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Sample records for 30-year-old caucasian female

  1. Orbital Extension of a Giant Ethmoidal Sinus Osteoma in a 30-Year-old Female

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    Esmat Karbassi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoma is a benign tumor rarely found in the paranasal sinuses.   Case Report: A 30-year-old female presented with an 8-month history of proptosis of the right eye that was progressing slowly. She was diagnosed with ethmoid osteoma and managed with collaborative surgery at the ophthalmology and otolaryngology departments. After surgery, the patient suffered visual loss that was managed medically. The surgical steps and protocol used for safe removal are discussed in the report.    Conclusion: Management of a giaint osteoma extending to orbital tissue needs meticulous dissection through open approach and collaborative surgery by otolaryngologist and ophtalmologist

  2. Anthropometric Analysis of Faces and Heads of 18 to 30-Year Old Persians and its Comparison with Caucasian Ethnic Group

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    Mohammad Reza Farahvash M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometric facial analysis and quantitative measurements are useful methods for diagnosis, as well as planning in plastic surgery. The literature is replete with numerous related studies, few of which are about the Iranian population. This study was conducted to determine the average facial proportions of Iranians and compare it with that of Caucasians. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenient sample of 212 Iranians (male=108, female=104 aged 18-30 years who did not have any previous major facial surgery or trauma and their past two generations were Iranian. Measurements between facial landmarks were determined and compared with Caucasians with Student and one sample t-tests (P<0.05, 95% CI. Results: The intercanthal (en-en and eye widths (ex-en/R, forehead height 2 (tr-n, trichion-endocanthion (tr-en and nasofacial and nasofrontal angles were not significantly different between the participating men and women but other facial measurements were significantly different (Р<0.05. The head (ft-ft, eye (ex-en/R/L and nose widths (al-al and upper face height (n-sto, nasofrontal angle and nasal tip protrusion in the study population were not significantly different from Caucasians. The upper lip (sn-sto, lower face (sn-gn and forehead heights (tr-n and nasofacial angle of the female participants were not significantly different from Caucasian women but other facial measurements were significantly different (Р<0.05.Conclusion: Most facial anthropometric measurements of Iranian subjects were significantly different from those of Caucasians. More precise studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to reach a common conclusion on the facial anthropometric similarities or differences between the two populations.

  3. Midline carcinoma with t(15;19 and BRD4-NUT fusion oncogene in a 30-year-old female with response to docetaxel and radiotherapy

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    Dahlén Anna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poorly differentiated midline carcinoma with a translocation between chromosomes 15 and 19, i.e. t(15;19, has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity for over a decade. This tumor affects young individuals, shows a rapidly fatal clinical course despite intensive therapy. The t(15;19 results in the fusion oncogene BRD4-NUT. Information concerning treatment of this rare disorder is scarce. Case presentation A 30-year-old woman was admitted with a rapidly progressing tumor in the mediastinum, cervical lymph nodes, vertebral column and the epidural space. Pathological, cytogenetic, FISH and PCR analysis revealed a glycogenated carcinoma rarely expressing cytokeratins and showing t(15;19 and BRD4-NUT gene rearrangement. The patient was initially treated with a Ewing sarcoma chemotherapy regimen, but had rapid progression after two cycles. She then received docetaxel and radiotherapy, which resulted in almost complete disappearance of the tumor. Conclusion Docetaxel may be considered for initial chemotherapy in young patients presenting with a midline carcinoma with bone marrow involvement and cytogenetic and molecular genetic finding of a t(15;19/BRD4-NUT-rearrangement. We herein describe, in detail, the laboratory methods by which the BRD4-NUT -rearrangement can be detected.

  4. A 30-year-old female Behçet's disease patient with recurrent pleural and pericardial effusion and elevated adenosine deaminase levels: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung; Kang, Ji Young

    2016-07-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic disease which may involve various organs. We describe a case of a patient diagnosed as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet's disease. A 30-year-old woman visited our clinic presented with left pleuritic chest pain for s days. She had been diagnosed as Behçet's disease and admitted to our clinic due to pericardial and pleural effusion repeatedly in past two years. In the previous studies, effusion analysis revealed to be lympho-dominant exudate with high adenosine deaminase level. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mycobacterial tuberculosis (M.TB) were negative in the pericardial tissue, and pathologic finding showed mild endothelitis with micro-thrombi formation in the lumen. The patient had been treated with antituberculous medication for a year. In the current admission, chest computed tomography (CT) again showed left pleural effusion without other significant lesion. Pleural fluid analysis was similar with the previous study. Video-assisted thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was performed to obtain the definite diagnosis. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet's disease, and we treated the patient with oral steroid in the out-patient department. Pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet's disease may mimic TB pleurisy or pericarditis due to high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in effusion analysis. Clinicians should keep in mind that Behçet's disease may manifest as pleural or pericardial effusion, and pathologic confirmation could be helpful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27499994

  5. UNCORRECTED TETRALOGY OF FALLOT IN A 30 - YEARS OLD

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    Dihingia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Survival after the age of 12 years without corrective surgery is rare. We present the case of a 30 year - old man with uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot.

  6. A 30 Year Old Man with Fever and Indolent Soft Tissue Masses

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    Wissam Zaeeter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multifocal Skeletal Tuberculosis (MSTB is a rare presentation of skeletal tuberculosis. The indolent nature of this condition often leads to delayed or missed diagnosis, sometimes with devastating consequences for the patient. In order to provide meaningful clinical information and to highlight pitfalls in diagnosis of MFST, we present a case of MSTB. A review of this condition is included for broader coverage. Approach: A 30 year old immune-competent male patient with a 1 year history of indolent soft tissue masses on the chest wall overlying the sternum and the ribs. CAT scan of the chest showed multiple lytic bony lesions involving the ribs, sternum and vertebrae that mimicked metastatic cancer. Fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed AFB and granulomas. Culture of the aspirated material grew mycobacterium tuberculosis and a diagnosis of MSTB was made. Results: A diagnosis of MSTB was made and anti-tuberculous therapy was initiated. Conclusion: This case indicated that multi-focal skeletal tuberculosis may develop in immune-competent patients without overt pulmonary involvement. From our experience along with previously reported data, MSTB should be suspected in patients from endemic areas who present with multiple skeletal bony lesions. Appropriate management and therapy are essentials for cure and to prevent complications.

  7. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  8. Carbon dioxide exchange above a 30-year-old Scots pine plantation established on organic-soil cropland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the boreal zone, large areas of natural mires have been drained and used for agriculture, resulting in net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and increased nitrous oxide emissions but decreased methane emissions. However, due to structural changes in agriculture, a substantial area of cropland on organic soil has been afforested. In order to estimate the carbon balance of afforested organic-soil cropland, we measured CO2 and water vapour (H2O) fluxes during year above a Scots pine plantation (Pinus sylvestris) in the middle-boreal zone, using the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. We observed CO2 uptake by the Scots pine stand from late April to mid-October with a daily average net uptake from May to the beginning of October. However, there were also periods of daily net efflux. High ecosystem respiration rates continued throughout the winter (mean winter respiration 0.036 mg CO2 m-2s-1). As an annual average, the 30-year-old pine stand was a small source of CO2 (+50 g m-2a-1) to the atmosphere, showing that the CO2 sequestration into the ecosystem was able to compensate for most of the carbon that was released by heterotrophic respiration from the drained soil. (orig.)

  9. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... years old that carry certain oil cargoes-TB/ALL. 31.10-21a Section 31.10-21a Shipping COAST GUARD... gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As used... years old. (2) Regaugings: (i) Midbodies of double hull tank vessels, or single hull tank vessels...

  10. The effects of advertising in Twitter on the regular 20-30 year old users : Advertising in a social networking medium

    OpenAIRE

    Terekhina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis work was to investigate and analyze in what way online adver-tising in Twitter affects its regular users nowadays. More specifically it focused on the young (20-30 years old) frequent Internet users of the social networking medium. The theoretical part of the study introduced Twitter and methods of advertising in it. The em-pirical part of the thesis was conducted by using a quantitative research method. The data was gathered from discussions of a focus and a contro...

  11. Association of Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Carnivora, a Venus Flytrap Extract, in a 30-Year-Old Man with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

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    Susan Ziolkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is a common cause of acute kidney injury and has been associated with a variety of medications. This is the case of 30-year-old man with Hodgkin’s lymphoma who on routine labs before chemotherapy was found to have acute nonoliguric renal failure. A kidney biopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. The patient had taken several medications including a higher dose of Carnivora, a Venus flytrap extract, composed of numerous amino acids. The medication was discontinued and kidney function improved towards the patient’s baseline indicating that this may be the possible cause of his AIN. Proximal tubular cell uptake of amino acids increasing transcription of nuclear factor-kappaB is a proposed mechanism of AIN from this compound.

  12. Female and Male Perceptions of Ideal Body Shapes: Distorted Views among Caucasian College Students.

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    Cohn, Lawrence D.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1992-01-01

    Using body silhouettes, 87 college women and 118 college men indicated their own body shapes and shapes they and same-sex and other-sex peers find most attractive. Focus was on whether women overestimate desirability of thin figures among female peers. Males and females misjudged same-sex peers' preferences compared with ideals. (SLD)

  13. Autologous Bone-Marrow-Derived-Mononuclear-Cells-Enriched Fat Transplantation in Breast Augmentation: Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes and Aesthetic Results in a 30-Year-Old Female

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    Dmitry Bulgin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (lipofilling is becoming an invaluable tool for breast augmentation as well as for breast reconstruction. Autologous lipofilling has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable fat graft resorption, which ranges from 25% to 80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted fat tissue. One promising approach is to enrich the fat graft with autologous bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs before transplantation. BMMNCs produce many angiogenic and antiapoptotic growth factors, and their secretion is significantly enhanced by hypoxia. All of these mechanisms of actions could be beneficial for the stimulation of angiogenesis in ischemic tissues by BMMNCs administration. In our aesthetic surgery practice, we use fat transplantation enriched with BMMNCs, which caused a significant improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. Our experience with freshly isolated autologous fat enriched with BMMNCs for breast augmentation procedures is presented. The concept of this surgical and tissue handling technique is based on ability of BMMNCs to stimulate blood vessel growth.

  14. Biomass, Carbon and Nutrient Storage in a 30-Year-Old Chinese Cork Oak (Quercus Variabilis Forest on the South Slope of the Qinling Mountains, China

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    Yang Cao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis forests are protected on a large-scale under the Natural Forest Protection (NFP program in China to improve the ecological environment. However, information about carbon (C storage to increase C sequestration and sustainable management is lacking. Biomass, C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P storage of trees, shrubs, herb, litter and soil (0–100 cm were determined from destructive tree sampling and plot level investigation in approximately 30-year old Chinese cork oak forests on the south slope of the Qinling Mountains. There was no significant difference in tree components’ biomass estimation, with the exception of roots, among the available allometric equations developed from this study site and other previous study sites. Leaves had the highest C, N and P concentrations among tree components and stems were the major compartments for tree biomass, C, N and P storage. In contrast to finding no difference in N concentrations along the whole soil profile, higher C and P concentrations were observed in the upper 0–10 cm of soil than in the deeper soil layers. The ecosystem C, N, and P storage was 163.76, 18.54 and 2.50 t ha−1, respectively. Soil (0–100 cm contained the largest amount of C, N and P storage, accounting for 61.76%, 92.78% and 99.72% of the total ecosystem, followed by 36.14%, 6.03% and 0.23% for trees, and 2.10%, 1.19% and 0.03% for shrubs, herbs and litter, respectively. The equations accurately estimate ecosystem biomass, and the knowledge of the distribution of C, N and P storage will contribute to increased C sequestration and sustainable management of Chinese cork oak forests under the NFP program.

  15. Comparison of reasons of admission of young, age 18-30 years old in Intensive Care Unit to young adult, age 31-40 years old due to road accident

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    Vaios Douloudis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, it has been noticed a remarkable increase in frequency of admission of young individuals in Intensive Care Units (ICU due to road accidents. The aim of the present study was to compare the reasons of admission of young individuals 18-30 years old to young adults 31-40 years old in ICU due to road accident. Method and material: The sample studied consisted of individuals 18-40 years old that were hospitalized in ICU due to road accident. Data were collected by the completion of a specially designed clinical protocol for the needs of the research. For the analysis of data the statistical package SPSS 13 was used and the x2 method. Results: 81,2% of the sample-studied were men and 18,8% women. Regarding nationality, 80,1 % were Greek and 19,9% foreigner. 34,6% of the participants were unemployed, 21,2% were working in private sector, 20,1% were free-lancers and 16,2% students. 46,3% of individuals were admitted in ICU after transfer of another hospital. In 69,7% of the participants age 18-30 years old and 74,5% of 31-40 years old road took place accident at night and 77,3% 18-30 years old and 77,0% of 31-40 years old road accident took place on the way to entertainment. The statistical analysis of data showed that : road accidents were the main reason for admission in ICU of young individuals of age 18-30 years old with statistically significant difference compared to those 31-40 years old, p<0,001. Brain injuries as well as admission of motorcycle drivers were more frequent in individuals of age 18-30 years old with statistically significant difference compared to those 31-40 years old, p=0,018 and p=0,041, respectively. On the contrary, admission of car-drivers and those who had consumed alcohol were more frequent in individuals of age 31-40 years old with statistically significant difference compared to group 18-30 years old, p=0,041 and , p<0,001, respectively. Conclusions: More often admitted in ICU motorcycle drivers of

  16. Comparison of reasons of admission of young, age 18-30 years old in Intensive Care Unit to young adult, age 31-40 years old due to road accident

    OpenAIRE

    Vaios Douloudis; Catherina Kastanioti; Vasiliki Ligga; Dimitrios Tziallas; Vasilios Tziallas; Aggelos Tsalkanis

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, it has been noticed a remarkable increase in frequency of admission of young individuals in Intensive Care Units (ICU) due to road accidents. The aim of the present study was to compare the reasons of admission of young individuals 18-30 years old to young adults 31-40 years old in ICU due to road accident. Method and material: The sample studied consisted of individuals 18-40 years old that were hospitalized in ICU due to road accident. Data were collected by the complet...

  17. Delaying Shoulder Motion and Strengthening and Increasing Achilles Allograft Thickness for Glenoid Resurfacing Did Not Improve the Outcome for a 30-Year-Old Patient with Postarthroscopic Glenohumeral Chondrolysis

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    John G. Skedros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although interposition soft-tissue (biologic resurfacing of the glenoid with humeral hemiarthroplasty has been considered an option for end-stage glenohumeral arthritis, the results of this procedure are highly unsatisfactory in patients less than 40 years old. Achilles tendon allograft is popular for glenoid resurfacing because it can be made robust by folding it. But one reason that the procedure might fail in younger patients is that the graft is not initially thick enough for the young active patient. Most authors report folding the graft only once to achieve two-layer thickness. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who had postarthroscopic glenohumeral chondrolysis that was treated with Achilles tendon allograft resurfacing of the glenoid and humeral hemiarthroplasty. An important aspect of our case is that the tendon was folded so that it was 50–100% thicker than most allograft constructs reported previously. We also used additional measures to enhance allograft resiliency and bone incorporation: (1 multiple nonresorbable sutures to attach the adjacent graft layers, (2 additional resorbable suture anchors and nonresorbable sutures in order to more robustly secure the graft to the glenoid, and (3 delaying postoperative motion and strengthening. However, despite these additional measures, our patient did not have an improved outcome.

  18. 秦皇岛市30岁以下女性奶制品食用情况的调查%Survey of milk consumption of female below 30 years old in Qinhuangdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周沫; 来小彬

    2009-01-01

    r activities, and osteoporosis prevention to the public.%惯"是不坚持饮奶的主要原因.结论 应加强大学群体的饮奶行为,全面普及饮奶、补钙、户外运动及预防骨质疏松的相关知识.

  19. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in Caucasian Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. A Cross-Sectional Study Using HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Gudex, Claire; Ahrberg, Fabian;

    2014-01-01

    by finite element analysis (FEA) at the distal radius and tibia to assess bone characteristics beyond BMD that may contribute to the increased risk of fracture. Thirty-three Caucasian women with SLE (median age 48, range 21-64 years) and 99 controls (median age 45, range 21-64 years) were studied. Groups...... were comparable in radius regarding geometry and vBMD, but SLE patients had lower trabecular number (-7 %, p FEA-estimated failure load compared to controls (-10 %, p ....01], trabecular number (-9 %, p FEA-estimated bone...

  20. Clinical features of patients over 30 years old with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy%30岁以后发病的Leber遗传性视神经病变患者的临床特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常永业; 解世朋; 王浩; 石慧君; 管敏鑫; 张铭连

    2014-01-01

    点基因突变为多见.%Objective To observe the clinical features of patients over 30 years old with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).Methods Nine male LHON patients (18 eyes) were enrolled in this study.The patients aged from 34 to 56 years old,with an average age of (45.22±6.91) years.The course of the disease ranged from 7 days to 21 months,with a mean course of 5 months.Visual acuity,slit lamp microscope,chromoptometry,direct ophthalmoscope and fundus photography were measured for all patients,visual field examined for 6 patients (11 eyes).Mitochondrial DNA mutation was analyzed.The visual acuity was followed-up for 12 months.Results Seven of the 9 patients (77.78%) had family history.Five patients (55.56%) had both eyes involved simultaneously,and 4 patients (44.44%) had the eyes involved at different time.Three patients (33.33%) had sudden visual loss,and 6 patients (66.67%) had gradual visual loss.The visual acuity was light perception in 1 eye (5.55%),finger counting in 3 eyes (16.67%),0.01-0.1 in 7 eyes (38.89%),0.12-0.3 in 3 eyes (16.67%),equal or greater than 0.4 in 4 eyes (22.22%).Sixteen eyes (88.88%) had normal light reflex,1 eye (5.55%) had no light reflex,and 1 eye (5.55%) had relative afferent papillary defect.Eight eyes (44.44%) had normal optic disk,3 eyes (16.67%) had blurred optic disc border and disc telangiectasia,7 eyes (38.89%) had pale disc and clear boundary.Among 11 eyes underwent visual field examination,9 eyes (81.82%) had central or paracentral scotoma and 2 eyes (18.18%) had visual field narrowing.Among 9 patients,there were 7 patients (77.78%) with G11778A mutation,1 patient (11.11%) with G11696A mutation,and 1 patient (11.11%) with T14484C mutation.In the last follow-up,the visual acuity was light perception in 1 eye (5.55%),fingercounting in 4 eyes(22.22%),0.01-0.1 in 6 eyes(33.33%),0.12-0.3 in 3 eyes (16.67%),equal or greater than 0.4 in 4 eyes (22.22%).The visual acuity was improved in 9 eyes (50.00

  1. Epidemiological survey of lipid levels and factors in Kazakan people over 30-year old in Fukang of Xinjiang%新疆阜康地区30岁以上哈萨克族居民血脂水平及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁登攀; 王红梅; 罗文利; 常建航; 姚晓光; 李南方; 张德莲; 郭艳英; 林丽; 周玲; 李文昌; 严治涛

    2011-01-01

    aged older than 30 from Fukang of Xinjiang were included. The plasma total cholesterol ( TC ), triglyceride ( TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C), plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Related adverse cardiovascular risk factors were discussed. Results The mean plasma TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C of Kazakan residents over 30-year-old in Fukang of Xinjiang were ( 5.05 ± 1.07 ), ( 1.10 ± 0. 66 ), ( 1.46 ± 0. 38 ) and ( 3.06 ±0. 84)mmol/L,respectively. TC,TG and LDL-C levels in male subjects were higher than those in females (malevs female: TC: (5. 19 ± 1.05) mmol/L vs (4.94 ± 1.07) mmol/L,t=3.57,P<0. 01;TG:( 1.32 ± 0. 80 ) mmol/L vs ( 0. 94 ± 0. 46 ) mmol/L, t = 8. 63, P < 0. 01; LDL-C: ( 3.30 ± 0. 85 ) mmol/L vs (2. 88 ±0. 79) mmol/L,t =8.06 ,P <0. 01 ). While the HDL-C level in male subjects was lower than that of female (male vs female: (1.32 ±0.33) mmol/Lvs (1.57±0.38) mmol/L,t=11.48,P<0. 01).The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 28. 3% (280/991) in the overall populations. In the overall populations,the prevalence of hypercholesteremia, hypertriglyceridemia, high Iow-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia were 12.6% ( 125/991 ) , 6. 6% ( 65/991 ) , 11.0%( 109/991 ) and 10. 1% ( 100/991 ) ,respectively. The prevalence of individuals with borderline-high TC ,TG and LDL-C were 27. 0% ( 268/991 ), 7. 6% ( 75/991 ) and 20. 5% ( 203/991 ), respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 40. 0% (172/430) in male populations. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in group aged 30 - 39,40 - 49,50 - 59,60 and above were 26. 2% ( 78/298 ), 26. 0% ( 91/350 ), 31.2%(73/234) and 34. 9% (38/109), respectively, the trend of prevalence was significant by trend test for groups comparison ( x2 = 3.94, P < 0. 05 ). Adjusting for age and gender, TG was positively correlated with waist circumference,abdominal circumference and BMI, the partial relation coefficients

  2. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; De Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Milian, F M, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Department of Exact Science and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade, Km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, CEP 45662-000, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  3. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  4. [Bilateral axillary nodes. 30-year-old patient, housewife].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, R; Ramseier, E

    2007-11-14

    A 20-year old patient who had been adequately treated for lymph node tuberculosis 14 years ago presented 1 week after giving birth to a healthy daughter. She complained about painful lumps in both axillae. During pregnancy the patient suffered from hyperemesis gravidarum, lost 6 kg of weight, and had night sweats. During the last three months of her pregnancy she had a deep vein thrombosis in her right lower leg. The clinical examination showed soft axillary lumps up to 3 cm. The lab showed the following pathological findings: blood sedimentation rate 51 mm/h, CRP 44.8 mg/l, LDH 221 U/l and INR 1.3 (indicating insufficient anticoagulation with phenprocoumon). The chest x-ray showed no infiltrate or indications of a past tuberculosis. A fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on an accessible node. Gram stain, Ziehl Neelsen stain, as well as the bacteriological cultures were all negative. An ultrasound examination of the axilla showed a thickened subcutis without a mass. Cytology showed lobular epithelium, consistent wih ductal mamma epithelium without atypical cells. The diagnosis of an accessory mamma tissue in both axillae was made. During the course of the following weeks the glands decreased in size and the patient was free of symptoms.

  5. DERMATOGLYPHICS OF THE CAUCASIANS OF SOUTH IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sharif Kamali

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral finger and palm prints of 500 males and 500 females of the Caucasian origin in South Iran have been collected and analyzed for both qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyhic features. Results show that most of the qualitative features on bilateral and bisexual differences are not significant. However, quantitative features frequently showed significant differences both bilaterally and bisexually. These results, when, compared with some Indian groups revealed insignificant differences in qualitative dermatoglyphics, while, the quantitative features frequently showed significant differences. The importance of quantitative dermatoglyphic features in population studies has been discussed.

  6. A comparison between composition and density of the fat-free mass of young adult Singaporean Chinese and Dutch Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The body composition was measured in 30 female Singapore Chinese and 34 female Dutch Caucasians aged (mean ± SD) 22.7 ± 3.6 years and in 39 male Singapore Chinese and 39 male Dutch Caucasians aged 23.3 ± 3.2 years. Methods: The body fat percentage (BF€was measured using densitometry and deuterium ox

  7. 安徽省18~30岁青年咬合关系临床调查分析%A clinical survey and analysis on the bite relationship of occlusion in youth and 18 ~ 30 years old in Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红梅; 周学军; 韩冬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyse the prevalent even symptoms of malocclusion、sanine relationship and molar relationship in youth of 18 to 30 years old in Anhui. Methods This survey was based on WHO oral surveys basic methods,and adopted the classification standard of individual normal occlusion canine relationship and molar relationship. The random sampling method was used and a random sample of 1206( men 710,women 496)youth,aged between 18 and 30 without history of orthodontic,were chosen from Anhui province.The study was carried out by orthodontic specialist from Hefei lth People's Hospital Department of Stomatology. Results The prevalence of malocclusion among youth at 18 ~30 years old from Anhui was 87.81% ( men 86.48% ,women 89.72% ). Women's right and left canine relationship Class I ,Class Ⅱ ,Class Ⅲ were 20.23% and 55.73% and 24.04% and 22.25% ,55.73% and 22.02% respectively. Men's right and left canine relationship Class Ⅰ ,Class Ⅱ ,ClassⅢ were 13.36% 、56.51% ,30. 13% and 20.52% ,44.79% and 34.69% respectively.Women's right and left molar relationship of Angle Class I was 42.02% and 41.12% ,Angle Class Ⅱ was 31.24% and 28.09% ,Angle Class Ⅲ was 26.74% and 30.79%. Men's right and left molar relationship of Angle Class I was 28. 0l % and 27.04%, Angle Class Ⅱ was 37.46% and 33.22% ,Angle ClassⅢ was 34.53% and 39.74%. Conclusion The morbility rate of malocclusion is high. Class I of canine and molar relationship is low. Malocclusion and abnormal bite relationship should be taught and treated as early as possible. and the situation is critical.%目的 调查分析安徽省18~30岁青年错(牙合)畸形患病率及尖牙、磨牙关系情况.方法 根据WHO出版的口腔健康调查基本方法,以个别正常(牙合)和尖牙、磨牙关系分类法为标准,由口腔正畸科专业医师从合肥市第一人民医院口腔科就诊人员中随

  8. 小于30岁青年人急性心肌梗死临床和冠脉造影特点分析%Feature of clinic and coronary angiography of acute myocardial infarction for young people less than 30 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 董志军; 熊辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore feature of clinic and coronary angiography (CAG)of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)for young adults less than 30 years old.Methods:A total of 41 AMI patients,who were under 30 years old and hospitalzed in our hospital from 2004 to 2012,were enrolled as young group.Another 360 AMI patients >50 years were randomly selected as middle-aged group during the same time.Clinical features and CAG results were compared between two groups.Results:Compared with middle-aged group,there were significant rise in percenta-ges of male (68.1% vs.97.6%),smokers (50.6% vs.80.5%)and hypercholesterolemia (59.2% vs.65.9%)and body mass index [(22.3±6.6)kg/m2 vs.(26.3±9.6)kg/m2 ],and significant reduction in percentages of hyper-tension (63.1% vs.24.4%)and diabetes mellitus (30.6% vs.4.9%)in young group,P<0.05 or <0.01;for ex-citing cause,percentages of psychological factors such as tension and anxiety (29.3% vs.3.6%),staying up late (39.0% vs.2.8%)and heavy drinking (14.6% vs.4.7%)in young group were significantly higher than those of middle-aged group,while percentages of agitation (8.3% vs.0)in middle-aged group was significantly higher than that of young group (P<0.05 or <0.01).For CAG results,young group was mainly single vessel coronary disease (56.1%),which were mainly type A (53.7%)and type B1 (29.3%)lesions,while middle-aged group was mainly multi-vessel coronary disease (48.1%),which were mainly type B2 (29.7%)and type C (33.9%)lesions,and there were significant difference between two groups (P<0.05 or <0.01).Conclusion:Smoking,obesity and hy-perlipidemia are the most important risk factors for acute myocardial infarction;the major exciting causes are sta-ying up late,alcohol drinking and high mental stress etc.in young AMI patients;their coronary lesions are mainly single vessel coronary disease,and of type A and type B1 .%目的:探讨小于30岁青年急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者的临床及冠状动脉造影特点。方法:选择我院2004

  9. Echocardiographic nomograms for chamber diameters and areas in Caucasian children

    OpenAIRE

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Scalese, Marco; Murzi, Bruno; Assanta, Nadia; Spadoni, Isabella; De Lucia, Vittoria; Crocetti, Maura; Cresti, Alberto; Gallotta, Milena; Marotta, Marco; Tyack, Karin; Molinaro, Sabrina; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although a quantitative evaluation of cardiac chamber dimensions in pediatric echocardiography is often important, nomograms for these structures are limited. The aim of this study was to establish reliable echocardiographic nomograms of cardiac chamber diameters and areas in a wide population of children. METHODS: A total of 1,091 Caucasian Italian healthy children (age range, 0 days to 17 years; 44.8% female) with body surface areas (BSAs) ranging from 0.12 to 1.8 m(2) were pros...

  10. Attitudes toward Rape: Gender and Ethnic Differences across Asian and Caucasian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lisa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined 302 Asian and Caucasian college students' attitudes towards rape victims and belief in rape myths. Results show significant differences between both groups. Asians more often endorsed negative attitudes toward rape victims than whites, and males endorsed more negative attitudes and more acceptance of rape myths than females. Results are…

  11. Bioactive oat β-glucan reduces LDL cholesterol in Caucasians and non-Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolever Thomas MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing global acceptance that viscous soluble fibers lower serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, but most evidence for this comes from studies in Caucasians. To see if oat β-glucan lowers LDL-C in Caucasians and non-Caucasians we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the results of a randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center clinical trial whose primary aim was to determine if molecular-weight (MW influenced the LDL-C-lowering effect of oat β-glucan. Results Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects with LDL-C-C ≥ 3.0 and ≤ 5.0 mmol/L (n = 786 screened, n = 400 ineligible, n = 19 refused, n = 367 randomized, n = 345 completed, n = 1 excluded for missing ethnicity were randomly assigned to consume cereal containing wheat-fiber (Control, n = 74:13 Caucasian:non-Caucasian or 3 g high-MW (3H, 2,250,000 g/mol, n = 67:19, 4 g medium-MW (4 M, 850,000 g/mol, n = 50:17, 3 g medium-MW (3M, 530,000 g/mol, n = 54:9 or 4 g low-MW (4 L, 210,000 g/mol, n = 51:12 oat β-glucan daily for 4 weeks. LDL-C after 4 weeks was influenced by baseline LDL-C (p Conclusion We conclude that oat β-glucan reduces LDL-C in both Caucasians and non-Caucasians; there was insufficient power to determine if the magnitude of LDL-C-lowering differed by ethnicity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981981

  12. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  13. The National Tumor Association Foundation (ANT: A 30 year old model of home palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonazzi Valeria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of palliative care delivery develop within a social, cultural, and political context. This paper describes the 30-year history of the National Tumor Association (ANT, a palliative care organization founded in the Italian province of Bologna, focusing on this model of home care for palliative cancer patients and on its evaluation. Methods Data were collected from the 1986-2008 ANT archives and documents from the Emilia-Romagna Region Health Department, Italy. Outcomes of interest were changed in: number of patients served, performance status at admission (Karnofsky Performance Status score [KPS], length of participation in the program (days of care provided, place of death (home vs. hospital/hospice, and satisfaction with care. Statistical methods included linear and quadratic regressions. A linear and a quadratic regressions were generated; the independent variable was the year, while the dependent one was the number of patients from 1986 to 2008. Two linear regressions were generated for patients died at home and in the hospital, respectively. For each regression, the R square, the unstandardized and standardized coefficients and related P-values were estimated. Results The number of patients served by ANT has increased continuously from 131 (1986 to a cumulative total of 69,336 patients (2008, at a steady rate of approximately 121 additional patients per year and with no significant gender difference. The annual number of home visits increased from 6,357 (1985 to 904,782 (2008. More ANT patients died at home than in hospice or hospital; this proportion increased from 60% (1987 to 80% (2007. The rate of growth in the number of patients dying in hospital/hospice was approximately 40 patients/year (p 40 increased. Mean days of care for patients with KPS > 40 exceeded mean days for patients with KPS Conclusions The ANT home care model of palliative care delivery has been well-received, with progressively growing numbers of patients served. It has resulted in a greater proportion of home deaths and in patients' accessing palliative care at an earlier point in the disease trajectory. Changes in ANT chronicle palliative care trends in general.

  14. Immunity status against rubella in 15-30 years old women during

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poopak Izadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubella is an acute viral infection. There are disastrous malformations in fetus (congenital rubella syndrome (when pregnant women expose to the virus, especially in the first trimester. Affected or vaccinated people have permanent immunity. Measurement of IgM and IgG serum titer against rubella is the most reliable indicator of immunity status and is helful for finding of nonimmune people.Materials and Method: In this study we selected 427 women (age range: 15-30 who were referred to our center for anti-rubella IgG, IgM measurement during 1386 and 138. Rubella antibodies were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test.Results: Immunity of women against rubella in Kermanshah was 83.66% which was lower than the mean rate reported in Iran.Conclusion: We recommend vaccination of susceptible women before marriage

  15. Unmet needs in the transition to adulthood: 18- to 30-year-old people with hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Doris; Reding, Mark; Guelcher, Chris; Peltier, Skye; Witkop, Michelle; Cutter, Susan; Buranahirun, Cathy; Molter, Don; Frey, Mary Jane; Forsyth, Angela; Tran, Duc Bobby; Curtis, Randall; Hiura, Grant; Levesque, Justin; de la Riva, Debbie; Compton, Matthew; Iyer, Neeraj N; Holot, Natalia; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with hemophilia face unique challenges during the transition to adulthood, including issues associated with switching from pediatric to adult hematology care, building mature interpersonal relationships, and establishing an independent career with an assurance of medical insurance coverage. A greater understanding of these challenges is essential for developing effective strategies to address the specific needs of this population. These challenges may be differentiated from those of older adults with hemophilia in large part because of more extensive childhood prophylaxis and safer factor products, resulting in fewer joint problems and lower rates of HIV and HCV infections. This analysis of the changing nature and unmet needs of today's young adults entering into adult hemophilia treatment centers, as well as potential strategies for optimally addressing these needs, was developed following roundtable discussions between patients, caregivers, hematologists, and other health care professionals participating in comprehensive care. Challenges identified among young adults with hemophilia include psychosocial issues related to maturity, personal responsibility, and increased independence, as well as concerns regarding when and with whom to share information about one's hemophilia, limited awareness of educational and financial resources, and a low perceived value of regular hematology care. The initiatives proposed herein highlight important opportunities for health care professionals at pediatric and adult hemophilia treatment centers, as well as national organizations, community groups, and career counselors, to address key unmet needs of this patient population. PMID:26619193

  16. Isolated oestrogen deficiency in male 30-year-old: persistent growth plates with severe osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A 31-year-old male presented with right rib pain and generalised skeletal symptoms. He has a past history of multiple fractures following trauma. No history of childhood fractures. Asthma (No steroids). A product of a consanguineous marriage, he has one child aged 7. Examination showed 178.6cm male with normal sexual characteristics. No abnormality detected apart from tenderness over right ribs. Bone scan showed active growth plates and right and left rib fractures. X-rays demonstrated a bone age of 15 1/2 - 16 yrs and a compression fracture of L2. His bone mineral density is severely reduced. Metabolic investigations revealed Testosterone 27.4 nmol (N 11-35), oestradiol < 70 pmol/L, ultrasensitive assay 14 and 17 pmol/L (consistent with 8-year-old male), LH N, FSH N, 46 XY Karyotype. Alkaline phosphatase. 148 (N<120), Normal glucose tolerance test. This patient illustrates a very rare condition of oestrogen deficiency in a male, probably due to aromatase deficiency. This enzyme converts testosterone to oestradiol. It illustrates the role of oestrogen in fusing growth plates and maintaining bone mass in males with otherwise normal androgen levels. A similar clinical picture can result from an oestrogen receptor abnormality. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  17. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordasco Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI, of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females. Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  18. Differences in legal characteristics between Caucasian and African-American women diverted into substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Melanie C; Edwards, Laurie; Lussier, Lauren R; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we examined differences in the legal characteristics of Caucasian and African-American female offenders (n = 122) who were diverted into substance abuse treatment, to identify any racial disparities. We also examined the differences between groups in demographics and in substance abuse, family, and violence histories. In terms of legal characteristics, the results showed that African-American female offenders were significantly more likely to have been incarcerated at the time of their substance dependency evaluation than were Caucasian female offenders. Also, African-American women were more likely to have served 13 months for the current legal charge in comparison to the 4 months served by Caucasian women, although no differences were found between groups in the severity of the current legal charge. Comparison of demographics and substance abuse, family, and violence histories indicated that African-American women were more likely to be undereducated, crack cocaine dependent, and overly exposed to violence. Overall, the sample of female offenders evidenced severe substance dependency problems, a strong need for inpatient substance abuse treatment, and chronic legal and social difficulties. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to unbalanced sentencing policies and increasing awareness of the treatment needs of this unique population. PMID:21389168

  19. BMI and BAI as Markers of Obesity in a Caucasian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zwierzchowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: BMI is known to have limited accuracy, which is different for males and females with similar body fat content. That is why Bergman et al. (Obesity 2011;19:1083-1089 introduced an alternative variable of obesity, called the body adiposity index (BAI. Their primary research was conducted in samples of Mexican-American and African-American populations. The objective of our research was to investigate the sex-specific relationship between both BMI and BAI and body fat content in a healthy Caucasian population. The accuracy of both indexes was compared. Methods: 684 women and 528 men aged 20-22 years with Caucasian origin only participated in the study. Participants were students of universities in southern Poland. They had no indication of cardiometabolic problems, as evaluated by interview. Results: The study revealed that BAI is a more sensitive method in assessing obesity in Caucasian males rather than BMI. In the population of Caucasian women BAI results indicate a significant underestimation of obesity. Conclusion: The fact that there is a high statistical correlation between BAI and % fat mass among obese and overweight men and women suggests that BAI could be highly specific provided that the BAI cutoffs will be adapted to the European population.

  20. Body density differences between negro and caucasian professional football players

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.

    1981-01-01

    Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians w...

  1. Spacing and crowding among African and Caucasian children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugonzibwa, E.A.; Eskeli, R.; Laine-Alava, M.T.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine spacing and crowding according to ethnic group, gender and dental emergence stage among Tanzanian African and Caucasian children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiological clinical study. SETTING: A total of 869 African (428 boys, 441 girls) and 706 Caucasian (319 boys, 387 gir

  2. A population-based study of neuromyelitis optica in Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Lillevang, S T; Skejoe, H P B;

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce.......Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce....

  3. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women. PMID:21596635

  4. Sarcoidosis in Caucasians, Blacks and Asians in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondstone, W M; Wilson, A G

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and clinical features of sarcoidosis were studied in a retrospective survey of 156 patients attending two South London hospitals between 1969 and 1982. Sixty-eight patients were Caucasian, 59 were Black West Indian or African immigrants and 29 were immigrants racially derived from Indo-Pakistan (Asians). The annual incidence of sarcoidosis in the local community in 1977-78 was 19.8 per 10(5) for Blacks and 16.8 per 10(5) for Asians compared with 1.5 per 10(5) for Caucasians. Erythema nodosum was a more common presenting feature in Caucasians than in Blacks (P less than 0.001) or Asians (P less than 0.05). Blacks developed sarcoidosis at a later age than Caucasians (P less than 0.05) and were less likely to present as a chance finding on a chest radiograph (P less than 0.05). They had more widespread extrathoracic disease than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and were more commonly treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.001). In the Asians there was a male predominance compared with Caucasians (P less than 0.01). Asians also had more extrathoracic sarcoidosis than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and more of them were treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.05). A stage 2 chest radiograph at presentation (P less than 0.05) and skin sarcoidosis (P less than 0.05) were less common in Asians than in Blacks, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups. In this study the incidence of sarcoidosis in Asians approached that in Blacks, while the clinical features were intermediate in severity between Blacks and Caucasians. In both Blacks and Asians the disease was more common, more severe and more extensive than in Caucasians.

  5. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  6. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  7. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun. To...... higher number of naevi on the arms and the legs than did female controls, but also had more naevi on the trunk. For females, the risk for basal cell carcinoma increased with increasing number of naevi. Naevi were not a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in males....... investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...

  8. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.;

    2002-01-01

    is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle......AIMS: The stomach is involved in first-pass metabolism of alcohol in humans. As conflicting data were published regarding the influence of age and gender on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in human gastric mucosa, the present study aimed at the investigation of these and other...... potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...

  9. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun. To...... investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... recorded according to size and body region and the skin phototype was assessed. There was no correlation between self-reported skin type and the number of naevi. Females with basal cell carcinoma had more naevi than did female controls (median number of naevi: 65 and 32, respectively) while males with...

  10. Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zahiredin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

  11. Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Zahiredin; A. Kiany

    2004-01-01

    Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0). Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0)that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who...

  12. Muon beam line at J-PARC MUSE. Reuse of a 30-year-old superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Muon Science Laboratory at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at J-PARC is now operating stably. In the first stage, a conventional superconducting muon channel was installed, which can extract low-energy positive muons (30 MeV/c) and medium-energy positive (or negative) muons up to 120 MeV/c. The established muon yield is several 107/s for 60 MeV/c (both positive and negative muons) at a proton beam power of 1 MW. This channel is used for various experiments such as muon spin spectroscopy, muon-catalyzed fusion and nondestructive elemental analysis. The superconducting solenoid is the key element of this beam line. We briefly present the construction and operation of this solenoid and cryogenics. (author)

  13. Green spermatozoa illuminate a 30-year-old model:sperm-egg adhesion involves intra-acrosomal proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steve Tardif

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fertilisation in mammals involves many synchronized steps including spermegg adhesion.Prior to sperm-oolemma fusion,spermatozoa need to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR) or exocytosis.The universal belief,for many years,has been that the AR was initiated upon binding to the zona pellucida (ZP).As such acrosomal proteins were not thought to be involved in the primary contact with the ZP.These proteins were only suggested to be biologically relevant once the sperm were attached to the ZP and during subsequent events.However,recent data in the mouse have unequivocally demonstrated that spermatozoa can begin exocytosis before contact with ZP.1 It is a remarkable finding as not only will the interpretation of the interaction between sperm and cumulus cells need to be revised,but the processes of capacitation,vesiculation and exposure of acrosomal content need reexamination.

  14. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Transformed from Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Arising in a Female Urethra Treated with Rituximab for the First Time

    OpenAIRE

    Zahrani, A. Al; Abdelsalam, M.; Fiaar, A. Al; Ibrahim, N.; Al-Elawi, A.; Muhammad, B

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old female patient presented to the gynecology clinic with a small (painless) swelling at the urethral orifice. She underwent surgical excision of the lesion. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell type and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type, stage IE. The patient refused radiotherapy. Accordingly, we started CHOP-R chemotherapy. She received a total of 6 cycles of CHOP and 8 cycles of rituximab. Patient follow-up was done 3 months later...

  15. Eating Attitudes and Body Satisfaction among Asian and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sameena; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether religious affiliation (Hindu or Muslim) and gender were important factors in explaining difference in unhealthy eating attitudes of Asian adolescents living in United Kingdom compared with Caucasians. Muslim adolescents had most characteristic pattern of eating psychopathology. Muslim boys' eating attitudes were particularly…

  16. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  17. Perceived Counselor Acculturation Levels: Their Pertinence to Caucasian Client Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-Chung Scott; Schneider, Lawrence J.

    After reading 1 of 4 randomly-assigned written descriptions of a counselor, a group of 257 Caucasian undergraduates completed the Expectations sbout Counseling: Brief Form (Tinsley, 1982), Confidence Rating scales and Willingness items to examine how the perceived levels of acculturation of the counselor influenced client's perceptions of the…

  18. Excision of an epidermal inclusion cyst: Correction of a long-term complication of female genital circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Erica C; Ackerman, Christina; Cutler, Abigail; Lakhi, Nisha A

    2016-06-01

    Epidermal inclusion cysts are a late complication of female genital circumcision, which is a practice that affects 125 million women primarily from Africa and the Middle East. A 30-year-old woman, gravida 4, para 1, presented to our clinic with an 8-year history of a slowly enlarging periclitoral mass. The patient had undergone female genital circumcision at the age of 5 years. We describe and video-illustrate the surgical technique of excising the 8-cm epidermal inclusion cyst. Using this technique, the entire cyst was resected intact, excess vulvar skin removed, and defect repaired. Postoperatively, she had minimal pain, no dyspareunia, and good cosmesis. Restoration of anatomy for this late complication of female genital circumcision is achievable with knowledge of anatomy, adherence to basic surgical principles that include tension-free closure, and close postoperative follow up. PMID:27001220

  19. A Case of Unexplained Cerebral Sinus Thrombosis in a 22-Year-Old Obese Caucasian Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheult, Jansen N; Chibisov, Irina

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we present the case of a 22-year old obese Caucasian woman female with no acquired thrombophilic risk factors who was diagnosed with extensive cerebral sinus thrombosis. A detailed thrombophilia workup demonstrated persistently elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity levels, with an elevated PAI-1 antigen concentration and homozygosity for the PAI-1 4G allele (4G/4G genotype). The patient was treated with indefinite warfarin anticoagulation medication due to the unprovoked nature of her thrombotic event. Disturbances in the fibrinolytic system, in particular PAI-1, have been related to an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of hypofibrinolysis associated with elevated PAI-1 levels and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. PMID:27287941

  20. Torpedo maculopathy with an anisometropic amblyopia in a 5-year-old Caucasian girl: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dutra-Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes in the biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas in the contralateral eye it disclosed, in the temporal sector of the macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability of the lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanoma and nevus, congenital or iatrogenic hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and particularly versus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner's syndrome.

  1. Activity Patterns And Perceptions Of Goods, Services, And Eco-Cultural Attributes By Ethnicity And Gender For Native Americans And Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Managing ecosystems requires understanding how people use and value them. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in resource use and perceptions of environmental quality in Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in East-central Idaho. More men than women engaged in consumptive activities, but there were no differences for non-consumptive or religious/spiritual. More Caucasian males engaged in hunting, and more females engaged in collecting herb and, berries, and bird-watching. More Native American males engaged in hunting and fishing, and more females engaged in picnics and walking/running. Women had higher rates of hike, walk and bike than did men, and there were no ethnic differences. The data indicate that both the percent participation and the frequency of participation varied both ethnically and by gender.

  2. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Howard J; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D; Crewe, H Kim; Gill, Katherine L; Neuhoff, Sibylle

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  3. Life expectancy in two Caucasian countries. How much due to overestimated population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a first attempt to produce reliable estimates of mortality in Georgia and Armenia in the 1990s. Official statistics registered a decrease in mortality over the 1990s in spite of local wars, mass flows of refugees, and severe economic hardships faced by populations. According to official statistics, in 1999-2000 population size was about 5.4 millions in Georgia and about 3.8 millions in Armenia. Non-official estimates based on migration surveys are much lower: 4.0-4.1 millions and 3.0 millions, respectively. This huge difference is mostly due to unregistered out-migration. In addition to corrections in population, corrections are made for under-registration of deaths. Hospital statistics is used for infant deaths and the Coale-Demeny model life tables are used for ages above 70. In Georgia, the introduction of payment for the declaration of vital events resulted in a greater under-registration of deaths than in Armenia. Modified populations, mortality and life expectancy values are produced for the 1990s. In 1999 life expectancy was 68.6 and 75.6 for males and females in Georgia and 68.7 and 75.4 for males and females in Armenia. These figures are lower than the official estimates by 5.2 and 5.6 years for males and females in Georgia and by 3.8 and 1.7 years for males and females in Armenia. After corrections Caucasian male life expectancy is higher than in other post-Soviet countries.

  4. Pigmentation and vitamin D metabolism in Caucasians: low vitamin D serum levels in fair skin types in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D may play a protective role in many diseases. Public health messages are advocating sun avoidance to reduce skin cancer risk but the potential deleterious effects of these recommendations for vitamin D metabolism have been poorly investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD, skin type and ultraviolet exposure in 1414 Caucasian females in the UK. Mean age of the cohort was 47 years (18-79 and mean 25(OHD levels were 77 nmol/L (6-289. 25(OHD levels were strongly associated with season of sampling with higher levels in the spring and summer months (p<0.0001. Light skin types (skin type 1 and 2 have lower levels of 25(OHD (mean 71 nmol/L compared to darker skin types (skin type 3 and 4 (mean 82 nmol/L after adjusting for multiple confounders (p<0.0001. The trend for increasing risk of low vitamin D with fairer skin types was highly significant despite adjustment for all confounders (p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to previous studies across different ethnic backgrounds, this study within Caucasian UK females shows that fair skin types have lower levels of 25(OHD compared to darker skin types with potential detrimental health effects. Public health campaigns advocating sun avoidance in fair skinned individuals may need to be revised in view of their risk of vitamin D deficiency.

  5. Network-based proteomic analysis for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Caucasian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Zeng, Yong; Zhu, Wei; Zhao, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Zhu, Jia-Qiang; He, Hao; Shen, Hui; Tian, Qing; Deng, Fei-Yan; Papasian, Christopher J; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Menopause is one of the crucial physiological events during the life of a woman. Transition of menopause status is accompanied by increased risks of various health problems such as osteoporosis. Peripheral blood monocytes can differentiate into osteoclasts and produce cytokines important for osteoclast activity. With quantitative proteomics LC-nano-ESI-MS(E) (where MS(E) is elevated-energy MS), we performed protein expression profiling of peripheral blood monocytes in 42 postmenopausal women with discordant bone mineral density (BMD) levels. Traditional comparative analysis showed proteins encoded by four genes (LOC654188, PPIA, TAGLN2, YWHAB) and three genes (LMNB1, ANXA2P2, ANXA2) were significantly down- and upregulated, respectively, in extremely low- versus high-BMD subjects. To study functionally orchestrating groups of detected proteins in the form of networks, we performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis showed that the module including the annexin gene family was most significantly correlated with low BMD, and the lipid-binding related GO terms were enriched in this identified module. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that two significantly enriched gene sets may be involved in postmenopausal BMD variation by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines activities. To gain more insights into the proteomics data generated, we performed integrative analyses of the datasets available to us at the genome (DNA level), transcriptome (RNA level), and proteome levels jointly.

  6. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Differences between Caucasian Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Chester, Terri; Nunn, David; Vickers, Valerie

    This paper presents an exploratory factor analysis of the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale, which was developed to examine overall life satisfaction. It is a 20-item, self-report instrument that measures three dimensions: an overall Spiritual Well-Being score, a Religious Well-Being score, and an Existential Well-Being score. The findings show…

  7. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites. PMID:27085012

  8. Data on the reproduction of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Serpentes: Viperidae from Hopa (Northeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Göçmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we report an observation of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi from Hopa (Artvin, Turkey giving birth. During our field studies, we captured a female Vipera kaznakovi on July 21, 2012 from Esenkıyı village, Hopa (Artvin, Turkey, it was brought to the laboratory and kept in a terrarium for a period until May 28, 2013. The female (SVL= 483 mm, total length, TL = 541 mm gave birth to eight young (mean SVL= 146 mm, mean TL= 161.4 mm, range= 155 – 172 mm; mean weight, W= 3.11 g, range= 2.6 – 3.4 g on August 11, 2012. In six and a half months, the juvenile snakes had reached 163 mm SVL, 187 mm TL and 5.1g W and increased their size by approximately 15%.

  9. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  10. Paleotethys geo dynamics of the Caspian-Caucasian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Character of the spread of the plate-tectonic structures of Paleotethys and its oceanic basins including plan and age of the deformation as well as relation between Paleotethys and Mesotethys and the other issues are urgent debatable problems of the Paleozoic-Triassic geology in the region. As a result of complex geologic, magmatic, tectonic, paleo bio geographic, geophysical and cosmotectonic studies in the Caucasus, Zacaspian and Iran there were constructed geo dynamic maps on the paleo tectonic basis for certain time sections starting from the Cambrian transition stage till the Triassic models of Paleotethys evolution for two near-meridional geo traverses Arabian margin of Gondwana and in the north it crosses the East-European platform. In the Cambrian the change of the carbonaceous facies by the arkosicsandstones and quartzites in the Gondwana and in the East-European platforms is associated with the absolute elevation and washout of the Caspian-Caucasian shield. This is a precursor of more significant events and processes. There probably occurred a large structural reconstruction in the boundary of the Cambrian and the Ordovician associated with the beginning of the opening of the Caucasian, Turkestan and Ural pale oceans. As a result of the continental riftogenesis that in the next stage is transformed from the rifting into the spreading of the oceanic crust the double deep-water basins of Paleotethys were separated. The closure of neo-Paleotethys in the late Triassic was preceded by the crack of Gondwana and location of a system of the branching rifting and spreading of Mesotethys

  11. Serum LP(a) levels in African aboriginal Pygmies and Bantus, compared with Caucasian and Asian population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbaert, C; Mulder, P; Lindemans, J; Kesteloot, H

    1997-09-01

    Serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and its correlates were studied in African Aboriginal Pygmies (n = 146) and Bantus (n = 208) from Cameroon. Geometric mean Lp(a) levels were 274 and 289 mg/l in Bantu males and females, respectively, and 220 and 299 mg/l in Pygmy males and females, the gender difference being significant in Pygmies (p = 0.024). In Pygmies 41% and 52% of the males and females, respectively, had Lp(a) levels above 300 mg/l, compared with 47% and 55% in Bantus. Overall, Lp(a) levels did not significantly differ between Pygmies and Bantus, and did not correlate with age, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Compared with healthy Asian and Caucasian population samples, age- and BMI-adjusted geometric Lp(a) means were 2.3- to 5.0-fold higher in Pygmy and Bantu males, and 2.9- to 3.6-fold higher in Pygmy and Bantu females (p < or = 0.05). Across the population samples studied ethnicity predicted 12% and 17% of serum Lp(a) variance in males and females, respectively.

  12. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock lizard Darevskia dahlia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A Vergun

    Full Text Available The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  13. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock lizard Darevskia dahlia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  14. Effects of age, ethnicity and menopause on ambulatory blood pressure: Japanese-American and Caucasian school teachers in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D E; Sievert, L L; Aki, S L; Mills, P S; Etrata, M B; Paopao, R N; James, G D

    2001-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements of 120 female teachers of Japanese-American or Caucasian ethnicity working in public schools located in Hilo, Hawaii, were recorded. BP was measured at 15-min intervals during waking hours and 30-min intervals during sleep over a 24-hr period that included a full work day. These measurements were averaged during three daily settings: at work, at home while awake ("home"), and during sleep. ANCOVAs using ethnicity as a predictor variable of BP, with age and the body mass index (BMI) as covariates, show a significant interaction effect between age and ethnicity in some daily settings. Among Japanese-Americans partial correlations between age and systolic BP controlling for the BMI are significant in these settings, while among Caucasians none of the correlations are significant. Menopausal status is not significantly related to BP when age is controlled in analyses. There was no significant ethnic difference in number of symptoms reported, including frequency of "hot flushes/flashes," within the past two weeks. Those who reported hot flushes had significantly elevated BP in waking settings but not during sleep. The greater increase in BP with age in Japanese-Americans may be related to their elevated risk for development of hypertension. The lack of a significant relationship between menopausal status and BP may be due to the high rate of usage of hormonal replacement therapy in this sample, as well as an unusually high rate of hysterectomy. PMID:11400219

  15. Comparing HLA shared epitopes in French Caucasian patients with scleroderma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doua F Azzouz

    Full Text Available Although many studies have analyzed HLA allele frequencies in several ethnic groups in patients with scleroderma (SSc, none has been done in French Caucasian patients and none has evaluated which one of the common amino acid sequences, (67FLEDR(71, shared by HLA-DRB susceptibility alleles, or (71TRAELDT(77, shared by HLA-DQB1 susceptibility alleles in SSc, was the most important to develop the disease. HLA-DRB and DQB typing was performed for a total of 468 healthy controls and 282 patients with SSc allowing FLEDR and TRAELDT analyses. Results were stratified according to patient's clinical subtypes and autoantibody status. Moreover, standardized HLA-DRß1 and DRß5 reverse transcriptase Taqman PCR assays were developed to quantify ß1 and ß5 mRNA in 20 subjects with HLA-DRB1*15 and/or DRB1*11 haplotypes. FLEDR motif is highly associated with diffuse SSc (χ(2 = 28.4, p<10-6 and with anti-topoisomerase antibody (ATA production (χ(2 = 43.9, p<10-9 whereas TRAELDT association is weaker in both subgroups (χ(2 = 7.2, p = 0.027 and χ(2 = 14.6, p = 0.0007 respectively. Moreover, FLEDR motif- association among patients with diffuse SSc remains significant only in ATA subgroup. The risk to develop ATA positive SSc is higher with double dose FLEDR than single dose with respectively, adjusted standardised residuals of 5.1 and 2.6. The increase in FLEDR motif is mostly due to the higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 and DRB1*15 haplotypes. Furthermore, FLEDR is always carried by the most abundantly expressed ß chain: ß1 in HLA DRB1*11 haplotypes and ß5 in HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes.In French Caucasian patients with SSc, FLEDR is the main presenting motif influencing ATA production in dcSSc. These results open a new field of potential therapeutic applications to interact with the FLEDR peptide binding groove and prevent ATA production, a hallmark of severity in SSc.

  16. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  17. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  18. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, T R; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L; Toth, M J; Schutz, Y; Poehlman, E T

    1996-05-01

    In a retrospective study, we examined several determinants of basal fat oxidation in 720 healthy Caucasian volunteers. Adult men (n = 427) and women (n = 293) were characterized for resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry (after a 12-h overnight fast), peak O2 consumption by a treadmill test to exhaustion, body composition by hydrodensitometry, food intake from a 3-day food diary, and hormonal status by fasting hormone concentrations. Fat oxidation was negatively correlated with fat mass in men (r = -0.11; P consumption and fat-free mass in men (model R2 = 0.142) and by free thyroxine, fat-free mass, and fasting insulin in women (model R2 = 0.153). Relative rates of fat oxidation (fat oxidation adjusted for differences in resting energy expenditure) were not correlated with fat mass in either gender. Women showed a lower rate of basal fat oxidation (both absolute and adjusted) than did men. Our results show that fat oxidation is not greater in individuals with a greater fat mass. Furthermore, our results support a sexual dimorphism in basal rates of fat oxidation. PMID:8727562

  19. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a Caucasian Italian woman: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellani Debora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute cardiac syndrome characterized by transient LV regional wall motion abnormalities (with peculiar apical ballooning appearance, chest pain or dyspnea, ST-segment elevation and minor elevations of cardiac enzyme levels Case presentation A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department because of sudden onset chest pain occurred while transferring her daughter, who had earlier suffered a major seizure, to the hospital. The EKG showed sinus tachycardia with ST-segment elevation in leads V2–V3 and ST-segment depression in leads V5–V6, she was, thus, referred for emergency coronary angiography. A pre-procedural transthoracic echocardiogram revealed regional systolic dysfunction of the LV walls with hypokinesis of the mid-apical segments and hyperkinesis of the basal segments. Coronary angiography showed patent epicardial coronary arteries; LV angiography demonstrated the characteristic morphology of apical ballooning with hyperkinesis of the basal segments and hypokinesis of the mid-apical segments. The post-procedural course was uneventful; on day 5 after admission the echocardiogram revealed full recovery of apical and mid-ventricular regional wall-motion abnormalities. Conclusion Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a relatively rare, unique entity that has only recently been widely appreciated. Acute stress has been indicated as a common trigger for the transient LV apical ballooning syndrome, especially in postmenopausal women. The present report is a typical example of stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a Caucasian Italian postmenopausal woman.

  20. Perplexing purpura in two females: Rare case of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram R Tainwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome is a psychologically induced painful bruising condition. Two female, 19 and 30-year-old presented with recurrent episodes of painful ecchymotic bruising over accessible areas of body. In the younger female, episodes were since 3 years and were precipitated by stress and trivial trauma. The elder female presented with similar lesions since 3 months which were spontaneous in presentation. There were no obvious psychiatric manifestations in either. Clinically, ecchymotic changes in various stages of development were seen. Routine hemogram and coagulation profile were normal. Histopathology showed extravasated erythrocytes, perivascular neutrophils and fibrinoid deposition. Intradermal injection of autologous whole blood produced a painful ecchymotic reaction after 2 h similar to the presenting lesions. Psychiatric evaluation revealed mild mixed depression - anxiety disorder in the younger female while the latter revealed no abnormalities. The diagnosis of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome was made based on clinical history and findings, positive autoerythrocyte sensitization test, psychiatric evaluation and absence of any other clinical or laboratory pathology.

  1. Perplexing purpura in two females: Rare case of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainwala, Ram R; Phiske, Meghna; Raghuwanshi, Abhijith; Mathapati, Sukesh; Manjare, Ashwini K; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2013-10-01

    Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome is a psychologically induced painful bruising condition. Two female, 19 and 30-year-old presented with recurrent episodes of painful ecchymotic bruising over accessible areas of body. In the younger female, episodes were since 3 years and were precipitated by stress and trivial trauma. The elder female presented with similar lesions since 3 months which were spontaneous in presentation. There were no obvious psychiatric manifestations in either. Clinically, ecchymotic changes in various stages of development were seen. Routine hemogram and coagulation profile were normal. Histopathology showed extravasated erythrocytes, perivascular neutrophils and fibrinoid deposition. Intradermal injection of autologous whole blood produced a painful ecchymotic reaction after 2 h similar to the presenting lesions. Psychiatric evaluation revealed mild mixed depression - anxiety disorder in the younger female while the latter revealed no abnormalities. The diagnosis of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome was made based on clinical history and findings, positive autoerythrocyte sensitization test, psychiatric evaluation and absence of any other clinical or laboratory pathology. PMID:24350012

  2. Recurrent Breast Abscesses due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, a Human Pathogen Uncommon in Caucasian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Le Flèche-Matéos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.

  3. ARTERIAL ELASTICITY IN AMERICAN INDIAN AND CAUCASIAN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during seven consecutive days. Amer...

  4. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising in a female urethra treated with rituximab for the first time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrani, A Al; Abdelsalam, M; Fiaar, A Al; Ibrahim, N; Al-Elawi, A; Muhammad, B

    2012-05-01

    A 30-year-old female patient presented to the gynecology clinic with a small (painless) swelling at the urethral orifice. She underwent surgical excision of the lesion. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell type and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type, stage IE. The patient refused radiotherapy. Accordingly, we started CHOP-R chemotherapy. She received a total of 6 cycles of CHOP and 8 cycles of rituximab. Patient follow-up was done 3 months later through CT scan and cytoscopy confirming the complete remission. The patient has been disease-free for 4 years. We reviewed 26 cases of this rare entity reported previously. PMID:22679430

  5. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers in Honduras: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, L G; Paz-Bailey, G; Morales-Miranda, S; Morgan, M; Alvarez, B; Hickman, L; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    This study describes HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and risk factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers (FSWs) in four cities in Honduras. In 2006, 795 FSWs from Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba and Comayagua were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and tested for HIV prevalence and STI. HIV prevalence ranged from no infections in Comayagua to 5.4% in Tegucigalpa. With the exception of Comayagua, more than 20% of FSWs were infected with M. genitalium. M. genitalium in the aggregated cities was associated with HIV positivity, being aged ≤30 years old, drinking alcohol more than once weekly and always using condoms with regular clients in the past month. In comparison with a 2001 surveillance study we found lower rates of HIV infection. Interventions for HIV control and prevention among FSWs, including promotion of condom use, are needed in Honduras.

  6. HIV-1 subtype D infections among Caucasians from Northwestern Poland--phylogenetic and clinical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz Parczewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 subtype D infections, which are associated with a faster rate of progression and lymphocyte CD4 decline, cognitive deficit and higher mortality, have rarely been found in native Europeans. In Northwestern Poland, however, infections with this subtype had been identified. This study aimed to analyze the sequence and clinical data for patients with subtype D using molecular phylogeography and identify transmission clusters and ancestry, as well as drug resistance, baseline HIV tropism and antiretroviral treatment efficacy. METHODS: Phylogenetic analyses of local HIV-1 subtype D sequences were performed, with time to the most recent common ancestor inferred using bayesian modeling. Sequence and drug resistance data were linked with the clinical and epidemiological information. RESULTS: Subtype D was found in 24 non-immigrant Caucasian, heterosexually infected patients (75% of females, median age at diagnosis of 49.5 years; IQR: 29-56 years. Partial pol sequences clustered monophyletically with the clades of Ugandan origin and no evidence of transmission from other European countries was found. Time to the most common recent ancestor was 1989.24 (95% HPD: 1968.83-1994.46. Baseline drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was observed in 54.5% of cases (mutations: M41L, K103N, T215S/D with evidence of clustering, no baseline integrase or protease resistance and infrequent non-R5 tropism (13.6%. Virologic failure was observed in 60% of cases and was associated with poor adherence (p<0.001 and subsequent development of drug resistance (p = 0.008, OR: 20 (95%CI: 1.7-290. CONCLUSIONS: Local subtype D represented an independently transmitted network with probably single index case, high frequency of primary drug resistance and evidence of transmission clusters.

  7. Online social media in everyday life in Ireland : A qualitative exploration of media use among Irish 25-30 year-olds during a time of crisis

    OpenAIRE

    English, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Online social media such as social network sites, online forums and blogs have emerged as spaces where interpersonal connections, discussion and displays of identity take place, and have been adopted extensively on a global scale. While research into the use of these sites in Ireland to date provides insights into subscription levels and the uses made of individual sites, little is known about the use of these media technologies in everyday life, the relationship between online and offline pr...

  8. Arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during 7 consecutive days. American Indians had a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians (p = 0.002), whereas daily ambulatory activity measures were similar (p > 0.05). American Indians had a 16% lower large artery elasticity index (p = 0.007) and a 19% lower small artery elasticity index (p cadence (p = 0.001), fat-free mass (p cadence for 30 continuous minutes (p = 0.009), race (p = 0.005), and average cadence (p = 0.049). Between 8 and 30 years of age, elasticity means for the large and small arteries is lower in American Indians than in Caucasians. A smaller difference was observed in children, with a trend to a much larger difference in young adults. Furthermore, greater fat-free mass and higher daily ambulatory cadence are associated with higher arterial elasticity in both American Indians and Caucasians. PMID:21828174

  9. Differences in coagulation among Asians and Caucasians and the implication for reconstructive microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Dhruv; Smorodinsky, Emmanuil; Guo, Lifei

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular reconstructive surgery has seen a revival with the introduction of muscle-sparing perforator flaps. Recognition of potential ethnic differences in coagulation profiles would be important to a microvascular surgeon. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesize that Asian patients have a less thrombogenic coagulation profile than Caucasians. An extensive retrospective review was performed. The annual incidence of venous thromboembolism in the United States is generally accepted to range from 70 to 120 events per 100,000 people versus 16 to 17 events per 100,000 persons in Asia. Autopsy analysis of pulmonary embolism incidence was noted to be 15% in North Americans and less than 1% in Asian populations. Thromboelastography analysis of Asian and Caucasian patients undergoing cholecystectomy revealed different hemostatic mechanisms. Comparison of Asians and Caucasians undergoing the Fontan procedure revealed significantly lower postoperative factor levels in Asians than Caucasians. Baseline comparison of factor and serum levels revealed Asians with the least thrombogenic profiles compared with other ethnic groups. Asians and Caucasians demonstrate different baseline rates of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, different hemostatic responses to surgery, and different baseline levels of clotting factors. Further study may lead to better pre-, intra-, and postoperative care of the free flap patient based on their ethnic coagulation profile.

  10. Treatment responses in Asians and Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth K Yan; Marianne Guirgis; Thuy Dinh; Jacob George; Anouk Dev; Alice Lee; Amany Zekry

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To conduct a multicentre retrospective review of virological response rates in Asians infected with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treated with combination interferon and ribavirin and then to compare their responses to that among Caucasians. METHODS:Asian patients infected with genotype 1 CHC treated at 4 Australian centres between 2001 to 2005 were identified through hospital databases.Baseline demographic characteristics,biochemical,virological and histological data and details of treatment were collected.Sustained virological responses (SVR) in this cohort were then compared to that in Caucasian subjects,matched by genotype,age,gender and the stage of hepatic fibrosis. RESULTS:A total of 108 Asians with genotype 1 CHC were identified.The end of treatment response (ETR) for the cohort was 79% while the SVR was 67%.Due to the relatively advanced age of the Asian cohort,only sixty-four subjects could be matched with Caucasians.The ETR among matched Asians and Caucasians was 81% and 56% respectively (P=0.003),while the SVR rates were 73% and 36% (P<0.001) respectively.This difference remained significant after adjusting for other predictive variables. CONCLUSION:Genotype 1 CHC in Asian subjects is associated with higher rates of virological response compared to that in Caucasians.

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes in Alzheimer's Disease in a Cohort of Older African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Dorbin, Cornelya D; Hu, William T

    2016-06-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P < .001) points of difference in a multivariate model. Attitudes toward AD were also similar between the 2 groups but 1 (35.7%) in 3 adults reported control over general health but not AD risks. In addition to enhancing education content in outreach efforts, there is an urgent need to address the perception that future AD risks are beyond one's own internal control. PMID:26646115

  12. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Ethnic Differences in Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Hepatic Extraction Between Japanese and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B; Dalla Man, Chiara; Overgaard, Rune V;

    2014-01-01

    a cross-sectional study with oral glucose tolerance tests to assess β-cell function, hepatic insulin extraction, and insulin sensitivity. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS included 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasian subjects. MAIN OUTCOMES: Measures of β-cell function, hepatic extraction, and insulin...... sensitivity were assessed using C-peptide, glucose, and insulin minimal models. RESULTS: Basal β-cell function (Φ(b)) was lower in Japanese compared with Caucasians (P < .01). In subjects with IGT, estimates of the dynamic (Φ(d)) and static (Φ(s)) β-cell responsiveness were significantly lower in the Japanese...... compared with Caucasians (P < .05). In contrast, values of insulin action showed higher sensitivity in the Japanese IGT subjects. Hepatic extraction was similar in NGT and IGT groups but higher in Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects (P < .01). Despite differences in insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and...

  14. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23046273

  15. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren;

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  16. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement in a Caucasian man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2009-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism, more common in Asian races, which is defined by a massive intracellular flux of potassium. This leads to profound hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Although the paralysis is temporary, it may be lethal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, as profound hypokalaemia may induce respiratory muscle paralysis or cardiac arrest. The condition is often misdiagnosed in the west due to its comparative rarity in Caucasians; however it is now increasingly described in Caucasians and is also being seen with increasing frequency in western hospitals due to increasing immigration and population mobility. Here we describe the case of a patient with panhypopituitarism due to a craniopharyngioma, who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement. This disorder has been described in Asian subjects but, to our knowledge, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis secondary to excessive L-thyroxine replacement has never been described in Caucasians.

  17. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sathler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40, Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32 and Mongoloid (n = 33. The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. RESULTS: Statistical differences (P < 0.05 indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. CONCLUSION: The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample.

  18. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women.

  19. The effect of BCMO1 gene variants on macular pigment optical density in young healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary eKyle-Little

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z positively correlate with macular pigment optical density (MPOD, hence the latter is a valuable indirect tool for measuring L and Z content in the macula. L and Z have been attributed antioxidant capacity and protection from certain retinal diseases but their uptake within the eye is thought to depend on genetic, age and environmental factors. In particular gene variants within beta-carotene monooxygenase (BCMO1 are thought to modulate MPOD in the macula.Objectives: To determine the effect of BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs11645428, rs6420424 and rs6464851 on macular pigment optical density (MPOD in a cohort of young healthy participants of Caucasian origin with normal ocular health.Design: In this cohort study, MPOD was assessed in 46 healthy participants (22 male and 24 female with a mean age of 24 ± 4.0 years (range 19-33. The three SNPs, rs11645428, rs6420424, rs6564851 that have established associations with MPOD were determined using MassEXTEND (hME Sequenom assay. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on groups segregated into homozygous and heterozygous BCMO1 genotypes. Correlations between body mass index (BMI, iris colour, gender, central retinal thickness (CRT, diet and MPOD were investigated.Results: MPOD did not significantly vary with BCMO1 rs11645428 (F2,41 = 0.700, p = 0.503, rs6420424 (F2,41 = 0.210, p = 0.801 nor rs6464851 homozygous or heterozygous genotypes (F2,41 = 0,13, p = 0.88, in this young healthy cohort. The combination of these three SNPs into triple genotypes based on plasma conversion efficiency did not affect MPOD (F2,41 = 0.07, p = 0.9. There was a significant negative correlation with MPOD and central retinal thickness (r = - 0.39, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between BMI, iris colour, gender and MPOD. Conclusion: Our results indicate that macular pigment deposition within the central retina is not dependent on BCMO1 gene variant

  20. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  1. Okamoto syndrome in a girl of Caucasian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markouri, Margharita; Karpathios, Themistokles; Dinopoulos, Argirios; Attilakos, Achilleas; Fretzayas, Andrew; Bakoula, Chryssa; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sophia

    2008-12-01

    We report the clinical and genetic evaluation of a 2-year-old Greek female with striking phenotypic similarities to the three previously published cases of Okamoto syndrome. The main features were characteristic facies, cleft palate, generalized hypotonia, severe developmental delay, congenital hydronephrosis, and congenital heart defects. Routine chromosome testing and whole-genome high-resolution comparative genetic hybridization analysis were negative for any gross numerical or structural chromosome aberrations and for microdeletions/duplications of more than 3 million base pairs respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for 22q11.2 deletion and DNA analysis of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type II gene were normal, thus excluding DiGeorge and Noonan syndromes. Our patient did not show most of the cardinal features of Schinzel-Giedion, otopalatodigital, and C-trigonocephaly syndromes. Moreover, in our patient some new malformations were identified: unilateral kidney hypoplasia and severe anal stenosis. The latter was considered as pertinent and is described here to establish a wider clinical spectrum of Okamoto syndrome. At the age of 3 years 6 months the child continues to show severe growth failure and significant global developmental delay. For the practising paediatrician it is prudent to bear Okamoto syndrome in mind, especially in children with learning disability and a pattern of dysmorphic features. PMID:19046188

  2. An investigation of the HUMVWA31A locus in British Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, M A; Archard, L; Lincoln, P J;

    1994-01-01

    A number of short tandem repeat (STR) loci are currently being examined for their usefulness as markers of identity; HUMVWA31A is one such locus. We used a high-sieving agarose technique to type 200 British Caucasians for this locus. Comparison of the resultant allele frequencies with other...

  3. Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative disorder in the United States : Young Caucasian males are at highest risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dharnidharka, VR; Tejani, AH; Ho, PL; Harmon, WE

    2002-01-01

    We have previously documented Caucasian race and cadaver donor source as risk factors for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) development in recipients registered in the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS). We analyzed data from the Scientific Regist

  4. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  5. Clinical Features Differ Substantially Between Caucasian and Asian Populations of Marfan Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Romy; den Hartog, Alexander W; van de Riet, Liz; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J; van den Berg, Maarten P; de Waard, Vivian; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Groenink, Maarten; Yip, James W; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prevention of aortic dissection and sudden death in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) requires accurate diagnosis. MFS is diagnosed by the Ghent criteria, which are primarily based on clinical features of Caucasian MFS populations. We determined whether the Ghent criteria apply to Asia

  6. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared…

  7. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  8. Body Composition Is the Main Determinant for the Difference in Type 2 Diabetes Pathophysiology Between Japanese and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B; Pedersen, Maria; Tanaka, Haruhiko;

    2014-01-01

    the two regional cutoff values for obesity. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was higher in Japanese compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda indices, whereas β-cell response was higher in Caucasians, as measured by homeostatic model assessment...

  9. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  10. Antisocial Behavior and Psychoactive Substance Involvement among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark G.

    1997-01-01

    Compared conduct disorder behaviors and substance involvement of Hispanic (n=34) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=34) adolescents so as to determine pre-treatment problem behavior. Results indicate that non-Hispanic Caucasian youth were three times as likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder prior to substance involvement than were their Hispanic…

  11. Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Self-Esteem in African American College Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kimberly A.; Phelps, LeAdelle; Bross, Andrea L.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates African American undergraduate females (N=95) for body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and on four dimensions of self-concept. Results indicate body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness at levels commensurate with Caucasian samples. A hierarchical multiple regression found a combination of physical self-concept, drive for…

  12. Correlates of AUDIT Risk Status for Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study identified gender-specific correlates of hazardous drinker status as defined by the AUDIT. Participants: A total of 462 college student volunteers completed the study in 2006. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (75%) and female (55%). Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing demographics, alcohol use…

  13. Paraoxonase 1 Phenotype and Mass in South Asian versus Caucasian Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Connelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asian renal transplant recipients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. We carried out a study to determine whether paraoxonase 1, a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risk, was decreased in South Asian compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. Subjects were matched two to one on the basis of age and sex for a total of 129 subjects. Paraoxonase 1 was measured by mass, arylesterase activity, and two-substrate phenotype assay. Comparisons were made by using a matched design. The frequency of PON1 QQ, QR and RR phenotype was 56%, 37%, and 7% for Caucasian subjects versus 35%, 44%, and 21% for South Asian subjects (χ2=7.72, P=0.02. PON1 mass and arylesterase activity were not significantly different between South Asian and Caucasian subjects. PON1 mass was significantly associated with PON1 phenotype (P=0.0001, HDL cholesterol (P=0.009, LDL cholesterol (P=0.02, and diabetes status (P<0.05. Arylesterase activity was only associated with HDL cholesterol (P=0.003. Thus the frequency of the PON1 RR phenotype was higher and that of the QQ phenotype was lower in South Asian versus Caucasian renal transplant recipients. However, ethnicity was not a significant factor as a determinant of PON1 mass or arylesterase activity, with or without analysis including PON1 phenotype. The two-substrate method for determining PON1 phenotype may be of value for future studies of cardiovascular complications in renal transplant recipients.

  14. HLA disease association and protection in HIV infection among African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, J M; Brackin, M N; Lewis, R E; Meeks, W; Nolan, R; Brackin, B

    1991-01-01

    In a previous investigation, we demonstrated an increased progression of overt AIDS in the African American population compared to the Caucasian population as reflected by the significantly lower absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes detected in the African American population in an earlier study. The present study elucidates some of the possible genetic factors which may contribute to disease association or protection against HIV infection. The HLA phenotypes expressed as A, B, C, DR and DQw antigens were revealed by the Amos-modified typing procedure. NIH scoring was utilized to designate positive cells taking up trypan blue. A test of proportion equivalent to the chi 2 approximation was used to compare the disease population (n = 62; 38 African Americans, 24 Caucasians) to race-matched normal heterosexual local controls (323 African Americans, 412 Caucasians). Significant p values were corrected for the number of HLA antigens tested. HLA markers associated with possible protection from infection for African Americans were Cw4 and DRw6, whereas Caucasians expressed none. Disease association markers present in the African American population were A31, B35, Cw6, Cw7, DR5, DR6, DRw11, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7, whereas in the Caucasian population A28, Aw66, Aw48, Bw65, Bw70, Cw7, DRw10, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7 were demonstrated. The highest phenotypic frequency for a disease association marker in the study was for HLA-DR5 (62.9%) in the HIV-infected African American population without Kaposi's sarcoma compared to a frequency of 28.9% for the regional control group (p = 0.0012). We conclude that genetic factors do have a role in HIV infection since only 50-60% of those exposed to the AIDS virus will become infected. PMID:1910527

  15. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes in the Italian Caucasian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 217 unrelated healthy Italian individuals from 22 immunogenetics laboratories, located in the northern, central and southern regions of Italy. Methods Two hundred and seventeen DNA samples were studied by a low resolution PCR-SSP kit designed to identify all KIR genes. Results All 17 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies than other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations; framework genes KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL2 were present in all individuals. Sixty-five different profiles were found in this Italian population study. Haplotype A remains the most prevalent and genotype 1, with a frequency of 28.5%, is the most commonly observed in the Italian population. Conclusion The Italian Caucasian population shows polymorphism of the KIR gene family like other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. Although 64 genotypes have been observed, genotype 1 remains the most frequent as already observed in other populations. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.

  16. Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, Lygeri; Weiler, Richard; Lloyd-Smith, Rebecca; Turner, Anthony N.; Heath, Luke; James, Nic; Reid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine bone mineral density (BMD) and the associations among BMD, menstrual history, disordered eating (DE), training history, intentional weight loss (IWL) and rib pain for the first time in female lightweight rowers. Setting: 9 lightweight rowing clubs, UK. Participants: 29 Caucasian female lightweight rowers volunteered. 21 (12 active, 9 retired) completed the study. Inclusion criteria: female lightweight rowers aged over 18 years. Exclusion crit...

  17. Body composition phenotypes in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study of caucasian female patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, MJ; Vinagre, F; Silva, J.; Gil, V; J. Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The amount and distribution of fat and lean mass have important implications for health and systemic inflammation may represent a risk for altered body composition. The aim of this study was to analyse whether changes in body composition are similarly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), two inflammatory conditions of different pathogenesis. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) w...

  18. Characteristics and reference ranges of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I measured with a commercially available immunoassay in 724 healthy adult Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Nielsen, Kaspar Renÿ; Kristensen, Lars Østergaard;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Measurements of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) play a pivotal role in the evaluation of the growth hormone-IGF-I axis. Due to assay variation IGF-I reference ranges are assay specific. We provide serum IGF-I reference ranges for adult men and women obtained...... by a commercially available assay. METHOD: IGF-I was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (R&D Systems). Assay precision was evaluated in low, medium and high IGF-I pools and in single samples from outpatients. The reference ranges were obtained in 724 healthy Caucasians, mean age 48 years (range 19...... in IGF-I per decade in females and 11% in males. CONCLUSION: We have provided IGF-I reference ranges obtained by an assay that showed variations and reproducibility that was considered of sufficient high quality for clinical and scientific use....

  19. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  20. FEATURES OF TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN THE CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Влидимирович Беляев

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to describe the situation taken place with integration of marketing communications in the region. The author conducted research aimed at identifying the most popular and effective forms of communication with the consumer, allowing in detail to characterize the state of the advertising market of Caucasian Mineral Waters. Information concluded in article may be used by companies present in the Caucasian Mineral Waters region, to form notion about the effectiveness of the regional channels of communication with customers and building a more efficient model of advertising policy, also its could be useful for specialists, which are working in marketing communication and advertising sphere.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-34

  1. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  2. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  3. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  4. Prevalence of gallstones and risk factors in Caucasian women in a rural Canadian community.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C. N.; Johnston, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease was studied in a rural Caucasian population. All the women aged 15 to 50 years were asked to complete a questionnaire, undergo cholecystography and keep a food record for 4 consecutive days. The gallbladder status was assessed in 73%. The prevalence of gallstones in this population, 167/1000, was considerably higher than that reported in the Framingham study (59/1000) but was not significantly different from that recently found in Micmac In...

  5. Comparison of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Fidaxomicin in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Takao; Benner, Lauren; Miki, Takashi; Michon, Ingrid; Wojtkowski, Tomasz; Kaibara, Atsunori; Mujais, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fidaxomicin treatment of Clostridium difficile infection is known to produce minimal systemic exposure, as the antibacterial (antibiotic) remains primarily in the gut. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending doses of fidaxomicin were evaluated in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Methods Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receiv...

  6. Genetic differences at four DNA typing loci in Finnish, Italian, and mixed Caucasian populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Krane, D E; Allen, R. W.; Sawyer, S. A.; Petrov, D A; Hartl, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Highly polymorphic segments of the human genome containing variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) have been widely used to establish DNA profiles of individuals for use in forensics. Methods of estimating the probability of occurrence of matching DNA profiles between two randomly selected individuals have been subject to extensive debate regarding the possibility of significant substructure occurring within the major races. We have sampled two Caucasian subpopulations, Finns and Italians,...

  7. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution in South Asian men compared to Caucasian men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Chandalia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: South Asians are susceptible to insulin resistance even without obesity. We examined the characteristics of body fat content, distribution and function in South Asian men and their relationships to insulin resistance compared to Caucasians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-nine South Asian and 18 Caucasian non-diabetic men (age 27+/-3 and 27+/-3 years, respectively underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for insulin sensitivity, underwater weighing for total body fat, MRI of entire abdomen for intraperitoneal (IP and subcutaneous abdominal (SA fat and biopsy of SA fat for adipocyte size. RESULTS: Compared to Caucasians, in spite of similar BMI, South Asians had higher total body fat (22+/-6 and 15+/-4% of body weight; p-value<0.0001, higher SA fat (3.5+/-1.9 and 2.2+/-1.3 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.004, but no differences in IP fat (1.0+/-0.5 and 1.0+/-0.7 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.4. SA adipocyte cell size was significantly higher in South Asians (3491+/-1393 and 1648+/-864 microm2; p-value = 0.0001 and was inversely correlated with both glucose disposal rate (r-value = -0.57; p-value = 0.0008 and plasma adiponectin concentrations (r-value = -0.71; p-value<0.0001. Adipocyte size differences persisted even when SA was matched between South Asians and Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance in young South Asian men can be observed even without increase in IP fat mass and is related to large SA adipocytes size. Hence ethnic excess in insulin resistance in South Asians appears to be related more to excess truncal fat and dysfunctional adipose tissue than to excess visceral fat.

  8. Association of ABCB1 genetic variants with renal function in Africans and in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston Robert C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, is expressed in human endothelial and mesangial cells, which contribute to control renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. We investigated the association of ABCB1 variants with renal function in African and Caucasian subjects. Methods In Africans (290 subjects from 62 pedigrees, we genotyped the 2677G>T and 3435 C>T ABCB1 polymorphisms. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured using inulin clearance and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF using para-aminohippurate clearance. In Caucasians (5382 unrelated subjects, we analyzed 30 SNPs located within and around ABCB1, using data from the Affymetrix 500 K chip. GFR was estimated using the simplified Modification of the Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD and Cockcroft-Gault equations. Results In Africans, compared to the reference genotype (GG or CC, each copy of the 2677T and 3435T allele was associated, respectively, with: GFR higher by 10.6 ± 2.9 (P P = 0.06 mL/min; ERPF higher by 47.5 ± 11.6 (P P = 0.007 mL/min; and renal resistances lower by 0.016 ± 0.004 (P P = 0.004 mm Hg/mL/min. In Caucasians, we identified 3 polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene that were strongly associated with all estimates of GFR (smallest P value = 0.0006, overall P = 0.014 after multiple testing correction. Conclusion Variants of the ABCB1 gene were associated with renal function in both Africans and Caucasians and may therefore confer susceptibility to nephropathy in humans. If confirmed in other studies, these results point toward a new candidate gene for nephropathy in humans.

  9. AIDS in Haitian immigrants and in a Caucasian woman closely associated with Haitians.

    OpenAIRE

    Laverdière, M.; Tremblay, J; Lavallée, R.; Bonny, Y.; Lacombe, M.; Boileau, J.; LaChapelle, J.; Lamoureux, C.

    1983-01-01

    In Montreal the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was seen in eight Haitian immigrants and one Caucasian woman who had lived with Haitian immigrants for 3 years before the onset of her illness. AIDS was characterized by opportunistic infections alone in seven patients, by opportunistic infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in one patient and by chronic generalized lymphadenopathy in one patient. Five of the patients had presented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections 1 to 12 months bef...

  10. SORL1 is genetically associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Miyashita

    Full Text Available To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD, we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD, Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC. In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008 and controls (n = 1,016. Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10(-5 were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls, and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P = 7.33×10(-7 in the combined sample. Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10(-9 and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10(-8. SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10(-5 and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10(-4. The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations.

  11. A comparison of African-American and Caucasian college students' attitudes toward computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Pamela Gail

    1997-09-01

    As computer usage becomes mandatory on college campuses across the world, the issue of examining students' attitudes toward computers becomes very important. The major goal of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and ethnicity and African American and Caucasian college students attitudes toward computers. The Computer Attitude Scale instrument was used to measure the students' attitudes. During the Summer of the 1996 academic year, a university in the southeastern United States was selected to participate in this study. A total of 230 African American and Caucasian undergraduate students participated in the study. The students were pre-tested during the first week of the semester to access their initial computer attitudes. The students were enrolled in one of the mandatory computer literacy courses (Computer Literacy Awareness Course or C, Pascal or FORTRAN Programming Course) for 12 weeks. There were a total of seven different instructors for the courses. During the 12th week of class, the students were post-tested to access their computer attitudes after completing one of the computer literacy courses. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA. While both African Americans and Caucasian students showed a slight increase in their attitudes toward computers after completing the course, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, all groups were found to have positive attitudes toward computers in general. Data analysis also indicated no significant gender difference among African American and Caucasian undergraduate students. This confirmed findings of previous studies in which no significant gender difference was found to exist among college students.

  12. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, T; Lenoir, G M; Bryon, P. A.; Gerard-Marchant, R.; Souillet, G; Philippe, N; Freycon, F.; Brunat-Mentigny, M

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a se...

  13. Is the Greulich and Pyle atlas still valid for Dutch Caucasian children today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In our Paediatric Radiology Department, the Greulich and Pyle technique is used to assess skeletal age. Several authors have raised questions with regard to the applicability of this technique in a contemporary paediatric and adolescent population. Objective: To compare skeletal age and calendar age in a healthy Dutch Caucasian population in order to test the applicability in this specific population. Materials and methods: For this study we enrolled 278 Dutch Caucasian boys (age range 5.0-19.5 years, mean 12.6 years) and 294 Dutch Caucasian girls (age range 5.2-19.9 years, mean 12.2 years). Radiographs of the left hand were scored according to the Greulich and Pyle atlas by two investigators. Results: Intra-observer coefficient of variation of duplicate assessment of skeletal age for investigator 1 (resident) was 2.4 % and for investigator 2 (radiologist) was 1.5 %. We found no significant systematic differences between the two observers regarding variability and levels of measurement, and the agreement was good. There was a strongly significant correlation between skeletal and calendar age rgirls = 0.974 and rboys = 0.979 (P < 0.001). On average, calendar age preceded skeletal age by a small amount (1.7 months in girls and 3.3 months in boys, both P < 0.001). Conclusions: The reliability of the Greulich and Pyle atlas in our study corresponds well with previously reported studies. Based on our data, we conclude that the Greulich and Pyle atlas is still applicable in Dutch Caucasian children and adolescents. (orig.)

  14. Cross-Ethnic Measurement Equivalence of the RCMAS in Latino and Caucasian Youth with Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Knight, George P.; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement equivalence of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) was examined in a sample of 667 Caucasian and Latino youth referred to an anxiety disorders specialty clinic. Findings supported the factorial invariance of the Physiological Anxiety, Worry/Oversensitivity, and Social Concerns/Concentration subscales as well as the construct validity equivalence of the Total Anxiety scale. These findings suggest that the RCMAS can be used with Latino youth in cross-ethnic res...

  15. Case of Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis in a Caucasian Male and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina K. Thethi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP, a known condition in Asian men, is becoming increasingly common in men from Western countries. Since suspicion for TPP as a differential in diagnosis is of utmost importance to avoid overcorrection of hypokalemia and other complications, we are reporting a case of TPP in a 25-year-old Caucasian male. Methods. The patient presented with intermittent lower extremity weakness after consumption of a large high-carbohydrate meal. Clinical examination revealed diffusely enlarged thyroid gland, no muscle power in lower extremities, tremors, and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Results. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Graves’ disease and the patient had hypokalemia. The patient responded to potassium repletion and was treated with propylthiouracil and propranolol. After treatment with radioactive iodine, the patient developed postablative hypothyroidism for which he was treated with levothyroxine. Conclusion. Since this condition is overlooked by physicians in Western countries, we present a case of TPP in a Caucasian male thus showing the importance of consideration of TPP in Caucasians despite its rare occurrence and the need for prompt diagnosis to avoid the danger of hyperkalemia in management of the paralytic attack in TPP patients.

  16. Food, beverage, and macronutrient intakes in postmenopausal Caucasian and Chinese-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Carolyn Y; Hislop, Gregory; Hanley, Anthony J; Minkin, Salomon; Boyd, Norman F; Martin, Lisa J

    2011-01-01

    International differences in breast cancer rates and diet, and studies in migrants, suggest that diet may be a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine the dietary intakes of women from populations considered to be at different risks for breast cancer. We collected four 24-h food recalls in 3 groups of postmenopausal Canadian women: Caucasians (n = 392), Chinese women born in the West or who migrated to the West before age 21 (n = 156), and recent Chinese migrants (n = 383). Compared to Caucasians, recent Chinese migrants had lower energy and fat intakes and higher protein and carbohydrate intakes. Recent Chinese migrants consumed higher amounts of grains, vegetables, fish, and soy and lower amounts of alcohol, meat, dairy products, and sweets than Caucasians. Western-born Chinese and early Chinese migrants had intakes intermediate between the other 2 groups. The differences in intake between the ethnic groups suggest foods and nutrients that may contribute to the differences in risk of breast cancer between women in Canada and China. Future work will examine whether these dietary differences are associated with biological markers of breast cancer risk. PMID:21660858

  17. Geographic variation in organ availability is responsible for disparities in liver transplantation between Hispanics and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, M L; Choi, H; Warren, G J W; Sonnenday, C J; Marrero, J A; Heisler, M

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether disparities in waiting list outcomes exist for Hispanics and African Americans during the post-MELD era, and to investigate interactions between disparities and geography. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data were used to compare Hispanics and African Americans to Caucasians listed between 2003 and 2008. Endpoints included (i) receipt of a liver transplant and (ii) death or removal from the waiting list for being too sick or medically unsuitable. Adjustment for possible confounders was performed using multivariate Cox regression, with adjustment for geographic variation using a fixed-effects multilevel model. In multivariate analysis, African Americans have similar hazard of transplantation and death/removal as Caucasians during the post-MELD era. However, Hispanics are less likely to receive a transplant than Caucasians despite adjustment for potential confounders (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.83), while having a similar hazard of death/removal. This effect disappeared after adjusting for unequal regional distribution of Hispanics, who represent 8% of patients in donation service areas (DSAs) having median waiting times of 155 days. In conclusion, disparities in liver transplantation exist for Hispanics during the post-MELD era, caused by geographic variation in organ availability. PMID:19624565

  18. Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2015-12-01

    The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg.

  19. STUDY FOR METHODOLOGICAL SUPPORT ORGANIZATION FOR QUALITUY ESTIMATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SERVICES IN PHYTOTHERAPY AT THE CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS RESORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of phytotherapy pharmaceutical services quality estimation support at the Caucasian Mineral Waters resorts on the basis of quality nianagement

  20. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  1. Knowledge and attitudes in Alzheimer’s Disease in a cohort of older African Americans and Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, J. Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L.; Roberts, David L.; Dorbin, Cornelya D.; Hu, William T

    2015-01-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine if older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer’s Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older Caucasians in the greater Atlanta area, as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than...

  2. A prospective cohort study comparing early opioid requirement between Chinese from Hong Kong and Caucasian Australians after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantatos, A H; Imberger, G; Angliss, M;

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between ethnicity and early opioid consumption is not well understood. Our prospective cohort study tested whether Chinese patients in Hong Kong require less opioid after major abdominal surgery compared with Caucasian patients in Australia.......The relationship between ethnicity and early opioid consumption is not well understood. Our prospective cohort study tested whether Chinese patients in Hong Kong require less opioid after major abdominal surgery compared with Caucasian patients in Australia....

  3. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  4. Subcellular localization of total and activated Src kinase in African American and Caucasian breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidharan Anbalagan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase is elevated in cancer with expression and activity correlated with cell proliferation, adhesion, survival, motility, metastasis and angiogenesis. There is limited data on Src expression and subcellular localization in breast cancer and no information about expression in racial/ethnic groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study evaluated Src expression, activity, and subcellular localization in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC and ERα positive breast cancer (ER+BC, cancer tissue and adjacent normal epithelial ducts, and Caucasian and African American cases. 79 paraffin embedded breast carcinoma cases were obtained from Tulane University Hospital between 2007-2009. 39 cases represented TNBC (33-African Americans, 4-Caucasians, 2-unknowns and 40 cases represented ER+BC (21-African Americans, 16-Caucasians, 3-unknowns. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure staining distribution and intensity of total Src and activated phospho-SrcY416 (p-Y416Src in carcinoma tissue and adjacent normal mammary ducts. In TNBC and ER+BC, total Src was significantly higher in cancer compared to adjacent normal ducts (P<0.0001 in both cell membrane and cytoplasm. In membranes, p-Y416Src was elevated in cancer compared to normal ducts. Total Src in the tumor cytoplasm was significantly higher in TNBC compared to ER+BC (P = 0.0028; conversely, p-Y416Src in the tumor cell membranes was higher in TNBC compared to ER+BC (P = 0.0106. Comparison between African American (n = 21 and Caucasian ER+BC (n = 16 revealed no significant difference in expression and localization of total Src and p-Y416Src. TNBC cases positive for lymph node metastasis showed elevated membrane p-Y416Src compared to lymph node negative TNBC (P = 0.027. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Total Src and p-Y416Src were expressed higher in cancer compared to adjacent normal ducts. Cytoplasmic total Src and membrane p-Y416Src were

  5. Poly Thymidine Polymorphism and Cystic Fibrosis in a Non-Caucasian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tabaripour; Haleh Akhavan Niaki; Mohammad Reza Esmaeeli Douki; Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz; Bagher Larijani; Parichehr Yaghmaei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis is a monogenic recessive disorder found predominantly in Caucasian population. This disease arises from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In this study we consider poly T polymorphism c.1210-12T[5], c.1210-12T[7], c.1210-12T[9] (T5, T7, T9) in the intron 8 of CFTR gene in normal individuals and cystic fibrosis patients in the north of Iran. Material and methods: 40 CF patients and 40 normal individuals were screened f...

  6. Comparison of whole saliva flow rates and mucin concentrations in healthy Caucasian young and aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R A; Kipnis, V; Denny, P A; Denny, P C

    1992-06-01

    Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 42 healthy Caucasians; 21 were between 18 and 35 years of age, and 21 between 65 and 83 years of age. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the aged group, but the stimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the aged than in the young group. Both groups showed significantly increased flow during salivary stimulation. MG1 and MG2 concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were significantly lower in the aged group. There were no significant correlations between salivary flow rates and MG1 and MG2 concentrations.

  7. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  8. NT-proBNP and potential vascular calcification in Black and Caucasian African men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Ruan; Schutte, Rudolph; Huisman, Hugo W;

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a reliable marker of cardiac strain. In hypertensive heart disease, NT-proBNP levels increase and may lose its protective function. Simultaneously, the vasculature is also subject to hemodynamic stress, resulting in vascular matrix...... remodeling and stiffening which contribute to further cardiac alterations. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a marker of osteoblast activity and is involved in vascular calcification. We explored the link between NT-proBNP and ALP in Black and Caucasian African men....

  9. Asian infants show preference for own-race but not other-race female faces: The role of infant caregiving arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that 3- to 4-month-olds show a visual preference for faces of the same gender as their primary caregiver (e.g., Quinn et al., 2002. In addition, this gender preference has been observed for own-race faces, but not for other-race faces (Quinn et al., 2008 However, most of the studies of face gender preference have focused on infants at 3 to 4 months. Development of gender preference in later infancy is still unclear. Moreover, all of these studies were conducted with Caucasian infants from Western countries. It is thus unknown whether a gender preference that is limited to own-race faces can be generalized to infants from other racial groups and different cultures with distinct caregiving practices. The current study investigated the face gender preferences of Asian infants presented with male versus female face pairs from Asian and Caucasian races at 3, 6, and 9 months and the role of caregiving arrangements in eliciting those preferences. The results showed an own-race female face preference in 3- and 6-month-olds, but not in 9-month-olds. Moreover, the downturn in the female face preference correlated with the cumulative male face experience obtained in caregiving practices. In contrast, no gender preference or correlation between gender preference and face experience was found for other-race Caucasian faces at any age. The data indicate that the face gender preference is not specifically rooted in Western cultural caregiving practices. In addition, the race dependency of the effect previously observed for Caucasian infants reared by Caucasian caregivers looking at Caucasian but not Asian faces extends to Asian infants reared by Asian caregivers looking at Asian but not Caucasian faces. The findings also provide additional support for an experiential basis for the gender preference, and in particular suggest that cumulative male face experience plays a role in inducing a downturn in the preference in older

  10. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  11. Comparison of Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations in Estimating Resting Metabolic Rate in Underweight Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra ALIASGHARZADEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Underweight as a public health problem in young women is associated with nutritional deficiencies, menstrual irregularity, eating disorders, reduced fertility, etc. Since resting metabolic rate (RMR is a necessary compo-nent in the development of nutrition support therapy, therefore we determined the accuracy of commonly used pre-dictive equations against RMR measured by indirect calorimetry among healthy young underweight females.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 underweight females aged 18-30 years old with body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 in 2013 . After collecting anthropometric data, body composition was measured by bioelec-tric impedance analysis (BIA. RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (FitMate™ and was estimated by 10 commonly used predictive equations. Comparisons were conducted using paired t-test. The accuracy of the RMR equations was evaluated on the basis of the percentage of subjects’ predicted RMR within 10% of measured RMR.Results: The mean BMI of subjects was 17.3±1.3 kg/m2. The measured RMR ranged 736-1490 kcal/day (mean 1084.7±175 kcal/day. Findings indicated that except Muller and Abbreviation, other equations significantly over es-timated RMR, compared to measured value (P<0.05. As an individual prediction accuracy, these predictive equations showed poor performance with the highest accuracy rate of 54.8% for Muller equation (22.1% under and 23.1% over-prediction and 43.3% for Abbreviation equation (31.7% under and 25% over-prediction, the percentage bias was 1.8% and 0.63% and RMSE was 162 and 173 kcal/d, respectively.Conclusion: Although Muller equation gave fairly acceptable prediction, more suitable new equations are needed to be developed to help better management of nutritional plans in young underweight people.

  12. Association between Sleep Disruption and Levels of Lipids in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wan Mahmood, Wan Aizad

    2013-08-29

    Aim. To investigate the association between sleep quality and duration with lipid and glycaemic control in Caucasian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in 114 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects. Comparisons were made between subjects with different sleep quality and sleep duration. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine contributors to metabolic parameters. Results. Subjects with poor sleep quality (PQ; PSQI ≥ 6) had higher systolic blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, urine albumin : creatinine ratio (UAC), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05 for all) compared to those with good sleep quality (GQ; PSQI ≤ 5). Long sleep duration (LSD) subjects had higher TC and short sleep duration (SSD) subjects had higher TG compared to those with medium sleep duration. Sleep duration and PSQI score were independent predictors of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), contributing to 14.0% and 6.1% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions. In this Caucasian T2DM population, PQ is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk markers, and long and short sleep disruptions have an independent negative impact on lipids. Sleep assessment should be included as part of a diabetes clinic review.

  13. Whole genome distribution and ethnic differentiation of copy number variation in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    Full Text Available Although copy number variation (CNV has recently received much attention as a form of structure variation within the human genome, knowledge is still inadequate on fundamental CNV characteristics such as occurrence rate, genomic distribution and ethnic differentiation. In the present study, we used the Affymetrix GeneChip(R Mapping 500K Array to discover and characterize CNVs in the human genome and to study ethnic differences of CNVs between Caucasians and Asians. Three thousand and nineteen CNVs, including 2381 CNVs in autosomes and 638 CNVs in X chromosome, from 985 Caucasian and 692 Asian individuals were identified, with a mean length of 296 kb. Among these CNVs, 190 had frequencies greater than 1% in at least one ethnic group, and 109 showed significant ethnic differences in frequencies (p<0.01. After merging overlapping CNVs, 1135 copy number variation regions (CNVRs, covering approximately 439 Mb (14.3% of the human genome, were obtained. Our findings of ethnic differentiation of CNVs, along with the newly constructed CNV genomic map, extend our knowledge on the structural variation in the human genome and may furnish a basis for understanding the genomic differentiation of complex traits across ethnic groups.

  14. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, T; Lenoir, G M; Bryon, P A; Gerard-Marchant, R; Souillet, G; Philippe, N; Freycon, F; Brunat-Mentigny, M

    1982-05-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a sex ratio of 3.7/1. Abdominal masses are initially present in 68% of the cases, whereas jaw is involved in only 4%. The disease is characterized by its overwhelming evolution in the absence of therapy. However, complete remission (CR) is usually obtained after the first chemtherapy regimen. Most relapses occur at 3-8 months. Death could be related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) involvement, local recurrence or secondary marrow involvement. Ninety per cent of the patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8 months after CR can be considered as definitely cured. Our study on Caucasian children with NHML indicates that, from histological and clinical criteria, nearly half the cases are very similar to African BL. Even though EBV rarely associated with our cases, BL could be a worldwide lymphoma. PMID:7082553

  15. Nasal base narrowing of the caucasian nose through the cerclage technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocellin, Marcos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to reduce the nasal base (narrowing, as skin resection vestibular columellar skin resection, resection of skin in elliptical lip narinary, sloughing of skin and advancements (VY technique of Bernstein and the use of cerclage sutures in the nasal base. Objective: To evaluate the technique of cerclage performed in the nasal base, through endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery of basic technique, in the Caucasian nose, reducing the distance inter-alar flare and correcting the wing with consequent improvement in nasal harmony in the whole face. Methods: A retrospective analysis by analysis of clinical documents and photos of 43 patients in whom cerclage was made of the nasal base by resecting skin ellipse in the region of the vestibule and the nasal base (modified technique of Weir using colorless mononylon® 4 "0" with a straight cutting needle. The study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Hospital of Paraná Institute of Otolaryngology - IPO in Curitiba, Parana - Brazil. Patients had a follow up ranging 7-12 months. Results: In 100% of cases was achieved an improvement in nasal harmony, by decreasing the inter-alar distance. Conclusion: The encircling with minimal resection of vestibular skin and the nasal base is an effective method for the narrowing of the nasal base in the Caucasian nose, with predictable results and easy to perform.

  16. The Effect of Lifestyle Habits and Nutrient Intake Conditions of Female Shift Workers at General Hospitals on Bone Mineral Density Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ran; Lee, Tae Young [Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Daejeon Health ScienceUniversity, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Baekseok Cuture University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide preliminary data for bone disease prevention by examining the correlation between bone mineral density, and lifestyle and nutritional status of female shift workers, at general hospitals with an irregular life cycle. The subjects for this study were 232 female shift workers, over 30 years old, who worked at a general hospital more than 5 years. From the subjects, who understood the purpose of this study and decided to be participated, we measured serum albumin, total protein, total cholesterol, hematocrit, hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus from blood test, and obtained bone mineral density. To analyze the effectiveness of the variables for explanation power, we established the studied values as independent variables, bone mineral density as a dependent variable. Exercise, the number of drinking, calcium, and phosphorus were selected as significant variables and the explanation power was 10.2%. The bone mineral density were significantly higher at the subjects who had exercise, higher calcium and phosphorus possession, and drank alcohol than the opposite cases. Regular exercise, and 1:1 intake of calcium and phosphorous were important to prevent osteoporosis for the subjects who were working three shifts which cause irregular lifestyle.

  17. Prospective study of risk factors for hepatitis C virus acquisition by Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E Y; Ha, N B; Ahmed, A; Ayoub, W; Daugherty, T; Garcia, G; Cooper, A; Keeffe, E B; Nguyen, M H

    2012-02-01

    Commonly known risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) include blood transfusion, injection drug use, intranasal cocaine use, and body tattoos. We hypothesized that Asian Americans infected with HCV may not identify with these established risk factors present in Caucasians and Hispanics, and our aim was to conduct a survey of risk factors in HCV-infected patients in these ethnic groups. In this prospective study, 494 patients infected with HCV completed a detailed risk assessment questionnaire at a liver centre in Northern California from 2001 to 2008. Among subjects participating in this study, 55% identified themselves as Caucasian, 20% as Hispanic, and 25% as Asian. Asian Americans were older, less likely to smoke or consume alcohol, and have a family history of cancer compared with Caucasians and Hispanics. The laboratory profiles were similar, and genotype 1 was the most common infection in all groups (74-75%). The great majority of Caucasians (94%) and Hispanics (86%) identified with commonly known risk factors, which was in contrast to 67% of Asians (P Asians were blood transfusions (50%) and acupuncture (50%). Furthermore, 74% of Caucasians and 66% of Hispanics identified more than one major risk factor, while only 20% of Asians reported having more than one risk factor (P Asian Americans. These findings may guide the development of HCV screening in our increasingly diverse population. PMID:22239506

  18. Lack of racial differences in the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous golimumab in healthy Japanese and Caucasian male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jie; Lyn, Sally; Xu, Zhenhua; Achira, Meguru; Bouman-Thio, Esther; Shishido, Akira; Ford, Joyce; Shankar, Gopi; Wagner, Carrie; Kim, Kenneth T; Davis, Hugh M; Zhou, Honghui

    2010-07-01

    This phase 1 study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of subcutaneous golimumab, a human anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Eligible subjects were males, aged 20 to 45 years, weighing 50 to 90 kg with a body mass index of 19 to 30 kg/m(2). Japanese and Caucasian subjects were matched by body weight and dose group. Blood samples were collected through day 50 following a single subcutaneous injection of golimumab 50 or 100 mg. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. All 51 subjects (24 Japanese, 27 Caucasian) were included in the safety analysis; 47 completed the study and were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetics of golimumab were comparable in both race groups. Peak concentrations were observed approximately 4 to 6 days after administration. No significant differences in exposure or mean half-life (range, 11-13 days) were observed between Japanese and Caucasian subjects at the same dose level. Regardless of race, serum golimumab exposure increased with increasing dose. Mean apparent clearance ranged from 12 to 19 mL/kg/d. Mean apparent volume of distribution (224-262 mL/kg) remained constant with an increase in dose. No antibodies to golimumab were detected. Single subcutaneous injections of golimumab 50 mg or 100 mg were generally well tolerated in these healthy male Japanese and Caucasian subjects. PMID:20133508

  19. Differences in gambling problem severity and gambling and health/functioning characteristics among Asian-American and Caucasian high-school students

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adoles...

  20. Fulminant reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in post-partum female

    OpenAIRE

    Rambir Singh; Shilpi Mittal; Alsaba Khan; Bharat Gupta; Narendra Kardam; Kushal Gehlot

    2016-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinical and radiologic syndrome that represents a common presentation of a diverse group of disorders. Call-Fleming syndrome which is a part of RCVS group. We present a case of 30 year old primigravida who developed thunderclap headache followed by seizures on her day 1 of postpartum period. MRI revealed left anterior cerebral artery infarct with vasoconstriction of bilateral internal carotid arteries and its branches. She was managed...

  1. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women

  2. Main Stages of Geodynamic Evolution of the Caucasian Segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamkrelidze, Irakli; Shengelia, David; Maisadze, Ferando; Tsutsunava, Tamara; Chichinadze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Within the oceanic area of Tethys, with a typical oceanic crust, in geological past relatively small continental or subcontinental plates (terranes) were situated. The Greater Caucasian, Black Sea - Central Transcaucasian, Baiburt - Sevanian and Iran - Afghanian accretionary terranes, which in geological past represented island arcs or microcontinents, are identified in the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean belt. They are separated by ophiolite sutures (relics of small or large oceanic basins) of different age. During the Late Precambrian, Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic these terranes underwent horizontal displacement in different directions and ultimately they joined the Eurasian continent. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating along with available geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations, allow to trace with confidence the main stages of regional metamorphism, granite formation and, consequently, pre-Alpine continental crust making within the Caucasus. At the pre-Grenville stage (1200 Ma and more) between the Baltica and Gondvana ancient continents, on the oceanic crust of Prototethys accumulation mainly of terrigenous sediments and of basic volcanites took place. At the Grenville stage (1000-800 Ma) subcontinental or primitive continental crust (gneiss-migmatite complex and synmetamorphic grenitoids of sodium series) were formed in suprasubduction conditions by both sides of Proto-Paleotethys and along the northern peripheries of comparatively small oceanic basins of the Arkhiz and Southern Slope of the Greater Caucasus. At the Baikalian stage (650-550 Ma) plagiogneissic complex has been cut by Precambrian gabbroids and intruded by large bodies of quartz-diorites. The next, Late Baikalian stage (540-500 Ma) is determined by the intrusion of Cambrian basites and Late Baikalian granitoids and by manifestation of intensive suprasubduction regional metamorphism. Late Baikalian tectogenesis is accompanied by contraction of the small oceanic basin of

  3. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  4. PADI4 genotype is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a large UK Caucasian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Marian L; Naseem, Haris; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Steve; Gibbons, Laura J; Bowes, John; Wilson, Anthony G; Maxwell, James; Morgan, Ann W; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Thomson, Wendy; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms of the peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) gene confer susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in East Asian people. However, studies in European populations have produced conflicting results. This study explored the association of the PADI4 genotype with RA in a large UK Caucasian population. Methods The PADI4_94 (rs2240340) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was directly genotyped in a cohort of unrelated UK Caucasian patients with RA (n=3732) and population controls (n=3039). Imputed data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) was used to investigate the association of PADI4_94 with RA in an independent group of RA cases (n=1859) and controls (n=10 599). A further 56 SNPs spanning the PADI4 gene were investigated for association with RA using data from the WTCCC study. Results The PADI4_94 genotype was not associated with RA in either the present cohort or the WTCCC cohort. Combined analysis of all the cases of RA (n=5591) and controls (n=13 638) gave an overall OR of 1.01 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.05, p=0.72). No association with anti-CCP antibodies and no interaction with either shared epitope or PTPN22 was detected. No evidence for association with RA was identified for any of the PADI4 SNPs investigated. Meta-analysis of previously published studies and our data confirmed no significant association between the PADI4_94 genotype and RA in people of European descent (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.13, p=0.12). Conclusion In the largest study performed to date, the PADI4 genotype was not a significant risk factor for RA in people of European ancestry, in contrast to Asian populations. PMID:19470526

  5. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  6. Study of the international epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia in young caucasian men using photographs from the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shalom Avital

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII, non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results : The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of Racial-Ethnic Matching for African American and Caucasian American Clients and Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Man; Chow, Clifton; Camacho-Gonsalves, Teresita; Levy, Rachel J.; Allen, I. Elaine; Leff, H. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of client-clinician matching on the basis of race-ethnicity on overall functioning, service retention, and total number of sessions attended for African American and Caucasian American adult populations in mental health services. The analysis included 10 published and unpublished studies…

  8. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboboye, Olakunle

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease. PMID:26056467

  9. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 (IL1) gene cluster are not associated with aggressive periodontitis in a large Caucasian population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Fiebig; S. Jepsen; B.G. Loos; C. Scholz; C. Schäfer; A. Rühling; M. Nothnagel; P. Eickholz; U. van der Velden; K. Schenck; S. Schreiber; B. Grössner-Schreiber

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 (IL1) gene have been suggested to influence transcription of IL1A (interleukin-1α) and IL1B (interleukin-1β) and thereby the pathophysiology of periodontitis. This case-control association study on 415 northern European Caucasian patients with aggressive periodonti

  10. SORL1 Is Genetically Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-San; Matsubara, Etsuro; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Shoji, Mikio; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki; Asada, Takashi; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Hanyu, Haruo; Higuchi, Susumu; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Suga, Masaichi; Kawase, Yasuhiro; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Kosaka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Imagawa, Masaki; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Moriaha, Takashi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Takao, Takeo; Nakata, Kenji; Sasaki, Ken; Watanabe, Ken; Nakashima, Kenji; Urakami, Katsuya; Ooya, Terumi; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Serikawa, Kayoko; Yoshimoto, Seishi; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Won, Hong-Hee; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won; Mook-Jung, Inhee; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Yoshida, Makiko; Nishida, Nao; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Yamamoto, Ken; Tsuji, Shoji; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Kuwano, Ryozo

    2013-01-01

    To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008) and controls (n = 1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10−9) and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10−8). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10−5) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10−4). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations. PMID:23565137

  11. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009

  12. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-09-30

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, and to know if depression has similar effects on the way people of different ethnicities self-report their current functionality. We analyzed data on 295 patients with schizophrenia who provided their self-report of their everyday functioning and also had a Caucasian clinician rating their functionality. Three racial/ethnic groups (African American (AA), Hispanic and Caucasian) were studied and analyzed on the basis of neurocognition, functional capacity, depression and real-world functional outcomes. No differences based on racial/ethnic status in clinician assessments of patients' functionality were found. Differences between racial groups were found in personal and maternal levels of education. Severity of depression was significantly correlated with accuracy of self-assessment of functioning in Caucasians, but not in AAs. Higher scores on neurocognition and functional capacity scales correlated with reduced overestimation of functioning in AAs, but not in Hispanics. This data might indicate that measurement of everyday functionality is less subject to rater bias than measurement of symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26160197

  13. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  14. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  15. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  16. Gender Advertisements in Magazines Aimed at African Americans: A Comparison to Their Occurrence in Magazines Aimed at Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tara L.; Goulet, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed more than 200 magazines to compare advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans with advertisements in magazines aimed at Caucasians. Discusses results in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations. (Author/SLD)

  17. Changes in energy metabolism in response to 48 h of overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians and Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weyer, C; Vozarova, B; Ravussin, E;

    2001-01-01

    Differences in the metabolic response to overfeeding and starvation may confer susceptibility or resistance to obesity in humans. To further examine this hypothesis, we assessed the changes in 24 h energy metabolism in response to short-term overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians (C) and Pima Indi...

  18. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinboboye O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Olakunle AkinboboyeQueens Heart Institute, Rosedale, NY, USAAbstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease.Keywords: antithrombotic, atrial fibrillation, stroke, warfarin, race

  19. Biomechanical properties of isolated fascicles of the Iliopsoas and Achilles tendons in African American and Caucasian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, P; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S Peter

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate biomechanical properties of the Iliopsoas and Achilles tendons in young African American (AA) and Caucasian (CC) men, and attempt to clarify whether the difference in Achilles tendon ruptures between AA and CC can be explained by differences in material properties. METH...

  20. Do stigma and its psychosocial impact differ between Asian-born Chinese immigrants and Western-born Caucasians with head and neck cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Sophie; Payne, Ada Y M; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary; Devins, Gerald M

    2016-07-01

    Stigma appears to influence emotional distress and well-being in cancer survivors, but cross-cultural differences have been ignored. Previous studies suggest that stigma may be especially relevant for survivors of Asian origin. However, their study designs (e.g. focused on female cancers, qualitative designs, and an absence of comparison groups) limit the strength of this conclusion. We hypothesized that (1) Asian-born Chinese immigrants (AI) would report more perceived cancer-related stigma than Western-born Caucasians (WBC); and (2) the impact of stigma on emotional distress and well-being would be greater in AI as compared to WBC. Head and neck cancer survivors (n = 118 AI and n = 404 WBC) completed measures of well-being, emotional distress, and a three-item indicator of stigma in structured interviews. The majority of respondents (59%) reported one or more indicators of stigma. Stigma correlated significantly with emotional distress (r = .13, p = .004) and well-being (r = -.09, p = .032). Contrary to our hypotheses, WBCs and AIs did not differ in reported stigma nor did we detect differences in its psychosocial impact. Stigma exerts a deleterious psychosocial impact on head and neck cancer survivors. It did not differ significantly between AI and WBC survivors. PMID:26850943

  1. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseynova T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tukezban Huseynova,1 Farah Abdulaliyeva,2 Michele Lanza3 1Briz-L Eye Clinic, 2National Ophthalmology Center, Baku, Azerbaijan; 3Second University of Naples, Caserta, Campania, Italy Purpose: To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC using Scheimpflug camera.Setting: Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan.Design: A cross-sectional study.Methods: In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1 eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax, corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ChV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (AC angle, keratometric power deviation (KPD, maximum front elevation (Max FE, and maximum back elevation (Max BE, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI, Ambrosio relational thickness (ART, index of surface variance (ISV, index of vertical asymmetry (IVA, center keratoconus index (CKI, index of height asymmetry (IHA, index of height decentration (IHD, and radius minimum (RM were collected and statistically compared between the two groups.Results: PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05 between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion: Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with

  2. Expression profiling of 21 biomolecules in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas of Caucasian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krikelis Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since scarce data exist on the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Caucasian patients, we attempted to elucidate the responsible molecular pathways in this patient population. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 107 patients, diagnosed with locally-advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and treated with chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of the following proteins: E-cadherin, P-cadherin, Fascin-1, Cyclin D1, COX-2, EGFR, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, ERCC1, p53, p63, Ki67, MAPT, phospho-p44/42MAPK, PTEN, phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-GSK-3β. EBER status was assessed by in situ hybridization. The majority of the cases were included in tissue microarray. All stains were performed and assessed centrally by two pathologists. The median follow-up time was 76.8 (42.3 – 99.2 months. Results Biomolecules expressed in >90% of cases were: p53, COX-2, P-cadherin, EBER, phospho-GSK-3β, and Fascin-1. WHO II+III tumors were more frequently EBER & PTEN positive and VEGF-A negative. Advanced age was significantly associated with positive phospho-GSK-3β and ERCC1 expression; male gender with positive phospho-AKT and phospho-p44/42MAPK; and worse performance status (1 or 2 with negative Ki67, ERCC1, PTEN, and phospho-mTOR expression. Earlier disease stage was closely associated with p63, MAPT, PTEN, and Cyclin D1 positivity. Univariate Cox regression analysis highlighted Cyclin D1 as a negative prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p=0.034 and EBER as a positive one for overall survival (p=0.048. In multivariate analysis, advanced age and stage, poor performance status, and positive ERCC1 emerged as predictors of worse disease-free and overall survival, as opposed to positive phospho-mTOR. Clustering analysis defined two protein-expression groups being predictive of better overall survival (p=0.043. Conclusions Our study is the

  3. The diagnostic performance of mid-regional portion of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide for the detection of left ventricular hypertrophy in Caucasian hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S S; Davies, J E; Struck, J; Ng, L L

    2012-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is predictive of cardiovascular disease. The vasodilator, natriuretic and diuretic actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) support a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Measuring the redundant precursor fragment mid-regional portion of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP) overcomes the technical difficulties of quantifying the bioactive ANP. This study sought to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of MRproANP in a hypertensive Caucasian patient population. A total of 194 hypertensive patients (39 patients with LVH, 69±7.82 years of age, 74% female vs 155 patients without LVH, 68±6.51 years of age, 71% female) were derived from a screening study. Plasma MRproANP concentrations were quantified using immunoluminometric assays. Hypertensive patients with LVH had higher MRproANP concentrations than those without LVH (103.04 (50.58) vs 84.11 pmol l(-1) (44.82); P=0.014). Independent predictors of left ventricular mass index were LogMRproANP (P=0.022), male gender (Pdetection of LVH was limited, yielding an area under the curve of only 0.628 (confidence interval 0.523-0.733; P=0.014). Therefore, the role of MRproANP may not lie in the diagnosis of LVH but in monitoring the response to therapy. A nonsignificant trend towards greater mortality in patients with above-median MRproANP levels compared with below-median levels (P=0.167) was observed. Larger studies are required to assess its prognostic utility further. PMID:22113442

  4. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  5. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Laboratory, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  6. Gastric cancer in a Caucasian population: Role of pepsinogen C genetic variants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana L Pinto-Correia; Hugo Sousa; Maria Fragoso; Luís Moreira-Dias; Carlos Lopes; Rui Medeiros; Mário Dinis-Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the pepsinogen C (PGC) gene, an effective marker for terminal differentiation of the stomach mucosa, in the susceptibility to the development of gastric lesions.METHODS: The study was performed with 99 samples of known gastric lesions and 127 samples without evidence of neoplastic disease. PCR was employed and the 6 polymorphic alleles were amplified: Allele 1 (510 bp), Allele 2 (480bp), Allele 3/4 (450/460 bp), Allele 5 (400 bp) and Allele 6(310 bp).RESULTS: Our results revealed that Allele 6 carriers seemed to have protection against the development of any gastric lesion (OR = 0.34; P<0.001), non-dysplastic lesions associated with gastric adenocarcinoma such as atrophy or intestinal metaplasia (OR = 0.28; P < 0.001) or invasive GC (OR = 0.39; P = 0.004).CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that the Allele 6 carrier status has a protective role in the development of gastric lesions, probably due to its association with higher expression of PGC. Moreover, the frequency of Allele 6 carriers in the control group is far higher than that obtained in Asian populations, which might represent a genetic gap between Caucasian and Asian populations.

  7. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  8. Regional body composition in college-aged Caucasians from anthropometric measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Robert T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitating fat and lean tissue in isolated body regions may be helpful or required in obesity and health-outcomes research. However, current methods of regional body composition measurement require specialized, expensive equipment such as that used in computed tomography or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Simple body size or circumference measurement relationships to body composition have been developed but are limited to whole-body applications. We investigated relationships between body size measurements and regional body composition. Methods Using DEXA technology we determined the fat and lean tissue composition for six regions of the body in predominantly Caucasian, college-aged men (n = 32 and women (n = 67. Circumference measurements as well as body weight and height were taken for each individual. Equations relating body measurements to a respective regional fat and lean mass were developed using multiple regression analysis. Results Multiple regression R2 values ranged from 0.4451 to 0.8953 and 0.1697 to 0.7039 for regional fat and lean mass relationships to body measurements, respectively. Conclusion The equations developed in this study offer a simple way of estimating regional body composition in a college-aged adult population. The parameters used in the equations are common body measurements that can be obtained with the use of a measuring tape and weight scale.

  9. Bioequivalence study of 8 mg ondansetron film-coated tablets in healthy Caucasian volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, P J; Kaza, M; Leś, A; Gilant, E; Ksycińska, H; Serafin-Byczak, K; Troć, M; Raszek, J; Piątkowska-Chabuda, E; Skowrońska-Smolak, M; Tarasiuk, A; Wilkowska, E; Łazowski, T

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioequivalence of a generic product of 8 mg film-coated tablets (test) to the branded product (reference) at the same strength in order to apply for regulatory approval. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the tolerability of both products. A double blinded, randomized, cross-over, 2-period, comparative study was conducted in healthy Caucasian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was followed by a 7-day wash-out period. The ondansetron concentration was determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection method. The 90% confidence interval of the point estimate (test over reference products) for C(max) and AUC(0-t) fell within the 80.00-125.00% acceptance range. The results of the study indicate that the film-coated tablets of Ondatron 8 mg manufactured by Tarchomińskie Zakłady Farmaceutyczne Polfa S.A. (test product) are bioequivalent to those of Zofran manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Export Ltd (reference product). Both products were well tolerated. PMID:24132707

  10. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age. PMID:25906836

  11. Association between EGF +61A/G polymorphism and gastric cancer in Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Paula Araújo; Bruno M Costa; Ana L Pinto-Correia; Maria Fragoso; Paula Ferreira; Mário Dinis-Ribeiro; Sandra Costa; Rui M Reis; Rui Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between epidermal growth factor (EGF ) +61A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer, through a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction resctriction fragment lenght polymorphism analyses were used to genotype EGF +61 in 207 patients with gastric lesions (162 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas, 45 with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia) and 984 controls. All subjects were Caucasian. RESULTS: Genotype distribution was 23.5% for GG and 76.5% for GA/AA in the control group, 18.4% for GG and 68.6% for GA/AA in the entire group with gastric lesions and 17.9% for GG and 82.1% for GA/AA in the group with gastric adenocarcinoma. No statistically significant associations were found between EGF +61 variants and risk for developing gastric cancer [odds ratios (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.90-2.21, P = 0.116]. However, the stratification of individuals by gender revealed that males carrying A alleles (EGF +61A/G or AA) had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer as compared to GG homozygous males (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05-2.28, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: In summary, we found that males who were A carriers for EGF +61 had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer. This result may be explained by the suggestion that women secrete less gastric acid than men.

  12. Interactions Between SNP Alleles at Multiple Loci and Variation in Skin Pigmentation in 122 Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko Anno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to clarify the molecular basis for human skin color variation and the environmental adaptability to ultraviolet irradiation, with the ultimate goal of predicting the impact of changes in future environments on human health risk. One hundred twenty-two Caucasians living in Toledo, Ohio participated. Back and cheek skin were assayed for melanin as a quantitative trait marker. Buccal cell samples were collected and used for DNA extraction. DNA was used for SNP genotyping using the Masscode™ system, which entails two-step PCR amplification and a platform chemistry which allows cleavable mass spectrometry tags. The results show gene-gene interaction between SNP alleles at multiple loci (not necessarily on the same chromosome contributes to inter-individual skin color variation while suggesting a high probability of linkage disequilibrium. Confirmation of these findings requires further study with other ethic groups to analyze the associations between SNP alleles at multiple loci and human skin color variation. Our overarching goal is to use remote sensing data to clarify the interaction between atmospheric environments and SNP allelic frequency and investigate human adaptability to ultraviolet irradiation. Such information should greatly assist in the prediction of the health effects of future environmental changes such as ozone depletion and increased ultraviolet exposure. If such health effects are to some extent predictable, it might be possible to prepare for such changes in advance and thus reduce the extent of their impact.

  13. Mitochondrial haplogroups and control region polymorphisms are not associated with prostate cancer in Middle European Caucasians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith E Mueller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides being responsible for energy production in the cell, mitochondria are central players in apoptosis as well as the main source of harmful reactive oxygen species. Therefore, it can be hypothesised that sequence variation in the mitochondrial genome is a contributing factor to the etiology of diseases related to these different cellular events, including cancer. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of haplogroups and polymorphisms in the control region (CR of mitochondrial DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with prostate carcinoma (n = 304 versus patients screened for prostate disease but found to be negative for cancer on biopsy (n = 278 in a Middle European population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nine major European haplogroups and the CR polymorphisms were identified by means of primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing, respectively. We found that mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies and CR polymorphisms do not differ significantly between patients with or without prostate cancer, implying no impact of inherited mitochondrial DNA variation on predisposition to prostate carcinoma in a Middle European population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results contrast with a recent report claiming an association between mtDNA haplogroup U and prostate cancer in a North American population of caucasian descent.

  14. Refractory High Intracranial Pressure following Intraventricular Hemorrhage due to Moyamoya Disease in a Pregnant Caucasian Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Montiel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage during pregnancy is usually followed by a poor recovery. When caused by moyamoya disease, ischemic or hemorrhagic episodes may complicate the management of high intracranial pressure. A 26-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalized seizures and a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS of 3 during the 36th week of pregnancy. The fetus was delivered by caesarean section. The brain CT in the mother revealed bilateral intraventricular hemorrhage, a callosal hematoma, hydrocephalus and right frontal ischemia. Refractory high intracranial pressure developed and required bilateral ventricular drainage and intensive care treatment with barbiturates and hypothermia. Magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography revealed a moyamoya syndrome with rupture of the abnormal collateral vascular network as the cause of the hemorrhage. Intracranial pressure could only be controlled after the surgical removal of the clots after a large opening of the right ventricle. Despite an initially low GCS, this patient made a good functional recovery at one year follow-up. Management of refractory high intracranial pressure following moyamoya related intraventricular bleeding should require optimal removal of ventricular clots and appropriate control of cerebral hemodynamics to avoid ischemic or hemorrhagic complications.

  15. Refractory High Intracranial Pressure following Intraventricular Hemorrhage due to Moyamoya Disease in a Pregnant Caucasian Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Virginie; Grandin, Cécile; Goffette, Pierre; Fomekong, Edward; Hantson, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage during pregnancy is usually followed by a poor recovery. When caused by moyamoya disease, ischemic or hemorrhagic episodes may complicate the management of high intracranial pressure. A 26-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalized seizures and a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3 during the 36th week of pregnancy. The fetus was delivered by caesarean section. The brain CT in the mother revealed bilateral intraventricular hemorrhage, a callosal hematoma, hydrocephalus and right frontal ischemia. Refractory high intracranial pressure developed and required bilateral ventricular drainage and intensive care treatment with barbiturates and hypothermia. Magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography revealed a moyamoya syndrome with rupture of the abnormal collateral vascular network as the cause of the hemorrhage. Intracranial pressure could only be controlled after the surgical removal of the clots after a large opening of the right ventricle. Despite an initially low GCS, this patient made a good functional recovery at one year follow-up. Management of refractory high intracranial pressure following moyamoya related intraventricular bleeding should require optimal removal of ventricular clots and appropriate control of cerebral hemodynamics to avoid ischemic or hemorrhagic complications. PMID:20508823

  16. Segregation of LIPG, CETP, and GALNT2 mutations in Caucasian families with extremely high HDL cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tietjen

    Full Text Available To date, few mutations are described to underlie highly-elevated HDLc levels in families. Here we sequenced the coding regions and adjacent sequence of the LIPG, CETP, and GALNT2 genes in 171 unrelated Dutch Caucasian probands with HDLc≥90th percentile and analyzed segregation of mutations with lipid phenotypes in family members. In these probands, mutations were most frequent in LIPG (12.9% followed by GALNT2 (2.3% and CETP (0.6%. A total of 6 of 10 mutations in these three genes were novel (60.0%, and mutations segregated with elevated HDLc in families. Interestingly, the LIPG mutations N396S and R476W, which usually result in elevated HDLc, were unexpectedly found in 6 probands with low HDLc (i.e., ≤10th percentile. However, 5 of these probands also carried mutations in ABCA1, LCAT, or LPL. Finally, no CETP and GALNT2 mutations were found in 136 unrelated probands with low HDLc. Taken together, we show that rare coding and splicing mutations in LIPG, CETP, and GALNT2 are enriched in persons with hyperalphalipoproteinemia and segregate with elevated HDLc in families. Moreover, LIPG mutations do not overcome low HDLc in individuals with ABCA1 and possibly LCAT and LPL mutations, indicating that LIPG affects HDLc levels downstream of these proteins.

  17. Impact of Serum Nutritional Status on Physical Function in African American and Caucasian Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Serra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study is to compare serum nutritional profiles in chronic stroke survivors to a representative sample of US Adults (NHANESIII and determine whether these serum markers differed by race and impact physical function in stroke. Methods. Fasting serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids, uric acid, and albumin in 145 African American (AA and 111 Caucasian (C stroke survivors (age: 60 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM]. A six-minute walk was performed in a subset of stroke survivors (N = 134. Results. Triglycerides were higher and HDL-cholesterol and albumin lower in C than AA women stroke survivors (Ps < 0.05. Uric acid was lower in C than AA stroke survivors (P < 0.05. Compared to NHANESIII, HDL-cholesterol, albumin, and hemoglobin generally were lower (Ps < 0.05 and lipids were more favorable in stroke (Ps < 0.01. Uric acid was related to six-minute walk performance among a subset of stroke survivors (P < 0.05. Conclusion. In stroke, racial differences exist with regard to serum nutritional risk, but these differences are similar to that observed in the general population. Regardless of race, nutritional risk appears elevated above that of the general population with regard to many of the serum markers. As a modifiable biomarker, uric acid should be monitored closely as it may provide insight into the functional risk of stroke survivors.

  18. Liver fat accumulation in response to overfeeding with a high-fat diet: a comparison between South Asian and Caucasian men

    OpenAIRE

    Wulan, Siti N.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Westerterp, Klaas R; Plasqui, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Background South Asians were reported to have a higher liver fat content as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. This study compared the increase in liver fat content in response to overfeeding with a high fat diet in South Asian and Caucasian men when matched for body fat percentage. Methods Ten South Asian men (BMI 18–29 kg/m2) and 10 Caucasian men (BMI 22–33 kg/m2), aged 20–40 y, matched for body fat percentage, were included. A weight maintenance diet was given for 3 days based on the indi...

  19. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma in a non-Caucasian patient: A case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, JINGXIN; YANG, SHIPING; CHEN, JIMIN; LIAO, TIANAN; DENG, WEI; LI, WEIZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is extremely rare among Asians, with the majority of cases presenting in Caucasian individuals. The current study describes the case of a 38-year-old Chinese woman who presented with a 10 year history of a mass in the upper lip. A biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of MAC. The patient underwent complete surgical resection and the tumor was successfully excised. During 6 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first Chinese case to be reported in the English literature, and is presented with the aim of increasing the awareness and aiding in the management of MAC in non-Caucasian populations. PMID:27073500

  20. Comprehensive Analysis of Oculocutaneous Albinism among Non-Hispanic Caucasians Shows that OCA1 Is the Most Prevalent OCA Type

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Saunie M.; Spritz, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by absent or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. In humans, four genes have been associated with “classical” OCA and another 12 genes with syndromic forms of OCA. To assess the prevalence of different forms of OCA and different gene mutations among non-Hispanic Caucasian patients, we performed DNA sequence analysis of the four genes associated with “classical” OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC...

  1. Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes of African-American compared to Caucasian postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Susan K.; Tittelbach, Thomas; Blumenthal, Jacob; Sreenivasan, Urmila; Robey, Linda; Yi, Jamie; Khan, Sumbul; Hollender, Courtney; Ryan, Alice S.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    High fatty acid (FA) flux is associated with systemic insulin resistance, and African-American (AA) women tend to be more insulin resistant. We assessed possible depot and race difference in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes isolated from abdominal (Abd) and gluteal (Glt) subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue of overweight, postmenopausal AA and Caucasian (C) women. Percent body fat, fasting insulin, visceral adiposity, and adipocyte size was higher in AA women. Disinhibited lipoly...

  2. Self-reported Experiences of Discrimination and Visceral Fat in Middle-aged African-American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participan...

  3. Variations of the interleukin-6 promoter are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Y H; Rose, C S; Urhammer, S A;

    2005-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an essential regulator of the acute phase response associated with insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Three polymorphisms at positions -597, -572, and -174 of the IL6 promoter have been reported to influence IL6 transcription....... The aim of this study was to investigate whether the IL6 promoter polymorphisms were associated with features of the WHO-defined metabolic syndrome and related quantitative traits in 7,553 Caucasian Danes....

  4. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking assessment 1 week later. After removing 35 students who reported smoking at the baseline assessment, regressions were used to examine ethnic effects on TPB c...

  5. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography to assess the iridocorneal angle and correlation study in a large Caucasian population

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Vigo, José Ignacio; García-Feijóo, Julián; Martínez-de-la-Casa, José María; García-Bella, Javier; Arriola-Villalobos, Pedro; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; Fernández-Vigo, José Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, novel anatomic parameters that can be measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), have been identified as a more objective and accurate method of defining the iridocorneal angle. The aim of the present study is to measure the iridocorneal angle by Fourier domain (FD) OCT and to identify correlations between angle measurements and subject factors in a large healthy Caucasian population. Methods A cross sectional study was performed in 989 left eyes of 989 healthy subje...

  6. Clustering of Caucasian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients containing the 11778 or 14484 mutations on an mtDNA lineage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.D.; Sun, F.; Wallace, D.C. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as {open_quotes}primary{close_quotes} LHON mutations. Fifteen other {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their pathogenicity is unclear. mtDNA haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the primary LHON mutations in North American Caucasian patients and controls has shown that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, which are distributed throughout the European-derived (Caucasian) mtDNA phylogeny, patients containing the 14484 mutation tended to be associated with European mtDNA haplotype J. To investigate this apparent clustering, we performed {chi}{sup 2}-based statistical analyses to compare the distribution of LHON patients on the Caucasian phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, the 14484 mutation was not distributed on the phylogeny in proportion to the frequencies of the major Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups found in North America. The 14484 mutation was next shown to occur on the haplogroup J background more frequently that expected, consistent with the observation that {approximately}75% of worldwide 14484-positive LHON patients occur in association with haplogroup J. The 11778 mutation also exhibited a moderate clustering on haplogroup J. These observations were supported by statistical analysis using all available mutation frequencies reported in the literature. This paper thus illustrates the potential importance of genetic background in certain mtDNA-based diseases, speculates on a pathogenic role for a subset of LHON secondary mutations and their interaction with primary mutations, and provides support for a polygenic model for LHON expression in some cases. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. No association between germline allele-specific expression of TGFBR1 and colorectal cancer risk in Caucasian and Ashkenazi populations

    OpenAIRE

    Seguí, N; Stevens, K. N.; Guinó, E.; Rozek, L S; Moreno, V R; Capellá, G; Gruber, S B; Valle, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Germline allele-specific expression (ASE) of the TGFBR1 gene has been reported as a strong risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) with an odds ratio close to 9. Considering the potential implications of the finding, we undertook the task of validating the initial results in this study. Methods: Allele-specific expression was measured using the highly quantitative and robust technique of pyrosequencing. Individuals from two different populations were studied, one Caucasian-dominat...

  8. Susceptibility to glaucoma: differential comparison of the astrocyte transcriptome from glaucomatous African American and Caucasian American donors

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas, Thomas J.; Miao, Haixi; Chen, Lin; Sean M Riordan; Li, Wenjun; Crabb, Andrea M.; Wise, Alexandria; Du, Pan; Lin, Simon M; Hernandez, M Rosario

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that ethnic/genetic background plays an important role in susceptibility to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). POAG is more prevalent among the African-descent population compared to the Caucasian population. Damage in POAG occurs at the level of the optic nerve head (ONH) and is mediated by astrocytes. Here we investigated differences in gene expression in primary cultures of ONH astrocytes obtained from age-matched normal and glaucoma...

  9. Assessing Emotion Sensitivity in Female Offenders With Borderline Personality Symptoms: Results From a Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; MacCoon, Donal; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    An instructed fear-conditioning paradigm was used to measure fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in a sample of 80 Caucasian, female offenders assessed using the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale (Morey, 1991). As predicted, women with higher levels of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms showed significantly greater FPS than women with lower levels when required to focus attention on the threat-relevant dimension of the experimental stimuli. However, FPS was not...

  10. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  11. Individualism-collectivism, self-efficacy, and other factors associated with risk taking among gay Asian and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Limin; Van de Ven, Paul; McCormick, John

    2004-02-01

    A theoretical framework, which included perspectives of individualism-collectivism and self-efficacy, was used to investigate factors associated with sexual risk practice among gay Asian and Caucasian men. "Risk" was defined as unprotected anal intercourse with any casual partner or with a regular partner whose HIV status was not concordant with the participant's. Altogether, 201 Caucasian and 199 Asian gay men, largely recruited from gay social venues in inner Sydney, completed an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants were gay self-identified and gay community attached, and more than half of the Asian men had been living in Sydney for at least 3 years. Overall, the Asian men were more collectivist oriented and the Caucasian men more individualist oriented. Data analyses revealed that higher self-efficacy in avoiding casual risk encounters and smaller proportion of gay friends were associated with less risk. The inclusion of individualism-collectivism and social cognitive variables in the examination of sexual risk practices among gay men from different cultural backgrounds holds promise.

  12. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  13. Aneuploidy does not explain the difference in outcomes observed between Asian and Caucasian patients undergoingin vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Kort; David Smotrich; Michelle Gaona; XiaWang; BarryBehr

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand whether reduced pregnancy and live birth rates for Asian patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) could be explained by discrepant rates of aneuploid embryos.Methods:A retrospective cohort study of all autologous and donor IVF cycles utilizing pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) at a single infertility clinic from January 2012 to December 2013.Results:After controlling for maternal age, there was no difference in aneuploidy rates of Caucasian patients compared to Asian patients’. A trend was discerned that embryos of Caucasians form blastocysts more frequently than those of Asian patients, reaching significance for patients aged 25 to 30 and 40 to 45, but there was no difference in the likelihood of having at least one euploid blastocyst to transfer in any age group. Conclusion:While there may be a slight difference in blastocyst formation rates, there is no difference in aneuploidy or euploid blastocyst transfer rates between Asian and Caucasian patients that would explain the discrepancy in IVF outcomes observed between these patient populations. Possible ethnicity specific differences in non-ploidy related embryo viability and endometrial receptivity should be investigated as potential etiologies for this observation.

  14. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  15. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of

  16. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to STAR mutations in a Caucasian patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Casas, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), the most severe form of CAH, is most commonly caused by mutations in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), which is required for the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membranes to synthesize pregnenolone. This study was performed to evaluate whether the salt-losing crisis and the adrenal inactivity experienced by a Scandinavian infant is due to a de novo STAR mutation. The study was conducted at the University of North Dakota, the Mercer University School of Medicine and the Memorial University Medical Center to identify the cause of this disease. The patient was admitted to a pediatric endocrinologist at the Sanford Health Center for salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure. Lipoid CAH is an autosomal recessive disease, we identified two de novo heterozygous mutations (STAR c.444C>A (STAR p.N148K) and STAR c.557C>T (STAR p.R193X)) in the STAR gene, causing lipoid CAH. New onset lipoid CAH can occur through de novo mutations and is not restricted to any specific region of the world. This Scandinavian family was of Norwegian descent and had lipoid CAH due to a mutation in S TAR exons 4 and 5. Overexpression of the STAR p.N148K mutant in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells supplemented with an electron transport system showed activity similar to the background level, which was ∼10% of that observed with wild-type (WT) STAR. Protein-folding analysis showed that the finger printing of the STAR p.N148K mutant is also different from the WT protein. Inherited STAR mutations may be more prevalent in some geographical areas but not necessarily restricted to those regions. Learning points STAR mutations cause lipoid CAH.This is a pure population from a caucasian family.Mutation ablated STAR activity.The mutation resulted in loosely folded conformation of STAR. PMID:27047663

  17. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries.The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians.Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference,this alone cannot fully explain the-lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries,nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States.Soy food consumption,more popular in Asian populations,is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer.Prostatespecific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status.Other biomarkers,such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA,may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone.Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West,and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genomewide association studies.Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity.Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions,respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione Stransferase Pi (GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis,aggressiveness,and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown.Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned.In this review,the differences in PSA screening practice,reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer,and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed.

  18. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1; as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and

  19. Differences in reproductive endocrinology between Asian men and Caucasian men-a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.E.vanHouten; LouisJ.G.Gooren

    2000-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the literature on aspects of reproductive endocrinology wherein Asian men may differ from Caucasian, notably, prostatic nioplasm and the sensivity to pharmacological regimens of male contraception. Both genetic and environmental factors, such as nutrition, might be relevant. Asian men residing in Asia seem to be relatively protected from clinical prostatic nioplasm while the prevalence of preclinical prostatic nioplasm is not different. Migration to an area with a higher prevalence reduces this difference but does not undo it. With regard to prostatic nioplasm the following factors have been considered as relevant in Asian men: 1) a reduction in 5α-reductase level, 2) decreased levels of androgenic ketosteroid precursors of 5α-reduced androgen metabolites, 3) the decreased presence of a P53 mutation, 4) a higher CAG-repeat length of the androgen receptor, 5) a possible higher level of physical activity, 6) differences in sexual activity. Furthermore, Asian men respond to a higher degree with azoospermia in response to contraceptive steroids. Possible explanations offered for the more pronounced response to contraceptive steroids are: 1) differences in testicular structure and decreased spermatogenic potential, 2) an earlier and more marked suppression in LH secretion by exogenous androgens. The differences may be due to genetical and/or environmental factors influencing the peripheral testosterone metabolism. Dietary factors such as the higher intake of phytoestrogens in Asians might exert effects on 5α-reductase activity and/or on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels,thus having an impact on the biological efficay of circulating androgens. ( Asian J Androl 2000; 2:13 - 20 )

  20. A 13-year-old caucasian boy with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report

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    Kolokitha Olga-Elpis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD is a rare congenital autosomal dominant skeletal disorder. The disorder is caused by heterozygosity of mutations in human RUNX2, which is present on the short arm of chromosome 6p21. The incidence of CCD is one per million births. CCD appears spontaneously with no apparent genetic cause in approximately 40% of affected patients, and one in three patients has unaffected parents. The most prevalent features associated with CCD are aplastic or hypoplastic clavicles, supernumerary teeth, failed eruption of permanent teeth, and a hypoplastic maxilla. Case presentation A 13-year-old Caucasian boy presented with a chief complaint of delayed eruption of the permanent anterior teeth. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with CCD based on the clinical examination, panoramic X-ray, anterior-posterior and lateral cephalogram, and chest radiograph findings. The details of this case are herein reported because of the extremely low incidence of this disorder. Conclusions CCD is of clinical importance in dentistry and medicine because it affects the bones and teeth and is characterized by many changes in skeletal patterning and growth. Particularly in dentistry, CCD is of great clinical significance because is associated with delayed ossification of the skull sutures, delayed exfoliation of the primary teeth, lack of permanent teeth eruption, multiple supernumerary teeth, and morphological abnormalities of the maxilla and mandible. Patients with CCD seek treatment mainly for dental problems. Knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic tools of CCD will enable clinicians to render the appropriate treatment to improve function and aesthetics. Early diagnosis of CCD is crucial for timely initiation of an appropriate treatment approach.

  1. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  2. Are Female Supervisors More Female-Friendly?

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Bednar; Dora Gicheva

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the idea that easily inferable demographic characteristics such as gender may not be sufficient to define type in the supervisor-employee mentoring relationship. We use longitudinal data on athletic directors at NCAA Division I programs to identify through observed mobility the propensity of top-level administrators to hire and retain female head coaches, above and beyond an organization's culture. We show that supervisor gender appears to be unrelated to female friendliness in t...

  3. Disparities in lipid management for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: A national cross-sectional study

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    Carter-Edwards Lori

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men

  4. Association analysis of the FTO gene with obesity in children of Caucasian and African ancestry reveals a common tagging SNP.

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    Struan F A Grant

    Full Text Available Recently an association was demonstrated between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs9939609, within the FTO locus and obesity as a consequence of a genome wide association (GWA study of type 2 diabetes in adults. We examined the effects of two perfect surrogates for this SNP plus 11 other SNPs at this locus with respect to our childhood obesity cohort, consisting of both Caucasians and African Americans (AA. Utilizing data from our ongoing GWA study in our cohort of 418 Caucasian obese children (BMI>or=95th percentile, 2,270 Caucasian controls (BMI<95th percentile, 578 AA obese children and 1,424 AA controls, we investigated the association of the previously reported variation at the FTO locus with the childhood form of this disease in both ethnicities. The minor allele frequencies (MAF of rs8050136 and rs3751812 (perfect surrogates for rs9939609 i.e. both r(2 = 1 in the Caucasian cases were 0.448 and 0.443 respectively while they were 0.391 and 0.386 in Caucasian controls respectively, yielding for both an odds ratio (OR of 1.27 (95% CI 1.08-1.47; P = 0.0022. Furthermore, the MAFs of rs8050136 and rs3751812 in the AA cases were 0.449 and 0.115 respectively while they were 0.436 and 0.090 in AA controls respectively, yielding an OR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.91-1.21; P = 0.49 and of 1.31 (95% CI 1.050-1.643; P = 0.017 respectively. Investigating all 13 SNPs present on the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip in this region of linkage disequilibrium, rs3751812 was the only SNP conferring significant risk in AA. We have therefore replicated and refined the association in an AA cohort and distilled a tag-SNP, rs3751812, which captures the ancestral origin of the actual mutation. As such, variants in the FTO gene confer a similar magnitude of risk of obesity to children as to their adult counterparts and appear to have a global impact.

  5. Feedback experience from a 30 years old concrete using cement with a high content of blast furnace slag; Retour d'experience sur un beton age de 30 ans contenant un ciment riche en laitier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Ch. [Holcim, Obourg (Belgium); Lion, M.; Jeanpierre, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), Ceidre-TEGG, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Ammouche, A. [LERM, 13 - Arles (France)

    2009-08-15

    In this study, we analyze the aspect of a slag cement concrete used in the seventies for the construction of the walls of a structure located close to the channel sea. From different characterization tests (chemical, physical, and micro structural), it can be conclude that the concrete is not showing any pathology and any important attack, due to the marine environment. After being exposed during 30 years, the chlorides ions have not reach the steel metal bar reinforcement and the carbonation depth is still low. This study details the results of chloride diffusion coefficient and carbonation depth measurements, sulfates and chloride quantification, XRD analysis, and SEM examination. (authors)

  6. 30年龄期某厂房混凝土梁柱碳化程度分析%Degree of carbonation of the concrete beam in one 30 years old plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董荣珍; 马保国; 车颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 基本概念 碳化是水泥中的水化产物与环境中的CO2相互作用,生成碳酸盐或其他物质,降低混凝土中pH值,改变混凝土内部组成结构,影响混凝土性能的一个复杂的物理化学过程.以普通硅酸盐水泥为例,其碳化过程的主要反应为:

  7. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)...

  8. Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: A comparison of African Americans and Caucasians in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  10. Does Severe Maternal Morbidity Affect Female Sexual Activity and Function? Evidence from a Brazilian Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Carla B.; Cecatti, José G.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Silveira, Carla; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Ferreira, Elton C.; Angelini, Carina R.; Santos, Juliana P.; Zanardi, Dulce M.; Bussadori, Jamile C.; Cecchino, Gustavo N.; Souza, Renato T.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective to assess Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores and delay to resume sexual activity associated with a previous severe maternal morbidity. Method This was a multidimensional retrospective cohort study. Women who gave birth at a Brazilian tertiary maternity between 2008 and 2012 were included, with data extraction from the hospital information system. Those with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near miss episodes (severe maternal morbidity) were considered the exposed group. The control group was a random sample of women who had had uncomplicated pregnancy. Female sexual function was evaluated through FSFI questionnaire, and general and reproductive aspects were addressed through specific questions. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson´s Chi-square for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with lower FSFI scores. Results 638 women were included (315 at exposed and 323 at not exposed groups). The majority of women were under 30 years-old in the control group and between 30 and 46 years-old in the exposed group (p = 0.003). Women who experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM) had statistically significant differences regarding cesarean section (82.4% versus 47.1% among deliveries without complications, p<0.001), and some previous pathological conditions. FSFI mean scores were similar among groups ranging from 24.39 to 24.42. It took longer for exposed women to resume sexual activity after index pregnancy (mean 84 days after SMM and 65 days for control group, p = 0.01). Multiple analyses showed no significant association of FSFI below cut-off value with any predictor. Conclusion FSFI scores were not different in both groups. However, they were lower than expected. SMM delayed resumption of sexual activity after delivery, beyond postpartum period. However, the proportion of women in both groups having sex at 3 months after delivery was similar

  11. Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna R Velez

    Full Text Available Spontaneous preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation-PTB occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies in the United States, and is the largest contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. PTB is a complex disease, potentially induced by several etiologic factors from multiple pathophysiologic pathways. To dissect the genetic risk factors of PTB a large-scale high-throughput candidate gene association study was performed examining 1536 SNP in 130 candidate genes from hypothesized PTB pathways. Maternal and fetal DNA from 370 US Caucasian birth-events (172 cases and 198 controls was examined. Single locus, haplotype, and multi-locus association analyses were performed separately on maternal and fetal data. For maternal data the strongest associations were found in genes in the complement-coagulation pathway related to decidual hemorrhage in PTB. In this pathway 3 of 6 genes examined had SNPs significantly associated with PTB. These include factor V (FV that was previously associated with PTB, factor VII (FVII, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. The single strongest effect was observed in tPA marker rs879293 with a significant allelic (p = 2.30x10(-3 and genotypic association (p = 2.0x10(-6 with PTB. The odds ratio (OR for this SNP was 2.80 [CI 1.77-4.44] for a recessive model. Given that 6 of 8 markers in tPA were statistically significant, sliding window haplotype analyses were performed and revealed an associating 4 marker haplotype in tPA (p = 6.00x10(-3. The single strongest effect in fetal DNA was observed in the inflammatory pathway at rs17121510 in the interleukin-10 receptor antagonist (IL-10RA gene for allele (p = 0.01 and genotype (p = 3.34x10(-4. The OR for the IL-10RA genotypic additive model was 1.92 [CI 1.15-3.19] (p = 2.00x10(-3. Finally, exploratory multi-locus analyses in the complement and coagulation pathway were performed and revealed a potentially significant interaction between a marker in FV (rs2187952 and FVII (rs3211719 (p

  12. BANK1 functional variants are associated with susceptibility to diffuse systemic sclerosis in Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B; Gourh, P; Broen, J; Agarwal, S K; Simeon, C; Ortego-Centeno, N; Vonk, M C; Coenen, M; Riemekasten, G; Hunzelmann, N; Hesselstrand, R; Tan, F K; Reveille, J D; Assassi, S; Garcia-Hernandez, F J; Carreira, P; Camps, M; Fernandez-Nebro, A; de la Peña, P Garcia; Nearney, T; Hilda, D; Gónzalez-Gay, M A; Airo, P; Beretta, L; Scorza, R; Radstake, T R D J; Mayes, M D; Arnett, F C; Martin, J

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible association of the BANK1 gene with genetic susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its subphenotypes. Methods A large multicentre case–control association study including 2380 patients with SSc and 3270 healthy controls from six independent case–control sets of Caucasian ancestry (American, Spanish, Dutch, German, Swedish and Italian) was conducted. Three putative functional BANK1 polymorphisms (rs17266594 T/C, rs10516487 G/A, rs3733197 G/A) were selected as genetic markers and genotyped by Taqman 5´ allelic discrimination assay. Results A significant association of the rs10516487 G and rs17266594 T alleles with SSc susceptibility was observed (pooled OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.22; p=0.01 and pooled OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.25; p=0.003, respectively), whereas the rs3733197 genetic variant showed no statistically significant deviation. Stratification for cutaneous SSc phenotype showed that the BANK1 rs10516487 G, rs17266594 T and rs3733197 G alleles were strongly associated with susceptibility to diffuse SSc (dcSSc) (pooled OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.37, p=0.005; pooled OR=1.23, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.41, p=0.001; pooled OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31, p=0.02, respectively). Similarly, stratification for specific SSc autoantibodies showed that the association of BANK1 rs10516487, rs17266594 and rs3733197 polymorphisms was restricted to the subgroup of patients carrying anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (pooled OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41, p=0.03; pooled OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.46, p=0.01; pooled OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.47, p=0.004, respectively). Conclusion The results suggest that the BANK1 gene confers susceptibility to SSc in general, and specifically to the dcSSc and anti-topoisomerase I antibody subsets. PMID:19815934

  13. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  14. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type)...

  15. A polymorphism at codon 31 of gene p21 is not associated with primary open angle glaucoma in Caucasians

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    Keers Sharon M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is considered to be a neurodegenerative optic neuropathy, in which cell death occurs by apoptosis. p21, is an important protective component of the apoptotic pathway, regulating cellular arrest in the presence of DNA damage. An unstable or altered p21 protein could modify the cellular response to genomic injury and abolish the effect of p21. A previous study on a Chinese cohort suggested that the p21 codon 31 polymorphism may alter the state of apoptosis in glaucomatous optic neuropathy, failing to protect the ganglion cells. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a p21 codon 31 polymorphism is associated with POAG on a Caucasian cohort. Methods 140 POAG patients and a control group of 73 healthy individuals were included in the study. All the subjects were of Caucasian origin. Genomic DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, followed by enzymatic restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP. Patients and controls were genotyped for a single nucleotide polymorphism (C/A transversion in the third base of codon 31 of p21, which leads to a serine (Ser/arginine (Arg substitution. Results The distribution of the genotypes in the POAG patients showed 128 (91.4% Ser homozygotes, 10 (7.1% Ser/Arg heterozygotes and 2 (1.5% Arg homozygotes. In the control cohort, there were 61 (83.6% Ser homozygotes and 12 (16.4% Ser/Arg heterozygotes. No Arg homozygotes were present amongst the control group. Both the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the Ser or Arg residues at codon 31 were not significantly different between POAG patients and controls (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.20 for alleles and P = 0.0561 for genotypes. Conclusion This study suggests that the p21 codon 31 polymorphism does not contribute to the risk of POAG in the Caucasian population.

  16. Monitoring landscape changes in Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) habitat in Iran during the last two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Asef; Fakheran, Sima; Soffianian, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) is on the 'red' list of species of high conservation concern as nearest threatened (NT) and also in level (I) of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The black grouse distribution range in Iran is restricted to the Arasbaran region, Northwest of Iran, and the populations and range of this specialist bird species have been declining over the last decades. Management of forest and grassland structures is important for black grouse population survival. The main goals of this study were to monitor and quantify the landscape pattern changes in Caucasian black grouse habitat in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve in two periods of 14 years (1987-2001) and 10 years (2001-2011). For quantifying landscape pattern changes, various landscape metrics were derived by spatial analysis software FRAGSTATS 3.3, including NP (number of habitat patches), LPI (largest patch index) and TE (total edge). The results indicated that the proportion of forest decreased from 39.95 to 31.95% and the proportion of grassland decreased from 44.45 to 38.44% in the 24-year span. NP of forests increased in the first period and decreased in the second period of study. TE of dense forest at altitude above 1800 m decreased. Reduction of forest edge is an indicator of reduction in habitat availability for Caucasian black grouse which use the forest edge for living, lekking and hatching in upland. Our results provided quantitative data on habitat loss and fragmentation in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and indicated negative impacts of the landscape structure changes on Black grouse habitat. PMID:26088757

  17. Inter-country and ethnic variation in colorectal cancer survival: Comparisons between a Philippine population, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondos Adam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies showed differences in international and within country colorectal cancer survival estimates, but few investigated the role of prognostic factors. Using a "high resolution approach", we aimed to determine the effect of ethnicity and health care by comparing Filipino-Americans with Philippine residents, who have the same ethnicity, and with Caucasians living in the US, who have the same health care system. Methods Using databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed and compared between Filipino-American colorectal cancer patients, cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasian patients. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Results Much lower 5-year relative survival estimates were obtained for Philippine residents (37% as compared to those in Filipino-Americans (60.3% and Caucasians (62.4%. Differences in age, stage and receipt of surgery explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans. However, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents remained after controlling for these and other variables (relative risk, RR, 2.03, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.83-2.25. Conclusions Strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients were disclosed, which most likely reflect differences in access to and utilization of health care. Health education and advocacy, for both patients and health practitioners, should likewise be given priority.

  18. Association between XRCC1 polymorphism 399 G->A and glioma among Caucasians: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Daniel I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The x-ray cross complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1 is crucial to proper repair of DNA damage such as single-strand DNA breaks. A non-synonymous polymorphism in XRCC1, 399 G → A, has been shown to reduce effectiveness of such DNA repair and has been associated with the risk of certain cancers. The known risk for glioma from high dose ionizing radiation makes associations between this polymorphism and glioma of particular interest. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the association between XRCC1 399 G → A and glioma. Subgroup analyses by grade, gender, genotyping method, country in which study was conducted, and study size were conducted when data were available and validity of the results were assessed by influence analyses and exploration of potential publication bias. Results Six studies were eligible for meta-analysis including data on 2,362 Caucasian glioma cases and 3,085 Caucasian controls. Pooled analysis yielded a significant association between the variant of interest and risk of glioma (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30 which was found to be disproportionately driven by a single study. Exclusion of this study, in an influence analysis, produced no statistically significant evidence of association with glioma (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.98-1.23, and no evidence of publication bias. Conclusions This meta-analysis does not suggest a major role of the XRCC1 399 G → A polymorphism in influencing risk of glioma among Caucasians. Future studies should report data separately for glioma subtypes to permit stratified analyses for Grade III and Grade IV glioma and examine other polymorphisms in this gene.

  19. The Caucasian-Arabian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt:Geology, volcanism and neotectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Sharkov; V. Lebedev; A. Chugaev; L. Zabarinskaya; A. Rodnikov; N. Sergeeva; I. Safonova

    2015-01-01

    The Caucasian-Arabian belt is part of the huge late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt formed by collision of continental plates. The belt consists of two domains:the Caucasian-Arabian Syntaxis (CAS) in the south and the EW-striking Greater Caucasus in the north. The CAS marks a zone of the indentation of the Arabian plate into the southern East European Craton. The Greater Caucasus Range is located in the south of the Eurasian plate;it was tectonically uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (MCF), which is, in turn, a part of a megafault extended over a great distance from the Kopetdag Mts. to the Tornquist-Teisseyre Trans-European Suture Zone. The Caucasus Mts. are bounded by the Black Sea from the west and by the Caspian Sea from the east. The SN-striking CAS is characterized by a large geophysical isostatic anomaly suggesting presence of mantle plume head. A 500 km long belt of late Cenozoic volcanism in the CAS extends from the eastern Anatolia to the Lesser and Greater Caucasus ranges. This belt hosts two different types of volcanic rocks: (1) plume-type intraplate basaltic plateaus and (2) suprasubduction-type calc-alkaline and shoshonite-latite volcanic rocks. As the CAS lacks signatures of subduction zones and is characterized by relatively shallow earthquakes (50e60 km), we suggest that the “supra-subduction-type”magmas were derived by interaction between mantle plume head and crustal material. Those hybrid melts were originated under conditions of collision-related deformation. During the late Cenozoic, the width of the CAS reduced to ca. 400 km due to tectonic “diffluence” of crustal material provided by the continuing Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  20. The prevalence of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer in an unselected Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit G; Høgdall, Estrid; Clementsen, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    EGFR mutation frequencies in unselected Caucasian populations are unknown. This study assesses the prevalence of EGFR mutations in an unselected population-based cohort, and the correlation between mutation and gender, age, ethnicity, smoking habits, and pathological data. NSCLC patients diagnosed...... in a well-defined Danish population were included. The type of the diagnostic material, and data on smoking were registered. The mutation analyses were investigated by Therascreen EGFR RGQ-PCR Kit or Sanger sequencing. A total of 658 men and 598 women were included. 6.2% were never smokers, 38.9% were ex...

  1. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Polymorphism (V16A is Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Slovene (Caucasians Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Globočnik Petrovič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial data indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Two candidate genes that affect the oxidative stress are manganese mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the V16A polymorphism of the Mn-SOD gene and the 4a/b polymorphism of the eNOS gene in the development of diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  3. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  4. Effect of the sun on visible clinical signs of aging in Caucasian skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Roland Bazin,2 Sabine Laquieze,3 Virginie Rubert,1 Elisa Simonpietri,4 Bertrand Piot1 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L'Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2RB Consult, Bievres, France; 3Private Dermatology Consultancy Practice, Montpellier, France; 4BIOTHERM International, Levallois-Perret, France Objectives: Aging signs can be classified into four main categories: wrinkles/texture, lack of firmness of cutaneous tissues (ptosis, vascular disorders, and pigmentation heterogeneities. During a lifetime, skin will change in appearance and structure not only because of chronological and intrinsic processes but also due to several external factors such as gravity, sun and ultraviolet exposure, and high levels of pollution; or lifestyle factors that have important and obvious effects on skin aging, such as diet, tobacco, illness, or stress. The effect of these external factors leads to progressive degradations of tegument that appear with different kinetics. The aim of this study was to clinically quantify the effect of sun exposure on facial aging in terms of the appearance of new specific signs or in terms of increasing the classical signs of aging. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 298 Caucasian women from 30 years to 78 years old. The participants were divided into two groups according to their sun exposure history: 157 women were characterized as sun-seeking, and the other 141 were classified as sun-phobic. This division was made possible by dermatologist grading of heliodermal status on the basis of several observations of classic criteria: wrinkles, sagging, pigmentation heterogeneities, vascular disorders, elastosis, and so on. This work was an opportunity to complete clinical photographic tools by adding in our portfolio new scales for signs observed in the two groups. Thus, 22 clinical parameters were investigated by a panel of twelve trained experts to characterize each woman

  5. Takayasu’s Arteritis and Crohn’s Disease in a Young Hispanic Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Takayasu’s arteritis (TA and Crohn’s disease (CD are chronic inflammatory granulomatous disorders of undetermined etiology. TA is a large vessel vasculitis with a predilection for the aorta and its branches in young women of Asian descent; whereas CD has characteristic gastrointestinal manifestations more prevalent in young Caucasians. We describe a case of both diseases in a young Hispanic female, review the literature, and impart new insight on possible genetic linkage and the role of interleukin 12 B (IL-12B as the common autoimmune mechanism and potential therapeutic target in this rare disease combination.

  6. Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita in a Preterm Female Newborn: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita (CMTC is a rare, sporadic condition usually present at birth characterized by localized or generalized persistent cutis marmorata, telangiectasia and phlebectasia. We report a preterm female newborn, the third child of non-related caucasian parents, with CMTC at birth who showed typical cutaneous features and monolateral congenital glaucoma. The pathogenesis of this disorder is unknown and the cause is probably multifactorial. Teratogens and autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance have been considered as etiological factors. Prognosis, in uncomplicated cases, is good.

  7. Female intrasexual competition decreases female facial attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Maryanne L

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that female intrasexual competition will occur when males of high genetic quality are considered to be a resource. It is probable that women compete in terms of attractiveness since this is one of the primary criteria used by men when selecting mates. Furthermore, because hormones influence the mate-selection process, they may also mediate competition. One competitive strategy that women use is derogation--any act intended to decrease a rival's perceived value. To...

  8. A systematic review of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to asthma in Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Ester Mm; Thönissen, Brenda Ejt; van Eys, Guillaume; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn

    2013-03-15

    The aetiology of childhood asthma is complex. An early dysfunction in the immunological development of the innate immune system in combination with environmental factors possibly triggers asthma. CD14 and toll-like receptors are important components of the innate immune system. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain a better insight into the relation between CD14 and toll-like receptors and childhood asthma in Caucasians. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles. In total, 44 articles were included. The quality of the selected studies was independently assessed by the first two authors using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Toll-like receptor 2, toll-like receptor 6, toll-like receptor 9, and toll-like receptor 10 appear to have some association with childhood asthma in Caucasians. The evidence for a relation of CD14 with childhood asthma is limited. In conclusion, there is no convincing evidence yet for a role of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to childhood asthma. Future studies should include haplotype analysis and take environmental factors into account to further clarify the role of CD14 and toll-like receptors on childhood asthma.

  9. The Catalase –262C/T Promoter Polymorphism and Diabetic Complications in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Gonçalves dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase is a central antioxidant enzyme constituting the primary defense against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether the functional –262C/T polymorphism in the promoter of catalase gene is associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR, diabetic nephropathy (DN and ischemic heart disease (IHD in 520 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes. The –262C/T polymorphism was also examined in 100 Caucasian blood donors. Patients underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation consisting of a questionnaire, physical examination, assessment of diabetic complications and laboratory tests. Genotype analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by digestion with restriction enzyme. The genotype and allele frequencies of the –262C/T polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were very similar to those of blood donors (T allele frequency = 0.20 and 0.18, respectively. Likewise, there were no differences in either genotype or allele frequencies between type 2 diabetic patients with or without DR, DN or IHD. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis that the –262C/T polymorphism is related to the development of DR, DN or IHD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of catalase gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

  10. Haplotype structure of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene in 814 Danish Caucasian subjects and association with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Kamp; Nielsen, Morten; Koefoed, Pernille;

    2009-01-01

    .50-16.38). In conclusion, the haplotype analysis clearly revealed the prevalence of four major ADRB2 haplotypes in Caucasians. The results suggest that unique interactions in specific haplotype pairs rather than individual SNPs may affect BMI and that this effect of ADRB2 haplotypes is blunted by age-related factors.......Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2). By the use of five SNPs (G46A, C79G, C491T, C523A, G1053C) for identification of ADRB2 haplotypes in 814 Danish Caucasians, we investigated whether ADRB2 haplotypes are associated...... with body mass index (BMI). The SNPs showed organization into 13 distinct haplotypes and 41 haplotype pairs. The study identified four common haplotypes: ACCCC (10.1 +/- 0.3 %), ACCCG (27.9 +/- 0.3 %), GCCAC (10.8 +/- 0.1 %) and GGCCG (41.0 +/- 0.2 %) (frequencies (SD), seen in 91 % of the population...

  11. Vascular Function, Cerebral Cortical Thickness, and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Evan; Kaur, Sonya S.; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Machin, Daniel R.; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk of acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health to measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, gender, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized via β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (p=0.04) with concurrently lower language (p=0.02), memory (p=0.03), and attention-executive functioning (p=0.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics. PMID:25720950

  12. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  13. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  14. Genetic analysis of CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 microsatellites and their association with rheumatoid arthritis in South Asian and Caucasian populations of the East Midlands, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Ghelani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two microsatellites from corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene locus (CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 were reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Caucasians. This study aims to replicate the association in a South Asian (SA and Caucasian RA sample from the East Midlands, UK. DNA from 281 South Asians (111 patients, 43 siblings, 127 controls and 287 Caucasians (116 patients, 64 siblings, 107 controls were genotyped. The Odds Ratio for carrying at least one copy of the CRHRA1*10 risk allele was 1.32 (Confidence Interval, CI=0.77-2.28 in Caucasians and 1.55 (CI=0.92-2.63 in South Asians, indicative of a trend for association. The risk allele CRHRA2*14 was lower in South Asians compared to Caucasians (5.5%-8.6% vs. 17.7-18.2 %; P<0.005. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 in both cohorts. CRHRA1*10 was the frequently transmitted allele in SA patients. A non-significant association was observed with CRHRA1*10 allele in both RA populations.

  15. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of single, oral doses of GSK1278863, a novel HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Wakamatsu, Akira; Caltabiano, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and safety of GSK1278863, a novel prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, following a single oral administration of GSK1278863 from 10 to 100 mg or placebo in Japanese (n = 19), and 10, 25 and 100 mg in Caucasians (n = 14). Dose-proportional increases were observed in AUCinf of GSK1278863 in both ethnic groups, with a 1.3-1.5-fold higher exposure seen in Japanese relative to Caucasians for all doses. This difference in exposure can be mainly explained by the observed differences in body weights between the two groups. Statistically significant increases in erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and reticulocyte counts were observed in Japanese subjects after the 50 and 100 mg dose as compared to placebo. In Caucasians, similar to Japanese, EPO and VEGF levels were observed to be increased in response to the 100 mg dose. Drug-related adverse events, including headache and abdominal pain were reported in 3 Japanese subjects, while headache was reported in 3 Caucasians. In conclusion, GSK1278863 was well tolerated, with dose-proportional increases in exposure observed in both groups. There was no evidence of ethnic differences between Japanese and Caucasian with regard to PK or PD.

  16. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  17. The interleukin-6 (-174) G/C promoter polymorphism is associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Native Americans and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; Knowler, William C;

    2003-01-01

    Chronic low-grade activation of the immune system may play a role in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Interleukin-6 (IL6), a powerful inducer of hepatic acute phase response, has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance and T2DM. Recently, an IL6 promoter...... polymorphism (G/C) at position -174 was found to be associated with measures of insulin sensitivity. Because we have previously found an association between high IL6 levels and insulin resistance in both Pima Indians - a population with high rates of insulin resistance and T2DM - and Caucasians, we aimed...... to assess whether the IL6 promoter polymorphism is associated with T2DM in these populations. We genotyped the IL6 (-174) G/C polymorphism using pyrosequencing in 463 Native Americans and by PCR-RFLP in 329 Spanish Caucasians. Among the Spanish Caucasian subjects, there was a significant difference...

  18. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administration (FDA) to treat female pattern baldness is minoxidil: It is applied to the scalp. For women, the 2% solution or 5% foam is recommended. Minoxidil may help hair grow in about 1 in ...

  19. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  20. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000144.htm Self catheterization - female To use the sharing features on ... incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Urinary catheters - ...

  1. Postadolescent acne in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  2. Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: A comparison of African Americans and Caucasians in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663585

  3. Visual scanning and recognition of Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces: contributions from bottom-up facial physiognomic information and top-down knowledge of racial categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Hu, Chao S; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. PMID:25497461

  4. An adaptation of the Moyers mixed dentition space analysis for a Western Cape Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, S W; Rossouw, P; van Wyk Kotze, T J; Trutero, H

    1991-09-01

    200 dental plaster casts of Western Cape Caucasoid subjects, all of whom were under the age of 21 years, were used in this study. Mesio-distal measurements (MD lengths) were obtained of all the teeth, disregarding the third molars. This data was used to develop regression equations, for maxillary and for mandibular arches, to enable the prediction of the mesio-distal lengths of the canine and two premolars. The study identified the sum of the MD lengths of the permanent lower incisors as the best predictor. It appears that separate predictions for male and female are not warranted. The equations and the predicted values were compared with those of Moyers (1973 and 1988) and some significant differences were found. The Prediction Tables will be useful in analysis of the mixed dentition phase in patients from this population group. PMID:1820683

  5. BMI1, stem cell factor acting as novel serum-biomarker for Caucasian and African-American prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifzur Rahman Siddique

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers is a stumbling block in the management of prostate cancer (CaP. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA widely used in clinics has several caveats as a CaP biomarker. African-American CaP patients have poor prognosis than Caucasians, and notably the serum-PSA does not perform well in this group. Further, some men with low serum-PSA remain unnoticed for CaP until they develop disease. Thus, there is a need to identify a reliable diagnostic and predictive biomarker of CaP. Here, we show that BMI1 stem-cell protein is secretory and could be explored for biomarker use in CaP patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semi-quantitative analysis of BMI1 was performed in prostatic tissues of TRAMP (autochthonous transgenic mouse model, human CaP patients, and in cell-based models representing normal and different CaP phenotypes in African-American and Caucasian men, by employing immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and Slot-blotting. Quantitative analysis of BMI1 and PSA were performed in blood and culture-media of siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells by employing ELISA. BMI1 protein is (i secreted by CaP cells, (ii increased in the apical region of epithelial cells and stromal region in prostatic tumors, and (iii detected in human blood. BMI1 is detectable in blood of CaP patients in an order of increasing tumor stage, exhibit a positive correlation with serum-PSA and importantly is detectable in patients which exhibit low serum-PSA. The clinical significance of BMI1 as a biomarker could be ascertained from observation that CaP cells secrete this protein in higher levels than cells representative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BMI1 could be developed as a dual bio-marker (serum and biopsy for the diagnosis and prognosis of CaP in Caucasian and African-American men. Though compelling these data warrant further investigation in a cohort of African-American patients.

  6. Association and linkage analysis of COL1A1 and AHSG gene polymorphisms with femoral neck bone geometric parameters in both Caucasian and Chinese nuclear families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui JIANG; Shu-feng LEI; Su-mei XIAO; Yuan CHEN; Xiao SUN; Fang YANG; Li-ming LI; Shun WU; Hong-wen DENC

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To simultaneously investigate the contribution of the alpha 1 chain of col-lagen type 1 (COL1A1) and alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) genes to the varia-tion of bone geometric parameters in both Caucasians and Chinese. Methods: Six hundred and five Caucasian individuals from 157 nuclear families and 1228 Chi-nese subjects from 400 nuclear families were genotyped at the AHSG-Sacl, COL1A1-PCOL2 and Sp1 polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restric-tion fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). 5 FN bone geometric parameters were calculated based on bone mineral density and bone area of femoral neck (FN)measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Population stratification, total family association, within-family association, and linkage tests were performed by the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test program. Results: The t-test showed the significant differences of all bone geometric phenotypes (except ED)between Caucasians and Chinese in the offspring using both unadjusted and adjusted (by age, height, weight, and gender) data. In Caucasians, we found significant within-family association results between the COL1A1-Sp1 polymor-phism (rs1800012) and cross sectional area (CSA), cortical thickness (CT),endocortical diameter (ED), buckling ratio (BR) (P=0.018, 0.002, 0.023, and 0.001,respectively); the COL1A1-Sp1 polymorphism also detected significant linkage with BR (P=0.039). In the population of China, the within-family associations between the COL1A1-PCOL2 polymorphism (rs1107946) and CT, BR were signifi-cant (P=0.012 and 0.008, respectively). Furthermore, evidence of linkage were observed between the AHSG-SacI polymorphism (rs4918) and CT, BR (P--0.042 and 0.014, respectively) in Caucasians, but not in Chinese. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the COL1A1 gene may have significantly association with bone geometry in both Caucasians and Chinese, and the AHSG gene may be linked to bone geometry in Caucasians, but not in Chinese. This study

  7. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents. PMID:19830913

  8. Discovering the prehistory of multilingual situations in the lexicon An empirical study on the Caucasian Urum vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ries, Veronika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual situations are reflected in the lexicon; by consequence, lexical borrowings are powerful evidence for language contact in the prehistory of linguistic communities. This article presents an empirical study on the lexical knowledge of Caucasian Urum speakers, i. e., ethnic Greek speakers in the Small Caucasus, who are bilingual in a variety of Turkish (Urum and Russian. The analysis is based on the established assumption that certain concepts are cross-linguistically associated with a certain likelihood of borrowing. Based on this assumption the data from lexical knowledge allow for insights with respect to the substrate/superstrate status of the involved languages in a multilingual situation and provide evidence for the type of relation (genetic or contact-induced between compared languages.

  9. Environmental Suitability and Distribution of the Caucasian Rock Agama, Paralaudakia caucasia (Sauria:Agamidae) in Western and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Saeed HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI; Gentile Francesco FICETOLA; Nasrullah RASTEGAR-POUYANI; Natalia B ANANJEVA; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI; Rafaqat MASROOR

    2013-01-01

    Predictive potential distribution modeling is crucial in outlining habitat usage and establishing conservation management priorities. In this paper we provide detailed data on the distribution of the Caucasian rock agama Para-laudakia caucasia, and use species distribution models (MAXENT) to evaluate environmental suitability and potential distribution at a broad spatial scale. Locality data on the distribution of P. caucasia have been gathered over nearly its entire range by various authors from ifeld surveys. The distribution model of P. caucasia showed good performance (AUC=0.887), and predicted high suitability in regions mainly located in Tajikistan, north Pakistan, Afghanistan, southeast Turkmenistan, northeast Iran along the Elburz mountains, Transcaucasus (Azerbajan, Armenia, Georgia), northeastern Turkey and northward along the Caspian Sea coast in Daghestan, Russia. The identiifcation of suitable areas for this species will help to assess conservation status of the species, and to set up management programs.

  10. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R;

    2013-01-01

    TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two...... independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant...... in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association...

  11. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.

  12. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in neuromyelitis optica: a prospective study of 13 Caucasian patients and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălaşa, Rodica; Maier, Smaranda; Bajko, Zoltan; Motataianu, Anca; Crişan, Alexandra; Bălaşa, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a homogenous disease that can be diagnosed by an association of clinical, neuroimaging and serological aspects. We analysed our 4 years NMO series with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) during the disease course. We included consecutive adult Caucasian patients who were diagnosed with definite NMO, or cases of NMO-IgG seropositive LETM considered as limited forms of NMO. Patients included were negative for other diseases (autoimmune, infectious, etc.). We report the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), brain and spine MRI, CSF, NMO-IgG, treatment, motor and visual outcome. Thirteen cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the mean follow-up period was 3.74 ± 1.8 years. The initial motor deficit was severe with the mean value of motor functional parameter of 4.46 ± 1 and improved at discharge to 2.53 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001). With treatment, the outcome after LETM attack was good in 10 patients, with a significant improvement of the EDSS mainly upon motor deficit, while visual function had a very slight amelioration. The CSF analysis was normal in 8 cases; spinal MRI showed evidence of LETM in all patients while brain MRI was normal in 7. NMO-IgG is a biomarker for NMO that is of diagnostic value in cases of isolated LETM. LETM has a better outcome than ON in NMO Caucasians. Spinal MRI is essential for NMO diagnosis in the presence of LETM and the absence of multiple brain MRI lesions. Maintenance immunosuppressive therapy reduces the frequency of attacks. PMID:25944511

  13. Endometrial thickness, Caucasian ethnicity, and age predict clinical pregnancy following fresh blastocyst embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Nanette

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-vitro fertilization (IVF with blastocyst as opposed to cleavage stage embryos has been advocated to improve success rates. Limited information exists on which to predict which patients undergoing blastocyst embryo transfer (BET will achieve pregnancy. This study's objective was to evaluate the predictive value of patient and cycle characteristics for clinical pregnancy following fresh BET. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study from 2003–2007 at an academic assisted reproductive program. 114 women with infertility underwent fresh IVF with embryo transfer. We studied patients undergoing transfer of embryos at the blastocyst stage of development. Our main outcome of interest was clinical pregnancy. Clinical pregnancy and its associations with patient characteristics (age, body mass index, FSH, ethnicity and cycle parameters (thickness of endometrial stripe, number eggs, available cleaving embryos, number blastocysts available, transferred, and cryopreserved, and embryo quality were examined using Student's T test and Mann-Whitney-U tests as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to determine independent predictors of CP following BET. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were used to determine the optimal thickness of endometrial stripe for predicting clinical pregnancy. Results Patients achieving clinical pregnancy demonstrated a thicker endometrial stripe and were younger preceding embryo transfer. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, Caucasian ethnicity (OR 2.641, 95% CI 1.054–6.617, thickness of endometrial stripe, (OR 1.185, 95% CI 1.006–1.396 and age (OR 0.879, 95% CI 0.789–0.980 predicted clinical pregnancy. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, endometrial stripe ≥ 9.4 mm demonstrated a sensitivity of 83% for predicting clinical pregnancy following BET. Conclusion In a cohort of patients undergoing fresh BET, thicker endometrial stripe, Caucasian

  14. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P hair dryer use (P hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P hairs (P hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  15. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  16. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  17. Promoting the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  18. Sex determination from scapular length measurements by CT scans images in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurazza, F; Schena, E; Del Vescovo, R; Cazzato, R L; Mortato, L; Saccomandi, P; Paternostro, F; Onofri, L; Zobel, B Beomonte

    2013-01-01

    Together with race, stature and age, sex is a main component of the biological identity. Thanks to its proportional correlation with parts of the human body, sex can be evaluated form the skeleton. The most accurate approach to determine sex by bone size is based on os coxae or skull. After natural disaster their presence can never be guaranteed, therefore the development of methods of sex determination using other skeletal elements can result crucial. Herein, sexual dimorphism in the human scapula is used to develop a two-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. We have enrolled 100 males and 100 females who underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation and we have estimated two scapular diameters. The estimation has been carried out by analyzing images of the scapulae of each patient after three dimensional post-processing reconstructions. The two-variable function allows to obtain an overall accuracy of 88% on the calibration sample. Furthermore, we have employed the mentioned function on a collection of 10 individual test sample from the collection of the "Museo di Anatomia Umana di Firenze" of the Università degli Studi di Firenze; sex has been correctly predicted on 9 skeletons.

  19. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  20. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  1. The Relating Level of Teacher Candidates Based on Scientific Information with Their Daily Lives: A Case of Ataturk and Caucasian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine and compare candidate teachers' level of relating scientific information with their daily lives. The teachers were studying in the 1st and 4th classes in Atatürk and Caucasian Universities, Education Faculty, Elementary School Science Teaching Department during the 2012-2013 academic year. The research…

  2. A comparison of cardiovascular risk factors among Indo-Asian and caucasian patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Birmingham, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, T S; Lal, M; Haynes, R; Lip, G

    2001-12-01

    Indo-Asians in the UK are at an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD); this may be a reflection of their cardiovascular risk factor profile as well as of a more sedentary lifestyle. We hypothesised that Indo-Asians in Malaysia and the UK may exhibit a similar cardiovascular risk factor and physical activity profile, which would be more adverse compared with caucasians. We studied 70 consecutive Indo-Asian patients admitted to hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n=42; 35 males; mean age 60.6 years, SD 11.8); and Birmingham, England (n=28; 20 males; mean age 60.8 years, SD 12.9). Both groups of Indo-Asian patients were compared with 20 caucasian patients (13 males; mean age 62.7 years, SD 9.4) admitted with myocardial infarction from Birmingham. There was a higher prevalence of diabetes among Indo-Asians in both countries than among caucasians (p=0.0225). By contrast, caucasians had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (p=0.0113), peripheral vascular disease (p=0.0008), regular alcohol consumption (pMalaysia and the UK, may in part contribute to the high incidence of CAD in this ethnic group.

  3. Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women. The EPIC (Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, P D; He, Y; Yates, A J;

    1996-01-01

    We compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body (and subregions: arm, leg, and pelvis), hip, spine, lateral spine, wrist, and forearm among Caucasian and Asian women at four geographic centers (Honolulu, HI; Nottingham, UK; Portland, OR; Copenhagen, Denmark). Data were derived from...

  4. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  5. A Comparison Between Caucasians and African Americans in Willingness to Participate in Cancer Clinical Trials: The Roles of Knowledge, Distrust, Information Sources, and Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret; Pariera, Katrina; Murphy, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to (a) examine the roles of knowledge, distrust in medical professionals, information sources, and 2 dimensions of religiosity (i.e., religious activity and religious belief) in influencing willingness to participate (WTP) in cancer clinical trials and to (b) compare the results for Caucasians and African Americans in order to inform future recruitment. An online survey was fielded via a Knowledge Networks panel with a nationally representative sample including 478 Caucasians and 173 African Americans. The results showed that distrust in medical professionals was a strong barrier to WTP for both ethnic groups, whereas factual knowledge about trial procedures was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. Seeking trial information from doctors was positively associated with WTP for Caucasians; seeking trial information from hospitals was positively associated with WTP for African Americans. More interestingly, levels of religious activity negatively predicted WTP for Caucasians but positively predicted WTP for African Americans. Self-reported religious belief was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. In sum, although distrust is a common barrier to WTP, the influence of preferred information sources and religious activity on WTP varies as a function of ethnicity. PMID:27175604

  6. Brown adipose tissue volume in healthy lean south Asian adults compared with white Caucasians: A prospective, case-controlled observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.E.H.; Boon, M.R.; Linden, R.A.D. van der; Arias-Bouda, L.P.; Klinken, J.B. van; Smit, F.; Verberne, H.J.; Jukema, J.W.; Tamsma, J.T.; Havekes, L.M.; Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D. van; Jazet, I.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individuals of south Asian origin have a very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with white Caucasians. We aimed to assess volume and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is thought to have a role in energy metabolism by combusting fatty acids and glucose to produc

  7. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  8. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 ...

  9. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  10. Rehabilitation of Female Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE women imprisoned for various crimes undergo a reeducation and rehabilitation program which often results in repentance for past wrongdoings, and providing an avenue for them to make a fresh start. Female prisoners study general education courses, learn basic legal concepts and working skills as part of a rehabilitation program that helps reintigrate them into society upon release.

  11. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  12. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelica Artur L.; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Maticki-Sekulić Milana

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  13. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN AFGHANISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    MAGNUS HOLMÉN; THAW TAR MIN; EMILIA SAARELAINEN

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the motivations of eight female Afghan entrepreneurs to start up their own business and the problems they encountered during start-up and operations. Income generation was the most important push factor but pull factors including desire for independence and autonomy were also important. However, in contrast to studies in other countries, the desire for achievement was not emphasized. An unexpected finding was the emphasis on the desire to help non-family members by running...

  14. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Fang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Methods Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC in more patients. Results We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1 functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1 involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3 functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1 involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (PP=0.06. In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of

  15. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more patients. We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1) functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1) involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3) functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1) involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001~P=0.06). In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of PAFAH1B1 protein overexpression was 68

  16. Monitoring of the radioecological situation in marine and coastal environment of Georgia-Southern Caucasian New Independent State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At the same time is marked that during the independence period Georgian officials did not yet restore properly the national monitoring infrastructure for radiation in environment. The mentioned can be explained partially by taking notice of western politologists' opinion that 'Georgia as other Southern Caucasian New Independent States (Azerbaijan, Armenia) belongs to small countries category which at the present stage of development are unable to regulate and eliminate the consequences of ecological disasters without active assistance and support of more developed countries. 'Therefore, National Research and Educational Collaboration for Radioecology, successfully acting in Georgia since 2001, as independent expert institution, initiated the corresponding movement by support of 'Open Society - Georgia'Foundation. Analyses of results were obtained by Collaboration during 2001-2002 show: tendency towards 'purification'of soils polluted by anthropogenic radionuclides during Chernobyl Accident was not observed for the region of studies (Georgian area of the Black Sea coast); minimal and maximal committed annual individual effective doze due to external exposure for population in the region of studies come to 0.15 mSv and 0.35 mSv; maintenance of Cs 137 in agricultural products sometimes exceeds the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force. Maintenance of Pb 210 is also significant; maintenance of Cs 137 in various fish and shellfish is significantly lower than the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force

  17. Tobacco use induces anti-apoptotic, proliferative patterns of gene expression in circulating leukocytes of Caucasian males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Samuel S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong epidemiologic evidence correlates tobacco use with a variety of serious adverse health effects, but the biological mechanisms that produce these effects remain elusive. Results We analyzed gene transcription data to identify expression spectra related to tobacco use in circulating leukocytes of 67 Caucasian male subjects. Levels of cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, were used as a surrogate marker for tobacco exposure. Significance Analysis of Microarray and Gene Set Analysis identified 109 genes in 16 gene sets whose transcription levels were differentially regulated by nicotine exposure. We subsequently analyzed this gene set by hyperclustering, a technique that allows the data to be clustered by both expression ratio and gene annotation (e.g. Gene Ontologies. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that tobacco use affects transcription of groups of genes that are involved in proliferation and apoptosis in circulating leukocytes. These transcriptional effects include a repertoire of transcriptional changes likely to increase the incidence of neoplasia through an altered expression of genes associated with transcription and signaling, interferon responses and repression of apoptotic pathways.

  18. The Y-STR genetic diversity of an Idaho Basque population, with comparison to European Basques and US Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubizarreta, Josu; Davis, Michael C; Hampikian, Greg

    2011-12-01

    Fifty unrelated Basque males from southwest Idaho were typed for the 17 Y-STR loci in the Yfiler multiplex kit (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA H4.1 and DYS385a/b). In total, 42 haplotypes were identified, with no more than two individuals sharing a single haplotype. The haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9935, and gene diversity (D) over loci was 0.457 ± 0.137. The Idaho Basque population was compared to the source population from the Basque autonomous region of Northern Spain and Southern France, as well as a United States Caucasian population. The haplotype diversity for the immigrant Basque sample is within 0.4% of the haplotype diversity of the European Basques (0.9903); thus the power of discrimination is similar for each population. The Idaho Basque population has less diversity in 9 out of 16 loci (considering DYS385a/b together) and 3% less diversity across all loci, compared to the European Basque population. A multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) was created using pairwise R(ST) values to compare the Idaho Basques to other populations. Based upon R(ST) and F(ST) measures, no significant differentiation was found between the Idaho and source European Basque population. PMID:22276968

  19. Association between MDR1 gene polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease in Asian and Caucasian populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shiek S S J; Husain, R S Akram; Kumar, Suresh; Ramakrishnan, V

    2016-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease, its etiology is largely unknown. Studies demonstrate the association of genetic and environment factors in causing neuronal degeneration. Reports suggest that the multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1) plays a vital role in preventing the toxic substance in entering the brain, which is associated with PD. However, the association between the MDR1 polymorphisms (C1236T and C3435T) and its susceptibility to PD is inconclusive. Meta analysis was carried by retrieving literatures from databases to search the case-control studies on the associations between the MRD1 polymorphisms and PD. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed and random model to determine the association between the polymorphisms and PD susceptibility. Significant association was noticed for C1236T polymorphism and PD risk in the recessive model OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.66-0.97. Further, ethnicity based analysis showed significant association for C1236T in allelic model of Asian population and also in the recessive models of both Asian and Caucasian populations. However, insignificant associations were noticed for C3435T in all the four models. Overall, the analysis suggested that MDR1 C1236T polymorphism substantially contribute to Parkinson's disease in the recessive genetic model. PMID:27538645

  20. Estudo cefalométrico do posicionamento dentário em jovens brasileiros feodermas com "oclusão normal" Cephalometric study of tooth position in young Afro-Caucasian Brazilian individuals with normal occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jacomino Franco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: com o propósito de apresentar um padrão cefalométrico específico para os jovens brasileiros feodermas, este estudo se propôs a obter os valores médios para algumas das variáveis cefalométricas dentárias e verificar a presença de dimorfismo entre os sexos. MÉTODOS: 40 telerradiografias, em norma lateral - de 20 indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idade média de 13,25 anos (idade mínima de 12,20 anos e máxima de 14,30 anos, e 20 do sexo feminino, com idade média de 13,10 anos (idade mínima de 12,00 anos e máxima de 14,21 anos - foram obtidas de jovens brasileiros, feodermas (mulatos ou pardos, não submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico e que apresentavam Padrão I e "oclusão normal". As variáveis cefalométricas dentárias foram determinadas de acordo com as análises de Downs, Steiner, Riedel, Tweed, McNamara, Ricketts, e Interlandi. Os valores foram submetidos à análise estatística, pelo teste t independente, para comparar as variáveis entre os sexos. RESULTADOS: os incisivos superiores e inferiores apresentaram-se protruídos e inclinados para a vestibular. Não ocorreu diferença estatística significativa entre os sexos para as 13 variáveis dentárias avaliadas. CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que os jovens feodermas sem alterações esqueléticas (Padrão I apresentam características faciais e posicionamento dentário específicos em relação aos demais grupos étnicos brasileiros.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to achieve a specific cephalometric pattern for young Afro-Caucasian Brazilian individuals and verify the presence of dimorphism between sexes. METHODS: The sample was composed of 40 lateral cephalograms of young Afro-Caucasian Brazilian individuals (mulattos, 20 males (mean age 13.25 years and 20 females (mean age 13.10 years, with normal occlusion and no previous orthodontic treatment. The cephalometric variables were determined according to the analyses of Downs, Steiner, Riedel, Tweed, Mc

  1. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  2. International workshop 'Effect of ionizing radiation on ecological situation of countries from Caucasian region and Caspian sea basin'. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientists from following countries took part at the international workshop: Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Uzbekistan. The activity was conducted in two sections. Section A was devoted to the problems of radiation safety and natural sciences of radiation contamination in Caucasian region and Caspian sea basin, oil industry and technology and environment monitoring. Section B was devoted to the evaluation of radiation risks, radioprotectors, ecological and genetical consequences of the anthropogenic factors effect on the environment

  3. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Michael J; Jenkinson Crispin; Balen Adam H; Ledger William L; Palep-Singh Manisha; Jones Georgina L; Lashen Hany

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 Sou...

  4. Health Promoting Life-Style Behaviors and Systemic Inflammation in African American and Caucasian Women Prior to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Debra E. Lyon; Lathika Mohanraj; Debra Lynch Kelly; RK Elswick Jr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes persist, with differential adverse outcomes in African American women. Although research has examined possible genetic differences, there has been little research on potentially modifiable characteristics such as health promoting behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and to compare the differences by race in lifestyle factors and inflammatory biomarkers in African American and Caucasian women with bre...

  5. A comparison of 12-gene colon cancer assay gene expression in African American and Caucasian patients with stage II colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, Rangaswamy; Posey, James; Chao, Calvin Y.; Lu, Ruixiao; Jadhav, Trafina; Javed, Ahmed Y.; Javed, Awais; Mahmoud, Fade A.; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U.; Manne, Upender

    2016-01-01

    Background African American (AA) colon cancer patients have a worse prognosis than Caucasian (CA) colon cancer patients, however, reasons for this disparity are not well understood. To determine if tumor biology might contribute to differential prognosis, we measured recurrence risk and gene expression using the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay (12-gene assay) and compared the Recurrence Score results and gene expression profiles between AA patients and CA patients with stage II colon cancer. ...

  6. Association study between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and risk of Alzheimer’s disease in Caucasians of Italian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Tannorella, Pierpaola; Stoccoro, Andrea; Tognoni, Gloria; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an epigenetic contribution in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this regard, variants and polymorphisms of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMTs) are being investigated for their contribution to cognitive decline and dementia, but results are still scarce or controversial. In the present study we genotyped 710 Caucasian subjects of Italian descent, including 320 late-onset AD (LOAD) patients, 70 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and ...

  7. Identification of the uncommon allele HLA-A*7403 in a Caucasian renal transplant cadaveric donor: extension of the exon 4 sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canossi, A; Del Beato, T; Piazza, A; Liberatore, G; Ozzella, G; Tessitore, A; Adorno, D

    2007-06-01

    This report describes the unknown exon 4 sequence of the rare A*7403 allele, identified in a Caucasian renal transplant cadaveric donor from Italy. This sequence is identical to that of the only known A*7401 exon 4, and this result allowed us to confirm the hypothesis of the generation of A*7403 allele from the ancestor A*7402 by point mutation in exon 2.

  8. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Contribution of SLC19A1 (RFC-1) 80G>A Polymorphism to Alzheimer’s Disease in Italian Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Coppedè; Pierpaola Tannorella; Gloria Tognoni; Silvia Bagnoli; Paolo Bongioanni; Benedetta Nacmias; Gabriele Siciliano; Sandro Sorbi; Ubaldo Bonuccelli; Lucia Migliore

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. Polymorphisms of genes involved in folate metabolism have been frequently suggested as risk factors for sporadic AD. A common c.80G>A polymorphism (rs1051266) in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1 gene, commonly known as RFC-1 gene) was investigated as AD risk factor in Asian populations, yielding conflicting results. We screened a Caucasian population o...

  9. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  10. Discovery of a new gene pool and a high genetic diversity of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Caucasian Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, S; Lutz, A; Tavadze, B; Supatashvili, A; Rigling, D

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and possible origins of the plant pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica in Caucasian Georgia, a region within the centre of origin of the host species Castanea sativa. A total of 427 C. parasitica isolates from nine populations were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. A high genetic diversity was detected, but the overall Georgian population was dominated by three haplotypes which were present in most individual populations. Two of them have not been previously found in Europe. Bayesian clustering analysis and principal component analysis could not identify their source population, neither in Asia nor in North America. On the other hand, one haplotype is frequent in Central Europe and probably naturally invaded Caucasian Georgia from neighbouring Turkey. Seventy-three haplotypes were unique to specific populations, and 66 of them were represented by a single isolate. Allele patterns suggest that most of these haplotypes emerged locally through sexual recombination between haplotypes of the Georgian and the central European gene pool. Due to the high incidence of haplotypes not otherwise present in Europe, Caucasian Georgia represents an additional source of diversity for the European C. parasitica population.

  11. Persistence of depression in African American and Caucasian women at midlife: findings from the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Bromberger, Joyce T; Schott, Laura L; Crawford, Sybil; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the course of depression in African American and Caucasian midlife women over an 11-year period. Racial differences in lifetime history of depression, severity of depressive symptoms and rates of depressive disorders at baseline, and persistence or recurrence of depression over an 11 year period were examined. Predictors of persistence/recurrence of depression were also examined. The sample was comprised of 423 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN) Mental Health Study (MHS). All participants completed baseline and annual assessments, which included self-reported measures of health, functioning, and psychosocial factors, and clinician administered assessments of psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine predictors of depression persistence/recurrence. Findings indicated that African American and Caucasian women did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and baseline depressive disorders, or severity of depressive symptoms. Annual assessments revealed no significant differences between the groups in rates of persistent/recurrent depression. While African American and Caucasian women do not differ in recurrence of depression at midlife, factors associated with depression differed by race. PMID:24996377

  12. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George

    2012-06-01

    Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.

  13. Genetic variants in the CPNE5 gene are associated with alcohol dependence and obesity in Caucasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Sheng; Zuo, Lingjun; Pan, Yue; Xie, Changchun; Luo, Xingguang

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol addiction may increase the risk of obesity due to shared genetic components. The Copine V (CPNE5) gene is involved in Ca(2+) binding and may play an important role in the development of the central nervous system. This study tested the genetic associations of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CPNE5 gene with alcohol dependence (AD) and obesity using a Caucasian sample - The Study of Addiction - Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample (1066 AD cases and 1278 non-AD controls, 422 obese cases and 1395 non-obese controls). The Marshfield sample (1442 obese cases and 2122 non-obese controls) was used for replication of obesity. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using the PLINK software. In the SAGE sample, we identified 10 SNPs associated with AD and 17 SNPs associated with obesity (p obesity (OR = 0.77, 0.77, 0.78, 0.77, 0.68 and 1.18, respectively; p = 2.74 × 10(-3), 2.69 × 10(-3), 2.45 × 10(-3), 1.01 × 10(-3), 5.18 × 10(-3) and 3.85 × 10(-2), respectively). In the Marshfield sample, rs3752480 was associated with obesity (p = 0.0379). In addition, four SNPs (rs9986517, rs10456444, rs7763347 and rs4714010) showed associations with obesity in the meta-analysis using both samples (p = 0.00493, 0.0274, 0.00346, and 0.0141, respectively). These findings provide the first evidence of common genetic variants in the CPNE5 gene influencing both the AD and obesity; and will serve as a resource for replication in other populations.

  14. An evaluation of the performance of tag SNPs derived from HapMap in a Caucasian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haplotype Map (HapMap project recently generated genotype data for more than 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in four population samples. The main application of the data is in the selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs to use in association studies. The usefulness of this selection process needs to be verified in populations outside those used for the HapMap project. In addition, it is not known how well the data represent the general population, as only 90-120 chromosomes were used for each population and since the genotyped SNPs were selected so as to have high frequencies. In this study, we analyzed more than 1,000 individuals from Estonia. The population of this northern European country has been influenced by many different waves of migrations from Europe and Russia. We genotyped 1,536 randomly selected SNPs from two 500-kbp ENCODE regions on Chromosome 2. We observed that the tSNPs selected from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain from Utah (CEU HapMap samples (derived from US residents with northern and western European ancestry captured most of the variation in the Estonia sample. (Between 90% and 95% of the SNPs with a minor allele frequency of more than 5% have an r2 of at least 0.8 with one of the CEU tSNPs. Using the reverse approach, tags selected from the Estonia sample could almost equally well describe the CEU sample. Finally, we observed that the sample size, the allelic frequency, and the SNP density in the dataset used to select the tags each have important effects on the tagging performance. Overall, our study supports the use of HapMap data in other Caucasian populations, but the SNP density and the bias towards high-frequency SNPs have to be taken into account when designing association studies.

  15. Comprehensive characterization of human genome variation by high coverage whole-genome sequencing of forty four Caucasians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing studies are essential to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the vast pattern of human genomic variations. Here we report the results of a high-coverage whole genome sequencing study for 44 unrelated healthy Caucasian adults, each sequenced to over 50-fold coverage (averaging 65.8×. We identified approximately 11 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 2.8 million short insertions and deletions, and over 500,000 block substitutions. We showed that, although previous studies, including the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 study, have catalogued the vast majority of common SNPs, many of the low-frequency and rare variants remain undiscovered. For instance, approximately 1.4 million SNPs and 1.3 million short indels that we found were novel to both the dbSNP and the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 data sets, and the majority of which (∼96% have a minor allele frequency less than 5%. On average, each individual genome carried ∼3.3 million SNPs and ∼492,000 indels/block substitutions, including approximately 179 variants that were predicted to cause loss of function of the gene products. Moreover, each individual genome carried an average of 44 such loss-of-function variants in a homozygous state, which would completely "knock out" the corresponding genes. Across all the 44 genomes, a total of 182 genes were "knocked-out" in at least one individual genome, among which 46 genes were "knocked out" in over 30% of our samples, suggesting that a number of genes are commonly "knocked-out" in general populations. Gene ontology analysis suggested that these commonly "knocked-out" genes are enriched in biological process related to antigen processing and immune response. Our results contribute towards a comprehensive characterization of human genomic variation, especially for less-common and rare variants, and provide an invaluable resource for future genetic studies of human variation and diseases.

  16. Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy. PMID:19629662

  17. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Celbis, Osman [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Malatya (Turkey); Harma, Ahmet [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya (Turkey); Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Anatomy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 {+-} 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 {+-} 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 {+-} 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 {+-} 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  18. African American men with low-grade prostate cancer have increased disease recurrence after prostatectomy compared with Caucasian men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamoah, Kosj; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Spangler, Elaine; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Malkowicz, Bruce; Lee, David I.; Kattan, Michael; Dicker, Adam P.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore whether disparities in outcomes exist between African-American (AA) and Caucasian (CS) men with low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) and similar Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post-Surgery (CAPRA-S) features following prostatectomy (RP) METHODS The overall cohort consisted of 1,265 men (234 AA, and 1,031 CS) who met National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN) criteria for low-intermediate risk PCa and underwent RP between 1990 and 2012. We first evaluated whether clinical factors were associated with adverse pathologic outcomes and freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) using the entire cohort. Next, we studied a subset of 705 men (112 AA, and 593 CS) who had pathologic Gleason score ≤6 (low-grade disease). Using this cohort, we determined whether race impacted FFbF in men with prostatectomy-proven low-grade disease and similar CAPRA-S score. RESULTS With a median follow up time of 27 months, the overall 7-year FFbF rate was 86% vs. 79% in CS and AA men, respectively (p=0.035). There was no significant difference in ≥1 adverse pathologic features between CS vs. AA men (27% vs. 31%; P =0.35) or CAPRA-S score (p=0.28). In the subset analysis of patients with low-grade disease, AA race was associated with worse FFbF outcomes (p=0.002). Furthermore, AA race was a significant predictor of FFbF in men with low-grade disease (HR 2.01, 95%CI 1.08–3.72; p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS AA race is a predictor of worse FFbF outcomes in men with low-grade disease after RP. These results suggest that a subset of AA men with low-grade disease may benefit from more aggressive treatment. PMID:25304288

  19. Development and cross-validation of prediction equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, Stefano; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop and cross-validate new equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in severely obese children and adolescents, and to determine the accuracy of new equations using the Bland-Altman method. The subjects of the study were 574 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean BMI z-score 3.3). REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 287 subjects and the equations were cross-validated in the remaining 287 subjects. Two new specific equations based on anthropometric parameters were generated as follows: (1) REE=(Sex x 892.68)-(Age x 115.93)+(Weight x 54.96)+(Stature x 1816.23)+1484.50 (R(2) 0.66; se 1028.97 kJ); (2) REE=(Sex x 909.12)-(Age x 107.48)+(fat-free mass x 68.39)+(fat mass x 55.19)+3631.23 (R(2) 0.66; se 1034.28 kJ). In the cross-validation group, mean predicted REE values were not significantly different from the mean measured REE for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and for girls (difference <2 %) and the limits of agreement (+/-2 sd) were +2.06 and -1.77 MJ/d (NS). The new prediction equations allow an accurate estimation of REE in groups of severely obese children and adolescents. These equations might be useful for health care professionals and researchers when estimating REE in severely obese children and adolescents. PMID:17092390

  20. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    , exposure to science, parent influence, peer influence, teacher expectations, strategies for academic success in science, and perception of self in a predominantly Caucasian population. This information should be used to create interactive suburban middle school science classrooms that encourage the participation of African American females. These females should experience increased involvement with activities that expose them to science that is relevant to their lives. As a result, these females will be inspired to excel in science and one day enter into science careers.

  1. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  2. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in...... psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  3. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  4. Letters from Officer/Orientalist K.N. Smirnov from the Caucasian Front as a Source for the Study of the Military/Political Situation in Turkey and Iran in 1914–1917 (Continuation)

    OpenAIRE

    Nugzar K. Ter-Oganov

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze the letters of officer/orientalist and military oriental scholar, officer in the Intelligence Section of the Staff of the Caucasian Military District, Staff Captain Konstantin Nikolayevich Smirnov, sent by him from the Turkish and Iranian sectors of the Caucasian front to his wife Kseniya Karlovna Smirnova (Kester) over the period 1914–1917. Depending on changes in the deployment of Russian troops fighting against the Turkish army, as well as the German-Turkish ...

  5. HTR1B, ADIPOR1, PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and Obesity in a Cohort of Caucasians and African Americans: An Evaluation of Gene-Environment Interactions and Candidate Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Villegas, Raquel; Cohen, Sarah S.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Fowke, Jay H.; Schlundt, David; Long, Ji Rong; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Jeffrey, Smith; Williams, Scott M.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Matthews, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that the number of obese and overweight adults has increased to 1.6 billion, with concomitant increases in comorbidity. While genetic factors for obesity have been extensively studied in Caucasians, fewer studies have investigated genetic determinants of body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) in African Americans. A total of 38 genes and 1,086 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans (n = 1,173) and 897 SNPs in Caucasians (n = 1,165) were examined in the Southern Community Cohort Study (2002–2009) for associations with BMI and gene × environment interactions. A statistically significant association with BMI survived correction for multiple testing at rs4140535 (β = −0.04, 95% confidence interval: −0.06, −0.02; P = 5.76 × 10−5) in African Americans but not in Caucasians. Gene-environment interactions were observed with cigarette smoking and a SNP in ADIPOR1 in African Americans, as well as between a different SNP in ADIPOR1 and physical activity in Caucasians. A SNP in PPARGC1A interacted with alcohol consumption in African Americans, and a different SNP in PPARGC1A was nominally associated in Caucasians. A SNP in CYP19A1 interacted with dietary energy intake in African Americans, and another SNP in CYP191A had an independent association with BMI in Caucasians. PMID:22106445

  6. Comparison of performance-based measures among native Japanese, Japanese-Americans in Hawaii and Caucasian women in the United States, ages 65 years and over: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Takuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese (both in Japan and Hawaii have a lower incidence of falls and of hip fracture than North American and European Caucasians, but the reasons for these differences are not clear. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study. We compared neuromuscular risk factors for falls using performance-based measures (chair stand time, usual and rapid walking speed, and grip strength among 163 Japanese women in Japan, 681 Japanese-American women in Hawaii and 9403 Caucasian women in the United States aged 65 years and over. Results After adjusting for age, the Caucasian women required about 40% more time to complete 5 chair stands than either group of Japanese. Walking speed was about 10% slower among Caucasians than native Japanese, whereas Japanese-American women in Hawaii walked about 11% faster than native Japanese. Grip strength was greatest in Japan, which may reflect the rural farming district that this sample was drawn from. Additional adjustment for height, weight or body mass index increased the adjusted means of chair stand time and grip strength among Japanese, but the differences remained significant. Conclusions Both native Japanese and Japanese-American women in Hawaii performed better than Caucasians on chair stand time and walking speed tests, and native Japanese had greater grip strength than Japanese in Hawaii and Caucasians. The biological implications of these differences in performance are uncertain, but may be useful in planning future comparisons between populations.

  7. Neurotoxicity and low paclitaxel clearance associated with concomitant clopidogrel therapy in a 60 year old Caucasian woman with ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Troels K; Filppula, Anne M; Launiainen, Terhi;

    2015-01-01

    spectrometry. RESULTS: The patient was a 60 year old female treated with an unknown dose of clopidogrel at the time of paclitaxel therapy. Clopidogrel was present in all the three plasma samples obtained during paclitaxel dosing. Estimated unbound paclitaxel clearance was 238 L/h, which is only 62...

  8. The Female Athlete Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  9. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  10. The role of HLA class II genes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Molecular analysis of 180 Caucasian, multiplex families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, J.A.; Cook, M.; Erlich, H.A. [Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA (United States)]|[Children`s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    We report here our analysis of HLA class II alleles in 180 Caucasian nuclear families with at least two children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 genotypes were determined with PCR/sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe typing methods. The data allowed unambiguous determination of four-locus haplotypes in all but three of the families. Consistent with other studies, our data indicate an increase in DR3/DR4, DR3/DR3, and DR4/DR4 genotypes in patients compared to controls. In addition, we found an increase in DR1/DR4, DR1/DR3, and DR4/DR8 genotypes. While the frequency of DQB1*0302 on DR4 haplotypes is dramatically increased in DR3/DR4 patients, DR4 haplotypes in DR1/DR4 patients exhibit frequencies of DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0301 more closely resembling those in control populations. The protective effect of DR2 is evident in this data set and is limited to the common DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype. Most DR2{sup +} patients carry the less common DR2 haplotype DRB1*1601-DQB1*0502, which is not decreased in patients relative to controls. DPB1 also appears to play a role in disease susceptibility. DPB1*0301 is increased in patients (P < .001) and may contribute to the disease risk of a number of different DR-DQ haplotypes. DPB1*0101, found almost exclusively on DR3 haplotypes in patients, is slightly increased, and maternal transmissions of DRB1*0301-DPB1*0101 haplotypes to affected children occur twice as frequently as do paternal transmissions. Transmissions of DR3 haplotypes carrying other DPB1 alleles occur at approximately equal maternal and paternal frequencies. The complex, multigenic nature of HLA class II-associated IDDM susceptibility is evident from these data. 76 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  12. Female Consciousness in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁存

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bront is a remarkable women writer in the 19th-century English literature. Jane Eyre received comprehensive attention. This thesis analyzes main characters from three aspects, Jane Eyre’s female consciousness, pursuit of equality, freedom and presents the limitation in Jane Eyre. It also examines the nature of Charlotte Bront?’s pioneering female consciousness and demonstrates its positive development.

  13. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  14. Diagnostic Testing for Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine Diagnostic Testing for Female Infertility An evaluation of a woman for infertility is ... or suspected male infertility problems Any evaluation for infertility should be ... as well as female partners. The least invasive methods that can detect ...

  15. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  16. Transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms are associated with progression of liver fibrosis in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Senait Mengsteab; Carmen G. Tag; Chun-Fang Gao; Claus Hellerbrand; Frank Lammert; Axel M. Gressner; Ralf Weiskirchen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Considerable attention is focused on polymorphisms in the gene encoding transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1),a multifunctional cytokine that is in turn a potent growth inhibitor involved in wound healing and differentiation. In humans, it promotes the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis,atherosclerosis, cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, keloid disease, and hypertrophic scarring. For this reason, much emphasis has been placed on studies elucidating the impact of TGF-β1 and its gene variations for the susceptibility and pathogenesis of these diseases.Unfortunately, some studies have serious limitations.METHODS: We have recently described a high-throughput method for investigation the Arg25Pro polymorphism of human TGF-β1 gene and showed that the frequency of the Pro25 allele is significantly associated with hepatic fibrogenesis. In this report, we describe two novel LightCyder (LC) techniques that facilitate the examination of the two other known alterations in the coding region of TGF-β1.We investigated whether these polymorphisms contribute to hepatitis-induced progression of fibrogenesis in Chinese and Caucasians.RESULTS: In the Chinese ancestry, the gene polymorphisms at codons 25 and 263 were not found and the genetic variant at codon 10 is unlikely to confer susceptibility to hepatic fibrosis. Contrarily, in Caucasians TGF-β1 allelic variations are more frequent and the presence of prolines either in codon 25 or 10 is associated with the interindividual variability in developing more severe fibrosis during chronic hepatitis C infection.CONCLUSION: In summary, these results confirm the hypothesis that TGF-β1 polymorphisms are associated with fibrosis progression in Caucasians chronically infected with hepatitis C.

  17. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. PMID:16220469

  18. Differentiating pre- and minimally invasive from invasive adenocarcinoma using CT-features in persistent pulmonary part-solid nodules in Caucasian patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Julien G., E-mail: JCohen@chu-grenoble.fr [Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (CURIM), Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Reymond, Emilie [Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (CURIM), Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Lederlin, Mathieu [Service de Radiologie, Université Segalen Bordeaux, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 12 rue Dubernat, 33404 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Medici, Maud [Centre d’Investigation Clinique – Innovation Technologique (CIC-IT), Pavillon Taillefer, 38706 La Tronche Cedex (France); Lantuejoul, Sylvie [Departement d’Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologique (DACP), Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Laurent, François [Service de Radiologie, Université Segalen Bordeaux, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 12 rue Dubernat, 33404 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Arbib, François [Departement de Pneumologie, Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jankowski, Adrien [Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (CURIM), Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); and others

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We analyzed CT-features of part-solid ground glass nodules in Caucasians. •These CT-features were compared to pathology on full resection specimen. •Several CT-features can help differentiating invasive adenocarcinoma. •A solid component larger than 5 mm had 100% sensitivity for invasive adenocarcinoma. -- Abstract: Objective: To retrospectively investigate the diagnostic value of pre-operative CT-features between pre/minimally invasive and invasive lesions in part-solid persistent pulmonary ground glass nodules in a Caucasian population. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of two pre-operative CTs for 31 nodules in 30 patients. There were 10 adenocarcinomas in situ, 1 minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, 20 invasive adenocarcinomas. We analyzed the correlation between histopathology and the following CT-features: maximal axial diameter, maximal orthogonal axial diameter, height, density, size of solid component, air bronchogram, pleural retraction, nodule mass, disappearance rate and their evolution during follow-up. Results: In univariate analysis, invasive adenocarcinomas had a higher maximal height, density, solid component size, mass, a lower disappearance rate and presented more often with pleural retraction (p < 0.05). After logistic regression performed with the uncorrelated parameters using a method of selection of variables, only the size of solid component remained significant, with 100% sensitivity for invasive adenocarcinoma when larger than 5 mm. Conclusion: Preoperative CT-features can help differentiating in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinomas from invasive adenocarcinomas in Caucasian patients. A solid component larger than 5 mm in diameter had 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of invasive adenocarcinoma.

  19. Minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in treatment naive East-African and Caucasian patients detected by allele-specific real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halime Ekici

    Full Text Available To assess the presence of two major non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI drug resistance mutations (DRMs, Y181C and K103N, in minor viral quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected East-African and Swedish patients by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR.Treatment naïve adults (n=191 with three epidemiological backgrounds were included: 92 Ethiopians living in Ethiopia; 55 East-Africans who had migrated to Sweden; and 44 Caucasians living in Sweden. The pol gene was analysed by standard population sequencing and by AS-PCR for the detection of Y181C and K103N.The Y181C was detected in the minority quasispecies of six Ethiopians (6.5%, in two Caucasians (4.5%, and in one East-African (1.8%. The K103N was detected in one East- African (1.8%, by both methods. The proportion of mutants ranged from 0.25% to 17.5%. Additional DRMs were found in all three treatment naïve patient groups by population sequencing.Major NNRTI mutations can be found by AS-PCR in minor quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected Ethiopians living in Ethiopia, in East-African and Caucasian patients living in Sweden in whom population sequencing reveal wild-type virus only. Surveys with standard sequencing are likely to underestimate transmitted drug resistance and the presence of resistant minor quasispecies in treatment naïve patients should be topic for future large scale studies.

  20. Frequencies of 23 functionally significant variant alleles related with metabolism of antineoplastic drugs in the Chilean population: comparison with Caucasian and Asian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Margarita Roco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cancer incidence rate in Chile is 133.7/100,000 inhabitants and it is the second cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases. Most of the antineoplastic drugs are metabolized to be detoxified, and some of them to be activated. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes can induce deep changes in enzyme activity, leading to individual variability in drug efficacy and/or toxicity. The present research describes the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the Chilean population, which might be useful in public health programs for personalized treatment of cancer, and compare these frequencies with those reported for Asian and Caucasian populations, as a contribution to the evaluation of ethnic differences in the response to chemotherapy.We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in a group of 253 unrelated Chilean volunteers from the general population. The results showed that CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*3, CYP2D6*3, CYP2C19*3 and CYP3A4*17 variant alleles are virtually absent in Chileans. CYP1A1*2A allele frequency (0.37 is similar to that of Caucasians and higher than that reported for Japanese people. Allele frequencies for CYP3A5*3 (0.76 and CYP2C9*3 (0.04 are similar to those observed in Japanese people. CYP1A1*2C (0.32, CYP1A2*1F (0.77, CYP3A4*1B(0.06, CYP2D6*2(0.41 and MTHFR T(0.52 allele frequencies are higher than the observed either in Caucasian or in Japanese populations. Conversely, CYP2C19*2 allele frequency (0.12 and GSTT1null (0.11 and GSTM1null (0.36 genotype frequencies are lower than those observed in both populations. Finally, allele frequencies for CYP2A6*4(0.04, CYP2C8*3(0.06, CYP2C9*2(0.06, CYP2D6*4(0.12, CYP2E1*5B(0.14, CYP2E1*6(0.19, and UGT2B7*2(0.40 are intermediate in relation to those described in Caucasian and in Japanese populations, as expected according to the ethnic origin of the Chilean population.In conclusion, our findings support the idea that ethnic variability must be considered

  1. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Paddy KC Janssen; Ron van Schaik; Berend Olivier; Waldinger, Marcel D.

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-m...

  2. 31-Year-Old Female Shows Marked Improvement in Depression, Agitation, and Panic Attacks after Genetic Testing Was Used to Inform Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case describes a 31-year-old female Caucasian patient with complaints of ongoing depression, agitation, and severe panic attacks. The patient was untreated until a recent unsuccessful trial of citalopram followed by venlafaxine which produced a partial response. Genetic testing was performed to assist in treatment decisions and revealed the patient to be heterozygous for polymorphisms in 5HT2C, ANK3, and MTHFR and homozygous for a polymorphism in SLC6A4 and the low activity (Met/Met COMT allele. In response to genetic results and clinical presentation, venlafaxine was maintained and lamotrigine was added leading to remission of agitation and depression.

  3. Unique relationships between facets of mindfulness and eating pathology among female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Apperson McVay, Megan; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study examined associations between facets of trait mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in 112 college female smokers (83% Caucasian; mean age 20 years, SD=1.69). After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, Describing and Nonjudging facets of mindfulness predicted lower bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction (psmindfulness facets are related to lower eating disorder symptoms among smokers, whereas other facets are not associated or have a positive relationship with these symptoms. Mindfulness-based interventions focusing on Describing, Nonjudging, and Acting with Awareness may help to reduce eating pathology among female smokers, which could potentially improve smoking cessation rates in this population.

  4. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  5. The female runner: gender specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  6. Differences in the expressed HLA class I alleles effect the differential clustering of HIV type 1-specific T cell responses in infected Chinese and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu,XG; Addo,MM; Perkins,BA; Wej,FL; Rathod,A; Geer,SC; Parta,M; Cohen,D; Stone,DR; Russell,CJ; Tanzi,G; Mei,S; Wureel,AG; Frahm,N; Lichterfeld,M; Heath,L; Mullins,JI; Marincola,F; Goulder,PJR; Brander,C; Allen,T; Cao,YZ; Walker,BD; Altfeld,M

    2005-01-01

    China is a region of the world with a rapidly spreading HIV-1 epidemic. Studies providing insights into HIV-1 pathogenesis in infected Chinese are urgently needed to support the design and testing of an effective HIV-1 vaccine for this population. HIV-1-specific T cell responses were characterized in 32 HIV-1-infected individuals of Chinese origin and compared to 34 infected caucasians using 410 overlapping peptides spanning the entire HIV-1 clade B consensus sequence in an IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. All HIV-1 proteins were targeted with similar frequency in both populations and all study subjects recognized at least one overlapping peptide. HIV-1-specific T cell responses clustered in seven different regions of the HIV-1 genome in the Chinese cohort and in nine different regions in the caucasian cohort. The dominant HLA class I alleles expressed in the two populations differed significantly, and differences in epitope clustering pattern were shown to be influenced by differences in class I alleles that restrict immunodominant epitopes. These studies demonstrate that the clustering of HIV-1-specific T cell responses is influenced by the genetic HLA class I background in the study populations. The design and testing of candidate vaccines to fight the rapidly growing HIV-1 epidemic must therefore take the HLA genetics of the population into account as specific regions of the virus can be expected to be differentially targeted in ethnically diverse populations.

  7. Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Pezdirc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR age 22.1 (18.1–29.1 years, BMI 22.9 (18.5–31.9 kg/m2 were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia. Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017 were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004 were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted.

  8. Health Promoting Life-Style Behaviors and Systemic Inflammation in African American and Caucasian Women Prior to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra E Lyon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes persist, with differential adverse outcomes in African American women. Although research has examined possible genetic differences, there has been little research on potentially modifiable characteristics such as health promoting behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and to compare the differences by race in lifestyle factors and inflammatory biomarkers in African American and Caucasian women with breast cancer. Methods: This is a baseline descriptive analysis from an ongoing randomized controlled trial that includes 124 women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer prior to chemotherapy. Data sources included medical records, self-report questionnaires and a blood sample for measures of inflammation. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and ANOVA models to determine differences between the two groups. Results: Overall, both groups had low levels of health promoting behaviors. African Americans had a significantly higher body mass index. Caucasian women consumed more alcohol. Levels of C-reactive protein and MIP-1β were significantly higher in African Americans. Conclusion: Potentially modifiable factors such as nutrition, physical activity and levels of inflammation warrant further attention.

  9. Population data on the thirteen CODIS core short tandem repeat loci in African Americans, U.S. Caucasians, Hispanics, Bahamians, Jamaicans, and Trinidadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, B; Moretti, T R; Baumstark, A L; Defenbaugh, D A; Keys, K M

    1999-11-01

    Allele distributions for 13 tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci, CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, and D21S11, were determined in African American, United States Caucasian, Hispanic, Bahamian, Jamaican, and Trinidadian sample populations. There was little evidence for departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) in any of the populations. Based on the exact test, the loci that departed significantly from HWE are: D21S11 (p = 0.010, Bahamians); CSF1PO (p = 0.014, Trinidadians); TPOX (p = 0.011, Jamaicans and p = 0.035, U.S. Caucasians); and D16S539 (p = 0.043, Bahamians). After employing the Bonferroni correction for the number of loci analyzed (i.e., 13 loci per database), these observations are not likely to be significant. There is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci in these databases. The allelic frequency data are similar to other comparable data within the same major population group.

  10. A hemochromatosis-causing mutation C282Y is a risk factor for proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, Borut; Globocnik Petrovic, Mojca; Makuc, Jana; Hawlina, Marko; Petrovic, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Iron metabolism might be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. C282Y and H63D mutations in the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene are associated with increased serum iron levels and consequently with hereditary hemochromatosis. In the present study, we searched for a relationship between C282Y and H63D gene mutations and the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes. For this purpose, 90 subjects with type 2 diabetes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) were compared to 133 diabetic subjects without PDR. There was a significantly higher frequency of the C282Y heterozygotes in patients with PDR compared to subjects without it (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.2-8.0; p=0.02), whereas no association was demonstrated between PDR and H63D genotypes (OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.6-2.2; p=0.7). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the C282Y mutation was a significant independent risk factor for the development of PDR (OR=6.1, 95% CI=1.2-30.5; p=0.027). These data suggest that heterozygosity for C282Y might be a novel risk factor for PDR in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes. PMID:14618419

  11. Association of collagen type I alpha1 (COLIA1) Sp1 polymorphism with osteoporotic fracture in Caucasian post-menopausal women: a meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ji, G-R

    2012-01-06

    This study was designed to summarize quantitatively the evidence for a relationship between collagen type I alpha1 (COLIA1) Sp1 polymorphism and osteoporotic fracture risk in Caucasian post-menopausal women. This meta-analysis included 16 studies, which analysed 2294 patients with fractures and 10 285 controls. The combined results showed that there was a significant difference in genotype distribution (SS odds ratio [OR] 0.72; Ss OR 1.18; ss OR 1.97) between patients with fractures and controls. When stratifying by the fracture site, it was found that: (i) patients with vertebral fractures had a significantly higher frequency of the Ss genotype and a lower frequency of the SS genotype than controls; and (ii) patients with non-vertebral fractures had a significantly higher frequency of the ss genotype and a lower frequency of the SS genotype than controls. This meta-analysis suggests that the COLIA1 Sp1 polymorphism may be associated with osteoporotic fracture in Caucasian post-menopausal women.

  12. From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. PMID:26536399

  13. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Contribution of SLC19A1 (RFC-1 80G>A Polymorphism to Alzheimer’s Disease in Italian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Coppedè

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. Polymorphisms of genes involved in folate metabolism have been frequently suggested as risk factors for sporadic AD. A common c.80G>A polymorphism (rs1051266 in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1 gene, commonly known as RFC-1 gene was investigated as AD risk factor in Asian populations, yielding conflicting results. We screened a Caucasian population of Italian origin composed of 192 sporadic AD patients and 186 healthy matched controls, for the presence of the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism, and searched for correlation with circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12. No difference in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies was observed between AD patients and controls. No correlation was observed among the genotypes generated by the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 either in the whole cohort of subjects or after stratification into clinical subtypes. Present results do not support a role for the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism as independent risk factor for sporadic AD in Italian Caucasians.

  14. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  15. TC in female pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about the role of imaging in the female pelvis. The CT is an important key in the diagnosis of gynecological malignant pathologies such as Ovarian, endometrial cervical, bladder, vaginal and vulvar cancer

  16. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  17. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

  18. Case–control association study of polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme genes and coronary artery disease and systemic artery hypertension in African-Brazilians and Caucasian-Brazilians

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ricardo Bonfim-Silva; Larissa Oliveira Guimarães; Jandson Souza Santos; Jaqueline Fagundes Pereira; Ana Angélica Leal Barbosa; Domingos Lazaro Souza Rios

    2016-03-01

    The rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a critical pathway in regulating blood pressure and salt/water homeostasis, possessing an intimate relationship with the development of systemic artery hypertension (SAH). Once hypertension is considered a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), the RAAS is also related to this pathology. This investigation aimed to analyse if the frequencies of AGT M235T (rs699) and ACE I/D (rs4646994) polymorphisms are associated with CAD and SAH in African-Brazilians and Caucasian-Brazilians. In this study we analysed 714 subjects who underwent coronary angiography to detect obstructive lesions and CAD, as well as blood pressure measurement and SAH, grouped according to ethnicity: 266 African-Brazilians and 448 Caucasian-Brazilians. Among CAD and SAH cases and controls, the genotype and allele frequencies of ACE I/D polymorphism were similar in both ethnic groups. The AGT 235TT genotype and 235T allele frequencies were higher in SAH cases (32%, 54.7%) versus controls in Caucasian-Brazilians (19.8%, 46.4%; = 0.038, = 0.031, respectively). The AGT 235TT (OR = 1.8; = 0.028) demonstrated to be an independent factor risk in a multivariate logistic regression increasing SAH risk in Caucasians but not in African-Brazilians. In summary, AGT M235T polymorphism was associated with SAH risk in Caucasian-Brazilians, and no association was detected with CAD. No association was also observed in ACE I/D polymorphism either in CAD or SAH in African-Brazilians and Caucasian-Brazilians.

  19. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and lung cancer risk: a large case-control study in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Espiridion, Beatriz; Chen, Meng; Chang, Joe Y; Lu, Charles; Chang, David W; Roth, Jack A; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Telomere dysfunction is a crucial event in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with lung cancer risk, but the relationship has remained controversial. In this study, we investigated whether the association might be confounded by study of different histological subtypes of lung cancer. We measured relative telomere lengths in patients in a large case-control study of lung cancer and performed stratified analyses according to the two major histologic subtypes [adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)]. Notably, patients with adenocarcinoma had longer telomeres than controls, whereas patients with SCC had shorter telomeres compared with controls. Long telomeres were associated with increased risk of adenocarcinoma, with the highest risk associated with female sex, younger age (telomeres were protective against SCC, particularly in male patients. Our results extend the concept that telomere length affects risk of lung cancer in a manner that differs with histologic subtype.

  20. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  1. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  2. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  3. General and specific responsiveness of the amygdala during explicit emotion recognition in females and males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windischberger Christian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to recognize emotions in facial expressions relies on an extensive neural network with the amygdala as the key node as has typically been demonstrated for the processing of fearful stimuli. A sufficient characterization of the factors influencing and modulating amygdala function, however, has not been reached now. Due to lacking or diverging results on its involvement in recognizing all or only certain negative emotions, the influence of gender or ethnicity is still under debate. This high-resolution fMRI study addresses some of the relevant parameters, such as emotional valence, gender and poser ethnicity on amygdala activation during facial emotion recognition in 50 Caucasian subjects. Stimuli were color photographs of emotional Caucasian and African American faces. Results Bilateral amygdala activation was obtained to all emotional expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happy, and sad and neutral faces across all subjects. However, only in males a significant correlation of amygdala activation and behavioral response to fearful stimuli was observed, indicating higher amygdala responses with better fear recognition, thus pointing to subtle gender differences. No significant influence of poser ethnicity on amygdala activation occurred, but analysis of recognition accuracy revealed a significant impact of poser ethnicity that was emotion-dependent. Conclusion Applying high-resolution fMRI while subjects were performing an explicit emotion recognition task revealed bilateral amygdala activation to all emotions presented and neutral expressions. This mechanism seems to operate similarly in healthy females and males and for both in-group and out-group ethnicities. Our results support the assumption that an intact amygdala response is fundamental in the processing of these salient stimuli due to its relevance detecting function.

  4. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005

  5. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  6. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P;

    2012-01-01

    Clinical manifestations and metabolic risk factors may differ according to age in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, a retrospective trans-sectional study in academic tertiary-care medical center was designed. A cohort of 446 premenopausal, Caucasian women (age range 15......-49 years) with PCOS were divided into 4 subgroups according to age: group 1 (15-19 years, n=42), group 2 (20-29 years, n=180), group 3 (30-39 years, n=187), group 4 (40-49 years, n=37) and underwent clinical evaluation (Ferriman-Gallwey score, BMI, waist, blood pressure), hormone analyses (sex hormones......, fasting lipids, insulin, glucose), transvaginal ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) (n=234), and ACTH tests (n=201). BMI, waist, Ferriman-Gallwey score, blood pressure, and lipid profile were higher in older vs. younger age groups whereas androgen levels were lower. Measures of insulin...

  7. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the pra...

  8. FEMALE EPISPADIAS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bianchi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare anomaly occurring in 1:480.000 girls. It presents typical features and can be diagnosed immediately at birth. Early surgical reconstruction of the bladder neck, urethra, and external genitalia within the physiological phase for the development for continence, is relevant towards establishing urinary conti- nence and to reduce the psychological impact on the parents and the child. In this case report we present a 3-years-old girl with isolated female epispadias who underwent total reconstruction at a single procedure with a follow-up of 6 months.

  9. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1B Haplotypes Increase or Decrease the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in a New Zealand Caucasian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs comprising Crohn disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are chronic inflammatory conditions with polygenic susceptibility. Interactions between TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha receptor play a fundamental role in inflammatory response. This study investigates the role that selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in the TNF-alpha receptor (TNSFRSF1B gene play in the risk of IBD in a New Zealand Caucasian population. DNA samples from 388 CD, 405 UC, 27 indeterminate colitis patients, and 293 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common SNPs in TNSFRSF1B: rs1061622 (c.676T>C, rs1061624 (c.∗1663A>G, and rs3397 (c.∗1690T>C, using TaqMan technologies. Carrying the rs1061624 variant decreased the risk of UC in the left colon (OR 0.73, 95% CI=0.54–1.00 and of being a smoker at diagnosis (OR 0.62; 95% CI=0.40–0.96. Carrying the rs3397 variant decreased the risk of penetrating CD (OR 0.62, 95% CI=0.40–0.95. Three marker haplotype analyses revealed highly significant differences between CD patients and control subjects (χ2=29.9, df=7, P=.0001 and UC cases and controls (χ2=46.3, df=7, P<.0001. We conclude that carrying a 3-marker haplotype in the TNSFRSF1B gene may increase (e.g., haplotype of GGC was 2.9-fold more in the CD or UCpatients or decrease (e.g., TGT was 0.47-fold less in UC patients the risk of IBD in a New Zealand Caucasian population.

  10. Cut-off points of the visceral adiposity index (VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Marco C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI is a sex-specific mathematical index, based on Waist Circumference (WC, Body Mass Index (BMI, triglycerides (TG and HDL cholesterol (HDL levels, indirectly expressing visceral adipose function and insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to find the optimal cut-off points of VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction (VAD associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population. Methods Medical check-up data of 1,764 Primary Care patients (PC patients were retrospectively and cross-sectionally examined using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve to determine appropriate stratified-for-age cut-off of VAI, for the identification of PC patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The PC patients with higher VAI scores were subdivided into three groups according to VAI tertiles (i.e. PC patients with mild VAD, moderate VAD or severe VAD. Finally, VAD classes were compared to classical cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors as independent predictors of coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and/or ischemic stroke. Results Moderate and severe VADs proved to be independently associated with cardiovascular events [(OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.92-14.87; p = 0.001 and (OR: 7.46; 95% CI: 2.64-21.05; p Conclusions Our study suggests that among Caucasian Sicilian subjects there are clear cut-off points of VAI able to identify a VAD strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk.

  11. Diurnal changes of arterial oxygen saturation and erythropoietin concentration in male and female highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Edgar; Riveros, Alain; Sánchez, Armando; Peñuela, Oscar; Böning, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    In Caucasians and Native Americans living at altitude, hemoglobin mass is increased in spite of erythropoietin concentrations ([Epo]) not markedly differing from sea level values. We hypothesized that a nocturnal decrease of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) causes a temporary rise of [Epo] not detected by morning measurements. SaO2 (continuous, finger oximeter) and [Epo] (ELISA, every 4 h) were determined in young highlanders (altitude 2600 m) during 24 h of usual daily activity. In Series I (six male, nine female students), SaO2 fell during the night with the nadir occurring between 01:00 and 03:00; daily means (range 92.4-95.2%) were higher in females (+1.7%, P level are not homogeneous, there is a diurnal variation at altitude following changes in SaO2 Larger hypoventilation-dependent decreases of alveolar PO2 decreases during the night probably cause a stronger reduction of SaO2 in highlanders compared to lowlanders. This variation might be enlarged by a diurnal fluctuation of Hb concentration. In spite of a lower [Hb], the higher SaO2 in women compared to men led to a similar arterial oxygen content, likely explaining the absence of differences in [Epo] between sexes. PMID:27597764

  12. An Update on Gifted Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  13. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  14. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  15. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  16. The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…

  17. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. PMID:26232264

  18. Population studies of the human V kappa A18 gene polymorphism in Caucasians, blacks and Eskimos. New functional alleles and evidence for evolutionary selection of a more restricted antibody repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, L; Hougs, L; Andersen, V;

    1997-01-01

    and sequenced four apparently functional alleles and determined the gene frequencies in three well-defined populations: Danish Caucasians, eastern Greenland Eskimos and Mozambican blacks. The A18b allele that was recently described in Native American Navajos by Atkinson et al. was found in all three populations...

  19. Parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing in Caucasian and Hispanic children – the Tucson children's assessment of sleep apnea study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fregosi Ralph F

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies in children have demonstrated that frequent occurrence of parasomnias is related to increased sleep disruption, mental disorders, physical harm, sleep disordered breathing, and parental duress. Although there have been several cross-sectional and clinical studies of parasomnias in children, there have been no large, population-based studies using full polysomnography to examine the association between parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing. The Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study is a community-based cohort study designed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB in pre-adolescent children six to 11 years of age. This paper characterizes the relationships between parasomnias and SDB with its associated symptoms in these children. Methods Parents completed questionnaires pertaining to their child's sleep habits. Children had various physiological measurements completed and then were connected to the Compumedics PS-2 sleep recording system for full, unattended polysomnography in the home. A total of 480 unattended home polysomnograms were completed on a sample that was 50% female, 42.3% Hispanic, and 52.9% between the ages of six and eight years. Results Children with a Respiratory Disturbance Index of one or greater were more likely to have sleep walking (7.0% versus 2.5%, p p p Conclusions In this population-based cohort study, pre-adolescent school-aged children with SDB experienced more parasomnias than those without SDB. Parasomnias were associated with a higher prevalence of other sleep disturbances and learning problems. Clinical evaluation of children with parasomnias should include consideration of SDB.

  20. The Dutch Female Board Index 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch Female Board Index 2010 shows for the fourth year a survey of female representation on the Executive Boards and Supervisory Boards of 99 Dutch NVs listed on Euronext Amsterdam. The companies were classified by the percentage of women in their joint Executive Board and Supervisory Board. The Dutch ‘Female Board Index 'also gives an analysis of the differences between male and female directors and between companies with or without female representation on the Eexcutive Board and/or Su...

  1. Female Entrepreneurship in Finland and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Sohana

    2016-01-01

    Female entrepreneurship plays a vital role in economic growth. In this study two countries with different social norms and economic situations are compared to describe the opportunities and challenges dealt with by female entrepreneurs. The major purposes of the study are to find out the obstacles of female entrepreneurs, opportunities provided to them and recommendations provided by female entrepreneurs to other female entrepreneurs as well as authorities. The implementation of the th...

  2. Does the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin reduce HbA1c to a greater extent in Japanese patients than in Caucasian patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, James E; Bhosekar, Vaishali; Kawamori, Ryuzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous work suggests that Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may respond more favorably to a DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitor than Caucasians. We aimed to compare the efficacy of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily [bid]) between Japanese and Caucasian populations. Methods This analysis pooled data from 19 studies of drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were treated for 12 weeks with vildagliptin 50 mg bid as monotherapy. The pool comprised Japanese patients (n=338) who had been treated in Japan and Caucasian patients (n=1,275) who were treated elsewhere. Change from baseline (Δ) in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 12 weeks (in millimoles per mole) versus baseline HbA1c (both in percentage National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program units [NGSP%] and millimoles per mole) for each population was reported. Universal HbA1c in millimoles per mole was calculated from either the Japanese Diabetes Society or the NGSP% HbA1c standards. Results At baseline, mean values for Japanese and Caucasian patients, respectively, were as follows: age, 59 years and 56 years; % male, 69% and 57%. The average HbA1c was reduced from 7.90% to 6.96% (Japanese Diabetes Society) and from 8.57% to 7.50% (United States National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), while HbA1c was reduced from 63 mmol/mol to 53 mmol/mol and from 70 mmol/mol to 58 mmol/mol in Japanese and Caucasians, respectively. ΔHbA1c increased with increasing baseline in both populations. The slopes were the same (0.41, r2=0.36; and 0.41, r2=0.15), and the intercepts were 15.4 mmol/mol and 17.2 mmol/mol, respectively. In Japanese patients, mean ΔHbA1c was greater by 1.7 mmol/mol (0.2% NGSP HbA1c) at any given baseline HbA1c than in Caucasians (P=0.01). Conclusion The present pooled analysis suggests that Japanese patients respond better to vildagliptin treatment compared with Caucasians. However, when glycemic control was corrected by using the same glycemic

  3. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICAN/span>S AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  4. Gender differences in resource use and evaluation of attributes of places of resource use by Native American/span>s and Caucasians from Western Idaho: relevance to risk evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  5. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  6. Ethnic Female Journalists Group Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ACROSS such a multi-national country as China with 56 ethnic groups, up to one third of those in the press circle are women journalists, among whom 56.2 percent are in the broadcasting and television arenas, 42.5 percent in newspapers and magazines and 1.3 percent in news agencies. Statistics from National Unity shows that 42 of China's minority groups have produced female

  7. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Levy LL; Emer JJ

    2013-01-01

    Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly ov...

  8. Melanoma of the female urethra

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Juan A.; Ramos, Wilmer E.; Ramos, Claudia V.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed ...

  9. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  10. Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Tyndale

    Full Text Available CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants, rs16969968, rs588765 and rs578776, are consistently associated with tobacco consumption among smokers, but the association with smoking cessation is less consistent. Among the studies that reported significant associations with cessation, the effects were observed in smokers treated with placebo treatment in some studies and conversely in those receiving active pharmacological therapy (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies in others. Thus, it remains unclear whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a useful marker for optimizing smoking cessation. Using data from 654 Caucasian smokers treated with placebo, nicotine patch or varenicline, we investigated whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants were associated with smoking cessation outcomes, and whether there were significant genotype-by-treatment or haplotype-by-treatment interactions. We observed no significant associations between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation, despite replicating previous associations with baseline tobacco consumption. At end of treatment the effect size on smoking cessation in the placebo, patch and varenicline groups for rs16969968 [GG vs. GA+AA] was OR = 0.66 (P = 0.23, OR = 1.01 (P = 0.99, and OR = 1.30 (P = 0.36 respectively, of rs588765 [CC vs. CT+TT] was OR = 0.96 (P = 0.90, OR = 0.84 (P = 0.58, and OR = 0.74 (P = 0.29 respectively, and for rs578776 [GG vs. GA+AA] on smoking cessation was OR = 1.02 (P = 0.95, OR = 0.75 (P = 0.35, and OR = 1.20 (P = 0.51 respectively. Furthermore, we observed no associations with cessation using the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype (constructed using rs16969968 and rs588765, nor did we observe any significant genotype-by-treatment interactions, with or without adjusting for the rate of nicotine metabolism (all P>0.05. We also observed no significant genetic associations with 6 month or 12 month smoking abstinence. In conclusion, we found no association between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation rates in this clinical

  11. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE: Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE and fat free mass (FFM in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry. High metabolic rate organs (HMR summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i decreases in fat free mass; (ii a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the

  12. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  13. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with sub-stance-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Diehl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction symptoms and the associated risk factors in a sample of patients with substance-related disorders admitted to a specialized in-patient care unit. METHODS: This study used a cross-section design, with eight months of data collection, conducted with substance-dependent women using structured questionnaires to collect socio-demographic data and identify their drug of choice. The Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Arizona Sexual Experience Scale were also administered. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 105 women who had a mean age of 34.8 years (SD = 12.1, range = 18-65 and were predominantly heterosexual (74.3%, single (47.6%, Caucasian (50.5%, catholic (36.2%, and educated only to the level of primary education (40%, with a monthly family income of up to one minimum salary (37.5%. In 42.9% of the patients, crack was the drug of choice; 47.6% of the sample qualified for the Drug Abuse Screening Test (substantial problems related to drugs, 43.8% exhibited Short Alcohol Dependence Data (moderate or severe dependency, 47.6% exhibited Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (high or very high nicotine dependence. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction symptoms was 34.2% (95% CI = [25.3, 44.1], and a high level of nicotine dependence and low income increased the chances of having sexual dysfunction by 2.72-fold and 2.54 fold, respectively. An association was also observed between female sexual dysfunction symptoms and schooling and levels of drug dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Female sexual dysfunction symptoms were common among this sample and primarily associated with high levels of nicotine use.

  14. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  15. Charismatic female leadership and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Research on the leadership and electorates of populist right-wing parties emphasizes that most of these parties are charismatic and male-dominated, both as regards their leadership and voters. However, while studies about the gender gap focus mainly on demand-side factors, such as electoral support......, socio-economic characteristics and the voters' attitudes towards issues such as immigration, those that analyse the role and position of gender issues are still rare. Similarly, or even more, overlooked is an analysis of the rhetoric, style, charisma and discourse of populist female leaders...

  16. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Orava, S.; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E.

    1981-01-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most ty...

  17. Paradox lost:disappearing female job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin Peter; Heywood, John Spencer; Kler, Parvinder; Leeves, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    The greater job satisfaction reported by female workers represents a puzzle given, on average, their worse labour market outcomes. Using the original data source of Clark (1997), we show that over the last two decades the female satisfaction gap has largely vanished. This reflects a strong secular decline in female job satisfaction. This decline happened for younger women in the 1990s as they aged and because of new female workers in more recent years that have lower job satisfaction than the...

  18. Predictably Philandering Females Prompt Poor Paternal Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Schroeder; Hsu, Y-H.; Winney, I.; Simons, M.; Nakagawa, S; Burke, T.

    2016-01-01

    One predicted cost of female infidelity in socially monogamous species is that cuckolded males should provide less parental care. This relationship is robust across species, but evidence is ambiguous within species. We do not know whether individual males reduce their care when paired with cheating females compared with when paired with faithful females (within-male adjustment) or, alternatively, if the males that pair with cheating females are the same males that provide...

  19. Female directors, key committees, and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin; Homroy, Swarnodeep

    2015-01-01

    There is pressure to increase female representation on corporate boards. A number of studies have found no, or in some cases a negative, effect of female representation on boards and firm performance. We demonstrate robust positive and economically meaningful effects on firm performance of female representation on European boards. Moreover, while previous work has considered female representation broadly, we focus on membership of committees involved explicitly in firm governance. We demonstr...

  20. When Eastern Surgeons Meet Western Patients: A Pilot Study of Gastrectomy with Lymphadenectomy in Caucasian Patients at a Single Korean Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Choi, Yoon Young; An, Ji Yeong; Seo, Sang Hyuk; Shin, Hyun Beak; Bang, Hui Jae; Li, Shuangxi; Kim, Hyung Il; Cheong, Jae Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    East Asian surgeons generally report lower morbidity and mortality rates for gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy than do surgeons in Western countries; however, the disparity remains unexplained. The aim of this article was to determine the feasibility and safety regarding cases in which East Asian surgeons perform such procedures in Caucasian patients (CPs). Twelve CPs underwent gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer at Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea between June 2011 and April 2014. Procedures performed included total gastrectomy (7 of 12, 58%), distal gastrectomy (4 of 12, 33%), and completion total gastrectomy (1 of 12, 8%). Nine patients (75%) underwent D2 lymphadenectomy, and D1+ lymphadenectomy was performed in three others (25%). In four patients (33%), combined resections were carried out. The median values of surgical parameters were as follows: operative time, 266.5 min (range, 120-586 min); estimated blood loss, 90 mL (range, 37-350 mL); retrieved lymph node count, 37.5 (range, 22-63); and postoperative hospital stay, 13.7 days (range, 5-63 days). No mortality was encountered, although two patients (17%) experienced complications (both Clavien-Dindo classification grade IIIa anastomotic leakages), which were successfully managed by conservative treatment. In the hands of East Asian surgeons, mortality and short-term morbidity appears to be acceptably low in CPs subjected to gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. PMID:27401666

  1. C242T Polymorphism in CYBA Gene (p22phox) and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in a Population of Caucasian Italians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasti, Sabina; Spallarossa, Paolo; Altieri, Paola; Garibaldi, Silvano; Fabbi, Patrizia; Polito, Luisa; Bacino, Luca; Brunelli, Michele; Brunelli, Claudio; Barsotti, Antonio; Ghigliotti, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    Background: specific polymorphisms of genes regulating intracellular redox balance and oxidative stress are related to atherogenesis. Some studies have identified a relationship between progression of atherosclerosis and C242T mutation in CYBA gene coding for p22phox, a subunit of the NADH/NADPH oxidase system. Design: we investigated whether the C242T nucleotide transition is associated with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population of 494 Caucasian Italians undergoing coronary angiography to diagnose the cause of chest pain. Results: the frequency of the T mutant allele that we found in 276 patients with angiographically documented CAD was significantly higher compared to what we observed in 218 subjects with normal coronary arteries (Controls) (respectively: 0.400 and 0.332, p < 0.01). The prevalence of the T allele was even stronger when we compared: 1) early onset (age ≤55) vs late onset (age ≥65) single-vessel CAD patients (respectively: 0.75 and 0.48, p < 0.05), and 2) the subgroup of CAD patients with at least one ≥98% stenosis in a coronary vessel vs those with no ≥98% stenosis in a coronary vessel (respectively: 0.425 and 0.365, p < 0.05). Conclusions: these results support the increased risk of developing early CAD and of having rapid progression of coronary stenosis in subjects carrying the C242T nucleotide transition among the Italian population. PMID:16788250

  2. ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in a French Caucasian Population of 633 Patients Living in the Same Geographic Area

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    Bruno Borghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. Study Design. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20–2.90. There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis or the rAFS stages. Conclusion. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes.

  3. Association study between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and risk of Alzheimer's disease in Caucasians of Italian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannorella, Pierpaola; Stoccoro, Andrea; Tognoni, Gloria; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an epigenetic contribution in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this regard, variants and polymorphisms of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMTs) are being investigated for their contribution to cognitive decline and dementia, but results are still scarce or controversial. In the present study we genotyped 710 Caucasian subjects of Italian descent, including 320 late-onset AD (LOAD) patients, 70 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 320 matched healthy controls, for the presence of a functional DNMT3A -448A>G (rs1550117) polymorphism, searching for association with disease risk. In addition, we searched for correlation between the studied polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine (hcy) and vitamin B12, all involved in DNA methylation reactions and available from 189 LOAD patients and 186 matched controls. Both allele and genotype frequencies of rs1550117 were closely similar between MCI, LOAD and control subjects, and no association with dementia or pre-dementia conditions was observed. Plasma hcy levels were significantly higher (p = 0.04) and serum folate levels significantly lower (p = 0.01) in LOAD than in controls, but no difference in circulating folate, hcy or vitamin B12 levels was seen between carriers and non-carriers of the minor DNMT3A -448A allele. Collectively, present results confirmed previous associations of increased hcy and decreased folate with LOAD risk, but do not support an association between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and AD in our population. PMID:27073746

  4. Influence of the details of topography on weather forecast - evaluation of HARMONIE experiments in the Sochi Olympics domain over the Caucasian mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontu, Laura; Wastl, Clemens; Niemela, Sami

    2016-02-01

    New fine-resolution surface elevation data was implemented into HARMONIE-AROME-SURFEX Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The grid-scale mean orography, used as a basis of the model's terrain-following vertical coordinate, as well as variables for suggested new parametrizations of radiation and momentum fluxes were derived. Validation against the surface observations from the Sochi Winter Olympic Games 2014, provided by the WMO FROST-2014 program at the Caucasian mountains, showed minor degradation of the of then screen-level temperature forecast when only the source orography was updated. Implementation of the orographic radiation parametrizations allowed to alleviate the degradation of scores. Detailed sensitivity studies, done by using three-dimensional and single-column experiments, showed that substantial and physically realistic changes in the downwelling short- and longwave radiation fluxes took place locally. However, their influence on the the simulated screen-level temperature remained small. Comparison of the simulated and observed radiation fluxes would offer a reliable alternative for validation of NWP models. Unfortunately, surface-level radiation observations were not made during the Sochi Olympics.

  5. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

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    Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182, of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood. Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L and folate (<4.6 μg/L were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol.

  6. The interplay between physical activity at work and during leisure time--risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in middle-aged Caucasian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that a high level of physical activity during leisure time increases the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men with high physical work demands. METHODS: We carried out a 30-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study of 5249 caucasian......, male workers aged 40-59 years; 274 men with overt cardiovascular disease were excluded from the follow-up. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 591 men (11.9%) died from IHD. Cox analyses of men with low (N=1236), medium (N=2651), and high (N=858) physical work demands showed that those with high....... Overall, the age-adjusted hazard ratio for IHD mortality associated with a high level of leisure time physical activity was 0.49 (95% CI 0.34-0.70). Among workers with high physical work demands, the hazard ratio for IHD mortality (adjusted for confounders) was 0.82 (95% CI 0.42-1.56) for a high level...

  7. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  8. 两种不同强度平板运动训练对青年男性炎症介质的影响%Effects of Two Kinds of Treadmill Exercise on Inflammatory Mediators in 18-30 Year Old Males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦睿; 黄东锋; 梁崎; 李海; 刘恒; 梁明华; 余淑芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察短期不同强度平板运动训练对青年男性炎症介质的影响。方法19名健康青年男性分成高强度间歇运动训练组(HIT组, n=6)、中等强度持续运动训练组(MCT组, n=7)和空白对照组(CON组, n=6)。前两组隔天1次进行6次运动训练,共2周,其中HIT组进行高强度间歇平板运动,MCT组进行中等强度平板运动;CON组不进行运动训练。分别于第1次运动前3 d、第1次运动刚结束时、第6次运动结束后3 d采血检测高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、白细胞介素(IL)-1α、IL-6、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α。结果各组间血hs-CRP、IL-1α、TNF-α和IL-6浓度无显著性差异(P>0.05)。组内比较,MCT组运动1次后血IL-1α浓度比运动前明显升高(P0.05). The concentration of IL-1αincreased in the MCT group after the first exercise (P<0.01), and also the concentration of IL-6 in the CON group after the course (P<0.05). Conclusion It needs further srudy for the significance of HIT and MCT in the levels of inflammatory media.

  9. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  10. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana, CIOCHINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the pressure of globalization, local communities around the world are looking for new strategies to facilitate local economic development, to reduce poverty and for social inclusion, through harnessing local resources, the creation of workplaces and of better life quality for men and women. In this context, programs to encourage and promote the entrepreneurial spirit in women considering that, on a global level, one third of new businesses are their creation, a significant part of SMEs, the primary source of new workplaces and of economic growth in a local community. In a competition where women continue to be confronted with more obstacles than men, measures must be taken to ensure the best possible context to support female entrepreneurship in such a way that local communities to fully benefit from their potential in creating workplaces, economic and social development on a local, national and European scale. The lack of confidence in creating their own businesses, difficulty in balancing professional and family life, inability to obtain the capital necessary for developing their business, difficulty in preparation and limited access to information are all problems that hinder initiative and the development of women's entrepreneurship. Female entrepreneurs are in need of recognition, from financers and business partners, logistical support and help in increasing managerial and leading capacity.

  11. An incident of female-female aggression in the house wren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alworth, T; Scheiber, IBR

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe one example of female-female aggression in the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). An intruding female usurped the resident female and paired with the resident male. House Wrens are known for committing infanticide as well as puncturing and removing eggs of conspecifics and oth

  12. Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J E; Malzahn, D E; Eyada, O K; Kim, C H

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data was collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than it is the Japanese female.

  13. Adult phantoms as function of body mass, height and posture by using caucasian anthropomorphic statistics; Fantomas adultos em funcao da massa corporal, da altura e da postura usando estatisticas antropometricas caucasianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.b, E-mail: vagner.cassola@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Milian, Felix Mas, E-mail: felix_mas_milian@yahoo.co [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2011-10-26

    The CALLDose{sub X} 4.0 computer program uses conversion coefficients for the MASH and FASH adult phantoms on the vertical and supine postures, representing the standard man and woman according to ICRP 90 and are called 'basic phantoms'. For improving the representation of real patients in the CALLDose{sub X}, this paper developed adults phantoms as function of mass and height by using anthropometric data from nine of them prevailing caucasian countries

  14. Letters from Officer/Orientalist K.N. Smirnov from the Caucasian Front as a Source for the Study of the Military/Political Situation in Turkey and Iran in 1914–1917 (Continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugzar K. Ter-Oganov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the letters of officer/orientalist and military oriental scholar, officer in the Intelligence Section of the Staff of the Caucasian Military District, Staff Captain Konstantin Nikolayevich Smirnov, sent by him from the Turkish and Iranian sectors of the Caucasian front to his wife Kseniya Karlovna Smirnova (Kester over the period 1914–1917. Depending on changes in the deployment of Russian troops fighting against the Turkish army, as well as the German-Turkish block, both in the north-eastern part of Turkey and in the north-west of Iran, K.N. Smirnov had sent those letters from Kamarli, Diadin, Iğdır, Beyazıt, Trebizond, Kazvin, Kermanshah, Kerind, Qasr-e Shirin, Ava now to Tiflis and now to Sevastopol, Hamadan, and Kazvin, where his wife was staying at that particular point in time. K.N. Smirnov’s surviving letters, just like their fragments, give us an idea of the military/political situation along the line of contact with the enemy on the Caucasian front, as well as many aspects of the activity of officers from the Expeditionary Corps of General N.N. Baratov in Iran over the period 1915–1917. Of interest is his characterization of the personal qualities of many Russian officers, such as General N.N. Baratov, the immediate superior of Staff Captain Smirnov, who at the time headed the reconnaissance unit of the Expeditionary Corps, Colonel N.F. Ern, Chief of Staff, and other officers of the corps. The letters also bring to light the character of activity by K.N. Smirnov as a ―political officer‖. K.N. Smirnov’s letters contain extremely rare information on the episode of short-term Anglo-Russian military cooperation on the Caucasian front intended to coordinate actions against Turkish troops in Mesopotamia.

  15. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice. PMID:27287358

  16. [Psoriasis in a female chimpanzee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biella, U; Haustein, U F; Seifert, S; Adler, J; Schüppel, K F; Eulenberger, K

    1991-05-01

    Psoriasis, a widespread genodermatosis in Homo sapiens, also appears in primates. We report on a female chimpanzee in Leipzig Zoo. After years of captivity the animal developed erythematosquamous, highly hyperkeratotic, lesions, some confluent, on the knees, elbows, back of the hands and feet and on the forearms and the seat, which showed histologically characteristic features of psoriasis. It may be that both previous infections and psychic stress resulting from social isolation had caused eruption of the disease. In the literature single cases of psoriasiform dermatoses have also been described in other species of monkeys and even in a springer spaniel. Nonetheless, the search for an animal model of psoriasis vulgaris is still going on. PMID:1874622

  17. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E

    1981-12-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. PMID:6797496

  18. Qualitative research study of high-achieving females' life experiences impacting success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Ann Patrice

    2003-07-01

    This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self

  19. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes. PMID:24799636

  20. Ethnic comparison of pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben, a PET tracer for beta-amyloid imaging, in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, Michio; Sasaki, Masahiro; Yamane, Tomohiko; Shimizu, Keiji [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, 2-2 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe (Japan); Patt, Marianne; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Nagasawa, Toshiki; Aitoku, Yasuko [Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka (Japan); Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus [Bayer HealthCare AG, Berlin (Germany); Dinkelborg, Ludger [Piramal Imaging GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    {sup 18}F-Florbetaben is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer indicated for imaging cerebral beta-amyloid deposition in adult patients with cognitive impairment who are being evaluated for Alzheimer's disease and other causes of cognitive decline. The present study examined ethnic comparability of the plasma pharmacokinetics, which is the input to the brain, between Caucasian and Japanese subjects. Two identical phase I trials were performed in 18 German and 18 Japanese healthy volunteers to evaluate the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 300 MBq {sup 18}F-florbetaben, either of low (≤5 μg, LD) or high (50-55 μg, HD) mass dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated based on the total {sup 18}F radioactivity measurements in plasma followed by metabolite analysis using radio-HPLC. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben was characterized by a rapid elimination from plasma. The dose-normalized areas under the curve of {sup 18}F-florbetaben in plasma as an indicator of the input to the brain were comparable between Germans (LD: 0.38 min/l, HD: 0.55 min/l) and Japanese (LD: 0.35 min/l, HD: 0.45 min/l) suggesting ethnic similarity, and the mass dose effect was minimal. A polar metabolite fraction was the main radiolabelled degradation product in plasma and was also similar between the doses and the ethnic groups. Absence of a difference in the pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben in Germans and Japanese has warranted further global development of the PET imaging agent. (orig.)

  1. Contribution of genome-wide HCV genetic differences to outcome of interferon-based therapy in Caucasian American and African American patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen J Donlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV has six major genotypes, and patients infected with genotype 1 respond less well to interferon-based therapy than other genotypes. African American patients respond to interferon alpha-based therapy at about half the rate of Caucasian Americans. The effect of HCV's genetic variation on treatment outcome in both racial groups is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: We determined the near full-length pre-therapy consensus sequences from 94 patients infected with HCV genotype 1a or 1b undergoing treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin through the Virahep-C study. The sequences were stratified by genotype, race and treatment outcome to identify HCV genetic differences associated with treatment efficacy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HCV sequences from patients who achieved sustained viral response were more diverse than sequences from non-responders. These inter-patient diversity differences were found primarily in the NS5A gene in genotype 1a and in core and NS2 in genotype 1b. These differences could not be explained by host selection pressures. Genotype 1b but not 1a African American patients had viral genetic differences that correlated with treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS & SIGNIFICANCE: Higher inter-patient viral genetic diversity correlated with successful treatment, implying that there are HCV genotype 1 strains with intrinsic differences in sensitivity to therapy. Core, NS3 and NS5A have interferon-suppressive activities detectable through in vitro assays, and hence these activities also appear to function in human patients. Both preferential infection with relatively resistant HCV variants and host-specific factors appear to contribute to the unusually poor response to therapy in African American patients.

  2. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy KC Janssen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s (P = 0.03. It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes.

  3. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes.

  4. Load Carriage and the Female Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venerina Johnson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physiological, biomechanical and health impacts of load carriage on the female soldier and extends to include issues acknowledged as impacting on the female athlete and hence the female soldier. Physiological factors such as fat mass, strength, aerobic endurance and biomechanical factors such as stride length and forward lean have the potential to increase the energy cost of load carriage and cause injury. The female athlete triad, iron deficiency, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and military equipment issues can likewise reduce female soldier performance and increase injury risk. Research evidence is presented to inform the development and implementation of performance optimisation and injury prevention strategies. Discussed strategies include structured physical conditioning, improving nutrition and hydration practices and modification of load carriage equipment to meet female soldier requirements.

  5. Female consciousness in The Thorn Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Miao

    2015-01-01

    Colleen McCullough’s significant novels The Thorn Birds causes a tremendous sensation after its publication. This thesis tries to explore the female protagonist Meggie Cleary: a painful and significant process from suspecting and losing transfers into identification of the female consciousness.Colleen McCullough would like to mold female characters to highlight the heroine’s self-respect, the pursuit of equality and freedom.

  6. FEMALE URETHRA – ANATOMO-CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Zanoschi; R. Moldovanu

    2006-01-01

    Urethra represents the last segment of the urinary tract. We present a comprehensive account of the female urethral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the vagina, bladder and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports) and histology. These data are important because the distal segment of the female urethra is implicated in the mechanism of urinary continence (female stress urinary incontinence is thought to result f...

  7. Female alternative reproductive behaviors: the effect of female group size on mate assessment and copying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Bernard J; Flaxman, Samuel M; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2008-08-01

    Extensive theoretical and empirical research has focused on male alternative reproductive tactics. In comparison, female alternative tactics have attracted little attention, and further theoretical and empirical research are needed. Using a game theoretical model, we examine female choice alternatives (1) by considering assessment errors in a novel and more realistic manner than done previously, and (2) for the first time, by highlighting the formation of groups of females as an important consequence of copying behavior. We consider two alternatives: direct assessment of male quality by females and female copying of the choice of other females. Assessment and copying are predicted to coexist under a wide variety of circumstances and copying is favored when females make assessment errors, when high-quality males are either common or very rare, and when female fitness declines with the number of other females choosing the same male. We also find that the frequency of copying at equilibrium is predicted to decrease when the presence of other females mating with the same male has a positive effect on female fitness (e.g. through increased male parental effort, decreased predation risk or cooperation among females). Female alternative choice tactics also influence the potential for sexual selection. In our model, when the frequency of copying females is low, the potential for sexual selection can be higher than in the absence of female copying. However, contrary to previous theory, we find that as copying females become more common than assessing females, the potential for sexual selection will be low as more females copy the mate choice of other copiers without assessment. PMID:18511084

  8. PROMOTION OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF FEMALE EMPLOYEES AND FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintarė Gulevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to examine the characteristics of female employees and female entrepreneurs in the context of women entrepreneurship, analyze, what factors encourage and promote women entrepreneurship and give recommendations on the improvement of public policy for the promotion of women entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach – there had been used scientific literature deduction (drawing conclusions from the available information, analysis (obtained data analyzed separately, analogy (comparison of data with each other, generalization (the main features complex generalization, induction (from individual elements went to a general conclusion, comparison methods. Quantitative research method had been applied by questioning female employees and female entrepreneurs in various cities of Lithuania. Research was carried out using questionnaire, which was filled by 258 female employees and female entrepreneurs. Findings – after analyzing the theoretical aspects of female employees and female entrepreneurs in the context of women entrepreneurship, there were introduced the factors, that encourage and promote women entrepreneurship. As the results of qualitative research showed, those factors differ between female employees and female entrepreneurs. Research limitations/implications – the research is limited to questioning female employees and female entrepreneurs in Lithuania, nevertheless it is sufficient for satisfying the purpose of the research and producing the recommendations on the improvement of public policy for the promotion of women entrepreneurship. Practical implications – women entrepreneurship is a new area for scientific research. The differences between female employees and female entrepreneurs in the context of the factors, that encourage and promote women entrepreneurship are not analyzed. Quantitative research of Lithuanian female employees and female entrepreneurs and recommendations on the improvement of public policy for

  9. Body composition analysis in female ballet dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlović Bojan; Mijatov Saša; Srdić Biljana; Stokić Edita J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional status and body composition in female ballet dancers and a group of non-athletic female controls. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 30 female ballet dancers, aged 17.4±2.01, whereas the control group included 30 non-athletic female examinees, aged 18.00 years on average. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated in all subjects. Body composition was estimated using th...

  10. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  11. Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ling ZHOU; Qiu-xiong LIN; Chuan-yue WANG; Wen-biao LI; Shu-guang LIN; Huan-de LI; Xin LI; Huai-yan PENG; Xi-yong YU; Ming YANG; Feng-li SU; Feng WANG; Rong-hua ZHU; Chun-yu DENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the multiple dose clinical pharmacokinetics of risperidone and its main active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The subjects were 23 Chinese female inpatients aged 18-65 years who met the CCMD-Ⅲ (third revision of the Chinese Criteria of Mental Disorders) criteria for schizophrenia. Subjects were tested after 17 d of treatment with 2 mg risperidone twice daily. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone were assayed by using validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Results: Risperidone was rapidly absorbed (Tmax was 1.6 h) and its Tin in plasma was short (3.2 h).9-hydroxy-risperidone was quickly metabolized from the parent drug with a mean Tmax of 2.5 h. It had a long half-life of 24.7 h. The Cssav of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 36.9±33.1 and 110.6±30.5 μg·h·L-1, respectively, and the AUCss0-12 were 443.2±397.4 and 1327.2±402.3 μg·h·L-1, respectively. CL/F and V/F of risperidone were 8.7±6.2 L/h and 34.1±24.3 L, respectively. Interindividual variations for pharmacokinetic parameters were quite large for risperidone. All 23 subjects experienced high prolactin levels when treated with risperidone. However there was no correlation between prolactin level and the concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, or the active moiety. Conclusion: Risperidone showed large interindividual variations in pharmacokinetics. Administration of risperidone resulted in high serum prolactin levels. The results indicate that systemic exposure to risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone in female Chinese schizophrenic patients is higher relative to published data for white Caucasian patients. Larger studies regarding the PK/PD relationship may be required to develop a reasonable clinical dosage regimen for Chinese female patients.

  12. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Liu, Kiang [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Steve Morris, J. [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States); Guo, Zhongqin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China); Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); He, Ka, E-mail: kahe@unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  13. Studies of the genetic variability of the coding region of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha in Caucasians with maturity onset NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A M; Urhammer, S A; Dalgaard, L T; Reneland, R; Berglund, L; Hansen, T; Clausen, J O; Lithell, H; Pedersen, O

    1997-08-01

    Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) gene cause the type 1 form of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY1). To address the question of whether genetic variability of HNF-4alpha is associated with late onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) we have sequenced the coding region and intron/exon boundaries of the gene in 36 randomly recruited Danish NIDDM patients. Two nucleotide substitutions that changed the sequence of HNF-4alpha were identified: Thr/Ile130, which has been reported previously and a novel Val/Met255. The Val/Met 255 mutation was found in 4 of 477 Danish NIDDM patients and in none of 217 glucose tolerant control subjects; thus it cannot be excluded that this mutation may have an impact on NIDDM susceptibility. Among 509 NIDDM patients the allelic frequency of the Thr/Ile130 variant was 4.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.4-6.0%) compared to 1.9% (0.7-3.1%) among 239 control subjects (p = 0.008). However, in a population sample of 942 Swedish men with an average age of 70 years the allelic frequency of the variant was similar in 246 men with either impaired glucose tolerance (5.6% [2.6-8.6%]) or NIDDM (5.4% [2.7-8.1%]) as compared to 666 glucose tolerant men (5.1% [3.9-6.3%]). Also in a population sample of 369 young healthy Danes the prevalence of the codon 130 variant (4.7% [3.2-6.2%]) was similar to what was found in Swedish Caucasians. Thus, the allelic frequency of the Thr/Ile130 variant among the control subjects in the Danish case-control study deviates from the prevalence in the two other studies which is why we consider the significant association between the codon 130 variant and NIDDM an incidental finding. In glucose tolerant subjects the codon 130 variant in its heterozygous form had no major effect on glucose-induced insulin and C-peptide release although a tendency to a lower insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test was seen in middle-aged subjects. In conclusion, variability in

  14. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  15. Career Management Issues of Female Business Expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Jan; Leung, Alicia S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Responses to a career management survey from 309 male and 79 female business expatriates revealed that, controlling for demographic differences, females could less often meet their career goals with the corporation. They were less likely to regard expatriation as a useful career move. Explanations were derived from relevant research literature.…

  16. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  17. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  18. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi. PMID:9621726

  19. Troubling Success: Interviews with Black Female Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nivischi N.; Beverly, Monifa Green; Alexander-Snow, Mia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the complexity of success for Black female faculty members based on six Black women at a public research oriented university in the Southeast. All women shared the challenges they experience as Black female faculty members. Findings indicate that while these women seemingly have attained professional success, they are leery of…

  20. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    2000-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s. Succ

  1. The Dutch Female Board Index 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch Female Board Index 2010 shows for the fourth year a survey of female representation on the Executive Boards and Supervisory Boards of 99 Dutch NVs listed on Euronext Amsterdam. The companies were classified by the percentage of women in their joint Executive Board and Supervisory Board. Th

  2. Neurogenetics : sex and the female brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.

  3. Are Female Top Managers Really Paid Less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay discrimina

  4. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  5. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  6. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  7. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  8. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  9. Do gravid female Anolis nebulosus thermoregulate differently than males and non-gravid females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Ramírez-Silva, Juan Pablo

    2015-08-01

    In lizards, the role of gravid oviparous females in controlling the temperature experienced by developing embryos prior to oviposition has been rarely examined. In particular, relatively little is known about the effect of gravidity on the thermal ecology of female Anolis lizards. Here we examine the thermal ecology of Anolis nebulosus from Nayarit, Mexico, with a particular goal of comparing the thermal ecology of gravid females to that of non-gravid females and males. The thermal efficiency (E) of gravid female A. nebulosus (E=0.782) was higher than in males (E=0.464), and to a lesser extent, non-gravid females (E=0.637), despite no significant differences observed in body, air, operative, or set point temperatures among males, gravid females, and non-gravid females. Gravid females had smaller differences between body temperatures and set point temperatures (db), but did not differ in the difference between operative temperature and set point temperature (de). Gravid females used sun-shade and shaded microhabitats proportionately more than males and non-gravid females, and rarely used sunny microhabitats. Our results suggest that gravid A. nebulosus are using a different and more efficient thermoregulatory strategy than other adults in the population. Such efficient thermoregulation is possibly related to females attempting to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the development of embryos in eggs prior to oviposition.

  10. Forced swim test: What about females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Katerina; Mikail, Hudu G; Kafetzopoulos, Vasilios; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Dalla, Christina

    2015-12-01

    In preclinical studies screening for novel antidepressants, male and female animals should be used. However, in a widely used antidepressant test, the forced swim test (FST), sex differences between males and females are not consistent. These discrepancies may discourage the inclusion of females in FST studies. In order to overcome this problem and provide a detailed insight regarding the use of female animals in the FST, we designed the following experiment and we performed a thorough analysis of the relevant literature. Male and female Wistar adult rats were subjected to the FST and sertraline was used as an antidepressant in two doses (10 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, 3 injections in 24 h). Rodents were subjected in the two FST sessions during all possible combinations of the estrous cycle stages. We found that females exhibited higher levels of immobility than males and this sex difference was alleviated following antidepressant treatment. Sertraline at both doses enhanced swimming in both sexes, but females appeared more responsive to lower sertraline doses regarding immobility levels. Surprisingly, the high sertraline dose enhanced climbing particularly in proestrous and diestrous. Marked sex differences were also observed in the frequency of head swinging, with females exhibiting lower counts than males. Conclusively, when screening for new antidepressants, it is recommended to use standard FST procedures and if possible to include females in all phases of the cycle. Using only one dose of an investigational drug in females in certain phases of the cycle could result to false negative results.

  11. Laparoscopic evaluation of female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sub-fertility is inability to ensure child bearing when it is wanted. Prevalence of sub-fertility in industrialised countries has been quoted as 20%, and seems to be on the rise. Traditional way to assess the uterine cavity, tubal structure and tubal patency was hysterosalpingography but it has now been largely superseded by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. The objective of this study was to highlight the role of laparoscopy in establishing diagnosis of female infertility. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Gynaecology Unit of Liaquat University of Medical Health Sciences, Hyderabad, Pakistan from August 28, 2000 to July 1, 2001. Total 200 sub-fertile patients attended the gynaecology OPD. Out of these 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy and dye test who were suspected cases of endometriosis, abnormal HSG and unexplained infertility. Those patients who had medical disorders and contraindication for laparoscopy were excluded from study. Detailed history of every patient was recorded on a proforma and physical examination was performed. Laparoscopy was scheduled in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Data were analysed using SPSS 11. Frequency and percentages were calculated to describe the results. Results: Out of 200 sub-fertile patients total 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy. Twenty (66%) patients were in primary infertility group while 10 (33%) patients were in secondary infertility group. Eleven (55%) patients of primary infertility belong to age group of 18-25 years while 6(60%) patients of secondary infertility belong to age group of 26- 33 years. Mean duration of sub fertility at time of presentation in primary infertility group was 1.95 years while in secondary infertility was 2.70 years. In primary infertility group main associated symptoms were dysmenorrhoeal in 8 (40%), irregular cycles 5 (25%), and dyspareunia in 4 (20%). In secondary infertility group 3 (30%) patients had dysmenorrhoeal and dyspareunia while 2

  12. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Eleanor J; Shah, Nirao M

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

  13. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor J Fraser

    Full Text Available Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE and the vomeronasal organ (VNO in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse.

  14. Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Niemelä

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.

  15. Evidence of an association between seasonal cycling of 25(OH)D and markers of bone health in UK South Asian but not Caucasian women living at 51oN

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, AL; Berry, JL; Gossiel, F.; Hannon, R; Eastell, R.; Lanham-New, SA

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to assess whether seasonal cycling of 25(OH)D (25-dihydroxy vitamin D) is associated with bone health. Method: A subgroup of 65 South Asian and Caucasian women who took part in the 2006-2007 D-FINES study was analysed. During this study they had blood drawn in four seasons for determination of 25(OH)D and serum c-telopeptide (sCTX)and in autumn and spring they had a DEXA scan (Hologic). Cycling of 25(OH)D was assessed by calculating the difference between the winter (nad...

  16. Significance of Caucasian Sections for Working out Carbon-Isotope Standard for Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) and Their Correlation with the Permian of North-Eastern Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri D Zakharov; Alexander S Biakov; Aymon Baud; Heinz Kozur

    2005-01-01

    Data obtained on conodont distribution in the Permian-Triassic Sovetashen Section of Transcaucasia provide further limitations on the age of the carbon-isotopic anomalies discovered by Baud et al. (1989). The significance of Caucasian sections for working out the carbon-isotope standard for the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) is shown. Original data on carbon-isotope composition of bivalve and brachiopod shells from Permian sediments of North-Eastern Russia (Omolon and Okhotsk areas) have been obtained, which may be used for their correlation.

  17. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ally R.HARARI; Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-01-01

    The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection,particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness,has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars.However,the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection) and in competition over breeding resources (social selection) has been largely ignored.The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute,while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates) has not yet been considered.As a result of natural selection,variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low,and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females.Sexual selection,on the other hand,should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females,and males are expected to choose females based on this variation.Moreover,social selection resulting from more general social interactions,for example competition among females for breeding sites and food,should also promote variance among female sex pheromones.Here,we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait.We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations.

  18. Female urbanward migration and human resource issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosa-feranil, I

    1990-01-01

    Of those migrating to urban centers in the Philippines, a disproportionate number of them are young females, most of whom end up working in the service sector. Between 1975-80, 1.3 million people migrated to urban centers, 56% of whom were females. Furthermore, a 1980 census indicates that 13% of all urban migrants were females age 15-19, and almost 1/4 of them were women in their 20s. Figures also show that single females make up a substantial portion of the urban migrants. Compared to the men migrating into the cities, the female urban migrants had lower educational attainments. Many of uneducated migrants do not integrate as easily, and are relegated to the periphery of urban centers. The search for employment serves as the driving force for urban migration, and in fact, the level of female participation in the workforce is high. But while male migrants work mostly as craftsmen or in the production sector, most female migrants work in the service sector. This category includes domestic workers, laundry women, cooks and waitresses, hospitality girls, and prostitutes. Generally attracting single, young females, the service sector has easy entry, which helps explain the high rate of female employment. The author explains that this trend is cause for concern, considering that the number of people involved is large, that the service sector provides low earning, and that it lends itself to the exploitation of the workers. Nonetheless, the author says that the migration pattern might only be transitory, and the urban migration might be a liberating process for women, but explains that further research is needed concerning the upward mobility of urban migrants.

  19. Female genital mutilation: perspectives, risks, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R I

    1999-03-01

    Female genital mutilation, traditionally known as female circumcision, is a surgically unnecessary modification of the female genitalia, practiced in nations in Africa, the Arab Peninsula, among some communities in Asia, and among immigrants and refugees from these areas who have settled in other areas. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among many different ethnic and cultural groups, including Christians, Muslims, Jews, and followers of indigenous African religions. As people from these areas immigrate to North America, health care professionals need to understand the important aspects of this growing problem, including management of complications, cultural attitudes, and sensitivities. PMID:10373987

  20. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. PMID:27041639

  1. Functions of VEGF in female reproductive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As a homodimeric glycoprotein, vascular en- dothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific mitogen of vascular endothelial cells. It can induce proliferation and migration, and inhibit apoptosis of endothelial cell. VEGF is involved in many processes in the female reproductive system, such as ovulation, periodical changes of endometrium, embryo implantation and development. VEGF plays important roles in some reproductive diseases, including preeclampsia and fetal hypoevolutism in uterus. Based on our studies on angiogenesis and its relevant factors in the female reproductive system these years, the functions of VEGF in female reproductive system are reviewed, and the research prospect and application of VEGF are also discussed.

  2. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  3. Are Female Top Managers Really Paid Less?

    OpenAIRE

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay discrimination at the level of the other top managers. These female executive directors earn over a five-year tenure period £1.3 million less than male directors, and this pay gap is visible for all componen...

  4. Epiglottis cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal airway length in male and female obstructive sleep apnea patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Melinda A; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a male-predominant condition, characterized by repeated upper-airway collapse with continued diaphragmatic efforts during sleep, and is accompanied by severe physiological consequences. Multiple morphological aspects, including epiglottis cross-sectional area (CSA) and oropharyngeal airway length (OPAL), can contribute to airway collapsibility in the condition. This study focused on the effects of OSA severity, sex, and race on OPA dimensions. Materials and methods Two high-resolution T1-weighted image series were collected from 40 mild-to-severe OSA subjects (age 46.9±9 years, body mass index 30.4±5.4 kg/m2, Apnea–Hypopnea Index score 32.8±22.5, 28 males) and 54 control subjects (47±9 years, 24.7±3.8 kg/m2, 32 males) using a 3 T magnetic resonance-imaging scanner. Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and “other” subjects constituted the study pool. Both image series were realigned and averaged, and reoriented to a common space. CSA and OPAL were measured, normalized for subject height, and compared between sexes and disease-severity levels in OSA and control subjects. Results Significantly reduced epiglottis CSA appeared only in severe OSA vs controls (P=0.009). OPAL increased significantly with OSA severity vs controls (mild, P=0.027; moderate, POPAL than OSA females, which may underlie the increased proportion of affected males with higher apnea–hypopnea index scores. However, no significant differences appeared between CSA and OPAL measures for male and female controls, suggesting that airway morphology may not be the sole contributor for airway collapse. No ethnic or racial differences appeared for CSA or OPAL measures. Conclusion Sex-based reductions in epiglottis CSA and increased OPAL in OSA subjects may enhance airway-collapse vulnerability, more so with greater disease severity, and partially underlie male vs female susceptibility to the sleep disorder.

  5. The Female and Male Modes of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the ways several women have written persuasive discourse and identifies a female rhetorical mode involving indirection, open-endedness, additive attention to small details, restraint, and noncombativeness. (DD)

  6. Predictors of Depression in Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Lisa A.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Study examined factors associated with symptoms of depression in female adolescents. Specifically, the relationship between theoretically related measures-separation-individuation; interpersonal concerns; attachment style; parental representations-and symptoms of depression was investigated. The model developed explained interrelationships of…

  7. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G;

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  8. Frequency of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in obese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in obese females. Study Design: Cross sectional. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Multan (a tertiary care hospital). Six months. Subjects and Methods: All individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study after their consent. Based upon their height and weight, the body mass index was calculated and their blood drawn for thyroid profile. Results: Total 133 participants were included in the study and all were females, and their mean age (± SD) was 47.68 ± 11.382 years. The overall frequency of undiagnosed hypothyroidism was 4.5% (6 out of the 133 subjects) Conclusion: The determined frequency of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in obese females is not high enough to recommend mass screening in all obese females. (author)

  9. Female self-employment and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noseleit, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Several analyses report a positive correlation between fertility and female self-employment; however, scholars disagree about the direction of this relationship. Knowing about the causal relationship is important because the relevant mechanisms and possible implications differ tremendously. This pap

  10. Molecular aspects of Schistosoma mansoni female maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Moraes Giannini

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Incubation of total protein extracts of Schistosoma mansoni with 3H 17-beta-estradiol and 20-hydroxyecdysone, revealed steroid binding proteins in both, male and female worms. The interaction of nuclear proteins with restriction fragments of the gender and stage-specific gene F-10 was investigated using the "Band-Shift" technique. Distinct male and female nuclear proteins bound to the fragments of this gene. Among the nuclear proteins, only those rich in cysteine residues bound to DNA. In vitro incubation of live worms with the estrogen antagonist Tamoxifen, altered the pattern of the DNA binding proteins, producing in females, a band profile similar to that obtained with male worm protein extracts. When Tamoxifen was injected into schistosome infected mice, the eggs produced by females presented an abnormal morphology, compatible with non-viable eggs. These results suggest that the regulation of transcription of the F-10 gene might involve steroid receptors.

  11. Female Climacteric Syndrome Treated by Ear Embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤

    2003-01-01

    @@ Female climacteric syndrome is a common disease occurring before and after menopause. The author has treated the disease with ear embedding therapy, and achieved satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a report of the clinical observation.

  12. Effects of urine from pregnant and lactating female house mice on sexual maturation of juvenile females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drickamer, L C; Hoover, J E

    1979-11-01

    The effects of urine from pregnant and lactating female/mice on puberty in young females were examined. In Experiment I urine from pregnant or lactating females painted daily on the external nares of young females led to earlier sexual maturation than treatment with water or urine from singly-caged, nonlactating, multiparous adult females. In Experiment II urine from either pregnant or lactating females, injected daily into perforated plastic capsules containing cotton, effected earlier maturation in female mice caged with these capsules than did the urine of singly-caged females or water. In Experiment III the effectiveness of these treatments on reproduction per se was confirmed: young females reaching maturity earlier as the result of urine treatments were in fact ovulating and were capable of conceiving and bearing young. One explanation for the presence of the urinary pheromone(s) involves changes in hormone levels during pregnancy and/or lactation and urinary excretion levels of hormones, hormone metabolites, or chemical compounds which are hormone dependent. The pheromone excretion, triggered by external factors, may be a general signal to other females that environmental and/or social conditions are favorable for reproductive activities.

  13. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  14. Aggression by ovariectomized female rats with testosterone implants: competitive experience activates aggression toward unfamiliar females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female hooded rats (250 to 325 g) were ovariectomized and bilaterally implanted with testosterone-filled or empty Silastic tubes. The testosterone-filled space in each tube was 10 mm long and this should produce a serum testosterone concentration 4 to 5 times that of an intact female, but well below that of a male. Three weeks following surgery, half of the animals with testosterone implants were housed with an animal with an empty implant and left for 6 weeks. The remaining animals were placed on a 23-hr food deprivation schedule, housed in testosterone implant/empty implant pairs, and then subjected to a series of food competition tests. Following the competition tests, all animals were individually tested in their living cage for aggression toward an unfamiliar female. In food competition, females with testosterone implants were more successful and more aggressive than their cagemates with empty implants. When tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar intruder, females with testosterone implants given competitive experience were more aggressive toward an intruder than were their cagemates with empty implants or females with testosterone implants not given the competitive experience. Females with testosterone implants but without competitive experience were not more aggressive toward an unfamiliar female than were their cagemates with empty implants. These results suggest that, in ovariectomized females with testosterone implants, hormone-dependent aggression fostered by a competitive situation is displayed toward unfamiliar females.

  15. Infanticide in great reed warblers: secondary females destroy eggs of primary females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson; Bensch; Hasselquist

    1997-08-01

    In 1994-1995 artificial nests with attached model eggs were put into territories that were known to have been occupied by male great reed warblers, Acrocephalus arundinaceusin previous years. Because the eggs were made of soft plasticine, predators left peckmarks in them and this enabled us to identify predators by comparing peckmarks with reference marks made by various species. Previous field data had suggested that infanticidal behaviour existed in our study population, as nests of primary females suffered a three times higher rate of nest loss during the egg-laying period than nests of secondary and monogamous females. The presence of infanticide was supported by the experiment. Small peckmarks resembling those of a great reed warbler occurred almost exclusively in territories occupied by great reed warblers, in particular when a new female settled in the territory. The newly settled females built nests closer to depredated than non-depredated nests. That small peckmarks occurred when new females settled strongly suggests that it is secondary female great reed warblers that commit infanticide on eggs of primary females. Females of low harem rank are expected to gain from infanticidal behaviour because a low ranked female gets a higher proportion of male parental investment when the nest of the primary female fails. PMID:9268460

  16. Female labour supply in india: proximate determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Rajarshi

    2011-01-01

    Traditional official definition of ‘work’ in developing countries excludes large number of activities that are predominantly performed by women. Naturally official Female Labour Force Participation Rate is quite low in such countries. Women who are officially in the labourforce must therefore have compelling reasons for doing so. This paper fills the research gap arising due to dearth of econometric analysis of female labour supply in Indian context by identifying proximate determinants. Apar...

  17. Aging, life trajectories and female homosexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Moraes Alves

    2010-01-01

    The social science's literature about female homosexuality has recently grown in Brazil, showing the awakened interest in this issue. Since the 1990's, academic works have discussed female homosexuality: its meanings and its impact on gender issues, its relationships with social movements, specially the ones concerned with sexual rights in Brazil. Great part of these works focus on a young age rate, and some of them are dedicated to middle age women. However, there aren't works concerned with...

  18. Women's Responses towards Female Nudity in Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Surendranath, Anupama

    2012-01-01

    Female nudity has been explicitly used in advertisements. They have been around for a while and continue to be a significant part of the promotion technique. Consumers have different opinions about these advertisements. This study focuses on women’s responses towards female nudity in advertising. A comprehensive review on previous literature emphasis the different roles portrayed by women, memorization, brand recall, arousal and attraction, positive impacts, negative impacts, purchase intenti...

  19. Financial Behaviors of Female Teachers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaimah R.; Sarmila M. S.; N. Lyndon; Azima A. M.; S. Selvadurai; Suhana Saad; A. C. Er

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the pattern of financial behavior among female teachers in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. A total of 325 female teachers was involved in the study. Questionnaires were used in the survey to collect data. Data on questions relating to socioeconomic background, financial knowledge and financial behavior were gathered. The financial behavior pattern was formulated using the 5-Likert scale and financial knowledge with the choice of either ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answer. The a...

  20. EATING BEHAVIOR DISORDERS OF FEMALE ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Burgić-Radmanović, Marija; Gavrić, Živana; Štrkić, Dijana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a period of significant physical, emotional and intellectual changes, as well as changes in social roles, relations and expectations. Objective: Our objective was to inquire into eating attitudes among female adolescents. Subjects and method: The sample consisted of female adolescents, age of 16-17, attending first grade Economic and Medical Secondary School pupils in Banja Luka, 2007. Survey questionnaire (16 questions) is a scale for self-rating of eating di...

  1. Predictably Philandering Females Prompt Poor Paternal Provisioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Julia; Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Winney, Isabel; Simons, Mirre; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry

    2016-08-01

    One predicted cost of female infidelity in socially monogamous species is that cuckolded males should provide less parental care. This relationship is robust across species, but evidence is ambiguous within species. We do not know whether individual males reduce their care when paired with cheating females compared with when paired with faithful females (within-male adjustment) or, alternatively, if the males that pair with cheating females are the same males that provide less parental care in general (between-male effect). Our exceptionally extensive long-term data set of repeated observations of a wild passerine allows us to disentangle paternal care adjustment within males-within pairs and between males-while accounting for environmental variables. We found a within-male adjustment of paternal provisioning, but not incubation effort, relative to the cuckoldry in their nest. This effect was mainly driven by females differing consistently in their fidelity. There was no evidence that this within-male adjustment also took place across broods with the same female, and we found no between-male effect. Interestingly, males that gained more extrapair paternity provided less care. Data from a cross-foster experiment suggested that males did not use kin recognition to assess paternity. Our results provide insight into the role of individual variation in parental care and mating systems. PMID:27420786

  2. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  3. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1 haplotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms modify susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases in a New Zealand caucasian population: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barclay Murray L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1 gene encodes a pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogens, leading to downstream responses characteristic of innate immunity. We investigated the role of NOD1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on IBD risk in a New Zealand Caucasian population, and studied Nod1 expression in response to bacterial invasion in the Caco2 cell line. Findings DNA samples from 388 Crohn's disease (CD, 405 ulcerative colitis (UC, 27 indeterminate colitis patients and 201 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common SNPs in NOD1, using the MassARRAY® iPLEX Gold assay. Transcriptional activation of the protein produced by NOD1 (Nod1 was studied after infection of Caco2 cells with Escherichia coli LF82. Carrying the rs2075818 G allele decreased the risk of CD (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50–0.88, p Conclusion The NOD1 gene is important in signalling invasion of colonic cells by pathogenic bacteria, indicative of its' key role in innate immunity. Carrying specific SNPs in this gene significantly modifies the risk of CD and/or UC in a New Zealand Caucasian population.

  4. Diabetes prevalence is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in US middle-aged Caucasian men and women: a cross-sectional analysis within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kaye E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Fraser, David R; Ke, Liang; Tseng, Marilyn; Mason, Rebecca S; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Freedman, D Michal; Ahn, Jiyoung; Peters, Ulrike; McCarty, Catherine; Hollis, Bruce W; Ziegler, Regina G; Purdue, Mark P; Graubard, Barry I

    2011-08-01

    Hypovitaminosis D may be associated with diabetes, hypertension and CHD. However, because studies examining the associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) are limited, we examined these associations in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n 2465). Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case-control studies of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions and intake of vitamin D and Ca were collected from a baseline questionnaire. Results indicated that serum levels of 25(OH)D were low (smoking history, BMI, physical activity, total dietary energy and vitamin D and Ca intake, only diabetes was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. Caucasians who had 25(OH)D ≥ 80 nmol/l were half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0·5 (95 % CI 0·3, 0·9)) compared with those who had 25(OH)D studies. PMID:21736838

  5. SPONGIOTIC DERMATITIS WITH A MIXED INFLAMMATORY INFILTRATE OF LYMPHOCYTES, ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS, IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND COMPLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Velez Ana Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical and histological presentation of spongiotic dermatitis and its inflammatory infiltrates warrant further investigation. In this case documentation of a patient with cutaneous spongiotic reactivity, we aim to characterize antigen presenting cells, as well as the skin-specific cutaneous lymphocyte antigen population by multiple techniques. Case report: A 30 year old Caucasian female presented with a two week history of blistering and erosions around the vaginal, rectal and axillary areas. Material and Methods: We utilized hematoxylin and eosin histology, direct immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy methods to evaluate the immune reaction patterns of the cutaneous inflammatory cells. Results: In the primary histologic areas of spongiotic dermatitis, a mixed population of B and T lymphocytes was seen. Ki-67 antigen proliferative index staining was accentuated in these areas, correlating with the presence of large numbers of epidermal and dermal antigen presenting cells. Among the antigen presenting cell population, we detected strong positivities with CD1a, Factor XIIIa, myeloid/hystoid antigen, S100, HAM-56, and CD68. Interestingly, immunoglobulins G, D and M and Complement factors C1q and C3 were also strongly expressed in antigen presenting cell areas, including positivity within the spongiotic epidermis and around dermal vessels. Conclusions: We document a heterogeneous population of B and T lymphocytes and the presence of multiple classes of antigen presenting cells, immunoglobulins and complement in and surrounding histologically spongiotic areas; these findings further correlated with increased levels of expression of Ki-67.

  6. Female song occurs in songbirds with more elaborate female coloration and reduced sexual dichromatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Howard Webb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elaborate plumages and songs in male birds provide classic evidence for Darwinian sexual selection. However, trait elaboration in birds is not gender-restricted: female song has recently been revealed as a taxonomically-widespread trait within the songbirds (oscine Passerines, prompting increased research into likely functions and social/ecological correlates. Here we use phylogenetically-informed comparative analysis to test for an evolutionary association between female song and plumage color elaboration in songbirds. If there is an evolutionary trade-off between signaling modes, we predict a negative correlation between acoustic and visual elaboration. This trade-off hypothesis has been commonly proposed in males but has mixed empirical support. Alternatively, if song and plumage have similar or overlapping functions and evolve under similar selection pressures, we predict a positive correlation between female song and female plumage elaboration. We use published data on female song for 1,023 species of songbirds and a novel approach that allows for the reliable and objective comparison of color elaboration between species and genders. Our results reveal a significant positive correlation between female colorfulness and female song presence. In species where females sing, females (but not males are on average more colorful – with concomitantly reduced average sexual dichromatism. These results suggest that female plumage and female song likely evolved together under similar selection pressures and that their respective functions are reinforcing. We discuss the potential roles of sexual versus social selection in driving this relationship, and the implications for future research on female signals.

  7. 西藏昌都地区女性宫颈癌知晓率调查及相关因素探讨%Investigation of the Awareness Rate of the Female to Cervical Cancer and Related Factors in Changdu District of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓玛康珠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the awareness of female to cervical cancer in Changdu district of Tibet and its related factors, and to provide reference for the prevention and control of disease in this district. Methods From January 2012 to March 2015, 460 female patients were investigated by questionnaire, and the correlation factors were analyzed. Results Age, education level, income level and household (urban or rural) were the important factors affecting the female's awareness rate of cervical cancer. The rate of 18~20 years old women(26.1%) was lower than that of 21~30 years old(79.6%). The rate of the female with college degree (80.9%) was higher than that with senior high school (50.3%) The rate of women in rural ar-eas(79.1%) is lower than that of urban residents (88.7%). The higher the level of women's income, the higher the awareness rate of cervical cancer. There was no significant correlation between the rate and marital status (P>0.05). Conclusion The awareness rate of the female to cervical cancer in Changdu district of Tibet is relatively low, and the health education should be strengthened to improve the awareness of adult women to participate in cervical cancer screening regularly.%目的 调查西藏昌都地区女性对宫颈癌的认知度及其相关因素,为该地区疾病预防控制提供参考依据.方法 选择2012年1月-2015年3月西藏自治区昌都地区藏医院妇科就诊的460例女性患者对于宫颈癌的认知度进行问卷调查,同时分析影响女性认知度的相关因素. 结果 年龄﹑文化程度﹑收入水平﹑户口(城市或农村)是影响女性对宫颈癌知晓的重要相关因素. 18~20岁女性知晓率(26.1%)低于21~30岁女性(79.6%). 大学专科学历以上女性知晓率(80.9%)高于高中以下学历的女性(50.3%). 农村女性知晓率(79.1%)低于城市女性(88.7%);女性收入水平越高,则知晓率越高.知晓率与婚姻状况差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 西藏昌都地区女

  8. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  9. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  10. Why do ovigerous females approach courting males? Female preferences and sensory biases in a fiddler crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chun-Chia; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2016-08-01

    Perceptual biases explain the origin and evolution of female preference in many species. Some responses that mediate mate choice, however, may have never been used in nonmating contexts. In the fiddler crab, Uca mjoebergi, mate-searching females prefer faster wave rates and leading wave; however, it remains unclear whether such responses evolved in a mating context (i.e., the preference has effect on the fitness of the female and her offspring that arise from mating with a particular male) or a nonmating contexts (i.e., a female obtains direct benefits through selecting the male with a more detectable trait). Here, we compared the preferences of mate-searching with those of ovigerous females that are searching for a burrow and do not concern about male "quality." Results showed that as both mate-searching and ovigerous females preferentially approached robotic males with faster wave rates. This suggests that wave rate increases detectability/locatability of males, but the mating preference for this trait is unlikely to evolve in the mating context (although it may currently function in mate choice), as it does not provide fitness-related benefit to females or her offspring. Wave leadership, in contract, was attractive to mate-searching females, but not ovigerous females, suggesting that female preference for leadership evolves because wave leadership conveys information about male quality. We provide not only an empirical evidence of sensory biases (in terms of the preference for faster wave), but the first experimental evidence that mating context can be the only selection force that mediates the evolution of male sexual traits and female preference (in terms of the preference for leading wave). PMID:27551397

  11. Dental age assessment of adolescents and emerging adults in United Kingdom Caucasians using censored data for stage H of third molar roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpitaksathit, Teelana; Hunt, Nigel; Roberts, Graham J; Petrie, Aviva; Lucas, Victoria S

    2011-10-01

    The root of the third permanent molar is the only dental structure that continues development after completion of growth of the second permanent molar. It is claimed that the lack of a clearly defined end point for completion of growth of the third permanent molar means that this tooth cannot be used for dental age assessment. The aim of this study was to estimate the mean age of attainment of the four stages (E, F, G, and H) of root development of the third molar. The way in which the end point of completion of stage H can be identified is described. A total of 1223 dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) available in the archives of the Eastman Dental Hospital, London, were used for this study. The ages of the subjects ranged from 12.6 to 24.9 years with 63 per cent of the sample being female. Demirjan's tooth development stages (TDSs), for the first and second molars, were applied to the third molars by a single examiner. For each of stages E, F, and G and for stage H censored data, the mean ages of the males and females were compared, separately within each tooth morphology type using the two sample t-test (P ages of the upper and lower third molars on each side, separately for each gender. The mean age of attainment and the 99 per cent confidence interval (CI) for each TDS were calculated for each third molar. The final stage H data were appropriately censored to exclude data above the age of completion of root growth. The results showed that, for each gender, the age in years at which individuals attained each of the four TDSs was approximately normally distributed. The mean age for appropriately censored data was always lower than the corresponding mean age of the inappropriately censored data for stage H (male UR8 19.57, UL8 19.53, LL8 19.91, and LR8 20.02 and female UR8 20.08, UL8 20.13, LL8 20.78, and LR8 20.70). This inappropriately censored data overestimated the mean age for stage H. The appropriately censored data for the TDSs of the third molar may be

  12. Assessing emotion sensitivity in female offenders with borderline personality symptoms: results from a fear-potentiated startle paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Maccoon, Donal; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-05-01

    An instructed fear-conditioning paradigm was used to measure fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in a sample of 80 Caucasian, female offenders assessed using the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale (Morey, 1991). As predicted, women with higher levels of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms showed significantly greater FPS than women with lower levels when required to focus attention on the threat-relevant dimension of the experimental stimuli. However, FPS was not greater for women with higher levels of BPD symptoms in the two conditions that required participants to direct attention away from the threat-relevant dimension. These results highlight the importance of attention for moderating the association between BPD symptoms and exaggerated responses to threat-relevant information and may, therefore, help to resolve the inconsistent evidence on emotional reactivity in BPD. Moreover, the potential importance of attentional factors in BPD may shed new light on prominent symptoms of the disorder and existing theoretical perspectives on BPD. PMID:22250659

  13. Do Female Executives Make a Difference? The Impact of Female Leadership on Gender Gaps and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    FLABBI, Luca; Macis, Mario; Moro, Andrea; SCHIVARDI, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a matched employer-employee panel data set and find that female leadership has a positive effect on female wages at the top of the distribution, and a negative one at the bottom. Moreover, performance in firms with female leadership increases with the share of female workers. This evidence is consistent with a model where female executives are better equipped at interpreting signals of productivity from female workers. This suggests substantial costs of under-representation of wome...

  14. Resistance Training for Pediatric Female Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Hanson, Emily; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training often is not an inherent component of current dance training for pediatric female dancers. Reasons for this include concerns surrounding injury to the immature skeleton and diminishing dancer aesthetic appearance, as well as questions related to the effectiveness of such training for increasing dancer strength and muscle endurance. Many forms of dance demand sufficient muscle strength and endurance for prolonged periods of high intensity dance, power generation during leaps and jumps, as well as stabilization of the lower extremity to prevent injury. The benefits of resistance training for the pediatric female dancer are multiple, including improved muscle strength and bone health and decreased risk for stress related injuries to the actively growing skeleton. Understanding the biomechanical changes that occur during growth that may predispose the female dancer to injury is important, as well as initiating individualized resistance training protocols early in training that may serve to improve performance and prevent future injury. PMID:27245945

  15. Supporting the emergence of female student entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Kruse, Merethe

    2011-01-01

    years (60%), while it drops to 35% on the 5th and last year. Among graduates from AAA, the gender distribution remains skewed, since more than twice as many men as women start their own architect or design firm.1 Q: Ark is a project which promotes entrepreneurship among female students at AAA. Q: Ark......60% of students at Aarhus School of Architecture (AAA) are women. Yet there are far more male than female students who harbor a desire to become independent. Overall as much as 48% of all students at AAA want to start their own business. Significantly, however, the interest is greatest on second...... intends to activate unused entrepreneurial potential at the AAA and increase the number of female design students who start their own business, during or after completion of study. The aim is that an independent career is made available for all, and not only for groups of particularly resourceful 'born...

  16. The craniofacial complex in 47, XXX females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Krusinskie, Viktorija; Alvesalo, Lassi; Sidlauskas, Antanas

    2005-08-01

    A study of the craniofacial complex in four 47, XXX Finnish females, or females with an extra X chromosome, was carried out using cephalometric analysis comprising linear and angular measurements. The lengths of the anterior and posterior cranial bases, the calvarium, mandibular ramus and posterior and upper anterior face heights were found to be significantly shorter than in female controls, while the angles between the foraminal and clival planes, the mandibular plane and cranial base, the maxillary and occlusal planes, the maxillary and mandibular planes and the foraminal and mandibular planes, and also the gonial angle, were significantly enlarged. The present findings of reduced linear measurements, together with the results of studies on the craniofacial complex of 47, XXY and 47, XYY males, suggest dimensional variation between these groups from the promoting effect of an extra Y chromosome and the retarding effect of an extra X chromosome on craniofacial growth.

  17. Naegleria fowleri That Induces Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Rapid Diagnosis and Rare Case of Survival in a 12-Year-Old Caucasian Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew L; Reed, Tameika; Stewart, Charlotte; Levy, Rebecca A

    2016-05-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and almost always fatal disease that is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a freshwater thermophilic amoeba. Our case involves an adolescent female who presented with fever of unknown origin. A lumbar puncture was performed, and the Wright-Giemsa and Gram stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytospin slides showed numerous organisms. Experienced medical technologists in the microbiology and hematology laboratories identified the organisms as morphologically consistent with Naegleria species. The laboratory made a rapid diagnosis and alerted emergency department care providers within 75 minutes. The patient was treated for PAM with amphotericin, rifampin, azithromycin, fluconazole and aggressive supportive therapy including dexamethasone. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was contacted, and miltefosine, an investigational medication, was started. Additional treatment included an intraventricular shunt and controlled hypothermia in order to mitigate potential cerebral edema. Our patient is a rare success story, as she was diagnosed swiftly, successfully treated, and survived PAM. PMID:26984830

  18. Naegleria fowleri That Induces Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Rapid Diagnosis and Rare Case of Survival in a 12-Year-Old Caucasian Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew L; Reed, Tameika; Stewart, Charlotte; Levy, Rebecca A

    2016-05-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and almost always fatal disease that is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a freshwater thermophilic amoeba. Our case involves an adolescent female who presented with fever of unknown origin. A lumbar puncture was performed, and the Wright-Giemsa and Gram stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytospin slides showed numerous organisms. Experienced medical technologists in the microbiology and hematology laboratories identified the organisms as morphologically consistent with Naegleria species. The laboratory made a rapid diagnosis and alerted emergency department care providers within 75 minutes. The patient was treated for PAM with amphotericin, rifampin, azithromycin, fluconazole and aggressive supportive therapy including dexamethasone. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was contacted, and miltefosine, an investigational medication, was started. Additional treatment included an intraventricular shunt and controlled hypothermia in order to mitigate potential cerebral edema. Our patient is a rare success story, as she was diagnosed swiftly, successfully treated, and survived PAM.

  19. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species.

  20. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species. PMID:27463236