillow lavas of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We investigated both surface and drill core samples from the original "Biomarker" outcrop in the Hooggenoeg Fm. Pillow lava metavolcanic glass contain clusters of segmented microcrystalline titanite filaments, ~4μm across and inclusions in the microtextures have strongly depleted δ34SVCDT values of -39.8 to +3.2‰ (n= 32). The magnitude, range and spatial heterogeneity of these δ34S values are consistent with an early microbial origin (McLoughlin et al. 2012). In contrast, sulfides cross-cutting the microtextures related to later veining have positive δ34S of +6.7 to +18.0‰ (n=20). These data can be compared to magmatic sulfides (δ34S = +3±3‰), Archean seawater (δ34S ca. +5‰) and Archean sedimentary sulfides (δ34S = +8 to -23‰). We propose that the Hooggenoeg sulfides probably formed during early fluid-rock-microbe interaction involving sulfate-reducing microbes (c.f. Rouxel et al. 2008). The pillow lavas were then metamorphosed, the glass transformed to a greenschist facies assemblage and titanite growth encapsulated the microbial sulfides. In summary, the extreme sulfur isotope fractionations reported here independently point towards the potential involvement of microbes in the alteration of Archean volcanic glass. In situ sulfur isotope analysis of basalt-hosted sulfides may provide an alternative approach to investigating the existence of an Archean sub-seafloor biosphere that does not require the mineralization of early microbial microborings with organic linings.

  20. Topology Synthesis of Distributed Actuation Systems for Morphing Wing Structures (Postprint) (United States)


    the vortex lattice method together with Prandtl–Glauert compressibility correction. In the analysis, fully coupled static aeroelasticity is considered...understood, the “ pillowing ” effect that arises from out-of-plane pressure loading is not a concern for the problem presented in this paper, and therefore... compresses the skin and creates a “fishtail” shape at the wing tip. The ideal skin design should not cause any motions that require independent actuator to

  1. Facies analysis of Hlodufell basaltic subglacial to emergent volcano, SW Iceland: insights into sub-ice growth mechanisms and meltwater drainage (United States)

    Skilling, I. P.


    Hlodufell is a subglacial to emergent basaltic volcano located 9km south of the Langjokull ice-cap in SW Iceland. This study is the first detailed facies analysis of this well-known volcano. The vertical facies architecture of the basal half of the volcano is typical of many basaltic subaqueous (including submarine) to emergent volcanoes, comprising basal pillow mounds overlain by Surtseyan eruption-fed subaqueously-deposited sediment gravity flows. However, facies in the upper part of the edifice demonstrate the influence of variable water levels more typical of englacial lakes. The Surtseyan sequence is overlain by two subaerial lava flow and cogenetic lava-fed delta sequences, separated by a second Surtseyan sequence. In addition, the uppermost lava flows are also draped by a thin veneer of Surtseyan tephra. Both lava-fed delta sequences are unusually dominated by subaerial lava breccias. This may be due to a number of factors that influence steep slope stability but the possibility of retreating ice walls should be considered. Detailed facies analysis also revealed evidence of the influence of ice on eruptive and depositional products throughout the history of the edifice. Some of the basal pillow mounds preserve metre-sized cavities with partial hyaloclastite fills, interpreted as meltout structures formed during sub-ice growth by ice-block stoping. Some mounds also have steep chill surfaces where pillows have been compressed against a rigid wall (now absent) interpreted as ice. The peripheral pillow mounds, particularly those to the immediate south of Hlodufell (Rani area) are draped by Surtseyan eruption-fed tephra deposited by erosive meltwater streamflows. The draping tephra was derived from both the first and second Surtseyan sequences. These observations illustrate that direct ice-contact and ice-block stoping was important during initial construction of the volcano and that meltwater drainage (particularly to the south) was important throughout its

  2. Macro-encapsulation of heat storage phase-change materials for use in residential buildings. First quarterly progress report, September 29--December 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, G.A.; Kott, A.C.; Rossow, H.E.


    Objectives are to assess the feasibility of macro-encapsulated PCM's for residential solar systems, to develop and evaluate such materials. Five PCM's have been selected from encapsulation studies. Encapsulated storage media were evaluated theoretically in storage beds with air and water as the heat transfer medium. Cylindrical, tetrahedral, and pillow shapes are being evaluated for the encapsulated PCM. Encapsulant materials under consideration are multilayer flexible plastic films, steel cans, and plastic bottles.

  3. A Landsat Data Collection Platform at Devil Canyon Site, Upper Susitna Basin, Alaska. Performance and Analysis of Data. (United States)


    provided by a rotary cup anemometer with a RESULTS AND DISCUSSION small reed switch that momentarily closes its contacts for each 0.16 km of formation w hich immobilized the Water equivalent data from the snow pillow, anemometer cups . A lso, one cup was found to as measured by the Stevens...recorder during the be twisted on the April site visit. The date the period 7 November 1974-7 April 1975, are shown cup became twisted (sometime

  4. The Marine Physical Laboratory Multi-Disciplinary Ocean Science and Technology Program (United States)


    harmonics, which have been occur at tidal and twice-tidal frequencies, where near- smeared by the Doppler shifting of the drilling inca- surface effects... spallation of pillow rinds, which com- and, furthermore, to be somewhat rounded by sedimentary monly have abundant microlites and crystallites. In...sandstone and gravel from DSPD hole 396B. leg 46. Initial present. Rep Deep Sea Drill . Proi., 46. 331 339, 1978. 8390 BATIZA ET AL.: PACIFIC

  5. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization (United States)


    pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt -lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter...Total 1 McMaster-CARR 5911k16 1" Dia, 6" long anodized aluminum shaft $15.38 8 $123.04 2 McMaster-CARR 6359k37 Cast iron base-mounted babbitt

  6. A Systems Engineering Approach for Global Fleet Station Alternatives in the Gulf of Guinea (United States)


    pillow tanks, reverse osmosis water purification units, and empty water containers. Within this attribute are the elements of clinical capabilities...required to check expiration dates and perhaps be capable of making basic repairs to 182 generators and water purification systems. Overall, the HA/DR...Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005. It is a transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers. 6. Comments

  7. [A project to reduce the incidence of facial pressure ulcers caused by prolonged surgery with prone positioning]. (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Yi; Lin, Pao-Chen; Weng, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Wen-Lin


    We observed in our institute a 13.6% incidence of prolonged surgery (>4 hours) induced facial pressure ulcers that required prone positioning. Causes identified included: (1) customized silicon face pillows used were not suited for every patient; (2) our institute lacked a standard operating procedure for prone positioning; (3) our institute lacked a postoperative evaluation and audit procedure for facial pressure ulcers. We designed a strategy to reduce post-prolonged surgery facial pressure ulcer incidence requiring prone positioning by 50% (i.e., from 13.6% to 6.8%). We implemented the following: (1) Created a new water pillow to relieve facial pressure; (2) Implemented continuing education pressure ulcer prevention and evaluation; (3) Established protocols on standard care for prone-position patients and proper facial pressure ulcer identification; (4) Established a face pressure ulcers accident reporting mechanism; and (5) Established an audit mechanism facial pressure ulcer cases. After implementing the resolution measures, 116 patients underwent prolonged surgery in a prone position (mean operating time: 298 mins). None suffered from facial pressure ulcers. The measures effectively reduced the incidence of facial pressure ulcers from 13.6% to 0.0%. The project used a water pillow to relieve facial pressure and educated staff to recognize and evaluate pressure ulcers. These measures were demonstrated effective in reducing the incidence of facial pressure ulcers caused by prolonged prone positioning.

  8. New constraints on the origin of the ophiolitic rocks within sinorogenic turbiditic sequences at Cilento region (southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, F.C.; Vita, P. de; Aulinas, M.; Arienzo, I.; Cirillo, G.; Iovine, R.S.; Spari, D.


    Mafic igneous rocks (pillow lavas and gabbros) embedded as olistoliths within Miocene turbiditic sequences crop out in the Cilento area at the Mount Centaurino (Campania region, Southern Italy). The concentration of major oxides, as well as trace element ratios (Nb/Yb, Nb/Ta, Th/Nb) and the chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) patterns suggest a tholeiitic character with Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalts (MORB) affinity. The chemical composition of pillow lavas is consistent with magmas generated by 10% degrees of non-modal fractional partial melting, of a spinel-bearing MORB-type asthenospheric mantle. Regarding gabbros, the calculated composition of parental melts in equilibrium with the clinopyroxenes show a wide compositional range, and there are very different from the pillow basalts of the Mount Centaurino, suggesting that the clinopyroxenes might have derived from more evolved melts compared to those that produced the basalts. The origin of these olistoliths is not yet understood. Here we suggest that these rocks represent fragment of a dismantled accretionary wedge embedded during the deposition of the Cilento group sedimentary successions in a thrust top basin. (Author)

  9. Stressing of the New Madrid Seismic Zone by a lower crust detachment fault (United States)

    Stuart, William D.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Simpson, Robert W.


    A new mechanical model for the cause of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central United States is analyzed. The model contains a subhorizontal detachment fault which is assumed to be near the domed top surface of locally thickened anomalous lower crust ("rift pillow"). Regional horizontal compression induces slip on the fault, and the slip creates a stress concentration in the upper crust above the rift pillow dome. In the coseismic stage of the model earthquake cycle, where the three largest magnitude 7-8 earthquakes in 1811-1812 are represented by a single model mainshock on a vertical northeast trending fault, the model mainshock has a moment equivalent to a magnitude 8 event. During the interseismic stage, corresponding to the present time, slip on the detachment fault exerts a right-lateral shear stress on the locked vertical fault whose failure produces the model mainshock. The sense of shear is generally consistent with the overall sense of slip of 1811-1812 and later earthquakes. Predicted rates of horizontal strain at the ground surface are about 10-7 year-1 and are comparable to some observed rates. The model implies that rift pillow geometry is a significant influence on the maximum possible earthquake magnitude.

  10. Do posture correction exercises have to be boring? Using unstable surfaces to prevent poor posture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymanska


    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor posture in children is a common problem. It appears most often in early school-age children and, if not corrected, progresses quickly as they mature. Aim of the research: To find a method that can prevent poor posture, is effective and attractive for children, and can be used on a wide scale in state schools. Material and methods : Seventy-seven first year pupils were tested at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Nineteen children undertook corrective exercises using unstable surfaces; 41 children sat on sensorimotor pillows during classes; and 17 children were the control group. Body mass and body height were measured. Body mass index was calculated. The symmetry of the position of selected skeletal points was assessed: the acromions, lower angles of the scapulas, apexes of the iliac crests, antero-superior iliac spine, and postero-superior iliac spine using a Duometer electronic device. The differences between the groups and changes between the first and second study for each group were estimated. Results : In the first study there were no significant differences in quality of posture. In the second study a significant improvement was noted in symmetry of the shoulders, scapulas, and pelvis in children who sat on sensorimotor pillows, as well as the position of the iliac crests and iliac spines in children exercising regularly on unstable surfaces. Conclusions: Exercises using unstable surfaces and sitting on sensorimotor pillows during classes might be an effective alternative to traditional posture correction exercises.

  11. Crustal structure beneath the Northern Mississippi Embayment from travel time inversion of vintage wide-angle seismic data (United States)

    Guo, L.; Magnani, M.


    The northern Mississippi Embayment (ME) in the central US is located along the southern margin of Laurentia, a region that has been shaped by a long history of tectonic and magmatic events, including episodes of continental rifting, collision and amalgamation. In the ME these events have fundamentally altered the structure and composition of the continental lithosphere, resulting in the formation and failure of the Paleozoic Reelfoot Rift, and in the emplacement of the enigmatic mafic rift pillow at lower crustal and upper mantle depths beneath the Reelfoot Rift. Because of the spatial correlation between the present, historical and prehistorical seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone and the mafic rift pillow, it has been proposed that this magmatic feature plays a key role in localizing strain in the Central US. Emerging evidence, however, shows that Quaternary deformation in the ME is not restricted to the New Madrid seismic zone, but encompasses a region beyond the presently seismogenic area, perhaps suggesting that the mafic rift pillow extends beyond its previously detected location. To test this hypothesis and to better constrain the lateral extent, dimension, and velocity structure of the mafic rift pillow in lower crust and upper mantle beneath the ME, we perform a travel time tomographic inversion using recent modeling codes on two vintage wide-angle seismic datasets available in the region. The data were acquired by the USGS in 1980 and 1991, and are the only seismic wide-angle crustal data constraining the geometry of the rift pillow. The 1980 USGS seismic refraction investigation consisted of a total of 34 900-1800 kg shots gathered in 9 locations and recorded by 100 portable seismographs along a series of profiles targeting the structure of the Reelfoot Rift north of Memphis, Tennessee. The 1991 USGS survey acquired a N-S 400 km-long seismic profile from Memphis, Tennessee to St. Louis, Missouri, and included 3 680-2260 kg shots recorded by ~200

  12. Salt tectonics and associated fluid migration and entrapment in the western part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin (United States)

    Sørig, Simon A.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.


    The western part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin is part of the Northern Permian Basin and encompasses a variety of Zechstein salt structures (pillows, rollers, diapirs and salt walls). The area has been studied for decades with respect to HC prospectively associated to salt structures as well a focus area for studies on conceptual evolution of salt structures and faults associated with the salt structures. Previous local studies on fluid migration and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI's) in the area show a close relation between halo kinetics and local fluid migration. In the present study we have used3D seismic data (approximately 3500 km2) to identify and describe A: large diapirs which have been active until the youngest Cenozoic, B: medium sized diapirs being active until the early Cenozoic, C: salt relicts creating small non active pillows, and D: small satellite structures related to type A. The salt structures are evenly distributed across the studied area, and we conclude that the structures were initiated during the late Triassic due to depositional controlled differential loading combined with differential subsidence. DHI's are identified at various stratigraphic and structural settings associated to the salt structures and each structure type has different types of DHI's associated. The DHIs observed at the type A and B diapirs are located above or at the stem of the diapirs and are here interpreted as classic structural hydrocarbon traps associated with rising salt deforming the strata. However, the DHI's associated to type C salt pillows have a relatively small lateral extent, stratigraphically restricted to the Mesozoic succession; they are located above the apex of the pillow and have in general a seismically disturbed zone located beneath the DHI. The seismically disturbed zone resembles gas chimneys, but may also be related to minor deformation of the Mesozoic strata overlying the type C pillows. A biogenic origin of the gas in at least some of the

  13. Seismic wave velocity of rocks in the Oman ophiolite: constraints for petrological structure of oceanic crust (United States)

    Saito, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Shibata, S.; Akizuki, R.; Arima, M.; Tatsumi, Y.; Arai, S.


    Evaluation of rock velocities and comparison with velocity profiles defined by seismic refraction experiments are a crucial approach for understanding the petrological structure of the crust. In this study, we calculated the seismic wave velocities of various types of rocks from the Oman ophiolite in order to constrain a petrological structure of the oceanic crust. Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) have reported experimental elastic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite under oceanic crust-mantle conditions (6-430 MPa). However, in their relatively low-pressure experiments, internal pore-spaces might affect the velocity and resulted in lower values than the intrinsic velocity of sample. In this study we calculated the velocities of samples based on their modal proportions and chemical compositions of mineral constituents. Our calculated velocities represent the ‘pore-space-free’ intrinsic velocities of the sample. We calculated seismic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite including pillow lavas, dolerites, plagiogranites, gabbros and peridotites at high-pressure-temperature conditions with an Excel macro (Hacker & Avers 2004, G-cubed). The minerals used for calculations for pillow lavas, dolerites and plagiogranites were Qtz, Pl, Prh, Pmp, Chl, Ep, Act, Hbl, Cpx and Mag. Pl, Hbl, Cpx, Opx and Ol were used for the calculations for gabbros and peridotites. Assuming thermal gradient of 20° C/km and pressure gradient of 25 MPa/km, the velocities were calculated in the ranges from the atmospheric pressure (0° C) to 200 MPa (160° C). The calculation yielded P-wave velocities (Vp) of 6.5-6.7 km/s for the pillow lavas, 6.6-6.8 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6.9-7.5 km/s for the gabbros and 8.1-8.2 km/s for the peridotites. On the other hand, experimental results reported by Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) were 4.5-5.9 km/s for the pillow lavas, 5.5-6.3 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6

  14. A laboratory investigation into the effects of slope on lava flow morphology (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Fink, Jonathan H.


    In an attempt to model the effect of slope on the dynamics of lava flow emplacement, four distinct morphologies were repeatedly produced in a series of laboratory simulations where polyethylene glycol (PEG) was extruded at a constant rate beneath cold sucrose solution onto a uniform slope which could be varied from 1° through 60°. The lowest extrusion rates and slopes, and highest cooling rates, produced flows that rapidly crusted over and advanced through bulbous toes, or pillows (similar to subaerial "toey" pahoehoe flows and to submarine pillowed flows). As extrusion rate and slope increased, and cooling rate decreased, pillowed flows gave way to rifted flows (linear zones of liquid wax separated by plates of solid crust, similar to what is observed on the surface of convecting lava lakes), then to folded flows with surface crusts buckled transversely to the flow direction, and, at the highest extrusion rates and slopes, and lowest cooling rates, to leveed flows, which solidified only at their margins. A dimensionless parameter, Ψ, primarily controlled by effusion rate, cooling rate and flow viscosity, quantifies these flow types. Increasing the underlying slope up to 30° allows the liquid wax to advance further before solidifying, with an effect similar to that of increasing the effusion rate. For example, conditions that produce rifted flows on a 10° slope result in folded flows on a 30° slope. For underlying slopes of 40°, however, this trend reverses, slightly owing to increased gravitational forces relative to the strength of the solid wax. Because of its significant influence on heat advection and the disruption of a solid crust, slope must be incorporated into any quantitative attempt to correlate eruption parameters and lava flow morphologies. These experiments and subsequent scaling incorporate key physical parameters of both an extrusion and its environment, allowing their results to be used to interpret lava flow morphologies on land, on the

  15. Type of mask may impact on continuous positive airway pressure adherence in apneic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Christian Borel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: In obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence is crucial to improve symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The choice of mask may influence CPAP adherence but this issue has never been addressed properly. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of nasal pillows, nasal and oronasal masks on CPAP adherence in a cohort of OSA. METHODS: Newly CPAP treated OSA participating in "Observatoire Sommeil de la Fédération de Pneumologie", a French national prospective cohort, were included between March 2009 and December 2011. Anthropometric data, medical history, OSA severity, sleepiness, depressive status, treatment modalities (auto-CPAP versus fixed pressure, pressure level, interface type, use of humidifiers and CPAP-related side effects were included in multivariate analysis to determine independent variables associated with CPAP adherence. RESULTS: 2311 OSA (age = 57(12 years, apnea+hypopnea index = 41(21/h, 29% female were included. Nasal masks, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were used by 62.4, 26.2 and 11.4% of the patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were associated with higher risk of CPAP non-adherence. CPAP non-adherence was also associated with younger age, female gender, mild OSA, gastroesophageal reflux, depression status, low effective pressure and CPAP-related side effects. In multivariate analysis, CPAP non-adherence was associated with the use of oronasal masks (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.6; 2.5, depression, low effective pressure, and side effects. CONCLUSION: As oronasal masks negatively impact on CPAP adherence, a nasal mask should be preferred as the first option. Patients on oronasal masks should be carefully followed.

  16. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanics and sheeted dikes from the Hatay (Kizildag) Ophiolite, southern Turkey: Possible formation with the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus, along fore-arc spreading centers (United States)

    Lytwyn, J. N.; Casey, J. F.


    Geochemical and petrological investigations of the Hatay (Kizildag) Ophiolite, southern Turkey, indicate that the volcanics and sheeted dikes compositionally range from island-arc tholeiites and basaltic andesites to transitional boninitictype lavas formed within a supra-subduction zone environment. Geochemical modeling indicates that the compositional trends within both the sheeted dike and pillow basalt sections of Hatay cannot be related through fractional crystallization alone but require multiple parental magmas of differing compositions within each unit. The more refractory liquids (higher MgO, Ni and Cr coupled with lower concentrations of Ti, Zr, Y and REE) formed at lower pressures (shallower depths) through greater degrees of partial melting of a more depleted mantle source relative to less-refractory magmas which formed at higher pressures and possibly lower degrees of melting. The Hatay volcanics and dikes span the compositional range of Lower Pillow Lavas (LPLs) and Upper Pillow Lavas (UPLs) from the Troodos Complex, Cyprus, suggesting, along with other evidence, that the two ophiolites may be petrogenetically and tectonically related. Formation of the Hatay and Troodos ophiolites was possibly associated with extension within a fore-arc environment following compression and detachment along an intra-oceanic ridge system and development of a subduction zone. The range of parental liquid compositions for volcanics and dikes may reflect variable mixing of geochemically diverse melt increments generated within a polybaric melting column in the mantle wedge. The melting column may have additionally received contributions of LREE-enriched melts from deeper, more juvenile (fertile) sources. Formation of parental liquids through variable mixing of melt increments appears to be common to both the Hatay and Troodos ophiolites.

  17. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)


    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  18. My Bedroom同题异构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    I have my own room. It' s clean and nice .There is a big closet and many clothes in it. There are pink curtains, they are very beautiful. On top of it there are some lovely pictures. Beside it there is a bed. The pillows are green. The shelf is near the table, the books are on the shelf. My mirror is very bright. In my room I can do lots of things. Do you like my new room? What' s your room like? Can you tell me, please?

  19. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos


    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  20. 三十年的纪念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    这是一张梦影现代爵士乐团(Pieces of A Dream)成军三十年纪念专辑,取名枕边细语(Pillow Talk)。三十年前,二位对音乐抱持梦想的费城少年,十一岁的James Lloyd与十三岁的Curtis Harmon,引用萨克斯风手Stanley Turrentine的经典专辑《Pieces of a Dream》的名称,成立了“梦影现代爵士乐团”。

  1. Installation Restoration General Environmental Technology Development. Field Demonstration of Incinerator Feed System for Explosives-Contaminated Soils. Volume 2. Appendices. (United States)


    cantilever shaft design (i.e., the end of the screw conveyor shaft penetrating into the kiln was not bearing supported). This design allowed the potential for...all TNT CAAP Gummy , no visible HE 1.10 5.4 2.4:1 LAAP Sand/Clay, chunks of TNT 0.93 44.2 3.3:1 aRDX includes some HMX. B-5 SS __ DETONATOR 9205 BOOSTER...the screws is 15 rpm. This conveyor and the quad screw art supported by external pillow block bearings with a double bearing on the drive end. The

  2. 曲がった管内の非定常剥離音



    Measurement of the aerodynamic sound of flow in curved tubes, probably generated by nonsteady separation of flow inside the tube wall, was conducted. It simulates sound generation by a patient whose neck is bent by the use of a pillow; in such a situation, the breath sound is known clinically to be enlarged. Although the experiment is of preliminary nature performed using a flexible plastic tube and observing sound emerging from one end of the tube, it was verified that the broadband sound is...

  3. A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vistta, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin


    and nephelinites were erupted during the third stage, initially dominated by eruption of subaerial mafic lavas around 9 Ma. Pillow lavas are erupted around 7 Ma whereupon dominantly subaerial mafic lavas were erupted. Stage 3 saw volcanism in many centres distributed mainly along the present coastline...... phonolites and trachytes are related through the fractional crystallization of three compositionally distinct magmas. Two of these may have been derived by crystal fractionation of primitive Boa Vista melts, whereas the third was not...

  4. Calvin Klein Home“枕边话事件”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>艺术家Jonathan Horowitz和Art Production Fund合作的回顾展"Jonathan Horowitz:And/Or."被纽约时报称为"一次精明而脆弱的回顾",包括由Yvonne Force Villareal和Doreen Remen共同创立的非盈利组织Art Production Fund的作品"枕边话事件"(Pillow Talk Cases)。由Calvin Klein Home捐赠的一系列白色

  5. Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN); Naples (Italy); October 12-15, 2016



    Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN); Naples (Italy); October 12-15, 2016 LECT 1. LUNG RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND EARLY SURFACTANT IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. PRESENTATION OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL: EFFICACY OF A NEW TECHNIQUE (IN-REC-SUR-E) IN PRETERM NEONATES WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROMEG. Vento, R. Pastorino, L. Boni, F. Cota, V. Carnielli, F. Cools, C. Dani, F. Mosca, J. Pillow, G. P...

  6. Study for comfortable supine for patients with partial nephrectomy by robot-assisted laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery%机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除患者术后舒适卧位探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英娜; 周秀彬


    目的:探讨机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后患者最舒适的卧位。方法抽取80例行机器人腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后的患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组患者手术后经医生允许采用早期舒适卧位,即颈部垫软枕、腰部垫20 cm ×20 cm硬枕仰卧位;对照组患者术后按传统方法采用平卧位。术后前2 d进行观察比较,找出患者最舒适卧位。结果观察组患者睡眠、情绪稳定及腰肌酸痛情况明显优于对照组( P<0.05)。结论机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后卧床期间采取颈部垫软枕、腰部垫20 cm ×20 cm硬枕的仰卧位方式,患者最舒适。%Objective To study the most comfortable lying position for post-operative patients with robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy .Method 80 post-operative patients with robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrec-tomy surgery were randomly divided into observation group and the control group ,patients observed by doctors after surgery to allow the use of early comfort lying ,that is ,a soft pillow neck cushion ,waist cushion 20 cm × 20 cm hard pillow supine position ,tupatients in control group by traditional methods in supine position ,after 2 days of ob-servation and comparison ,to find the most comfortable lying position .Result The sleep ,comfort and lumbar pain in observation group was obviously better than that of control group (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Robot assisted laparoscop-ic partial nephrectomy surgery took the neck cushion soft pillow ,lumbar pillow pad 20 cm × 20 cm hard way the su-pine position ,the patient feels most comfortable .

  7. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sein Sein Win


    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  8. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders;


    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out...... pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys....

  9. Quality of water from freshwater aquifers and principal well fields in the Memphis Area, Tennessee (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Parks, W.S.; Gaydos, M.W.


    Water from the freshwater aquifers in the Memphis area is suitable for most uses. Freshwater aquifers are the alluvium and fluvial (terrace) deposits of Quaternary age, the Memphis Sand and Fort Pillow Sand of Tertiary age, and the Ripley Formation and McNairy Sand of Cretaceous age. About 180 million gallons/day (mgd) of freshwater are withdrawn from the Memphis Sand, primarily for municipal and industrial use; the Memphis Sand is the principal aquifer supplying the City of Memphis. The alluvium provides water for irrigation and some industrial uses, and the fluvial deposits provide water for domestic use in rural areas. The Fort Pillow Sand supplies water for some municipal and industrial uses. The Ripley-McNairy aquifer is not used as a source of water. Water from the alluvium, fluvial deposits, and Memphis Sand is a calcium bicarbonate type, and water from the Fort Pillow Sand and Ripley-McNairy aquifer is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved solids concentrations are low in the Memphis Sand, with a median value of 83 mg/L, and are high in the Ripley-McNairy aquifer with a value of about 1,000 mg/L. Water is very soft in the Fort Pillow Sand with a median hardness value of 9 mg/L as CaCO3 and is very hard in the alluvium with a median value of 285 mg/L. Iron concentrations are low in the fluvial deposits with a median value of 50 micrograms/L and are high in the alluvium with a median value of 5,200 micrograms/L. Temperature of the water generally increases with depth, ranging from 16.0 C in the alluvium and fluvial deposits to about 32.0 C in the Ripley-McNairy aquifer. Water from the Memphis Sand at Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division well fields has very low mineralization. Median values are 79 mg/L dissolved solids concentrations, 56 mg/L alkalinity as CaCO3, 46 mg/L hardness as CaCO3, 4 mg/L chloride, 3.5 mg/L sulfate, and 600 micrograms/L iron. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Gumuk gunung api purba bawah laut di Tawangsari - Jomboran, Sukoharjo - Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendoet Hartono


    Full Text Available paper discusses the study on the basalt volcanic rocks and the volcano morphology indicating the existence of an ancient submarine volcano in Tawangsari-Jomboran sub-regency, Sukoharjo- Wonogiri, Central Java. In general, this basalt volcanic rocks were identified as andesite breccia which might be grouped into the Mandalika Formation of Oligosen-Miosen age (Surono et al., 1992. The origin of the Mandalika Formation in relation to the classic sedimentation process and the submarine volcanism is still needed to be evaluated. The present study was based on the detailed descriptions of the rocks both in the field and in the laboratory. The autoclastic basalt outcrops consisting of breccias show the characteristics of the igneous rock fragment component embedded in the groundmass with the same composition, namely igneous rock, dark grey to black in colour; porphyritic texture, rough surface, brecciated; pillow structures, massive, fine vesicularities, amygdaloidal filled with calcite, and radial fractures; calk-alkaline andesite composition ( SiO = 54.71% , K O = 1.15% . This rock body attains the  dimension of 2 - 5 m length, and 40 cm - 1 m in diameter with the direction of the deposition varies following the direction of the eruption source. Brecciated structures on the surface was controlled by the high cooling rate and the low flow, while the interior of the rock is massive because it was not in a direct contact to the cooler mass outside. Autoclastic basalt breccias and or the pillow basalt lava was interpreted to be formed by the undulating low gradient of morphology with the average angle of <10o. On the other hand, the low basaltic magma viscosity produced the effusive eruption related to the formation of the low angle morphology. The distance between the hills generally composed of pillow basalt is between 500 m - 1 km. The typical pillow structure of the igneous rock as described above is

  11. Influence of house dust mite impermeable covers on health-related quality of life of adult patients with asthma: results of a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    van den Bemt, Lisette; de Vries, Marjolein P; Cloosterman, Sonja; Thoonen, Bart; Muris, Jean W M; Goossens, Marielle; Wesseling, Geertjan; van Schayck, Constant P


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of house dust mite impermeable covers on asthma-specific health-related quality of life in adult asthmatic patients that were trained in guided self-management. In a 2-year randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, information on the quality of life was collected. The improvement of Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) score in the allergens-avoidance group (0.26) was comparable to the improvement in the placebo group (0.30) and not significant. HDM-impermeable covers for pillows, duvets, and mattresses did not result in improved health-related quality of life.

  12. A new structural model of the Pachitea Basin, Peru: Interaction of thick-skinned tectonics and salt detached thrusting (United States)

    Witte, J.; Rebaza, J.; Westlund, D.; Stratton, M.; Alegria, C.


    We present four new structural transects, a new seismo-stratigraphic correlation, a refined structural model and new shortening rates for the Pachitea Basin (=PB), Peru. Our results are based on the integration and detailed interpretation of newly acquired industry seismic (2D, 2005 vintage), existing well data, existing and proprietary surface geology data and newly acquired aero magnetic data (2007 vintage). Our assessment confirms the presence of at least four distinct structural styles in the area, thick-skinned structures, thin-skinned detachment thrusting, salt-tectonics and localized strike-slip tectonics. Based on seismo-stratigraphic correlations we conclude that the oldest rocks carried to outcrop by the San Matias (=SM) thrust are of Jurassic age. We interpret the thin-skinned master detachment to be located in varying positions, directly below or above, autochtonous salt pillows. Timing assessment of the SM thrust sheet reveals that it has been active from at least ˜5 Ma to post-2 Ma, supporting regionally published timing data for this latitude. Positive topographic surface expressions indicate ongoing contraction along the mountain front of the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera (=EC). Across the PB we calculate between 2.6% and 5.5% for thick-skinned shortening and at least 25.5% for the thin-skinned shortening. For the SM thrust sheet we calculate a slip-rate of ˜1-1.6 mm/yr, which is in line with published slip rates on individual thrusts from around the world. Observations along the SM thrust system indicate that thin- and thick-skinned systems interact mechanically, and that they have been active intermittently. We conclude that the location of salt pillows as well as pre-existing or growing basement-involved structures helped trigger the SM thrust. Different types of salt bodies are present in the PB, autochtonous pillows, slightly thrusted pillows and allochtonous diapirs. Our results provide new insight into the structural interplay, particularly

  13. Premiers résultats des plongées du Nautile sur le banc de Gorringe (Ouest Portugal) (United States)

    Girardeau, Jacques; Cornen, Guy; Agrimer, Pierre; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Dubuisson, Gilles; LeGall, Bernard; Monnier, Christophe; Pinheiro, Luis; Ribeiro, Antonio; Whitechurch, Hubert


    The oceanic crust exposed on the Gorringe Bank (SW Portugal) presents a laccolith-like body of gabbros, 500 m thick by 50 km long, within mantle peridotites. It also shows rare tholeiitic dikes and pillow-lavas resting locally directly over the peridotites. Gabbros, that crystallized in a closed system, subsequently underwent strong deformation in highto low-temperature conditions, in a west to east extensional flat shear zone system. This massif would likely be formed during the early stages of oceanic spreading, at the end of continental rifting. This is in agreement with kinematic reconstructions for the North Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Large Plant Growth Chambers: Flying Soon on a Space Station near You! (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.


    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species, and those capabilities continue to grow. The Veggie vegetable production system will be deployed to the ISS in Spring of 2014 to act as an applied research platform with goals of studying food production in space, providing the crew with a source of fresh food, allowing behavioral health and plant microbiology experimentation, and being a source of recreation and enjoyment for the crew. Veggie was conceived, designed, and constructed by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC, Madison, WI). Veggie is the largest plant growth chamber that NASA has flown to date, and is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low energy usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) light emitting diodes. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows baseplate secured to the light cap via magnetic closures and stabilized with extensible flexible arms. The baseplate contains vents allowing air from the ISS cabin to be pulled through the plant growth area by a fan in the light cap. The baseplate holds a Veggie root mat reservoir that will supply water to plant pillows attached via elastic cords. Plant pillows are packages of growth media and seeds that will be sent to ISS dry and installed and hydrated on orbit. Pillows can be constructed in various sizes for different plant types. Watering will be via passive wicking from the root mat to the pillows. Science procedures will include photography or videography, plant thinning, pollination, harvesting, microbial sampling, water sampling, etcetera. Veggie is one of the ISS flight options currently available for research investigations on plants. The Plant Habitat (PH) is being designed and constructed through a NASA

  15. [One case of papillary adenocarcinoma located in the back-end of nasal septum]. (United States)

    Zang, Jian; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Xuejun


    Patients with nasopharyngeal foreign body sensation for 3 years, and had nasal obstruction in the past six months. electric nasopharyngoscopy: a irregular ellipse shape mass occupied in the nasopharynx, the mass surface is not smooth, with erosion ulcer and filthy secretions, the mass had a root in the back-end of nasal septum, and was adjacent to the bilateral round pillow. Sinus CT showed an irregular soft tissue shadow connected to the nasal septum backend in the nasopharynx, the size is about 2.8 cm X 3.5 cm, CT value is about 43 HU. Pathological examination: papillary adenocarcinoma.

  16. Internal structure of a thrust associated with subduction underplating from the Okitsu melange in the Shimanto accretionary complex, Japan (United States)

    Kanaya, T.; Chester, F.; Sakaguchi, A.


    The structure of large-displacement, plate-boundary faults in subduction zones is poorly defined relative to other tectonic settings. The thrust faults in the Okitsu melange constitute a duplex, which juxtapose oceanic pillow basalt (hanging walls) and trench-fill-sedimentary rocks (footwalls), and may represent a paleo-underplating zone of a plate-boundary subduction thrust at seismogenic depth. One well exposed duplex-fault, with displacement greater than several kilometers, is examined through structural mapping at scales of 1:100 to 1:1, mesoscale fabric analysis, and geochemical analysis. The duplex-fault zone displays a unique, asymmetric internal structure: brittle deformation dominates in the hanging wall and brittle and ductile deformation is evident in the footwall. The internal structure and surrounding host rocks reflect three accretionary processes: underthrusting, underplating, and uplifting along Out-of-Sequence-Thrusts (OOSTs). On the basis of style of deformation and displacement field, two distinct deformation episodes are identified, which likely correspond to underthrusting and underplating. The elongation of basalt pillows and the boudinage structure of sandstone blocks in shale indicate an elongation of 1.1 to 1.5 parallel to the oceanic crust layer throughout the host rocks of both the hanging wall and footwall, consistent with uniform extension of the crust during underthrusting. Pillow basalt and sedimentary rocks are juxtaposed by a single cataclasite layer composed of decimeter thick ultracataclasite derived from both rock types along the duplex-fault. Mesoscale implosion breccia and micro textures indicative of pressure solution are observed along the master duplex-fault and thought to be products of alternating fast- and slow-rate slip, respectively. Mesoscale fault fabric indicates a paleostress with the maximum principal compression at 15-20° to the master duplex-fault reflecting layer parallel contraction, which is consistent with

  17. Ice-Confined Basaltic Lava Flows: Review and Discussion (United States)

    Skilling, I.; Edwards, B. R.


    Basaltic lavas that are interpreted as having been emplaced in subglacial or ice-confined subaerial settings are known from several localities in Iceland, British Columbia and Antarctica. At least four different types of observations have been used to date to identify emplacement of basaltic lavas in an ice-rich environment: i) gross flow morphology, ii) surface structures, iii) evidence for ice-confined water during emplacement, and iv) lava fracture patterns. Five types of ice-confined lava are identified: sheets, lobes, mounds, linear ridges and sinuous ridges. While the appearance of lavas is controlled by the same factors as in the submarine environment, such as the geometry and configuration of vents and lava tubes, flow rheology and rates, and underlying topography, the presence of ice can lead to distinct features that are specific to the ice-confined setting. Other types have very similar or identical equivalents in submarine environment, albeit with some oversteepening/ice contact surfaces. Ice-confined lavas can form as (1) subaerial or subaqueous lavas emplaced against ice open to the air, (2) subaqueous lavas emplaced into pre-existing sub-ice drainage networks, and (3) subaqueous lavas emplaced into ponded water beneath ice. Their surface structures reflect the relationship between rates of lava flow emplacement at the site of ice-water-lava contact, ice melting and water drainage. Variations in local lava flow rates could be due to lava cooling, constriction, inflation, tube development, ice melting, ice collapse, lava collapse, changes in eruption rate etc. Episodes of higher lava flow rate would favour direct ice contact and plastic compression against the ice, generating oversteepened and/or overthickened chilled margins, cavities in the lava formed by melting of enveloped ice blocks (cryolith cavities) and structures such as flattened pillows and lava clasts embedded into the glassy margins. Melting back of the confining ice generates space to

  18. Components of Variance when Assessing the Reproducibility of Body Composition Measurements using Bio-Impedance and the Hologic QDR-2000 DXA Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Hessov, Ib


    -examination was performed (n = 35). Eight surgical patients were also scanned twice 1-7 days apart. The day to day coefficients of variation were about 1% for most measurements, though more than 2% for FM(DXA), and FM(bio). For total tissue mass, LTM, and BMC there was a significant biological day to day variance whereas...... for the other measurements the day to day variation could be accounted for by just measurement variance. Pillows systematically changed the estimates of bone mineral and soft tissue, but sheets did not....

  19. How to write a story in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>When it comes to writing a story,the first thing that strikes me is fear.Where to start?What is the title of the story?What is it going to be about?After struggling with some monstrous idea of using a first person perspective to tell a story of a horrific murder,I give up before starting to write and resort to my pillow and blanket for warmth and comfort."Not everyone gets to be Dan Brown."I

  20. Space for Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariane Ellen; Folmer, Mette Blicher; Mullins, Michael

    - Stimulates zest for life - Supporting communication ROOM A and B AIR A: air-condition / 35 m2 B: air-condition / 48 m2 / smell of natural citrus in fresh drinking water Artificial LIGHT A: light in ceiling B: pendant light over table / pendant light in center of the therapeutic circle / spots for arts...... on the walls / candles SOUND and ACUSTICS A: ghettoblaster B: surround sound / soft surfaces / bookshelf / carpet BODY COMFORT A: chairs / one sofa B: chairs / futons / beanbag / pillows /carpet / rocking chair ART A: patient’s pain drawings / one poster B: photographic Art at the walls / stone sculpture...

  1. High-resolution AUV mapping of the 2015 flows at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Clague, D. A.; Le Saout, M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Yoerger, D.


    Lava flows erupted in April 2015 at Axial Seamount were mapped at 1-m resolution with the AUV Sentry in August 2015 and the MBARI Mapping AUVs in July 2016 and observed and sampled with ROVs on those same expeditions. Thirty percent of terrain covered by new flows had been mapped by the MBARI AUVs prior to the eruption. Differencing of before and after maps (using ship-collected bathymetry where the AUV had not mapped before) allows calculation of extents and volumes of flows and shows new fissures. The maps reveal unexpected fissure patterns and shifts in the style of flow emplacement through a single eruption. There were 11 separate flows totaling 1.48 x 108 m3 of lava erupted from numerous en echelon fissures over 19 km on the NE caldera floor, on the NE flank, and down the N rift zone. Flows in and around the caldera have maximum thicknesses of 5-19 m. Most erupted as sheet flows and spread along intricate channels that terminated in thin margins. Some utilized pre-existing fissures. Some flows erupted from short fissures, while at least two longer new fissures produced little or no lava. A flow on the upper N rift has a spectacular lava channel flanked by narrow lava pillars supporting a thin roof left after the flow drained. A shatter ring still emanating warm fluid is visible in the map as a 15-m wide low cone. Hundreds of exploded pillows were observed but are not discernable in the bathymetry. The northern-most three flows deep on the N rift are similar in area to the others but comprise the bulk of the eruption volume. Differencing of ship-based bathymetry shows only these flows. Near the eruptive fissures they are sheet flows, but as they flowed downslope they built complexes of coalesced pillow mounds up to 67-128 m thick. Changes in flow morphology occurred through the course of the eruption. Large pillow mounds had molten cores that deformed as the eruption progressed. One flow began as a thin, effusive sheet flow but as the eruption rate decreased, a


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson


    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  3. Automatic RBG-depth-pressure anthropometric analysis and individualised sleep solution prescription. (United States)

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Palmero Cantariño, Cristina; Bayo Tallón, Vanessa; Cos Morera, Miquel Àngel; Escalera, Sergio; Sánchez, David; Sánchez Padilla, Maider; Serrano Domínguez, Noelia; Relats Vilageliu, Mireia


    Sleep surfaces must adapt to individual somatotypic features to maintain a comfortable, convenient and healthy sleep, preventing diseases and injuries. Individually determining the most adequate rest surface can often be a complex and subjective question. To design and validate an automatic multimodal somatotype determination model to automatically recommend an individually designed mattress-topper-pillow combination. Design and validation of an automated prescription model for an individualised sleep system is performed through a single-image 2 D-3 D analysis and body pressure distribution, to objectively determine optimal individual sleep surfaces combining five different mattress densities, three different toppers and three cervical pillows. A final study (n = 151) and re-analysis (n = 117) defined and validated the model, showing high correlations between calculated and real data (>85% in height and body circumferences, 89.9% in weight, 80.4% in body mass index and more than 70% in morphotype categorisation). Somatotype determination model can accurately prescribe an individualised sleep solution. This can be useful for healthy people and for health centres that need to adapt sleep surfaces to people with special needs. Next steps will increase model's accuracy and analise, if this prescribed individualised sleep solution can improve sleep quantity and quality; additionally, future studies will adapt the model to mattresses with technological improvements, tailor-made production and will define interfaces for people with special needs.

  4. Texto e têxtil em O Livro de Travesseiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Cunha


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This text is a three-part reflection upon the theme of “clothing” as it is found in a literary work of Ancient Japan — on the importance of garment-making skills as a device for the production of difference in the context of the Imperial Court; on how the theme from the book resonates in the context of 20th century fashion; and on how it is brought up to date and amplified, working as a metaphor for writing, in the film adaptation of the ancient text. In The Pillow Book of Sei Shônagon (Japan, 10th–11th centuries, text, textile and memory merge into an extended, web-like metaphor that is also a commentary on the status of women in Imperial Heian. The adaptation of the written work for the cinema (The Pillow Book, by Peter Greenaway, 1996 features clothes by deconstructivist Martin Margiela, adding new interpretative layers to this cluster of images, relating them to the acts of writing, weaving, reading, translating, adapting and deconstructing. The fragmentary character of Sei Shônagon’s work also resonates with fashion journalism of the 20th century. The aesthetic ideal of okashi, a concept from classical Japanese literature, resonates with 20th century conceptions of fashion, such as Diana Vreeland’s pizzazz, and with the aesthetics of modernist poetry. Clothing as a metaphor for text and the idea of clothing as text are present in those three interpretative moments.

  5. Bed Microenvironment in Hospital Patient Rooms with Natural or Mechanical Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Li, Yuguo; Georgiev, Emanuil


    We studied how to provide patients in bed with thermally comfortable microenvironment in both naturally and mechanically ventilated hospital rooms for both winter and summer seasons. A climate chamber was used to resemble a hospital room and thermal manikin to simulate a patient lying in a bed....... The °manikin was dressed and covered by a quilt with its head resting on a pillow. The effect of local heating was studied at room air temperature of 10 and 16 °C and of local cooling at 28 and 35 °C. Electrical radiant heater, heated blanket, heated pillow, personalized ventilation (PV) and heated boots were...... temperature of 22 °C. The effect of air movement (0.2, 0.4 and 1 m/s) at the bed vicinity was also studied. Electrical radiant heater in combination with heated bed showed to be the most effective at 10 and 16 °C and the combined use of PV and cooled mattress or ventilated bed was the most effective at 28...

  6. Carbonate Cements from the Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell Volcanoes, Svalbard Norway: Analogs for Martian Carbonates (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Treiman, A. H.; Morris, R.; Bish, D.; Amundsen, H.E.F.; Steele, A.


    The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell volcanic complexes erupted at 1Ma on Svalbard, Norway. Sverrefjell is a cone of cinders, pillow lavas and dikes; Sigurdfjell is elongate in outcrop and may represent a fissure eruption [1]. The lavas of both volcanos were volatile rich. The volcanos erupted under ice and were subsequently dissected by glaciation (glacial eratics are present on most of Sverrefjell, even on its summit). Eruption beneath an ice sheet is inferred, based on the presence of pillow lavas from near sea level to 1000 m above sea level. Sverrefjell contains the largest fraction of ultramafic xenoliths of any volcanic complex in the world, in places accounting for as much as 50% of the volume of the outcrop. The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfell volcanos contain carbonate cements of several varieties: (1) Amundsen [2] reported Mg-Fe-rich carbonate in sub-mm globules in basalts and ultramafic xenoliths from the volcanos. These globules are the best terrestrial analogs to the carbonate globules in the Mars meteorite ALH84001 [3]. (2) Thick (1-3 cm) coatings of carbonate cement drape the walls of vertical volcanic pipes or conduits on the flanks and near the present summit of Sverrefjell. Similar occurrences are found on Sigurdfjell. (3) Breccia-filled pipes or vents occur on Sverrefjell and Siggurdfjell in which the breccia fragments are cemented by carbonate. The fragments themselves commonly contain carbonate globules similar to those found in the basalts and ultramafic xenoliths.

  7. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants. (United States)

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran


    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely.

  8. 大龄肌性斜颈患儿的手术治疗分析%Older Children Surgical Treatment of Muscular Torticollis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:Of congenital muscular torticollis in older children and surgical treatment results.Methods:20 patients in our hospital and 10 cases of older hospital in Mozambique's capital of congenital muscular torticollis sternocleidomastoid incision through the pillow traction jaw simultaneously,the comprehensive treatment to correct scoliosis.Results:Through follow-up,most children have returned to satisfactory results.Conclusion:Congenital muscular torticollis surgery should be less than 6 years old,older children should also pillow traction jaw line,to correct scoliosis.%目的:探讨大龄患儿先天性肌性斜颈的治疗方法及手术效果.方法:分析我院20例及莫桑比克首都马普托医院10例大龄患儿先天性肌性斜颈通过胸锁乳突肌双切口同时行颌枕牵引,纠正侧弯的综合治疗方法.结果:通过随访,大部分儿童恢复效果理想.结论:先天性肌性斜颈应在6岁以内手术,大龄儿童则应同时行颌枕牵引,纠正侧弯.

  9. Evaluation of NVE's snow station network; Subreport in R et D project 302H15 Good snow data; Evaluering av NVE sitt snoestasjonsnettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, Bjoerg Lirhus; Landroe, Hilde; Trondsen, Elise; Moeen, Knut M.


    NVE has measured snow water equivalent of snow pillow in forty years. Our snow station network has risen since 1997 from 6 to 25 stations. It was therefore absolutely necessary to do a review and quality assurance of NVE's snow data. This report discusses the snow data measured continuously - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Each station and the parameters it measures are described and evaluated. It is concluded in relation to whether stations should be continued or not. Stations technical solutions are well described, both of NVE's standard stations and the two test stations, Filefjell and Svarttjoernbekken. It has been o importance to bring out what problems the instruments have or may have and provide suggestions for solutions to them. Problems related to measure the water equivalent under Norwegian conditions, with the challenges and winter rain and re-freezing provides, is also reviewed. Alternatives to water equivalent measurements with a snow pillow, which is the traditional way in this country, are presented. Some of the alternative methods NVE tests out, for the others only description and our opinion is given. (Author)

  10. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India: A mineralchemical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Saha; Avik Dhang; Jyotisankar Ray; Suvankar Chakraborty; David Moecher


    Field studies supplemented by petrographic analyses clearly reveal complete preservation of ophiolite suite from Port Blair (11° 39′ N: 92° 45′E) to Chiriyatapu (11° 30′ 24′′N: 92° 42′ 30′′E) stretch of South Andaman. The ophiolite suite reveals serpentinite at the base which is overlain unconformably by cumulate ultramafic–mafic members with discernible cumulus texture and igneous layering. Basaltic dykes are found to cut across the cumulate ultramafic–mafic members. The succession is capped by well exposed pillow basalts interlayered with arkosic sediments. Olivine from the basal serpentinite unit are highly magnesian (Fo80.1–86.2). All clinopyroxene analyses from cumulate pyroxenite, cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke are discriminated to be `Quad’ and are uniformly restricted to the diopside field. Composition of plagioclase in different lithomembers is systematically varying from calcic to sodic endmembers progressively from cumulate pyroxenite to pillow basalt through cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke. Plagioclase phenocrysts from basaltic dyke are found to be distinctly zoned (An60.7–An35.5) whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An33–An23.5). Deduced thermobarometric data from different lithomembers clearly correspond to the observed preservation of complete ophiolite suite.

  11. Volatiles in basaltic glasses from a subglacial volcano in northern British Columbia (Canada): Implications for ice sheet thickness and mantle volatiles (United States)

    Dixon, J.E.; Filiberto, J.R.; Moore, J.G.; Hickson, C.J.


    Dissolved H2O, CO2, S and Cl concentrations were measured in glasses from Tanzilla Mountain, a 500 m-high, exposed subglacial volcano from the Tuya-Teslin region, north central British Columbia, Canada. The absence of a flat-topped subaerial lava cap and the dominance of pillows and pillow breccias imply that the Tanzilla Mountain volcanic edifice did not reach a subaerial eruptive phase. Lavas are dominantly tholeiitic basalt with minor amounts of alkalic basalt erupted at the summit and near the base. Tholeiites have roughly constant H2O (c.0.56 ?? 0.07 wt%), CO2 (ice thicknesses of 400 to 900 m. Maximum calculated ice thickness (c. 1 km) is at the lower end of the range of predicted maximum Fraser glaciation (c. 1-2 km), and may indicate initiation of volcanism during the waning stages of glaciation. Temporal evolution from tholeiitic to alkalic compositions may reflect compositional gradients within a melting column, instead of convective processes within a stratified magma chamber. The mantle source region for the subglacial volcanoes is enriched in incompatible elements similar to that for enriched mid-oceanic ridge basalt (e.g. Endeavour Ridge) and does not contain residual amphibole. Thus, metasomatic enrichment most likely reflects small degree partial melts rather than hydrous fluids.

  12. Detailed volcanostratigraphy of an accreted seamount: Implications for intraplate seamount formation (United States)

    Schnur, Susan R.; Gilbert, Lisa A.


    Seamounts are a ubiquitous feature of the seafloor but relatively little is known about their internal structure. A seamount preserved in the Franciscan mélange of California suggests a sequence of formation common to all seamounts. Field mapping, geophysical measurements, and geochemical analyses are combined to interpret three stages of seamount growth consistent with the formation of other intraplate seamounts such as the Hawaiian volcanoes and the island of La Palma. A seamount begins to form as a pile of closely packed pillows with a high density and low porosity. Small pillow mound volcanoes common at mid-ocean ridges are seamounts that do not grow beyond this initial stage of formation. The second stage of seamount formation is marked by the first occurrence of breccia. As the seamount grows and becomes topographically more complex, slope varies and fractured material may begin to accumulate. Magma supply may also become spatially diffuse as the seamount grows and new supply pathways develop through the edifice. The second stage thus exhibits variability in both flow morphologies and geophysical properties. The final cap stage is composed of thin flows of various morphologies. These sequences reflect the shoaling of the seamount and a greater variability in extrusion rate resulting from waning magma supply and increased mass wasting. Understanding the growth and structure of seamounts has important implications for intraplate volcanism and for models of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust.

  13. Mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of hydrothermally altered oceanic rocks (United States)

    Stakes, D.S.; O'Neil, J.R.


    Mineralogical and isotopic variations observed in altered glassy and crystalline rocks from the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge provide information about the temperatures of alteration and seawater/rock ratios for various hydrothermal regimes within the oceanic crust. A systematic increase in alteration temperature is evident for the glassy rocks in the sequence: (1) nontronite and celadonite vesicle fillings (35??C), (2) saponite-rich pillow breccias (130-170??C), (3) calcite-rich greenstone breccias and epidote-rich greenstone (200-350??C). These results include the highest temperatures thus far reported for saponite formation. The "seawater-dominated" hydrothermal alteration process that formed the saponite-rich pillow breccias is characterized by high water/rock ratios (>50:1), low to moderate temperatures, a seawater origin of most of the carbon in vein calcites (??13 C ??? 0) and the predominance of Fe-rich saponite and calcite as secondary phases. Greenstones (chlorite-quartz-epidote) and greenstone breccias (chlorite-quartz-albite-calcite) are altered in a "rock-dominated" system with lower water/rock ratios (50:1 to isotopic composition to alter the overlying glassy rocks to the observed mineralogies as well as being the source of metal-rich deposits associated with the oceanic spreading centers. ?? 1982.

  14. Plant Growth Optimization by Vegetable Production System in HI-SEAS Analog Habitat (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Gill, Tracy R.; Quincy, Charles D.; Roberson, Luke B.; Binsted, Kim; Morrow, Robert C.


    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) is a scientific payload designed to support plant growth for food production under microgravity conditions. The configuration of Veggie consists of an LED lighting system with modular rooting pillows designed to contain substrate media and time-release fertilizer. The pillows were designed to be watered passively using capillary principles but have typically been watered manually by the astronauts in low-Earth orbit (LEO). The design of Veggie allows cabin air to be drawn through the plant enclosure for thermal and humidity control and for supplying CO2 to the plants. Since its delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014, Veggie has undergone several experimental trials by various crews. Ground unit testing of Veggie was conducted during an 8-month Mars analog study in a semi-contained environment of a simulated habitat located at approximately 8,200 feet (2,500 m) elevation on the Mauna Loa volcano on the Island of Hawaii. The Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) offered conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) intended to simulate a planetary exploration mission. This paper provides data and analyses to show the prospect for optimized use of the current Veggie design for human habitats. Lessons learned during the study may provide opportunities for updating the system design and operational parameters for current Veggie experiments being conducted onboard the ISS and for payloads on future deep space missions.

  15. Soft-sediment Deformation Structures Related to Earthquake from the Devonian of the Eastern North Qilian Mts. and Its Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; XU Yajun; YANG Jianghai


    Devonian in the North Qilian orogenic belt and Hexi Corridor developed terrestrial molasse of later stage of foreland basin caused by collision between the North China plate and Qaidam microplate. The foreland basin triggered a intense earthquake, and formed seismites and earthquake- related soft-sediment deformation. The soft-sediment deformation structures of Devonian in the eastern North Qilian Mts. consist of seismo-cracks, sandstone dykes, syn-depositional faults, microfolds (micro-corrugated lamination), fluidized veins, load casts, flame structures, pillow structures and brecciation. The seismo-cracks, syn-depositional faults and microfolds are cracks, faults and folds formed directly by oscillation of earthquake. The seismic dykes formed by sediment instilling into seismic cracks. Fluidized veins were made by instilling into the seismo-fissures of the fluidized sands. The load casts, flame structures and pillow structures were formed by sinking and instilling caused from oscillation of earthquake along the face between sandy and muddy beds. The brecciation resulted from the oscillation of earthquake and cracking of sedimentary layers. The seismites and soft-sediment deformations in Devonian triggered the earthquake related to tectonic activities during the orogeny and uplift of North Qilian Mts.

  16. A Sleep Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Schoen


    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children who have Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD commonly report sleep problems, which typically exacerbate daytime behavior problems. This pilot study sought to identify the short-term effects on sleep, behavior challenges, attention, and quality of life of children with ASD following use of the iLs Dreampad ™ pillow, which delivers bone conducted music and environmental sounds. Aims were to demonstrate acceptability and feasibility, identify measures sensitive to change, and describe individual characteristics responsive to change. Method: Parent report questionnaires assessed sleep behavior, attention, autism-related behaviors, and quality of life from 15 participants before and during intervention. A Sleep Diary documented average sleep duration and average time to fall asleep during the preintervention phase and the last 2 weeks of the treatment phase. Results: Procedures were acceptable and feasible for families. All measures were sensitive to change. Children with ASD demonstrated significant change in sleep duration and time needed to fall asleep from pretest to intervention. Improvements were noted in autism-related behaviors, attention, and quality of life. Parent satisfaction was high. Conclusions: The iLs Dreampad™ pillow may be one alternative intervention to pharmacological interventions for children with ASD who have sleep problems. Further study is warranted.

  17. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ophiolite suite, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Srivastava; R Chandra; Anant Shastry


    A complete dismembered sequence of ophiolite is well exposed in the south Andaman region that mainly comprises ultramafic cumulates, serpentinite mafic plutonic and dyke rocks, pillow lava, radiolarian chert, and plagiogranite. Pillow lavas of basaltic composition occupy a major part of the Andaman ophiolite suite (AOS). These basalts are well exposed all along the east coast of southern part of the south AOS. Although these basalts are altered due to low-grade metamorphism and late hydrothermal processes, their igneous textures are still preserved. These basalts are mostly either aphyric or phyric in nature. Aphyric type exhibits intersertal or variolitic textures, whereas phyric variety shows porphyritic or sub-ophitic textures. The content of alkalies and silica classify these basalts as sub-alkaline basalts and alkaline basalts. A few samples show basaltic andesite, trachybasalt, or basanitic chemical composition. High-field strength element (HFSE) geochemistry suggests that studied basalt samples are probably derived from similar parental magmas. Al2O3/TiO2 and CaO/TiO2 ratios classify these basalts as high-Ti type basalt. On the basis of these ratios and many discriminant functions and diagrams, it is suggested that the studied basalts, associated with Andaman ophiolite suite, were derived from magma similar to N-MORB and emplaced in the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting.

  18. Volcanology of the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California (United States)

    Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.


    The Alarcon Rise is a ~50 km long intermediate-rate (~50mm/a) spreading center at the southern end of the Gulf of California. In Spring 2012, an MBARI-led expedition to Alarcon Rise mapped a ~1.5- 3km wide swath of the ridge axis at 1-m resolution and completed 9 dives with the ROV Doc Ricketts (Clague et al., this session). Pillow, lobate, and sheet flows occur along the entire axis. An inflated zone of the axis south of the midpoint along the Rise is dominated by a large sheet/lobate flow that erupted from en echelon fissures that extends for 8 km. This flow extends laterally away from the fissures for at least 2 km and covered nearly all prior flows and pillow mounds in its path. The middle of the segment contains a 1km across flat-topped volcano, virtually unmodified by fissures and faults, which dissect a 2.5 km across shield 5 km to the north. The NE and SW parts of the axis are characterized by more abundant pillow mounds and less voluminous sheet flows. Many of the pillow mounds, especially those in the northern third of the axis are small, steep sided mounds. Examination of sand and slit sized fractions of the basal cm of 87 cores collected by the ROV shows that basaltic pyroclasts with fluidal or bubble-wall (limu o Pele) morphologies are ubiquitous along the entire ridge. A rugged dome-like structure about 0.5x1.2kmx75m tall occurs about 9 km from the northern end of the ridge axis. Its crest is at a depth of 2330 m. Linear ridge-parallel faults and ridges cross-cut or terminate into the dome. These ridges extend several km both NE and SW along strike from the dome. Extensive sampling during two ROV dives shows that the entire dome is constructed of coarse blocky breccia and minor lineated flows of rhyolite. Dacite, andesite, and basaltic andesite flows occur on adjacent slopes to the north, south and west, and exhibit medium- to large-diameter pillow morphologies. Many of these flows and the flanks of the dome are mantled by abundant coarse- to fine

  19. 自制导乐枕辅助胎心监测的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞琼燕; 洪红; 苏小容; 吴丽丽; 利梅芬; 陈贤秀


    目的::探讨自制导乐枕辅助胎心监测的应用效果.方法:对住院分娩待产妇1000例进行胎心监测的观察对比,自制导乐枕辅助胎心监测的应用观察随机分为观察组和对照组各500例,进行胎心监测时使用导乐枕辅助的作为观察组,不用导乐枕辅助的作为对照组.以待产妇舒适感;配合检查的效果;获得胎监数据的满意度;助产士操作时的简便程度作为评价标准.用统计学方法分析两组待产妇舒适感;配合检查的效果;获得胎监数据的满意度;助产士操作时的简便程度有无明显差异.结果:两组待产妇舒适感;配合检查的效果;获得胎监数据的满意度;助产士操作时的简便程度均有显著差异(P<0.01).结论:自制导乐枕用于缓解产妇的不适,使产妇能配合胎心监测的完成,增加舒适度,得到满意真实的检查效果.减少因延长胎监时间造成的资源浪费.提高产妇的满意度.此方法取材方便,操作简单,价格低廉,值得临床推广和应用.%[Abstract ]Obj ective To investigate the effects of self-made the application effect of Doula pillow auxiliary fetal heart monitoring.Methods of de-livery in hospital expectant mothers 1000 cases for comparative observation of the fetal heart monitoring,homemade Douglas pillow auxiliary fetal heart monitoring application were randomly divided into observation group and control group,each of 500 cases,fetal heart monitoring using Douglas pillow auxiliary as the observation group,not as a Douglas pillow auxiliary control group.Pending maternal comfort;with the inspection effect;fetal monito-ring data of satisfaction;midwives operation simple degree as the evaluation criteria.Statistical method was used to analysis the two groups to be mater-nal comfort;with the inspection effect;fetal monitoring data Satisfaction;midwives operation simple degree has no significant difference.The two groups to

  20. Propagating rift tectonics of a Caledonian marginal basin: Multi-stage seafloor spreading history of the Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite in western Norway (United States)

    Dilek, Yildirim; Furnes, Harald; Skjerlie, K. P.


    The Late Ordovician Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite in western Norway represents a remnant of the Iapetus oceanic lithosphere that developed in a Caledonian marginal basin. The ophiolite contains three structural domains that display distinctively different crustal architecture that reflects the mode and nature of magmatic and tectonic processes operated during the multi-stage seafloor spreading evolution of this marginal basin. Domain I includes, from top to bottom, an extensive extrusive sequence, a transition zone consisting of dike swarms with screens of pillow breccias, a sheeted dike complex, and plutonic rocks composed mainly of isotropic gabbro and microgabbro. Extrusive rocks include pillow lavas, pillow breccias, and massive sheet flows and are locally sheared and mineralized, containing epidosites, sulfide-sulfate deposits, Fe-oxides, and anhydrite veins, reminiscent of hydrothermal alteration zones on the seafloor along modern mid-ocean ridges. A fossil lava lake in the northern part of the ophiolite consists of a >65-m-thick volcanic sequence composed of a number of separate massive lava units interlayered with pillow lavas and pillow breccia horizons. The NE-trending sheeted dike complex contains multiple intrusions of metabasaltic dikes with one- and two-sided chilled margins and displays a network of both dike-parallel normal and dike-perpendicular oblique-slip faults of oceanic origin. The dike-gabbro boundary is mutually intrusive and represents the root zone of the sheeted dike complex. The internal architecture and rock types of Domain I are analogous to those of intermediate-spreading oceanic crust at modern mid-ocean ridge environments. The ophiolitic units in Domain II include mainly sheeted dikes and plutonic rocks with a general NW structural grain and are commonly faulted against each other, although primary intrusive relations between the sheeted dikes and the gabbros are locally well preserved. The exposures of this domain occur only in the

  1. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii (United States)

    Moore, James G.


    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55±0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01±0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67±0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89±0.17 and 2.97±0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing downward the

  2. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.


    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  3. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore


    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  4. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent


    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  5. Internal deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts. Structures formed by complex deformation and high contrasts in viscosity observed in drill cores. (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    During the evaporation of a massive salt body, alternations of interrupted and full evaporation sequences can form a complex layering of different lithologies. Viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude between these different lithologies are possible in this environment. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. How up to 200m thick layers of these evaporites affect salt deformation at different scales is not well known. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt. To gain a better understanding of the internal deformation of these layers we analyzed K-Mg salt rich drill cores out of the Zechstein III-1b subunit from the Veendam Pillow 10 km southeast of Groningen, near the city Veendam in the NE Netherlands. The study area has a complex geological history with multiple tectonic phases of extension and compression forming internal deformation in the pillow but also conserving most of the original layering. Beside halite the most common minerals in the ZIII-1b are carnallite, kieserite, anhydrite and bischofite alternating in thin layers of simple composition. Seismic interpretation revealed that the internal structure of the Veendam Pillow shows areas, in which the K-Mg salt rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, as a result of salt deformation. The internal structure of the ZIII-1b on the other hand, remains unknown. The core analysis shows a strong strain concentration in the weaker Bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) and Carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) rich layers producing tectonic breccias and highly strained layers completely overprinting the original layering. Layers formed by alternating beds

  6. Preparation for the Proof of Concept Flight of the Veggie Plant Growth Chamber (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Morrow, Robert; Hummerick, Mary; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond


    Veggie is a small plant growth chamber designed and built by ORBITEC that will fly to the International Space Station on SpaceX-3, scheduled for the summer of 2013. Ultimately Veggie will be used for research, education and outreach, and crew recreation. We want to demonstrate the functionality of this hardware by testing a scenario that could allow the crew to grow and consume fresh vegetables. Veggie will be collapsed and transported flat in a cargo transfer bag, and deployed on orbit, where it will be installed in an EXPRESS rack. The chamber consists of three subsystems: an LED light cap, a transparent bellows, and a root mat reservoir assembly. The bellows and flexible support arms allow the distance between plants and light cap to be adjusted for different ages and types of plants. Researchers at Kennedy Space Center and ORBITEC have been working to develop the plant growth interfaces for the proof of concept flight. We have developed a rooting pillow, consisting of a small bag containing media, time release fertilizer, seeds, and a wicking surface to conduct water from the root mat reservoir. Prototype pillows have been tested and results have influenced the design of flight pillows, which will be modified for microgravity from flight-approved materials. Several studies have been conducted selecting species and comparing media types in analog systems. Water content seems to be the most important factor differentiating media types in these small growth volumes (100 mL). Media type also influenced microbial levels on plants. Since produce sanitizing agents are not currently approved for growing food crops on orbit, plants and media types having very low microbial levels are being selected. Lettuce, mizuna, and other salad greens typically have microbial counts less than 10(exp 4) colony forming units and thus are good candidates for spaceflight. As we approach flight verification testing, we will finalize species, media selection, harvesting, and microbial

  7. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F. Raith


    Full Text Available At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium–magnesium salts (K-Mg salts carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt

  8. Magnetic fabric of the rocks from the Klodzko Metamorphic Complex (West Sudetes, Poland) and relation to tectonics (United States)

    Kadzialko-Hofmokl, M.; Werner, T.; Kruczyk, J.; Mazur, S.


    The Klodzko Metamorphic Complex KMC consists of metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks of Early Paleozoic and Precambrian age occurring as fragments of a nappe pile lying between the weakly metamorphosed Givetian sediments and Frasnian-Fammenian limestones and shales. At the basis of the Givetian sediments lies a fragment of the Silurian Sudetic ophiolite from which some pillow lavas were sampled. The study concerns the 5 KMC units, Silurian pillow lavas and both Devonian sets of sediments. According to Mazur the rocks under study underwent 6 deformational episodes out of which four D1-D4 took place at the Middle/Late Devonian and two other D5 and D6 - after the Namurian A. The D1 episode was connected with the WNW thrusting, the D2 and subsequent episodes - to dextral transpression or NNE-SSW compression. The mesoscopic mineral lineations L1 and L3 have an azimuth 90-135°E with dip ranging between 15° and 45°. This direction is common in the Sudetes and compatible with the direction of the Intrasudetic and Boundary Sudetic faults. The results of the AMS study agree with the structural conclusions. The Kmax directions calculated in situ for metaigneous rocks, part of metasediments, pillow lavas and Givetian limestones agree well with the mineral lineations. In metasediments from the passive continental margin where the diamagnetics prevail inversion of the anisotropy axes was observed in the fresh specimens. After heating them to 650°C, directions of Kmax became similar to the lineation. Directions of maximum axes of anisotropy of remanence were similar to magnetic lineation in the unheated specimens supporting the conclusion about the inversion of the AMS axes. In the Frasnian-Fammenian limestones the directions of Kmax axes are similar to the results from other units only after correction .for bedding. The results obtained lead to the following conclusions: the magnetic fabric of all studied rock units reflects one or more deformational episodes described by

  9. Geochemistry and petrology of andesites from the north rift zone of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Smithka, I. N.; Perfit, M. R.; Clague, D. A.; Wanless, V. D.


    In 2013, the ROV Doc Ricketts onboard R/V Western Flyer explored ~4 km of an elongate pillow ridge up to ~300 m high along the eastern edge of the north rift zone of Axial Seamount. The steep-sided volcanic ridge is constructed of large pillow lavas up to 2-3 m in diameter and smaller elongated pillow tubes. Of the 27 samples collected during dive D526, all but one are andesites making it one of the largest confirmed high-silica exposures along a mid-ocean ridge (MOR). Based on radiocarbon ages of sediment on top of flows, the mounds are at least ~1390 years old. This minimum age is much younger than the 56 Ka age calculated based on distance from the rift axis, indicating eruption off-axis through older, colder crust and supporting the hypothesis and model calculations that extensive fractional crystallization (>85%) caused the high silica content. The andesitic lavas are primarily glassy, highly vesicular, crusty, and sparsely phyric with small (~1 mm) plagioclase crystals and olivine, clinopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide microphenocrysts. Microprobe analyses of glasses are similar to wax-core samples previously collected from this area but are more compositionally variable. Excluding one basalt (7.7 wt% MgO) sampled between mounds, the lavas are basaltic andesites and andesites (53-59 wt% SiO2) with <3 wt% MgO and 12.8-15.7 wt% FeO concentrations. Incompatible trace element abundances are ~4-6 times more enriched than in Axial Seamount T-MORB. Primitive mantle-normalized patterns are similar to those of high-silica lavas from other MORs (southern Juan de Fuca Ridge, 9N East Pacific Rise) with significant positive U anomalies, large negative Sr anomalies, small negative Eu anomalies, and slight positive Zr-Hf anomalies. The andesites are more enriched in light rare earth elements than basalts from Axial Seamount ((La/Yb)N 1.35-1.4 vs. 0.7-1.27) and N-MORB from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The andesites also have high Cl (~0.3-0.6 wt%) and H2O (~1.60-1.71 wt

  10. Products of Submarine Fountains and Bubble-burst Eruptive Activity at 1200 m on West Mata Volcano, Lau Basin (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Rubin, K. H.; Keller, N. S.


    An eruption was observed and sampled at West Mata Volcano using ROV JASON II for 5 days in May 2009 during the NSF-NOAA eruption response cruise to this region of suspected volcanic activity. Activity was focused near the summit at the Prometheus and Hades vents. Prometheus erupted almost exclusively as low-level fountains. Activity at Hades cycled between vigorous degassing, low fountains, and bubble-bursts, building up and partially collapsing a small spatter/scoria cone and feeding short sheet-like and pillow flows. Fire fountains at Prometheus produced mostly small primary pyroclasts that include Pele's hair and fluidal fragments of highly vesicular volcanic glass. These fragments have mostly shattered and broken surfaces, although smooth spatter-like surfaces also occur. As activity wanes, glow in the vent fades, and denser, sometimes altered volcanic clasts are incorporated into the eruption. The latter are likely from the conduit walls and/or vent-rim ejecta, drawn back into the vent by inrushing seawater that replaces water entrained in the rising volcanic plume. Repeated recycling of previously erupted materials eventually produces rounded clasts resembling beach cobbles and pitted surfaces on broken phenocrysts of pyroxene and olivine. We estimate that roughly 33% of near vent ejecta are recycled. Our best sample of this ejecta type was deposited in the drawer of the JASON II ROV during a particularly large explosion that occurred during plume sampling immediately above the vent. Elemental sulfur spherules up to 5 mm in diameter are common in ejecta from both vents and occur inside some of the lava fragments Hades activity included dramatic bubble-bursts unlike anything previously observed under water. The lava bubbles, sometimes occurring in rapid-fire sequence, collapsed in the water-column, producing fragments that are quenched in less than a second to form Pele's hair, limu o Pele, spatter-like lava blobs, and scoria. All are highly vesicular

  11. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Høy; Permin, Anders;


    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out...... to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery...... pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys....

  12. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment. (United States)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Andersen, Leif Percival


    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys.

  13. Composition and formation of Palaeozoic Erlangping ophiolitic slab, North Qinling: Evidence from geology and geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勇; 卢欣祥; 韩松; 张国伟


    The analyses based on the protolith formation, metamorphic and deformation reveal that the Erlangping Group is composed of different lithological slices, without any significance in stratigraphy. It is therefore to discard the Erlangping Group into the Damiao slab, the Erlangping ophiolitic slab and the Xiaozhai slab. The Erlangping ophiolitic slab only includes the former Huoshenmiao Formation and it is mainly composed of massive basalts, pillow basalts, sheet dikes, gabbro and a few of ultramafic intrusions with patches of plagiogranite, overlain by radiolarian silicolites. A lot of microfossils were discovered in the silicolites that mark the Erlangping ophiolitic slab mainly formed in the Early to Middle Ordovician. In geochemistry, most of the basalts and diabase dikes are consistent with N-MORB except a few of samples effected by alteration. The Erlangping ophiolitic slab represents a remnant piece of ancient ocean crust which is most suitable to a back-arc basin setting. A mean 207Pb/206Pb age of

  14. Feasible metabolisms in high pH springs of the Philippines. (United States)

    Cardace, Dawn; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Woycheese, Kristin M; Arcilla, Carlo A


    A field campaign targeting high pH, H2-, and CH4-emitting serpentinite-associated springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to rank feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs between sampling years, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms. In all, this geochemistry-based assessment of feasible metabolisms indicates methane cycling, hydrogen oxidation, some iron and sulfur metabolisms, and ammonia oxidation are feasible reactions in this continental site of serpentinization.

  15. A case of endometrial carcinoma with age related hyperkyphosis treated with definitive radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind S Murthy


    Full Text Available This report describes a simple brachytherapy procedure in a patient with endometrial cancer with age related hyperkyphosis.  Sixty-eight year-old postmenopausal woman with age related hyperkyphosis presented with endometrial carcinoma, and the patient was not operated on due to associated pelvic deformity. The patient received whole pelvic radiation followed by uterovaginal brachytherapy. Patient was supported with soft pillows to support her exaggerated anterior concavity during brachytherapy procedure and execution. The brachytherapy dose was 6 Gy per fraction per week for 3 weeks using image guidance. This is probably the first reported case of endometrial cancer with age related hyperkyphosis. In spite of the associated skeletal problems, a simple brachytherapy procedure is possible and provides good result. 

  16. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Brazinski


    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  17. Therapeutic effect of pirenzepine for clozapine-induced hypersalivation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. (United States)

    Bai, Y M; Lin, C C; Chen, J Y; Liu, W C


    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pirenzepine in the treatment of clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Pirenzepine is reported to counteract hypersalivation by its selective antagonistic activity on the M4-muscarinic receptor, which is stimulated by clozapine. Twenty patients with clozapine-induced hypersalivation underwent a random-order, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial which lasted 8 weeks each for the pirenzepine and placebo investigations, with a 4-week washout period in between. The severity of hypersalivation was assessed using an objective measure: saliva production monitored through the diameter of wetted surface on tissue paper placed over the patient's pillow. Our study showed that pirenzepine had no significant therapeutic effect on hypersalivation compared with placebo, suggesting that hypersalivation induced by clozapine might have a neurobiological basis other than the M4-muscarinic receptor.

  18. Isotopic evidence for multiple contributions to felsic magma chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Wiebe, R.A.; Krogstad, E.J.


    by contemporaneous mafic magmas; the transition between the two now preserved as a zone of chilled mafic sheets and pillows in granite. Mafic components have highly variably isotopic compositions as a result of contamination either at depth or following injection into the magma chamber. Intermediate dikes...... with identical isotopic compositions to more mafic dikes suggest that closed system fractionation may be occurring in deeper level chambers prior to injection to shallower levels. The granitic portion of the pluton has the highest Nd isotopic composition (eNd=+3.0) of plutons in the region whereas the mafic...... lithologies have Nd isotopic compositions (eNd=+3.5) that are the lowest in the region and similar to the granite and suggestive of prolonged interactions and homogenization of the two components. Sr and Nd isotopic data for felsic enclaves are inconsistent with previously suggested models of diffusional...

  19. Occurrence of two myxosporean species, Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. and Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n., in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fry imported from Thailand to Europe as ornamental fish. (United States)

    Baska, Ferenc; Voronin, V N; Eszterbauer, Edit; Müller, Linda; Marton, Szilvia; Molnár, Kálmán


    Fingerlings of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a favorite food fish in South Asia, is regularly imported by European fish traders and sold in pet fish shops. In shipments from Thailand, a skin and a kidney infection of this fish caused by myxosporean parasites was found both in Hungary and Russia. In the skin of the fish, small millet-sized nodules containing great numbers of a Myxobolus species were found, while in the renal glomeruli, spores and sporogonic stages of a Hoferellus species developed. The skin-infecting species described as Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. had 15.9 x 6.6-microm-sized spores with elongated polar capsules, while the renal species described as Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n. had roundish spores with a size of 6.5 x 5.0 microm and had a characteristic pillow-like structure at its posterior end. Besides morphology, histology of infection and 18S rDNA sequences were studied.

  20. Pediculosis palpebrarum initially diagnosed as blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ebeigbe


    Full Text Available Pediculosis is an infestation of lice. Eyelid involvement is uncommon, but can be caused by pediculus humanus capitis (head louse, rarely by  pediculus humanus corporis (body louse and commonly by phthirus pubis (pubic louse. Signs and symptoms are similar to those of blepharitis. A diagnosis of any type of pediculosis requires the finding of live specimen of lice and/or a viable nit.The immediate and effective treatment of pediculosis palpebrarum is removal of the lice and nits manually with forceps and treating the patient withvaseline, twice daily for seven to ten days. Also, fomites such as pillow cases, bedsheets, towels and hats  need to be washed in hot water and dried. This is to avoid further spread of lice or reinfestation.

  1. Imaging designs of occipitocervical fusion for reversed transplantation of occipital outer plate flap%枕骨外板翻转行枕颈融合术的影像学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 王文军


    Objective By analyzing and measuring adult pillow neck midline sagittal CT image data and to investigate preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap. Methods Ninety pillow neck sagittal CT image datas from the patients un-derwent CT examination in Hengyang Center Hospital from August to November in 2013 were conducted preoperative designs of the occipital outer plate flap by method A(through 1 cm above the midpoint of the trailing edge of the foramen magnum,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image)and method B(through pillow inside and outside carina midpoint,the tangent of the arc-shaped diploe image) respectively. It was determined the feasibility of methods A and B and to obtain preoperative imaging parameters of the flipping of the occipital outer plate through the measurement of relevant indicators of methods A and B. Results There was statistical significance between the flip ratio (desired flap length/maximum flap length available )according to method A or B and the maximum flip ratio(100%)(P0.05). There was statistical significance between methods A and B to flip the occipital outer plate for the same person(P<0.05). Conclusion Both methods A and B are feasible,and method B is better than A. Preoperative measurement of the pillow neck sagittal CT can provide imaging parameters for the intraoperative flip-ping of occipital outer plate.%目的:测量及分析成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT,探讨枕骨外板翻转的术前设计。方法选取2013年8~11月在衡阳市中心医院行CT检查的90例健康成人枕颈部正中矢状位CT影像资料,分别用甲法(经枕骨大孔后缘中点上方1 cm处作板障圆弧的切线)及乙法(经枕内外隆凸连线中点作板障圆弧的切线)进行枕骨外板翻转的术前设计,通过对2种设计相关指标的测量,比较甲、乙法的可行性及枕骨外板翻转的影像学参数。结果成人依据甲法或乙法的翻转比值(所需骨瓣长度/可获取最大

  2. Growth and preservation of subsurface bio-signatures in submarine volcanic glass (United States)

    Banerjee, N.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Furnes, H.


    We suggest that an unlikely substrate, altered submarine basalt, may preserve early biomarkers. Basalts are likely to be returned by any extra-terrestrial sample return mission and should be assessed for their potential in recording and preserving biological traces. Bioalteration of MORB glass in sub-seasurface pillow rims and tuffs has been documented. Petrographic evience of fossil microbial alteration is seen in two textures: tubular and granular. Tubular textures are characterized by micron-scale, tubular to vermicular, channel-like features and branching bodies extending into fresh glass. Granular textures appear as solid bands, semicircles or irregular patches of individual and/or coalesced spherical bodies with irregular protrusions into fresh glass. These textures are observed to extend away from fractures and grain boundaries, where liquid water was once present, into fresh glass. Detailed SEM imaging of these features in thin sections and on grain mounts of freshly exposed surfaces have revealed complex channels, delicate filament-like structures, and material resembling desiccated biofilm. The channels are highly convoluted and are occasionally filled with clay minerals, probably smectite. X-ray element maps show elevated levels of C, N, P, and K associated with the microbial alteration features. Micron sized grains of iron sulphides have also been identified at the margin of some of these features, possibly resulting from reduction of seawater sulphate by microbes. Carbon isotope ratios of disseminated carbonate in microbially altered volcanic glass are variably depleted by as much as -20 per mil, suggesting biologic fractionation. We have also treated samples with nucleic acid stains that specifically bind to DNA and RNA revealing DNA/RNA associated with areas of suspected microbial alteration. However, the evolutionary history of glass bioalteration or its preservability in the geological record is not known. We searched for evidence of ancient

  3. An electronic communication system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients - biomed 2013. (United States)

    Murakami, Atsushi; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Patients with the disease lose their ability to speak and to use their hands as the disease progresses. We have developed a new electronic communication system that enables communication by blinking of the eyes. The system consists of a light emitting diode (LED), two silicone rubber electrodes, an electrooculogram (EOG) recorder, a microcontroller, a sound reproduction board, a pillow speaker and a low power mobile phone. The two silicone rubber electrodes record the EOG induced by blinking the eyes synchronized with LED flashing. The EOG is amplified by the EOG recorder. The microcontroller detects the blinking from the amplified EOG, and then their meanings are confirmed by voice. After that, the patient’s intention is transmitted to the nurse by a low power mobile phone so the care giver is kept in the loop.

  4. An Angus/Argo study of the neovolcanic zone along the East Pacific rise from the Clipperton fracture zone to 12°N (United States)

    Uchupi, E.; Schwab, W. C.; Ballard, R. D.; Cheminee, J. L.; Francheteau, J.; Hekinian, R.; Blackman, D. K.; Sigurdsson, H.


    Still photographs and video images collected along the Neovolcanic Zone of the East Pacific Rise from 10°15'N to 11°53'N show that recent volcanic sheet flows, possibly less than 100 years old, are superimposed on an older sediment-laden pillow terrane. This recent activity is restricted to a narrow zone that crosses two topographic highs at 10°55'N and 11°26'N and diminishes along-axis away from these highs. The association of recent sheet flows with older flows and collapse structures on the overlapping spreading centers at 11°45'N supports the evolutionary model for the occurrence and evolution of overlapping spreading centers by MacDonald and others (1986, 1988).

  5. Feasible Metabolic Schema Associated with High pH Springs in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A field campaign targeting high pH springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to evaluate feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms.

  6. High and Low Temperature Gold Mineralizations in the Fe–Cu–Zn Sulfide Deposits of Corchia Ophiolite, Northern Italian Apennine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccarini Federica


    Full Text Available Gold has been found in the Cyprus-type volcanogenic massive sulfide ore (VMS deposits of Corchia ophiolite (Parma province, Italy in the Cantiere Donnini, Speranza and Pozzo mining sites. At Cantiere Donnini and Speranza, the mineralization occurs at the contact between pillow lava and sedimentary rocks. The Pozzo mineralization is hosted by a serpentinite. Concentrations of gold up to 3070 ppb have been reported for the Cantiere Donnini and up to 6295 ppb in the Pozzo mine. According to the field relationships, gold composition, mineralogical assemblage and sulfur isotope data, we can conclude that two different types of gold mineralization have been recognized in the Corchia ophiolite: (1 formed at low temperature in submarine environment (Cantiere Donnini and Speranza and (2 formed at high temperature in the oceanic mantle (Pozzo by segregation of an immiscible sulfide liquid.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL


    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  8. Integrated analysis system for box truss antenna mesh performance (United States)

    Bachtell, E. E.; Bettadapur, S. S.; Coyner, J. V.


    An integrated analysis system has been developed to more efficiently design and analyze the mesh reflective surface and the mesh tie system of the box truss antenna. Six integrated computer programs using nonlinear finite-element, surface topography and interpolation, and RF aperture integration techniques, analyze the effects of manufacturing errors, mesh pillowing, and operating environment on antenna performance. The level of rigor of analysis can be varied, providing the possibility of a lower cost preliminary study on various designs using a minimum number of reduced box section models. By including the random and systematic errors with the aperture integration of minimum rms reflector surface roughness, the RF Performance Solver determines the far-field pattern, including the beam efficiency, and thus the antenna performance of the mesh reflector antenna.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Savoia


    Full Text Available The Vision of Europe as knowledge-based society is funded on availability and application of knowledge in all segments of European life. Universities, as key provider of knowledge, and industry, as its largest consumer, are two pillows of this vision. Academic Institutions has a double role in provisioning of knowledge: "research" for creation of new knowledge and "education" as dissemination of current knowledge. In this investigation, a four-year cross-border collaboration is described, including strategy, mechanisms and tools adopted for supporting a wider cooperation between universities and industry. Background, challenges and concepts of long-term sustainability are also presented. Furthermore, a general overview of technical outcomes and advances, provided by a research and development joint action, thanks to this international cooperation, is illustrated. A deeper description regarding these technical investigations is proposed in the following articles of this Special Issue on "Wood: an Ancient Material for a Modern Quality".


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Lumbosacral meningomyelocele and hydrocephalus are two major congenital neurological defects in paediatric patients. METHODS We have discussed management of two cases, one of large meningomyelocele and second of massive hydrocephalus. Both cases were done successfully under general anaesthesia taking care of proper positioning. Child with meningomyelocele was positioned supine on two sand bags, creating a doughnut shaped depression to accommodate the meningomyelocele. Patient with hydrocephalus was placed on 25cms high pillow with head on a high head ring and an assistant’s hand supporting the head while intubation. RESULTS Major challenges for anaesthesiologist in these patients include airway management with proper positioning, replacement of blood and fluid losses and maintenance of body temperature.

  11. Activated charcoal suppresses breeding of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, in culture. (United States)

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Siebers, Robert; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian


    House dust mite sensitized asthmatics are advised to practice allergen avoidance. Charcoal pillows are used in Korea with unsubstantiated claims regarding their efficacy in alleviating asthma symptoms. We tested the effects of activated charcoal on breeding of house dust mites in culture. Twenty live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were inoculated, 10 replicates, on culture media containing 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% activated charcoal and incubated at 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 75%. After four weeks, the mean numbers of live house dust mites were 286, 176, 46, 16, 7, and 0 for the 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% charcoal-containing culture media, respectively. Thus, activated charcoal suppresses breeding of house dust mites and offers a new promising method for house dust mite control.

  12. U-series data of recent volcanism at an Axial Volcanic Ridge (Invited) (United States)

    van Calsteren, P. W.; Thomas, L. E.; Jc024 Shipboard Party


    The spreading rate of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, at the area around 45°N is 11mm/y. This is appropriate scaling for mantle horizontal flow and vertical upwelling. However, the accretion of oceanic crust within the median valley graben (MVG), occurs episodically on timescales much longer than years. During the 2008 JC024 cruise various geophysical and bathymetry datasets were collected as well as photographic and video evidence and some 270 rock samples, using ship-borne instruments, a deep-towed platform TOBI and a tethered ROV Isis both in demersal mode and 'flying' at 100m above the seafloor. We1 could identify the overall 'hour-glass' shape of the MVG, the location of the AVR, 'flat-top' features and some smooth areas on either side. Overall we1 counted some 8000 conical or dome-shaped hummocks, which are arranged in lineaments, mostly parallel to the spreading axis. We1 deduced that each hummock is an individual monogenetic volcano. Smooth areas between the AVR and the median valley boundary faults may indicate sheet flows which are probably burying the subsiding hummocks. For Dive 91, we1 used a MS2000 high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry echo-sounder on Isis flying at an altitude of 100m above the seafloor; to construct a bathymetry map with a vertical resolution of 20cm and a horizontal precision of 5m over an area of ˜3km2. The high-resolution bathymetry allows us to deduce that volcano dimensions average around 300m diameter, ˜150m altitude, and 0.005km3 volume and to count ˜100 volcanoes. Visual observations using the camera systems on Isis showed that individual volcanoes are essentially piles of pillow lavas, usually ˜1m diameter and >2m long of various types, sometimes leaving >10% gaps between pillows, sometimes interlocking somewhat deformed pillows. Small protrusions, 10-50cm long, which are numerous on some pillows, could be fairly easily broken off using the pincers on the hydraulic arms of Isis, and returned to the surface. Uncertainty remains

  13. Categorizing vitric lithofacies on seamounts: implications for recognizing deep-marine pyroclastic deposits (United States)

    Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.


    Glassy fragmental deposits commonly found capping seamounts have been variably interpreted as the products of quench-fragmentation (hyaloclastite), suppressed steam expansion, and/or explosive fire-fountains (pyroclastite). To better understand these vitriclastic deposits we use a multidisciplinary approach that outlines six lithofacies based on textures, sedimentary structures, geochemical diversity, and associations with seamount landforms. All seamounts studied yield MORB compositions and formed on or near mid-ocean ridge axes of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Consolidated deposits were sampled from the Taney (~29 Ma), President Jackson (~3 Ma), and Vance (~2 Ma) seamounts using ROV manipulator arms and dredge hauls. Unconsolidated deposits from the currently active Axial Seamount of the Juan de Fuca Ridge were sampled using ROV push core and vacuum techniques. Lithofacies occur with talus breccias and pillow basalt on steeply dipping outer flanks and caldera walls, and with pillow and sheet flows on subhorizontal rims and nested caldera floors of the seamounts. Vitric lithofacies within or near steeply dipping regions have very angular textures, coarse grain-sizes and abundant crystalline basalt fragments. Jig-saw fit texture is common in units with monomict geochemistry and closely associated with adjacent pillow basalt, suggesting in-situ fragmentation akin to pillow breccia. Similar units bearing polymodal geochemistry are generally associated with talus breccias along caldera walls and basal slopes, and are interpreted as fault-scarp derived debrites. Laterally these lithofacies abruptly grade into bottom-current reworked lithofacies on flat caldera floors. Reworked lithofacies have >40% muddy matrix with abundant angular mineral fragments, biogenic grains and minor devitrified glass shards. They typically exhibit well-defined planar lamination and locally show sinusoidal ripple forms. Horizontal burrows including Planolites are common. Locally this

  14. Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.


    The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

  15. Estructura y organización de las coladas submarinas: características de las lavas almohadilladas de edad cretácica que afloran en la Cordillera Vasco- Cantábrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, A.


    Full Text Available In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, an important submarine volcanic activity of alkaline character was developed during the upper Cretaceous. This vulcanism was related to a rift and/or transform fault in the continental crust associated to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. Pillow lava flows are noteworthy among the other volcanic materials by their volume and excellent preservation state. The lava flows are formed by the pile up of small flow-and cooling units, i.e. tubes or lava tubes, characterized by: i coarse cylindrical morphology with abundant constrictions, ii diameter less than 1 meter in a transversal section, iii smooth or striated surface, iv concentric and/or radial internal structure, and iv the branches and direction changes during the outflow. Lava flows/tubes shape and surface characteristics depend on the viscosity, effusion rate and the thickness of quenched crust during growth. The Tubes are moted directly on feeder dykes or are connected in tabular flows. The expanding and advancement of the tubes was the result of stretching or breaking of the quenched surface crust and spreading of the molten lava from the interior. Stretching features and cracks appear mainly at the flow front, but lobes of lava developed from the top and the flanks of the tubes are not uncommon. Only scarce pillowed lavas are truly isolated magma sacks separated from their sources. Related to the tabular flows and the biggest pillow lavas, some breccias were occasionally formed by the gravitational collapse of the roof of the draining tunnels.Durante el Cretácico superior se desarrolló en la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica una importante actividad volcánica submarina de naturaleza alcalina. Este vulcanismo estuvo relacionado con el funcionamiento de un rift y/o una falla transformante en corteza continental asociado a la apertura del Atlántico Norte. Entre los productos volcánicos destacan, por su notable volumen y excelente grado de preservación, las

  16. Metamorphic fluid flow in the northeastern part of the 3.8-3.7 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt (SW Greenland): A re-evalution of fluid inclusion evidence for early Archean seafloor-hydrothermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijlen, Wouter; Appel, P. W. U.; Frezzotti, M. L.;


    segregations showed that they were affected by variable recrystallization which controlled their fluid inclusion content. The oldest unaltered fluid inclusions found are present in vein crystals that survived dynamic and static recrystallization. These crystals contain a cogenetic, immiscible assemblage of CO2......-NaCl (0.2-3.7 eq. wt% NaCl.) These successive fluid inclusion assemblages record a retrograde P-T evolution close to a geothermal gradient of similar to 30 degrees C/km, but also indicate fluid pressure variations and the introduction of highly reducing fluids at similar to 200-300 degrees C and 0......Fluid inclusions in quartz globules and quartz veins of a 3.8-3.7 Ga old, well-preserved pillow lava breccia in the northeastern Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB) were studied using microthermometry, Raman spectrometry and SEM Cathodoluminescence Imaging. Petrographic study of the different quartz...

  17. Monitoring patients in hospital beds using unobtrusive depth sensors. (United States)

    Banerjee, Tanvi; Enayati, Moein; Keller, James M; Skubic, Marjorie; Popescu, Mihail; Rantz, Marilyn


    We present an approach for patient activity recognition in hospital rooms using depth data collected using a Kinect sensor. Depth sensors such as the Kinect ensure that activity segmentation is possible during day time as well as night while addressing the privacy concerns of patients. It also provides a technique to remotely monitor patients in a non-intrusive manner. An existing fall detection algorithm is currently generating fall alerts in several rooms in the University of Missouri Hospital (MUH). In this paper we describe a technique to reduce false alerts such as pillows falling off the bed or equipment movement. We do so by detecting the presence of the patient in the bed for the times when the fall alert is generated. We test our algorithm on 96 hours obtained in two hospital rooms from MUH.

  18. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole (United States)

    Morin, R.H.


    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  19. About the book by Riitta V. Lahtinen and Russ C. Palmer. The Body Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomatina I.V.


    Full Text Available The study carried out by a married couple, specialists in the sphere of deafblindness (one of whom has got an Usher syndrome, is devoted to the development of means of non-verbal communication and music perception for people with double sensory defect — deafblindness. Russ Palmer is a professional musician who had lost his hearing capacity under the influence of Usher syndrome. At present together with his wife he is inventing new ways of widening the contacts with the external world for people who found themselves in the same difficult situation. The authors of the book prove that any welfare item like a pillow or a toy balloon can sometimes dramatically change the situation for better.

  20. Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks in the Khabr-Marvast Tectonized Ophiolite: Evidence for Subduction Processes in the South-Western Margin of Central Iranian Microcontinent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Late Cretaceous Khabr-Marvast tectonized ophiolite is located in the middle part of the Nain-Baft ophiolite belt, at the south-western edge of the central Iranian microcontinent. Although all the volcanic rocks in the study area indicate subduction-related magmatism (e.g. high LILE (large ion lithophile elements)/ HFSE (high field strenght elements) ratios and negative anomalies in Nb and Ta), geological and geochemical data clearly distinguish two distinct groups of volcanic rocks in the tectonized association: (1) group 1 is comprised of hyaloclustic breccias, basaltic pillow iavas, and andesite sheet flows. These rocks represent the Nain-Baft oceanic crust; and (2) group 2 is alkaline iavas from the top section of the ophiolite suite. These lavas show shoshonite affinity, but do not support the propensity of ophiolite.

  1. [Advice for patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis: results of a representative patient survey in Germany]. (United States)

    Feldtkeller, E; Hammel, L; Brenneis, C; Song, I-H; Rudwaleit, M


    Following the diagnosis of a chronic disease like ankylosing spondylitis (AS), patients need extensive information on what to expect, how to behave and what they need to be aware of in particular in order to contribute to a favourable disease outcome. A questionnaire consisting of 82 questions regarding demographics, diagnosis, information received with the diagnosis, disease activity, function, quality of life, treatment, ability to work, smoking etc. was distributed to AS patients by rheumatologists in 51 hospitals and/or private practices. In addition, the questionnaire was sent to 3400 randomly selected members out of the 14,000 patient members of the German Ankylosing Spondylitis Society (Deutsche Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, DVMB). In all, 1068 DVMB members and 205 non-members responded to the survey. Almost all of these indicated that they had received at least one piece of information regarding what they should be particularly aware of, at the time of diagnosis. A total of 69% were informed about the need for daily exercise, 51% about the value of individual physiotherapy, 38% about the value of group physiotherapy, 37% about the need to maintain an upright posture, and 33% were recommended 3 weeks in a rehabilitation centre. Less than 30% were informed about appropriate sports, appropriate working conditions, suitable chairs, mattress, pillows etc., about the value of radon therapy or about joining a disease-specific patient organisation. To the question regarding what patients meanwhile consider as most important, daily exercise (50%) and sufficient movement at work and leisure (55%) were reported most frequently. Other aspects regarded as important to patients included a flat, firm mattress (53%), avoiding large pillows (42%), keeping an upright posture at work (38%), appropriate sports (36%), and an upright posture also when not at work (34%). Of the DVMB members, 46% had participated in disease-specific standardised patient education, compared with

  2. Isotopic contrasts within the Internal Liguride ophiolite (N. Italy): the lack of a genetic mantle-crust link (United States)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid


    It is widely accepted that oceanic lithosphere is generated by partial melting of fertile mantle peridotites producing basaltic melts and residual peridotites. This theory implies a cogenetic relationship between peridotites and associated crustal rocks, but the actual existence of such a genetic link has been tested in very few places. In this paper, we use Sr and Nd isotopes to test the relationship between mafic and ultramafic mantle rocks from a MORB-type ophiolite in the Internal Liguride Units of the Northern Apennines. This ophiolite is a remnant of the oceanic lithosphere of the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys, and consists of depleted mantle peridotites intruded by a gabbroic complex and covered by pillow lavas and ophiolitic breccias. Whole rocks and mineral separates from the gabbroic rocks yield a Sm-Nd isochron with an age of 164±14 Ma. The whole rock data for pillow lavas are also consistent with this isochron, yielding an initial value of ɛ Nd (164)=8.6±0.3 (1σ). The mantle peridotites, by contrast, have ɛ Nd(164) values ranging from 11.9 to 14.8, indicating an extreme depletion unlike that seen in modern oceanic mafic and ultramafic rocks. These results demonstrate that some ophiolites consist of mantle and crustal sections that are not genetically linked by a simple melt-residue relationship, and consequently do not represent mature oceanic lithosphere. Similar evidence has previously been available only from the Xigaze and Trinity ophiolites. The Internal Liguride peridotites yield Sm-Nd model ages of about 270 Ma, assuming a normally depleted mantle source with ɛ Nd = 9, indicating a Permian time of `extra' depletion. The ophiolite thus consists of mantle peridotites which were depleted during Permian time, and were later intruded and covered by MORB-type magmas during Jurassic time. On a regional scale, this interpretation is consistent with widespread evidence that extensional processes leading to asthenospheric upwelling and magma production

  3. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond


    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  4. Subduction-related oceanic crust in the Khantaishir ophiolite (western Mongolia). (United States)

    Gianola, O.; Schmidt, M. W.; Jagoutz, O. E.


    Most of the oceanic crust is generated at mid oceanic ridges and only a minor portion results from magmatism related to subduction zones (i.e. back-arc basins or in incipient arcs). However it has been observed that several ophiolites preserve an oceanic crust displaying a subduction zone signature. Such a signature is also found in the Khantaishir ophiolite located in western Mongolia. This ~570 m.y. old ophiolite is ~480 km2 in size and displays a complete sequence, tectonically slightly dismembered during the emplacement process. The ophiolite exposes ~130 km2 of highly refractory harzburgitic mantle with local dunite channels and lenses. Towards its top the mantle is replaced by sub-horizontal km-wide discrete zones of pyroxenites situated either in the mantle or forming a crust-mantle transition zone overlain by gabbros. The crust is then composed of various gabbros and minor gabbronorite (both in part replaced by pyroxenites and/or cut by intermediate dykes), by a dyke/sill-complex and by pillow lavas. The entire ophiolite is re-equilibrated at lower greenschist facies conditions. Major and trace elements of the crustal rocks of the Khantaishir ophiolite show trends similar to those observed for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Mafic dykes/sills and pillow lavas of the Khantaishir ophiolite have overall basaltic-andesite compositions, resembling high-Mg andesites with an average SiO2 of 57 wt%. Their low TiO2 (high-Mg andesites and boninites from modern island arcs. This evidence suggests that the Kantaishir crust might represent the submarine initial stage of an incipient arc, probably when the preexisting oceanic crust is spread and incipient island arc crust is formed.

  5. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  6. Indian Ocean-MORB-type isotopic signature of Yushigou ophiolite in North Qilian Mountains and its implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qingye; ZHAO Zhidan; ZHANG Hongfei; ZHANG Benren; CHEN Yuelong


    In order to explore the disputed issue concerning the tectonic affinity of the ancient ocean mantle of North Qilian Mountains (NQM), geochemical and Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic compositions of pillow basalts of the Yushigou Ophiolite (YSGO) suite from NQM have been analyzed systematically. The pillow basalts exhibit tholeiitic characteristics, with flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 0.98―1.27). They display no Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf negative anomalies, and show MORB features in 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and Ti/100-Zr-Y×3 tectonic discrimination diagrams. These results indicate that the Yushigou ophiolite is most likely to be formed in a mid-ocean ridge or mature back-arc basin. Their isotopic data show a relatively broad and enriched 87Sr/86Sr (0.70509―0.70700), restricted 143Nd/144Nd (0.512955―0.512978). Pb isotopes are in the range of 206Pb/204Pb (18.054―20.562), 207Pb/204Pb (15.537―15.743) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.068―38.530). These isotopic data imply that the basalts originated from the depleted mantle (DMM), with the involvement of enriched mantle components (mainly EMII). Geochemical comparisons between the basalts in YSGO and the MORB-type basalts of ophiolite suites occurring in the known ancient Tethyan tectonic domain indicate that the ancient oceanic mantle represented by YSGO suite forming in early Paleozoic in the North Qilian Moutains is very similar to the Tethyan mantle in both trace elements and isotopic compositions. The North Qilian Mountains should be a part of the Tethyan tectonic domain in early Paleozoic. This further implies that the Tethyan tectonic domain can be deduced to early Paleozoic in the study area, which will be helpful to discussing the tectonic affinity and evolution of the North Qilian Mountains.

  7. Validating reconstruction of snow water equivalent in California's Sierra Nevada using measurements from the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory (United States)

    Bair, Edward H.; Rittger, Karl; Davis, Robert E.; Painter, Thomas H.; Dozier, Jeff


    Accurately estimating basin-wide snow water equivalent (SWE) is the most important unsolved problem in mountain hydrology. Models that rely on remotely sensed inputs are especially needed in ranges with few surface measurements. The NASA Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) provides estimates of SWE at 50 m spatial resolution in several basins across the Western U.S. during the melt season. Primarily, water managers use this information to forecast snowmelt runoff into reservoirs; another impactful use of ASO measurements lies in validating and improving satellite-based snow estimates or models that can scale to whole mountain ranges, even those without ground-based measurements. We compare ASO measurements from 2013 to 2015 to four methods that estimate spatially distributed SWE: two versions of a SWE reconstruction method, spatial interpolation from snow pillows and courses, and NOAA's Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS). SWE reconstruction downscales energy forcings to compute potential melt, then multiplies those values by satellite-derived estimates of fractional snow-covered area to calculate snowmelt. The snowpack is then built in reverse from the date the snow is observed to disappear. The two SWE reconstruction models tested include one that employs an energy balance calculation of snowmelt, and one that combines net radiation and degree-day approaches to estimate melt. Our full energy balance model, without ground observations, performed slightly better than spatial interpolation from snow pillows, having no systematic bias and 26% mean absolute error when compared to SWE from ASO. Both reconstruction models and interpolation were more accurate than SNODAS.

  8. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashima Saikia; Bibhuti Gogoi; Mansoor Ahmad; Talat Ahmad


    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, crosscutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  9. Paleo-Pacific subduction-accretion: Evidence from Geochemical and U-Pb zircon dating of the Nadanhada accretionary complex, NE China (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Bo; Cao, Jia-Lin; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Bin


    The Nadanhada Terrane, located along the eastern margin of Eurasia, contains a typical accretionary complex related to paleo-Pacific plate subduction-accretion. The Yuejinshan Complex is the first stage accretion complex that consists of meta-clastic rocks and metamafic-ultramafic rocks, whereas the Raohe Complex forms the main parts of the terrane and consists of limestone, bedded chert, and mafic-ultramafic rocks embedded as olistolith blocks in a weakly sheared matrix of clastic meta-sedimentary rocks. Geochemical data indicate that the Yuejinshan metabasalts have normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) affinity, whereas the Raohe basaltic pillow lavas have an affinity to ocean island basalts (OIB). Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon analyses of gabbro in the Raohe Complex yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age of 216 ± 5 Ma, whereas two samples of granite intruded into the complex yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon ages of 128 ± 2 and 129 ± 2 Ma. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) U-Pb zircon analyses of basaltic pillow lava in the Raohe Complex define a weighted mean age of 167 ± 1 Ma. Two sandstone samples in the Raohe Complex record younger concordant zircon weighted mean ages of 167 ± 17 and 137 ± 3 Ma. These new data support the view that accretion of the Raohe Complex was between 170 and 137 Ma, and that final emplacement of the Raohe Complex took place at 137-130 Ma. The accretion of the Yuejinshan Complex probably occurred between the 210 and 180 Ma, suggesting that paleo-Pacific plate subduction was initiated in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

  10. Alteration of Crystalline and Glassy Basaltic Protolith by Seawater as Recorded by Drill Core and Drill Cutting Samples (United States)

    Fowler, A. P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.


    The major and trace element composition of hydrothermally altered basaltic drill core and drill cutting samples from the seawater recharged Reykjanes geothermal system in Iceland are compared to unaltered surface flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula compiled from the literature. Trace element characteristics of deep (>2000 m) core samples record bimodal compositions similar to trace element enriched and trace element depleted Reykjanes Ridge basalts. Drill cuttings (350-3000 m) overwhelmingly reflect the more common trace element enriched igneous precursor. Crystalline protoliths (dolerite dykes and pillow lava cores) are depleted in Cs, Rb, K, and Ba (± Pb and Th) relative to an unaltered equivalent, despite variations in the extent of alteration ranging from from minor chloritization with intact igneous precursor minerals through to extensive chloritization and uralitization. Glassy protoliths (dyke margins, pillow edges, and hyaloclastites) show similar depletions of Cs, Rb, K, and Ba, but also show selective depletions of the light rare earth elements (LREE) La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Eu due to extensive recrystallization to hydrothermal hornblende. Lower grade alteration shows less pronounced decoupling of LREE and is likely controlled by a combination of Cl complexation in the seawater-derived recharge fluid, moderated by anhydrite and epidote precipitation. These results suggest that alteration of glassy protolith in seawater-recharged systems is an important contribution to the consistently light rare earth and Eu enriched patterns observed in seafloor hydrothermal fluids from basaltic systems. An important conclusion of this study is that that drill cuttings samples are strongly biased toward unaltered rock and more resistant alteration minerals including epidote and quartz potentially resulting in misidentification of lithology and extent of alteration.

  11. HSDP II Drill Core: Preliminary Rock Strength Results and Implications to Flank Stability, Mauna Kea Volcano (United States)

    Thompson, N.; Watters, R. J.; Schiffman, P.


    Selected portions of the 3-km HSDP II core were tested to provide unconfined rock strength data from hyaloclastite alteration zones and pillow lavas. Though the drilling project was not originally intended for strength purpose, it is believed the core can provide unique rock strength insights into the flank stability of the Hawaiian Islands. The testing showed that very weak rock exists in the hyaloclastite abundant zones in the lower 2-km of the core with strength dependent on the degree of consolidation and type of alteration. Walton and Schiffman identified three zones of alteration, an upper incipient alteration zone (1080-1335m), a smectitic zone (1405-1573m) and a lower palagonitic zone from about 1573 m to the base of the core. These three zones were sampled and tested together with pillow lava horizons for comparison. Traditional cylindrical core was not available as a consequence of the entire core having been split lengthwise for archival purposes. Hence, point load strength testing was utilized which provides the unconfined compressive strength on irregular shaped samples. The lowest unconfined strengths were recorded from incipient alteration zones with a mean value of 9.5 MPa. Smectitic alteration zones yielded mean values of 16.4 MPa, with the highest measured alteration strengths from the palagonite zones with a mean value of 32.1 MPa. As anticipated, the highest strengths were from essentially unaltered lavas with a mean value of 173 MPa. Strength variations of between one to two orders of magnitude were identified in comparing the submarine hyaloclastite with the intercalated submarine lavas. The weakest zones within the hyaloclastites may provide horizons for assisting flank collapse by serving as potential thrust zones and landslide surfaces.

  12. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation - Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates (United States)

    Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Rice, F. J.; Kraft, N. C.; Taylor, S. C.; Lillo, M.; Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G. A.


    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008-2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm2 peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm3 peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  13. Volcano-sedimentary processes operating on a marginal continental arc: the Archean Raquette Lake Formation, Slave Province, Canada (United States)

    Mueller, W. U.; Corcoran, P. L.


    The 200-m thick, volcano-sedimentary Raquette Lake Formation, located in the south-central Archean Slave Province, represents a remnant arc segment floored by continental crust. The formation overlies the gneissic Sleepy Dragon Complex unconformably, is laterally interstratified with subaqueous mafic basalts of the Cameron River volcanic belt, and is considered the proximal equivalent of the turbidite-dominated Burwash Formation. A continuum of events associated with volcanism and sedimentation, and controlled by extensional tectonics, is advocated. A complex stratigraphy with three volcanic and three sedimentary lithofacies constitute the volcano-sedimentary succession. The volcanic lithofacies include: (1) a mafic volcanic lithofacies composed of subaqueous pillow-pillow breccia, and subaerial massive to blocky flows, (2) a felsic volcanic lithofacies representing felsic flows that were deposited in a subaerial environment, and (3) a felsic volcanic sandstone lithofacies interpreted as shallow-water, wave- and storm-reworked pyroclastic debris derived from explosive eruptions. The sedimentary lithofacies are represented by: (1) a conglomerate-sandstone lithofacies consistent with unconfined debris flow, hyperconcentrated flood flow and talus scree deposits, as well as minor high-energy stream flow conglomerates that formed coalescing, steep-sloped, coarse-clastic fan deltas, (2) a sandstone lithofacies, interpreted as hyperconcentrated flood flow deposits that accumulated at the subaerial-subaqueous interface, and (3) a mudstone lithofacies consistent with suspension sedimentation in a small restricted lagoon-type setting. The Raquette Lake Formation is interpreted as a fringing continental arc that displays both high-energy clastic sedimentation and contemporaneous effusive and explosive mafic and felsic volcanism. Modern analogues that develop along active plate margins in which continental crust plays a significant role include Japan and the Baja California

  14. Deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts with high mechanical contrasts. Core analysis revealing strain concentrations and the development of fracturing and folding into a tectonic mélange. (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    In fully developed evaporite cycles, effective viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude are possible between different layers, but the structures and mechanics in evaporites with such extreme mechanical stratification are not well understood. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt We analyzed a unique carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) - and bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) - rich drill core from the Zechstein III-1b subunit in the Veendam Pillow in the Netherlands, which has a complex tectonic history with multiple phases of extension and compression as shown by seismic reflection data. Salt withdrawal followed by convergent flow into the salt pillow produced ruptures and folds in the underlying ZIII- Anhydrite-Carbonate Stringer and formed the outer shape of the soft ZIII-1b layer. The slabbed core was analyzed by macroscale photography, bulk chemical methods, XRD and optical microscopy. Results show high strain in the weaker bischofite- and carnallite- rich layers, with associated dynamic recrystallization at very low differential stress, completely overprinting the original texture. Stronger layers formed by alternating beds of halite and carnallite show complex recumbent folding on different scales commonly interrupted by sub-horizontal shear zones with brittle deformation, veins and boudinage. We attribute this tectonic fragmentation to be associated with a softening of the complete ZIII-1b subunit during its deformation. The result is a tectonic mélange with cm - to 10m size blocks with internal folds and boudinage. We infer that these structures and

  15. Lithologic Controls on Structure Highlight the Role of Fluids in Failure of a Franciscan Complex Accretionary Prism Thrust Fault (United States)

    Bartram, H.; Tobin, H. J.; Goodwin, L. B.


    Plate-bounding subduction zone thrust systems are the source of major earthquakes and tsunamis, but their mechanics and internal structure remain poorly understood and relatively little-studied compared to faults in continental crust. Exposures in exhumed accretionary wedges present an opportunity to study seismogenic subduction thrusts in detail. In the Marin Headlands, a series of thrusts imbricates mechanically distinct lithologic units of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex including pillow basalt, radiolarian chert, black mudstone, and turbidites. We examine variations in distribution and character of structure and vein occurrence in two exposures of the Rodeo Cove thrust, a fossil plate boundary exposed in the Marin Headlands. We observe a lithologic control on the degree and nature of fault localization. At Black Sand Beach, deformation is localized in broad fault cores of sheared black mudstone. Altered basalts, thrust over greywacke, mudstone, and chert, retain their coherence and pillow structures. Veins are only locally present. In contrast, mudstone is virtually absent from the exposure 2 km away at Rodeo Beach. At this location, deformation is concentrated in the altered basalts, which display evidence of extensive vein-rock interaction. Altered basalts exhibit a pervasive foliation, which is locally disrupted by both foliation-parallel and cross-cutting carbonate-filled veins and carbonate cemented breccia. Veins are voluminous (~50%) at this location. All the structures are cut by anastomosing brittle shear zones of foliated cataclasite or gouge. Analyses of vein chemistry will allow us to compare the sources of fluids that precipitated the common vein sets at Rodeo Beach to the locally developed veins at Black Sand Beach. These observations lead us to hypothesize that in the absence of a mechanically weak lithology, elevated pore fluid pressure is required for shear failure. If so, the vein-rich altered basalt at Rodeo Beach may record failure of an

  16. Young Volcanism on 20 Million Year Old Seafloor: The DISCOL Area, Nazca Plate. (United States)

    Devey, C. W.; Boetius, A.; Kwasnitschka, T.; Augustin, N.; Yeo, I. A.; Greinert, J.


    Volcanism in the ocean basins is traditionally assumed to occur only at the plate margins (mid-ocean ridges, subduction zones, possibly also transform boundaries) and areas of intraplate hotspot activity related to thermal plumes in the mantle. As a result, abyssal areas away from hotspots are seldom explored systematically for signs of volcanism and are generally regarded as volcanically "dead". Here we present serendipitous results from the Peru Basin, a site of Mn-nodule accumulation which was targetted in 1989 for a large-scale disturbance experiment (the DISCOL experiment) to simulate the effects of seabed nodule mining. The area is truly intraplate - it is 700 km from the south American subduction zone or the Galapagos Islands and 2000 km from the East Pacific Rise. A return trip to DISCOL in 2015 to assess the extent of environmental recovery also included a remotely-operated underwater vehicle (ROV) dive on a small (300m high) seamount adjacent to the Mn-nodule field. ROV video records show the seamount is generally heavily sedimented but has a small (100x150m) pillow mound and an area of indurated calcareous sediments apparently cut by basaltic dykes near its summit. The summit is also cut by N-S and E-W-trending faults, some with up to 20m of throw, whose scarps expose thick sedimentary sequences. The virtual absence of sediment covering the pillows or dyke outcrops suggest that they are very recent - the thick sediment pile exposed on the fault scarps suggests that they were erupted on top of an old seamount. Regionally, acoustic data (bathymetry and backscatter from the ship-mounted multibeam system) shows several other seamounts in the region which may have experienced recent volcanic activity, although no sign of a linear volcanic chain is seen. Taken together, these observations suggest that, even at age 20Ma, the Nazca Plate is volcanically active.

  17. Prevention of Heel Pressure Injuries and Plantar Flexion Contractures With Use of a Heel Protector in High-Risk Neurotrauma, Medical, and Surgical Intensive Care Units: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Meyers, Tina

    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a heel protector to standard of care (pillows) in the prevention of hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPI) of the heels and prevention of plantar flexion contractures. Randomized controlled trial. The study took place on a surgical intensive care unit, medical intensive care unit, and neurotrauma intensive care unit. Inclusion criteria were a minimum of 5 days of sedation related to care for a critical illness, immobility for 6 to 8 hours before study initiation, a Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk score 18 or less, and a mobility subscale score 2 or less. Patients were included if they had preexisting heel pressure injury or plantar flexion contracture. The sample comprised 54 subjects; 37 were randomly allocated to the intervention group and 17 to the control group. Their average age-mean (standard deviation)-was 40.7 (14.96) years in the control group and 44.6 (17.15) years in the intervention group. Data were collected from patients' electronic medical records. We recorded subject demographics, presence of diabetes mellitus or peripheral vascular disease, Glasgow Coma Scale scores (every shift), Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk scores (every shift), heel skin assessments (every shift), goniometric measurements (every other day), and adverse events (every shift). Assessments and measurements were continued until the patient was discharged from the study. None of the patients in the intervention group developed HAPI of the heels, as compared to 7 in the control group (0% vs 41%, P prevention of HAPI of the heel and contractures as compared to standard care using pillows to position the heel and redistribute pressure.

  18. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (United States)

    Saikia, Ashima; Gogoi, Bibhuti; Ahmad, Mansoor; Ahmad, Talat


    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, cross-cutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  19. Relief and Recurrence of Congestion During and After Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure: Insights From Diuretic Optimization Strategy Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) and Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (CARESS-HF). (United States)

    Lala, Anuradha; McNulty, Steven E; Mentz, Robert J; Dunlay, Shannon M; Vader, Justin M; AbouEzzeddine, Omar F; DeVore, Adam D; Khazanie, Prateeti; Redfield, Margaret M; Goldsmith, Steven R; Bart, Bradley A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Felker, G Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Stevenson, Lynne W


    Congestion is the most frequent cause for hospitalization in acute decompensated heart failure. Although decongestion is a major goal of acute therapy, it is unclear how the clinical components of congestion (eg, peripheral edema, orthopnea) contribute to outcomes after discharge or how well decongestion is maintained. A post hoc analysis was performed of 496 patients enrolled in the Diuretic Optimization Strategy Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) and Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (CARRESS-HF) trials during hospitalization with acute decompensated heart failure and clinical congestion. A simple orthodema congestion score was generated based on symptoms of orthopnea (≥2 pillows=2 points, <2 pillows=0 points) and peripheral edema (trace=0 points, moderate=1 point, severe=2 points) at baseline, discharge, and 60-day follow-up. Orthodema scores were classified as absent (score of 0), low-grade (score of 1-2), and high-grade (score of 3-4), and the association with death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled medical visits through 60 days was assessed. At baseline, 65% of patients had high-grade orthodema and 35% had low-grade orthodema. At discharge, 52% patients were free from orthodema at discharge (score=0) and these patients had lower 60-day rates of death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled visits (50%) compared with those with low-grade or high-grade orthodema (52% and 68%, respectively; P=0.038). Of the patients without orthodema at discharge, 27% relapsed to low-grade orthodema and 38% to high-grade orthodema at 60-day follow-up. Increased severity of congestion by a simple orthodema assessment is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite intent to relieve congestion, current therapy often fails to relieve orthodema during hospitalization or to prevent recurrence after discharge. URL: Unique identifiers: NCT00608491, NCT00577135. © 2015 American Heart

  20. Relief and Recurrence of Congestion During and After Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure: Insights from DOSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF (United States)

    Lala, Anuradha; McNulty, Steven E.; Mentz, Robert J.; Dunlay, Shannon; Vader, Justin M.; AbouEzzeddine, Omar F.; DeVore, Adam D.; Khazanie, Prateeti; Redfield, Margaret M.; Goldsmith, Steven R.; Bart, Bradley A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Felker, Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stevenson, Lynne W.


    Background Congestion is the most frequent cause for hospitalization in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Although decongestion is a major goal of acute therapy, it is unclear how the clinical components of congestion (e.g., peripheral edema, orthopnea) contribute to outcomes after discharge or how well decongestion is maintained. Methods and Results A post-hoc analysis was performed of 496 patients enrolled in the DOSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF trials during hospitalization with ADHF and clinical congestion. A simple “orthodema” congestion score was generated based on symptoms of orthopnea (≥2 pillows=2 points, <2 pillows=0 points) and peripheral edema (trace=0 points, moderate=1 point, severe=2 points) at baseline, discharge, and 60-day follow-up. Orthodema scores were classified as absent (score of 0), low-grade (score of 1–2), and high-grade (score of 3–4), and the association with death, rehospitalization or unscheduled medical visits through 60 days was assessed. At baseline, 65% of patients had high-grade orthodema and 35% had low-grade orthodema. At discharge, 52% patients were free from orthodema at discharge (score = 0) and these patients had lower 60-day rates of death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled visits (50%) compared to those with low-grade or high-grade orthodema (52% and 68%, respectively, p=0.038). Of the patients without orthodema at discharge, 27% relapsed to low-grade orthodema and 38% to high-grade orthodema at 60-day follow-up. Conclusions Increased severity of congestion by a simple orthodema assessment is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite intent to relieve congestion, current therapy often fails to relieve orthodema during hospitalization or to prevent recurrence after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration URL: Unique identifiers: NCT00608491, NCT00577135. PMID:26041600

  1. Application of airborne LiDAR to the detailed geological mapping of mineralised terrain: the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus (United States)

    Grebby, S.; Cunningham, D.; Naden, J.; Tansey, K.


    forest cover. To examine the efficacy of LiDAR in mineral exploration, an airborne survey was flown over approximately 375 km2 of the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus—a region noted for its volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS)-style mineralisation. Although most commonly found at the Lower Pillow Lava-Upper Pillow Lava interface, sulphide mineralisation occurs throughout the pillow lava sequence. Therefore, accurate identification of geological contacts is a key parameter for VMS exploration in the Troodos complex. However, the existing geological maps, produced using a combination of conventional field mapping and aerial photograph interpretation, have significant differences and do not adequately represent the geological complexity in high detail. In this study, we present a semi-automated algorithm for the detailed lithological mapping of a 16 km2 study area using high-resolution (4 m) airborne LiDAR topographic data in which non-ground features such as trees and buildings have been removed (i.e., bare-earth). Differences in the geomorphological characteristics of each major lithological unit result in each unit having a distinctive topographic signature in the bare-earth LiDAR DEM. Thematic maps (slope, curvature and surface roughness) are derived from the LiDAR DEM in order to quantify the topographic signatures associated with each lithological unit. With the thematic maps as the input layers, Kohonen's Self-Organising Map is used as a supervised artificial neural network to assign each pixel to a lithology to produce a geological map. The algorithm successfully identifies the major lithological units—Basal Group (> 50 % dykes and < 50 % pillow lavas), pillow lavas, alluvium and Lefkara Formation (chalks and marls)—in excellent detail and highlights geological features to a 20 m resolution. Although the ability to distinguish between lithologies in some areas is affected by anthropogenic activity (e.g., farming), the resultant lithological map easily surpasses the

  2. Archean hydrothermal oceanic floor sedimentary environments: DXCL drilling project of the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, Pilbara, Australia (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Suganuma, Y.


    Many place in Archean greenstone belts have been reported of the black chert to Iron rich sediments above volcanic sequence. The chemical sedimentary sequence has been recognized to form by as hydrothermal siliceous sequence. These sediments contain the hint to understand the Archean ocean and earth surface environments. Here, we will focus the Dixon Island and Cleaverville formations, which are one of the best preserved Archean hydrothermal sedimentary sequence in the world, to recognized detail stratigraphy and restored deep ocean environment. We did scientific drilling, which is called ‘DXCL drilling project’, at 2007 summer. This drilling project had been selected two coastal sites; CL site at lower part of the Cleaverville Formation, and another is DX site at the upper Dixon Island Formation. A systematic combinations of geological, sedimentological, geochemical, and geobiological approaches will be applied to the fresh samples. Here we will show the recent result of this sequence, which will be key evidence to understand the nature of the middle Archean (3.2 Ga) marine environment influenced by hydrothermal activity. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island -Cleaverville formations composed of volcanic rock units and chemical-volcanosedimentary sequence which are identified by accreted immature island arc setting. The ~350m-thick Dixon Island Formation which is overlie by pillow basalt consists mainly of highly silicified volcanic-siliceous sequences that contain apparent microbial mats and bacterial fossil-like structure within black chert and also includes a komatiite-rhyolite sequences bearing hydrothermal veins. The >300m-thick Cleaverville Formation, which conformably overlay pillow basalt, contains a thick unit of reddish shale, bedded red-white chert and banded iron formation. It partly contains chert fragments-bearing pyroclastic beds. In detail lithology from the drill cores, the CL and DX contain different type of organic rocks. The CL 1 and CL2 core samples

  3. Earthquake-related Tectonic Deformation of Soft-sediments and Its Constraints on Basin Tectonic Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hongbo; ZHANG Yuxu; ZHANG Qiling; XIAO Jiafei


    The authors introduced two kinds of newly found soft-sediment deformation-syn-sedimentary extension structure and syn-sedimentary compression structure, and discuss their origins and constraints on basin tectonic evolution. One representative of the syn-sedimentary extension structure is syn-sedimentary boudinage structure, while the typical example of the syn-sedimentary compression structure is compression sand pillows or compression wrinkles. The former shows NW-SE-trending contemporaneous extension events related to earthquakes in the rift basin near a famous Fe-Nb-REE deposit in northern China during the Early Paleozoic (or Mesoproterozoic as proposed by some researches), while the latter indicates NE-SW-trending contemporaneous compression activities related to earthquakes in the Middle Triassic in the Nanpanjiang remnant basin covering south Guizhou, northwestern Guangxi and eastern Yunnan in southwestern China. The syn-sedimentary boudinage structure was found in an earthquake slump block in the lower part of the Early Paleozoic Sailinhudong Group, 20 km to the southeast of Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, north of China. The slump block is composed of two kinds of very thin layers-pale-gray micrite (microcrystalline limestone) of 1-2 cm thick interbedded with gray muddy micrite layers with the similar thickness. Almost every thin muddy micrite layer was cut into imbricate blocks or boudins by abundant tiny contemporaneous faults, while the interbedded micrite remain in continuity. Boudins form as a response to layer-parallel extension (and/or layer-perpendicular flattening) of stiff layers enveloped top and bottom by mechanically soft layers. In this case, the imbricate blocks cut by the tiny contemporaneous faults are the result of abrupt horizontal extension of the crust in the SE-NW direction accompanied with earthquakes. Thus, the rock block is, in fact, a kind of seismites. The syn-sedimentary boudins indicate that there was at least a strong earthquake

  4. Geology of the Alarcón Rise Based on 1-m Resolution Bathymetry and ROV Observations and Sampling (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.; Portner, R. A.; Bowles, J. A.; Castillo, P. R.; Dreyer, B. M.; Guardado-France, R.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Rivera-Huerta, H.; Santa Rosa-del Rio, M.; Spelz-Madero, R.


    Alarcón Rise is a ~50 km-long segment of the northernmost East Pacific Rise, bounded on the north and south by the Pescadero and Tamayo Fracture Zones. In April 2012, the MBARI AUV D. Allan B. completed a 1.5-3.1-km wide bathymetric map along the neovolcanic zone between the two fracture zones during 10 surveys. A single AUV survey was also completed on Alarcón Seamount, a near-ridge seamount with 4 offset calderas. Bathymetric data have 1 m lateral and 0.2 m vertical resolution. The maps guided 8 dives of the ROV Doc Ricketts on the ridge and 1 on the seamount. The morphology of the rise changes dramatically along strike and includes an inflated zone, centered ~14 km from the southern end, paved by a young sheet flow erupted from an 8-km-long en echelon fissure system. A young flat-topped volcano and an older shield volcano occur near the center of the ridge segment. Areas nearer the fracture zones are mainly pillow mounds and ridges, some strongly cut by faults and fissures, but others have few structural disruptions. More than 150 of the 194 lava samples recovered from the neovolcanic zone are aphyric to plagioclase-phyric to ultraphyric N-MORB with glass MgO ranging up to 8.5%. The basal cm from 87 short cores contain common limu o Pele and adequate foramifers to provide minimum radiocarbon ages for the underlying lava flows. A rugged lava dome of rhyolite (based on glass compositions) is surrounded by large pillow flows of dacite, centered ~8 km from the north end of the Rise. Pillow flows are steeply uptilted for 2-3 km north and south of the dome, possibly reflecting intrusion of viscous rhyolitic dikes along strike. Near the southern end of this deformed zone, an andesite flow crops out in a fault scarp. Mapping data also reveal the presence of about 110 apparent hydrothermal chimney structures as tall as 18 m, scattered along roughly the central half of the Rise. Subsequent ROV dives observed 70 of these structures and found active venting at 22 of them

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Flank Stability Appraised From Strength Testing the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's (HSDP) 3.1-km Drill Core (United States)

    Thompson, N.; Watters, R. J.; Schiffman, P.


    the means of the basaltic flows, intrusive and pillow lava values. The test results imply that shallow rotational slumps that develop within the upper few kilometers of spreading Hawai'ian volcanoes within low strength, poorly-consolidated, smectite-rich hyaloclastites are similar to those we have found from the incipient and smectitic alteration zones of the HSDP cores. Deeper slumps might be directed through over-pressured pillow lava units as a result of the stronger pillow lava units permitting deeper failure surfaces to develop. Petrographically the Mauna Kea hyaloclastites appear similar to those from actively spreading Hawai'ian shield volcanoes. Alteration processes apparently affect the strength of these hyaloclastites. In the shallower zones of incipient and smectitic alteration, hyaloclastites generally retain their high primary porosities. In the deeper, palagonitic zone of alteration, the hyaloclastites gain both compressive and shear strength, primarily through consolidation and zeolitic cementation. The marked strength contrast between hyaloclastites, and the lavas that overlie and underlie them is significant, and may be a primary factor in localizing the destabilization of the flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes.

  6. 神经内科多重感染患者病原学及其病房环境特征的分析%Etiology and indoor environment characteristics of multiple-infection patients in neurological department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段海丽; 元小冬; 许亚茹


    目的 通过对神经内科住院患者多重感染的病原学及其病房环境主要微生物学特征的分析,有针对性地进行预防与控制医院感染的发生.方法 选取2009年4月-2010年9月某三甲医院神经内科住院患者为监测对象,对发生感染患者进行病原学检查,并对其所住病房的空气和床单位等进行微生物学监测.结果 神经内科住院患者2481例中感染110例占4.43%,多重感染42例,占感染患者的38.18%;以下呼吸道感染为主占76.92%;检出病原菌主要为铜绿假单胞菌占24.73%、肺炎克雷伯菌占19.35%;病房空气和床单位中以藤黄微球菌、表皮葡萄球菌等革兰阳性球菌为主,并检测到大肠埃希菌、鲍氏不动杆菌等少量条件致病菌;其中3例多重感染患者,在病房的空气、枕头、棉被中同时检测出表皮葡萄球菌,1例多重感染患者同时检测到大肠埃希菌.结论 神经内科多重感染患者的病原菌和病房空气及床单位中微生物分布具有明显的一致性,病房空气及床单位环境中的微生物是医院感染的主要病原菌.%OBJECTIVE To prevent and control nosocomial infection by analyzing characteristics of etiology and microbiology in indoor environment of patients complicating multiple infections in neurological department. METHODS The inpatients in neurological department in a hospitals from Apr 2009 to Sep 2010 were studied. The etiological examination for patients with infection and microbiological monitoring for the air and drapes (pillow, quilt) were performed. RESULTS Of 2481 inpatients in department of neurology, totally 110 cases were found with infection, and the infection rate was 4. 43%. Of the 110 cases, 42 cases were found with multiple infections, accounting for 38. 18% of the infection patients. Low respiratory tract (76. 92%) was the major infection site. The main pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24. 73%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (19. 35

  7. Surgical treatment of Chiari malformation and discussion of related questions%Chiari畸形的外科治疗及相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 刘宏毅; 章文斌; 邹元杰


    Objective To study the surgical treatment of the Chiari malformation and relevant clinical problems. Methods The clinical data of 35 patients with Chiari malformation ,in whom 26 with syringomyelia were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were operated after posterior fossa decompression, C1 bow decompression, pillow big pool expand forming, cerebellar tonsillar next hernia dissection or electricity coagulation resection. Results All patients were followed up from 1to 4 years. The clinical symptoms were ameliorated and dynamic review images were obtained a good result. Conclusion According to the clinical symptoms and radiologic features, personalized choices in the posterior fossa decompression of big or small bone window, pillow big pool expand forming and and resection of downward hernia of cerebellar tonilar were an effective method in the surgical treatment of Chiari malformation.%目的 探讨Chiari 畸形的外科手术治疗和相关临床问题.方法 回顾分析35 例Chiari 畸形(26 例合并脊髓空洞)的外科治疗经验.全部病例均行后颅窝减压,C1 后弓减压,枕大池扩大成形,小脑扁桃体下疝切除术或电灼术.结果 全部病例随访6 个月~ 4 年,获得不同程度的临床症状改善,动态复查影像均获得良好的效果.结论 Chiari 畸形的外科治疗中根据临床症状和影像特点,个性化的选择行后颅窝大或小的骨窗减压,枕大池扩大成形和小脑扁桃体下疝切除手术治疗,是处理该种畸形获得临床疗效的好方法.

  8. ONB疗法对青少年CHE患者认知功能改善的临床研究%Clinical research of occipital nerve block in improving cognitive function of adolescents with neck source headache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广敬; 张建中


    目的:观察枕神经阻滞(ONB)治疗青少年颈源性头痛(CHE)的效果及安全性,并分析治疗前后患者认知功能的改善情况。方法选择近10年就诊的青少年颈源性头痛患者60例,其中A组30例患者采用枕神经阻滞并常规药物及理疗, B组30例患者采用常规药物治疗及理疗。并在本市一中学随机抽取正常儿童30例作为对照组C组。结果在治疗后, A、B两组在认知功能及精神状况上均比治疗前有明显改善,与C组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<005);A组满意度较B组好。结论适度进行枕神经阻滞对青少年颈源性头痛有着较好的临床价值,值得在临床上推广应用。%Objective To observe the effect and safety of occipital nerve block (ONB) in the treatment of adolescents neck source headache(CHE), and analyze the improvement of cognitive function of patients before and after treatment.Methods Choosing 60 cases of adolescents neck source headache patients in resent ten years to our hospital and dividing them in to two groups, 30 cases for each group, group A treated with nerve block the pillow and conventional drugs and physical therapy, group B treated with routine therapy and physical therapy. And in a city middle school randomly normal children in 30 cases as control group C.Results After treatment, cognitive function and mental status in group A and group B were obviously improved, but compared with group C, it still had obvious difference,P<005; satisfaction of group A was better than group B.Conclusion The nerve block moderate for pillow on youth journal source headache has good clinical value, it is worth clinical promotion.

  9. Faunes du Jurassique supérieur dans les séries pélagiques de l'escarpement de Malte (Mer Ionienne. Implications paléogéographiques Upper Jurassic Fauna in the Pelagic Series of the Malta Escarpment (Lonian Sea. Paleogeographic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enay R.


    Full Text Available Au cours d'une campagne de plongée sur les escarpements qui bordent le bassin Ionien profond, des roches sédimentaires d'âge jurassique supérieur ont pu être récoltées dans l'escarpement de Malte, associées à des coulées de pillow-lavas. Les faunes d'Ammonites, typiquement mésogéennes, indiquent des âges oxfordien et tithonique. Elles peuvent correspondre à un milieu de dépôt profond. Les foraminifères recueillis dans les niveaux équivalents, riches en radiolaires, sclérites d'holothuries, fragments d'aptychus et rares Ostracodes, indiquent un âge oxfordien au sens large et un milieu de dépôt relativement profond. Cette série, relativement condensée et profonde, est comparable aux séries du même âge connues en Sicile. Elle s'oppose aux séries de calcaires de plate-forme néritiques du Trias-Lias inférieur qui constituent la base de la coupe. II y a donc eu un changement radical de milieu de sédimentation entre le Lias et le Callovo-Oxfordien, accompagné d'une distension révélée par un magmatisme important. During a diving campaing along the escarpments bordering the deep lonian Basin, Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks were gathered from the Malta escarpment, associated with pillow-lava. Typically Mesogean ammonite fauna indicate Oxfordian and Tithonian ages. They correspond to a relatively deep deposition environment. The Foraminifers gathered in the equivalent levels, which proved to be rich in radiolarians, holothuroid sclerites, aptychus fragments and sparse ostracodes, indicate an Oxfordian age and a relatively deep deposition environnent. This relatively condensed and deep series can be compared with series of the same age known in Sicily. It is opposed to the Lower Triassic-Lias neritic platform limestone series making up the bottom of the section. A radical change in sedimentation thus occured between the Lias and the Callovo-Oxfordain, accompanied by a distension revealed by extensive magmatism.

  10. The Role of Late-Cenozoic Lava Flows in the Evolution of the Owyhee River Canyon, Oregon (United States)

    Brossy, C. C.; House, P. K.; Ely, L. L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Safran, E. B.; Bondre, N.; Champion, D. E.; Grant, G.


    Over the last 2 Ma, at least six lava flows entered the canyon of the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon, dramatically and repeatedly altering the river's course and profile. A combination of geochronologic, geochemical, and paleomagnetic analyses accompanied by extensive field mapping shows that these lava flows erupted from upland vents 10s of km from the river, entered the canyon via tributary or rim, and formed blockages sufficient to create lakes. Thick deltas of pillow lavas and rising passage zones in the head of the dams and subaerial lavas downstream of the dam indicate effective damming. The presence of fine grained laminated sediments deposited in the lakes suggests the dams were fairly long lived. Pending OSL dates and ongoing field study of these sediments will shed light on the nature and duration of dam construction and removal. Lava-water interaction during dam construction was extensive, and thick pillow lava deltas are common. In contrast to rivers in other locations, we did not find evidence of pyroclastics such as cinders associated with the dams. The three oldest intracanyon lava flows: the lower undivided Bogus lavas (>1.92 ± 0.22 Ma), the Bogus Rim (1.92 ± 0.22 Ma), and the Greeley Bar lavas (>780 ka), all record the filling of a wide, deep canyon, damming of the Owyhee River, and creation of extensive lakes at elevations 230 to 310 m above the modern river. The three younger lava flows, the Clarks Butte (248 ± 45 ka), the Saddle Butte (~125 ka), and the West Crater (60-90 ka), record the occurrence of similar events but in a narrower, deeper canyon similar to the modern one. Overall, this array of late Cenozoic intracanyon lava flows provides key insights into the long-term incision history of the canyon, possibly including the effect of integration with the Snake River, and supports a model of long-term, regional landscape evolution that is strongly linked to lava-water interactions.

  11. Plate Tectonics at 3.8-3.7 Ga: Field Evidence from the Isua Accretionary Complex, Southern West Greenland. (United States)

    Komiya; Maruyama; Masuda; Nohda; Hayashi; Okamoto


    A 1&rcolon;5000 scale mapping was performed in the Isukasia area of the ca. 3.8-Ga Isua supracrustal belt, southern West Greenland. The mapped area is divided into three units bounded by low-angle thrusts: the Northern, Middle, and Southern Units. The Southern Unit, the best exposed, is composed of 14 subunits (horses) with similar lithostratigraphy, bound by layer-parallel thrusts. Duplex structures are widespread in the Isua belt and vary in scale from a few meters to kilometers. Duplexing proceeded from south to north and is well documented in the relationship between link- and roof-thrusts. The reconstructed lithostratigraphy of each horse reveals a simple pattern, in ascending order, of greenstone with low-K tholeiitic composition with or without pillow lava structures, chert/banded iron-formation, and turbidites. The cherts and underlying low-K tholeiites do not contain continent- or arc-derived material. The lithostratigraphy is quite similar to Phanerozoic "oceanic plate stratigraphy," except for the abundance of mafic material in the turbidites. The evidence of duplex structures and oceanic plate stratigraphy indicates that the Isua supracrustal belt is the oldest accretionary complex in the world. The dominantly mafic turbidite composition suggests that the accretionary complex was formed in an intraoceanic environment comparable to the present-day western Pacific Ocean. The duplex polarity suggests that an older accretionary complex should occur to the south of the Isua complex. Moreover, the presence of seawater (documented by a thick, pillow, lava unit at the bottom of oceanic plate stratigraphy) indicates that the surface temperature was less than ca. 100 degrees C in the Early Archean. The oceanic geotherm for the Early Archean lithosphere as a function of age was calculated based on a model of transient half-space cooling at given parameters of surface and mantle temperatures of 100 degrees and 1450 degrees C, respectively, suggesting that the

  12. Cervical spine motion in manual versus Jackson table turning methods in a cadaveric global instability model. (United States)

    DiPaola, Matthew J; DiPaola, Christian P; Conrad, Bryan P; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Sawers, Andrew; Bloch, David; Rechtine, Glenn R


    A study of spine biomechanics in a cadaver model. To quantify motion in multiple axes created by transfer methods from stretcher to operating table in the prone position in a cervical global instability model. Patients with an unstable cervical spine remain at high risk for further secondary injury until their spine is adequately surgically stabilized. Previous studies have revealed that collars have significant, but limited benefit in preventing cervical motion when manually transferring patients. The literature proposes multiple methods of patient transfer, although no one method has been universally adopted. To date, no study has effectively evaluated the relationship between spine motion and various patient transfer methods to an operating room table for prone positioning. A global instability was surgically created at C5-6 in 4 fresh cadavers with no history of spine pathology. All cadavers were tested both with and without a rigid cervical collar in the intact and unstable state. Three headrest permutations were evaluated Mayfield (SM USA Inc), Prone View (Dupaco, Oceanside, CA), and Foam Pillow (OSI, Union City, CA). A trained group of medical staff performed each of 2 transfer methods: the "manual" and the "Jackson table" transfer. The manual technique entailed performing a standard rotation of the supine patient on a stretcher to the prone position on the operating room table with in-line manual cervical stabilization. The "Jackson" technique involved sliding the supine patient to the Jackson table (OSI, Union City, CA) with manual in-line cervical stabilization, securing them to the table, then initiating the table's lock and turn mechanism and rotating them into a prone position. An electromagnetic tracking device captured angular motion between the C5 and C6 vertebral segments. Repeated measures statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the following conditions: collar use (2 levels), headrest (3 levels), and turning technique (2 levels). For all

  13. A Novel Approach to Characterize Compositional Variability through Time at Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Gill, J. B.


    The temporal, spatial, and compositional variability of eruptive products illuminates the scales of magmatic sources and processes. Prior methods to evaluate this variability rely on extensive sampling of lava flows. We describe a novel approach to assess the variability of submarine volcanics using material recovered in pushcores at a mid-ocean ridge. Pushcores collected from the west flank of Endeavour in 2011 with ROV Doc Ricketts were extruded in 1- or 2-cm intervals and volcaniclastic glass shards and foraminifera were extracted for electron microprobe and radiocarbon analyses, respectively. 14C ages and glass compositions from two cores provide chemical stratigraphies we compare to compositions of proximal lavas to assess local variability and volcaniclast dispersal. A 20-cm core from the north slope of Summit Seamount ~100m above the axial valley floor has a basal age of 4.5ka and 10-12 cm is ~1.5ka. Shards in the bottom 6cm are chemically distinct from the lava flow that it overlies. These basal shards are bimodal in MgO and the more differentiated mode is similar to flows on the valley floor on the opposite side of the faulted remnants of Summit Seamount. Most shards in the top 14 cm are similar to the underlying lava flow and have uniform MgO of 7.3 ×0.1. This composition is dominant in shards from 6-12 cm, which may represent a single eruption. Nearby flows encompassing three additional distinct lava types are also present as rare random shards; one additional lava type ~1km distant is absent. A 24-cm core from NW of Main Endeavour Field overlies a compositionally distinct low pillow mound on the west flank; no shards with this composition are found. The core is dated at 10.5ka (basal), ~4.8ka (15-17 cm), and ~2.0ka (9-11 cm). From 10.5 to 4.8 ka, most shards are compositionally similar to, but slightly more evolved than, extensive sheet lavas that flowed around the pillow mounds. A subordinate amount of shards that are compositionally similar, but more

  14. CUES – A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H. Bair


    Full Text Available Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB established the CUES snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We

  15. 便携式液压打桩机现状分析%Status Analysis of Portable Hydraulic Hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步恩; 余俊锋; 彭博


    In the flood rescue process,traditional bundle and throw wicker rock pillows, firewood pile revetment, rock?loft and other emergency technologies in emergency and rescue play significant roles. These methods require a lot of wood pipes to fasten the wicker pillows and willow branches;In highway construction project, the construction and maintenance of fences also need large amount of steel piles. So it can concluded that in a variety of rescue methods, piling is an in dispensable process.In the piling work of flood rescue,dike reinforcement before and after the flood sea?son, rivers, lakes, ponds and embankment maintenance and highway construction and maintenance, the machine in?stead of human piling operation is a technological revolution.Based on the status and principle research and review of domestic portable hammer,the technical level of domestic portable hydraulic hammers is clarified, for the view of the current shortcomings, it lies the theoretical basis for the design and development of new portable hydraulic hammers.%防洪抢险过程中,传统捆抛柳石枕、桩柴护岸、柳石楼厢等抢险技术发挥着巨大无比的作用,在这些应急抢险方法中,需要大量木桩以便固定柳枕和厢埽.在公路建设工程中,两边护栏的建设维护也需要大量钢管桩.由此可见,打桩是各种抢护方法中不可缺少的一道工序.而在抗洪抢险,汛期前后的堤防加固,维护江、湖、河、塘等堤岸以及公路建设维护的打桩作业中,由机械劳动代替人力打桩作业是一次技术性革命.本文通过对国内各类便携式打桩机现状、原理进行研究总结,明确国内便携式液压打桩机技术水平及存在的缺陷,为设计研发新型便携式液压打桩机奠定理论基础.

  16. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michael J; Hutchinson, Mark R


    Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints), brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period). Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of Celsius for over 20

  17. Rocas Verdes Ophiolite Complexes in the Southernmost Andes: Remnants of the Mafic Igneous Floor of a Back-arc Basin that Rifted the South American Continental Crust in the Late Jurrassic and Early Cretaceous (United States)

    Stern, C. R.


    The Rocas Verdes are an en echelon group of late Jurassic and early Cretaceous igneous complexes in the southernmost Andes. They consist of mafic pillow lavas, dikes and gabbros interpreted as the upper portions of ophiolite complexes formed along mid-ocean-ridge-type spreading centers. When secondary metamorphic affects are accounted for, the geochemistry of mafic Rocas Verdes rocks are similar to ocean-ridge basalts (MORB). The spreading centers that generated the Rocas Verdes rifted the southwestern margin of the Gondwana continental crust, during the start of break-up in the southern Atlantic, to form the igneous floor of a back-arc basin behind a contemporaneous convergent plate boundary magmatic arc. Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous sediments from both the magmatic arc on the southwest and the continental platform on the northeast of the basin were deposited in the Rocas Verdes basin, and these sediments are interbedded with mafic pillow lavas along the margins of the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. Also, mafic dikes and gabbros intrude older pre-Andean and Andean lithologies along both flanks of the Rocas Verdes, and leucocratic country rocks are engulfed in the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. These relations indicate that the Rocas Verdes complexes formed in place and are autochthonous, having been uplifted but not obducted, which may explain the lack of exposure of the deeper ultramafic units. Zircon U/Pb ages of 150+/-1 Ma for the Larsen Harbour Formation, a southern extension of the Rocas Verdes belt on South Georgia Island, and 138+/-2 Ma for the Sarmiento complex, the northernmost in the Rocas Verdes belt, indicate that this basin may have formed by "unzipping" from the south to the north, with the southern portion beginning to form earlier and developing more extensively than the northern portion of the basin. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the Rocas Verdes basin developed in conjunction with the displacement of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening of

  18. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic study of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex, southern Chile (United States)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Calderón, M.; Singer, S.; Hervé, F.; Cordani, U.


    A paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Late Jurassic Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex (SOC) exposed in the Magallanes fold and thrust belt in the southern Patagonian Andes (southern Chile). This complex, mainly consisting of a thick succession of pillow-lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, is a seafloor remnant of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin that developed along the south-western margin of South America. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization permitted the isolation of a post-folding characteristic remanence, apparently carried by fine grain (SD?) magnetite, both in the pillow-lavas and dikes. The mean "in situ" direction for the SOC is Dec: 286.9°, Inc: - 58.5°, α95: 6.9°, N: 11 (sites). Rock magnetic properties, petrography and whole-rock K-Ar ages in the same rocks are interpreted as evidence of correlation between remanence acquisition and a greenschist facies metamorphic overprint that must have occurred during latest stages or after closure and tectonic inversion of the basin in the Late Cretaceous. The mean remanence direction is anomalous relative to the expected Late Cretaceous direction from stable South America. Particularly, a declination anomaly over 50° is suggestively similar to paleomagnetically interpreted counter clockwise rotations found in thrust slices of the Jurassic El Quemado Fm. located over 100 km north of the study area in Argentina. Nevertheless, a significant ccw rotation of the whole SOC is difficult to reconcile with geologic evidence and paleogeographic models that suggest a narrow back-arc basin sub-parallel to the continental margin. A rigid-body 30° westward tilting of the SOC block around a horizontal axis trending NNW, is considered a much simpler explanation, being consistent with geologic evidence. This may have occurred as a consequence of inverse reactivation of old normal faults, which limit both the SOC exposures and the Cordillera Sarmiento to the East. The age of tilting

  19. Liquid Immiscibility of Boninite in Xiangcheng, Southwestern China, and Its implication to Genetic Relationship between Boninite and Komatiitic Basalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Boninitic rocks and associated high-magnesian basalt and high-iron tholeiite in the Xiangcheng area constitute the basal horizon of the arc volcanic sequence in the Triassic Yidun Island-Arc, southwestern China. The boninite occurs as pillow, massive and ocellar lavas; the last one possesses well-developed globular structure and alternates with the former two. The boninite is characterized by the absence of phenocrysts of olivine and low-Ca pyroxenes and by low CaO/Al2O3 ratios (1000 ppm) and Ni (>250 ppm). The normalized abundance patterns (NAP) of trace elements to primitive mantle are similar to the NAP of low-Ca modern boninites and SHMB in the Archaean and Proterozoic. As a mechanism of ocellar texture, liquid immiscibility in boninite is supported by the following lines of evidence: (a) sharp contact between ocelli and matrix, (b) constant volumetric ratios of ocelli/matrix and common coalescence of ocelli in ocellar rocks, (c) identical micro-spinifex textures and mineral assemblages with different modal mineral contents in ocelli-matrix pairs, (d) bubbles and acicular clinopyroxene crystal strand over the boundary between ocelli and matrix, and (e) chemical compositions of ocelli and matrix corresponding to high-Mg andesite and komatiitic basalt, respectively. The close association and geochemical similarities between ocellar boninites and pillow boninite/massive boninite suggest that these are comagmatic rocks. The primary features of the ocellar boninite indicated by high Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) ratio and high Cr and Ni abundance show that liquid immiscibility took place in the early evolution stage of the boninitic magma. The miscibility gap in boninite which is smaller than that in tholeiite is likely to be due to the low FeO*/MgO+FeO* ratio and high MgO content of the boninitic magma. The association of komatiite-komatiitic basalt-boninite (or SHMB) and the immiscibility phenomenon in high-Mg lavas in some Archaean greenstone belts and ophiolites is also

  20. Half a Century of Oman Ophiolite Studies: SSZ or MOR, the Arc Disposal Problem (United States)

    Gregory, R. T.; Gray, D.


    The Samail Ophiolite, one of the largest and best exposed ophiolite complexes, is a Tethyan ophiolite obducted in the Late Cretaceous onto the formerly passive Arabian platform as Arabia began its most recent >1000 km northward migration towards a Miocene collision with Eurasia. The Oman Mountains, northeastern Arabian Peninsula have yet to collide with Eurasia; present uplift and form of the mountains also date to the Miocene. In addition to the scientific scrutiny of the ophiolite complex, the geologic constraints on the timing and emplacement of the ophiolite are abundant with no consensus on the obduction mechanism or its original tectonic setting. The crustal thickness of the ophiolite is comparable to thicknesses observed for "normal" mid-ocean ridges. Largely on the basis of structural and paleomagnetic arguments, some workers have attributed its origin to Pacific-type fast spreading ridges and complex micro plate geometries. Indeed the lower pillow lava sequences and much of the gabbroic crust have isotope and geochemical signatures consistent with a MORB source. However, because of the geochemistry of the upper pillow lavas, the ophiolite is most often characterized as a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite, i.e. it sits in the hanging wall of some large tectonic structure for part of its history. In the absence of a preserved arc, the SSZ designation has little explanatory power only being a declaration of allochthony or about chemical properties of the mantle source. That associated continental shelf and oceanic crustal sections have suffered either clockwise or counterclockwise PT time trajectories requires some type of nascent subduction and hanging wall thrust transport of the young ridge crest. The widespread Late Cretaceous obduction of Tethyan oceanic crust and mantle over thousands of kilometers strike length is a problem for SSZ models (arc, forearc, back arc etc.) because arc initiation results in thick crust on short time scales, none of which

  1. Testing a new approach to differentiate oxidation degree from the primitive composition of titanomagnetites from oceanic basalts (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Almeida, Francisco; Waerenborgh, João; Madureira, Pedro; Mirão, José; Henry, Bernard; Neres, Marta; Petrovsky, Eduard


    Low-field magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature - χ(T) is one of the most powerful techniques to assess the main magnetic mineralogy of rocks from distinct geological settings. For the specific case of titanomagnetite solid solution, the dependence of Curie temperature (Tc) on their composition and oxidation degree imposes limits to the application of thermomagnetic methods as a tool to assess independently one of the variables, i.e., the pristine composition and/or quantification of the oxidation degree. In order to overcome this ambiguity several authors resorted to independent methods, like microprobe, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The study here presented seeks to establish a new approach able to correlate the oxidation degree with Tc variations of partially oxidized submarine basalts, only supported by the thermomagnetic analyses conducted between -190°C and 650°C. 40 thermomagnetic signatures were evaluated along cross-section profiles of four pillow-lavas, sampled from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and from the Terceira Rift (Azores plateau). For each one a lamellae with a thickness of 2 to 3 mm was collected along each centimeter of the profile. All the experiments were made using the same experimental conditions (atmosphere, heating rate). Our thermomagnetic curves of partially oxidized oceanic basalts are characterized by a peak of susceptibility between 300-350°C and 520-550°C, which mostly results from the inversion of the thermally metastable titanomaghemite into a complex multiphase intergrowth. From our experiments, we were able to obtain a good linear correlation (positive) between the amplitude of this peak and the Tc for each sample profile. Moreover, these results are well correlated with the oxidation degree determined by Mössbauer Spectroscopy analyses and with microscopic observations, which show an increase of oxidation degree towards the margins of the pillow lavas

  2. The Ivisartoq Greenstone Belt, Southwest Greenland: New Investigations (United States)

    Mader, M. M.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.


    The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is situated 40 km south of the Isua greenstone belt, within the Archean gneiss complex of southwest Greenland. The Isua region has been the focus of intense study because it contains some of the oldest known (~ 3.8-3.7 Ga) rocks on Earth. However, relatively little research has been conducted within the Ivisartoq belt. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is exceptionally well-exposed in three dimensions, and primary features are better preserved here than in any other Archean greenstone belt in Greenland. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt provides a unique opportunity to characterise early-middle Archean mafic-ultramafic magmatism. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt forms a southwest-closing, V-shaped synform and was subjected to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. New field mapping has concentrated on the 3 km thick southern limb of the synform, where the most complete section of the tectonostratigraphy is preserved, and where pillow structures with unambiguous way-up indicators are observed. The southern limb has been divided into two units of amphibolites: a lower unit and an upper unit. The upper amphibolite unit is characterized by heterogeneously deformed pillow structures interlayered with ultramafic amphibole schists, meta-gabbro, and with boudins of olivine-bearing ultrabasic rocks. The lower amphibolite unit is more heterogenous and intensely deformed than the upper unit. Layers of quartz-feldspathic rocks with sulfides are abundant in both the upper and lower unit and are highly sheared. A thick (~ 500m) section of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and schists in the lower unit has been the focus of preliminary geochronological work. Previously, only one U/Pb zircon age (~ 2580 Ma from a "paraschist") has been obtained from the Ivisartoq belt and was reported by Baadsgaard in 1976. Currently, laser ablation microprobe inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LAM ICP-MS) and isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry

  3. Normal Faulting, Fluid Upflow Pathways, and Alteration in the Subsurface of a Seafloor Ultramafic-Hosted Hydrothermal System, northern Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Alt, J.; Levine, D.; Crispini, L.; Gaggero, L.; Shanks, W. C., III; Gulbransen, C.


    We document the mineralogy and geochemistry of a fault that acted as a hydrothermal upflow zone in the subsurface of a seafloor ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system in the northern Apennines, Italy. The objectives are to understand fluid flow pathways, and the relative roles of upwelling hydrothermal fluids versus cold seawater and biological effects in such systems on the modern seafloor, which is much more difficult to access and study. Peridotites were exposed on the seafloor by detachment faulting, intruded by MORB gabbros, and are overlain by MORB lavas and pelagic sediments. North of the village of Reppia are two 1-2 m wide fault shear zones in serpentinite, oriented at a high angle to the detachment surface and extending hundreds of meters below the detachment. The host peridotite is 90-100% serpentinized, and serpentinite is highly replaced by talc plus tremolite and sulfide in the shear zones. At the paleo-seafloor, the fault offsets carbonate-cemented serpentinite breccia, talc-altered serpentinite, and serpentinite in the footwall to the west, from pillow basalts of the hanging wall on the east. Here the fault rocks consist of 90% Fe-dolomite with a few percent each of calcite, quartz, serpentine, talc, sulfides, chlorite, and trace relict Cr-spinel. The fault ends upward in massive sulfide overlain by pillow basalts and pelagic sediment. Three main alteration stages are identified. 1. Background serpentinites exhibit slight LREE enrichments and elevated d34S values (+3.9 to +5.2‰) consistent with serpentinization by upwelling hot hydrothermal fluids. 2. Talc alteration of serpentinite leads to strong LREE enrichments, negative Eu anomalies, silica metasomatism, and elevated Cu during the main hydrothermal upflow stage. 3. Carbonate alteration varies from slight veining of serpentinite to near-total replacement in the shallow fault rocks, with variable enrichments of LREE, Ca, Si, and metals. Carbonate oxygen isotope temperatures of 15-150°C and d13C

  4. Early Archaean crustal collapse structures and sedimentary basin dynamics (United States)

    Nijman, W.; de Vries, S. T.


    Observations in the Lower Archaean (>3.3 Ga) of the Pilbara and Kaapvaal Cratons point to a direct genetic relationship between the thickness and facies distribution of volcano-sedimentary basin fills and non-linear patterns of extensional faults in early Earth. The basin fills consist of mafic volcanic products, largely pillow basalts, with distinct phases of intermediate to felsic volcanism and concentration of silica, either primary or secondary, in sediments deposited near base-level. The extensional structures are listric growth-faults, arranged in superposed arrays, that migrated upwards with the growth of the Early Archaean stratigraphical column. The faults linked intermittently occurring shallow-level felsic intrusions via porphyry pipes, veins and hydrothermal circulations with the surficial sedimentary basin fill of cherty sediments, concurrent mineralisation and alteration products. The non-linear pattern of the fault systems is recorded by their restored facing directions over large areas and corresponds best with over 100 km-wide (semi)circular crustal collapse structures. Crustal collapse, and therefore basin formation, did not represent a reaction to compression and crustal thickening. It also had no relationship with the present-day distribution of granitoid domes and greenstone belts. Collapse followed crustal uplift recorded by shallowing of the basin fill from a general subaqueous level of deposition of pillow basalts towards zero water level for the sediments and low-relief emersion. Maxima of extension coincide with the appearance of intermediate or felsic volcanic rocks in the overall mafic environment. The geodynamical setting is most appropriately explained by crustal delamination and related plume activity. Although individual features may be compared to Phanerozoic and Recent geological phenomena, like calderas, for the collapse structures as a whole such younger counterparts cannot be found. Rather they have their equivalents in collapse

  5. Stress perturbation associated with the Amazonas and other ancient continental rifts (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Richardson, Randall M.


    The state of stress in the vicinity of old continental rifts is examined to investigate the possibility that crustal structure associated with ancient rifts (specifically a dense rift pillow in the lower crust) may modify substantially the regional stress field. Both shallow (2.0-2.6 km depth) breakout data and deep (20-45 km depth) crustal earthquake focal mechanisms indicate a N to NNE maximum horizontal compression in the vicinity of the Paleozoic Amazonas rift in central Brazil. This compressive stress direction is nearly perpendicular to the rift structure and represents a ˜75° rotation relative to a regional E-W compressive stress direction in the South American plate. Elastic two-dimensional finite element models of the density structure associated with the Amazonas rift (as inferred from independent gravity modeling) indicate that elastic support of this dense feature would generate horizontal rift-normal compressional stresses between 60 and 120 MPa, with values of 80-100 MPa probably most representative of the overall structure. The observed ˜75° stress rotation constrains the ratio of the regional horizontal stress difference to the rift-normal compressive stress to be between 0.25 and 1.0, suggesting that this rift-normal stress may be from 1 to 4 times larger than the regional horizontal stress difference. A general expression for the modification of the normalized local horizontal shear stress (relative to the regional horizontal shear stress) shows that the same ratio of the rift-normal compression relative to the regional horizontal stress difference, which controls the amount of stress rotation, also determines whether the superposed stress increases or decreases the local maximum horizontal shear stress. The potential for fault reactivation of ancient continental rifts in general is analyzed considering both the local stress rotation and modification of horizontal shear stress for both thrust and strike-slip stress regimes. In the Amazonas

  6. Geology and Volcanology of Kima'Kho Mountain, Northern British Columbia: A Pleistocene Glaciovolcanic Edifice (United States)

    Turnbull, M.; Porritt, L. A.; Edwards, B. R.; Russell, K.


    Kima'Kho Mountain is a 1.8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar of 1.82 +/- 40 ka) Pleistocene an alkali-olivine basaltic tuya situated in northern British Columbia. The volcanic edifice rises 460 m from its base and comprises a central vent, dominated by lapilli-tuff and minor pillow lava and dykes; and a surrounding plateau underlain by a sequence of dipping beds of basaltic tuff-breccia and capped by a series of flat-lying, subaerial lava flows. We present a 1:10,000 geological map for Kima'Kho Mountain building on the preliminary work of Ryane et al. (2010). We use the volcanic stratigraphy to explore the implications of three unique features. (1) The central cone comprises massive to crudely-bedded lapilli tuffs containing abundant armoured lapilli - cores of highly-vesicular pyroclasts coated with blocky to cuspate vitric ash. These units suggest an explosive origin from within an ice-enclosed lake, and deposited by wet, dilute pyroclastic surge events. (2) The entire stratigraphic sequence hosts at least two "passage zones" (cf. Jones, 1969); the presence and geometry of these passage zones constrain ice thicknersses at the time of eruption and inform on the englacial lake dynamics. (3) Lastly, our field-based stratigraphic relationships are at odds with the classic tuya model (i.e. an effusive onset to the eruption, forming pillow basalts, followed by explosive activity). Our field mapping suggests an alternative model of tuya architecture, involving a highly-energetic, sustained explosive onset creating a tephra cone that become emergent followed by effusive eruption to create lavas and a subaqueous lava-fed delta. Jones, J. G. Intraglacial volcanoes of the Laugarvatn region, south-west Iceland-I. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal 124, 197-211 (1969). Ryane, C., Edwards, B. R. & Russell, J. K. The volcanic stratigraphy of Kima'Kho Mountain: A Pleistocene tuya, northwestern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research 2011-104, 12p, doi:10

  7. Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc crust as a modern ophiolite analogue (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Tani, Kenichiro; Reagan, Mark; Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Harigane, Yumiko


    Recent geological and geophysical surveys in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc have revealed the occurrence on the seafloor of oceanic crust generated in the initial stages of subduction and embryonic island arc formation. The observed forearc section is composed of (from bottom to top): (1) mantle peridotite, (2) gabbroic rocks, (3) a sheeted dyke complex, (4) basaltic pillow lavas, (5) boninites and magnesian andesites, and (6) tholeiites and calc-alkaline arc lavas. The oldest magmatism after subduction initiation generated forearc basalts (FAB) between 52 and 48 Ma, and then boninitic and calc-alkaline lavas that collectively make up the extrusive sequence of the forearc oceanic crust. The change from FAB magmatism to flux melting and boninitic volcanism took 2-4 m.y., and the change to flux melting in counter-flowing mantle and "normal" arc magmatism took 7-8 m.y. This evolution from subduction initiation to true subduction occurred nearly simultaneously along the entire length of the IBM subduction system. One important characteristic feature of the common forearc stratigraphy in the IBM forearc is the association of sheeted dykes with basaltic pillow lavas, which strongly implies that the eruption of FAB was associated with seafloor spreading. This is supported by the seismic velocity structure of the Bonin Ridge area (Kodaira et al., 2010), showing it to have a thin ocean-ridge-like crust (spreading associated with subduction initiation along the length of the IBM forearc. A potential location of subduction nucleation along the Mesozoic-aged crust has been found along the margins of the West Philippine Basin. One possible scenario for subduction initiation at the IBM arc was that it was induced by overthrusting of the Mesozoic arc and backarc or forearc terranes bounding the east side of the Asian Plate over the Pacific Plate, followed by failure of the Pacific plate lithosphere and subduction initiation. Alternatively, subduction could have begun

  8. A New Seafloor Spreading Model of the Red Sea: Magnetic Anomalies and Plate Kinematics (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Afifi, A. M.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Muzaiyen, E.


    A high resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms the existence of consistent magnetic anomaly patterns, continuous from 16 to 24°N, and episodic up to 28°N, typical of slow to ultraslow spreading centers. The older Saudi-Sudanese aeromagnetic survey shows that these anomalies are symmetrical between 18 and 23°N. The strong, short-wavelength anomalies over the central trough south of 24°N have long been identified as Chrons 1 to 3 (0-5 Ma). By contrast, the weaker, longer-wavelength anomalies over adjacent sediment-covered areas do not fit standard magnetic anomaly models. The abrupt basement deepening from ~ 1.5 km in the central trough to ~ 5 km beneath the sediments partly accounts for the lower amplitude but not for the lack of short wavelengths. Other spreading centers also lack short-wavelength, high-amplitude magnetic anomalies where covered by thick sediments (Andaman Basin, Juan de Fuca Ridge). We interpret this to reflect the absence of a well-defined layer of pillow lavas, whose emplacement is hampered by rapid, abundant sedimentation. The formation of dykes and sills instead of extrusive lavas results in weaker, less coherent magnetization, generating longer-wavelength anomalies. We test this inference by removing the extrusive basalt contribution from a slow spreading center crustal magnetization model. The computed magnetic anomalies fit well with the shape and amplitude of the anomalies observed in the Red Sea. Two major long-wavelength anomalies are dated at 10-11 Ma (Chron 5) and 14-15 Ma (Chron 5B), implying seafloor spreading back to at least 15 Ma and constraining plate-kinematic reconstructions. Beyond being a key to the geological evolution of the Red Sea, these results emphasize that oceanic crust may exist without clear, short wavelength magnetic anomalies, particularly at the onset of seafloor spreading, when abundant sedimentation may preclude the formation of pillow lavas. The location of many

  9. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Mark R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  10. Correction of patient positioning errors based on in-line cone beam CTs: clinical implementation and first experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häring Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT for setup correction in radiotherapy. Patients and methods For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI, was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. Results and discussion Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point

  11. Strategies for Improving Patient Comfort During Intravitreal Injections: Results from a Survey-Based Study. (United States)

    Gomez, Jessica; Koozekanani, Dara D; Feng, Alex Z; Holt, Mitchell; Drayna, Paul; Mackley, Melissa R; van Kuijk, Frederik J G M; Beardsley, Robert M; Johnston, Richard H; Terry, Joseph M; Montezuma, Sandra R


    Many ocular diseases require intravitreal injections of pharmacological agents. Optimizing patients' experiences during injections is important to ensure compliance and maintenance of quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify strategies to help alleviate discomfort during intravitreal injections. A cross-sectional study surveying 128 patients during clinic visits between 2014 and 2015 in two outpatient Retina Clinics (one academic and one private). Patients receiving an intravitreal injection(s) for any retinal disorder were given a questionnaire with 10-yes/no responses for various potential strategies. Responses were stratified by sex, age (60 years) and total number of prior injections (0-9 injections, 10-20 injections and >20 injections). A total of 128 patients were surveyed: 59 males, 41 females and 28 with no sex specified. Our results identified four favorable strategies as those receiving more than 50% "yes" votes. These included the presence of technician/staff during the procedure, the use of a neck pillow, a verbal warning before the injection and performing injections in both eyes on the same day. Other specific strategies were identified for females, younger patients and those with greatest experience. These included: females preferred having their hand held during injections (P = 0.001) and using a stress ball (P = 0.000) when compared to males. Stratifying by age, patients 30-60 years old preferred having their hand held (P = 0.008) and background music (P = 0.007). Stratifying by prior injections, patients with >20 prior injections preferred having their hand held (P = 0.001), using a stress ball (P = 0.021) and, if necessary, having bilateral injections performed the same day to improve comfort (P = 0.037). Having an extra staff member present during the injection, having a neck pillow, having a verbal warning prior to injection and having both eyes injected on the same day were indicated as favorable strategies

  12. In situ dating of the oldest morphological traces of life on Earth (United States)

    Fliegel, D.; McLoughlin, N.; Simonetti, A.; de Wit, M.; Furnes, H.


    Sea floor pillow basalts contain tubular and granular bioalteration micro textures in their glassy margins1,2 created by microbes etching the rock3,4, hypothetically to get access to nutrients and electrons donors5. The etched pits in the rock can be regarded as trace fossils6 that later become mineralized by titanite (CaTiSiO5). Such trace fossils are known from recent oceanic crust to some of the oldest preserved Archean ocean floor, in the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), in S-Africa7. However, the antiquity of BGB trace fossils has been questioned by some since only the host rock was dated until now8. Here, we report for the first time in situ U-Pb radiometric dating of titanite mineralizing the BGB trace fossils using LA-MC-ICPMS. An U-Pb date of of approx. 3.15 ± 0.05 Ga (95.4 % confidence) for the titanite demonstrates the antiquity of the BGB trace fossils. This result confirms the BGB trace fossils as the oldest directly dated morphological trace of life on Earth. We will present addition data to reveal the mineralization of trace fossils by titanite, comparing the BGB trace fossils to other similar tubular titanite mineralized textures from different locations and younger ages. Our data confirms that a sub-oceanic biosphere was already established in the early Archean by at least 3.2 Ga. Further the results highlight the importance of the sub-ocean habitats for the development and possibly refuge for life on (early) Earth. 1. Furnes, H. et al. Bioalteration of basaltic glass in the oceanic crust. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 2, (2001). 2. Staudigel, H. et al. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: vulcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life. Earth-Science Reviews 89, 156-176 (2008). 3. Furnes, H. et al. Links Between Geological Processes, Microbial Activeties and Evolution of Life. Dilek, Y., Furnes, H. and Muehlenbachs, K. (eds.), pp. 1-68 (Springer,2008). 4. McLoughlin, N. et al. Current Developments in Bioerosion (Erlangen Earth Conference

  13. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury. (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H


    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides.

  14. Stratigraphic and Petrological Constraints of Cretaceous Subduction Initiation and Arc-Continent Collision in the Northern Andes (United States)

    Leon, S.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Parra, M.


    Middle to Late-Cretaceous orogenic events in the northern Andes have been commonly reconstructed from the analysis of inland basins or the integration of regional scale thermochronological, geochronological and geochemical datasets from the accreted blocks. In contrast, limited studies have been developed on the stratigraphic and deformational record of magmatic and sedimentary sequences exposed near the suture zones. New field and petrologic data are used to characterize an ophiolite type sequence that outcrops in the western flank from the northwestern segment of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Stratigraphic analysis indicate the existence of Albian-Aptian deep marine pelitic sequence interbedded with minor chert and thin quartz sandstone beds that apparently change to a volcanic dominate stratigraphy. Deformed ophiolite-like mafic and ultramafic plutonic rocks and isolated pillow lavas are also exposed to the east in fault contact with the pelitic sequence. The pelitic and interlayered volcanic rocks represent the growth of an extensional Early-Cretaceous basin that followed a Late-Jurassic magmatic quiescence in the Northern Andes. The volcano-sedimentary record is probably related to the growth of a fore-arc basin in a new subduction zone that extends until the Late Cretaceous. The deformation and obduction of the ophiolitic association and the fore-arc basin were probably triggered by the Late Cretaceous collision with an allocthonous plateau-arc associated to the migration of the Caribbean plate.

  15. Untangling metabolic and spatial interactions of stress tolerance in plants. 1. Patterns of carbon metabolism within leaves. (United States)

    Biel, Karl Y; Fomina, Irina R; Nazarova, Galina N; Soukhovolsky, Vladislav G; Khlebopros, Rem G; Nishio, John N


    The localization of the key photoreductive and oxidative processes and some stress-protective reactions within leaves of mesophytic C(3) plants were investigated. The role of light in determining the profile of Rubisco, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, catalase, fumarase, and cytochrome-c-oxidase across spinach leaves was examined by exposing leaves to illumination on either the adaxial or abaxial leaf surfaces. Oxygen evolution in fresh paradermal leaf sections and CO(2) gas exchange in whole leaves under adaxial or abaxial illumination was also examined. The results showed that the palisade mesophyll is responsible for the midday depression of photosynthesis in spinach leaves. The photosynthetic apparatus was more sensitive to the light environment than the respiratory apparatus. Additionally, examination of the paradermal leaf sections by optical microscopy allowed us to describe two new types of parenchyma in spinach-pirum mesophyll and pillow spongy mesophyll. A hypothesis that oxaloacetate may protect the upper leaf tissue from the destructive influence of active oxygen is presented. The application of mathematical modeling shows that the pattern of enzymatic distribution across leaves abides by the principle of maximal ecological utility. Light regulation of carbon metabolism across leaves is discussed.

  16. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry at south of Arghash (Neyshabour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Karimi Saeid Abadi


    Full Text Available The Arghash area is located 45 km to southwest of Neyshabour. The subvolcanic rocks in the area consist of biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende monzonite porphyry, biotite hornblende monzonite porphyry, monzodiorite porphyry and biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry units. The volcanic rocks consist of hornblende biotite dacite, biotite hornblende dacite, and andesite and pillow lava. The plutonic rocks consist of hornblende monzodiorite, hornblende monzonite, quartz monzonite, hornblende quartz monzodiorite, biotite granodiorite, hornblende granodiorite, biotite hornblende granodiorite, biotite quartz diorite and pyroxene dolerite units. Five types of alteration including propylitic, carbonate, argillic, silicification and sericitic were recognized. Those are subdivided into twelve sub-zones based on the mineral abundances and intensity of alteration. Primary pyrite, 3-4%, is found mainly as disseminated. Secondary mineralization includes limonite, hematite and jarosite. Twenty rock chip and 8 stream sediment samples were collected for geochemical exploration. The samples were analysed for Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag and Sb using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometric (AAS method. In stream sediment samples, Cu abundance is 34-58 ppm, Zn 45-422 ppm, Pb 28-42 ppm and Ag 2-12 ppm; whereas in rock chip samples, Cu abundance is 8-1137 ppm, Zn 13-411 ppm, Pb 15-97 ppm and Ag 3-32 ppm.

  17. Making the hospital a safer place by sonochemical coating of all its textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles. (United States)

    Perelshtein, Ilana; Lipovsky, Anat; Perkas, Nina; Tzanov, Tzanko; Аrguirova, M; Leseva, M; Gedanken, Aharon


    The ability to scale-up the sonochemical coating of medical textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles is demonstrated in the current paper. A roll-to-roll pilot installation to coat textiles was built taking into consideration the requirements of the sonochemical process. A long-run experiment was conducted in which 2500 m of fabric were coated with antibacterial ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The metal oxide NPs were deposited from an ethanol:water solution. In this continuous process a uniform concentration of coated NPs over the length/width of the fabric was achieved. The antibacterial efficiency of the sonochemically-coated textiles was validated in a hospital environment by a reduction in the occurrence of nosocomial infections. NP-coated bed sheets, patient gowns, pillow cover, and bed covers were used by 21 patients. For comparison 16 patients used regular textiles. The clinical data indicated the reduced occurrence of hospital-acquired infections when using the metal oxide NP-coated textiles. In order to reduce the cost of the coating process and considering safety issues during manufacturing, the solvent (ethanol:water) (9:1 v:v) used for the long-run experiment, was replaced by water. Although lesser amounts of ZnO NPs were deposited on the fabric in the water-based process the antibacterial activity of the textiles was preserved due to the smaller size of the particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Backarc rifting, constructional volcanism and nascent disorganised spreading in the southern Havre Trough backarc rifts (SW Pacific) (United States)

    Wysoczanski, R. J.; Todd, E.; Wright, I. C.; Leybourne, M. I.; Hergt, J. M.; Adam, C.; Mackay, K.


    High resolution multibeam (EM300 and SEABEAM) data of the Southern Havre Trough (SHT), combined with observations and sample collections from the submersible Shinkai6500 and deep-tow camera, are used to develop a model for the evolution and magmatism of this backarc system. The Havre Trough and the associated Kermadec Arc are the product of westward subduction at the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Detailed studies focus on newly discovered features including a seamount (Saito Seamount) and a deep graben (Ngatoroirangi Rift, > 4000 m water depth floored with a constructional axial volcanic ridge > 5 km in length and in excess of 200 m high), both of which are characterised by pillow and lobate flows estimated at Mass balance modelling indicates a maximum crustal thickness of ~ 11 km to magmatism within deep SHT rifts, we propose that the SHT is in an incipient phase of distributed and "disorganised" oceanic crustal accretion in multiple, ephemeral, and short but deep (> 4000 m) spreading systems. These discontinuous spreading systems are characterised by failed rifts, rift segmentation, and propagation. Successive episodes of magmatic intrusion into thinned faulted arc basement results in defocused asymmetrical accretion. Cross-arc volcanic chains, isolated volcanoes and underlying basement plateaus are interpreted to represent a "cap" of recent extrusives. However, they may also be composed entirely of newly accreted crust and the spatially extensive basement fabric of elongated volcanic ridges may be the surface expression of pervasive dike intrusion that has thoroughly penetrated and essentially replaced the original arc crust with newly accreted intrusives.

  19. Rehabilitation exercise for treatment of vestibular disorder: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Feazadeh


    Full Text Available Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, there are different interpretations of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of a 56 year old woman with complains of positional vertigo for 35 consecutive years. She suffered from a sudden onset of rotatory, unilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The symtoms started a day after falling from a bus, where she injured her head. Otherwise her medical history was unremarkable. She was treated with an individualized home exercise program of eye movement exercises, Brandt/Daroff exercises, and general conditioning exercises (i.e., laying on the left side from sitting on the bed, while the head rotated 45 degrees to the right, waiting for about one minue; twice a day on gradual basis, not laying on the side all the way, but to use enough pillows to lay about at 60 degrees. Four weeks from the start of physical therapy, the patient was free of symptoms, even when her neck was in the extended position.

  20. Evidence of Late Quaternary seismicity from Yunam Tso, Lahaul and Spiti, NW Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archna Bohra; B S Kotlia; Amzad H Laskar; M G Yadava


    A relict fluvio-lacustrine sediment of an 8 m thick section exposed at Kilang Sarai along Yunam river, near Baralacha La shows presence of cycloids or pseudonodules, ball and pillow structures, flame-like and pocket structures, sand dyke injections, bed dislocation/faulting and flow folds. Within this section four deformed levels of soft sediment structures have been identified which were dated ca. 25 ka BP at level 1 (∼0.4 m from the modern river level (mrl), 20.1 ka BP at level 2 (∼1.8 m mrl), 17.7 ka BP at level 3 (∼2.56 m mrl) and 12.2 ka BP at level 4 (∼4.25 m mrl)). Detailed study of these soft sediment structures allow us to demonstrate that deformation level 3 is not related to seismic trigger, but remaining three deformation levels (1, 2 and 4) are ascribed to seismic origin. From compilation of earlier palaeoseismological studies using soft sediment deformational structures (SSDS) in the palaeolake deposits in the adjoining area, suggest that the deformational events identified in the present study are regional in nature and thus tectonic process plays an important role in the evolution of landform in the Spiti region.

  1. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony (United States)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine


    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  2. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico) (United States)

    Blanc, E. J.-P.; Blanc-Alétru, M.-C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the ``Las Vigas'' and ``La Virgen'' formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five ``stratigraphic'' levels (Σ1-Σ5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the ``Las Vigas'' Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian.

  3. Contrasted glass-whole rock compositions and phenocryst re-distribution, IPOD Sites 417 and 418 (United States)

    Staudigel, H.; Bryan, W. B.


    Major element composition ranges of closely associated basalt glass-whole rock pairs from individual small cooling units approach the total known range of basalt glass and whole rock compositions at IPOD sites 417 and 418. The whole rock samples fall into two groups: one is depleted in MgO and distinctly enriched in plagioclase but has lost some olivine and/or pyroxene relative to its corresponding glass; and the other is enriched in MgO and in phenocrysts of olivine and pyroxene as well as plagioclase compared to its corresponding glass. By analogy with observed phenocryst distributions in lava pillows, tubes, and dikes, and with some theoretical studies, we infer that bulk rock compositions are strongly affected by phenocryst redistribution due to gravity settling, flotation, and dynamic sorting after eruption, although specific models are not well constrained by the one-dimensional geometry of drill core. Compositional trends or groupings in whole rock data resulting from such late-stage processes should not be confused with more fundamental compositional effects produced in deep chambers or during partial melting.

  4. Alteration and dehydration of subducting oceanic crust within subduction zones: implications for décollement step-down and plate-boundary seismogenesis (United States)

    Kameda, Jun; Inoue, Sayako; Tanikawa, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hamada, Yohei; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Gaku


    The alteration and dehydration of predominantly basaltic subducting oceanic crustal material are thought to be important controls on the mechanical and hydrological properties of the seismogenic plate interface below accretionary prisms. This study focuses on pillow basalts exposed in an ancient accretionary complex within the Shimanto Belt of southwest Japan and provides new quantitative data that provide insight into clay mineral reactions and the associated dehydration of underthrust basalts. Whole-rock and clay-fraction X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the progressive conversion of saponite to chlorite proceeds under an almost constant bulk-rock mineral assemblage. These clay mineral reactions may persist to deep crustal levels ( 320 °C), possibly contributing to the bulk dehydration of the basalt and supplying fluid to plate-boundary fault systems. This dehydration can also cause fluid pressurization at certain horizons within hydrous basalt sequences, eventually leading to fracturing and subsequent underplating of upper basement rock into the overriding accretionary prism. This dehydration-induced breakage of the basalt can explain variations in the thickness of accreted basalt fragments within accretionary prisms as well as the reported geochemical compositions of mineralized veins associated with exposed basalts in onland locations. This fracturing of intact basalt can also nucleate seismic rupturing that would subsequently propagate along seismogenic plate interfaces.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia collision zone based on 40Ar-39Ar thermochronology in Ladakh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Bhutani; Kanchan Pande; T R Venkatesan


    New 40Ar-39Ar thermochronological results from the Ladakh region in the India-Asia collision zone provide a tectono-thermal evolutionary scenario. The characteristic granodiorite of the Ladakh batholith near Leh yielded a plateau age of 46.3 ± 0.6Ma (2 ). Biotite from the same rock yielded a plateau age of 44.6 ± 0.3Ma (2 ). The youngest phase of the Ladakh batholith, the leucogranite near Himya, yielded a cooling pattern with a plateau-like age of ∼36 Ma. The plateau age of muscovite from the same rock is 29.8 ± 0.2Ma (2 ). These ages indicate post-collision tectonothermal activity, which may have been responsible for partial melting within the Ladakh batholith. Two basalt samples from Sumdo Nala have also recorded the post-collision tectono-thermal event, which lasted at least for 8MY in the suture zone since the collision, whereas in the western part of the Indus Suture, pillow lava of Chiktan showed no effect of this event and yielded an age of emplacement of 128.2 ± 2.6Ma (2 ). The available data indicate that post-collision deformation led to the crustal thickening causing an increase in temperature, which may have caused partial melting at the base of the thickened crust. The high thermal regime propagated away from the suture with time.

  6. Extraction of the respiratory signal from small-animal CT projections for a retrospective gating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ChavarrIas, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; RodrIguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; GarcIa-Barreno, P; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Anexo PsiquiatrIa, 1 Planta. C/Ibiza, 43. Madrid 28007 (Spain)


    We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%.

  7. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element (United States)

    Miedzińska, D.; Gieleta, R.; Osiński, J.


    A vibratory pile hammer (VPH) is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  8. Paleogene volcanism in Central Afghanistan: Possible far-field effect of the India-Eurasia collision (United States)

    Motuza, Gediminas; Šliaupa, Saulius


    A volcanic-sedimentary succession of Paleogene age is exposed in isolated patches at the southern margin of the Tajik block in the Ghor province of Central Afghanistan. The volcanic rocks range from basalts and andesites to dacites, including adakites. They are intercalated with sedimentary rocks deposited in shallow marine environments, dated biostratigraphically as Paleocene-Eocene. This age corresponds to the age of the Asyābēd andesites located in the western Ghor province estimated by the 40Ar/39Ar method as 54 Ma. The magmatism post-dates the Cimmerian collision between the Tajik block (including the Band-e-Bayan block) and the Farah Rod block located to the south. While the investigated volcanic rocks apparently bear geochemical signatures typical to an active continental margin environment, it is presumed that the magmatism was related to rifting processes most likely initiated by far-field tectonics caused by the terminal collision of the Indian plate with Eurasia (Najman et al., 2017). This event led to the dextral movement of the Farah Rod block, particularly along Hari Rod (Herat) fault system, resulting in the development of a transtensional regime in the proximal southern margin of the Tajik block and giving rise to a rift basin where marine sediments were interbedded with pillow lavas intruded by sheeted dyke series.

  9. Salt-related structural styles of Kuqa foreland fold belt, northern Tarim basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Liangjie; JIA; Chengzao; PI; Xuejun; CHEN; Suping; W


    The salt beds of Lower Tertiary developed in the mid-segment of Kuqa foreland fold belt, northern Tarim basin. They considerably controlled structural deformation of the belt.According to the field observation, seismic profile interpretation and drilling data, three different structural styles of supra-salt, intra-salt and sub-salt occurred in the Kuqa foreland fold belt. Supra-salt structural styles mainly include thrust faults and fault-related sags. Intra-slat structural styles essentially are salt-pillows, intra-salt faults and folds, and salt weld structures. Sub-salt structural styles mainly consist of imbricated thrust faults, duplex structures, pop-up and fault-related folds. It is indicated that great differences exist among supra-salt, intra-salt and sub-salt structures of Kuqa foreland fold belt. The salt-related structures were formed in the same structural stress field. The dynamic mechanism of the salt-related structures is mainly associated with gravitation, compression and plastic flow of salt beds.

  10. Evolución geoquímica y temporal del magmatismo básico mesozoico en las Zonas Externas de las Cordilleras Béticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, L.


    Full Text Available The Mesozoic basic magmatism found in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras (ZECB is represented either as «ophites» forming small dimension tectonic blocks intercalated in the Keuper gypsum-rich, clay sediments, or also as lava ilow bodies, most of them with pillow structures, within the Jurassic sedimentary rocks. Geochemical characteristics of these rocks indicate sorne differences between these two magmatic series. Two different chemical affinities have been carried out within the «ophites»: a with modal orthopyroxene and tholeiitic affinity; and b with modal olivine and transitionalalkaline affinity. Chemical characteristics of this last group are similar to those of the volcanic rocks from the Jurassic sediments. The field relationships found in sorne «ophite» outcrops al!ow us to deduce that the tholeiitic rocks are mostly present as extrusive rocks. However, their older whole-rock K-Ar ages range between 182 ± 9 and 187 ± 4 M.a., and do not correctly represent Upper Triassic ages. Transitional-alkaline «ophites» occur as subvolcanic rocks and their older obtained radiometric age is 137 ± 4 M.a. Al! these radiometric ages obtained may be intepreted as a result of the hybridization between the age of the Triassic magmatism and the very low- to low-grade metamorphism present in these rocks. This metamorphism is responsable for the new formed secondary paragenesis, made of prehnite + pumpel! yite + sericitie + mafic phyl!osicates. Radiometric age obtained in sorne intra-Jurassic volcanic rocks range between 155 ± 3 to 166 ± 4 M.a. These new radiometric data and field relationships are used to define the Mesozoic magmatic evolution in the ZECB. Tholeiitic magmatism was generated during an initial Triassic distensive stage. After this magmatic event, and as a consequence of an increment of the distensive regime, with important continental crust thickening, transitionalalkaline magmatism occurS. This

  11. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard


    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  12. Does cryotherapy improve skin circulation compared with compression and elevation in preventing venous leg ulcers? (United States)

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; Madisetti, Mohan; Prentice, Margie A; Dooley, Mary J


    This trial compared skin blood flow, temperature and incidence of venous leg ulcers in patients with chronic venous disease using compression wraps and elevation pillows. Patients with CEAP C4 skin damage and C5 history of ulcers were randomly assigned to a cryotherapy intervention (n = 138) or placebo cuff control (n = 138) applied to the lower legs over 9 months. The time the ulcers healed prior to enrollment in the study for the cryotherapy group ranged from 1 to 2218 days (n = 8, median = 32 days); for the control group, the range was 24 to 489 days (n = 6, median = 390 days). There were no statistically significant blood flow changes measured in perfusion units with a laser Doppler flowmetre within or between the groups; mean difference between the groups was 0·62, P = 0·619. No differences were noted in skin temperature measured with an infrared thermometer within and between the groups; mean difference between the groups was -0·17°C, P = 0·540. Cryotherapy did not improve skin blood flow or temperature and did not show efficacy in preventing ulcers. However, at least 30% of intervention and 50% of control participants were anticipated to develop an ulcer during the study; only ∼7% occurred. These findings suggest that strict adherence to standard of care decreases the incidence of leg ulcers and remains a best practice for leg ulcer prevention.

  13. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea (United States)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads


    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  14. An audit of health products advertised for sale on chiropractic Web sites in Canada and consideration of these practices in the context of Canadian chiropractic codes of ethics and conduct. (United States)

    Page, Stacey A; Grod, Jaroslaw P


    This study describes the extent to which chiropractors with Web sites practicing in Canada advertise health products for sale and considers this practice in the context of chiropractic codes of ethics and conduct. Chiropractic Web sites in Canada were identified using a public online business directory (Canada 411). The Web sites were searched, and an inventory of the health products for sale was taken. The influences of type of practice and province of practice on the sale of health product were assessed. Textual comments about health product marketing were summarized. National and provincial codes of ethics were reviewed, and the content on health product advertising was summarized. Two hundred eighty-seven Web sites were reviewed. Just more than half of the Web sites contained information on health products for sale (n = 158, 54%). Orthotics were advertised most often (n = 136 practices, 47%), followed by vitamins/nutritional supplements (n = 53, 18%), pillows and supports (n = 40, 14%), and exercise/rehabilitation products (n = 20, 7%). Chiropractors in solo or group chiropractic practices were less likely to advertise health products than those in multidisciplinary practice (P ethics and conduct varied in their guidelines regarding health product sales. Variations in codes of ethics and in the proportions of practitioners advertising health products for sales across the country suggest that opinions may be divided on the acceptability of health product sales. Such practices raise questions and considerations for the chiropractic profession.

  15. Geochronology and Geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Aoyougou Ophiolite in the North Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Aoyougou ophiolite lies in an early Palaeozoic orogenic belt of the western North Qilian Mountains, near the Aoyougou valley in Gansu Province, northwestern China. It consists of serpentinite, a cumulate sequence of gabbro and diorite, pillow and massive lavas, diabase and chert. Ages of 1840±2 Ma, 1783±2 Ma and 1784±2 Ma on three zircons from diabase, indicate an early Middle Proterozoic age. The diabases and basalts show light rare-earth element enrichment and have relatively high TiO2 contents, characteristic of ocean island basalts. All of the lavas have low MgO, Cr, Ni contents and Mg numbers indicating a more evolved character. They are believed to have been derived from a more mafic parental magma by fractionation of olivine, Cr-spinel and minor plagioclase. Based on the lava geochemistry and regional geology, the Aoyougou ophiolite was probably believed to have formed at a spreading centre in a small marginal basin. Subduction of the newly formed oceanic lithosphere in the Middle Proterozoic produced a trench-arc-basin system, which is preserved in the North Qilian Mountains.

  16. Right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Takinami


    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy under general anesthesia. A 75-year-old man was intubated without excessive retroflexion, and his upper body was held in place by lateral body positioners with protective cushions over the chest and acromioclavicular joints. The patient’s head was maintained at the center and held on the operation table with a memory-foam pillow to prevent hyperextension of the neck. The arms, abducted 80° with the forearms supinated, were held in place on the armrests with protective cushions. The surgical position was a 20° head-down lithotomy position with the right side of the body lowered by 15°. Surgery was completed successfully with no complications, and anesthesia time was 7 h and 37 min. After surgery, however, the patient complained of numbness and hypoesthesia on the radial and ulnar side, respectively, of the right arm from the elbow to the fingertips, with the boundary running between fingers 3 and 4. Dysesthesia was observed in the right fingertips of fingers 1–3. After 3 months of silver spike point low-frequency electrotherapy, hypoesthesia improved, while dysesthesia partially improved, in the dorsal area between right fingers 1 and 2.

  17. Adaptation of the Fresenius PD+ Cycler for a hearing-impaired patient. (United States)

    Kushner, A


    Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) uses a cycler to perform dialysis exchanges and requires the patient to respond to an audible alarm signifying an interruption in the therapy. Consequently, an unassisted hearing-impaired patient could not use the system. By converting the standard alarm to a vibrating signal, the cycler was successfully adapted to accommodate the special needs of our hearing-impaired patient. The items required for the modification were the Sonic Alert Wake Up Alarm (Model SA-WA300: Sonic Alert, Troy, MI, U.S.A.) and the Sonic Alert Super Shaker Bed Vibrator (Model SA-SS120V: Sonic Alert). The patient can place the vibrator under either the pillow or the mattress. When the cycler alarm is activated, vibration wakens the patient. The equipment was purchased from Harris Communications (Eden Prairie, MN, U.S.A.) through a referral by the Easter Seal Society. Three days were needed to complete training compared to an average of one or two days for patients previously trained for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient remained on cycler therapy for approximately four months when the unrelated development of an abdominal hernia required termination of peritoneal dialysis and subsequent transfer to hemodialysis. In conclusion, a modified cycler can provide a safe and efficient renal replacement therapy option for a hearing-impaired patient.

  18. Determination of ancient volcanic eruption center based on gravity methods (3D) in Gunungkidul area Yogyakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Santoso, Agus; Sismanto, Setiawan, Ary; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo


    Ancient eruption centers can be determined by detecting the position of the ancient volcanic material, it is important to understand the elements of ancient volcanic material by studying the area geologically and prove the existence of an ancient volcanic eruption centers using geophysics gravity method. The measuring instrument is Lacoste & Romberg gravimeter type 1115, the number of data are 900 points. The area 60×40 kilometers, the modeling 3D software is reaching depth of 15 km at the south of the island of Java subduction zone. It is suported by geological data in the field that are found as the following: 1. Pyroclastic Fall which is a product of volcanic eruptions, and lapilli tuff with felsic mineral. 2. Pyroclastic flow with Breccia, tuffaceous sandstone and tuff breccia. 3. Hot springs near Parangwedang Parangtritis. 4. Igneous rock with scoria structure in Parang Kusumo, structured amigdaloida which is the result of the eruption of lava/volcanic eruptions, and Pillow lava in the shows the flowing lava into the sea. Base on gravity anomaly shows that there are strong correlationship between those geological data to the gravity anomaly. The gravblox modeling (3D) shows the position of ancient of volcanic eruption in this area clearly.

  19. Back-Arc Extension in the Southern Andes: A Review and Critical Reappraisal (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.


    The interpretation that the mafic 'rocas verdes' (green rocks) complex of the southern Andes represents part of the uplifted floor of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous back-arc basin has proved particularly useful in understanding the geological evolution of the southern Andes, the north Scotia Ridge and the Antarctic Peninsula. Clear field evidence of the back-arc setting of the 'rocas verdes' gabbro-sheeted dyke - pillow lava ophiolitic assemblages has encouraged fruitful petrological and geochemical comparison with mid-ocean ridge and marginal basin basalts, other onshore ophiolite complexes, and Archaean greenstone belts. Uncertainty still surrounds estimates of the original width and depth of the basin, as well as the proportion of new mafic crust, compared with relict sialic crust, in the basin floor. These questions are unresolved, owing mainly to the considerable Lower Cretaceous turbiditic basin infill and the effects of mid-Cretaceous compressional deformation. While the field relations clearly indicate that the 'rocas verdes' basin is not an older piece of ocean floor 'trapped' behind a volcanic arc, it is not yet clear whether the basin is directly subduction-related or falls in the category of back-arc 'leaky transforms' like the proto-Gulf of California or apparent 'rip-off' features like the Andaman Sea.

  20. Optical spectroscopy of free-propagating plasma and its interaction with tungsten targets in PF-1000 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubkowska, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Garkusha, I.E.; Ladygina, M.; Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 61-108 Kharkov (Ukraine)


    The paper reports on optical spectroscopy of pulsed plasma streams during their free propagation within a vacuum chamber and their interaction with tungsten targets. Experiments were performed with the PF-1000 facility and particular attention was paid to improvements in spectroscopic diagnostics techniques. In contrary to preliminary studies, the recent spectroscopic measurements of the free plasma streams were carried out perpendicular to the z-axis and at a larger distance from the electrode outlet. The center of the observation quartz-window was located at z = 30 cm in order to observe first a pure deuterium-plasma stream, and later on some heavy impurities which might reach that distance with a delay induced by differences in their production and time-of-flight. The recorded spectral lines were identified by means of a Kurucz database. It was confirmed that at the pure D{sub 2}-filling the PF-1000 facility emits first the deuterium-plasma stream and one can observe intense deuterium Balmer lines, but at a distance z = 30 cm, after about 2 microseconds there appear many impurity lines originating mainly from the Cu-electrodes, i.e. Cu-lines. The second part of the experiment concerned the spectroscopic measurements of metal plasma 'pillow' produced by the plasma stream impinging upon a solid target made of pure tungsten. The described measurements enabled the most intense spectral lines to be identified. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation

  1. Raman-IR vibrational and XRD characterization of ancient and modern mineralogy from volcanic eruption in Tenerife Island: Implication for Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Lalla


    Full Text Available A detailed vibrational Raman-IR spectroscopic and diffractional analyses have been performed on basalts from two locations from Tenerife Island: (1 the Arenas Negras volcano which belongs to the historical eruption not showing visible alteration and (2 Pillow Lavas zone from Anaga Massif which shows a clearly fluid-rock interaction caused by submarine alteration. These places have been extensively studied due to its similarity with the surface of Mars. The analysis is based on the mineral detection of selected samples by a Micro-Raman study of the materials. The complementary techniques have confirmed the mineralogy detected by the Raman measurement. The results show a volcanic environment behavior with primary phases like olivine, pyroxene, and feldspar/plagioclase. Moreover, the presence of accessory minerals or secondary mineralization like phosphate, iron oxides, zeolite or carbonates shows the alteration processes on each outcrop. The variation in the crystallinity and amorphous phases is related to fluid-rock interaction caused by hydrothermal episodes and external weathering processes, which shows several analogies with the ancient volcanic activity from Mars.

  2. Echosonogrametric diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip. (United States)

    Vrdoljak, J; Bojić, D


    In view of adding to ultrasonographic scanning of the neonatal hip through various projections and in order to improve the measurement and quantification base of the normal and dysplastic neonatal hip, the research was conducted on anatomic hip preparation of full-term still-born baby. The research on a clinical sample covered 600 ultrasonically examined normal and dysplastic hips. Ultrasonographic serial scanning was performed on various planes using linear transducer with 5 and 7.5 MHz and with or without a water pillow. On the clinical sample of the particular group various projections were applied and results compared with projections obtained on anatomic preparation. Concluded was that with several projections frontal sonographic projections tomographic examination of the hip joint could be performed. Better insight of the position of the femoral head at rest in neutral and flexed positions, the relative stability of the hip with motion and stress and the depth and configuration of the bony and cartilaginous portions of the acetabulum could be obtained if, besides frontal sections, cross sections of the hip were used. Sufficient measurement data echosonogrametric parameters were indispensable for an adequate definition of all hip joint structures.

  3. New findings on object permanence: A developmental difference between two types of occlusion. (United States)

    Moore, M Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N


    Manual search for totally occluded objects was investigated in 10-, 12- and 14-month-old infants. Infants responded to two types of total hiding in different ways, supporting the inference that object permanence is not a once-and-for-all attainment. Occlusion of an object by movement of a screen over it was solved at an earlier age than occlusion in which an object was carried under the screen. This dissociation was not explained by motivation, motor skill or means-ends coordination, because for both tasks the same object was hidden in the same place under the same screen and required the same uncovering response. This dissociation generalized across an experimentally manipulated change in recovery means-infants removed cloths while seated at a table in Expt 1 and were required to crawl through 3-D space to displace semi-rigid pillows in Expt 2. Further analysis revealed that emotional response varied as a function of hiding, suggesting an affective correlate of infant cognition. There are four empirical findings to account for: developmental change, task dissociation, generalization of the effects across recovery means, and emotional reactions. An identity-development theory is proposed explaining these findings in terms of infants' understanding of object identity and the developmental relationship between object identity and object permanence. Object identity is seen as a necessary precursor to the development of object permanence.

  4. From unwitnessed fatality to witnessed rescue: Nonpharmacologic interventions in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Fergus; Duncan, John; Hjalgrim, Helle; Seyal, Masud; Bateman, Lisa


    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) risk reduction remains a critical aim in epilepsy care. To date, only aggressive medical and surgical efforts to control seizures have been demonstrated to be of benefit. Incomplete understanding of SUDEP mechanisms limits the development of more specific interventions. Periictal cardiorespiratory dysfunction is implicated in SUDEP; postictal electroencephalography (EEG) suppression, coma, and immobility may also play a role. Nocturnal supervision is protective against SUDEP, presumably by permitting intervention in the case of a life-threatening event. Resuscitative efforts were implemented promptly in near-SUDEP cases but delayed in SUDEP deaths in the Mortality in Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Study (MORTEMUS) study. Nursing interventions--including repositioning, oral suctioning, and oxygen administration--reduce seizure duration, respiratory dysfunction, and EEG suppression in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU), but have not been studied in outpatients. Cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillator devices may be of benefit in a few select individuals. A role for implantable neurostimulators has not yet been established. Seizure detection devices, including those that monitor generalized tonic-clonic seizure-associated movements or cardiorespiratory parameters, may provide a means to permit timely periictal intervention. However, these and other devices, such as antisuffocation pillows, have not been adequately investigated with respect to SUDEP prevention.

  5. Delineating tectonic units beneath the Donbas Fold Belt using scale lengths estimated from DOBRE 2000/2001 deep reflection data (United States)

    Carpentier, S. F. A.; Roy-Chowdhury, K.; Stephenson, R. A.; Stovba, S.


    A novel statistical analysis, which augments conventional interpretation of deep seismic reflection/refraction data, is applied to the DOBRE 2000/2001 reflection profile. The goal is to improve delineation of the lithosphere in terms of lithotectonic units and to compare these to existing interpretations. After a successful validation of the method using synthetic data, stochastic parameters estimated from windowed average lateral autocorrelations in the DOBRE data are compiled in a two-dimensional profile of von Karman-type causative reflectivity. These estimates in terms of lateral correlation lengths and power law exponents are accompanied by associated uncertainties. Given its low uncertainties, the lateral correlation length ax turns out to be a robust delineator. The profile of ax reveals systematic spatial variations in the lithospheric fabric below the Donbas Fold Belt. As in earlier interpretations based upon conventional processing of reflection/refraction data, both the sedimentary basin and Moho discontinuity stand out clearly, as well as a region indicating massive vertical intrusion in the crust from upper mantle sills and ultramafic underplating of the lower crust. Notable differences with conventional interpretations include the number and extent of supra-Moho rift pillow structures, the lack of imaging a crust-cutting dislocation feature and a laterally disturbed uppermost mantle. Von Karman lateral correlation length provides new independent information at a scale between velocity models from wide-angle reflection/refraction data and line drawings from near vertical reflections and provides new insights and understanding of lithospheric evolution.

  6. Formation and tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Jurassic Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex, Pakistan: Implications for the composite tectonic setting of ophiolites (United States)

    Khan, Mehrab; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mahmood, Khalid


    The Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex Balochistan, Pakistan is comprised of an upper and lower nappe and represents one of a number of ophiolites in this region which mark the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. These ophiolites were obducted onto the Indian continental margin around the Late Cretaceous, prior to the main collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The upper nappe contains mantle sequence rocks with numerous isolated gabbro plutons which we show are fed by dolerite dykes. Each pluton has a transitional dunite-rich zone at its base, and new geochemical data suggest a similar mantle source region for both the plutons and dykes. In contrast, the lower nappe consists of pillow basalts, deep-marine sediments and a mélange of ophiolitic rocks. The rocks of the upper nappe have a geochemical signature consistent with formation in an island arc environment whereas the basalts of the lower nappe contain no subduction component and are most likely to have formed at a mid-ocean ridge. The basalts and sediments of the lower nappe have been intruded by oceanic alkaline igneous rocks during the northward drift of the Indian plate. The two nappes of the Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex are thus distinctively different in terms of their age, lithology and tectonic setting. The recognition of composite ophiolites such as this has an important bearing on the identification and interpretation of ophiolites where the plate tectonic setting is less well resolved.

  7. The Neoproterozoic Malani magmatism of the northwestern Indian shield: Implications for crust-building processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal K Sharma


    Malani is the largest event of anorogenic felsic magmatism (covering ∼50,000km2) in India. This magmatic activity took place at ∼750Ma post-dating the Erinpura granite (850 Ma) and ended prior to Marwar Supergroup (680 Ma) sedimentation. Malani eruptions occurred mostly on land, but locally sub-aqueous conditions are shown by the presence of conglomerate, grits and pillow lava. The Malani rocks do not show any type of regional deformation effects. The Malanis are characterised by bimodal volcanism with a dominant felsic component, followed by granitic plutonism and a terminal dyke phase. An angular unconformity between Malani lavas and basement is observed, with the presence of conglomerate at Sindreth, Diri, and Kankani. This indicates that the crust was quite stable and peneplained prior to the Malani activity. Similarly, the absence of any thrust zone, tectonic m´elange and tectonised contact of the Malanis with the basement goes against a plate subduction setting for their genesis. After the closure of orogenic cycles in the Aravalli craton of the northwestern shield, this anorogenic intraplate magmatic activity took place in a cratonic rift setting under an extensional tectonic regime.

  8. Geologic form and setting of a hydrothermal vent field at lat 10°56‧N, East Pacific Rise: A detailed study using Angus and Alvin (United States)

    McConachy, T. F.; Ballard, R. D.; Mottl, M. J.; von Herzen, R. P.


    A hydrothermal vent field, here called the Feather Duster site, occurs on the eastern marginal high near the edge of a narrow (95-m) and shallow (15 20-m) axial graben, within an area dominated by sheet flows and collapse features. The sheet flows are intermediate in relative age between younger fluid-flow lavas on the floor of the axial graben and older pillow (constructional) lavas on the marginal highs. Hydrothermal activity occurs in two zones within a 65 by 45 m area. The main zone is located where a fissure system and sulfide-sulfate chimneys vent warm (9 47 °C) and hot (347 °C) hydrothermal fluids. Here, two mounds of massive sulfide totaling about 200 t are forming. One occurs at the base of a 3-m-high scarp which is the wall of a drained lava lake; the other is perched on top of the scarp. *Present address: Department of Geology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A1

  9. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Ozcelik


    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptuniandykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitationalinstabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  10. In-situ dating of the Earth's oldest trace fossil at 3.34 Ga (United States)

    Fliegel, D.; Kosler, J.; McLoughlin, N.; Simonetti, A.; de Wit, M. J.; Wirth, R.; Furnes, H.


    Microbial activity in volcanic glass within the oceanic crust can produce micron sized pits and tunnels. Such biogenic textures have been described from the recent oceanic crust and mineralized equivalents in pillow lavas as old as 3.47-3.45 Ga from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) of South Africa. In meta-volcanic glasses these microbial traces are preserved by titanite mineralization (CaTiSiO 5) and on the basis of morphological, textural and geochemical evidence have been argued to represent Earth's oldest trace fossils. Here we report the results of in-situ U-Pb dating of titanite that infills trace fossils from the Hooggenoeg Complex of the BGB using laser ablation MC-ICP-MS (multi-collector inductively coupled, plasma mass spectrometry). This yields a titanite age of 3.342 ± 0.068 Ga demonstrating the antiquity of the BGB trace fossils. This radiometric age confirms that a sub-seafloor biosphere was already established in the PaleoArchean and that it likely represented an important habitat for the emergence and evolution of early microbial life on the Earth.

  11. Diamictite from Nimrod Glacier area, Antarctica: Possible Proterozoic glaciation on the seventh continent (United States)

    Stump, Edmund; Miller, Julia M. G.; Korsch, Russell J.; Edgerton, David G.


    Late Proterozoic glacial deposits have been found on all continents except Antarctica. Here we describe four units of Late Proterozoic diamictite, with a total thickness of about 10m, from Panorama Point, Nimrod Glacier area, Antarctica, which have characteristics compatible with glaciogenic origin. The diamictite occurs within the Goldie Formation, a sequence of marine turbidites, and is associated with a unit of mafic pillow lavas. The diamictite is commonly structureless and in places laminated. Coarse clasts occur as scattered pebbles and cobbles and as pebbly pods and beds. No striated or faceted clasts were found. A few pebbles may pierce the laminae, but a drop-stone origin is uncertain. Deformation and metamorphism have obscured subtleties of original sedimentary structure. Outsize clasts in laminated sandy siltstone (now schistose) suggest a glaciogenic origin for these diamictites, but deposition by mass-flow processes cannot be ruled out. The discovery in Antarctica of possible Late Proterozoic glaciogenic deposits extends their geographic distribution to all of the major continental masses.

  12. 6d Dual Conformal Symmetry and Minimal Volumes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy


    The S-matrix of a theory often exhibits symmetries which are not manifest from the viewpoint of its Lagrangian. For instance, powerful constraints on scattering amplitudes are imposed by the dual conformal symmetry of planar 4d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory and the ABJM theory. Motivated by this, we investigate the consequences of dual conformal symmetry in six dimensions, which may provide useful insight into the worldvolume theory of M5-branes (if it enjoys such a symmetry). We find that 6d dual conformal symmetry uniquely fixes the integrand of the one-loop 4-point amplitude, and its structure suggests a Lagrangian with more than two derivatives. On integrating out the loop momentum in $6-2 \\epsilon$ dimensions, the result is very similar to the corresponding amplitude of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory. We confirm this result holographically by generalizing the Alday-Maldacena solution for a minimal area string in Anti-de Sitter space to a minimal volume M2-brane ending on pillow-shaped ...

  13. Soft-sediment deformation structures related to volcanic earthquakes of the Lower Cretaceous Qingshan Group in Lingshan Island, Shandong Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Qi Zhou


    The SSDS types in the Qingshan Group includes load and flame structure, ball and pillow structure, water-escape structure, hydroplastic deformation structure, plastic sandstone breccia structure, volcanic drop stone and V-shaped ground fissure mainly caused by volcanic earthquakes of three types: (1 seismic waves, (2 gravity and inertia effect of pyroclastic flows, (3 instant differential air pressure; which is different from slumping and tectonic earthquakes occurred in the Laiyang Group. In addition, with the lithofacies association analysis between pyroclastic flow and SSDS beds, a distribution model of SSDS related to volcanic earthquakes can be established: SSDS types changed gradually with their distance further away from the volcanic activity core. Brittle deformation which was common in the proximal zone disappeared gradually; liquefied and plastic SSDS continued to dominate in the medial zone; and slightly liquefied SSDS were developed in the distal zone. Meanwhile, the scale and size of SSDS is negatively correlated with the distance of SSDS depositional locations from the volcanic vent.

  14. Plume-proximal mid-ocean ridge origin of Zhongba mafic rocks in the western Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Southern Tibet (United States)

    He, Juan; Li, Yalin; Wang, Chengshan; Dilek, Yildirim; Wei, Yushuai; Chen, Xi; Hou, Yunling; Zhou, Aorigele


    The >2000 km-long Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) in southern Tibet includes the remnants of the Mesozoic Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, and is divided by the Zhada-Zhongba microcontinent into northern and southern branches in its western segment. Zircon U-Pb dating of a doleritic rock from the northern branch has revealed a concordant age of 160.5 ± 1.3 Ma. All of the doleritic samples from the northern branch and the pillow basalt and gabbro samples from the southern branch display consistent REE and trace element patterns similar to those of modern OIB-type rocks. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures of these OIB-type rocks from the western segment are identical with those of OIB-type and alkaline rocks from other ophiolite massifs along the central and eastern segments of the YZSZ, suggesting a common mantle plume source for their melt evolution. The enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic character of the gabbroic dike rocks from the southern branch points to a mantle plume source, contaminated by subducted oceanic crust or pelagic sediments. We infer that the mafic rock associations exposed along the YZSZ represent the remnants of a Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere, which was developed as part of a plume-proximal seafloor-spreading system, reminiscent of the seamount chains along-across the modern mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific Ocean.

  15. [Sleeping habits related to sudden infant death syndrome: a population-based study]. (United States)

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue


    This cross-sectional study on sleeping habits with potential risk for sudden infant death syndrome included all live births in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003 with data collection from Certificates of Live Birth and interviews, analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test. From the 2,634 live births, 2,285 children were selected (86.75%), with 8.4% exclusion and 5.2% losses. Protective habits included 77% of infants with appropriate clothing, 90% loosely wrapped, 69% with thin blankets, 98% sleeping in the parents' bedroom, and 56% in the crib. Potentially risky habits included lateral decubitus (92%), use of a pillow (88%), and feet far from the lower edge of the crib (96%). Among low-income families, bed-sharing with other children was significant (p = 0.00). Thus, in a county with a low prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome, infants are exposed to both protective and risk factors, suggesting that in underprivileged populations in developing countries, other risk factors for this syndrome should be considered.

  16. Studies of noble gases in meteorites and in the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.P.


    The isotopic and elemental abundances of noble gases in the solar system are investigated, using simple mixing models and mass-spectrometric measurements of the noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial rocks and minerals. Primordial neon is modeled by two isotopically distinct components from the interstellar gas and dust. Neon from the gas dominates solar neon, which contains about ten times more /sup 20/Ne than /sup 22/Ne. Neon in meteorites consists of galactic cosmic ray spallation neon and at least two primordial components, neon-E and neon-S. Neon was measured in several meteorites to investigate these end-members. Ca,Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite were examined for correlation between neon-E and oxygen or magnesium isotopic anomalies. Measurements were made to determine the noble gas contents of various terrestrial rocks and minerals, and to investigate the cycling of noble gases between different terrestrial reservoirs. Juvenile and atmospheric gases have been measured in the glassy rims of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) pillow basalts. Evidence is presented that three samples contain excess radiogenic /sup 129/Xe and fission xenon, in addition to the excess radiogenic /sup 40/Ar found in all samples. The Skaergaard data demonstrate that atmospheric noble gases dissolved in ground water can be transferred into crustal rocks. Subduction of oceanic crust altered by seawater can transport atmospheric noble gases into the upper mantle.

  17. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onah Isegbe Emmanuel


    Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.

  18. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu , C.N. Kus


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera:Cimicidae is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbuginfestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Governmentarea in Benue state, Nigeria.Methods: Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquitonets and bamboo beds were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-pickingtechnique. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis for differences in the infestation levels inharbourages and sampling locations.Results: Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation asegg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestationrate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other studylocations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (2 = 7.92, df = 6,p >0.05. Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%,while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestationrates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher thanother items inspected (2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05.Interpretation & conclusion: This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidencesof infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detectionand education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.

  19. Functional cervical MRI within the scope of whiplash injuries: presentation of a new motion device for the cervical spine. (United States)

    Birnbaum, Klaus; Maus, Uwe; Tacke, Josef


    Frequently following a whiplash injury of the cervical spine, patients suffer from persistent pain symptoms. The MRI will in some of these cases show changes consistent with disk pathology or spinal stenosis, although in most instances the imaging studies will offer no adequate explanation for the described symptoms. The goal of our research was to develop and test a new MRI compatible device that will allow functional imaging of the cervical spine. A total of 30 patients with whiplash injuries were evaluated during the first 6 weeks following trauma with the functional MRI. The examination was carried out with a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence utilizing a new apparatus consisting of an inflatable air bag contained in a Plexiglas housing. Thanks to a valve placed outside of the examination room, it was possible to individually regulate the amount of air used to fill the pillow, thereby obtaining a full range of motion between flexion and extension. In 25 cases no pathology was found during this examination. Two patients presented with scarring of the alar ligaments, indicative of a traumatic lesion. In two other instances the images in reclination revealed a bulging disk, while in one case a widening of the disk space was found as a sign for a rupture of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Our study was able to demonstrate the applicability of the new functional testing device, which permits a standardized, continuous and dynamic evaluation of the cervical spine in a closed MRI.

  20. Volcano-ice interactions on Mars (United States)

    Allen, C. C.


    Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar composition. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick.

  1. Environmental implication of subaqueous lava flows from a continental Large Igneous Province: Examples from the Moroccan Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) (United States)

    El Ghilani, S.; Youbi, N.; Madeira, J.; Chellai, E. H.; López-Galindo, A.; Martins, L.; Mata, J.


    The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic volcanic sequence of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) of Morocco is classically subdivided into four stratigraphic units: the Lower, Middle, Upper and Recurrent Formations separated by intercalated sediments deposited during short hiatuses in volcanic activity. Although corresponding to a Large Igneous Province formed in continental environment, it contains subaqueous lava flows, including dominant pillowed flows but also occasional sheet flows. We present a study of the morphology, structure and morphometry of subaqueous lava flows from three sections located at the Marrakech High-Atlas (regions of Aït-Ourir, Jbel Imzar and Oued Lhar-Herissane), as well as an analysis of the sediments, in order to characterize them and to understand their environmental meaning. The analysis of clays by the diffraction method X-ray revealed the presence of illite, mica, phengite, céladonite, talc and small amounts of quartz, hematite, calcite and feldspar, as well as two pairs of interbedded irregular (chlorite Smectite/chlorite-Mica). Fibrous minerals such as sepiolite and palygorskite were not detected. The peperite of Herissane region (Central High Atlas) provided an excellent overview on the factors favoring the magma-sediment interaction. These are the products of a mixture of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated sediments, low permeability with a low viscosity magma. The attempt of dating palynology proved unfortunately without results.

  2. In-flight lift and drag measurements on a first generation jet transport equipped with winglets (United States)

    Lux, D. P.


    A KC-135A aircraft equipped with wing tip winglets was flight tested to demonstrate and validate the potential performance gain of the winglet concept as predicted from analytical and wind tunnel data. Flight data were obtained at cruise conditions for Mach numbers of 0.70, 0.75, and 0.80 at a nominal altitude of 36,000 ft. and winglet configurations of 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence, 0 deg cant/-4 deg incidence, and baseline. For the Mach numbers tested the data show that the addition of winglets did not affect the lifting characteristics of the wing. However, both winglet configurations showed a drag reduction over the baseline configuration, with the best winglet configuration being the 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence configuration. This drag reduction due to winglets also increased with increasing lift coefficient. It was also shown that a small difference exists between the 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence flight and wind tunnel predicted data. This difference was attributed to the pillowing of the winglet skins in flight which would decrease the winglet performance.

  3. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedzińska D.


    Full Text Available A vibratory pile hammer (VPH is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE, whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  4. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope systematics and geochemical studies on metavolcanic rocks from Peddavura greenstone belt: Evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in easternmost part of Dharwar Craton, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Rajamanickam; S Balakrishnan; R Bhutani


    Linear, north–south trending Peddavura greenstone belt occurs in easternmost part of the Dharwar Craton. It consists of pillowed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites (BBA) and rhyolites interlayered with ferruginous chert that were formed under submarine condition. Rhyolites were divided into type-I and II based on their REE abundances and HREE fractionation. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope studies were carried out on the rock types to understand the evolution of the Dharwar Craton. Due to source heterogeneity Sm–Nd isotope system has not yielded any precise age. Rb–Sr whole-rock isochron age of 2551 ± 19 (MSWD = 1.16) Ma for BBA group could represent time of seafloor metamorphism after the formation of basaltic rocks. Magmas representing BBA group of samples do not show evidence for crustal contamination while magmas representing type-II rhyolites had undergone variable extents of assimilation of Mesoarchean continental crust (< 3.3 Ga) as evident from their initial Nd isotope values. Trace element and Nd isotope characteristics of type I rhyolites are consistent with model of generation of their magmas by partial melting of mixed sources consisting of basalt and oceanic sediments with continental crustal components. Thus this study shows evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in Peddavura area in eastern part of Dharwar Craton.

  5. The Customs Adjusted Certain Import Duties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to adapt to market development, the General Administration of Customs recently has revised the “Classification Table for Imported Articles of the People's Republic of China” and “Duty-Paid Price List for Imported Articles of the People's Republic of China”, and the new standard was put into practice on April 15th, 2012. According to the Announcement No.15, 2012, of the General Administration of Customs, the rate of duty on imports of clothing, accessories, home textiles, and others whose duty paragraph is 04000000 is adjusted to 20%, and the leather clothing and its accessories (including all kinds of leather garments and leather accessories) of duty paragraph 05000000 see the adjustment to 10%. As for the former one, the clothing includes coat, trousers, underwear, shirt/T-shirt, and other clothing; accessories include hats, scarves, headcloth, neckerchief, ties, belts, gloves, socks, handkerchiefs and so on; home textiles refer to blankets, quilts, pillows, bedspreads, sleeping bags, screens, etc.; the others are towels, bath towels, tablecloths, curtains, and carpets.

  6. Milestone 5 test report. Task 5, subtask 5.2: Tile to foam strength tests (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.


    This report summarizes work that has been performed to date on the strength of a cryotank insulation system using Rohacell foam and TUFI-coated AETB-12 ceramic tiles directly bonded to a simulated graphite-epoxy tank wall. Testing utilized a custom specimen design which consists of a long tensile specimen with eccentric loading to induce curvature similar to the curvature expected due to 'pillowing' of the tank when pressurized. A finite element model was constructed to predict the specific element strains in the test article, and to assist with design of the test specimen to meet the specific goals of curvature and laminate strain. The results indicate that the heat treated 3.25-pcf density Rohacell foam does not provide sufficient strength for the induced stresses due to curvature and stress concentration at the RTV bondline to the TUFI tile. The test was repeated using higher density non-heat treated Rohacell foam (6.9 pcf) without foam failure. The finite element model was shown to predict specimen behavior, and validation of the model was successful. It is pertinent to mention that the analyses described herein accurately predicted the failure of the heat treated foams and based on this analysis method it is expected that the untreated 3.25 pcf Rohacell foam will be successful.

  7. Accidental childhood death and the role of the pathologist. (United States)

    Byard, R W


    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings, accidental asphyxia, burns, poisonings, electrocution, and miscellaneous trauma. In addition, certain categories have undergone further examination, including asphyxial deaths due to unsafe sleeping environments and unsafe eating practices, drowning deaths, and deaths on farms, following identification of significant child safety problems in these areas as part of the "Keeping Your Baby and Child Safe" program. Previously unrecognized dangers to children detected through this program include mesh-sided cots, V-shaped pillows, and certain types of stroller-prams. The production of information pamphlets and packages for parents and the recall of certain dangerous products following recommendations made by pathologists demonstrate that pediatric and forensic pathologists have an important role to play in preventive medicine issues and in formulating public health strategies.

  8. Relationship between salt diapirism and faulting in the central structural belt of the Dongying sag, Bohai Gulf basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianguo; LI Sanzhong; WANG Jinduo; TIMOTHY M Kusky; WANG Xinhong; LU Shengqiang


    Many growth faults developed in the Dongying sag of the Jiyang depression of the Bohai Gulf basin, China. These normal growth faults consist of flower-like grabens in the hanging walls of the major faults, accompanied by reverse dragging. The central structural belt is an important structural unit in the Dongying sag, and is divided into a series of small blocks by these faults. These internal blocks can be classified into five structural classes, including parallel blocks, arc-shape blocks, plume-like blocks, ring-radial blocks,and splay blocks. It is shown that these complicated block classes and the "negative flower-like" fault associations in the central structural belt resulted from regional NNW-SSE extension accompanying local salt diapirism and related reverse dragging, rather than strike-slip faulting. On the basis of the diapirism strength, diapers in the central structural belt can be divided into lower salt ridges and pillows, and blind piercing structures. Diapirs are mainly composed of some salts with a little soft mudstone and gypsum. These structures began forming during deposition of the Sha 3 member and terminated during deposition of the Guangtao formation.

  9. Fissuring near the TAG active hydrothermal mound, 26°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Kleinrock, M. C.


    Analysis of 12,000 electronic still camera images collected with the ARGO II vehicle near the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) active hydrothermal mound, 26°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has made possible the first quantitative in situ assessment of both fissure orientation and width within the median valley of a slow-spreading ridge. Fissures near the TAG mound are partially rubble-filled extensional fractures that cut lightly sedimented seafloor and in ∼1% of our observations host pillow lavas. Fissure widths range from 0.15 to 3.5 m, with a mean of 0.7 m, and do not vary systematically within the survey area. First-order estimates of crack depth, based on these width measurements and reasonable elastic moduli, indicate that fissures are restricted to depths 45° from the strike of the ridge axis. The formation of obliquely oriented fissures requires that the local least compressive stress direction varies (at least temporarily) from that predicted by the regional tectonic stress field associated with plate separation. This stress field reorientation may be facilitated by variations in the style of magma emplacement within the rift. The close spatial association of long-term hydrothermal activity, fissure-hosted lava flows, and faults and fissures trending oblique to the spreading axis suggests a causal relationship between the impact of dike intrusion and the maintenance of localized hydrothermal flow.

  10. Investigation of interactions of intense plasma streams with tungsten and carbon fibre composite targets in the PF-1000 facility (United States)

    Kubkowska, Monika; Skladnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Kwiatkowski, Roch; Malinowski, Karol; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, Ewa; Paduch, Marian; Sadowski, Marek J.; Pisarczyk, Tadeusz; Chodukowski, Tomasz; Kalinowska, Zofia; Zielinska, Ewa; Scholz, Marek


    This paper presents the results of research on interactions of pulsed plasma streams, as generated by the PF-1000 facility, with solid targets made of tungsten or carbon fibre composite. The device was equipped with a modified inner electrode with a central tungsten insert of 50 mm in diameter. The PF-1000 experimental chamber was filled with pure deuterium at p0 = 1.47 hPa. At the charging voltage U0 = 24 kV, the maximum current amounted to 1.8 MA in about 5.5 μs after the discharge initiation. The investigated targets were located on the z-axis, at a distance of 9 cm from the inner electrode end. For plasma diagnostics, optical emission spectroscopy, 16-frame laser interferometry and a soft x-ray measuring system of four silicon pin diodes were used. It was observed that plasma streams reached the target about 100 ns after the maximum compression and generated a plasma pillow at the sample surface, as proved from time-resolved optical spectra.

  11. Why does salt start to move? (United States)

    Waltham, David


    This paper concerns mechanisms of salt (and ductile shale) movement. It investigates salt flow due to differential loading, folding of the overburden during compression and drag by a moving overburden. The approach is to compare the salt flux caused by these processes to that generated by buoyancy. It is demonstrated that overburden folding and drag by the overburden can, under commonly encountered conditions, result in greater amounts of salt movement than that produced by buoyancy or differential loading. These conclusions apply during the early stages of salt anticline, salt pillow and salt roller formation but not during the later stages of salt diapir and salt wall growth when buoyancy dominates. The quantitative significance of these alternatives to buoyancy is determined by considering an elastic plate overlying a viscous fluid. This is the simplest mathematical model that can reproduce the processes considered. The model shows that: (1) Under certain conditions, these mechanisms produce more salt movement than buoyancy. Differential loading dominates when the surface slopes become more than a small fraction of the slope of the salt top. Overburden buckling dominates if the in-plane stress exceeds a critical value. Drag dominates when the salt layer is thinner than a few hundred metres. (2) The strength of the overburden inhibits formation of salt diapirs, even those due to buoyancy, on wavelengths less than about 12 km.

  12. High-resolution seismic analysis of the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (North German Basin): the pre-Alpine evolution (United States)

    Zöllner, H.; Reicherter, K.; Schikowsky, P.


    The pre-Alpine structural and geological evolution in the northern part of the North German Basin have been revealed on the basis of a very dense reflection seismic profile grid. The study area is situated in the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (Germany), part of the southwestern Baltic Sea. From the central part of the North German Basin to the northern basin margin in the Grimmen High area a series of high-resolution maps show the evolution from the base Zechstein to the Lower Jurassic. We present a map of basement faults affecting the pre-Zechstein. The pre-Alpine structural evolution of the region has been determined from digital mapping of post-Permian key horizons traced on the processed seismic time sections. The geological evolution of the North German Basin can be separated into four distinct periods in the Rerik study area. During Late Permian and Early Triassic evaporites and clastics were deposited. Salt movement was initiated after the deposition of the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk. Salt pillows, which were previously unmapped in the study area, are responsible for the creation of smaller subsidence centers and angular unconformities in the Late Triassic Keuper, especially in the vicinity of the fault-bounded Grimmen High. In this area, partly Lower Jurassic sediments overlie the Keuper unconformably. The change from extension to compression in the regional stress field remobilized the salt, leading to a major unconformity marked at the base of the Late Cretaceous.

  13. Prevalence and the Relationship between Characteristics and Parental Conditions with Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis


    Full Text Available Introduction  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is a disease which causes unexpected death of infants aged less than 1 year. Given the undeniable role of parents in the presence or absence of SIDS risk factors, the present study aimed to studythe prevalence and the relationship between characteristics and conditions of parent’s infants with SIDS risk factors. Materials and Methods  In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 1,021 infants aged 1 to 12 months in the health centers in Qom-Iran in 2014 were selected as the sample by stratified random sampling method. The required data were collected using an author-made questionnaire on SIDS risk factors. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 18 at a significance level of 95%. Results 4.5% of mothers were younger than 20 years, 92.3% infants had a co-sleeping with their parents, and 35.7% of infants had a bed-sharing with their parents. 19% of infants used Soft pillow. Study findings showed that there is no significant relationship between the age of mothers and using a shared bedroom (P>0.05, while such a relationship exists between education backgrounds of parents and sharing a bedroom (P

  14. Middle Miocene Rosarito Beach Formation, northwest Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma-Vasquez, J.


    The Rosarito Beach Formation was deposited on the continental borderland adjacent to the Peninsular Range province. This formation provides an insight to the paleo-oceanographic characteristics that are representative of marine sediments. The La Mision Member consists largely of basalts more than 150 m thick, which thin to the east. There are no pillow lavas or water-laid textures associated with this member. The Los Indios Member, which overlies the La Mision, consists of a wide variety of volcaniclastic marine sediments (tuffs, lapilli tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones) and 4-m thick diatomaceous layers. Basalts were emplaced through a series of fissures in the Mesozoic basement while the area was uplifted to the west. At the same time, the coastline receded to the east. The basalt flows that comprise the La Mision Member and the overlying pyroclastics were deposited at the same time that the coastline was moving east and the entire area was being faulted, building horst and graben structures (continental borderland). The diatomaceous sediments were deposited on this new shallow area associated with upwelling and an oxygen minimum layer, and were reinforced by the presence of grabens, which acted as silled basins. The silicic microfossils indicate a mixed environment of outer and inner shelves on a shallow platform no deeper than 200 m.

  15. Brainwave entrainment for better sleep and post-sleep state of young elite soccer players - a pilot study. (United States)

    Abeln, Vera; Kleinert, Jens; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan


    The effect of sleep deprivation on psychophysical performance and well-being is comprehensively investigated. Research investigating the effect of improved sleep is rare. Just as little exists about attempts to support athletic mental state and performance by improving sleep quality. This study aims to investigate whether sleep quality of top athletes can be improved by auditory brainwave entrainment and whether this leads to enhancements of post-sleep psychophysical states. In a pilot study, 15 young elite soccer players were stimulated for eight weeks during sleep with binaural beats around 2-8 Hz. Once a week after wake-up, participants completed three different questionnaires: a sleep diary, an adjective list for psychophysical and motivational state, and a self-assessment questionnaire for sleep and awakening quality. Fifteen sport students executed the same protocol sleeping on the same pillow, but without stimulation. Subjective ratings of sleep and awakening quality, sleepiness and motivational state were significantly improved only in the intervention group, but did not impact their perceived physical state. In summary, eight weeks of auditory stimulation with binaural beats improved perceived sleep quality and the post-sleep state of athletes, whereas the effect on physical level is assumed to occur in a time-delayed fashion. It seems to be worthwhile - to further elaborate long-time effects and consequences on physical and mental performance.

  16. MRI Findings of Causalgia of the Lower Extremity Following Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ryan Ormond


    Full Text Available Background. Causalgia is continuing pain, allodynia, or hyperalgesia after nerve injury with edema, changes in skin blood flow, or abnormal sudomotor activity. Here we report a case of lower extremity causalgia following elective transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary tumor in a young man. Clinical Presentation. A 33-year-old man with acromegaly underwent elective sublabial transsphenoidal resection of his pituitary tumor. During the three-hour surgery, the lower limbs were kept in a supine, neutral position with a pillow under the knees. The right thigh was slightly internally rotated with a tape to expose fascia lata, which was harvested to repair the sella. Postoperatively, he developed causalgia in a distal sciatic and common peroneal nerve distribution. Pain was refractory to several interventions. Finally, phenoxybenzamine improved his pain significantly. Conclusions. Malpositioning in the operating room resulted in causalgia in this young man. Phenoxybenzamine improved, and ultimately resolved, his symptoms. Improvement in his pain symptoms correlated with resolution of imaging changes in the distal sciatic and peroneal nerves on the side of injury.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative characteristic ofthe population of mesenchymal cells in structural components from conotruncal region of the embryo heart on its early hystogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyagovets K.I.


    Full Text Available Character of the distribution of the mesenchymal’s cellspopulation was analysed during the early hystogenesis of the conotruncal region of the mouse embr yo heart. Conotruncalregion is the predecessor of the proximal part of the aorta and pulmonary trunk, of the aortic ruff and conus arteriosus and semilunar valves. Violation of its transformations leading to the formation of congenital heart disease,which named «conotruncal defects». The material was used embryos mice by the C57BL / 6 line, which covers the period of from 10 to 12.5th day, which corresponded to a 16-21 Teilor stages. Quantify the planar and volumetric distribution of a population of mesenchymal stem cells conotruncus’s pillows and ridges by the original method; on the basis of serial pictures of embryo heart with the use of the computer providing Photoshop Cs5, Amira of for microscopy 5.0, 3ds max 8.0, we created the three-dimensional models of structural components of the conotruncus embryonic mouse heart. During this research noted the phased settlement condensed esenchymal stem fraction first and then tapered sections, given the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the distribution of the conotruncus’s mesenchyme embryonic mouse heart.

  18. Recurrent posterior shoulder instability after rifle shooting. (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Chung, Nam-Su; Song, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Doo-Hyung


    Rifle shooting produces a sudden counterforce against the body thorough the anterior shoulder, which may produce a traumatic injury in soldiers. Posterior instability of the shoulder can occur in soldiers who practice rifle shooting. To the authors' knowledge, few reports have examined shooting-related injuries in soldiers. This article describes the case of a 27-year-old male soldier who presented with left shoulder pain and instability after rifle training. He developed symptoms, and presented radiographic findings consistent with a posterior Bankart lesion. Intraoperatively, while in the lateral decubitus position, a posterior portal was created 3 cm inferior and 2 cm lateral to the posterolateral corner of acromion for making a proper angle for inserting anchors. A reverse bony Bankart lesion and adjacent cartilage breakdown at the glenoid rim were noted. An arthroscopic capsulolabral repair was performed with 3-mm bioabsorbable anchors to the glenoid rim. No gross reverse Hill-Sachs lesion or hyaline cartilage lesion was noted. Postoperatively, the arm was supported in a sling with an abduction pillow for 5 weeks. Codman's exercises, scapular protraction exercises, and elbow and wrist exercises were started. Physical therapy focused on reestablishing glenohumeral range of motion and rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength. Six months postoperatively, the patient had normal scapular kinesis and reported no shoulder pain or symptoms of instability associated with a reverse bony Bankart lesion. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Pile-soil stress ratio in bidirectionally reinforced composite ground by considering soil arching effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹新军; 杨眉; 赵明华; 杨小礼


    To discuss the soil arching effect on the load transferring model and sharing ratios by the piles and inter-pile subsoil in the bidirectionally reinforced composite ground, the forming mechanism, mechanical behavior and its effect factors were discussed in detail. Then, the unified strength theory was introduced to set up the elastoplastic equilibrium differential equation of the subsoil under the limit equilibrium state. And from the equation, the solutions were derived with the corresponding formulas presented to calculate the earth pressure over and beneath the horizontal reinforced cushion or pillow, the stress of inter-pile subsoil and the pile-soil stress ratio. Based on the obtained solutions and measured data from an engineering project, the influence rules by the soil property parameters (i.e., the cohesion c and internal friction angle φ) and pile spacing on the pile-soil stress ratio n were discussed respectively. The results show that to improve the load sharing ratio by the piles, the more effective means for filling materials with a larger value of φ is to increase the ratio of pile cap size to spacing, while to reduce the pile spacing properly and increase the value of cohesion c is advisable for those filling materials with a smaller value of φ.

  20. Mechanisms of magma degassing at mid-oceanic ridges and the local volatile composition (4He-40Ar*-CO2) of the mantle by laser ablation analysis of individual MORB vesicles (United States)

    Colin, A.; Burnard, P.; Marty, B.


    Individual vesicles in excimer laser. One sample shows evidence of syn-emplacement selective helium loss from the vesicles in the glass rim close to the crystallised zone of the pillow lava, proving that He contents and low He/Ar ratios do not always reflect mantle and/or magmatic processes. However the composition of the different vesicles of three of these samples covers large ranges in He/Ar and Ar/CO2 with linear variations in plots of ln(He/Ar) vs. ln(Ar/CO2) which are consistent with a Rayleigh distillation at equilibrium and allow the relative abundances of the volatiles in the MORB mantle source to be estimated by correcting for degassing processes on a sample-by-sample basis. This technique presents a new tool for characterising and correcting for volatile fractionation processes that have modified the initial mantle source composition. The results confirm a heterogeneous CO2/3He ratio in the MORB source regions with the Azores mantle source enriched in C/3He compared to that of N-MORBs. The considerable heterogeneity in vesicle compositions within such a small volume (<1 cm3) requires injection of less degassed magma at shallow level before eruption. The maximum time interval between magma mixing and quenching on the seafloor is of the order of a few hours.

  1. The effect of music intervention in stress response to cardiac surgery in a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Nilsson, Ulrica


    To evaluate the effect of bed rest with music on the first postoperative day to decrease stress for patients who have undergone heart surgery. A repeated-measures randomized controlled trial was used. The study took place in a cardiothoracic intermediary unit of a university hospital in Sweden. Fifty-eight patients who had undergone open coronary artery bypass grafting or aortic valve replacement surgery were included. Stress response was assessed by determining the serum cortisol, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, arterial oxygen tension, arterial oxygen saturation, and subjective pain and anxiety levels. At 12:00 noon on postoperative day 1, patients were allocated to receive 30 minutes of uninterrupted bed rest with music and then 30 minutes of bed rest or alternatively 60 minutes of uninterrupted bed rest. The music was soft and relaxing, included different melodies in new-age style, played with a volume at 50 to 60 dB, and distributed through a music pillow connected to an MP3 player. After 30 minutes of bed rest, there was a significant difference in s-cortisol levels between the groups; 484. 4 mmol/L in the music group versus 618.8 mmol/L in the control group (P pain and anxiety levels between the groups. There is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery be put into clinical use.

  2. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, J.B.; Bryan, W.B.


    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-25/sup 0/N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus.

  3. Magmatic activity at Islas Marias Archipelago, Gulf of California: Oceanic lithosphere with gabbroic sills versus Jurassic-Cretaceous arc components. (United States)

    Schaaf, P. E. G.; Solis-Pichardo, G.; Hernandez-Trevino, T.; Villanueva, D.; Arrieta, G. F.; Rochin, H.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Bohnel, H.; Weber, B.


    Islas Marias Archipelago consists of four islands located in the mouth of the Gulf of California. Lithologically three of them (Maria Madre, San Juanito, and Maria Cleofas) are quite similar with a 165-170 Ma metamorphic basement, 75-85 Ma intrusive and extrusive rocks, and a sedimentary sandstone cover, which according to its foraminiferous content recorded multiple uplift and subsidence events related to the opening of the Gulf. However, these units are absent on Maria Magdalena island which is positioned between the other islands. Here, instead, oceanic lithosphere with pillow lavas and gabbroic sills, intercalated with sandstones form the dominant outcrops. Their geochemical and isotopic characteristics are similar to N-MORB with epsilon Nd values around +10 and 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70290. The gabbros are not older than 22 Ma. Magdalena island was obviously uplifted separately from the other islands of the archipelago, probably along a now hidden transform fault system along the East Pacific Rise. Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the other islands can be correlated to lithologically similar units in the Los Cabos Block, Baja California, or to the continental margin units in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Jalisco states when looking at their geochemical and geochronological signatures. Paleomagnetic studies on 35 sampling sites from all 4 islands give evidence for relatively small scale tectonic movements.

  4. Evaluation of effects of groundwater withdrawals at the proposed Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant, Shelby County, Tennessee (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.


    The Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study groundwater-flow model was used to simulate the potential effects of future groundwater withdrawals at the proposed Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant in Shelby County, Tennessee. The scenario used in the simulation consisted of a 30-year average withdrawal period followed by a 30-day maximum withdrawal period. Effects of withdrawals at the Allen plant site on the Mississippi embayment aquifer system were evaluated by comparing the difference in simulated water levels in the aquifers at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and at the end of the scenario to a base case without the Allen combined-cycle combustion turbine plant withdrawals. Simulated potentiometric surface declines in the Memphis aquifer at the Allen plant site were about 7 feet at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and 11 feet at the end of the scenario. The affected area of the Memphis aquifer at the Allen plant site as delineated by the 4-foot potentiometric surface-decline contour was 2,590 acres at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and 11,380 acres at the end of the scenario. Simulated declines in the underlying Fort Pillow aquifer and overlying shallow aquifer were both less than 1 foot at the end of the 30-year average withdrawal period and the end of the scenario.

  5. 西藏雅鲁藏布江蛇绿岩带和深海沟沉积物的岩石学特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A typical section of ophiolite at Tangga in Lhaze district shows the sequential association of ophiolite from north to south as follows: basal tectonized harzhurgitc,altered basalt, and red radiolarian chert. The ophiolites, late Cretaceous in age, arelithologically similar to the current models of oceanic crust and upper mantle, representing the slice of Tethys ocean basin. At Chongdui, about 20 km southeast of Xigaze, a thick sequence of trench turbidite is recognized associated with pillow lava and submarine volcanic conglomerate. The trench turbidite is well. layered with a suit of rhythmical deposits of graded bedding.The coarse-grained ophiolitic greywacke is generally at the base of each rhythm and gives its way upward to the gabbroid greywacke and finer material, while the chert and volcanic tuff rest at the top, showing good rhythmic pattern of Bouma cycle.Because it has not been documented is named “the Chongdui Formation”after the place. It is also late Cretaceous in age. At the same place it is found that the basal serpentinite overthrusts northwards on the trench turbidite. There, the basal ultramafic rock dips southwards in contrast to the northward dipping of the turbidites, showing thrust drag at contact. Because the trench sediments mark the margin of Eurasia continent, it is suggested that the ophiolites are emplaced tectonically along the suture zone where Indian continent and Eruasia continent are welded together. A four-stage model is proposed to expblin the plate history for Himalayan geology.

  6. Escrita filmí­ca de O livro de cabeceira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Garcia


    Full Text Available Este texto objetiva apontar alguns fragmentos do discurso intertextual no filme O livro de cabeceira, (1995, de Peter Greenaway. O presente ensaio apoia-se na intertextualidade como um procedimento teórico metodológico para refletir acerca dessa obra contemporânea, em um exercí­cio suplementar do meu trabalho de mestrado. Com isso, proponho explorar algumas redes de interstí­cios do objeto filmico, ao utilizar a noção poética como uma possibilidade de leitura. Palavras-chave cinema, imagem, intertextualidade Abstract This text aims to show some fragments of intertextual discourse in the Peter Greenaway's film Pillow Book, 1995. The present essay subscribes to the notion of intertextuality, as a theorical methodological procedure in order to think about this contemporary art-work. The essay is also a suplementary exercise of my Master degree. In doing so, I propose to explore some net of intertstate of movie, using a poetic notion, as a possibility of reading. Key words cinema, image, intertextuality


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto


    Full Text Available Kekabu wood  (Bombax  ceiba L., which is  locally known as kapok or randu  has long been planted  as crops troughout  the country, as fiber producer aimed for stuffing  pillow. This species is considered as a giant tree which could produce a large quantity of timber. Unfortunately, the timber is too soft, having low density and several physical defects during drying, limiting its uses in conventional wood processing. Any treatment which could significantly increase its structural density may be useful for diversifying the uses of this timber.   This study examined some anatomical changes that may exist during mechanical densification. Wood samples measuring 40 mm thick, 40 mm wide and 500 mm long were steamed at 126°C for 30 minutes prior to  pressing of 23.75 kg/cm'.  Anatomical measures were undertaken using light microscope and scanning electron microscope  on both treated and untreated samples. Results showed that the treatment  significantly reduced void volume and ray distance of approximately a half the initial wood structure, followed by an increased in wood density of more than 50%.

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary; Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Omraadebeskrivelser - Description of areas. Dansk og engelsk resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.


    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  9. Titanite mineralization of bioalteration textures - the possible Ti precursor (United States)

    Fliegel, D.; Wirth, R.; Simonetti, A.; McLoughlin, N.; Furnes, H.


    Bioalteration textures in the glassy rims of pillow basalts are found in in-situ oceanic crust of any age, in Phanerozoic ophiolites and from Precambrian greenstone belts. In ancient and metamorphosed rocks, these bioalteration textures are often mineralized by titanite (CaSiTiO5). The presence of titanite provides a way to constrain the age of these tracefossils using in-situ U-Pb dating with LA-MC-ICPMS. Until now the pathway for mineralization by titanite was unclear. We investigate here bioalteration textures from in-situ oceanic crust (DSDP 418A) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Using high spatial resolved spectroscopy, Ti enrichments and the Ti speciation was determined in the bioalteration textures. In addition TEM and EELS revealed the microstructure of the bioalteration textures and with STXM the redox chemistry at the interface between texture and host glass was examined. The observed Ti can serve as precursor for subsequent titanite mineralization during sub-seafloor and/or later regional metamorphism. We present here therefore a model for the mineralization and thus preservation of bioalteration textures in the oceanic crust.

  10. Degassing and differentiation in subglacial volcanoes, Iceland (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Calk, L.C.


    Within the neovolcanic zones of Iceland many volcanoes grew upward through icecaps that have subsequently melted. These steep-walled and flat-topped basaltic subglacial volcanoes, called tuyas, are composed of a lower sequence of subaqueously erupted, pillowed lavas overlain by breccias and hyaloclastites produced by phreatomagmatic explosions in shallow water, capped by a subaerially erupted lava plateau. Glass and whole-rock analyses of samples collected from six tuyas indicate systematic variations in major elements showing that the individual volcanoes are monogenetic, and that commonly the tholeiitic magmas differentiated and became more evolved through the course of the eruption that built the tuya. At Herdubreid, the most extensively studies tuya, the upward change in composition indicates that more than 50 wt.% of the first erupted lavas need crystallize over a range of 60??C to produce the last erupted lavas. The S content of glass commonly decreases upward in the tuyas from an average of about 0.08 wt.% at the base to crystallization that generates the more evolved, lower-temperature melts during the growth of the tuyas, apparently results from cooling and degassing of magma contained in shallow magma chambers and feeders beneath the volcanoes. Cooling may result from percolation of meltwater down cracks, vaporization, and cycling in a hydrothermal circulation. Degassing occurs when progressively lower pressure eruption (as the volcanic vent grows above the ice/water surface) lowers the volatile vapour pressure of subsurface melt, thus elevating the temperature of the liquidus and hastening liquid-crystal differentiation. ?? 1991.

  11. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in Imam Khomayni Hospital, Ilam, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azizian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causes of hospital infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common agent of urinary tract infections. Hospital acquired infection as an old challenge has high importance in hospital infection control and Staphylococcus spp. play main role among routine pathogens. this study designed to investigate the of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus among ICU, Men and Children wards. Materials and methods: Samples collected randomly from ICU, Men and Children wards. Through 203 sampling of wall, floor, bed, pillow and blanket, 75 Staphylococcus spp. isolated. Species recognizes base on culture on Mannitol salt agar and Novobiocin susceptibility determination. Result: Among 75 positive samples, 62 (82.7%, and 13 isolates were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. 51% of bacteria isolated from ICU, 29% from children ward and 20% from men surgery ward. Staphylococcus saprophyticus comprised 87%, 82% and 73% of isolates pertaining to ICU, pediatric and men surgery wards, in a row. Conclusion: Our funding indicate there is an inappropriate instrument to deal with infection in hospital specially ICU. Regards to this issue that Staphylococcus spp. as a main pathogen which has potency to form biofilm and show high resistance to extended broad antibiotics therefore it is suggested to prepare proper guideline to cope with bacteria dissemination and resistance emergence in hospital.

  12. Boojums All the Way through (United States)

    Mermin, N. David


    Preface; Part I. Reflections on the Pursuit of Physics: 1. E. pluribus boojum: the physicist as neologist; 2. Commencement address; 3. One of the great physicists ... and great characters; 4. My life with Landeau; 5. What's wrong with this lagrangean?; 6. What's wrong with this library?; 7. What's wrong with this prose?; 8. What's wrong with these equations?; 9. What's wrong with these prizes?; Part II. The Quantum Theory: 10. Quantum mysteries for anyone; 11. Can you help your team tonight by watching on TV?; 12. Spooky actions at a distance: mysteries of the quantum; 13. A bolt from the blue: The Eistein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox; 14. The philosophical writings of Neils Bohr; 15. The great quantum muddle; 16. What's wrong with this pillow?; Part III. Relativity: 17. Cruel nature: a relativistic tragicomedy; 18. The amazing many coloured relativity engine; 19. Relativistic addition of velocities directly from the constancy of the velocity of light; 20. Relativity without light; 21. E = Mc2 (written with M. J. Feigenbaum); Part IV Mathematical Musings: 22. Logarithms!; 23. Stirling's formula!; 24. Pi in the sky; 25. Variational principles in dynamics and quantum theory; 26. Special functions: a group theoretic approach.

  13. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico) (United States)

    Blanc, E.J.-P.; Blanc-Aletru, M. -C.; Mojon, P.-O.


    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the "Las Vigas" and "La Virgen" formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five "stratigraphie" levels (Z1-Z5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the "Las Vigas" Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  14. 6d dual conformal symmetry and minimal volumes in AdS (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Lipstein, Arthur E.


    The S-matrix of a theory often exhibits symmetries which are not manifest from the viewpoint of its Lagrangian. For instance, powerful constraints on scattering amplitudes are imposed by the dual conformal symmetry of planar 4d N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and the ABJM theory. Motivated by this, we investigate the consequences of dual conformal symmetry in six dimensions, which may provide useful insight into the worldvolume theory of M5-branes (if it enjoys such a symmetry). We find that 6d dual conformal symmetry uniquely fixes the integrand of the one-loop 4-point amplitude, and its structure suggests a Lagrangian with more than two derivatives. On integrating out the loop momentum in 6 - 2 ɛ dimensions, the result is very similar to the corresponding amplitude of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We confirm this result holographically by generalizing the Alday-Maldacena solution for a minimal area string in Anti-de Sitter space to a minimal volume M2-brane ending on a pillow-shaped surface in the boundary whose seams correspond to a null-polygon. This involves careful treatment of a prefactor which diverges as 1/ ɛ, and we comment on its possible interpretation. We also study 2-loop 4-point integrands with 6d dual conformal symmetry and speculate on the existence of an all-loop formula for the 4-point amplitude.

  15. Calcitriol Therapy for Treating Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets in Children%骨化三醇治疗佝偻病的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立君; 杜秋影; 姚笠


    Objective To observe calcitriol for treating infantile vitamin D deficiency rickets in children. Methods One hundred and fifty infants with vitamin D deficiency rickets were randomly divided into three groups,treatment group 1(50 cases) ,were treated with oral calcitriol 0.25μg·d-1 for 30 days; treatment group 2 (50 cases) , were treated with 0.50μg·d-1 for 30 days; and treatment group 3(50 cases) , were . Treated with vitamin D2 2000 IU·d-1 for 30 days. The changes in correlation symptoms(night terrors,sweat,vexed make,pillow bald) ,height and weight,serum calcium,bone alkaline phosphatase(BALP),serum 25 - (OH) vitamin D3 and changes in the bone mineral density were observed in 3 groups. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results The clinical symptoms (night terrors,sweat,vexed make,pillow bald) in each group were all improved; height, weight in each group also grew and had no statistical difference among them; the serum calcium in 3 groups had no statistical difference. After treatment, the decline of BALP and the increase of serum 25-( OH) vitamin D, and bone mineral density had statistically significant changes (Pa <0.01). Treatment group 2 changed the most. Conclusion Treatment of calcitriol in infantile rickets has curative effect,and 0.50μg·d-1 in northern area children is proved to be a very good therapy.%目的 探讨骨化三醇治疗小儿佝偻病的效果.方法 选取150例1~3岁的佝偻病患儿,随机分为3组,每组50例,治疗1组每日口服骨化三醇1粒(0.25 μg),治疗2组每日2粒(0.50 μg),对照组则每日给予普通维生素D22000 IU.治疗1个月后比较各组患儿治疗前后临床表现(夜惊、多汗、烦闹、枕秃等)改善情况,以及身高、血清钙、骨碱性磷酸酶(BALP)、血清25羟维生素D3、骨密度的变化情况.采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 各组患儿临床表现(夜惊、多汗、烦闹、枕秃)均有改善;各组患儿身高、体质量均有增长,

  16. Stress perturbation associated with the Amazonas and other ancient continental rifts (United States)

    Zoback, M.L.; Richardson, R.M.


    The state of stress in the vicinity of old continental rifts is examined to investigate the possibility that crustal structure associated with ancient rifts (specifically a dense rift pillow in the lower crust) may modify substantially the regional stress field. Both shallow (2.0-2.6 km depth) breakout data and deep (20-45 km depth) crustal earthquake focal mechanisms indicate a N to NNE maximum horizontal compression in the vicinity of the Paleozoic Amazonas rift in central Brazil. This compressive stress direction is nearly perpendicular to the rift structure and represents a ???75?? rotation relative to a regional E-W compressive stress direction in the South American plate. Elastic two-dimensional finite element models of the density structure associated with the Amazonas rift (as inferred from independent gravity modeling) indicate that elastic support of this dense feature would generate horizontal rift-normal compressional stresses between 60 and 120 MPa, with values of 80-100 MPa probably most representative of the overall structure. The observed ???75?? stress rotation constrains the ratio of the regional horizontal stress difference to the rift-normal compressive stress to be between 0.25 and 1.0, suggesting that this rift-normal stress may be from 1 to 4 times larger than the regional horizontal stress difference. A general expression for the modification of the normalized local horizontal shear stress (relative to the regional horizontal shear stress) shows that the same ratio of the rift-normal compression relative to the regional horizontal stress difference, which controls the amount of stress rotation, also determines whether the superposed stress increases or decreases the local maximum horizontal shear stress. The potential for fault reactivation of ancient continental rifts in general is analyzed considering both the local stress rotation and modification of horizontal shear stress for both thrust and strike-slip stress regimes. In the Amazonas

  17. Modified Large Craniotomy for Decompression of Frontal Parietal Temporal and Occipital Lobes for Treatment of Patients with Supra-tentorial Malignant Infarcts%额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术对幕上恶性脑梗塞的临床疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎乾科; 姚庆宁; 唐协林; 刘胜华; 罗静; 肖奎; 钟俊; 赵超


    Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy for supra-tentorial malignant infarcts ( STMBI ) of craniotomy surgery in pillow top frontotemporal .Method:Using the prospective study , the STMBI patients diagnosed in clinical and radiographic were divided into surgery group and the control group , and compared the postoperative mortality of the two groups .After 1-year follow-up, compared the Glasgow outcome scale ( GOS) and Barthal index between the two groups .Result:The present study included a total of 26 subjects, 13 cases in surgery group and 13 in control group .There's no significant difference in age and GCS between two groups.The results of 1-year follow-up showed that the survival rate in surgery group and the control group were 84.6%and 69.2%respectively ( P>0.05) .GOS and Barthal index in surgery group were better than control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion: Compared with conservative treatment , supra-tentorial malig-nant infarcts ( STMBI) of craniotomy surgery in pillow top frontotemporal can not only reduce mortality but also improve the prognosis .%目的:评估额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术对幕上恶性脑梗塞( supra-tentorial malignant in-farcts,STMBI)的临床疗效。方法:采用前瞻性研究的方法,将临床和放射学诊断为STMBI的患者分为手术组和对照组,比较两组的术后死亡率;随访1年后比较两组患者的格拉斯哥预后评分( GOS)、Bar-thal指数。结果:本次研究共纳入共26例研究对象,其中手术组13例,对照组13例。术前两组年龄、GCS比较差异无统计学意义。随访1年结果显示,手术组和对照组1年生存率分别为为84.6%和69.2%(p>0.05)。格拉斯哥预后评分(GOS)、Barthal 指数在手术组更好(p<0.05)。结论:STMBI 患者早期行额颞枕顶超大骨瓣减压术与保守治疗相比,不仅降低了死亡率,还改善了预后。

  18. 全膝关节置换术后不同体位和引流方法的失血量比较%Comparison on blood loss between different position and drainage method after total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红嫣; 王利宏; 卢福娇


    Objective To study the effect of different position and drainage method on blood loss after total knee arthro-plasty. Method Select 30 patients after total knee arthroplasty. Divide them into Group A, B and C according to random number table. Patients in Group A take the position of extension knee with pillow under the ankle of affected extremity and indwelling vacuum-drainage bag. Patients in Group B take the position of extension knee with pillow under the ankle of affected extremity and indwelling unvacuum-drainage bag. Patients in Group C lift affected extremity at the angle of 30 degree, bend knee at the angle of 45 degree and indwelling unvacuum-drainage bag. Compare the volumes of drain 24h after operation, total blood transfusion and change of prc - operation and post - operation total protein and hemoglobin of three groups. Result The volumes of drain 24h after operation of Group A, B and C arc (970. 00±79. 54)ml, (719. 00 ± 83. 91) ml and (419. 00 ± 38. 74)ml (F=15. 36, P<0. 05). The total blood transfusion and loss of total protein and hemoglobin arc less in Group C. There is significant difference on comparison between Group C and other two groups. Conclusion Bent and lifting position and unvacuum-drainage for patients after total knee arthroplasty can help reduce postoperative blood loss.%目的 探讨全膝关节置换术后不同体位和引流方法对减少失血量的影响.方法 选择30例全膝关节置换术后患者,按随机数字表分为A组、B组和C组各10例.A组术后患肢踝后垫枕,膝关节伸直位,留置负压引流袋引流;B组术后患肢踝后垫枕,膝关节伸直位,留置非负压引流袋引流;C组术后患肢抬高30°、屈膝45°,留置非负压引流袋引流.比较3组术后24 h 切口引流量、术前和术后总蛋白及血红蛋白差值、总输血量.结果 A、B、C 3组术后24 h 切口引流量分别为(970.00±79.54)ml、(719.00±83.91)ml和(419.00±38.74)ml,经比较,F=15.36,P<0.05;C组患者

  19. Origins of Carbonaceous Matter, Hematite, and Pyrite in the 3.46Ga Marble Bar Chert/Jasper/Basalt Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D. C.; Watanabe, Y.; Otake, T.


    The 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert/Jasper unit in the Pilbara district, W.A. was probably deposited in a deep (>500 m) ocean during the accumulation of a thick (>5 km) submarine basalt. Debate focuses on whether organic matter in pre-2.0 Ga cherts is a remnant of marine organisms or the product of abiotic synthesis in hydrothermal systems, whether the hematite crystals in jaspers were primary or products of modern oxidation of siderite and pyrite, and whether the pyrite crystals formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria, hydrothermal fluids, or atmospheric sulfur. At the drilling site, the Marble bar Chert/Jasper is over turned diping about 80 degrees. A continuous 264 m- long core, drilled at 50 degrees, was recovered. The major chert/jasper unit, comprising alternating beds (0.1 - 5 cm thick) of white/green/gray/black/red chert, is 105 m thick. The abundance of red jasper beds increases down hole, indicating that the hematite crystals were not produced by subaerial oxidation of ferrous minerals. Petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations of the core samples, especially using an X-ray chemical microscope, have revealed that the dominant Fe-bearing minerals are siderite, magnetite, and hematite, in the green, gray-black, and red cherts, respectively. These Fe-bearing minerals and disseminated pyrite crystals (ubiquitous in all cherts) are typically very fine grained (less than 10 microns). The basalts (pillows and tuffs), which occur below, above, and interbedded with the chert/jasper unit, are in places heavily hematitized with various characteristics of submarine hydrothermal alteration, such as chloritization, silicification, pyritization, large variations in the contents of Fe, Mg, Ba, and depletions in Ca, Sr, and Na. Veinles containing quartz and pyrite are abundant in the chert/jaster beds and also in the heavily hematitized basalts. These data suggest the hematite, magnetie, siderite, pyrite and silica in the chert/jasper unit, basalt tuffs, and pillow

  20. Late Cretaceous Arc Initiation on the Edge of an Oceanic Plateau (Southern Central America) (United States)

    Buchs, D. M.; Baumgartner, P. O.; Arculus, R.


    The Caribbean Plate comprises one or several late Cretaceous oceanic plateaus imbricated between the Northern and Southern Americas. Uplifted portions of plateau(s) along plate boundaries have been recognized in many sites, including that underlying the south Central American Volcanic Arc. We provide new constraints for the role of the plateau in the evolution of this arc obtained by mapping of the uplifted forearc area between southern Costa Rica and western Panama. An oceanic plateau, accreted seamounts and arc rocks were identified, and a new tectono-stratigraphy defined. The arc basement is composed of a Coniacian oceanic plateau. In the outer margin, late Cretaceous-Eocene accreted seamounts are in contact with the plateau along tectonic mélanges and active faults. Campanian-Maastrichtian primitive arc rocks are found 40-110 km to the trench on the top of -or as dykes within- the plateau. The location of these rocks correlates to previous observations and indicates that the arc front migrated away from the trench during the late Cretaceous, potentially in response to subduction erosion or slab flattening [Lissinna et al., EGU 2006]. The first island arc lavas were deposited under sea level, over a broad area. They were quickly followed by more evolved intrusives and lavas, which were emplaced along a volcanic front during the late Cretaceous-Paleocene. Detrital and volcanic records along the Central American isthmus indicate that a continuous volcanic arc extended between eastern Panama and northern Costa Rica in this time. In southern Costa Rica (Golfito complex) and western Panama (Sona-Azuero-Coiba complex), the oceanic plateau consists mainly of pillowed and massive low Fe (tholeiitic) basalts. These rocks have a highly consistent geochemistry characterized by flat, primitive upper mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns with low Pb and high Nb-Ti contents. Primitive arc igneous samples are low-medium Fe basalts to trachyandesites found as pillow

  1. 1.90–1.88 Ga arc and back-arc basin in the Orijärvi area, SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Väisänen


    Full Text Available The Orijärvi area within the Uusimaa Belt is a key area in resolving the stratigraphy and tectonic setting of the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex in southern Finland. Based on field relationships, geochemistry and radiometric age determinations, the area can be divided into four formations. The bimodal Orijärvi formation, lowermost in stratigraphy, is exposed in an antiform containing thesynvolcanic Orijärvi granodiorite in its core. Basalts have high LILE/HFSE ratios with pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The basalts in the lower part of the Orijärvi formation are geochemically less evolved than the basalts and basaltic andesites at higher levels. A rhyolite from a low stratigraphic level in the Orijärvi formation yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 1895.3±2.4 Ma. The Kiskoformation stratigraphically overlies the Orijärvi formation and the compositions of the volcanic rocks range from basalts to rhyolites. These mafic and intermediate rocks also show high LILE/HFSE ratios but the total element abundances are higher and show a more pronounced LREE enrichment, compared to the Orijärvi formation, indicating an evolved magma system. A dacite from the upper part of the Kisko formation yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 1878.2±3.4 Ma. TheSalittu formation probably overlies the Kisko formation. It mainly comprises picrites and tholeiitic pillow lavas with mica gneisses and minor marbles as intercalations. It differs from the underlying formations showing higher Mg, Ti and Zr contents and higher LILE/HFSE ratios. The major and trace element compositions indicate an oceanic affinity. The Toija formation evidently underlies the Salittu formation and comprises mafic pillow lavas, rhyolites, marbles, andone picritic horizon. The geochemical characteristics are transitional between the Salittu and Orijärvi/Kisko formations. All the formations contain both concordant and crosscutting intrusive rocks, some of which are comagmatic with the volcanic rocks. In

  2. High-resolution AUV mapping and lava flow ages at Axial Seamount (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.; Martin, J.


    Mapping along mid-ocean ridges, as on land, requires identification of flow boundaries and sequence, and ages of some flows to understand eruption history. Multibeam sonars on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) now generate 1-m resolution maps that resolve lava pillars, internal flow structures and boundaries, and lava flow emplacement sequences using crosscutting relations and abundance of fissures. MBARI has now mapped the summit caldera floor and rims and the upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. With the advent of the high-resolution bathymetry and the ability to observe flow contacts to determine superposition using ROVs and submersibles, the missing component has been determining absolute ages of the flows. We used the MBARI ROV Doc Ricketts to collect short push cores (<30 cm) of the thin sediment nestled between pillow lava lobes and sieve and then hand-pick planktic foraminifera from the base of the cores to date by AMS 14C. Ages of planktic foraminifera are marine-calibrated in years before present, and provide minimum ages for the underlying flows, as there is probably some basal sediment that is not recovered. 14C ages have been determined for 10 cores near the summit of Axial Seamount and for 6 from the lowermost south rift. Ages of nearby samples commonly yield statistically identical ages, and 2 cores near the center of the caldera had multiple layers dated. These ages systematically increase with depth, indicating that redistribution of sediment by bottom currents does not significantly affect the stratigraphy. We will expand these collections in summer 2011. The coring is accompanied by collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition inferred from the mapping data. Six ages from the lowermost part of the south rift of Axial Seamount include samples on a cone with deep summit crater that is ~16,580 aBP and on 5 flows between 950 and 1510 aBP. Two

  3. Sintomas e sinais de respiração predominantemente oral em adolescentes com transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade e queixa de prejuízo escolar Symptoms and signs of mouth breathing in teenagers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and with complaints about school underachievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Leonel da Silva Costa


    objectives were to relate the found characteristics to the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder types, gender and age of this population. METHODS: data were collected at ADOLESCENTRO; a public institution of the State Secretary of Health of the Federal District - Brazil. Nocturne and daytime symptoms that appeared in the age ranging between two and twelve-years-old were reported by the parents and were analyzed, as well as some signs cited on literature as being common characteristics of Mouth Breathing. RESULTS: a high frequency of Mouth Breathing characteristics were found to be associated with snoring, nocturne mouth breathing, rhinitis, sialorrhoea, dark undereye circles and dry lips. Related to the symptoms, an association was found among tonsillitis and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder types; sialorrhoea on the pillow with masculine gender and daytime mouth breathing; nocturne mouth breathing, sialorrhoea on the pillow with age. An association was found between non-functional lips with age and non-functional tongue with age. CONCLUSION: the possibility of simultaneous existence of Mouth Breathing on children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and complaints about school underachievement requires a deeper diagnostic investigation.

  4. Fault and fluid systems in supra-subduction zones: The Troodos ophiolite (United States)

    Quandt, Dennis; Micheuz, Peter; Kurz, Walter; Krenn, Kurt


    The Troodos massif on the island of Cyprus represents a well-preserved and complete supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite. It includes an extrusive sequence that is subdivided into Upper (UPL) and Lower Pillow Lavas (LPL). These volcanic rocks contain mineralized fractures (veins) and vesicles that record fluid availability probably related to slab dehydration and deformation subsequent to a period of subduction initiation in the framework of a SSZ setting. Here, we present electron microprobe element mappings and cathodoluminescence studies of vein minerals as well as analyses of fluid inclusions entrapped in zeolite, calcite and quartz from veins and vesicles of the Pillow Lavas of the Troodos ophiolite. Two different zeolite type assemblages, interpreted as alteration products of compositional varying volcanic glasses, occur: (1) Na-zeolites analcime and natrolite from the UPL that require lower formation temperatures, higher Na/Ca ratios and pH values than (2) Ca-zeolites heulandite and mordenite from the LPL which indicate temporal or spatial varying fluid compositions and conditions. Calcite represents a late stage phase in incompletely sealed blocky type (1) assemblage and in syntaxial quartz veins. Additionally, calcite occurs as major phase in syntaxial and blocky veins of UPL and LPL. These syntaxial quartz and calcite veins are assumed to be related to tectonic extension. Chalcedony is associated with quartz and occurs in typical veins and vesicles of the LPL. In addition, the presence of neptunian dykes in veins suggests that seawater penetrated fractures throughout the extrusive sequence. Thus, circulation in an open system via advective transport is favored while diffusion in a closed system is a subordinate, local and late stage phenomenon. Calcite veins and quartz vesicles contain primary, partly re-equilibrated two phase (liquid, vapor) fluid inclusions. The chemical system of all studied inclusions in both host minerals is restricted to aqueous

  5. Etiologia, manifestações clínicas e alterações presentes nas crianças respiradoras orais Etiology, clinical manifestations and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rafael Abreu


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a etiologia, as principais manifestações clínicas e as alterações presentes em crianças de 3 a 9 anos, respiradoras orais, residentes na região urbana de Abaeté (MG. MÉTODOS: Estudo com amostra aleatória representativa da população do município de 23.596 habitantes. Clinicamente, foram consideradas respiradoras orais as crianças que roncavam, dormiam com a boca aberta, babavam no travesseiro e apresentavam queixas de obstrução nasal freqüente ou intermitente. As crianças com diagnóstico clínico de respirador oral foram submetidas a endoscopia nasal, teste alérgico cutâneo e raio X do cavum, hemograma, contagem de eosinófilos, dosagem de IgE total e parasitológico de fezes. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa SPSS® versão 10.5. RESULTADOS: As principais causas da respiração oral foram: rinite alérgica (81,4%, hipertrofia de adenóides (79,2%, hipertrofia de amígdalas (12,6% e desvio obstrutivo do septo nasal (1,0%. As principais manifestações clínicas do respirador oral foram: dormir com a boca aberta (86%, roncar (79%, coçar o nariz (77%, babar no travesseiro (62%, dificuldade respiratória noturna ou sono agitado (62%, obstrução nasal (49% e irritabilidade durante o dia (43%. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas manifestações clínicas são muito freqüentes na criança respiradora oral. Essas manifestações devem ser reconhecidas e consideradas no diagnóstico clínico da respiração oral.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the etiology, main clinical manifestations and other concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children aged 3 to 9 years and resident in the urban area of Abaeté (MG, Brazil. METHODS: This study was based on a representative random sample of the town population, of 23,596 inhabitants. Clinical diagnosis of mouth-breathing was defined as a combination of snoring, sleeping with mouth open, drooling on the pillow and frequent or intermittent nasal obstruction. Children with a

  6. 低位产钳助产术的助产指征及并发症141例分析%Analysis of 141 cases of low forceps midwifery indications and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 马秀华


    Objective Discusses low forceps midwifery indications and complications, and the value of clinical appli-cation in obstetric delivery . Method Retrospective analysis of clinical data in our hospital in 2009~2013 years 141 cases of patients with low forceps. Result In the implementation of low forceps midwifery, the indications of mid-wifery are abnormal fetal distress, pillow, weakness of contractions, gestational hypertension disease, antepartum haemorrhage, hyperthyroidism merger, sinus tachycardia, expired pregnancy, pregnancy second prolonged labor. Mainly the indications of midwifery for abnormal fetal distress and pillow, both accounted for 90. 1% of the indica-tions of midwifery. Major maternal complication is vaginal injury, serious complication of neonatal is only 1. 4%. Fe-tal aspiration after failed forceps delivery group and directly for forceps delivery group, there are significant differ-ence in the maternal complications and neonatal complications (P<0. 05). The two groups in neonatal birth weight have significant difference(P<0. 05). Conclusion Correct evaluation and decision making, correct and skilled in the use of low forceps technique on mother and infant, small trauma. Low forceps delivery is to solve the head posi-tion dystocia, shorten the second stage of labor of the important operation method, it has the irreplaceable in obstet-rics childbirth.%目的:探讨低位产钳助产术的助产指征和并发症以及在产科分娩中的临床应用的价值。方法对本院2009~2013年实施的141例低位产钳术的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果在实施低位产钳助产技术中助产指征有:胎儿窘迫、枕位异常、宫缩乏力、妊娠期高血压疾病、产前出血、甲亢合并妊娠、窦性心动过速、过期妊娠和第二产程延长。其中主要助产指征为胎儿窘迫及枕位异常,两者占助产指征的90.1%。母体并发症主要为阴道壁裂伤,而新生儿发

  7. Effect of different body position care combined with early rehabilitation training on the functional recovery of knee joint after surgery for fracture of patella%髌骨骨折术后不同体位护理联合早期康复训练对膝关节功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余敏; 刘长英


    目的:探讨髌骨骨折术后不同体位护理联合早期康复训练对膝关节功能恢复的影响。方法:将47例髌骨骨折患者随机分为实验组24例和对照组23例,实验组内固定术后局部弹力绷带包扎,膝后垫软枕,予屈曲膝关节90°~120°体位放置;常规组内固定术后常规抬高患肢15°~20°,膝后垫软枕,膝关节屈曲5°~10°体位。两组患者术后均实施冷敷,第2天由主管医生、护士和康复师对其进行康复指导,分别于术后第3天、第14天、第30天比较两组患者不同体位护理效果。结果:实验组患肢肿胀、疼痛程度明显轻于对照组,功能锻炼主动配合、膝关节功能恢复情况明显优于对照组,患者平均住院天数明显短于对照组(P﹤0.05);实验组早期体位舒适度较对照组差( P﹤0.05)。结论:髌骨骨折患者术后正确的体位、早期及时正确的功能锻炼是膝关节功能康复的关键。%Objective:To investigate the effect of different body position care combined with early rehabilitation training on the function-al recovery of knee joint after fracture of patella. Methods:47 patients with patellar fracture were randomly divided into the experimental group(n=24)and the control group(n=23). The local bandage was adopted with elastic bandages and soft pillow was used to cushion the knee flexion(90 °~120 °)after internal fixation in the experimental group;the affected limb was lifted about 15 °~ 20 °and soft pil-low was put under the knee in the position of knee flexion(5 ° ~ 10 °)after internal fixation in the control group. The patients in both groups were treated with cold compress after operation and they were given rehabilitation guidance by the doctor and nurse in charge and physical therapist on the second day,the effect of different body position care was compared respectively on the 3rd,14th and 30th day after operation. Results:The severity of swelling and

  8. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.


    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  9. MR imaging of neurofibromatosis Ⅱ in central nervous system%神经纤维瘤病Ⅱ型中枢神经系统MRI分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宁; 程敬亮; 杨波; 关方霞; 焦红亮


    目的 探讨神经纤维瘤病Ⅱ型(NF-Ⅱ)的MRI表现,提高对本病的认识.方法 收集8例经临床及病理证实的NF-Ⅱ患者的临床资料进行分析总结.结果 双侧听神经瘤6例,其中合并多发脑膜瘤4例,多发神经鞘瘤2例;脊膜瘤并侧脑室室管膜瘤1例;一侧听神经瘤合并枕颈部皮下神经纤维瘤,合并多发脑膜瘤1例.结论 MRI是检查NF-Ⅱ中枢神经系统病变理想的影像学检查方法,可较好的显示其多发性及多灶性病变.%Objective To investigate the MRI findings of neurofibromatosis-Ⅱ and improve diagnosis of the disease.Methods The clinical data and MR feathures of 8 patients with neurofibromatosisⅡ were analyzed retrospectively.Conventional MR plain scan and enhanced scan were performed in all patients.Results Six,cases with bilateral acoustic neuroma,in which 4 cases combined with multiple meningioma,2 cases with multiple schwannoma; 1 case with meningioma and lateral ventricle ependymoma; 1 case with acoustic neuroma and pillow neck subcutaneous neurofibromas and multiple meningioma.Conclusions MR can show the shape and signal features of neurofibromatosis-Ⅱ lesions and therefore it has an important value for detecting the lesions in CNS whereas enhanced scan is helpful to show the lesions missed on plain scan.

  10. "Soft-shelled" monothalamid foraminifers as a modern analogue of early life (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Nina; Gooday, Andrew


    According to the fossil record, the earliest undoubted foraminifers are found in the Early Cambrian, where they are represented by tubular agglutinated forms, thought to be the most primitive foraminiferal morphotypes. The numerous foraminifers with single-chambered, organic-walled tests (i.e. 'soft-shelled' monothalamids) exist in the deep sea and are difficult to preserve as fossils. Molecular phylogenetic data tell us that these 'primitive' taxa include the deepest foraminiferal clades, originating around 600 - 900 Ma. We found many soft-shelled monothalamids in sediment samples from deep trenches, including the Challenger Deep (Marianas Trench) and the Horizon Deep (Tonga Trench). Both deeps exceed 10,000 m water depth, well below the carbonate compensation depth, which represents an environmental barrier for calcareous foraminifera. The foraminifera at these extreme hadal sites include tubular and globular forms with organic walls, among which species of the genera Nodellum and Resigella are particularly abundant. Some forms selectively agglutinate minute flakes of clay minerals on the surface of the organic test. Many soft-shelled monothalamids, including most of those in deep tranches, contain stercomata, the function of which is currently unknown. Gromiids (a rhizarian group related to foraminifera) also accumulate stercomata in their sack-shaped tests. This suggests the possibility that the function of these waste particles is to add bulk, like the filling of soft bags or pillows. We suggest that the monothalamid foraminifera that dominate small-sized eukaryotes in extreme hadal settings may provide clues to understanding the biology and ecology of early life in Neoproterozoic sedimented habitats.

  11. Economic and employment potential in textile waste management of Faisalabad. (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhary, Muhammad Nawaz


    The aim of this study is to characterize the waste from the textile industry, to identify the sources and types of waste generation and to find out the economic and employment potential in this sector. Textile waste, its management, and the economic and employment potential in this sector are unrevealed facts in developing countries such as Pakistan. The textile industry is ranked first in export earning in Pakistan. Textile export of yarn and cloth from Faisalabad is US$3 billion per year. On average 161 325 people are employed in the textile sector in Faisalabad, of which 11 860 are involved in solid waste handling and management. The textile industries generate solid wastes such as fibre, metal, plastic and paper waste. A total of 794 209 kg day(-1) (289 886 285 kg year(-1)) solid waste is produced from this sector and purchased by cotton waste junkshop owners at US$125 027 day(-1) (US$45 634 855 year(-1)). Only pre-consumer textile waste is considered. Interestingly no waste is sent to landfill. The waste is first segregated into different categories/ types by hand and then weighed. Cotton waste is sold to brick kilns where it is used as an alternative fuel as it is cheaper than wood/coal. Iron scrap is sold in the junk market from where it is resold to recycling industries. Paper waste is recycled, minimizing the virgin material used for producing new paper products. Iron and plastic drums are returned to the chemical industries for refilling, thus decreasing the cost of dyes and decreasing the demand for new drums. Cutting rags are used for making different things such as ropes and underlay, it is also shredded and used as fillings for pillows and mattresses, thus improving waste management, reducing cost and minimizing the need for virgin material. As no system of quality control and no monitoring of subsequent products exist there is a need to carry out quality control and monitoring.

  12. Efficacy of postural reduction in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures followed by percutaneous vertebroplasty. (United States)

    Chin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Young-Soo; Cho, Yong-Eun; Shin, Jun-Jae


    Vertebroplasty in the symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fracture has become increasingly popular. However, there have been some limitations in restoring the height of the collapsed vertebrae and in preventing the leaking of cement. In the severely collapsed vertebrae of more than two thirds of their original height, vertebroplasty is regarded as a contraindication. We tried postural reduction using a soft pillow under the compressed level. This study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the combination of postural reduction and vertebroplasty for re-expansion and stabilization of the osteoporotic vertebral fractures. A total of 75 patients with single level vertebral compression fracture were treated with postural reduction followed by vertebroplasty. In 30 patients, the vertebral body was severely collapsed more than two-thirds of its original height. We calculated the compression ratio (anterior height/posterior height) and measured the Cobb angle. We analyzed the degree of re-expansion according to the onset duration. The mean compression ratio was 0.60 +/- 0.15 initially and increased to 0.75 +/- 0.17 after vertebroplasty. The mean Cobb angle was 16.14 +/- 11.29 degrees and corrected to 10.71 +/- 12.08 degrees. The degree of re-expansion showed significant relation with the onset duration. Twenty-eight of 30 (93%) severely collapsed vertebrae re-expanded after postural reduction, which made vertebroplasty possible. This new method of vertebroplasty leads to significant restoration of height and correction of kyphosis. The re-expansion was closely related with onset duration. In cases of severely collapsed vertebrae which is able to be re-expanded by postural reduction, vertebroplasty could be applied safely.

  13. Tectonic overprint on magnetic fabric of the Ordovician Thetford Mines Ophiolite (Canada) (United States)

    Di Chiara, Anita; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark W.; Menegon, Luca


    Studies in modern oceanic settings suggest locally along low-spreading ridges both lower crust and upper mantle peridotites may be exhumed to the seafloor in features known as oceanic core complexes (OCC). Examples of OCC on geological record can be preserved in ophiolites, relict of oceanic crust obducted onto continental margins, as for example the Jurassic Mirdita Ophiolite (Albania), suggesting that this spreading mode was active in the past. In order to understand such dynamics further, we investigated the OCC preserved in the Thetford Mines Ophiolite (TMO). TMO is part of the Southern Quebec ophiolites in the Canadian Appalachians (Quebec region), divided into three lithotectonic assemblages: The Humber Zone, a remnant of the Laurentian continental margin; The Cambrian-Ordovician Dunnage Zone, a remnant of the Iapetus Ocean and including the TMO and other ophiolites; and Silurian-Devonian Gaspé Belt, the sedimentary cover sequence. These were subjected to polyphase deformation, experiencing two Paleozoic orogenies: The Ordovician Taconian Orogeny (the Humber and Dunnage zones were amalgamated) and the Devonian Acadian orogeny which deformed and metamorphosed both the Dunnage Zone and the overlying Gaspe Belt. Here we present results from 12 paleomagnetic sites sampled on Humber zone on pillow lavas, dykes, layered gabbros and serpentinized dunites. Our results from AMS experiments show that these rocks, formed by fundamentally different magmatic processes, share a common magnetic fabric, with a kmin axis NW-SE orientated and the kmax steeply plunging to the NE. Additional processing of acquired BSE images and chemical mapping analyses at the SEM show that the kmax of the magnetic fabric is parallel to the elongation of magnetic particles (Iron rich minerals). This remarkably consistent fabric has a tectonic origin and is consistent with shortening perpendicular to the regional trend of fold axes.

  14. Zircon U-Pb age and geochemical constraints on the origin of the Birjand ophiolite, Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran (United States)

    Zarrinkoub, Mohammad Hossein; Pang, Kwan-Nang; Chung, Sun-Lin; Khatib, Mohammad Mahdi; Mohammadi, Seyyed Saeid; Chiu, Han-Yi; Lee, Hao-Yang


    The Birjand ophiolite is one of the ophiolitic complexes in the northern Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran, which marks the closure of an enigmatic branch of the Neotethys Ocean (called the Sistan Ocean) associated with the collision between the Lut and Afghan continental blocks. Ophiolitic rocks in the suture zone occur as collisional block-to-block geological terranes, or as blocks within tectonic mélange. We present zircon U-Pb age, and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data of the Birjand ophiolite to understand its formation age and magma genesis in this poorly constrained part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Varieties of the ophiolitic rocks include clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites, harzburgites, dunites, massive and pillow basalts, dolerites, gabbros and leucogabbros. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, zircon separates from two leucogabbros yield U-Pb ages of 113 ± 1 and 107 ± 1 Ma, which are interpreted to represent the formation ages of the ophiolite. The clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites can be explained as melting residues after low to moderate extraction of MORB-type melts, whereas the harzburgites require more than one melting event to explain their trace element depletion. Most mafic rocks of the ophiolite display MORB-like trace element patterns and high ɛNd(t) (+ 3.4 to + 8.4), features consistent with derivation from MORB-source mantle. Magma genesis can be explained by low to moderate degrees of melting of moderately depleted spinel peridotite and variable interaction with enriched mantle melts. The Birjand ophiolite represents a MORB-type ophiolite and part of the Middle Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere of the Sistan Ocean that closed during the destruction of a narrow arm of the Neotethys Ocean.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Rasskazov


    Full Text Available The Kultuk volcano erupted at the axial South Baikal basin of the Baikal rift zone (BRZ. Now it exhibits facies of subvolcanic bodies, land-lava eruptions and subaqueous pillow lavas and hyaloclastites. The volcano was controlled by the Obruchev fault that is currently a border of the basin which amplitude of vertical movements is rapidly decreasing in the westward direction. It is found that the Kultuk volcano was active at the beginning and end of the volcanic activity period of the Kamar, Stanovaya, and Bystrinskaya volcanic zones, which took place 18–12 Ma ago. In previous papers, it was assumed that dominant structures in the area under study were major Cenozoic shear displacements along the Main Sayan fault and/or along the Tunka rift valley; however, at the current stage of our study, linear configurations of the volcanic zones do not reveal any of such displacements. Based on analyses of distribution of volcanic rocks in the relief at the western coast of Lake Baikal, distinct vertical crustal movements are revealed; such movements started in the Early Miocene and continue to the present time. It is concluded  that volcanism was controlled by the trans-tensional system of volcanic zones. Sources are identified for the shallow lithospheric mantle melt with the substantial admixture of the low-crust component and deeper asthenospheric mantle melts in the Kamar and Stanovaya volcanic zones; for the Bystrinskaya volcanic zone, only components from the deeper source are revealed. The local shallow mantle magmatism occurred only within the lithosphere extension zone beneath the South Baikal basin. The lithosphere thinning is reflected in the change of activity from the sub-lithospheric to lithospheric sources under the Kamar zone. Rifting of the axial structure is recorded at the root of the Slyudyanka lithospheric block that was subjected to the collision-related Early Paleozoic metamorphism. Geochemical characteristics of the collision

  16. Thermo-mechanical stress analysis of cryopreservation in cryobags and the potential benefit of nanowarming. (United States)

    Solanki, Prem K; Bischof, John C; Rabin, Yoed


    Cryopreservation by vitrification is the only promising solution for long-term organ preservation which can save tens of thousands of lives across the world every year. One of the challenges in cryopreservation of large-size tissues and organs is to prevent fracture formation due to the tendency of the material to contract with temperature. The current study focuses on a pillow-like shape of a cryobag, while exploring various strategies to reduce thermo-mechanical stress during the rewarming phase of the cryopreservation protocol, where maximum stresses are typically found. It is demonstrated in this study that while the level of stress may generally increase with the increasing amount of CPA filled in the cryobag, the ratio between width and length of the cryobag play a significant role. Counterintuitively, the overall maximum stress is not found when the bag is filled to its maximum capacity (when the filled cryobag resembles a sphere). Parametric investigation suggests that reducing the initial rewarming rate between the storage temperature and the glass transition temperature may dramatically decrease the thermo-mechanical stress. Adding a temperature hold during rewarming at the glass transition temperature may reduce the thermo-mechanical stress in some cases, but may have an adverse effect in other cases. Finally, it is demonstrated that careful incorporation of volumetric heating by means on nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field, or nanowarming, can dramatically reduce the resulting thermo-mechanical stress. These observations display the potential benefit of a thermo-mechanical design of the cryopreservation protocols in order to prevent structural damage.

  17. Magmatic inclusions in rhyolites, contaminated basalts, and compositional zonation beneath the Coso volcanic field, California (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Metz, J.


    Basaltic lava flows and high-silica rhyolite domes form the Pleistocene part of the Coso volcanic field in southeastern California. The distribution of vents maps the areal zonation inferred for the upper parts of the Coso magmatic system. Subalkalic basalts (Coso volcanic field contain sparse andesitic inclusions (55-61% SiO2). Pillow-like forms, intricate commingling and local diffusive mixing of andesite and rhyolite at contacts, concentric vesicle distribution, and crystal morphologies indicative of undercooling show that inclusions were incorporated in their rhyolitic hosts as blobs of magma. Inclusions were probably dispersed throughout small volumes of rhyolitic magma by convective (mechanical) mixing. Inclusion magma was formed by mixing (hybridization) at the interface between basaltic and rhyolitic magmas that coexisted in vertically zoned igneous systems. Relict phenocrysts and the bulk compositions of inclusions suggest that silicic endmembers were less differentiated than erupted high-silica rhyolite. Changes in inferred endmembers of magma mixtures with time suggest that the steepness of chemical gradients near the silicic/mafic interface in the zoned reservoir may have decreased as the system matured, although a high-silica rhyolitic cap persisted. The Coso example is an extreme case of large thermal and compositional contrast between inclusion and host magmas; lesser differences between intermediate composition magmas and inclusions lead to undercooling phenomena that suggest smaller ??T. Vertical compositional zonation in magma chambers has been documented through study of products of voluminous pyroclastic eruptions. Magmatic inclusions in volcanic rocks provide evidence for compositional zonation and mixing processes in igneous systems when only lava is erupted. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  18. How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.


    Background: In a prior article, “Perioperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spinal surgery: A review,” Epstein documented that postoperative visual loss (POVL) occurs in from 0.013% to 0.2% of spine procedures performed in the prone position. POVL is largely attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), cortical blindness (CB), direct compression (prone pillows/horseshoe, eye protectors), and rarely, acute angle closure glaucoma. Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged surgery, extensive fusions, anemia, hypotension, hypovolemia, diabetes, obesity, use of the Wilson frame, male sex, and microvascular pathology. CRAO may result from improper prone positioning (e.g., eye compression or rotation contributing to jugular/venous or carotid compression), while CB more typically results from both direct compression and obesity. Results: Several preventive/prophylactic measures should limit the risk of POVL. The routine use of an arterial line and continuous intraoperative monitoring document intraoperative hypotension/hypovolemia/anemia that can be immediately corrected with appropriate resuscitative measures. Application of a 3-pin head holder completely eliminates direct eye compression and maintains the neck in a neutral posture, thus avoiding rotation that can contribute to jugular/venous obstruction and/or inadvertent carotid compression. In addition, elevating the head 10° from the horizontal directly reduces intraocular pressure. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position. PMID:27274406

  19. Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.


    Background: Postoperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spine surgery occurs in from 0.013% to 1% of cases and is variously attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION: anterior ION or posterior ION [reported in 1.9/10,000 cases: constitutes 89% of all POVL cases], central retinal artery occlusion [CRAO], central retinal vein occlusion [CRVO], cortical blindness [CB], direct compression [horseshoe, prone pillows, and eye protectors Dupaco Opti-Gard]), and acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG). Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged operative times, long-segment spinal instrumentation, anemia, intraoperative hypotension, diabetes, obesity, male sex, using the Wilson frame, microvascular pathology, decreased the percent of colloid administration, and extensive intraoperative blood loss. Risk factors for CRAO more typically include improper positioning during the surgery (e.g., cervical rotation), while those for CB included prone positioning and obesity. Results: POVL may be avoided by greater utilization of crystalloids versus colloids, administration of α-2 agonists (e.g., decreases intraocular pressure), avoidance of catecholamines (e.g., avoid vasoconstrictors), avoiding intraoperative hypotension, and averting anemia. Patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects may undergo preoperative evaluation by ophthalmologists to determine whether they require prophylactic treatment prior to prone spinal surgery and whether and if prophylactic treatment is warranted. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP. PMID:27274409

  20. Conservative treatment of thoracic-lumbar vertebral compressed fractures in 36 elderly cases%保守治疗老年胸腰椎压缩骨折36例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项先和; 方继红


    目的 探讨老年骨质疏松性脊柱骨折保守治疗的方法及疗效.方法 不能耐受手术或不愿接受手术的老年骨质疏松性脊柱骨折患者36例,采用卧硬板床、后背骨折处垫枕头,骨质疏松药物治疗和理疗,疼痛减轻后行腰背肌功能锻炼等保守治疗.结果 36例老年骨质疏松性脊柱骨折患者治疗6~12个月,按疗效评定标准,优良率80.56%,无死亡病例.结论 保守治疗老年骨质疏松性脊柱骨折简单易行,疗效可靠,减少了手术治疗的风险性和术后并发症.%Objective To explore the efficacy of conservative treatment for the elderly osteoporotic spine fractures. Methods Thirty-six elderly patients with osteoporotic spinal fractures who could not tolerate operation or would not accept operation were selected. Conservative treatment included lying on the horizontal hard bed, cushioning pillow behind back fracture, using osteoporosis drugs, physical therapy, and doing functional exercise for dorsal muscles after pain relief. Results Thirty-six elderly patients with osteoporotic spinal fracture were treated for 6 ,12 months. According to the evaluation standards , the excellent and good rate was 80. 56% . No dead case appeared. Conclusion Conservative treatment of elderly osteoporotic spinal fracture is simple and easy to operate, and the curative effect is reliable. It can also reduce the operation risk and postoperative complication.

  1. FY16 Summary Report: Participation in the KOSINA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Salt formations represent a promising host for disposal of nuclear waste in the United States and Germany. Together, these countries provided fully developed safety cases for bedded salt and domal salt, respectively. Today, Germany and the United States find themselves in similar positions with respect to salt formations serving as repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste. German research centers are evaluating bedded and pillow salt formations to contrast with their previous safety case made for the Gorleben dome. Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating on this effort as an Associate Partner, and this report summarizes that teamwork. Sandia and German research groups have a long-standing cooperative approach to repository science, engineering, operations, safety assessment, testing, modeling and other elements comprising the basis for salt disposal. Germany and the United States hold annual bilateral workshops, which cover a spectrum of issues surrounding the viability of salt formations. Notably, recent efforts include development of a database for features, events, and processes applying broadly and generically to bedded and domal salt. Another international teaming activity evaluates salt constitutive models, including hundreds of new experiments conducted on bedded salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. These extensive collaborations continue to build the scientific basis for salt disposal. Repository deliberations in the United States are revisiting bedded and domal salt for housing a nuclear waste repository. By agreeing to collaborate with German peers, our nation stands to benefit by assurance of scientific position, exchange of operational concepts, and approach to elements of the safety case, all reflecting cost and time efficiency.

  2. Radiolarian biochronology of upper Anisian to upper Ladinian (Middle Triassic) blocks and tectonic slices of volcano-sedimentary successions in the Mersin Mélange, southern Turkey: New insights for the evolution of Neotethys (United States)

    Tekin, U. Kagan; Bedi, Yavuz; Okuyucu, Cengiz; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Sayit, Kaan


    The Mersin Ophiolitic Complex located in southern Turkey comprises two main structural units; the Mersin Mélange, and a well-developed ophiolite succession with its metamorphic sole. The Mersin Mélange is a sedimentary complex including blocks and tectonic slices of oceanic litosphere and continental crust in different sizes. Based on different fossil groups (Radiolaria, Conodonta, Foraminifera and Ammonoidea), the age of these blocks ranges from Early Carboniferous to early Late Cretaceous. Detailed fieldwork in the central part of the Mersin Mélange resulted in identification of a number of peculiar blocks of thick basaltic pillow-and massive lava sequences alternating with pelagic-clastic sediments and radiolarian cherts. The oldest ages obtained from the radiolarian assemblages from the pelagic sediments transitional to the volcano-sedimentary succession in some blocks are middle to late Late Anisian. These pelagic sediments are overlain by thick sandstones of latest Anisian to middle Early Ladinian age. In some blocks, sandstones are overlain by clastic and pelagic sediments with lower Upper to middle Upper Ladinian radiolarian fauna. Considering the litho- and biostratigraphical data from Middle Triassic successions in several blocks in the Mersin Mélange, it is concluded that they correspond mainly to the blocks/slices of the Beysehir-Hoyran Nappes, which were originated from the southern margin of the Neotethyan Izmir-Ankara Ocean. As the pre-Upper Anisian basic volcanics are geochemically evaluated as back-arc basalts, this new age finding suggest that a segment of the Izmir-Ankara branch of the Neotethys was already open prior to Middle Triassic and was the site of intraoceanic subduction.

  3. Urbanization and childhood asthma: an African perspective. (United States)

    Weinberg, E G


    The increasing prevalence of childhood asthma in the developed world is a cause for concern. Much research is currently being conducted in an attempt to identify possible reasons for this occurrence. A so-called Western lifestyle has been the factor most commonly cited to explain this worrying increase in asthma prevalence. In essence, this implies a way of life where children are exposed from early infancy to a wide range of foods, infections, indoor and outdoor allergens, and irritants and to the effects of motor vehicle pollution. Until fairly recently, children in many African countries lived mainly in rural areas and were not exposed to the effects of a Western lifestyle. Early studies in a limited number of African countries showed a very low rural prevalence of childhood asthma, especially where children lived according to a traditional lifestyle. These same studies showed that asthma was not uncommon in urbanized African children. There has been an increasing tendency over the past 20 years for those in rural communities to move to the large urban centers. More recent childhood asthma prevalence studies, especially those from Kenya and Ghana, have confirmed the urban-rural differences but have shown a much narrower gap. In part this may be the result of exposure of rural children to agricultural pesticides and irritants as well as of an increasing tendency to adopt a more Westernized lifestyle such as the use of beds with mattresses, pillows, and blankets. These circumstances on the African continent provide a natural laboratory in the quest for factors that influence the development of asthma in susceptible children. Once more fully elucidated, it is possible that much valuable information will be available to combat the relentless increase in childhood asthma both here as well as in the developed world.

  4. Ground-based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Mapping Rock Alterations and Lithologies: Case Studies from Semail Ophiolite, Oman and Rush Springs Sandstone, Oklahoma (United States)

    Sun, L.; Khan, S.; Hauser, D. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Snyder, C.; Okyay, U.


    This study used ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing data to map rock alterations and lithologies at Semail Ophiolite, Oman, as well as hydrocarbon-induced rock alterations at Cement, Oklahoma. The Samail Ophiolite exposed the largest, least-deformed, and the most-studied ophiolite in the world. Hydrocarbon seepages at Cement, Oklahoma brought hydrocarbons to the Rush Springs sandstones at surface, and generated rock alterations including bleaching of red beds, and carbonate cementation. Surficial expressions of rock alterations and different lithofacies are distinct from adjacent rocks, and can be detected by remote sensing techniques. Hyperspectral remote sensing acquires light intensity for hundreds of bands in a continuous electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to short-wave infrared radiation, and holds potential to characterize rocks with great precision. Ground-based hyperspectral study could scan the objects at close ranges thus provide very fine spatial resolutions (millimeters to centimeters). This study mapped all the major iconic outcrops of Semail ophiolite including pillow lava, sheeted dykes, layered gabbros, and peridotites. This study also identified surficial rock alterations induced by hydrocarbons at Cement, Oklahoma. Reddish-brown Rush Spring sandstones are bleached to pink, yellow, and gray colors; pore spaces in the sandstones have been filled with carbonate cementation. Laboratory spectroscopy was used to assist with mineral identification and classification in hyperspectral data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to provide high-accuracy spatial references. Principal component analysis, minimum noise fraction, spectral angle mapper, and band ratios are used in image processing. Combining lithological, remote sensing and geochemical data, this study built a model for petroleum seepage and related rock alterations, and provided a workflow for employing ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in petrological

  5. The Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite (United States)

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, M.L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Nelson, Steven W.; Hamilton, Thomas D.


    The Resurrection Peninsula forms the east side of Resurrection Bay (fig. 3). Relief ranges from 437 m (1,434 ft) at the southern end of the peninsula to more than 1,463 m (4,800 ft) opposite the head of the bay. All rock units composing the informally named Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite of Nelson and others (1987) are visible or accessible by boat."Ophiolite" has been a geologic term since 1827 (Coleman, 1977). The term "ophiolite" initially referred to the rock serpentinite; the Greek root "ophi" (meaning snake or serpent) alluded to the greenish, mottled, and shiny appearance of serpentinites. In 1927, Steinmann described a rock association in the Alps, sometimes known as the "Steinmann Trinity', consisting of serpentine, diabase and spilitic lavas, and chert. Recognition of this suite led to the idea that ophiolites represent submarine magmatism that took place early in the development of a eugeosyncline. In the early 1970s the Steinmann Trinity was reconsidered in light of the plate tectonic theory, new petrologic studies, and the recognition of abducted oceanic lithosphere in orogenic belts of the world. In 1972 at a Geological Society of America Penrose Conference (Anonymous, 1972) the term "ophiolite" was defined as a distinctive assemblage of mafic to ultramafic rocks, with no emphasis on their origin. A complete ophiolite should contain, from bottom to top:1) Tectonized ultramafic rocks (more or less serpentinized)2) Gabbro complex containing cumulus textures and commonly cumulus peridotites3) Mafic sheeted-dike complex, grading upward into;4) Submarine pillow lavas of basaltic composition. Common associated rock types include plagiogranite (Na-rich) and an overlying sedimentary section typically dominated by chert.

  6. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  7. Snow water equivalent mapping in Norway (United States)

    Tveito, O. E.; Udnæs, H.-C.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.; Isaksen, K.; Mengistu, Z.


    In high latitude area snow covers the ground large parts of the year. Information about the water volume as snow is of major importance in many respects. Flood forecasters at NVE need it in order to assess possible flood risks. Hydropower producers need it to plan the most efficient production of the water in their reservoirs, traders to estimate the potential energy available for the market. Meteorologists on their side use the information as boundary conditions in weather forecasting models. The Norwegian meteorological institute has provided snow accumulation maps for Norway for more than 50 years. These maps are now produced twice a month in the winter season. They show the accumulated precipitation in the winter season from the day the permanent snow cover is established. They do however not take melting into account, and do therefore not give a good description of the actual snow amounts during and after periods with snowmelt. Due to an increased need for a direct measure of water volumes as snow cover, and NVE initialized a joint project in order to establish maps of the actual snow cover expressed in water equivalents. The project utilizes recent developments in the use of GIS in spatial modeling. Daily precipitation and temperature are distributed in space by using objective spatial interpolation methods. The interpolation considers topographical and other geographical parameters as well as weather type information. A degree-day model is used at each modeling point to calculate snow-accumulation and snowmelt. The maps represent a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. The modeled snow reservoir is validated by snow pillow values as well traditional snow depth observations. Preliminary results show that the new snow modeling approach reproduces the snow water equivalent well. The spatial approach also opens for a wide use in the terms of areal analysis.

  8. Ages and geochemical comparison of coeval plutons and volcanics from the central and eastern Aleutian arc (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Hemming, S. R.; Rioux, M. E.; Cooperdock, E. H. G.


    On average, arc volcanics are compositionally different from the bulk continental crust. The relatively little known plutonic part of intra-oceanic arcs is more similar to continental crust, and may play a significant role for understanding continental crust formation. Our pilot study [1] demonstrated that in the central and eastern Aleutian islands, predominantly tholeiitic Quaternary volcanic rocks have statistically different Pb-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic signatures than predominantly calc-alkaline Miocene and older plutonic rocks, showing that these plutonics and volcanics were derived from compositionally different sources. However, studies of older volcanics are needed to determine whether (1) there was a change in magma chemistry in the central and eastern Aleutian arc between the Miocene and the present-day, or (2) coeval plutonics and volcanics are compositionally different, and formed by different processes. For example, silica- and water-rich calc-alkaline magmas may preferentially stall and form plutons after extensive degassing and rapid viscosity increase in the mid-crust, while silica- and water-poor tholeiitic magmas tend to erupt at the surface. Here we report new geochronological and geochemical results on samples collected during the 2015 GeoPRISMS shared logistics field campaign. We collected more than 500 volcanic and plutonic samples from Unalaska, Umnak and Atka islands, including pillow lavas, sills, and larger plutons. A subset of 50 samples has been analyzed for major and trace element chemistry, Pb-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes, and Ar-Ar geochronology. So far,40Ar/39Ar cooling dates measured for the volcanics span a wide range, from zero to 35 Ma, which is comparable to the age distribution of the plutons ( 9 Ma to 39 Ma) from these islands. The forthcoming, combined geochronology and geochemistry of coeval plutonics and volcanics will contribute to our understanding of the connections between arc magmatism and continental crust formation. [1] Cai et al

  9. An Overview of Recent Observations on Lava-H2Ointeractions (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.


    Lava flows can be sensitive recorders of their environments of formation (e.g., pillow lava). However, while deposits formed during interactions between lava and frozen water are increasing critical for constraining paleoclimate reconstructions on Earth and Mars, those interactions are subtle and complex. Fortunately, recent observations made during eruptions (2010 Fimmvorduhals/Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland; 2012-13 Tolbachik, Russia; 2013 Veniaminof, Alaska), during large-scale experiments (Syracuse Lava Lab), and on ancient deposits are shedding new light on these complexities. To understand these observations, it is critical to constrain the nature (porosity, permeability, ability to deform) of the boundary between the lava and the substrate. When lava travels directly on top of non-permeable ice, meltwater is produced rapidly enough to significantly accelerate lava movement (e.g., 'hydroplaning' or 'Leidenfrost effect'). The lack of surface permeability also facilitates ingestion of steam into the base of the lava for several minutes on the scale of experiments (dm); anomalously large gas cavities are also present in modern and ancient lava flow deposits inferred to have formed in water/ice-rich environments. When lava is emplaced directly on snow, the permeability of the substrate controls meltwater accumulation, which can facilitate/hinder heat transfer but can also weaken the substrate. Finally, the presence of basal lava flow breccia ('a'a flows) or an earlier erupted tephra blanket at the lava-H2O boundary acts to significantly slow heat transfer. The speed of lava emplacement may also be important. The lavas emplaced during most of the eruptions above were not able to cover a large enough area to quickly generate significant volumes of meltwater. However, at the high discharge rates for the first few days of the Tolbachik eruption (~400 m3 s-1), effusion onto a less permeable surface (e.g., ice instead of snow) could generate significant volumes of meltwater.

  10. [Brief history of recent hemp cultivation in Switzerland and subsequent medico-legal problems resulting from hemp cultivation]. (United States)

    Giroud, C; Broillet, A; Augsburger, M; Bernhard, W; Rivier, L; Mangin, P


    In March 1995, a decision about cultivation of cannabis was issued by the Swiss Federal Offices of Public Health, Police and Agriculture in order to satisfy the growing interest of farmers and other people in hemp farming. It pointed out that 1)... each hemp plant contains THC and must be therefore considered a drug, 2)... no permission is required for those who grow hemp without the intention to produce drugs ... meaning that the choice of the plant variety was not restricted to those which are characterized by a low THC concentration and grown in a few countries belonging to the European Union. Claiming that natural hemp must contain significant amounts of THC and thanks to the Swiss legislation, areas dedicated to hemp cultivation develop considerably. Most hemp plants which are submitted to our laboratories by the police for THC quantification belong to the drug-type. Nowadays, a great deal of goods (food and beverages, cosmetics, drugs) made of hemp are marketed in Switzerland. Strong suspicions exist however that several of these products could be used as a screen for the illegal market of cannabis. For instance, despite financial support from the state, fiber hemp cultivation remains unsuccessful. No advantage with regard to seed productivity, edible seed and essential oils qualities and yields have been found for drug hemp over fiber hemp by agricultural research stations up to now. Several clues about the possible illicit use of hemp goods rich in THC, especially hemp tea made of flower tops and "therapeutic" pillows filled with cannabis exist. Recently, two Federal edits were issued in order to restrict the selling of hemp seedlings and of hemp foods and beverages to those containing only low amounts of THC. However, the marketing of hemp plants used for decorating remains free partly explaining the recent success of these "beautiful" plants. Broadly speaking, the Swiss and European legislations about hemp have approached mutually during the last years.

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman


    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  12. Comprehensive environmental management of asthma and pediatric preventive care. (United States)

    Roy, Angkana; Downes, Martin J; Wisnivesky, Juan P


    Indoor environmental triggers can increase asthma morbidity. National guidelines recommend comprehensive use of environmental control practices (ECPs) as a component of asthma management. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between preventive asthma care and comprehensive ECP use among children with asthma. We used data from the National Asthma Survey, including 1,921 children with asthma. Comprehensive use was defined as using at least five of eight ECPs: (i) air filter, (ii) dehumidifier, (iii) mattress cover, (iv) pillow cover, (v) pet avoidance, (vi) smoke avoidance, (vii) removing carpets, and (viii) washing sheets in hot water. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between comprehensive use of ECPs and receipt of preventive asthma care, as measured by number of routine asthma visits in the prior year and physician advice to modify the environment. Overall, 17% (95% CI: 14-19%) of participants had comprehensive ECP use. The most commonly used practices were 'smoke avoidance' (85%), 'pet avoidance' (59%), and 'washing sheets in hot water' (46%). Comprehensive use of ECPs was associated with having received physician advice [odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% CI: 2.2-4.4] and increased asthma visits (1-2 visits: OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4; 3-4 visits: OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8; ≥5 visits: OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8). Only a minority of parents implement comprehensive ECPs, and receipt of preventive asthma care is associated with comprehensive use. Further research is needed to determine the factors mediating these associations in order to inform more effective asthma counseling.

  13. Postoperative Rehabilitation After Rotator Cuff Repair (United States)

    Mollison, Scott; Shin, Jason J.; Glogau, Alexander; Beavis, R. Cole


    Background: Postoperative rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) remains controversial and suffers from limited high-quality evidence. Therefore, appropriate use criteria must partially depend on expert opinion. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine and report on the standard and modified rehabilitation protocols after ARCR used by member orthopaedic surgeons of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) and the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA). We hypothesized that there will exist a high degree of variability among rehabilitation protocols. We also predict that surgeons will be prescribing accelerated rehabilitation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A 29-question survey in English language was sent to all 3106 associate and active members of the AOSSM and the AANA. The questionnaire consisted of 4 categories: standard postoperative protocol, modification to postoperative rehabilitation, operative technique, and surgeon demographic data. Via email, the survey was sent on September 4, 2013. Results: The average response rate per question was 22.7%, representing an average of 704 total responses per question. The most common immobilization device was an abduction pillow sling with the arm in neutral or slight internal rotation (70%). Surgeons tended toward later unrestricted passive shoulder range of motion at 6 to 7 weeks (35%). Strengthening exercises were most commonly prescribed between 6 weeks and 3 months (56%). Unrestricted return to activities was most commonly allowed at 5 to 6 months. The majority of the respondents agreed that they would change their protocol based on differences expressed in this survey. Conclusion: There is tremendous variability in postoperative rehabilitation protocols after ARCR. Five of 10 questions regarding standard rehabilitation reached a consensus statement. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a trend toward later

  14. Exothermic properties of plaster-synthetic composite casts. (United States)

    Burghardt, Rolf D; Anderson, John G; Reed, Rob A; Herzenberg, John E


    Plaster casts can cause burns. Synthetic casts do not. Composite plaster-synthetic casts have not been thoroughly evaluated. This study analyzed the temperature from plaster casts compared with composite casts in a variety of in vitro conditions that would simulate clinical practice. A Pyrex cylinder filled with constant body temperature circulating water simulated a human extremity. Circumferential casts, of either plaster or composite construction (plaster inner layer with outer synthetic layer), were applied to the model. Peak temperatures generated by the exothermic reactions were studied relative to the following variables: dip water temperature (24 °C versus 40 °C), cast thickness (16, 30, and 34 ply), and delayed (5-min) versus immediate application of the synthetic outer layers. Peak temperatures from the all-plaster casts were compared with the composite casts of the same thickness. Finally, the relative cast strength was determined. Potentially dangerous high temperatures were measured only when 40 °C dip water was used or when thick (30- or 34-ply) casts were made. Cast strength increased with increasing cast thickness. However, the presence of synthetics in the composite casts layers did not increase cast strength in every case. When applying composite casts, the outer synthetic layers should be applied several minutes after the plaster to minimize temperature rise. Composite casts do not routinely generate peak temperatures higher than plaster casts of similar thickness. Because the skin of children and the elderly is more temperature-sensitive than average adult skin, extra care should be taken to limit the exothermic reaction when casting children and the elderly: clean, room temperature dip water, minimal required cast thickness, avoidance of insulating pillows/blankets while the cast is drying.

  15. Late Caledonian microdiorites and felsic porphyrites from Northern Scotland: implications for the petrogenesis of high Ba-Sr granites (United States)

    Fowler, Mike; Jacklin, Holly


    A suite of sharply cross-cutting microdiorite - felsic porphyrite dykes, emplaced into the southern part of the Northern Highlands Terrane, is thought to be coeval with the local Caledonian high Ba-Sr granites. On occasion they can be seen to pillow into, and mix with the granites (e.g. Strontian) in the manner of synplutonic dykes. In the least-deformed examples small-scale mixing and mingling textures are preserved between basic and acid variants, and the felsic porphyrites (rarely) have mafic marginal facies. Microdiorites also grade into rocks of the appinite suite. Thus, the compositional range of the suite is considerable, linking mafic magmas to more evolved compositions via many intermediate stages. These therefore offer a window into the processes of Caledonian magma evolution. A selection of some 50 dykes has ben collected and analysed for major and trace elements, mostly from the environs of Strontian, but also as far north as Loch Quoich and west to Arisaig. They show a continuous chemical range from 47% to 74% SiO2, 18% to high-Mg andesite of sanukite affinity. Petrogenetically-informative trace elements bear the hallmarks of a subduction-related source, with general enrichment in LILEs and relative depletion in HFSEs (in particular Nb-Ta). The chemistry of the felsic porphyrites is closely comparable with the local Strontian and Cluanie granites, and cumulus-enriched mafic microdiorites are chemically similar to local discrete appinites. Such data can therefore be used to test alternative petrogenetic hypotheses: that the high Ba-Sr granites evolved by crystal fractionation (± crustal contamination) from mantle-derived appinitic parents, or that they are crustal melts associated with genetically unrelated but contemporaneous mafic magmas.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman


    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  17. The Relationship between Planned and Reported Home Infant Sleep Locations among Mothers of Late Preterm and Term Infants (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra


    Objective To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥ 37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Methods Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a U.S. hospital following birth and by phone at one month postpartum during 2010–2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Results Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. Conclusions The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women’s preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep. PMID:25626714

  18. 桩伴侣与基桩抗震的概念设计%Pile Partner and the Conceptual Earthquake-resistant Design of Foundation Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛江炜; 葛忻声; 蔡景珞; 杨勇


    It is uncertain that the lateral components such as basement wall and cap side wall bearing horizontal load,so the conventional pile foundation with low cap might endure lateral force that is larger,and even cause its damage.The applying of pile partner to improve traditional foundation pile structure form is put for ward,especially when there is few frictional force between pile cap and soil,or the soil modulus is small.The partner can be component for anti-earthquake concept design under rare earthquake action,pile partner may be sacrificed firstly to keep pile perform well.The improper design of composite foundation will destroy or weaken the isolation effect of pillow,and can be solved by reserving buffer space between pile and partner.%地下室外墙、承台侧壁等侧向构件承担水平荷载具有很大的不确定性,常规采用的低承台桩基有可能承受较大的甚至导致破坏的水平力,建议用桩伴侣改善传统基桩的构造形式,特别是对于承台与桩间土摩擦力小或者桩身范围地基土模量低的两类状况.在罕遇地震时,作为抗震概念设计的耗能构件,首先牺牲伴侣,避免或延迟桩头的破坏;复合地基如果设计不当会破坏或削弱褥垫层隔震的效果,可在伴侣与桩之间预留缓冲空间.

  19. 液氢加注系统漏热故障对火箭发射的影响%Impact of Liquid Hydrogen Injection System Heat Leakage Fault on the Rocket Launch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昕晖; 栾骁; 陈景鹏; 孙克


    Using AMEsim modeling object-oriented software, with resistance to fluid and friction loss equation (Darcy-Weisbach) formula, extrusion and heat leakage model, based on liquid hydrogen injection system of the launch range, the paper establishes liquid flow and gas-liquid two-phase flow model, and analyzes the different heat leakage rate, pipe and device thermal failure, which affect the rocket changes in the tank. The results show that high-purity hydrogen flow compared with the actual value, in the two-phase flow model gasification hydrogen pressure, resistance, flow and other parameters have changed the role of the rocket tank's injection height and air pillow pressure; the two-phase flow model can simulate the heat leakage fault and can also indicate injection system failure process and results.%以AMEsim面向对象软件作为建模工具,以液阻与摩擦损失方程Darcy Weisbach公式、挤压与漏热模型为基础,基于发射场液氢加注系统,建立液相流动和气液两相流动模型,分析了不同漏热率,管路、器件漏热故障时对火箭贮箱的影响变化情况.研究结果表明:与液氢流动实际数值相比,两相流模型中气化液氢的压力、阻力、流量等参数的作用,改变了火箭贮箱的加注工位高度和贮箱气枕压力;两相流模型可进行加注系统漏热故障仿真,并能预示加注故障过程与结果.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During daily usage of textiles, humidity and warmth conditions provide appropriate living conditions for bacteria and microorganisms in textile products. Bacteria growth, infection and cross infection by pathogens might develop due to usage of textile products. Especially since World War II, antibacterial textile products have developed as a result of the hygiene demand of the society. In this study, triclosan (sample A, quaternary ammonium plus triclosan (sample B, dichlorophenol (sample C, silver (sample D, quaternary ammonium (sample E and chitosan (sample F based six different antibacterial additives were applied on 100% cotton fabrics for antibacterial treatment. All six treated fabrics and the untreated fabric (control sample were washed for 40 cycles; the antibacterial efficacies were tested; changes in tear strength and Berger whiteness values of the samples were recorded prior to washing and after 1st, 5th, 10th, 20th and 40th washing cycles. Regarding all washing cycles, a decrease in tear strength results is observed between unwashed and 40 cycle washed samples. Textile materials such as bedlinen, pillow cases, surgeon gowns for which tear strength values are important and that have antibacterial treatments should be tested for tear strength values for different washing cycles to see if they meet minimum tear strength requirements. The change in tear strength and Berger whiteness of samples shows differences according to the antibacterial agent treated and washing cycle applied. Generally, slight decreases in tear strength values are observed. And slight decreases in whiteness, except for sample F which is treated with chitosan, are observed as well. Textile materials having antibacterial treatments should be tested for the special antibacterial agent they are treated and for the number of washing cycles that is required for their product life.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a diapiric and magmatic cycle associated to the on-set of sea-floor and the exhumation of both Jurassic deposits and the core of their controlling diapirs. The nature of the outcrops and richness in sedimentary environments, related with the different phases of rifting, is a remarkable case for extensional basin studies. Geological sites can be of regional, national or international importance due to scientific, educational, economical, social or historical reasons. The present proposal can be considered as a model for the establishment of tourist/educational routes with a strong component in communication on Earth Sciences, integrating social and historical aspects at a regional level. The recognition of those sites as geoheritage may contribute to a more sustainable management, in particular because it allows the achievement of a critical dimension for the investment in human resources and marketing. In Portugal, recent legal evolution might be considered promising. Nevertheless, since implementation of the concept of protected site depends on the approval of detailed management programs, there are frequent delays, misinterpretations and disrespect of legislation. The strategy to be adopted must integrate conservation, scientific studies and science communication in projects with economic and social interest.

  2. [House dust mite allergy]. (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C


    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  3. The Fina Nagu volcanic complex: Unusual submarine arc volcanism in the rapidly deforming southern Mariana margin (United States)

    Brounce, Maryjo; Kelley, Katherine A.; Stern, Robert; Martinez, Fernando; Cottrell, Elizabeth


    In the Mariana convergent margin, large arc volcanoes disappear south of Guam even though the Pacific plate continues to subduct and instead, small cones scatter on the seafloor. These small cones could form either due to decompression melting accompanying back-arc extension or flux melting, as expected for arc volcanoes, or as a result of both processes. Here, we report the major, trace, and volatile element compositions, as well as the oxidation state of Fe, in recently dredged, fresh pillow lavas from the Fina Nagu volcanic chain, an unusual alignment of small, closely spaced submarine calderas and cones southwest of Guam. We show that Fina Nagu magmas are the consequence of mantle melting due to infiltrating aqueous fluids and sediment melts sourced from the subducting Pacific plate into a depleted mantle wedge, similar in extent of melting to accepted models for arc melts. Fina Nagu magmas are not as oxidized as magmas elsewhere along the Mariana arc, suggesting that the subduction component responsible for producing arc magmas is either different or not present in the zone of melt generation for Fina Nagu, and that amphibole or serpentine mineral destabilization reactions are key in producing oxidized arc magmas. Individual Fina Nagu volcanic structures are smaller in volume than Mariana arc volcanoes, although the estimated cumulative volume of the volcanic chain is similar to nearby submarine arc volcanoes. We conclude that melt generation under the Fina Nagu chain occurs by similar mechanisms as under Mariana arc volcanoes, but that complex lithospheric deformation in the region distributes the melts among several small edifices that get younger to the northeast.

  4. Measuring Snow Precipitation in New Zealand- Challenges and Opportunities. (United States)

    Renwick, J. A.; Zammit, C.


    Monitoring plays a pivotal role in determining sustainable strategy for efficient overall management of the water resource. Though periodic monitoring provides some information, only long-term monitoring can provide data sufficient in quantity and quality to determine trends and develop predictive models. These can support informed decisions about sustainable and efficient use of water resources in New Zealand. However the development of such strategies is underpinned by our understanding and our ability to measure all inputs in headwaters catchments, where most of the precipitation is falling. Historically due to the harsh environment New Zealand has had little to no formal high elevation monitoring stations for all climate and snow related parameters outside of ski field climate and snow stations. This leads to sparse and incomplete archived datasets. Due to the importance of these catchments to the New Zealand economy (eg irrigation, hydro-electricity generation, tourism) NIWA has developed a climate-snow and ice monitoring network (SIN) since 2006. This network extends existing monitoring by electricity generator and ski stations and it is used by a number of stakeholders. In 2014 the network comprises 13 stations located at elevation above 700masl. As part of the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), NIWA is carrying out an intercomparison of precipitation data over the period 2013-2015 at Mueller Hut. The site was commissioned on 11 July 2013, set up on the 17th September 2013 and comprises two Geonor weighing bucket raingauges, one shielded and the other un-shielded, in association with a conventional tipping bucket raingauge and conventional climate and snow measurements (temperature, wind, solar radiation, relative humidity, snow depth and snow pillow). The presentation aims to outline the state of the current monitoring network in New Zealand, as well as the challenge and opportunities for measurement of precipitation in alpine

  5. Vulcanismo submarino del Santoniense en el Subbético: datación con nannofósiles e interpretación (formación Capas Rojas, Alamedilla, provincia de Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gea, G.


    Full Text Available Submarine volcanic rocks (pillow lavas appear into the marly limestones and marls of the Capas Rojas Formation in the Median Subbetic. The dating with nannoplankton of the immediately underlying and overlying materials to these volcanic rocks has allow us to precise the age of this volcanic activity as Late Santonian (nannofossil biozone of Rucinolithus hayi. This volcanic event arose 84 million years ago, according to the absolute age obtained with the calibration of this biozone. It is the last Mesozoic volcanic activity registered until now in the External Zones of the Betic Cordilleras. The age of this event corresponds to the ending part of the interval of the Sudiberian continental margin evolution as an extensive margin, relatively nearly to the time in which it evolved to a convergent marginRocas volcánicas submarinas (lavas almohadilladas aparecen intercaladas entre calizas margosas y margas de la Formación Capas Rojas del Subbético Medio. La datación con nannoplancton de los materiales inmediatamente infrayacentes y suprayacentes a estas rocas volcánicas ha permitido precisar la edad de este vulcanismo como Santoniense superior (biozona de nannofósiles de Rucinolithus hayi. Este evento volcánico ocurrió hace unos 84 millones de años de acuerdo con la calibración a tiempos absolutos de la biozona indicada. Se trata por tanto de la actividad volcánica mesozoica más moderna datada hasta el momento en el conjunto de las Zonas Externas de las Cordilleras Béticas. La edad de este evento corresponde a la parte terminal del intervalo de tiempo durante el cual el margen continental sudibérico constituyó un margen extensivo, relativamente cercano al momento en que ocurrió su transformación a un margen convergente.

  6. Seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin and their spatial stratigraphic distribution (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhong, Yijiang; Chen, Hongde; Xu, Changgui; Wu, Kui


    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) have been identified from well cores in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin, China. These deposits formed as interbedded sand and mud at a delta front or on the slope toe of the prodelta. According to criteria proposed by previous research, we established that these SSDS were induced by earthquakes and that they can be divided into two groups: ductile deformation structures (plastic intrusions, ball-and-pillow structures, flame structures, boudinage structures, irregular convolute stratifications, and synsedimentary faults and folds) and brittle deformation structures (sand dykes and autoclastic breccias). Based on their level of deformation, size, and complexity, the SSDS were divided into three Groups, from weak to strong, to reflect the intensity of palaeo-earthquakes. With consideration of the palaeo-sedimentary environment, we proposed a model to account for the production and preservation of these SSDS. According to the classification adopted in this study and the spatial stratigraphic distribution of the SSDS, the tectonic activities of the Tan-Lu faults in the Bohai Bay basin were investigated. The A and B oilfields (assumed names) are located in the tectonically active zones of the west and east branches of these faults, respectively. The extension tectonic activities in the A oilfield region exhibit a sharply decreasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and increase again in E3d2; whereas the strike-slip tectonic activities in the B oilfield region exhibit an increasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and finally, reach a maximum to E3d3. The results of this study show that the method of analysis of the spatial stratigraphic distribution of SSDS is suitable for determining the evolution of tectonic activity and thus, it can provide a new perspective for basin analysis.

  7. Fu Yin and Suppressing Yang method in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder%扶阴抑阳法治疗广泛性焦虑症体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chinese medicine ,generalized anxiety disorder is depression ,insomnia ,affliction ,palpitations ,upset ,insomnia ,dizziness ,head-ache ,parts of the frontal ,occipital ,sweating ,dry mouth ,pharyngeal foreign body sensation ,tongue tongue body vibration ,red tongue ,thin white fur or thin yellow ,sublingual vein dark purple ,the number of vein .TCM syndrome of yin and Yang is the imbalance of yin and Yang ,yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity .Yin ,yin and Yang Yang does not enter not ,Yin insomnia ,mental tension and yang hyperactivity ,mental tension at the head Yintang Qi stasis ,neck stiffness ,so the amount of pain ,pillows ,Yin Yang and yang hyperactivity unhealing astringent diminished capacity is sweating ,palpitation .The disease belongs to deficiency and excess ,disease in the pericardium .%中医认为广泛焦虑症属郁证、不寐范畴,病症表现为,心悸、心烦,失眠、头昏、头痛,部位在额、枕部,汗出、口干,咽部异物感,伸舌时舌体振颤,舌质红,舌苔薄白或薄黄,舌下脉络紫暗,脉数。中医阴阳辨证为阴阳失调、阴虚阳亢。阴虚,阴不敛阳,阳不入阴则失眠,精神紧张为阳亢的表现,精神紧张导致头部印堂处气机淤滞,颈项部僵硬,所以额、枕头痛,阴不敛阳阳亢固涩能力减弱则出汗、心跳。病性属虚实夹杂,病位在心包。

  8. Hydrothermal Alteration of Hyaloclastites Adjacent to Sill-Like Intrusives in the HSDP 3-km Core Hole. (United States)

    McClain, J. S.; Schiffman, P.; Walton, A. W.; Yin, Q.; Pauly, B.


    Hyaloclastites at present depths below1880 mbsl on the submarine flanks of Mauna Kea volcano have been intruded by numerous, < 10 m-thick, sill-like bodies. The contact metamorphism of the hyaloclastites has resulted in up to 1 m-thick bleached zones, characterized by the presence of Na-and Mg-enriched alteration rinds on sideromelane clasts as well as the precipitation of drusy hydrothermal clinopyroxene (calcic augite to hedenbergite) and analcime within void spaces. The intrusive activity associated with contact metamorphism appears to have occurred early in the diagenetic history of the hylaoclastites, when they possessed porosities of 40-50%, because (1) early induration and pore-filling by hydrothermal minerals apparently strengthened them, preventing significant grain compaction during subsequent burial, (2) hydrothermal minerals have been coated or overgrown by smectite, zeolites, and palagonite during subsequent diagenesis and microbial innoculation, and (3) 87Sr/86Sr ratios of hydrothermal rinds on glass shards, averaging .7069 ± .0006, imply extensive interaction with seawater, whereas 87Sr/86Sr ratios of adjacent palagonitized glass, averaging .7042 ± .0002, imply interaction with comparatively less fluid, presumably after diagenetic pore-filling. Thermal modeling, which assumes (1) convective cooling, (2) that hydrothermal clinopyroxenes formed at minimum temperatures of 350°C, and (3) that hyaloclastite porosities approached 50% at the time of intrusion, implies that the observed contact aureoles must have been produced by mafic intrusions that maintained temperatures above the solidus rather than being rapidly cooled and frozen. This may have occurred because magma continued to flow in the intrusion conduit, consistent with the suggestion that these intrusions fed overlying pillow flows (Garcia et al., 2007). If this intrusive activity occurred at shallow depths within the edifice of Mauna Kea (Seaman et al. 2004), then hydrothermal clinopyroxene

  9. Evaluation of impermeable covers for bedding in patients with allergic rhinitis. (United States)

    Terreehorst, Ingrid; Hak, Eelko; Oosting, Albert J; Tempels-Pavlica, Zana; de Monchy, Jan G R; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Aalberse, Rob C; Gerth van Wijk, Roy


    Encasing bedding in impermeable covers reduces exposure to house-dust mites, but the clinical benefit of this intervention as part of mite-avoidance measures for patients with allergic rhinitis is not known. We performed a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of one year of use of impermeable bedding covers in the bedrooms of patients with rhinitis who were sensitized to house-dust mites to determine the effects on the signs and symptoms of disease. Three participating university medical centers enrolled 279 patients with allergic rhinitis who were randomly assigned to receive impermeable or non-impermeable (control) covers for their mattress, pillow, and duvet or blanket. At the start of the study, all participants received information on general allergen-avoidance measures. The severity of rhinitis was measured on a rhinitis-specific visual-analogue scale and by means of a daily symptom score and nasal allergen provocation testing. We also measured the concentrations of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and D. farinae (Der f1) in dust from patients' mattresses, bedroom floors, and living-room floors at base line and after 12 months as a measure of the efficacy of the intervention. A total of 232 patients completed the study. There was a significant reduction in Der p1 and Der f1 concentrations in the mattresses of the impermeable-cover group, whereas there was no significant reduction in the control group. However, there was no significant effect on the clinical outcome measures. Analyses of subgroups defined according to age, level of exposure, type and severity of sensitization, or characteristics of the patient's home had similar results. Mite-proof bedding covers, as part of a structured allergy-control program, reduced the level of exposure to mite allergens. Despite the success of the intervention, this single avoidance measure did not lead to a significant improvement of clinical symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis. Copyright

  10. Neck Pain Occurrence and Characteristics in Nigerian University Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunke Patience Iroko


    Full Text Available AIM: University students seem to be a high risk group for neck pain which often leads to diminished concentration and academic performance among them. This study examined the occurrence and characteristics of neck pain in undergraduate students from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. METHOD: One thousand and sixty nine (512 male and 557 female undergraduate students with the mean age of 23.49 ± 2.54 years responded in this cross-sectional survey. An adapted questionnaire that sought information on demographics, occurrence, characteristics and the consequence of neck pain on activities of daily living served as the survey instrument. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence and current frequency of neck pain among the respondents was 34.9% and 9.8% respectively. Female students had a higher preponderance of lifetime neck pain prevalence than their male counterparts (52.8 vs. 47.2%. There was higher frequency of neck pain after admission into the university than before (68.6 vs. 28.7%. Neck pain increased according to level of study and commoner among clinical students. 20% of the respondents reported chronic neck pain and was commoner in males than females (13% vs. 7% females. Seats without back supports used during lectures (48.0%, long reading hours (31.4%, poor self perpetuating posture (16.6%, and types of pillow used when sleeping (14.2% were the most implicated predisposing factors to neck pain. Reading (49.7% and concentration on school work (27.9% were the most limited activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: Neck pain is common among Nigerian university undergraduate students and affects females than males. The prevalence increased with higher level of study and commoner among clinical students. Neck pain mostly affects reading and concentration on school work among university undergraduate students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 167-174

  11. Somnipathy and Sleep Health of Elderly People%老年人睡眠障碍与睡眠养生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 井明鑫


    Sleep is one of the most important physiological activities. Good sleep can save one’s energy. Further more, good sleep can greatly reduce the incidence of various diseases. As a result of the decline of all sorts of physiological functions, the incidence of sleep disorders of elderly people has greatly increased. Adjusting the sleep environment is an effective way to improve the sleep quality of elderly people, such as adjusting sleep time to the diurnal variation, choosing a comfortable sleeping posture, arranging the bedroom, finding a proper bed, a soft pillow and a set of comfortable bedding, etc. All these can help provide a comfortable sleep environment for elderly people.%睡眠是人最重要的生理活动之一,健康良好的睡眠不仅可以养精蓄锐,更大大降低了多种疾病的发病率。老年人由于生理机能的衰退,睡眠障碍的发生率大大提高。通过调整睡眠环境来改善老年人的睡眠状态是一种行之有效的养生手段,如睡眠时间的调整、睡眠姿势的选择、睡眠环境的布置、舒适的床具、柔软的枕头、厚实的被褥等,都可以为老年人提供一个舒适的睡眠环境。

  12. Oceanic mafic magmatism in the Siletz terrane, NW North America: Fragments of an Eocene oceanic plateau? (United States)

    Phillips, Bethan A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mullen, Emily K.; Weis, Dominique


    The Siletz terrane, a predominantly mafic accreted oceanic terrane, is located in the Cascadia forearc region of Oregon, Washington and Vancouver Island. The terrane represents a late Palaeocene-Eocene large igneous province that consists of pillow lavas, massive flows and intrusive sheets. Previously it has been proposed that the Siletz terrane represents either an accreted oceanic plateau, hotspot island chain, backarc basin, island arc, or a sequence of slab window volcanics. A province-wide geochemical reassessment of the terrane, including new high precision Sr-Pb-Nd-Hf isotope data, has been used to assess the validity of the proposed tectonomagmatic models for the Siletz terrane. The trace element data show little evidence of crustal contamination, or an arc signature, and the samples have rare earth element (REE) patterns that are flat to light REE enriched. These features are similar to other oceanic plateaus such as the Ontong Java and the Caribbean. Initial isotope ratios range from 206Pb/204 Pb: 18.751 to 19.668, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.507 to 15.661, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.294 to 39.2128, 176Hf/177Hf: 0.28300 to 0.28316 (εHf: 9.0 to 14.5), 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51282 to 0.51299 (εNd: 5.0 to 8.1) and 87Sr/86Sr: 0.70302 to 0.70380. These data are consistent with a mantle source of the Siletz terrane that appears to have been heterogeneous and slightly enriched. The enriched signature has characteristics of both EM2 and HIMU components and this, combined with a calculated mantle potential temperature well above ambient mantle, indicates derivation of the Siletz magmatism from a mantle plume, possibly the Yellowstone Hotspot. We therefore conclude that the Siletz terrane represents an accreted oceanic plateau.

  13. ESOLIP – estimate of solid and liquid precipitation at sub-daily time resolution by combining snow height and rain gauge measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mair


    Full Text Available Measuring precipitation in mountain areas is a demanding task, but essential for hydrological and environmental themes. Especially in small Alpine catchments with short hydrological response, precipitation data with high temporal resolution are required for a better understanding of the hydrological cycle. Since most climate/meteorological stations are situated at the easily accessible bottom of valleys, and the few heated rain gauges installed at higher elevation sites are problematic in winter conditions, an accurate quantification of winter (snow precipitation at high elevations remains difficult. However, there are an increasing number of micro-meteorological stations and snow height sensors at high elevation locations in Alpine catchments. To benefit from data of such stations, an improved approach to estimate solid and liquid precipitation (ESOLIP is proposed. ESOLIP allows gathering hourly precipitation data throughout the year by using unheated rain gauge data, careful filtering of snow height sensors as well as standard meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, global shortwave radiation, wind speed. ESOLIP was validated at a well-equipped test site in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria, comparing results to winter precipitation measured with a snow pillow and a heated rain gauge. The snow height filtering routine and indicators for possible precipitation were tested at a field site in Matsch Valley (South Tyrol, Italy. Results show a good match with measured data because variable snow density is taken into account, which is important when working with freshly fallen snow. Furthermore, the results show the need for accurate filtering of the noise of the snow height signal and they confirm the unreliability of heated rain gauges for estimating winter precipitation. The described improved precipitation estimate ESOLIP at sub-daily time resolution is helpful for precipitation analysis and for several hydrological applications

  14. Syndrome Differentiation Nursing on Vertigo of Liver-fire Flaring-up Syndrome for 56 Cases%56例肝火上炎型眩晕的辨证施护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 钱艳; 王冰


    目的:探讨肝火上炎型眩晕患者的辨证施护效果。方法通过对56例肝火上炎型眩晕患者以平肝潜阳、清火熄风、滋养肝肾为辨证施护原则,进行环境、生活、饮食、情志护理以及针灸、耳穴压豆、拔罐、足浴、药枕等中医特色护理,观察护理效果。结果显效30例,有效20例,无效6例。结论中医辨证施护对肝火上炎型眩晕临床护理效果肯定。%Objective To explore the effect of syndrome differentiation nursing on vertigo of liver-fire flaring-up syndrome .Method 56 cases of patients with vertigo of liver-fire flaring-up syndrome was treated according to principle of repressing hyperactive liver yang , clearing fire and extinguishing wind , nourishing liver and kidney , combined with some specific traditional Chinese medicine nursing methods , like life nursing , diet nursing , emotional nursing , acupuncture , auricular points plaster therapy , cupping , foot-bathing pediluvium and Chinese herbs pillow.Result 30 cases showed marked improvement , 20 cases were effective, 6 cases were invalid.Conclusion TCM syndrome differentiation nursing on vertigo of liver-fire flaring-up syndrome has definite effect .

  15. Analisis stratigrafi awal kegiatan Gunung Api Gajahdangak di daerah Bulu, Sukoharjo; Implikasinya terhadap stratigrafi batuan gunung api di Pegunungan Selatan, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono


    Full Text Available, Tertiary volcanisms in the Southern Mountains, Central Jawa were started with the formation of pillow lavas having basalt to basaltic andesite in composition. This initial stage volcanism developed into a  construction period of composite volcanoes that consist of alternating basaltic to andesitic lava flows, breccias, and tuffs. The construction period could be followed by a destructive phase, producing pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias, lapillistones, and tuffs of high silica andesite to dacite, or even rhyolite in composition. A stratigraphic measuring section at Bulu area, Sukoharjo Regency, presents an alternat- ing fine-grained andesitic volcaniclastic material and some limestones, with the total thickness is 143.33 m. The thickness of bedded volcaniclastic material tends to be thickening upward from 35 m until 90 m. The grain size of the volcaniclastic material also tends to be coarsening upward from clay size through silt and fine sand to coarse sand and granules. Paleontological analysis on fossils contained in the lime- stone gives an age of Early Miocene (N7 - N9. The volcaniclastic rocks is conformably overlain by the Mandalika Formation, comprising alternating andesitic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. These data imply that the fine-grained volcaniclastic material is an initial product of the construction period of Gajahdangak Volcano in the area, that formed the Mandalika Formation. This Formation is overlain by the Semilir Formation, composed of pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias and tuffs with dacitic composition. This as- sociated volcanic rock reflects a product of a caldera explosion or a destructive phase. Based on the characteristics of lithology of volcanic products from the initial stage, to a construction and destruction period, and compiled age data, the Southern Mountains represent formal volcanic rock units that are able to be divided into many formations.  

  16. The character and significance of basement rocks of the southern Molucca Sea region (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Nichols, Gary; Ballantyne, Paul; Charlton, Tim; Ali, Jason

    Pre-Neogene basement rocks in the southern Molucca Sea region include ophiolitic rocks, arc volcanic rocks and continental rocks. The ophiolitic complexes are associated with arc and forearc igneous and sedimentary rocks. They are interpreted as the oldest parts of the Philippine Sea Plate with equivalents in the ridges and plateaux of the northern Philippine Sea. In the Molucca Sea region igneous components include rocks with a "supra-subduction zone" character, bonintic volcanic rocks and basic volcanic rocks with a "within-plate" character; "MORB-type" rocks are rare or absent. The ophiolitic rocks are overlain by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Plutonic rocks of island arc origin which intrude the ophiolites yield Late Cretaceous radiometric ages and amphibolites with ophiolitic protoliths yield Eocene ages. The "supra-subduction zone" ophiolites are speculated to have originated during a mid-Cretaceous plate reorganization event. For the Late Cretaceous and Eocene the present-day Marianas arc and forearc provides an attractive model. Volcanic rocks from the basement of Morotai, western Halmahera and much of Bacan. These also have an island arc character and are probably of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene age. Both the arc volcanic rocks and the ophiolitic complexes are overlain by shallow water Eocene limestones and an Oligocene rift sequence including basaltic pillow lavas and volcaniclastic turbidites. The distribution of the Eocene-Oligocene sequences indicate pre-Mid/Late Eocene amalgamation of the ophiolitic and arc terranes. Mid Eocene-Oligocene extension appears to be synchronous with opening of the central West Philippine Basin. Continental crust probably arrived in this region in the Late Paleogene-Early Neogene, either due to collision of the Australian margin with Pacific arc-ophiolite terranes or by terrane movement along the Sorong Fault Zone.

  17. Study on Co-pyrolysis of Laminated Paper-PE-Al Packaging Material%纸塑铝复合包装材料各组分共热解行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟进胜; 钱杨; 任学勇; 王文亮; 常建民


    Paper, PE and A1 were separated from pillow Tetra Pak with formic acid and used as materials for experiment. TG-FTIR analysis technique was applied to study the synergism of components during pyrogena tion process, so as to understand the co pyrolysis behavior, which will provide an experimental basis and scien- tific reference to achieve resource utilization of abandon Tetra Pak. The results showed that there is synergism between paper and PE during co pyrolysis, especially near the decomposing peak; the aluminum promotes and restrains the reaction in different stage of co-pyrolysis as catalyst.%用甲酸分离枕型利乐包所得的纸、聚乙烯、铝作为实验材料,采用热重红外联用(TG—FTIR)分析技术,研究了各组分在热解过程中的协同作用,以探索纸塑铝复合包装各组分共热解机理,为实现废弃利乐包材料的资源化利用提供科学参考和实验依据。结果表明:共热解时纸和聚乙烯之间存在协同作用,在失重峰位置表现得尤为明显;铝在共热解时具有一定的催化作用,在反应的不同阶段起到了相应的促进或者抑制热解的作用。

  18. A palmar pressure sensor for measurement of upper limb weight bearing by the hands during transfers by paraplegics. (United States)

    Kunju, Nissan; Ojha, Rajdeep; Devasahayam, Suresh R


    Paraplegic patients have to effect transfer from one seat to another by using their upper limbs. In this process the hands bear almost the entire weight of the body in at least some phases of the transfer. It is desirable to train patients, especially those who are elderly and otherwise weak, to distribute their weight so as to avoid large forces being sustained on any one hand for an extended period. It is also desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of assistive devices like lower limb FES in sharing the load on the hand. This study presents a simple and versatile method of measuring palmar hand force during transfers by paraplegic patients. It is important that this force sensor should not interfere with the grasping and stabilizing properties of the hands and should permit normal transferring. The force sensor comprises an air-filled pouch or pillow that can be placed on any surface. This pneumatic sensor feels like upholstery padding on the surface on which it is placed. The sensor integrates the total pressure applied to the surface of the pouch, thereby obtaining the total force exerted by the palm/hand. The fabrication of the sensor is described, as well as the associated measurement circuit. The static calibration shows that the sensor is linear up to 350 N and the dynamic calibration shows that it has a bandwidth of 13 Hz. The sensor was fabricated using an inflated inelastic airbag attached to a pressure transducer. An automatic offset correction circuit in the preamplifier module ensures that any offset due to initial pressure or sensor drift is removed and the output is zero under no load condition. The key to this sensor arrangement is the ease of fitting it into the intended location without disturbing the existing arrangement for the subject's activities of daily living (ADL).

  19. Viagens e leituras japonesas em Rakushisha, de Adriana Lisboa

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    Marcel Vejmelka


    Full Text Available Resumo: No romance Rakushisha (2007, Adriana Lisboa representa várias dimensões da experiência da alteridade. Os dois protagonistas brasileiros que viajam ao Japão – Haruki em busca de suas raízes culturais, Celina em busca dela mesma – refletem a estadia da própria autora em Quioto, experiência necessária para poder escrever o livro, como afirma ela. A viagem do protagonsitas ao Japão também funciona como guia para os leitores na descoberta e no diálogo com as obras dos poetas japoneses Matsuo Bashō (1644-1694 e Sei Shōnagon (966-1025 – particularmente o Saga Nikki e o Livro de cabeceira – assim como a experiência do Japão relatada por Roland Barthes em L’Empire des signes.   Abstract: In her novel Rakushisha (2007, Adriana Lisboa reflects different dimensions of experiencing alterity. The two Brazilian protagonists travelling to Japan – Haruki in search of his cultural origins, Celina in search of herself – reflect the author’s own stay in Kyoto, which has been necessary, as she claims, to be able to write the book. The two protagonists’ trip to Japan also serves as a guide for the readers in the novel’s discovery of and dialogue with the works of the Japanese poets Matsuo Bashō (1644-1694 e Sei Shōnagon (966-1025 – namely the Saga Nikki and The Pillow Book – as well as the Japanese experience related by Roland Barthes in L’Empire des signes.

  20. End-expiration Respiratory Gating for a High Resolution Stationary Cardiac SPECT system (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi


    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual-respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or 8 cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (pdefect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (pdefect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the patient with defect. The results showed that the proposed methods can effectively reduce motion blur in the images caused by both respiratory and cardiac motions, which may lead to more accurate defect detection and

  1. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi


    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the patient with defect. The results showed that the proposed methods can effectively reduce motion blur in the images caused by both respiratory and cardiac motions, which may lead to more accurate defect detection and

  2. Vp/Vs-ratios from the central Kolbeinsey Ridge to the Jan Mayen Basin, North Atlantic; implications for lithology, porosity and present-day stress field (United States)

    Mjelde, Rolf; Aurvåg, Roar; Kodaira, Shuichi; Shimamura, Hideki; Gunnarsson, Karl; Nakanishi, Ayako; Shiobara, Hajime

    The horizontal components from twenty Ocean Bottom Seismometers deployed along three profiles near the Kolbeinsey Ridge, North Atlantic, have been modelled with regard to S-waves, based on P-wave models obtained earlier. Two profiles were acquired parallel to the ridge, and the third profile extended eastwards across the continental Jan Mayen Basin. The modelling requires a thin (few 100 m) layer with very high Vp/Vs-ratio (3.5-9.5) at the sea-floor in the area lacking sedimentary cover. The obtained Vp/Vs-ratios for the remaining part of layer 2A, 2B, 3 and upper mantle, correspond to the following lithologies: pillow lavas, sheeted dykes, gabbro and peridotite, respectively. All crustal layers exhibit a decreasing trend in Vp/Vs-ratio away-from-the-axis, interpreted as decreasing porosity and/or crack density in that direction. A significant S-wave azimuthal anisotropy is observed within the thin uppermost layer of basalt near the ridge. The anisotropy is interpreted as being caused by fluid-filled microcracks aligned along the direction of present-day maximum compressive stress, and indicates crustal extension at the ridge itself and perpendicular-to-the-ridge compression 12 km off axis. Spreading along the Kolbeinsey Ridge has most likely been continuous since its initiation ca. 25 Ma: The data do not suggest the presence of an extinct spreading axis between the Kolbeinsey Ridge and the Aegir Ridge as has been proposed earlier. The Vp/Vs-ratios found in the Jan Mayen Basin are compatible with continental crust, overlain by a sedimentary section dominated by shale.

  3. Magmatism and tectonics in continental Chiloé, Chile (42° 42°30'S) (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.; Hervé, F.; Rojas, L.; Cembrano, J.


    The Chiloé-Chonos region seems to preserve the oldest depositional events in the fore-arc accretionary complex of the Southeast Pacific margin. There are isolated occurrences of low-grade metamorphic rocks, including slates with a Devonian trilobite fauna and schists that give Rb-Sr evidence of a ca. 290 Ma metamorphism. Pillow basalts and ultramafic rocks may represent parts of the Pan-Thalassic ocean floor on which the Palaeozoic sediments were laid down. Emergence of a magmatic arc is indicated by Jurassic to Early Cretaceous volcanogenic and marine deposits. During the mid-Cretaceous climax of plutonic activity, these were intruded by monzogranites, which here constitute the eastern portion of the North Patagonian batholith. They give Rb-Sr isochron ages of 120-100 Ma (Barremian-Albian). Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 0.7040-0.7045, and ɛNdt values of +0.5 to +1.5, indicate a simple petrogenesis with a mantle source. The western part of the batholith is petrologically more primitive, being composed predominantly of tonalite, diorite and gabbro, and initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are more variable. Late Cenozoic movement of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone (LOFZ) generated deep pull-apart basins to the west of the uplifted batholith/basement complex. These were filled by thick marine sequences of volcanogenic debris, indicating the wide extent of a mainly rhyolitic volcanic field during Miocene times. Pliocene tonalite and granodiorite plutons (dated by a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron at 4.7 ± 0.5 Ma) and Holocene andesite-basalt stratovolcanoes are located along the LOFZ. The latter feature has thus been a major influence on the tectonic evolution of the area. There is no evidence for major post-Palaeozoic compression or crustal shortening.

  4. Discovery of Lower Cretaceous synmetamorphic thrust tectonics in French Lesser Antilles (La Désirade Island, Guadeloupe): Implications for Caribbean geodynamics (United States)

    Corsini, M.; Lardeaux, J. M.; Verati, C.; Voitus, E.; Balagne, M.


    Located east of Guadeloupe, the island of La Désirade exhibits the oldest rocks of the Lesser Antilles arc and the eastern Caribbean plate. An old magmatic basement is composed of (1) late Jurassic ophiolitic complex with meta-basaltic pillow lavas and interbedded radiolarites, (2) acid igneous complex comprising meta-quartz-diorite and meta-rhyolitic lavas flows, and (3) meta-diabasic/microdioritic dyke swarm complex. We present and discuss the discovery of synmetamorphic thrust tectonics in this island. Based on detailed structural analysis we evidenced two main compressive events. The first event (D1) is characterized by pervasive folding associated with thrust development. In the northeastern part of the island, a major thrust fault, the Grand Abaque Thrust, has been discovered which displaces for several kilometers the acid igneous complex onto the ophiolitic unit. The second deformation event (D2) is featured by a main pervasive cleavage S2 observed at the regional scale associated with upright folding (F2) and by the development of two sets of conjugated steeply dipping strike-slip shear zones, dextral 130°N and sinistral 20°N striking, respectively. Microstructural observations indicate that Greenschist facies metamorphism is clearly contemporaneous with the development of D1 and D2 superimposed tectonic structures. Ar/Ar geochronology was performed on two bulk of adularia minerals sampled in the northeast volcanic complex within a deformed zone related to a D2 event. These analyses yield well-defined and concordant plateau ages at 106.2 ± 1.7 Ma and 107.2 ± 1.8 Ma. Thus, shortening and thickening tectonics occurred during Lower Cretaceous (Albian). In the available framework of Caribbean geodynamics, the synmetamorphic thrust tectonics we discovered in the French Lesser Antilles is related to the collision between an Aptian-Albian oceanic plateau and the Andean-Cordilleran east-dipping subduction zone. Our results support subduction polarity reversal

  5. Compression strength of composite primary structural components (United States)

    Johnson, Eric R.


    The linear elastic response is determined for an internally pressurized, long circular cylindrical shell stiffened on the inside by a regular arrangement of identical stringers and identical rings. Periodicity of this configuration permits the analysis of a portion of the shell wall centered over a generic stringer-ring joint; i.e., a unit cell model. The stiffeners are modeled as discrete beams, and the stringer is assumed to have a symmetrical cross section and the ring an asymmetrical section. Asymmetery causes out-of-plane bending and torsion of the ring. Displacements are assumed as truncated double Fourier series plus simple terms in the axial coordinate to account for the closed and pressure vessel effect (a non-periodic effect). The interacting line loads between the stiffeners and the inside shell wall are Lagrange multipliers in the formulation, and they are also assumed as truncated Fourier series. Displacement continuity constraints between the stiffeners and shell along the contact lines are satisfied point-wise. Equilibrium is imposed by the principle of virtual work. A composite material crown panel from the fuselage of a large transport aircraft is the numerical example. The distributions of the interacting line loads, and the out-of-plane bending moment and torque in the ring, are strongly dependent on modeling the deformations due to transverse shear and cross-sectional warping of the ring in torsion. This paper contains the results from the semiannual report on research on 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell'. The results of the new work are illustrated in the included appendix.

  6. Fatores desencadeantes de crises de migrânea em pacientes com migrânea sem aura Precipitating factors of migraine attacks in patients with migraine without aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ierusalimschy


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a distribuição de fatores desencadeantes de migrânea em uma população determinada, foram avaliados, através de entrevista pessoal, 100 pacientes que preenchiam os critérios diagnósticos para migrânea sem aura propostos pela Sociedade Internacional de Cefaléia. O estresse foi o desencadeante mais citado, respondendo pelo surgimento de crises de migrânea em 76% dos pacientes. Em seguida, em ordem de frequência decrescente, foram citados: estímulos sensoriais (75%, privação do sono (49%, jejum (48%, fatores ambientais (47%, alimentos (46%, menstruação (39%, fadiga (35%, bebidas alcoólicas (28%, sono prolongado (27%, cafeína (22%, esforço físico (20%, trauma craniano (20%, viagens (4%, atividade sexual (3%, medicamentos (2%, os movimentos do pescoço (2%, tabagismo (1% e uso de travesseiro baixo (1%. Conclui-se que determinados fatores parecem desempenhar papel importante na precipitação da migrânea.To study the distribution of triggers of migraine in a selected population, 100 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for migraine without aura as proposed by the International Headache Societywere evaluated by means of a personal interview. Stress was the most cited trigger, triggering migraine in 76%. Afterwards, in descending order of frequency, were cited sensorial stimuli (75%, sleep deprivation (49%, hunger (48%, environmental factors (47%, food (46%, menses (39%, fatigue (35%, alcohol (28%, sleep excess (27%, cafeine (22%, physical exertion (20%, head trauma (20%, trips (4%, sexual activity (3%, medications (2%, neck movements (2%, smoking (1% and the use of a low pillow (1%. It is concluded that certain factors seem to play an important role in the triggering of migraine.

  7. Analisis stratigrafi awal kegiatan Gunung Api Gajahdangak di daerah Bulu, Sukoharjo; Implikasinya terhadap stratigrafi batuan gunung api di Pegunungan Selatan, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono


    Full Text Available, Tertiary volcanisms in the Southern Mountains, Central Jawa were started with the formation of pillow lavas having basalt to basaltic andesite in composition. This initial stage volcanism developed into a  construction period of composite volcanoes that consist of alternating basaltic to andesitic lava flows, breccias, and tuffs. The construction period could be followed by a destructive phase, producing pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias, lapillistones, and tuffs of high silica andesite to dacite, or even rhyolite in composition. A stratigraphic measuring section at Bulu area, Sukoharjo Regency, presents an alternat- ing fine-grained andesitic volcaniclastic material and some limestones, with the total thickness is 143.33 m. The thickness of bedded volcaniclastic material tends to be thickening upward from 35 m until 90 m. The grain size of the volcaniclastic material also tends to be coarsening upward from clay size through silt and fine sand to coarse sand and granules. Paleontological analysis on fossils contained in the lime- stone gives an age of Early Miocene (N7 - N9. The volcaniclastic rocks is conformably overlain by the Mandalika Formation, comprising alternating andesitic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. These data imply that the fine-grained volcaniclastic material is an initial product of the construction period of Gajahdangak Volcano in the area, that formed the Mandalika Formation. This Formation is overlain by the Semilir Formation, composed of pumice-rich pyroclastic breccias and tuffs with dacitic composition. This as- sociated volcanic rock reflects a product of a caldera explosion or a destructive phase. Based on the characteristics of lithology of volcanic products from the initial stage, to a construction and destruction period, and compiled age data, the Southern Mountains represent formal volcanic rock units that are able to be divided into many formations.  

  8. Estimating parameters of generalized integrate-and-fire neurons from the maximum likelihood of spike trains. (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Mihalas, Stefan; Russell, Alexander; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Niebur, Ernst


    When a neuronal spike train is observed, what can we deduce from it about the properties of the neuron that generated it? A natural way to answer this question is to make an assumption about the type of neuron, select an appropriate model for this type, and then choose the model parameters as those that are most likely to generate the observed spike train. This is the maximum likelihood method. If the neuron obeys simple integrate-and-fire dynamics, Paninski, Pillow, and Simoncelli (2004) showed that its negative log-likelihood function is convex and that, at least in principle, its unique global minimum can thus be found by gradient descent techniques. Many biological neurons are, however, known to generate a richer repertoire of spiking behaviors than can be explained in a simple integrate-and-fire model. For instance, such a model retains only an implicit (through spike-induced currents), not an explicit, memory of its input; an example of a physiological situation that cannot be explained is the absence of firing if the input current is increased very slowly. Therefore, we use an expanded model (Mihalas & Niebur, 2009 ), which is capable of generating a large number of complex firing patterns while still being linear. Linearity is important because it maintains the distribution of the random variables and still allows maximum likelihood methods to be used. In this study, we show that although convexity of the negative log-likelihood function is not guaranteed for this model, the minimum of this function yields a good estimate for the model parameters, in particular if the noise level is treated as a free parameter. Furthermore, we show that a nonlinear function minimization method (r-algorithm with space dilation) usually reaches the global minimum.

  9. Initial clinical experience with scanned proton beams at the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO). (United States)

    Tuan, J; Vischioni, B; Fossati, P; Srivastava, A; Vitolo, V; Iannalfi, A; Fiore, M R; Krengli, M; Mizoe, J E; Orecchia, R


    We report the initial toxicity data with scanned proton beams at the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO). In September 2011, CNAO commenced patient treatment with scanned proton beams within two prospective Phase II protocols approved by the Italian Health Ministry. Patients with chondrosarcoma or chordoma of the skull base or spine were eligible. By October 2012, 21 patients had completed treatment. Immobilization was performed using rigid non-perforated thermoplastic-masks and customized headrests or body-pillows as indicated. Non-contrast CT scans with immobilization devices in place and MRI scans in supine position were performed for treatment-planning. For chordoma, the prescribed doses were 74 cobalt grey equivalent (CGE) and 54 CGE to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2, respectively. For chondrosarcoma, the prescribed doses were 70 CGE and 54 CGE to PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Treatment was delivered five days a week in 35-37 fractions. Prior to treatment, the patients' positions were verified using an optical tracking system and orthogonal X-ray images. Proton beams were delivered using fixed-horizontal portals on a robotic couch. Weekly MRI incorporating diffusion-weighted-imaging was performed during the course of proton therapy. Patients were reviewed once weekly and acute toxicities were graded with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Median age of patients = 50 years (range, 21-74). All 21 patients completed the proton therapy without major toxicities and without treatment interruption. Median dose delivered was 74 CGE (range, 70-74). The maximum toxicity recorded was CTCAE Grade 2 in four patients. Our preliminary data demonstrates the clinical feasibility of scanned proton beams in Italy.

  10. Interplay between tectonic and volcanic processes along the East Pacific Rise, 16°N (United States)

    Le Saout, M.; Thibaud, R.; Gente, P.


    The East-Pacific Rise (EPR) is a fast spreading ridge. Between 15°22'N and 16°15'N the spreading rate is 87 mm/year. This segment is the most inflated of the EPR due to its interaction with the Mathematician hotspot. The French PARISUB ("Panache Ridge Submersible") cruise in 2010 acquired high-resolution geophysical data using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Aster-X and the manned submersible Nautile (Ifremer). The goal was to investigate in detail the magmatic and tectonic processes at the intersection between the hotspot and the ridge. We investigate tectonic and volcanic processes using high-resolution data along the 16°N segment of the EPR. Near bottom bathymetric data (1 meter grid spacing) are improved by photos, videos and human observations from submersible survey. Data are used : 1/ to characterize in detail tectonic feature (faults and fissures) geometries (e.g., dip and vertical throw), 2/ to distinguish between different lava flows (pillow, lobate and sheet flows) and to locate lava sources defined in particular by flow front orientations and lava channels. In a context of an unusual spreading segment under influence of a hot spot, these data allow us to evaluate how small-scale volcanic and tectonic processes near ASTs, interact for nucleation and evolution of faulting patterns, and affect tectonic stain evaluation. The distinction between eruptive and non-eruptive tectonic features allows to estimate the distribution of tectonic feature affected by magnetic overprinting. We propose two origins for nucleation and evolution of faults around the AST, and define relations between faults, lava flows and seismic layer 2A.

  11. Re-evaluation of Pre-pump Arterial Pressure to Avoid Inadequate Dialysis and Hemolysis: Importance of Prepump Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Hemodialysis Patients. (United States)

    Shibata, Eriko; Nagai, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Risa; Noda, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomomi; Chikata, Yusuke; Hann, Michael; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ono, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Sayo; Tamaki, Masanori; Murakami, Taichi; Matsuura, Motokazu; Abe, Hideharu; Doi, Toshio


    Prepump arterial pressure (PreAP) is monitored to avoid generating excessive negative pressure. The National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for vascular access recommend that PreAP should not fall below -250 mm Hg because excessive negative PreAP can lead to a decrease in the delivery of blood flow, inadequate dialysis, and hemolysis. Nonetheless, these recommendations are consistently disregarded in clinical practice and pressure sensors are often removed from the dialysis circuit. Thus far, delivered blood flow has been reported to decrease at values more negative than -150 mm Hg of PreAP. These values have been analyzed by an ultrasonic flowmeter and not directly measured. Furthermore, no known group has evaluated whether PreAP-induced hemolysis occurs at a particular threshold. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the importance of PreAP in the prediction of inadequate dialysis and hemolysis. By using different diameter needles, human blood samples from healthy volunteers were circulated in a closed dialysis circuit. The relationship between PreAP and delivered blood flow or PreAP and hemolysis was investigated. We also investigated the optimal value for PreAP using several empirical monitoring methods, such as a pressure pillow. Our investigation indicated that PreAP is a critical factor in the determination of delivered blood flow and hemolysis, both of which occured at pressure values more negative than -150 mm Hg. With the exception of direct pressure monitoring, commonly used monitoring methods for PreAP were determined to be ineffective. We propose that the use of a vacuum monitor would permit regular measurement of PreAP. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Errors in Transcription and Notes of Poems on Red Leaves in Snuff Pot’s Book%子弟书《红叶题诗》校录指瑕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    “子弟书”是我国满族中下层人民的曲艺作品,是民族文化艺术的瑰宝。《子弟书丛钞》的校录与注释均有可商之处。“遇拙”当为“愚拙”,意为愚昧无知;“扑地岸”当为“赴堤岸”,意为“奔向河沿”;“赴床捣枕”当为“扑床捣枕”,意为“锤击床枕”;“急理便”的本字当为“机灵便”。%As a folk vocal art form originated among the middle and lower class Manchu people,the Snuff Pot’ s Book(zǐdì shū)is a treasure of culture and art of Chinese ethnic minorities. However,possible errors worthy of deliberation exist in the transcription and notes of the Collection of Snuff Pot’s Book (zǐdì shūcóng chāo). For example,遇拙could be愚拙,meaning ignorant and foolish,扑地岸could be赴堤岸,meaning heading for the riverbank,赴床捣枕could be扑床捣枕,meaning thumping the bed and pillow,and急理便could be机灵便.

  13. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation, and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  14. Indoor Environmental Control Practices and Asthma Management. (United States)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C; Abramson, Stuart L; Sandel, Megan T


    Indoor environmental exposures, particularly allergens and pollutants, are major contributors to asthma morbidity in children; environmental control practices aimed at reducing these exposures are an integral component of asthma management. Some individually tailored environmental control practices that have been shown to reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations are similar in efficacy and cost to controller medications. As a part of developing tailored strategies regarding environmental control measures, an environmental history can be obtained to evaluate the key indoor environmental exposures that are known to trigger asthma symptoms and exacerbations, including both indoor pollutants and allergens. An environmental history includes questions regarding the presence of pets or pests or evidence of pests in the home, as well as knowledge regarding whether the climatic characteristics in the community favor dust mites. In addition, the history focuses on sources of indoor air pollution, including the presence of smokers who live in the home or care for children and the use of gas stoves and appliances in the home. Serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibody tests can be performed or the patient can be referred for allergy skin testing to identify indoor allergens that are most likely to be clinically relevant. Environmental control strategies are tailored to each potentially relevant indoor exposure and are based on knowledge of the sources and underlying characteristics of the exposure. Strategies include source removal, source control, and mitigation strategies, such as high-efficiency particulate air purifiers and allergen-proof mattress and pillow encasements, as well as education, which can be delivered by primary care pediatricians, allergists, pediatric pulmonologists, other health care workers, or community health workers trained in asthma environmental control and asthma education.

  15. Tectonic implications of paleomagnetic poles from Lower Tertiary Volcanic Rocks, south central Alaska (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.; Grommé, C. Sherman; Csejtey, Bela, Jr.


    We have determined the paleolatitude of lower Tertiary volcanic rocks in southern Alaska to measure possible poleward translation of the Wrangellia and the Peninsular terranes after 50 m.y. ago. Previous paleomagnetic studies have shown that in Triassic and Jurassic time these terranes were located near the equator and have moved at least 3000 km poleward relative to the North American craton. Our sample localities are in the northern Talkeetna Mountains in mildly deformed andesite and dacite flows (50.4, 51.3, 53.9, and 56.3 m.y. by K-Ar) that overlap Lower Cretaceous flysch, Lower Permian volcanic rocks of Wrangellia, and Upper Triassic pillow basalt of the Susitna terrane. Results from 26 cooling units (23 of reversed polarity and 3 of normal polarity) give a mean paleomagnetic pole at 69.5°N, 179.6°E, α95 = 12.2°. Stratigraphic sections from opposite limbs of a syncline yield directional paths that pass the fold test, satisfying a necessary condition for primary origin of the magnetization. The corresponding mean paleolatitude (76°N) of the northern Talkeetna Mountains is 8°±10° higher than the latitude predicted from the Eocene reference pole for North America. Therefore, northward drift of the Talkeetna superterrane, which is the amalgamation of the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes during and after Middle Jurassic time, was probably complete by 50 m.y. ago. Our results are consistent with paleomagnetic poles from uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene volcanic sequences in Denali National Park, the Lake Clark region, northern Bristol Bay region, and near McGrath. These poles generally lie south of the cratonic poles, suggesting that the region between the Kaltag, Bruin Bay, and Castle Mountain faults has rotated counterclockwise relative to North America since the early Eocene.

  16. A primitive mantle source for the Neoarchean mafic rocks from the Tanzania Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.A. Cook; I.V. Sanislav; J. Hammerli; T.G. Blenkinsop; P.H.G.M. Dirks


    Mafic rocks comprising tholeiitic pillow basalt, dolerite and minor gabbro form the basal stratigraphic unit in the ca. 2.8 to 2.6 Ga Geita Greenstone Belt situated in the NW Tanzania Craton. They outcrop mainly along the southern margin of the belt, and are at least 50 million years older than the supracrustal assemblages against which they have been juxtaposed. Geochemical analyses indicate that parts of the assemblage approach high Mg-tholeiite (more than 8 wt.%MgO). This suite of samples has a restricted compositional range suggesting derivation from a chemically homogenous reservoir. Trace element modeling suggests that the mafic rocks were derived by partial melting within the spinel peridotite field from a source rock with a primitive mantle composition. That is, trace elements maintain primitive mantle ratios (Zr/Hf ¼ 32e35, Ti/Zr ¼ 107e147), producing flat REE and HFSE profiles [(La/Yb)pm ¼ 0.9 e1.3], with abundances of 3e10 times primitive mantle and with minor negative anomalies of Nb [(Nb/La)pm ¼ 0.6e0.8] and Th [(Th/La)pm ¼ 0.6e0.9]. Initial isotope compositions (3Nd) range from 1.6 to 2.9 at 2.8 Ga and plot below the depleted mantle line suggesting derivation from a more enriched source compared to present day MORB mantle. The trace element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are similar to the mafic rocks outcropping w50 km south. The mafic rocks outcropping in the Geita area were erupted through oceanic crust over a short time period, between w2830 and w2820 Ma; are compo-sitionally homogenous, contain little to no associated terrigenous sediments, and their trace element composition and short emplacement time resemble oceanic plateau basalts. They have been interpreted to be derived from a plume head with a primitive mantle composition.

  17. Snow loads in a changing climate: new risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Strasser


    Full Text Available In January/February 2006, heavy snowfalls in Bavaria (Germany lead to a series of infrastructural damage of catastrophic nature. Since on many collapsed roofs the total snow load was not exceptional, serious engineering deficiencies in roof construction and a sudden rise in the total snow load were considered to be the trigger of the events. An analysis of the then meteorological conditions reveals, that the early winter of 2005/2006 was characterised by an exceptional continuous snow cover, temperatures remained around the freezing point and no significant snowmelt was evident. The frequent freezing/thawing cycles were followed by a general compaction of the snow load. This resulted in a re-distribution and a new concentration of the snow load on specific locations on roofs. With respect to climate change, the question arises as to whether the risks relating to snow loads will increase. The future probability of a continuous snow cover occurrence with frequent freezing/thawing cycles will probably decline due to predicted higher temperatures. However, where temperatures remain low, an increase in winter precipitation will result in increased snow loads. Furthermore, the variability of extremes is predicted to increase. If heavy snowfall events are more frequent, the risk of a trigger event will likely increase. Finally, an attempt will be made here in this paper to outline a concept for an operational warning system for the Bavarian region. This system envisages to predict the development and risk of critical snow loads for a 3-day time period, utilising a combination of climate and snow modelling data and using this together with a snow pillow device (located on roofs and the results of which.

  18. High-resolution Topography of PACMANUS and DESMOS Hydrothermal Fields in the Manus Basin through ROV "FAXIAN" (United States)

    Luan, Z.; Ma, X.; Yan, J.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, C.; Sun, D.


    High-resolution topography can help us deeply understand the seabed and related geological processes (e.g. hydrothermal/cold spring systems) in the deep sea areas. However, such studies are rare in China due to the limit of deep-sea detection technology. Here, we report the advances of the application of ROV in China and the newly measured high-resolution topographical data in PACMANUS and DESMOS hydrothermal fields. In June 2015, the ROV "FAXIAN" with a multibeam system (Kongsberg EM2040) was deployed to measure the topography of PACMANUS and DESMOS hydrothermal fields in the Manus basin. A composite positioning system on the ROV provided long baseline (LBL) navigation and positioning during measurements, giving a high positioning accuracy (better than 0.5m). The raw bathymetric data obtained were processed using CARIS HIPS (version 8.1). Based on the high-resolution data, we can describe the topographical details of the PACMANUS and DESMOS hydrothermal fields. High-resolution terrain clearly shows the detailed characters of the topography in the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, and some cones are corresponding to the pre discovered hydrothermal points and volcanic area. Most hydrothermal points in the PACMANUS hydrothermal field mainly developed on the steep slopes with a gradient exceeding 30 °. In contrast, the DESMOS field is a caldera that is approximately 250 m deep in the center with an E-W diameter of approximately1 km and a N-S diameter of approximately 2 km. The seafloor is much steeper on the inner side of the circular fracture. Two highlands occur in the northern and the southern flanks of the caldera. Video record indicated that pillow lava, sulfide talus, breccia, anhydrite, outcrops, and sediment all appeared in the DESMOS field. This is the first time for the ROV "FAXIAN" to be used in near-bottom topography measurements in the hydrothermal fields, opening a window of deep-sea researches in China.

  19. Spinal cord injury in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a 10-year review. (United States)

    Thumbikat, Pradeep; Hariharan, Ramaswamy P; Ravichandran, Ganapathiraju; McClelland, Martin R; Mathew, Kidangalil M


    Retrospective study. To evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and preexisting ankylosing spondylitis (AS). AS alters the strength and biomechanical properties of the spine that renders it susceptible to fracture with minimal trauma. Neurologic involvement is common and outcomes largely depend on the early recognition and appropriate management. A 10-year review (1996-2005) was carried out to identify all patients admitted with SCI associated with AS. The cause of injury, prehospital and emergency management, definitive treatment of fracture, final neurology, and functional outcomes were ascertained. Reasons for neurologic deterioration were determined. Eighteen patients were identified. In 15 patients, the injury resulted from trauma (fall 14, road accident 1) and in 3 the SCI followed spinal surgical interventions. Twelve of the 15 patients with traumatic injuries were able to walk immediately after the fall but subsequently deteriorated for various reasons. Spinal epidural hematomas developed in 3 patients (2 traumatic, 1 spinal intervention). The fractures were managed surgically in 3 patients, halo jacket was used in 2, and the remainder were managed expectantly on traction. Four patients died before discharge, 4 were able to walk with an aid at discharge, and the others were wheel chair dependent. Neurologic deficits were often subtle on initial presentation, resulting in many injuries being missed because of a low index of suspicion and poor visualization of lower cervical fractures on conventional radiographs. Extension of the ankylosed kyphotic cervical spine during conventional immobilization or for radiologic procedures resulted in neurologic deficits. Patients with an ankylosed cervical spine are normally unable to see the ceiling lying supine because of cervicothoracic kyphosis and use pillows to support their head. Cervical spine alignment in a similar flexed position is essential during immobilization

  20. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Upper Maastrichtian-Middle Eocene Clay - Rich Volcano - Sedimentary Units from South-Eastern of Elazıg Basin (Eastern Turkey) (United States)

    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Daş, Burhan


    Clay-rich Hazar-Maden volcano-sediments were deposited along the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean margin during Upper Maastrichtian - Middle Eocene times. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Hatunkoy section from the south - easthern of Elazıg were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS. The Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous Guleman Ophiolites, Upper Maastrichtian - Middle Eocene Hazar Group, the Middle Eocene Maden Group, Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial deposits are situated in the study area. The Guleman Ophiolites are composed of dunite, harzburgite with podiform chromite, alternating dunite-wherlite, clinopyroxenite banded gabbro, quartz gabbro/diorite or plagiogranite and volcanites. The Hazar Group consists of limestone and interbedded shale and sandstone. The Maden Group has a complex lithology consisting of limestones, red-green clayey limestones, sandstone, agglomerate, tuffs, reddish mudstone and basaltic-andesitic pillow lavas. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Hazar and Maden Group samples are similar in Hatunkoy section. All samples consist of clay minerals (chlorite, illite), calcite, quartz, and feldspar. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O contents show that samples are convenient with Fe shales and shales. The ratios of Zr/TiO2, Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, Y/Ni-Cr/V, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn) show dominance of neutral-basic volcanism in the area. Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations of samples are normalized to chondrite values and it is determined that low light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched in comparison to high rare earth elements (HREEs), and the absence of Eu anomalies shows that our samples are generally neutral-basic in composition. REE of samples were compared with North American shale composite (NASC), European shale (ES) and Post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS). Elements are not in concurrence with these compositions. Key Words:Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Volcano sedimentary Units, Eastern Turkey.

  1. Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards (United States)


    Flame retardant (FR) chemicals have often been added to polyurethane foam to meet required state and federal flammability standards. However, some FRs (e.g., PBDEs and TDCIPP) are associated with health hazards and are now restricted from use in some regions. In addition, California’s residential furniture flammability standard (TB-117) has undergone significant amendments over the past few years, and TDCIPP has been added to California’s Proposition 65 list. These events have likely led to shifts in the types of FRs used, and the products to which they are applied. To provide more information on the use of FRs in products containing polyurethane foam (PUF), we established a screening service for the general public. Participants residing in the US were allowed to submit up to 5 samples from their household for analysis, free of charge, and supplied information on the product category, labeling, and year and state of purchase. Between February 2014 and June 2016, we received 1141 PUF samples for analysis from various products including sofas, chairs, mattresses, car seats and pillows. Of these samples tested, 52% contained a FR at levels greater than 1% by weight. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) was the most common FR detected in PUF samples, and was the most common FR detected in all product categories. Analysis of the data by purchasing date suggests that the use of TDCIPP decreased in recent years, paralleled with an increase in the use of TCIPP and a nonhalogenated aryl phosphate mixture we call “TBPP.” In addition, we observed significant decreases in FR applications in furniture products and child car seats, suggesting the use of additive FRs in PUF may be declining, perhaps as a reflection of recent changes to TB-117 and Proposition 65. More studies are needed to determine how these changes in FR use relate to changes in exposure among the general population. PMID:27552529

  2. Late Paleozoic rift-related basalts from central Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Zhu, Wenping; Tian, Wei; Wei, Chunjing; Shao, Ji-an; Fu, Bin; Fanning, C. Mark; Chen, Mimi; Wang, Bin


    Late Paleozoic basaltic volcanism widely occurred in central Inner Mongolia, the southeastern part of the Central Asia Orogenic Blet (CAOB). Three volcanic pulses are identified by ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) zircon U-Pb analysis, which are Late Carboniferous (ca. 315 Ma), the latest Carboniferous (ca. 303 Ma) and early Permian (ca. 284 Ma). Basalts in the earliest stage are characterized by flat HREE, depletion in Nb and Ta, MORB-like Th/Yb ratios and depleted mantle (DM)-like Hf isotopic ratios. These are similar to forearc basalts, that have been generated by melting of a fluxed depleted mantle in an extensional environment. The latest Carboniferous basalts (sample D1363) have no Zr-Hf anomalies, relatively radiogenic Hf isotopic ratios (εHf(t) = +12.1 to +19.7) and high δ18O values up to 8.5‰, VSMOW. These are likely to be magmas originated from decompressional melting of a depleted mantle that interacted with ocean floor pillow basalts during their ascending through the crust. The early Permian sample D1380 have variable 206Pb/238U zircon ages with an interpreted magma crystallization age of 284.4 ± 2.5 Ma. These zircons have scattered Hf isotope (εHf(t) = +5 to +14) and δ18O (1.8-11.0‰, VSMOW), which suggest the involvement of a relatively enriched mantle source. Overall the temporal evolution of the Late Paleozoic basaltic volcanism from central Inner Mongolia suggests a rift-related tectonic setting.

  3. Identificación de ácaros del polvo casero en colchones y almohadas de niños alérgicos de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jainy Meza Navarro


    Full Text Available ResumenLa prevalencia elevada de alergias en Colombia hace necesario investigar los factores que influye sobre su etiología. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la fauna de ácaros presente en los hogares de niños alérgicos de Santa Marta. Un total de 70 muestras de polvo fueron colectadas desde 42 casas por medio de la aspiración de colchones y almohadas, durante los meses de Julio a Octubre de 2007. Los ácaros fueron identificados bajo la luz de un microscopio usando claves taxonómicas, contados y expresados como ácaros por gramo de polvo. Los ácaros de la familia Pyroglyphidae fueron los más predominantes (84,58%, teniendo a Dermatophagoides farinae (23,85% como la especie más abundante, seguido por Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (7,31%. Otros ácaros prevalentes fueron Cheyletus spp, Euroglyphus maynei y Blomia tropicales, con niveles superiores a los 500 ácaros/ gramo, considerado como de alto riesgo para sensibilización alérgica. Estos resultados contribuyen al conocimiento de la fauna de ácaros del polvo casero de Santa Marta, importante para el diagnóstico y terapia de las alergias. (Duazary 2008; 1: 24 - 31.AbstractThe increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in Colombia makes necessary to research about factors that influence their etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the mite fauna present in homes of allergic child from Santa Marta. A total of 70 samples were collected from 42 houses through vacuuming mattresses and pillows, during the months of July to October 2007. Mites were identified under light microscopy using taxonomic keys, count and expressed as mites per gram of dust. The prevalent mite family was Pyroglyphidae (84.58%, having Dermatophagoides farinae as the major specie (23.85%, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Other mites prevalent were Cheyletus spp, Euroglyphus maynei and Blomia tropicalis, with levels up to 500 mites/ gram, considered like of high risk for the allergic sensitization

  4. Different stages of chemical alteration on metabasaltic rocks in the subduction channel: Evidence from the Western Tianshan metamorphic belt, NW China (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Dong; Tan, Yulong; Wang, Guodong


    To understand the geochemistry of subduction zone metamorphism, especially the large-scale mass transfer at forearc to subarc depths, we carried out a detailed study of a ∼1.5 m size metabasaltic block with well-preserved pillow structures from the Chinese Western Tianshan high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. This metabasaltic block is characterized by omphacite-rich interiors gradually surrounded by abundant channelized (veins) glaucophane-rich patches toward the rims. The glaucophane-rich rims share the same peak metamorphic conditions with omphacite-rich interiors, but have experienced stronger blueschist-facies overprinting during exhumation. Representative samples from the glaucophane-rich rims and omphacite-rich interiors yield a well-defined Rb-Sr isochron age of 307 ± 23 Ma, likely representing this overprinting event. Both glaucophane-rich rims and omphacite-rich interiors show elevated K-Rb-Cs-Ba-Pb-Sr contents relative to their protolith, reflecting a large-scale enrichment of these elements and formation of abundant phengite during subduction. Compared with the omphacite-rich interiors, the glaucophane-rich rims have gained rare earth elements (REEs, >25%), U-Th (∼75%), Pb-Sr (>100%) and some transition metals like Co and Ni (25-50%), but lost P (∼75%), Na (>25%), Li and Be (∼50%); K-Rb-Cs-Ba show only 10% loss. These chemical changes would be caused by serpentinite-derived fluids during the exhumation in the subduction channel. Therefore, there are two stages of fluid action in the subduction channel. As the formation of phengite stabilizes K-Rb-Cs-Ba at the first stage, the residual fluids released from the phengite-rich metabasaltic rocks would be depleted in these elements, which are unlikely to contribute to elevated contents of these elements in arc magmas if phengite remains stable at subarc depths. In addition, the decrease of U/Pb ratios as the preferred enrichment of Pb over U in the eclogitic rocks during the first stage

  5. Combining low-cost GPS receivers with upGPR to derive continuously liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent in Alpine snow covers (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Schmid, Lino; Prasch, Monika; Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram


    The temporal evolution of Alpine snowpacks is important for assessing water supply, hydropower generation, flood predictions and avalanche forecasts. Especially in high mountain regions with an extremely varying topography, it is until now often difficult to derive continuous and non-destructive information on snow parameters. Since autumn 2012, we are running a new low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) snow measurement experiment at the high alpine study site Weissfluhjoch (2450 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland. The globally and freely broadcasted GPS L1-band (1.57542 GHz) was continuously recorded with GPS antennas, which are installed at the ground surface underneath the snowpack. GPS raw data, containing carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) as well as elevation and azimuth angle information for each time step of 1 s, was stored and analyzed for all 32 GPS satellites. Since the dielectric permittivity of an overlying wet snowpack influences microwave radiation, the bulk volumetric liquid water content as well as daily melt-freeze cycles can be derived non-destructively from GPS signal strength losses and external snow height information. This liquid water content information is qualitatively in good accordance with meteorological and snow-hydrological data and quantitatively highly agrees with continuous data derived from an upward-looking ground-penetrating radar (upGPR) working in a similar frequency range. As a promising novelty, we combined the GPS signal strength data with upGPR travel-time information of active impulse radar rays to the snow surface and back from underneath the snow cover. This combination allows determining liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent from beneath the snow cover without using any other external information. The snow parameters derived by combining upGPR and GPS data are in good agreement with conventional sensors as e.g. laser distance gauges or snow pillows. As the GPS sensors are cheap, they can easily

  6. Snowmelt and sublimation: field experiments and modelling in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schulz


    Full Text Available Snow in the High Atlas Mountains is a major source for freshwater renewal and for water availability in the semi-arid lowlands of south-eastern Morocco. Snowfall- and snow-ablation monitoring and modelling is important for estimating potential water delivery from the mountain water towers to the forelands. This study is part of GLOWA-IMPETUS, an integrated management project dealing with scarce water resources in West Africa. The Ameskar study area is located to the south of the High Atlas Mountains, in their rain shadow. As a part of the M’Goun river basin within the upper Drâa valley, the study area is characterised by high radiation inputs, low atmospheric humidity and long periods with sub-zero temperatures. Its altitude ranges between 2000 m and 4000 m, with dominant north- and south-facing slopes. Snowfall occurs mainly from November to April but even summit regions can become repeatedly devoid of snow cover. Snow cover maps for the M’Goun basin (1240 km2 are derived from calculations of NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index from MODIS satellite images and snow depth is monitored at four automatic weather stations between 2000–4000 m. Snowfall events are infrequent at lower altitudes. The presence of snow penitentes at altitudes above 3000 m indicates that snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation. Snow ablation was modelled with the UEB Utah Energy Balance Model (Tarboton and Luce, 1996. This single layer, physically-based, point energy and mass balance model is driven by meteorological variables recorded at the automatic weather stations at Tounza (2960 m and Tichki (3260 m. Data from snow pillows at Tounza and Tichki are used to validate the model’s physical performance in terms of energy and water balances for a sequence of two snowfall events in the winter of 2003/4. First UEB modelling results show good overall performance and timing of snowmelt and sublimation compared to field investigations. Up to 44

  7. Monitoring snow cover and its effect on runoff regime in the Jizera Mountains (United States)

    Kulasova, Alena


    The Jizera Mountains in the northern Bohemia are known by its rich snow cover. Winter precipitation represents usually a half of the precipitation in the hydrological year. Gradual snow accumulation and melt depends on the course of the particular winter period, the topography of the catchments and the type of vegetation. During winter the snow depth, and especially the snow water equivalent, are affected by the changing character of the falling precipitation, air and soil temperatures and the wind. More rapid snowmelt occurs more on the slopes without forest oriented to the South, while a gradual snowmelt occurs on the locations turned to the North and in forest. Melting snow recharges groundwater and affects water quality in an important way. In case of extreme situation the snowmelt monitoring is important from the point of view of flood protection of communities and property. Therefore the immediate information on the amount of water in snow is necessary. The way to get this information is the continuous monitoring of the snow depth and snow water equivalent. In the Jizera Mountains a regular monitoring of snow cover has been going on since the end of the 19th century. In the 80s of the last century the Jizera Mountains were affected by the increased fallout of pollutants in the air. There followed a gradual dieback of the forest cover and cutting down the upper part of the ridges. In order to get data for the quantification of runoff regime changes in the changing natural environment, the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) founded in the upper part of the Mountains several experimental catchments. One of the activities of the employees of the experimental basis is the regular measurement of snow cover at selected sites from 1982 up to now. At the same time snow cover is being observed using snow pillows, where its mass is monitored with the help of pressure sensors. In order to improve the reliability of the continuous measurement of the snow water

  8. Emplacement of the Jurassic Mirdita ophiolites (southern Albania): evidence from associated clastic and carbonate sediments (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Ionescu, Corina; Hoeck, Volker; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim; Bucur, Ioan I.; Ghega, Dashamir


    Sedimentology can shed light on the emplacement of oceanic lithosphere (i.e. ophiolites) onto continental crust and post-emplacement settings. An example chosen here is the well-exposed Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite in southern Albania. Successions studied in five different ophiolitic massifs (Voskopoja, Luniku, Shpati, Rehove and Morava) document variable depositional processes and palaeoenvironments in the light of evidence from comparable settings elsewhere (e.g. N Albania; N Greece). Ophiolitic extrusive rocks (pillow basalts and lava breccias) locally retain an intact cover of oceanic radiolarian chert (in the Shpati massif). Elsewhere, ophiolite-derived clastics typically overlie basaltic extrusives or ultramafic rocks directly. The oldest dated sediments are calpionellid- and ammonite-bearing pelagic carbonates of latest (?) Jurassic-Berrasian age. Similar calpionellid limestones elsewhere (N Albania; N Greece) post-date the regional ophiolite emplacement. At one locality in S Albania (Voskopoja), calpionellid limestones are gradationally underlain by thick ophiolite-derived breccias (containing both ultramafic and mafic clasts) that were derived by mass wasting of subaqueous fault scarps during or soon after the latest stages of ophiolite emplacement. An intercalation of serpentinite-rich debris flows at this locality is indicative of mobilisation of hydrated oceanic ultramafic rocks. Some of the ophiolite-derived conglomerates (e.g. Shpati massif) include well-rounded serpentinite and basalt clasts suggestive of a high-energy, shallow-water origin. The Berriasian pelagic limestones (at Voskopoja) experienced reworking and slumping probably related to shallowing and a switch to neritic deposition. Mixed ophiolite-derived clastic and neritic carbonate sediments accumulated later, during the Early Cretaceous (mainly Barremian-Aptian) in variable deltaic, lagoonal and shallow-marine settings. These sediments were influenced by local tectonics or eustatic sea

  9. Late Cretaceous to recent tectonic evolution of the North German Basin and the transition zone to the Baltic Shield/southwest Baltic Sea (United States)

    Al Hseinat, M.; Hübscher, C.


    In this study we investigate the Late Cretaceous to recent tectonic evolution of the southwestern Baltic Sea based on a dense grid of seismic reflection profiles. This area covers the Baltic Sea sector of the salt influenced North German Basin and its transition to the salt free Baltic Shield across the Tornquist Zone. The Upper Cretaceous to recent structural evolution is discussed by means of individual seismic sections and derived high-resolution time-structure maps of the main horizons, i.e., the Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary and Pleistocene. The Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary layers reveal numerous significant faults throughout the study area. Several of these faults propagate upwards across the unconsolidated Pleistocene sediments and occasionally penetrate the surface. The salt influenced North German Basin reveals three major fault trends: NW-SE, N-S and NNE-SSW. Several of these faults are located directly above basement (sub-salt) faults and salt pillows. The majority of these faults are trending N-S to NNE-SSW and parallel the direction of the Glückstadt Graben faults. In the salt free Tornquist Zone, we identify two major shallow fault trends, which are NW-SE and NE-SW. The majority of these faults are located above basement faults, following the direction of the Tornquist Zone. We conclude that generally basement tectonics controls activation and trends of shallow faults. If salt is present, the ductile salt layer causes a lateral shift between the sub- and supra-salt faults. Major plate reorganisation related to the Africa-Iberia-Europe convergence and the subsequent Alpine Orogeny caused reactivation of pre-existing faults and vertical salt movement in the Late Cretaceous. The change of stress orientation from NE-SW to a NW-SE during Neogene caused another phase of fault and salt tectonic reactivation. We explain that the ice-sheet loading and/or present-day stress field may have acted in combination, causing the recent tectonics and upward extension of

  10. Sediments overlying exhumed continental mantle: a proxy for the morphotectonic evolution of the Ocean Continent Transition in magma-poor rifted margins (United States)

    Karpoff, A. M.; Manatschal, G.; Bernoulli, D.; Lagabrielle, Y.


    Observations from ancient and present-day magma-poor rifted margins in the Alps and Iberia provide compelling evidence that within the ocean-continent transition (OCT) crustal and sub-continental mantle rocks were exhumed along downward-concave faults which were active during final rifting and accommodated high amounts of extension. The faults are overlain by stranded allochthons of continental origin, pillow basalts, and pelagic sediments, i.e. radiolarites and/or pelagic limestones, and hemipelagic shales. Associated with the faults are tectono-sedimentary breccias and various types of clastic sediments, ranging from debris flow deposits to laminated sandstone, and quartz-rich silt- and claystones. Mineralogical studies of the shales, red jaspers, and red cherts overlying mantle rocks in the Alps of eastern Switzerland are typically quartz-rich and contain variable amounts of phyllosilicates (chlorite and/or mica), feldspars, ± calcite, oxides, pyrite, and epidote. Their main geochemical characteristic is the high silica and low iron and manganese content, which contrasts with that of "metalliferous" Fe-Mn-Si-rich sediments overlying oceanic basalts. High Fe, Ba, REE, U/Th values measured in black shales overlying mantle rocks in the proximal OCT point to a strong hydrothermal activity associated with mantle exhumation. The clastic sediments in the OCT show a wide range of compositions related to mantle, continental crust, and/or pelagic contributions. In particular, the fact that these sediments contain abundant material derived from continental basement rocks seems at odds with their occurrence on top of tectonized mantle rocks. However, drilling in the Iberia margin, where tectonized mantle rocks are overlain by sedimentary breccias (e.g. ODP Sites 1068, 1070), shed new light on the observations in the Alps. Based on drill-hole and seismic data, the tectono-sedimentary breccias drilled in the OCT off Iberia may be interpreted to result from a conveyor

  11. The Transition from Initial Rifting to Ultra-Slow Seafloor Spreading within Endeavor Deep (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Larson, R. L.; Popham, C. T.; Natland, J. H.


    Endeavor Deep is a NW-SE trending, 3 km-deep rift basin located along the divergent portion of the Nazca/Juan Fernandez plate boundary. The rift basin is the result of the propagation of the East Ridge toward the northwest with relative motion across the ridge defined by a rapidly rotating (5.5 degrees/myr) Euler Pole located ~100 km to the northwest. The close proximity of Endeavor Deep to this Euler Pole results in a rapidly varying velocity field along the length of the deep and represents a unique location to study the effect of varying divergence rates on initial crustal extension. Recently collected EM300 bathymetry, DSL120 sidescan, surface-towed magnetics and JASON II observations have documented 4 distinct stages of rifting along the 70 km length of Endeavor Deep. These stages include (from NW to SE): amagmatic rifting, distributed initial volcanism, centralized waxing volcanism, and crustal formation by ultra-slow seafloor spreading. Amagmatic extension, evolving to rifting, occurs at spreading rates less than 13 km/myr and is characterized by rapidly deepening rift depths from NW to SE with an overall increase in depth of about 2.5 km. Extension is accommodated over a width of about 10-15 km and some flexural uplift of the defining scarps is observed. Distributed initial volcanism occurs at spreading rates from 13-14 km/myr and is characterized by coalesced volcanic constructs (100-200 m-high, 1-2 km-wide) across the width of the rift floor. The depth of the rift basin becomes fairly constant, but the cross-sectional area of the deep continues to increase. Centralized waxing volcanism occurs at spreading rates from 14-17 km/myr and is characterized by pillow ridges and tectonic lineations along the central portion of the rift floor which are oriented parallel to the long axis of the rift basin (orthogonal to the direction of extension). The floor of the rift basin begins to shoal and the cross-sectional area of the deep decreases initially and then

  12. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.


    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  13. Active tectonics in the NW-German Basin: Evidence from correlations between the modern landscape and deep geological structures (Lower Saxony, river Hunte) (United States)

    Szeder, T.; Sirocko, F.


    The catchment basin of the river Hunte (NW-German Basin, Lower Saxony) was studied on a mesoscale (length of ˜90 km) to investigate if tectonic movements in the upper crust influence modern landscape formation. Crustal movements led to upwarping of the Lower Weichselian Terrace above the transition zone of a major crustal boundery of the NW-German Basin (Lower Saxony Basin/Pompeckj Block) with an average vertical velocity of about 0,5 mm/a over the last 12 ka. The Lower Weichselian Terrace and the Hunte catchment basin are narrowest at the same position. Even the Holocene Alluvial Plain is affected by active tectonics. The Holocene Alluvial Plain is narrower and shows a negative gradient directly above a deep seated Permian salt pillow which can be traced over a vertical distance of about 4000 m as an anticline structure to the uppermost Tertiary (100 m b.s.l.). The spatial similarity of fluvial anomalies with anomalies of the geological subground indicates that crustal movements still exercise control on fluvial dynamics and are coupled to the geological predesign. Basin subsidence is thought to have triggered primarily the aggradation of the Lower Weichselian Terrace, because there is an accordance between the mean recent velocity of basin subsidence (˜-0,21 mm/a), calculated from repeated geodetic fine levelling and the mean sedimentation rate of the Lower Weichselian Terrace (˜0,2--0,4 mm/a). In addition, sedimentation rates of the Lower Weichselian Terrace were nearly constant over a time span of about 35 ka (˜47--12 ka BP). During these times the climate has changed rapidly over Northern Europe (Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles) which affected river morphology, hydrology and sediment supply. However, the observation that no change of the mean sedimentation rate is observable indicates a long term subsiding tendency which enables accumulation of longer fluvial sequences independent of short scale climatic fluctuations. Most likely northward tilting of the NW

  14. 婴儿Chiari畸形II型1例报告%Chiari II malformation in infant:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:分析婴儿Chiari畸形Ⅱ型的临床资料,加深儿科医师的认识。方法回顾性分析1例确诊为Chiari畸形Ⅱ型患儿的临床、实验室、影像学资料,并复习相关文献。结果患儿,男,2个月,因颈部肿物2个月入院。颅脑MRI示小脑扁桃体部分疝入枕骨大孔。予手术治疗后一直间断发热,不能竖头、独坐,前囟门进行性增大,CT诊断脑积水。结论 Chi-ari畸形Ⅱ型会导致神经功能异常,预后差,病死率高;早期诊断,积极手术,可改善预后。%Objective To analyze the clinical data of an infant with Chiari II malformation so as to deepen understanding of this disease in pediatrics. Methods The clinical, laboratory and imaging data of an infant with Chiari II malformation were retrospectively analyzed and a literature review was performed. Results A 2-month-old male infant was admitted to our hospital due to a neck tumor for two months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed herniation of the cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum. The inf