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Sample records for 3-tesla imager body

  1. Three-dimensional ultrashort echo time imaging of solid polymers on a 3-Tesla whole-body MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Fabian; Martirosian, Petros; Schwenzer, Nina F; Szimtenings, Michael; Kreisler, Peter; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2008-11-01

    With the introduction of ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences solid polymeric materials might become visible on clinical whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. The aim of this study was to characterize solid polymeric materials typically used for instruments in magnetic resonance guided interventions and implants. Relaxation behavior and signal yield were evaluated on a 3-Tesla whole-body MR unit. Nine different commonly used solid polymeric materials were investigated by means of a 3-dimensional (3D) UTE sequence with radial k-space sampling. The investigated polymeric samples with cylindrical shape (length, 150 mm; diameter, 30 mm) were placed in a commercial 8-channel knee coil. For assessment of transverse signal decay (T2*) images with variable echo times (TE) ranging from 0.07 milliseconds to 4.87 milliseconds were recorded. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) was calculated for all MR visible polymers with transverse relaxation times higher than T2* = 300 mus using an adapted method applying variable flip angles. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated at the shortest achievable echo time (TE = 0.07 milliseconds) for standardized sequence parameters. All relaxation times and SNR data are given as arithmetic mean values with standard deviations derived from 5 axially oriented slices placed around the isocenter of the coil and magnet. Six of the 9 investigated solid polymers were visible at TE = 0.07 milliseconds. Visible solid polymers showed markedly different SNR values, ie, polyethylene SNR = 1146 +/- 41, polypropylene SNR = 60 +/- 6. Nearly mono-exponential echo time dependent signal decay was observed: Transverse relaxation times differed from T2*=36 +/- 5 mus for polycarbonate to T2*=792 +/- 7 mus for polyvinylchloride (PVC). Two of the investigated solid polymers were applicable to T1 relaxation time calculation. Polyurethane had a spin-lattice relaxation time of T1 = 172 +/- 1 milliseconds, whereas PVC had T1 = 262 +/- 7 milliseconds

  2. Functional and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla

    CERN Document Server

    Klarhoefer, M

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development and optimization of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for non-invasive functional studies of the human brain and perfusion imaging on a 3 Tesla (T) whole body NMR system. The functional MRI (fMRI) experiments performed showed that single-shot multi-echo EPI and spiral imaging techniques provide fast tools to obtain information about T2* distributions during functional activation in the human brain. Both sequences were found to be useful in the separation of different sources contributing to the functional MR signal like inflow or susceptibility effects in the various vascular environments. An fMRI study dealing with the involvement of prefrontal brain regions in movement preparation lead to inconsistent results. It could not be clarified if these were caused by problems during a spatial normalization process of the individual brains or if the functional paradigm, using very short inter-stimulus intervals, was not suited for the problem investigated. Blood flo...

  3. Imaging Findings of Brain Death on 3-Tesla MRI

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    Sohn, Chul Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa Pyung [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, CHA Gumi Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Beom [Dept. of Radiology, Korean Armed Force Daejeon Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyuk Won; Kim, Easlmaan; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyoung Tae [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Jeong Hun [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To demonstrate the usefulness of 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in diagnosing brain death. Magnetic resonance imaging findings for 10 patients with clinically verified brain death (group I) and seven patients with comatose or stuporous mentality who did not meet the clinical criteria of brain death (group II) were retrospectively reviewed. Tonsilar herniation and loss of intraarterial flow signal voids (LIFSV) on T2WI were highly sensitive and specific findings for the diagnosis of brain death (p < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). DWI, TOF-MRA, and GRE findings were statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.015, 0.029, and 0.003, respectively). However, cortical high signal intensities in T2WI and SWI findings were not statistically different between the two group (p = 0.412 and 1.0, respectively). T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and MRA using 3T MRI may be useful for diagnosing brain death. However, SWI findings are not specific due to high false positive findings.

  4. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative evaluation of tongue carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, K F; Cornelius, R S; Lucas, F V; Meinzen-Derr, J; Patil, Y J

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in predicting tongue tumour thickness via direct and reconstructed measures, and their correlations with corresponding histological measures, nodal metastasis and extracapsular spread. A prospective study was conducted of 25 patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and pre-operative 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging from 2009 to 2012. Correlations between 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and histological measures of tongue tumour thickness were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient: r values were 0.84 (p Tesla magnetic resonance imaging had 83 per cent sensitivity, 82 per cent specificity, 82 per cent accuracy and a 90 per cent negative predictive value for detecting cervical lymph node metastasis. In this cohort, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging measures of tumour thickness correlated highly with the corresponding histological measures. Further, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was an effective method of detecting malignant adenopathy with extracapsular spread.

  5. 3-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided tumor resection

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    Hall, W.A. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Depts. of Neurosurgery; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; University of Minnesota Medical Center (MMC), Minneapolis, MN (United States); Truwit, C.L. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Neurology; Hennepin Country Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Objective: We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of using 3-tesla (T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to guide brain tumor resection. Material and methods: From February 2004 to March 2006, fMRI was performed on 13 patients before surgical resection. Functional imaging was used to identify eloquent cortices for motor (8), speech (3), and motor and speech (2) activation using two different 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. Surgical resection was accomplished using a 1.5-T intraoperative MR system. Appropriate MR scan sequences were performed intraoperatively to determine and maximize the extent of the surgical resection. Results: Tumors included six oligodendrogliomas, three meningiomas, two astrocytomas and two glioblastomas multiforme. The fMRI data was accurate in all cases. After surgery, two patients had hemiparesis, two had worsening of their speech, and one had worsening of speech and motor function. Neurological function returned to normal in all patients within 1 month. Complete resections were possible in 10 patients (77%). Two patients had incomplete resections because of the proximity of their tumors to functional areas. Biopsy was performed in another patient with an astrocytoma in the motor strip. Conclusion: 3-T fMRI was accurate for locating neurologic function before tumor resection near eloquent cortex. (orig.)

  6. Travelling Wave Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, F; Marrufo, O; Rodriguez, A O

    2013-01-01

    Waveguides have been successfully used to generate magnetic resonance images at 7 T with whole-body systems. The bore limits the magnetic resonance signal transmitted because its specific cut-off frequency is greater than the majority of resonant frequencies. This restriction can be overcome by using a parallel-plate waveguide whose cut-off frequency is zero for the transversal electric modes and it can propagate any frequency. To investigate the potential benefits for whole-body imaging at 3 T, we compare numerical simulations at 1.5 T, 3 T, 7 T, and 9 T via the propagation of the parallel-plate waveguide principal mode filled with a cylindrical phantom and two surface coils. B1 mapping was computed to investigate the feasibility of this approach at 3T. The point spread function method was used to measure the imager performance for the traveling-wave magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Human leg images were acquired to experimentally validate this approach. The principal mode shows very little field magni...

  7. Intraindividual comparison of image quality in MR urography at 1.5 and 3 tesla in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, M; Nolte-Ernsting, C; Adam, G; Kemper, J

    2008-10-01

    Experimental evaluation of image quality of the upper urinary tract in MR urography (MRU) at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in a porcine model. In this study four healthy domestic pigs, weighing between 71 and 80 kg (mean 73.6 kg), were examined with a standard T1w 3D-GRE and a high-resolution (HR) T1w 3D-GRE sequence at 1.5 and 3 Tesla. Additionally, at 3 Tesla both sequences were performed with parallel imaging (SENSE factor 2). The MR urographic scans were performed after intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg body weight (bw)) and low-dose furosemide (0.1 mg/kg bw). Image evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists blinded to sequence parameters and field strength. Image analysis included grading of image quality of the segmented collecting system based on a five-point grading scale regarding anatomical depiction and artifacts observed (1: the majority of the segment (>50%) was not depicted or was obscured by major artifacts; 5: the segment was visualized without artifacts and had sharply defined borders). Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were determined. Statistical analysis included kappa-statistics, Wilcoxon and paired student t-test. The mean scores for MR urographies at 1.5 Tesla were 2.83 for the 3D-GRE and 3.48 for the HR3D-GRE sequence. Significantly higher values were determined using the corresponding sequences at 3 Tesla, averaging 3.19 for the 3D-GRE (p = 0.047) and 3.92 for the HR3D-GRE (p = 0,023) sequence. Delineation of the pelvicaliceal system was rated significantly higher at 3 Tesla compared to 1.5 Tesla (3D-GRE: p = 0.015; HR3D-GRE: p = 0.006). At 3 Tesla the mean SNR and CNR were significantly higher (p Tesla allowed for significantly higher image quality and SNR compared to 1.5 Tesla, particularly for the visualization of the pelvicaliceal system.

  8. Intraindividual comparison of image quality in MR urography at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in an animal model

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    Regier, M.; Adam, G.; Kemper, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Nolte-Ernsting, C. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Purpose: experimental evaluation of image quality of the upper urinary tract in MR urography (MRU) at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in a porcine model. Materials and methods: in this study four healthy domestic pigs, weighing between 71 and 80 kg (mean 73.6 kg), were examined with a standard T 1w 3D-GRE and a high-resolution (HR) T 1w 3D-GRE sequence at 1.5 and 3 Tesla. Additionally, at 3 Tesla both sequences were performed with parallel imaging (SENSE factor 2). The MR urographic scans were performed after intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg body weight (bw)) and low-dose furosemide (0.1 mg/kg bw). Image evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists blinded to sequence parameters and field strength. Image analysis included grading of image quality of the segmented collecting system based on a five-point grading scale regarding anatomical depiction and artifacts observed (1: the majority of the segment (> 50%) was not depicted or was obscured by major artifacts; 5: the segment was visualized without artifacts and had sharply defined borders). Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were determined. Statistical analysis included {kappa}-statistics, Wilcoxon and paired student t-test. Results: the mean scores for MR urographies at 1.5 Tesla were 2.83 for the 3D-GRE and 3.48 for the HR 3D-GRE sequence. Significantly higher values were determined using the corresponding sequences at 3 Tesla, averaging 3.19 for the 3D-GRE (p = 0.047) and 3.92 for the HR 3D-GRE (p = 0.023) sequence. Delineation of the pelvicaliceal system was rated significantly higher at 3 Tesla compared to 1.5 Tesla (3D-GRE: p = 0.015; HR 3D-GRE: p = 0.006). At 3 Tesla the mean SNR and CNR were significantly higher (p < 0.05). A {kappa} of 0.67 indicated good interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  9. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  10. Chemical exchange saturation transfer MR imaging of Parkinson's disease at 3 Tesla

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    Li, Chunmei; Peng, Shuai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Min [Beijing Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Chen, Haibo; Su, Wen [Beijing Hospital, Department of Neurology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Xuna [Peking University, Center for MRI Research and Beijing City Key Lab for Medical Physics and Engineering, Beijing (China); Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-10-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging to detect Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients at 3 Tesla. Twenty-seven PD patients (17 men and 10 women; age range, 54-77 years) and 22 age-matched normal controls (13 men and 9 women; age range, 55-73 years) were examined on a 3-Tesla MRI system. Magnetization transfer spectra with 31 different frequency offsets (-6 to 6 ppm) were acquired at two transverse slices of the head, including the basal ganglia and midbrain. One-way analysis of variance tests was used to compare the differences in CEST imaging signals between PD patients and normal controls. Total CEST signal between the offsets of 0 and 4 ppm in the substantia nigra was significantly lower in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.006), which could be associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Protein-based CEST imaging signals at the offset of 3.5 ppm in the globus pallidus, putamen and caudate were significantly increased in PD patients, compared to normal controls (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P < 0.001, respectively). CEST imaging signals could potentially serve as imaging biomarkers to aid in the non-invasive molecular diagnosis of PD. (orig.)

  11. Value of 3 Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for assessing liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalavrentios, Lavrentios; Sinakos, Emmanouil; Chourmouzi, Danai; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Drevelegas, Konstantinos; Constantinides, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Talwalkar, Jayant; Akriviadis, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly the new generation 3 Tesla technology, and especially diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting liver fibrosis. The aim of our pilot study was to assess the clinical performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of liver parenchyma for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 18 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD underwent DWI with 3 Tesla MRI. DWI was performed with single-shot echo-planar technique at b values of 0-500 and 0-1000 s/mm(2). ADC was measured in four locations in the liver and the mean ADC value was used for analysis. Staging of fibrosis was performed according to the METAVIR system. The median age of patients was 52 years (range 23-73). The distribution of patients in different fibrosis stages was: 0 (n=1), 1 (n=7), 2 (n=1), 3 (n=5), 4 (n=4). Fibrosis stage was poorly associated with ADC at b value of 0-500 s/mm(2) (r= -0.30, P=0.27). However it was significantly associated with ADC at b value of 0-1000 s/mm(2) (r= -0.57, P=0.01). For this b value (0-1000 s/mm(2)) the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.93 for fibrosis stage ≥3 and the optimal ADC cut-off value was 1.16 ×10(-3) mm(2)/s. 3 Tesla DWI can possibly predict the presence of advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

  12. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): lesion visualization on a 3 tesla Clinical whole-body system after intraperitoneal contrast injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckl, S.; Naegele, T.; Klose, U. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Herrmann, M.; Gaertner, S.; Weissert, R. [Dept. of Neurology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Kueker, W. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the intravital visibility of CNS lesions in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis, using a 3-Tesla (T) wholebody MR system. Materials and Methods: Three healthy Dark Agouti (DA) rats and 16 DA rats with clinical signs of EAE were examined on a 3T whole body-system using a normal wrist coil. In total, 25 examinations were preformed using T2- and T1-weighted images in transverse and sagittal orientation with a slice thickness of 2 mm or 1 mm (voxel size up to 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm). Sedation was achieved by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine. In addition, T1-weighted images were obtained after the instillation of 1.0 ml of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (0.5 mmol/ml) into the peritoneal cavity. Results: T2- and T1-weighted images of the brain and spinal cord with high spatial and contrast resolution could be obtained in all animals. The anatomical details of the olfactory bulb glomeruli, cerebellum foliae, ventricles and corpus callosum were clearly visible. The EAE lesions presented as hyperintense area in T2-weighted images and could be demonstrated in all clinically affected animals by MRI and histologically verified. In total, the 16 affected rats had 28 cerebral and 2 spinal cord lesions (range 1 to 4, median 2). Contrast enhancement was noted in 12 animals and ranked as severe in ten and moderate in two cases. No adverse effects were noted due to sedation or intraperitoneal contrast injection. Conclusions: The intravital demonstration of cerebral and spinal cord EAE lesions in rats is possible on a 3T whole-body MR scanner using a normal wrist coil. Intraperitoneal injection of ketamine/xylazine and contrast agent is an easy, safe and effective procedure in rats. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of whole body MR angiography at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in patients with hereditary hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, Peter; Finck-Wedel, Anna Katharina; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik; Bley, Thorsten Alexander; Koops, Andreas; Adam, Gerhard; Weber, Christoph (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)), email: p.bannas@uke.uni-hamburg.de; Kooijman, Hendrik (Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany)); Beil, Frank-Ulrich (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany))

    2011-06-15

    Background Patients suffering from hereditary hyperlipidemia have a high risk for premature cardiovascular disease and death as a consequence of accelerated atherosclerosis. Purpose To prospectively and intra-individually compare image quality and detectability of stenoses in contrast enhanced whole-body MRA (WBMRA) at 1.5 and 3 Tesla (T) in patients with hereditary hyperlipidemia. Material and Methods Twenty-seven patients with hereditary hyperlipidemia received a 1.5 and 3 T gadopentetate dimeglumine contrast-enhanced WBMRA. Twenty-three defined arterial segments were analyzed regarding depiction of target vessels and image quality according to a 5-point-scale ('not evaluable' to 'excellent'). Wilcoxon matched pair test was performed for comparison. Forty-three defined arterial segments were analyzed for the degree of stenosis (0%, 1-49%, 50-99% and 100%) as well as vessel alterations such as aneurysms. Chi-square test was performed for comparison. Results 1.5 T and 3 T scans yielded WBMRA with diagnostic quality in all patients. In seven of 23 arterial segments (30.4%) image quality was rated significantly higher at 3 T, whereas there was no significant difference in the remaining 16 segments between WBMRA at 1.5 T and 3 T. All relevant stenoses (n = 5), occlusions (n = 6), and aneurysms (n = 3) were evaluated similarly at both field strengths. Conclusion WBMRA can be performed at 1.5 T and 3 T with diagnostic image quality. Image quality was significantly higher at 3 T than at 1.5 T in only 30.4% of the arterial segments. In order to effectively take advantage of the higher field strength, further optimization of sequence parameters and injection protocols for WBMRA at 3 T is necessary

  14. Horizontal nystagmus and multiple sclerosis using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, P M; Fagan, A J; Meaney, J F; Colgan, N C; Meredith, S D; Driscoll, D O; Curran, K M; Bradley, D; Redmond, J

    2016-11-01

    Nystagmus in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally attributed to brainstem disease. Lesions in other regions may result in nystagmus. The identification of these other sites is enhanced by using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3TMRI) due to increased signal-to-noise ratio. We sought to evaluate the distribution of structural lesions and disruption of tracts in patients with horizontal nystagmus secondary to MS using 3TMRI. Twenty-four patients (20 women, 4 men; age range 26-55 years) with horizontal nystagmus secondary to MS underwent 3TMRI brain scans; and 18 patients had diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for tractography. Nystagmus was bidirectional in 11, right-sided in 6 and left-sided in 7. We identified 194 lesions in 20 regions within the neural integrator circuit in 24 patients; 140 were within the cortex and 54 were within the brainstem. Only two patients had no lesions in the cortex, and 9 had no lesions in the brainstem. There was no relationship between side of lesion and direction of nystagmus. Thirteen of 18 (72 %) had tract disruption with fractional anisotropy (FA) values below 0.2. FA was significantly lower in bidirectional compared to unidirectional nystagmus (p = 0.006). In MS patients with horizontal nystagmus, lesions in all cortical eye fields and their descending connections were evident. Technical improvements in tractography may help identify the specific site(s) resulting in nystagmus in MS.

  15. 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the occipitoatlantoaxial region in the normal horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Crespo, Beatriz; Kircher, Patrick R; Carrera, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the appearance of the ligamentous structures of the occipitoatlantoaxial (OAA) region in the normal horse by 3 tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI images of the longitudinal odontoid ligament, tectorial membrane, dorsal and ventral atlantoaxial ligaments, dorsal atlantooccipital membrane with its reinforcing ligaments, and the lateral atlantooccipital ligaments of 10 horse cadavers were evaluated. All ligaments and membranes were identified in all planes, except for the lateral atlantooccipital ligament in the sagittal plane due to its cranioventrolateral course. All were iso to mildly hypointense to musculature of the neck in T1W with the exception of the tectorial membrane that was moderately hypointense; moderately hypointense in PD-SPIR, and markedly hypointense (isointense to cortical bone) in T2W. The PD-SPIR was the best sequence to identify all ligaments and membranes from their cranial and caudal attachments. The longitudinal odontoid ligament, ventral atlantoaxial ligament, and reinforcing bands of the dorsal atlantooccipital membrane presented a characteristic striped heterogeneous signal behavior thought to be due to fibrocartilaginous content. The remaining ligaments and membranes showed homogeneous signal intensity. Special anatomical features in this species such as the fan-shaped longitudinal odontoid ligament, absence of the transverse ligament and presence of the ventral atlantoaxial ligament were documented. Ligamentous structures that stabilize the equine OAA region were described with MRI in this study and these findings could serve as an anatomic reference for those cases where instability of this region is suspected.

  16. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)).

  17. Potential heating caused by intraparenchymal intracranial pressure transducers in a 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging system using a body radiofrequency resonator: assessment of the Codman MicroSensor Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Virginia F J; Hawkes, Robert C; Harding, Sally G; Willcox, Roslyn; Brock, Sarah; Hutchinson, Peter J; Menon, David K; Carpenter, T Adrian; Coles, Jonathan P

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy may provide important clinical information in the acute stages of brain injury. For this to occur it must be ensured that intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring devices are safe to bring into the MR imaging suite. The authors tested a Codman MicroSensor ICP Transducer (Codman & Shurtleff, Inc.) within a 3-T MR imaging system using the transmit body coil and receive-only coils and the transmit-and-receive head coil. Extreme and rapid heating of 64 degrees C was noted with the transducer wire in certain positions when using the transmit body coil and receive-only head coil. This is consistent with the phenomenon of resonance, and the probe was shown to have a distinct resonant response when coupled to HP 4195A Network Analyzer (Hewlett Packard). Coiling some of the transducer wire outside of the receive-only head coil reduced the generated current and so stopped the thermogenesis. This may be due to the introduction of a radiofrequency choke. The ICP transducer performed within clinically acceptable limits in both the static magnetic field and during imaging with high radiofrequency power when the excess wire was in this configuration. No heating was observed when a transmit-and-receive head coil was used. This study has shown when using a high-field magnet, the Codman ICP probe is MR conditional. That is, in the authors' system, it can be safely used with the transmit-and-receive head coil, but when using the transmit body coil the transducer wire must be coiled into concentric loops outside of the receive-only head coil.

  18. Magnetization transfer contrast imaging in bovine and human cortical bone applying an ultrashort echo time sequence at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Fabian; Martirosian, Petros; Machann, Jürgen; Schwenzer, Nina F; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2009-05-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) contrast imaging reveals interactions between free water molecules and macromolecules in a variety of tissues. The introduction of ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences to clinical whole-body MR scanners expands the possibility of MT imaging to tissues with extremely fast signal decay such as cortical bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the MT effect of bovine cortical bone in vitro on a 3 Tesla whole-body MR unit. A 3D-UTE sequence with a rectangular-shaped on-resonant excitation pulse and a Gaussian-shaped off-resonant saturation pulse for MT preparation was applied. The flip angle and off-resonance frequency of the MT pulse was systematically varied. Measurements on various samples of bovine cortical bone, agar gel, aqueous manganese chloride solutions, and solid polymeric materials (polyurethane) were performed, followed by preliminary applications on human tibial bone in vivo. Direct on-resonant saturation effects of the MT prepulses were calculated numerically by means of Bloch's equations. Corrected for direct saturation effects dry and fresh bovine cortical bone showed "true" MTR values of 0.26 and 0.21, respectively. In vivo data were obtained from three healthy subjects and showed MTR values of 0.30 +/- 0.08. In vivo studies into MT of cortical bone might have the potential to give new insights in musculoskeletal pathologies.

  19. A review of the safety implications of magnetic resonance imaging at field strengths of 3 Tesla and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crook, Neil [Alliance Medical, Iceni Centre, Warwick Technology Park, Warwick CV34 6DA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ncrook@alliance.co.uk; Robinson, Leslie [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiography, School of Healthcare Professions, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Rationale: Diagnostic imaging is being driven by technological developments particularly so in the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Electromagnetic fields used to produce images are becoming much stronger and switched more rapidly and it is essential that safety advice remains appropriate and current. Using a systematic methodology, this review aims to identify the clinical safety implications in performing MRI at field strengths of 3 Tesla (T) and above and determine whether the current clinical safety guidelines are appropriate. Method: References were sourced from The Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar. Related websites searched included The British Institute of Radiology, Society of Radiographers, Royal College of Radiologists, The Institution of Engineering and Technology, IMRSER (Institute for Magnetic Resonance Safety, Education, and Research), MagNet (NHS PASA). References supplied in retrieved papers were also checked for potential relevance. The use of consistent search terminology and inclusion and exclusion criteria ensured quality and provided rigour to conclusions drawn. Conclusion: According to the literature retrieved, the current body of knowledge has allowed safety guidelines to be established for patient safety and these are both appropriate and valid at field strengths of 3 T.

  20. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O' Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tosi, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P. (Imaging Sciences Dept. and Clinical Research Facility, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (GB))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0+-1.1 vs. 5.1+-0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1+-0.9 vs. 3.1+-0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  1. Evaluation of 100 brain examinations using a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator - safety, handling, and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirin, Selma; Goericke, Sophia L.; Kinner, Sonja; Schweiger, Bernd [University Hospital Essen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Huening, Britta M.; Stein, Anja; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula [University Hospital Essen, Department of Neonatology, Division of Pediatrics I, Essen (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Several studies have revealed the importance of brain imaging in term and preterm infants. The aim of this retrospective study was to review safety, handling, and image quality of MR brain imaging using a new 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator. Between 02/2011 and 05/2012 100 brain MRIs (84 infants, mean gestational age 32.2 {+-} 4.7 weeks, mean postmenstrual age at imaging 40.6 {+-} 3.4 weeks) were performed using a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator with dedicated, compatible head coil. Seventeen examinations (13 infants, mean gestational age 35.1 {+-} 5.4 weeks, mean postmenstrual age at imaging 47.8 {+-} 7.4 weeks) with a standard head coil served as a control. Image analysis was performed by a neuroradiologist and a pediatric radiologist in consensus. All but two patients with known apnea were transferred to the MR unit and scanned without problems. Handling was easier and faster with the incubator; relevant motion artifacts (5.9 vs. 10.8 %) and the need for repetitive sedation (43.0 vs. 86.7 %) were reduced. Considering only images not impaired by motion artifacts, image quality (4.8 {+-} 0.4 vs. 4.3 {+-} 0.8, p = 0.047) and spatial resolution (4.7 {+-} 0.4 vs. 4.2 {+-} 0.6, p = 0.011) of T2-weighted images were scored significantly higher in patients imaged with the incubator. SNR increased significantly (171.6 {+-} 54.5 vs. 80.5 {+-} 19.8, p < 0.001) with the use of the incubator. Infants can benefit from the use of a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator because of its safety, easier, and faster handling (compared to standard imaging) and possibility to obtain high-quality MR images even in unstable patients. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion kurtosis imaging of the liver at 3 Tesla: in vivo comparison to standard diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budjan, Johannes; Sauter, Elke A; Zoellner, Frank G; Lemke, Andreas; Wambsganss, Jens; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I

    2017-01-01

    Background Functional techniques like diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are gaining more and more importance in liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced technique that might help to overcome current limitations of DWI. Purpose To evaluate DKI for the differentiation of hepatic lesions in comparison to conventional DWI at 3 Tesla. Material and Methods Fifty-six consecutive patients were examined using a routine abdominal MR protocol at 3 Tesla which included DWI with b-values of 50, 400, 800, and 1000 s/mm(2). Apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated applying a standard mono-exponential fit, while a non-Gaussian kurtosis fit was used to obtain DKI maps. ADC as well as Kurtosis-corrected diffusion ( D) values were quantified by region of interest analysis and compared between lesions. Results Sixty-eight hepatic lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] [n = 25]; hepatic adenoma [n = 4], cysts [n = 18]; hepatic hemangioma [HH] [n = 18]; and focal nodular hyperplasia [n = 3]) were identified. Differentiation of malignant and benign lesions was possible based on both DWI ADC as well as DKI D-values ( P values were in the range of 0.04 to < 0.0001). Conclusion In vivo abdominal DKI calculated using standard b-values is feasible and enables quantitative differentiation between malignant and benign liver lesions. Assessment of conventional ADC values leads to similar results when using b-values below 1000 s/mm(2) for DKI calculation.

  3. Accuracy of accelerated cine MR imaging at 3 Tesla in longitudinal follow-up of cardiac function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandner, Torleif A.; Huber, Armin M.; Theisen, Daniel; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Wintersperger, Bernd J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals - Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Houck, Philip [Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Department of Cardiology, Scott and White Clinic and Hospital, Temple, TX (United States); Runge, Val M.; Sincleair, Spencer [Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Scott and White Clinic and Hospital, Temple, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The ability of fast, parallel-imaging-based cine magnetic resonance (MR) to monitor global cardiac function in longitudinal exams at 3 Tesla was evaluated. Seventeen patients with chronic cardiac disease underwent serial cine MR imaging exams (n=3) at 3 Tesla. Data were acquired in short-axis orientation using cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) with a spatial resolution of 2.5 x 1.9 mm{sup 2} at 45 ms temporal resolution. Multislice imaging (three slices/breath-hold) was performed using TSENSE acceleration (R=3) and standard single-slice cine (non-TSENSE) was performed at identical locations in consecutive breath-holds. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF) and myocardial mass (MM) of both cine approaches were compared for individual time-points as well as for longitudinal comparison. TSENSE-cine did not show significant differences for EDV (2.6 ml; P=.79), ESV (2.2 ml; P=0.81), EF (-0.3%; P=0.95) and MM (2.4 g; P=0.72) in comparison with non-TSENSE. Longitudinal ANOVA analysis did not reveal significant differences for any parameter, neither for non-TSENSE data (all P>0.7) nor for TSENSE data (all P>0.9). Multifactorial ANOVA showed non-significant differences (all P>0.7) at comparable data variances. Data acquisition was significantly shortened using TSENSE. Threefold accelerated multislice cine at 3 Tesla allows accurate assessment of volumetric LV data and accurate longitudinal monitoring of global LV function at a substantially shorter overall examination time. (orig.)

  4. Knee implant imaging at 3 Tesla using high-bandwidth radiofrequency pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachschmidt, Theresa J; Sutter, Reto; Jakob, Peter M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Nittka, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of high-bandwidth radiofrequency (RF) pulses used in turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences or combined with slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) on artifact reduction at 3 Tesla in the knee in the presence of metal. Local transmit/receive coils feature increased maximum B1 amplitude, reduced SAR exposition and thus enable the application of high-bandwidth RF pulses. Susceptibility-induced through-plane distortion scales inversely with the RF bandwidth and the view angle, hence blurring, increases for higher RF bandwidths, when SEMAC is used. These effects were assessed for a phantom containing a total knee arthroplasty. TSE and SEMAC sequences with conventional and high RF bandwidths and different contrasts were tested on eight patients with different types of implants. To realize scan times of 7 to 9 min, SEMAC was always applied with eight slice-encoding steps and distortion was rated by two radiologists. A local transmit/receive knee coil enables the use of an RF bandwidth of 4 kHz compared with 850 Hz in conventional sequences. Phantom scans confirm the relation of RF bandwidth and through-plane distortion, which can be reduced up to 79%, and demonstrate the increased blurring for high-bandwidth RF pulses. In average, artifacts in this RF mode are rated hardly visible for patients with joint arthroplasties, when eight SEMAC slice-encoding steps are applied, and for patients with titanium fixtures, when TSE is used. The application of high-bandwidth RF pulses by local transmit coils substantially reduces through-plane distortion artifacts at 3 Tesla. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Local Multi-Channel RF Surface Coil versus Body RF Coil Transmission for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance at 3 Tesla: Which Configuration Is Winning the Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Oliver; Winter, Lukas; Dieringer, Matthias A; Els, Antje; Oezerdem, Celal; Rieger, Jan; Kuehne, Andre; Cassara, Antonino M; Pfeiffer, Harald; Wetterling, Friedrich; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using local four-channel RF coil transmission and benchmark it against large volume body RF coil excitation. Electromagnetic field simulations are conducted to detail RF power deposition, transmission field uniformity and efficiency for local and body RF coil transmission. For both excitation regimes transmission field maps are acquired in a human torso phantom. For each transmission regime flip angle distributions and blood-myocardium contrast are examined in a volunteer study of 12 subjects. The feasibility of the local transceiver RF coil array for cardiac chamber quantification at 3 Tesla is demonstrated. Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using four-channel surface RF coil transmission is competitive versus current clinical CMR practice of large volume body RF coil transmission. The efficiency advantage of the 4TX/4RX setup facilitates shorter repetition times governed by local SAR limits versus body RF coil transmission at whole-body SAR limit. No statistically significant difference was found for cardiac chamber quantification derived with body RF coil versus four-channel surface RF coil transmission. Our simulation also show that the body RF coil exceeds local SAR limits by a factor of ~2 when driven at maximum applicable input power to reach the whole-body SAR limit. Pursuing local surface RF coil arrays for transmission in cardiac MR is a conceptually appealing alternative to body RF coil transmission, especially for patients with implants.

  6. Utility and limitations of 3-Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for differentiation of renal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevcenco, S., E-mail: sabina.sevcenco@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Urology, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Heinz-Peer, G., E-mail: gertraud.heinz-peer@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Ponhold, L., E-mail: lothar.ponhold@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Javor, D., E-mail: domagoj.javor@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kuehhas, F.E., E-mail: frenklin.kuehhas@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Urology, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Klingler, H.C., E-mail: christoph.klingler@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Urology, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Remzi, M., E-mail: mesut.remzi@gmx.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Urology, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Weibl, P., E-mail: peter.weibl@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Urology, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Shariat, S.F., E-mail: sfshariat@gmail.com [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Urology, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Baltzer, P.A., E-mail: pascal.baltzer@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    Objective: To investigate utility and limitations of 3-Tesla diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of benign versus malignant renal lesions and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes. Materials and methods: Sixty patients with 71 renal lesions underwent 3 Tesla DW-MRI of the kidney before diagnostic tissue confirmation. The images were retrospectively evaluated blinded to histology. Single-shot echo-planar imaging was used as the DW imaging technique. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared with histopathological characteristics. Results: There were 54 malignant and 17 benign lesions, 46 lesions being small renal masses ≤4 cm. Papillary RCC lesions had lower ADC values (p = 0.029) than other RCC subtypes (clear cell or chromophobe). Diagnostic accuracy of DW-MRI for differentiation of papillary from non-papillary RCC was 70.3% resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 64.3% (95% CI, 35.1–87.2) and 77.1 (95% CI, 59.9–89.6%). Accuracy increased to 83.7% in small renal masses (≤4 cm diameter) and sensitivity and specificity were 75.0% and 88.5%, respectively. The ADC values did not differ significantly between benign and malignant renal lesions (p = 0.45). Conclusions: DW-MRI seems to distinguish between papillary and other subtypes of RCCs especially in small renal masses but could not differentiate between benign and malignant renal lesions. Therefore, the use of DW-MRI for preoperative differentiation of renal lesions is limited.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation after implantation of a titanium cervical disc prosthesis: a comparison of 1.5 and 3 Tesla magnet strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Jarle; Jacobsen, Eva A; Kolstad, Frode; Nygaard, Oystein P; Zwart, John A; Hol, Per K

    2013-10-01

    Cervical disc prostheses induce significant amount of artifact in magnetic resonance imaging which may complicate radiologic follow-up after surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate as to what extent the artifact, induced by the frequently used Discover(®) cervical disc prosthesis, impedes interpretation of the MR images at operated and adjacent levels in 1.5 and 3 Tesla MR. Ten subsequent patients were investigated in both 1.5 and 3 Tesla MR with standard image sequences one year following anterior cervical discectomy with arthroplasty. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the images by consensus. Emphasis was made on signal changes in medulla at all levels and visualization of root canals at operated and adjacent levels. A "blur artifact ratio" was calculated and defined as the height of the artifact on T1 sagittal images related to the operated level. The artifacts induced in 1.5 and 3 Tesla MR were of entirely different character and evaluation of the spinal cord at operated level was impossible in both magnets. Artifacts also made the root canals difficult to assess at operated level and more pronounced in the 3 Tesla MR. At the adjacent levels however, the spinal cord and root canals were completely visualized in all patients. The "blur artifact" induced at operated level was also more pronounced in the 3 Tesla MR. The artifact induced by the Discover(®) titanium disc prosthesis in both 1.5 and 3 Tesla MR, makes interpretation of the spinal cord impossible and visualization of the root canals difficult at operated level. Adjusting the MR sequences to produce the least amount of artifact is important.

  8. Usefulness of 3-Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of aortic stenosis severity in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Franck; Iacuzio, Laura; Civaia, Filippo; Rusek, Stephane; Dommerc, Carine; Hugues, Nicolas; Alexandrescu, Clara; Dor, Vincent; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Dreyfus, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    Recently, 1.5-Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was reported to provide a reliable alternative to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for the quantification of aortic stenosis (AS) severity. Few data are available using higher magnetic field strength MRI systems in this context. To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the assessment of aortic valve area (AVA) using 3-Tesla CMR in routine clinical practice, and to assess concordance between TTE and CMR for the estimation of AS severity. Ninety-one consecutive patients (60 men; mean age 74±10years) with known AS documented by TTE were included prospectively in the study. All patients underwent comprehensive TTE and CMR examination, including AVA estimation using the TTE continuity equation (0.81±0.18cm(2)), direct CMR planimetry (CMRp) (0.90±0.22cm(2)) and CMR using Hakki's formula (CMRhk), a simplified Gorlin formula (0.70±0.19cm(2)). Although significant agreement with TTE was found for CMRp (r=0.72) and CMRhk (r=0.66), CMRp slightly overestimated (bias=0.11±0.18cm(2)) and CMRhk slightly underestimated (bias=-0.11±0.17cm(2)) AVA compared with TTE. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibilities of CMR measurements were excellent (r=0.72 and r=0.74 for CMRp and r=0.88 and r=0.92 for peak aortic velocity, respectively). 3-Tesla CMR is a feasible, radiation-free, reproducible imaging modality for the estimation of severity of AS in routine practice, knowing that CMRp tends to overestimate AVA and CMRhk to underestimate AVA compared with TTE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of stents. Quantitative in vitro examination at 3 Tesla; Magnetresonanztomographie von Stents. Quantitative MR-Untersuchungen in vitro bei 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Julia [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Sektion Experimentelle Radiologie; Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachbereich Medizintechnik; Nguyen-Trong, Thien-Hoa; Haehnel, Stefan [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie; Bellemann, Matthias E. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachbereich Medizintechnik; Heiland, Sabine [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Sektion Experimentelle Radiologie; Neurologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively study MR artifacts of various stents on the basis of in vitro experiments. We were particularly interested whether sequence type and orientation of the stent with respect to the static magnetic field influences the artifact. We examined 18 stents of different material (nitinol, stainless steel, cobalt alloy), different design of the stent meshes (AccuLink, OmniLink, DynaLink, Xact, Protoge, Wallstent Monorail), different diameter (5-10 mm) and different length (18-58 mm) with a turbo spin echo (TSE), a 2D-fast low angle shot (FLASH) and a 3D-FLASH sequence. The MR images were examined qualitatively with respect to possible artifacts. Furthermore we examined the MR data quantitatively: The contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) was determined both within the stent and outside (within the tube); based on these values we calculated the transparency factor P, furthermore we calculated the apparent vascular lumen within the tube and within the stent. The stents made of stainless steel and cobalt alloy displayed severe susceptibility artifacts. Therefore the vessel lumen within the stent could not be assessed. The nitinol stents showed different artifact patterns: The AccuLink and DynaLink stents showed less artifacts compared to the Xact and Protoge stents. Besides the susceptibility artifacts we found artifacts due to RF shielding by the stent mesh, particularly in TSE sequences. A MR control of patients after stenting is possible and may yield diagnostic information when using the AccuLink or DynaLink stents. However, it is important to make sure that the stent is MR safe for the field strength used for the examination. (orig.)

  10. Differences in Velopharyngeal Structure during Speech among Asians Revealed by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Movie Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulthida Nunthayanon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Different bony structures can affect the function of the velopharyngeal muscles. Asian populations differ morphologically, including the morphologies of their bony structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the velopharyngeal structures during speech in two Asian populations: Japanese and Thai. Methods. Ten healthy Japanese and Thai females (five each were evaluated with a 3-Tesla (3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner while they produced vowel-consonant-vowel syllable (/asa/. A gradient-echo sequence, fast low-angle shot with segmented cine and parallel imaging technique was used to obtain sagittal images of the velopharyngeal structures. Results. MRI was carried out in real time during speech production, allowing investigations of the time-to-time changes in the velopharyngeal structures. Thai subjects had a significantly longer hard palate and produced shorter consonant than Japanese subjects. The velum of the Thai participants showed significant thickening during consonant production and their retroglossal space was significantly wider at rest, whereas the dimensional change during task performance was similar in the two populations. Conclusions. The 3 T MRI movie method can be used to investigate velopharyngeal function and diagnose velopharyngeal insufficiency. The racial differences may include differences in skeletal patterns and soft-tissue morphology that result in functional differences for the affected structures.

  11. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  12. A novel computerized algorithm to detect microstructural brainstem pathology in Parkinson's disease using standard 3 Tesla MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelmans, Kai; Spies, Lothar; Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens; Jahn, Holger; Gerloff, Christian; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Increased deposition of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to be prominent in the brainstem and discussed to be clinically relevant for motor and non-motor features. Whether structural magnetic resonance imaging is capable to detect degraded tissue microstructure caused by increased deposition of α-synuclein at this predilection site in PD remains unclear. We hypothesize that microstructural degradation in the brainstem leads to a reduced T1 contrast provoking standard tissue segmentation engines to misclassify tissue as additional grey matter in regions predominantly composed of white matter. High-resolution T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) imaging at 3 Tesla in fifty-two PD patients with mild-to-moderate disease severity and in forty age- and gender-matched healthy controls was performed. A dedicated computerized algorithm that comprises standard tissue segmentation in combination with a statistical test was set up that evaluates grey matter composition on voxel level. The algorithm detected a single significant cluster of voxels with enhanced grey matter (cluster volume is 1,368 mm(3), p < 0.05 corrected for false discovery rate) in the pontomedullary junction of the brainstem in PD patients as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, absolute grey matter volume was significantly higher in the brainstem of the PD group compared to healthy controls. We conclude that this cluster may reflect α-synuclein induced microstructural brainstem pathology in PD.

  13. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging obtained 4 hours after intravenous gadolinium injection in patients with sudden deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaya, Mitsuhiko; Teranishi, Masaaki; Naganawa, Shinji; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Tadao; Otake, Hironao; Nakata, Seiichi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 4 h after intravenous gadolinium (Gd) injection provides sufficient anatomic resolution of the inner ear fluid spaces in sudden deafness. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) between the cochlea and cerebellum may be a good indicator of disruption of the blood-labyrinthine barrier. We evaluated the inner ear 4 h after intravenous Gd injection to determine whether 3T MRI enables the acquisition of images of the affected inner ear in sudden deafness. Ten patients underwent 3T MRI scanning 4 h after intravenous Gd injection. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) MRI was performed. The SIR varied from 0.45 to 2.17 in 11 affected ears and from 0.43 to 1.48 in 9 unaffected ears. The difference of contrast (affected ear vs unaffected ear) could be detected in five of the nine patients with unilateral sudden deafness. The Gd distribution was recognized in the vestibule of 10 affected ears and in the cochlea of 5 affected ears, in which no significant hydrops was observed. In the remaining vestibules and cochleas of affected ears, the Gd enhancement was too faint to evaluate the endolymphatic hydrops.

  14. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: jumping from 1.5 to 3 tesla (preliminary experience)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego; Roberts, Timothy Paul Leslie; Zarnow, Deborah; Johnson, Ann Michelle; Delgado, Jorge; Vossough, Arastoo [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Several attempts have been made at imaging the fetus at 3 T as part of the continuous search for increased image signal and better anatomical delineation of the developing fetus. Until very recently, imaging of the fetus at 3 T has been disappointing, with numerous artifacts impeding image analysis. Better magnets and coils and improved technology now allow imaging of the fetus at greater magnetic strength, some hurdles in the shape of imaging artifacts notwithstanding. In this paper we present the preliminary experience of evaluating the developing fetus at 3 T and discuss several artifacts encountered and techniques to decrease them, as well as safety concerns associated with scanning the fetus at higher magnetic strength. (orig.)

  15. Hip imaging of avascular necrosis at 7 Tesla compared with 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theysohn, J.M.; Kraff, O.; Theysohn, N.; Orzada, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Landgraeber, S. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Essen (Germany); Ladd, M.E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    To compare ultra-high field, high-resolution bilateral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hips at 7 Tesla (T) with 3 T MRI in patients with avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head by subjective image evaluations, contrast measurements, and evaluation of the appearance of imaging abnormalities. Thirteen subjects with avascular necrosis treated using advanced core decompression underwent MRI at both 7 T and 3 T. Sequence parameters as well as resolution were kept identical for both field strengths. All MR images (MEDIC, DESS, PD/T2w TSE, T1w TSE, and STIR) were evaluated by two radiologists with regard to subjective image quality, soft tissue contrasts, B1 homogeneity (four-point scale, higher values indicating better image quality) and depiction of imaging abnormalities of the femoral heads (three-point scale, higher values indicating the superiority of 7 T). Contrast ratios of soft tissues were calculated and compared with subjective data. 7-T imaging of the femoral joints, as well as 3-T imaging, achieved ''good'' to ''very good'' quality in all sequences. 7 T showed significantly higher soft tissue contrasts for T2w and MEDIC compared with 3 T (cartilage/fluid: 2.9 vs 2.2 and 3.6 vs 2.6), better detailed resolution for cartilage defects (PDw, T2w, T1w, MEDIC, DESS > 2.5) and better visibility of joint effusions (MEDIC 2.6; PDw/T2w 2.4; DESS 2.2). Image homogeneity compared with 3 T (3.9-4.0 for all sequences) was degraded, especially in TSE sequences at 7 T through signal variations (7 T: 2.1-2.9); to a lesser extent also GRE sequences (7 T: 2.9-3.5). Imaging findings related to untreated or treated AVN were better delineated at 3 T (≤1.8), while joint effusions (2.2-2.6) and cartilage defects (2.5-3.0) were better visualized at 7 T. STIR performed much more poorly at 7 T, generating large contrast variations (1.5). 7-T hip MRI showed comparable results in hip joint imaging compared with 3 T with slight

  16. [Reproducibility and accuracy in the morphometric and mechanical quantification of trabecular bone from 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberich-Bayarri, A; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Sanz-Requena, R; Sánchez-González, J; Hervás Briz, V; García-Martí, G; Pérez, M Á

    2014-01-01

    We used an animal model to analyze the reproducibility and accuracy of certain biomarkers of bone image quality in comparison to a gold standard of computed microtomography (μCT). We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and μCT to study the metaphyses of 5 sheep tibiae. The MR images (3 Teslas) were acquired with a T1-weighted gradient echo sequence and an isotropic spatial resolution of 180μm. The μCT images were acquired using a scanner with a spatial resolution of 7.5μm isotropic voxels. In the preparation of the images, we applied equalization, interpolation, and thresholding algorithms. In the quantitative analysis, we calculated the percentage of bone volume (BV/TV), the trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), the trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), the trabecular index (Tb.N), the 2D fractal dimension (D(2D)), the 3D fractal dimension (D(3D)), and the elastic module in the three spatial directions (Ex, Ey and Ez). The morphometric and mechanical quantification of trabecular bone by MR was very reproducible, with percentages of variation below 9% for all the parameters. Its accuracy compared to the gold standard (μCT) was high, with errors less than 15% for BV/TV, D(2D), D(3D), and E(app)x, E(app)y and E(app)z. Our experimental results in animals confirm that the parameters of BV/TV, D(2D), D(3D), and E(app)x, E(app)y and E(app)z obtained by MR have excellent reproducibility and accuracy and can be used as imaging biomarkers for the quality of trabecular bone. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual language and handwriting movement: functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla during generation of ideographic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Tanaka, S; Sugio, T; Matsuzawa, M; Inui, T; Moriya, T; Glover, G H; Nakai, T

    2001-07-01

    A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment at 3 tesla was performed to investigate the collaborative mechanism between visuospatial processing and motor execution in performing visual language generation tasks. Japanese Kanji, ideographic characters, were utilized to design tasks. The bilateral border portions between the inferior parietal lobule and the occipital lobe were involved during a Kanji puzzle task, which required subjects to combine several parts into a Kanji. The higher motor areas, such as the premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor areas, were also activated bilaterally during the puzzle task. The parieto-occipital activation may be related to analysis of configuration or segmentation/integration of Kanji figures. Activation in the higher motor areas may be induced by cognitive components related to motor function to perform the visuospatial language task, such as intense reference for displayed characters and finding a proper character for puzzle solution. A collaborative mechanism in these areas may explain the effectiveness of tactile reading in letter recognition by patients with pure alexia or kinesthetic facilitation by Kanji users when recalling difficult Kanji.

  18. Peripheral nerve tractography in soft tissue tumors: a preliminary 3-tesla diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Panotopoulos, Joannis; Schmidt, Manfred; Dominkus, Martin; Trattnig, Siegfried; Windhager, Reinhard; Prayer, Daniela; Nöbauer-Huhmann, Iris

    2015-03-01

    This diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) study aimed to clarify the relationship of peripheral nerves and soft tissue tumors (STTs) in 3D to optimize subsequent treatment. Twenty-six consecutive STT patients (histologically malignant, n=10; intermediate, n=3; and benign, n=13) underwent 3-Tesla MRI using an echoplanar DTI sequence. Deterministic tractography was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured within peritumoral and distant regions of interest. Tractography depicted the 3D course of the sciatic (n=12), femoral (n=2), tibial (n=7), fibular (n=2), median (n=1), musculocutaneous (n=1), and ulnar (n=1) nerves in a regular (n=8 of 18, 44.4%) or thinned (n=7 of 18, 38.9%) fashion. The lowest peritumoral FA values, abrupt thinning, and/or complete discontinuity of trajectories were found in 2 cases with histologically proven tumoral nerve infiltration. DTI clarifies the 3D topography between major peripheral nerves and STTs and may be helpful in the assessment of peripheral nerve infiltration by malignant tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Endometrium evaluation with high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging in patients submitted to uterine leiomyoma embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Monica Amadio Piazza [Post-graduation Program in Abdominal Imaging, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nasser, Felipe [Intervention Radiology Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zlotnik, Eduardo; Messina, Marcos de Lorenzo [Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Imaging Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the endometrial alterations related to embolization of uterine arteries for the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis (pelvic pain and/or uterine bleeding) by means of high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance. This is a longitudinal and prospective study that included 94 patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis, all of them treated by embolization of the uterine arteries. The patients were submitted to evaluations by high-field magnetic resonance of the pelvis before and 6 months after the procedure. Specific evaluations were made of the endometrium on the T2-weighted sequences, and on the T1-weighted sequences before and after the intravenous dynamic infusion of the paramagnetic contrast. In face of these measures, statistical analyses were performed using Student's t test for comparison of the results obtained before and after the procedure. An average increase of 20.9% was noted in the endometrial signal on T2-weighted images obtained after the uterine artery embolization procedure when compared to the pre-procedure evaluation (p=0.0004). In the images obtained with the intravenous infusion of paramagnetic contrast, an average increase of 18.7% was noted in the post-embolization intensity of the endometrial signal, compared to the pre-embolization measure (p<0.035). After embolization of the uterine arteries, there was a significant increase of the endometrial signal on the T2-weighted images and on the post-contrast images, inferring possible edema and increased endometrial flow. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings.

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging of breast tumours at 3 Tesla and 7 Tesla: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, S.; Minarikova, L.; Zaric, O.; Chmelik, M.; Strasser, B.; Trattnig, S.; Bogner, W. [Medical University Vienna, MRCE, Department of Biomedical imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Pinker, K.; Baltzer, P.; Helbich, T. [Medical University Vienna, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Department of Biomedical imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-05-15

    To compare bilateral diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) at 3 T and 7 T in the same breast tumour patients. Twenty-eight patients were included in this IRB-approved study (mean age 56 ± 16 years). Before contrast-enhanced imaging, bilateral DWI with b = 0 and 850 s/mm{sup 2} was performed in 2:56 min (3 T) and 3:48 min (7 T), using readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rs-EPI) with a 1.4 x 1.4 mm{sup 2} (3 T)/0.9 x 0.9 mm{sup 2} (7 T) in-plane resolution. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were assessed. Twenty-eight lesions were detected (18 malignant, 10 benign). CNR and SNR were comparable at both field strengths (p > 0.3). Mean ADC values at 7 T were 4-22 % lower than at 3 T (p ≤ 0.03). An ADC threshold of 1.275 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s resulted in a diagnostic specificity of 90 % at both field strengths. The sensitivity was 94 % and 100 % at 3 T and 7 T, respectively. 7-T DWI of the breast can be performed with 2.4-fold higher spatial resolution than 3 T, without significant differences in SNR if compared to 3 T. (orig.)

  1. Measuring the Temperature Increase of an Ultrasonic Motor in a 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Shokrollahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the temperature increase caused by a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI system on an ultrasonic motor (USM used to actuate surgical robots in the MRI environment. Four fiber-optic temperature sensors were attached to the USM. Temperature was monitored outside the five-Gauss boundary and then inside the bore for 20 min while the USM was powered on. The USM temperature was tested for two states of the scanner, “off” and “on”, by employing common clinical imaging sequences and echo planar imaging sequences. The USM showed a slight temperature increase while operating in the static field of the MRI. A considerable temperature increase (~10 °C was observed when the scanner was on. The temperature increased to 60 °C, which is beyond the acceptable safe temperature and can result in thermal burns. Most of the temperature increase (80% was due to effects of the static field on the motion of the rotating parts of the motor, while the remainder (20% derived from heat deposited in the conductive components of the USM due to radiofrequency pulses and gradient field changes. To solve the temperature increase, the metal components of the USM’s case can be replaced by silicon carbide.

  2. Brain iron deposition in essential tremor: a quantitative 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Fabiana; Cherubini, Andrea; Chiriaco, Carmelina; Morelli, Maurizio; Salsone, Maria; Arabia, Gennarina; Quattrone, Aldo

    2013-02-01

    Studies have demonstrated brain iron deposition in neurodegenerative disease and in normal aging. Data on this topic are lacking in essential tremor (ET). The aim of our study was to investigate brain iron content in patients with ET, using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2*-relaxometry. We enrolled 24 patients with ET and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Subjects were examined using a 3T MRI scanner. The protocol included conventional MRI sequences and quantitative T2*-relaxometry. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses showed significant differences in T2* values in bilateral globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and in right dentate nucleus (P motor systems outside of the cerebellum/cerebellar pathway and, more specifically, of the globus pallidus. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorders Society.

  3. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, C; Rollán, C; Michelin, G; Nogués, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of the structures that make up the brachial plexus has benefited particularly from the high resolution images provided by 3T magnetic resonance scanners. The brachial plexus can have mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. The mononeuropathies include traumatic injuries and trapping, such as occurs in thoracic outlet syndrome due to cervical ribs, prominent transverse apophyses, or tumors. The polyneuropathies include inflammatory processes, in particular chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, granulomatous diseases, and radiation neuropathy. Vascular processes affecting the brachial plexus include diabetic polyneuropathy and the vasculitides. This article reviews the anatomy of the brachial plexus and describes the technique for magnetic resonance neurography and the most common pathologic conditions that can affect the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of acute intestinal graft versus host disease by abdominal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjan, Johannes; Michaely, Henrik J.; Attenberger, Ulrike; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Heidenreich, Daniela; Kreil, Sebastian; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Klein, Stefan A. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    After allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), a reliable diagnosis of acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) is essential for an early and successful treatment. It is the aim of this analysis to assess intestinal aGvHD by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to allogeneic SCT, 64 consecutive patients underwent abdominal MRI examination on a 3 T MR system, including axial and coronal T2w sequences and a three-dimensional dynamic T1w, contrast enhanced sequence. After SCT, 20 patients with suspected aGvHD received a second MRI as well as an endoscopic examination. Nine patients suffered from histologically proven intestinal aGvHD. In eleven patients intestinal aGvHD was excluded. In all aGvHD patients typical MRI findings with long-segment bowel wall thickening - always involving the terminal ileum - with profound submucosal oedema, were detected. The bowel wall was significantly thickened in patients with intestinal aGvHD. Bowel contrast enhancement spared the submucosa while demonstrating strong mucosal hyperemia. In intestinal aGvHD, a characteristic MR-appearance can be detected. This MRI pattern might facilitate an early and non-invasive diagnosis of intestinal aGvHD. MRI might thus be used as a sensitive tool to rule out or support the clinical diagnosis of aGvHD. (orig.)

  5. Chemical shift imaging at 3 Tesla: effect of echo time on assessing bone marrow abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, F. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Servizio di Radiologia, Lugano, TI (Switzerland); Subhawong, Ty [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Flammang, A. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); Fayad, L.M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Our purpose is to test the effect of varied in-phase (IP) and opposed-phase (OP) sequence order on characterizing marrow signal changes at 3T. The study was HIPAA compliant and IRB approved. Informed consent was waived. At 3T, IP and OP sequences were acquired in three patients with biopsy-proven osteosarcomas, using two methods: approach 1 (OP acquisition before IP acquisition) and approach 2 (OP after IP). Signal intensity (SI) measurements in 12 locations of biopsy-proven osteosarcoma and in six locations with normal bone marrow were performed independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) was measured within the marrow where there was T1 signal lower than skeletal muscle. A SIR < 20 % on the OP compared with IP imaging was considered positive for marrow replacement, while SIR > = 20 % was considered negative. Interobserver agreement was measured by the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). In 75 % (18/24) of locations within the biopsy-proven tumors, the SIR was >20 % (SI drop more than 20 % in OP compared to IP) using approach 2 and in 100 % (24/24) of the locations the SIR was <20 % (SI drop less than 20 % in OP compared to IP) using approach 1, indicating a high percentage of false-negative results by approach 2, and no false-negative results with approach 1. There was good agreement between observer measurement (CCC = 0.96). At 3T, the OP sequence should be acquired prior to the IP sequence, because susceptibility artifacts on a later-acquired OP sequence may lead to an erroneous interpretation of marrow signal abnormalities. (orig.)

  6. Detailed imaging of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the cavernous region at 3 Tesla using a contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer; Peters, Friederike; Lummel, Nina; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Yousry, Indra [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schankin, Christoph [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Rachinger, Walter [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 3 Tesla for the delineation of the cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy both under normal and under pathological conditions. Fifteen patients without pathologies in the CS and ten patients with pituitary adenomas were included. The CE-MRA was performed on a 3-Tesla scanner and analyzed collaboratively by two readers. The cranial nerves (CNs) within the CS, namely CNIII, CNIV, CNV1, CNV2, and CNVI, were identified in both patient groups. In the adenoma patients it was also assessed whether and to which extend the adenoma invaded the CS and the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs was determined. In the patients with normal CS anatomy, CNIII could be identified in 100%, CNIV in 86.7%, and CNV1, CNV2, as well as CNVI in 100% of analyzed sides. Pituitary adenomas invaded the CS unilaterally (right side) in four patients, and bilaterally in six patients. In patients with adenomas, the CN could be identified and differentiated from the tumor in the following percentages: CNIII in 100%, CNIV in 70%, both CNV1 and CNV2 in 90%, and CNVI in 100%. In all these cases, the tumor-nerve spatial relationship could be visualized. 3-Tesla CE-MRA allows detailed imaging of the complex anatomy of the CS and its structures. In adenoma patients, it clearly visualizes the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs, and thus might be helpful to optimize presurgical planning. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of pelvic phased-array versus endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla for local staging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2012-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the superiority of endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over pelvic phased-array coil MRI at 1.5 Tesla for local staging of prostate cancer. However, few have studied which evaluation is more accurate at 3 Tesla MRI. In this study, we compared the accuracy of local staging of prostate cancer using pelvic phased-array coil or endorectal coil MRI at 3 Tesla. Between January 2005 and May 2010, 151 patients underwent radical prostatectomy. All patients were evaluated with either pelvic phased-array coil or endorectal coil prostate MRI prior to surgery (63 endorectal coils and 88 pelvic phased-array coils). Tumor stage based on MRI was compared with pathologic stage. We calculated the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of each group in the evaluation of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. Both endorectal coil and pelvic phased-array coil MRI achieved high specificity, low sensitivity and moderate accuracy for the detection of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. There were statistically no differences in specificity, sensitivity and accuracy between the two groups. Overall staging accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between endorectal coil and pelvic phased-array coil MRI.

  8. Multisequence-imaging protocols to detect cortical lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis: observations from a post-mortem 3 Tesla imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Francesca; Yao, Bing; Cantor, Fredric; Merkle, Hellmut; Condon, Ellen; Montequin, Marcela; Moore, Sandra; Quezado, Martha; Tkaczyk, Deborah; McFarland, Henry

    2009-07-15

    Neocortical lesions (NLs) are an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and may account for part of the physical and cognitive disability. Visualizing NLs of patients with MS using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) poses several significant challenges. We optimized the inversion time (TI) of T(1)-based magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) images by suppressing the signal of the lesions and enhancing their appearance as hypointensities, on the basis of the derived quantitative T(1) measurements. The latter were achieved by the means of 2D inversion recovery fast spin echo (IR-FSE), repeated using different inversion times (TI). Comparisons of detection of NLs by MPRAGE and dual echo T(2) weighted (T(2)W) and proton density (PD) W. Four coronal brain slices from a deceased MS patient and two coronal brain slices from two formerly healthy donors were imaged using a 3 Tesla magnet (3 T) equipped with a multi-channel coil. Based upon the averaged T1 values computed from the MS specimen as well as visual inspection, an optimal TI of 380 ms was selected for the MPRAGE image. No NLs were seen in the specimens of the two healthy donors. Of the 40 total NLs observed, 8 (20%) were visible in all three sequences employed. Three (7.5%) NLs were visible only in the PDW image and 5 (12.5%) were seen only in the T(2)W image. Four NLs (10%) had clearly unique conspicuity in the MPRAGE image. Of those, 3 were retrospectively scored in the PDW image (1 NL) or in the T2W image (2 NLs). We conclude that for the detection of MS-related NLs, high-resolution T(1)-based MPRAGE and T(2)-W images offer complementary information and the combination of the two image sequences is crucial for increasing the sensitivity of detecting MS-induced NLs.

  9. Measurement of the weighted peak level for occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields for 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonutti, F; Tecchio, M; Maieron, M; Trevisan, D; Negro, C; Calligaris, F

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to give a contribution to the construction of a comprehensive knowledge of the exposure levels to gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in terms of the weighed peak (WP), especially for 3 Tesla scanners for which there are still few works available in the literature. A new generation probe for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in the range of 1 Hz-400 kHz was used to assess the occupational exposure levels to the GMF for 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla MRI body scanners, using the method of the WP according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) approach. The probe was placed at a height of 1.1 m, close to the MRI scanners, where operators could stay during some medical procedures with particular issues. The measurements were performed for a set of typical acquisition sequences for body (liver) and head exams. The measured values of WP were in compliance with ICNIRP 2010 reference levels for occupational exposures.

  10. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography at 3 tesla using a hybrid protocol in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Eiberg, Jonas P; Logager, Vibeke B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3T whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) using a hybrid protocol in comparison with a standard protocol in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In 26 consecutive patients with PAD two different proto...

  11. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of listening comprehension of languages in human at 3 tesla-comprehension level and activation of the language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, T; Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Matsuzawa, M; Okada, T; Glover, G H; Moriya, T; Inui, T

    1999-03-19

    Passive listening comprehension of native and non-native language was investigated using high resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a static magnetic field strength of 3 tesla. Wernicke's area was activated by comprehensive and non-comprehensive languages indicating that this area is associated with common phonological processing of language. The task with comprehensive but non-native language activated Broca's area and angular gyrus most frequently. The activations in these areas may be related to demand in semantic and syntactic processing in listening comprehension. Supplementary motor area and pre-motor area were activated by comprehensive languages but not by non-comprehensive language. These motor controlling areas may be involved in semantic processing. Listening to comprehensive but non-native language seems to demand more networked co-processing.

  12. Comparison of increased venous contrast in ischemic stroke using phase-sensitive MR imaging with perfusion changes on flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Eijiro; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide (Div. of Radiology, Dept. of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori Univ. Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan)), email: eyamashi-ttr@umin.ac.jp; Tanaka, Takuro; Hirata, Yoshiharu (Div. of Clinical Radiology, Tottori Univ. Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan))

    2011-10-15

    Background Increased venous contrast in ischemic stroke using susceptibility-weighted imaging has been widely reported, although few reports have compared increased venous contrast areas with perfusion change areas. Purpose To compare venous contrast on phase-sensitive MR images (PSI) with perfusion change on flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) images, and to discuss the clinical use of PSI in ischemic stroke. Material and Methods Thirty patients with clinically suspected acute infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory within 7 days of onset were evaluated. Phase-sensitive imaging (PSI), flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were obtained using 3 Tesla scanner. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed the MR images, as well as the PSI, DWI, and FAIR images. They were blinded to the clinical data and to each other's findings. The abnormal area of each image was ultimately identified after both neuroradiologists reached consensus. We analyzed areas of increased venous contrast on PSI, perfusion changes on FAIR images and signal changes on DWI for each case. Results Venous contrast increased on PSI and hypoperfusion was evident on FAIR images from 22 of the 30 patients (73%). The distribution of the increased venous contrast was the same as that of the hypoperfused areas on FAIR images in 16 of these 22. The extent of these lesions was larger than that of lesions visualized by on DWI in 18 of the 22 patients. Hypointense signals reflecting hemorrhage and no increased venous contrast on PSI and hyperperfusion on FAIR images were found in six of the remaining eight patients (20%). Findings on PSI were normal and hypoperfusion areas were absent on FAIR images of two patients (7%). Conclusion Increased venous contrast on PSI might serve as an index of misery perfusion and provide useful information

  13. Assessment of safety and interference issues of radio frequency identification devices in 0.3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, M; Dhanasekaran, R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two issues regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including device functionality and image artifacts for the presence of radio frequency identification devices (RFID) in association with 0.3 Tesla at 12.7 MHz MRI and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Fifteen samples of RFID tags with two different sizes (wristband and ID card types) were tested. The tags were exposed to several MR-imaging conditions during MRI examination and X-rays of CT scan. Throughout the test, the tags were oriented in three different directions (axial, coronal, and sagittal) relative to MRI system in order to cover all possible situations with respect to the patient undergoing MRI and CT scanning, wearing a RFID tag on wrist. We observed that the tags did not sustain physical damage with their functionality remaining unaffected even after MRI and CT scanning, and there was no alternation in previously stored data as well. In addition, no evidence of either signal loss or artifact was seen in the acquired MR and CT images. Therefore, we can conclude that the use of this passive RFID tag is safe for a patient undergoing MRI at 0.3 T/12.7 MHz and CT Scanning.

  14. Delineation of alar ligament morphology: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 and 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter; Mayer, Thomas E; Drescher, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Rupture of the alar and transverse ligaments due to whiplash injury can lead to upper cervical spine instability and subsequent neurological deterioration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal anatomical variability of the alar ligaments in asymptomatic individuals with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare the findings with standard 1.5-T examinations. Thirty-six participants underwent 3-T and 1.5-T MRIs. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were analyzed by classifying the alar ligaments with regard to the features detectability, signal intensity compared with muscle tissue, homogeneity, shape, spatial orientation, and symmetry. Delineation of the alar ligaments was significantly better on 3-T images, which were subjectively preferred for evaluation. The alar ligaments showed great variability. In the majority of participants, the alar ligaments were hypointense to muscle tissue, inhomogeneous, and different in shape and orientation. A statistically significantly higher number of ligaments appeared symmetric on 3-T imaging, indicating that 1.5-T imaging may underestimate the proportion of patients with normal, symmetric ligaments. This study demonstrates that high-field 3-T MRI provides better visualization of the alar ligaments compared with 1.5-T MRI. The higher signal-to-noise ratio allows detection of small signal changes. A great interindividual variety of the MRI morphology of the alar ligaments was found in participants with no history of neck trauma. Further studies with more participants are necessary to evaluate alar ligament pathologies in patients with a history of whiplash injury. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Comparison of 3D cube FLAIR with 2D FLAIR for multiple sclerosis imaging at 3 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzig, M.; Brueckmann, H.; Fesl, G. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Burke, M. [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3 D) MRI sequences allow improved spatial resolution with good signal and contrast properties as well as multiplanar reconstruction. We sought to compare Cube, a 3 D FLAIR sequence, to a standard 2 D FLAIR sequence in multiple sclerosis (MS) imaging. Materials and Methods: Examinations were performed in the clinical routine on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. 12 patients with definite MS were included. Lesions with MS-typical properties on the images of Cube FLAIR and 2 D FLAIR sequences were counted and allocated to different brain regions. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Results: With 384 the overall number of lesions found with Cube FLAIR was significantly higher than with 2 D FLAIR (N = 221). The difference was mostly accounted for by supratentorial lesions (N = 372 vs. N = 216) while the infratentorial lesion counts were low in both sequences. SNRs and CNRs were significantly higher in CUBE FLAIR with the exception of the CNR of lesion to gray matter, which was not significantly different. Conclusion: Cube FLAIR showed a higher sensitivity for MS lesions compared to a 2 D FLAIR sequence. 3 D FLAIR might replace 2 D FLAIR sequences in MS imaging in the future. (orig.)

  16. Reproducibility of tract-specific magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging in the cervical spinal cord at 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Seth A; Jones, Craig K; Gifford, Aliya; Belegu, Visar; Chodkowski, BettyAnn; Farrell, Jonathan A D; Landman, Bennett A; Reich, Daniel S; Calabresi, Peter A; McDonald, John W; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2010-02-01

    Damage to specific white matter tracts within the spinal cord can often result in the particular neurological syndromes that characterize myelopathies such as traumatic spinal cord injury. Noninvasive visualization of these tracts with imaging techniques that are sensitive to microstructural integrity is an important clinical goal. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)- and magnetization transfer (MT)-derived quantities have shown promise in assessing tissue health in the central nervous system. In this paper, we demonstrate that DTI of the cervical spinal cord can reliably discriminate sensory (dorsal) and motor (lateral) columns. From data derived from nine healthy volunteers, two raters quantified column-specific parallel (lambda(||)) and perpendicular (lambda(perpendicular)) diffusivity, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and MT-weighted signal intensity relative to cerebrospinal fluid (MTCSF) over two time-points separated by more than 1 week. Cross-sectional means and standard deviations of these measures in the lateral and dorsal columns were as follows: lambda(||): 2.13 +/- 0.14 and 2.14 +/- 0.11 microm(2)/ms; lambda(perpendicular): 0.67 +/- 0.16 and 0.61 +/- 0.09 microm(2)/ms; MD: 1.15 +/- 0.15 and 1.12 +/- 0.08 microm(2)/ms; FA: 0.68 +/- 0.06 and 0.68 +/- 0.05; MTCSF: 0.52 +/- 0.05 and 0.50 +/- 0.05. We examined the variability and interrater and test-retest reliability for each metric. These column-specific MR measurements are expected to enhance understanding of the intimate structure-function relationship in the cervical spinal cord and may be useful for the assessment of disease progression. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Investigation of Parallel Radiofrequency Transmission for the Reduction of Heating in Long Conductive Leads in 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E McElcheran

    Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS is increasingly used to treat a variety of brain diseases by sending electrical impulses to deep brain nuclei through long, electrically conductive leads. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of patients pre- and post-implantation is desirable to target and position the implant, to evaluate possible side-effects and to examine DBS patients who have other health conditions. Although MRI is the preferred modality for pre-operative planning, MRI post-implantation is limited due to the risk of high local power deposition, and therefore tissue heating, at the tip of the lead. The localized power deposition arises from currents induced in the leads caused by coupling with the radiofrequency (RF transmission field during imaging. In the present work, parallel RF transmission (pTx is used to tailor the RF electric field to suppress coupling effects. Electromagnetic simulations were performed for three pTx coil configurations with 2, 4, and 8-elements, respectively. Optimal input voltages to minimize coupling, while maintaining RF magnetic field homogeneity, were determined for all configurations using a Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm. Resulting electric and magnetic fields were compared to that of a 16-rung birdcage coil. Experimental validation was performed with a custom-built 4-element pTx coil. In simulation, 95-99% reduction of the electric field at the tip of the lead was observed between the various pTx coil configurations and the birdcage coil. Maximal reduction in E-field was obtained with the 8-element pTx coil. Magnetic field homogeneity was comparable to the birdcage coil for the 4- and 8-element pTx configurations. In experiment, a temperature increase of 2±0.15°C was observed at the tip of the wire using the birdcage coil, whereas negligible increase (0.2±0.15°C was observed with the optimized pTx system. Although further research is required, these initial results suggest that the concept of optimizing p

  18. Surgical Accuracy of 3-Tesla Versus 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laar, Peter Jan; Oterdoom, D L Marinus; Ter Horst, Gert J; van Hulzen, Arjen L J; de Graaf, Eva K L; Hoogduin, Hans; Meiners, Linda C; van Dijk, J Marc C

    2016-09-01

    In deep brain stimulation (DBS), accurate placement of the lead is critical. Target definition is highly dependent on visual recognition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We prospectively investigated whether the 7-T MRI enabled better visualization of targets and led to better placement of leads compared with the 1.5-T and the 3-T MRI. Three patients with PD (mean, 55 years) were scanned on 1.5-, 3-, and 7-T MRI before surgery. Tissue contrast and signal-to-noise ratio were measured. Target coordinates were noted on MRI and during surgery. Differences were analyzed with post-hoc analysis of variance. The 7-T MRI demonstrated a significant improvement in tissue visualization (P < 0.005) and signal-to-noise ratio (P < 0.005). However, no difference in the target coordinates was found between the 7-T and the 3-T MRI. Although the 7-T MRI enables a significant better visualization of the DBS target in patients with PD, we found no clinical benefit for the placement of the DBS leads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Volume and asymmetry abnormalities of insula in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harve Shanmugam Virupaksha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Insula, which is a vital brain region for self-awareness, empathy, and sensory stimuli processing, is critically implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Existing studies on insula volume abnormalities report inconsistent findings potentially due to the evaluation of ′antipsychotic-treated′ schizophrenia patients as well as suboptimal methodology. Aim: To understand the role of insula in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: In this first-time 3-T magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients (N=30 and age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls (N=28. Positive and negative symptoms were scored with good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC>0.9 by using the scales for negative and positive symptoms. Gray matter volume of insula and its anterior/posterior subregions were measured by using a three-dimensional, interactive, semiautomated software based on the valid method with good interrater reliability (ICC>0.85. Intracranial volume was automatically measured by using the FreeSurfer software. Results: Patients had significantly deficient gray matter volumes of left (F=33.4; Pleft in male patients in comparison with male controls (left>right (t=2.7; P=0.01. Conclusions: Robust insular volume deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia support intrinsic role for insula in pathogenesis of this disorder. The first-time demonstration of a relationship between right posterior insular deficit and negative symptoms is in tune with the background neurobiological literature. Another novel observation of sex-specific anterior insular asymmetry reversal in patients supports evolutionary postulates of schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  20. Susceptibility Imaging in Glial Tumor Grading; Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) System and 32 Channel Head Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Omer; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a velocity compensated, high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo sequence that uses magnitude and filtered-phase data. SWI seems to be a valuable tool for non-invasive evaluation of central nervous system gliomas. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio is one of the best noninvasive methods for glioma grading. Degree of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) on SWI correlates with rCBV ratio and histopathological grade. This study investigated the effectiveness of ITSS grading and rCBV ratio in preoperative assessment. Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females) with histopathogical diagnosis of glial tumor undergoing routine cranial MRI, SWI, and perfusion MRI examinations between October 2011 and July 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. All examinations were performed using 3T apparatus with 32-channel head coil. We used ITSS number for SWI grading. Correlations between SWI grade, rCBV ratio, and pathological grading were evaluated. ROC analysis was performed to determine the optimal rCBV ratio to distinguish between high-grade and low-grade glial tumors. There was a strong positive correlation between both pathological and SWI grading. We determined the optimal rCBV ratio to discriminate between high-grade and low-grade tumors to be 2.21. In conclusion, perfusion MRI and SWI using 3T MR and 32-channel head coil may provide useful information for preoperative glial tumor grading. SWI can be used as an accessory to perfusion MR technique in preoperative tumor grading.

  1. Pathologic correlation of transperineal in-bore 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy samples with radical prostatectomy specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Erik; Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Allard, Christopher B; Kibel, Adam S; Tempany, Clare M

    2017-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of in-bore transperineal 3-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided prostate biopsies for predicting final Gleason grades in patients who subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). A retrospective review of men who underwent transperineal MR imaging-guided prostate biopsy (tpMRGB) with subsequent radical prostatectomy within 1 year was conducted from 2010 to 2015. All patients underwent a baseline 3-T multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) with endorectal coil and were selected for biopsy based on MR findings of a suspicious prostate lesion and high degree of clinical suspicion for cancer. Spearman correlation was performed to assess concordance between tpMRGB and final RP pathology among patients with and without previous transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. A total of 24 men met all eligibility requirements, with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range [IQR] 11.7). The median time from biopsy to RP was 85 days (IQR 50.5). Final pathology revealed Gleason 3 + 4 = 7 in 12 patients, 4 + 3 = 7 in 10 patients, and 4 + 4 = 8 in 2 patients. A strong correlation (ρ: +0.75, p < 0.001) between tpMRGB and RP results was observed, with Gleason scores concordant in 17 cases (71%). 16 of the 24 patients underwent prior TRUS biopsies. Subsequent tpMRGB revealed Gleason upgrading in 88% of cases, which was concordant with RP Gleason scores in 69% of cases (ρ: +0.75, p < 0.001). Final Gleason scores diagnosed by tpMRGB at 3-T correlate strongly with final RP surgical pathology. This may facilitate prostate cancer diagnosis, particularly in patients with negative or low-grade TRUS biopsy results in whom clinically significant cancer is suspected or detected on mpMRI.

  2. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  3. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Barchetti; Nicola Pranno; Guglielmo Giraldi; Alessandro Sartori; Silvia Gigli; Giovanni Barchetti; Luigi Lo Mele; Luigi Tonino Marsella

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Spe) of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metas...

  4. Impact of preoperative and postoperative membranous urethral length measured by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging on urinary continence recovery after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Choi, Han Yong; Lee, Hyun Moo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We sought to investigate the impact of preoperative and postoperative membranous urethral length (MUL) on urinary continence using 3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods Between 2008 and 2013, 190 men with RARP underwent preoperative and postoperative MRI. Patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy or who were lost to followup were excluded, leaving 186 patients eligible for analysis. Preoperative MUL was estimated from the prostate apex to the penile bulb, while postoperative MUL was estimated from the bladder neck to penile bulb. Patients with no pads or protection were considered to have complete continence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors associated with urinary incontinence at six and 12 months. Results Age was commonly associated with urinary incontinence at six and 12 months. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) was another factor associated with urinary incontinence at 12 months. When adjusting these variables, preoperative MUL ≤16 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.14; p=0.022), postoperative MUL ≤14 mm (95% CI 1.16–9.80; p=0.025) and percent change of MUL >18% (95% CI 1.17–7.23; p=0.021) were significantly associated with urinary incontinence at six months. However, at 12 months, preoperative MUL ≤13.5 mm (95% CI 1.85–19.21; p=0.003) and postoperative MUL ≤13 mm (95% CI 1.24–13.84; p=0.021) had impacts on urinary incontinence, but not percent change of MUL. Conclusions Preoperative and postoperative MUL were significantly associated with urinary continence recovery after RARP. Therefore, efforts to preserve MUL are highly recommended during surgery for optimal continence outcomes after RARP. PMID:28360954

  5. Early detection of pulp necrosis and dental vitality after traumatic dental injuries in children and adolescents by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Alexandre T; Zrnc, Tomislav A; Remus, Chressen C; Khokale, Arun; Habermann, Christian R; Schulze, Dirk; Fiehler, Jens; Heiland, Max; Sedlacik, Jan; Friedrich, Reinhard E

    2015-09-01

    More than 50% of all children suffer a traumatic dental injury (TDI) during childhood. In many cases, dentists apply root canal treatment (RCT), which is performed on an average of 7-10 days after replantation. Our aim was to evaluate whether RCT is necessary in many cases, and whether revitalization of affected teeth is possible and measurable by visualization using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seven healthy children with TDI were treated by repositioning of the affected teeth and reduction of alveolar process fractures followed by splinting. Two weeks after initial treatment, splints were removed. After 6 weeks, all children received 3-Tesla (3T), three-dimensional, high-resolution MRI with a 20-channel standard head and neck coil. The mean age of the children (male/female = 5:2) was 10.8 years (range, 8-17 years). In addition, all children received conventional dental examination for tooth vitality and dental sensitivity to cold and tenderness on percussion. 3T MRI provided excellent images that allowed fine discrimination between dental pulp and adjacent tooth. Using four in-house optimized, non-contrast-enhanced sequences, including panoramic reconstruction, the assessment and analysis of the dental pulp was sufficiently feasible. We could demonstrate reperfusion and thus vitality of the affected teeth in 11 sites. In one child, MRI was able to detect nonreperfusion after TDI of the affected tooth. MRI results were confirmed by clinical examination in all cases. As a consequence of this expectant management and proof of reperfusion and tooth vitality by 3T MRI, only one child had to be treated by RCT. 3T MRI is a very promising tool for visualization and detection in the field of dental and oromaxillofacial diseases. By using new 3T MRI sequences in children with TDI, we could demonstrate that RCT are not necessary in every case, and thus could prevent unnecessary treatment of children in the future. Larger studies should follow to confirm the

  6. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  7. Breath-hold imaging of the coronary arteries using Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography: pilot study at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Robert R; Giri, S; Pursnani, A; Botelho, M P F; Li, W; Koktzoglou, I

    2015-11-23

    Coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is usually obtained with a free-breathing navigator-gated 3D acquisition. Our aim was to develop an alternative breath-hold approach that would allow the coronary arteries to be evaluated in a much shorter time and without risk of degradation by respiratory motion artifacts. For this purpose, we implemented a breath-hold, non-contrast-enhanced, quiescent-interval slice-selective (QISS) 2D technique. Sequence performance was compared at 1.5 and 3 Tesla using both radial and Cartesian k-space trajectories. The left coronary circulation was imaged in six healthy subjects and two patients with coronary artery disease. Breath-hold QISS was compared with T2-prepared 2D balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) and free-breathing, navigator-gated 3D bSSFP. Approximately 10 2.1-mm thick slices were acquired in a single ~20-s breath-hold using two-shot QISS. QISS contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was 1.5-fold higher at 3 Tesla than at 1.5 Tesla. Cartesian QISS provided the best coronary-to-myocardium CNR, whereas radial QISS provided the sharpest coronary images. QISS image quality exceeded that of free-breathing 3D coronary MRA with few artifacts at either field strength. Compared with T2-prepared 2D bSSFP, multi-slice capability was not restricted by the specific absorption rate at 3 Tesla and pericardial fluid signal was better suppressed. In addition to depicting the coronary arteries, QISS could image intra-cardiac structures, pericardium, and the aortic root in arbitrary slice orientations. Breath-hold QISS is a simple, versatile, and time-efficient method for coronary MRA that provides excellent image quality at both 1.5 and 3 Tesla. Image quality exceeded that of free-breathing, navigator-gated 3D MRA in a much shorter scan time. QISS also allowed rapid multi-slice bright-blood, diastolic phase imaging of the heart, which may have complementary value to multi-phase cine imaging. We conclude that, with further clinical

  8. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malzacher, Matthias; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Haneder, Stefan [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; University Hospital of Cologne, Koeln (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-05-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging ({sup 23}Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for {sup 23}Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The {sup 23}Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of {sup 23}Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using {sup 23}Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented {sup 23}Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∝7 cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. {sup 23}Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10 minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6 mm isotropic resolution, 49 ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540 μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120 ms repetition time) using this setup.

  9. Diagnostic usefulness of 3 tesla MRI of the brain for cushing disease in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Erina; Ozawa, Ayako; Matoba, Kaori; Motoki, Takanori; Tajima, Asako; Miyata, Ichiro; Ito, Junko; Inoshita, Naoko; Yamada, Syozo; Ida, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    It is sometimes difficult to confirm the location of a microadenoma in Cushing disease. Recently, we experienced an 11-yr-old female case of Cushing disease with hyperprolactinemia. She was referred to our hospital because of decrease of height velocity with body weight gain. On admission, she had typical symptoms of Cushing syndrome. Although no pituitary microadenomas were detected on 1.5 Tesla MRI of the brain, endocrinological examinations including IPS and CS sampling were consistent with Cushing disease with hyperprolactinemia. Oral administration of methyrapone instead of neurosurgery was started after discharge, but subsequent 3 Tesla MRI of the brain clearly demonstrated a 3-mm less-enhanced lesion in the left side of the pituitary gland. Finally, transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and a 3.5-mm left-sided microadenoma was resected. Compared with 1.5 Tesla MRI, 3 Tesla MRI offers the advantage of a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR), which provides higher resolution and proper image quality. Therefore, 3 Tesla MRI is a very useful tool to localize microadenomas in Cushing disease in children as well as in adults. It will be the first choice of radiological examinations in suspected cases of Cushing disease.

  10. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. Methods This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney’s test was applied. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s correlation were used. Results In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). Conclusions 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:28129354

  11. Functional imaging in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: correlation of PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia; Czerny, Christian; Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Weber, Michael; Fruehwald, Laura; Herneth, Andreas M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Halpern, Benjamin S. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Harvard Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Eder-Czembirek, Christina [Medical University of Vienna, University Hospital for Cranio, Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Brunner, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Schuetz, Matthias [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    The purposes of this study were: (a) to prospectively assess the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); and (b) to assess ADC and SUVmax values in relation to different tumour grades and stages in our patient population. The study group comprised 31 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who were examined using a 3T MRI scanner with a 16-channel head and neck coil. In addition to routine sequences, axial (DWIBS) and sagittal (DW-EPI) diffusion-weighted sequences were obtained using b-values of 0 mm{sup 2}/s and 800 mm{sup 2}/s. The ADC maps were calculated automatically. The ADC values of the tumours were measured with three regions of interest (ROIs) of standard size, and an ROI covering the entire tumour. In all patients, contrast-enhanced, whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed within 2 weeks of the MRI examination. SUVmax was measured for every tumour using a 3-D freehand ROI that covered the entire tumour. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for group comparisons. The Spearman rank correlation test was performed for ADC values. Mean ADC values in the 31 SCC were 0.902 ({+-}0.134) with a ROI of standard size, and 0.928 ({+-}0.160) with the large ROI measurements on the axial DWIBS sequence. The ADC values of the tumours were significantly higher when measured with the sagittal DW-EPI sequence: 1.051 ({+-}0.211) and 1.082 ({+-}0.208). We observed no significant differences in ADC values and SUVmax between the various T stages or histological grades of the tumours. SUVmax values (26.5{+-}12) did not correlate with ADC values on DWIBS or EPI. There is no correlation between the FDG uptake and the ADC value in head and neck SCC. The three different tumour grades and four tumour stages present in our study population could not be differentiated based on ADC values or SUV. (orig.)

  12. In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemeyer, Hannah; Shellock, Frank G; Ahn, Christina Y

    2014-04-01

    A patient with a breast tissue expander may require a diagnostic assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To ensure patient safety, this type of implant must undergo in vitro MRI testing using proper techniques. Therefore, this investigation evaluated MRI issues (i.e., magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts) at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port. A breast tissue expander with a remote port (Integra Breast Tissue Expander, Model 3612-06 with Standard Remote Port, PMT Corporation, Chanhassen, MN) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions (translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was evaluated by placing the implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom and MRI was performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9-W/kg. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted and GRE pulse sequences. Magnetic field interactions were not substantial and, thus, will not pose a hazard to a patient in a 3-Tesla or less MRI environment. The highest temperature rise was 1.7°C, which is physiologically inconsequential. Artifacts were large in relation to the remote port and metal connector of the implant but will only present problems if the MR imaging area of interest is where these components are located. A patient with this breast tissue expander with a remote port may safely undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less under the conditions used for this investigation. These findings are the first reported at 3-Tesla for a tissue expander. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The assessment of inducible wall motion abnormalities during high-dose dobutamine-stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR is well established for the identification of myocardial ischemia at 1.5 Tesla. Its feasibility at higher field strengths has not been reported. The present study was performed to prospectively determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of DCMR at 3 Tesla for depicting hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis (≥ 50% diameter stenosis in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD. Materials and methods Thirty consecutive patients (6 women (66 ± 9.3 years were scheduled for DCMR between January and May 2007 for detection of coronary artery disease. Patients were examined with a Philips Achieva 3 Tesla system (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands, using a spoiled gradient echo cine sequence. Technical parameters were: spatial resolution 2 × 2 × 8 mm3, 30 heart phases, spoiled gradient echo TR/TE: 4.5/2.6 msec, flip angle 15°. Images were acquired at rest and stress in accordance with a standardized high-dose dobutamine-atropine protocol during short breath-holds in three short and three long-axis views. Dobutamine was administered using a standard protocol (10 μg increments every 3 minutes up to 40 μg dobutamine/kg body weight/minute plus atropine if required to reach target heart rate. The study protocol included administration of 0.1 mmol/kg/body weight Gd-DTPA before the cine images at rest were acquired to improve the image quality. The examination was terminated if new or worsening wall-motion abnormalities or chest pain occurred or when > 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate was reached. Myocardial ischemia was defined as new onset of wall-motion abnormality in at least one segment. In addition, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE was performed. Images were evaluated by two blinded readers. Diagnostic accuracy was determined with coronary

  14. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  15. Ventricular Assist Device implant (AB 5000 prototype cannula: In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencerina Samuel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a ventricular assist device (VAD. Methods The AB5000 Ventricle with a prototype Nitinol wire-reinforced In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached (Abiomed, Inc., Danvers, MA was evaluated for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts at 3-Tesla. MRI-related heating was assessed with the device in a gelled-saline-filled, head/torso phantom using a transmit/received RF body coil while performing MRI at a whole body averaged SAR of 3-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were assessed for the main metallic component of this VAD (atrial cannula using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results The AB5000 Ventricle with the prototype In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached showed relatively minor magnetic field interactions that will not cause movement in situ. Heating was not excessive (highest temperature change, +0.8°C. Artifacts may create issues for diagnostic imaging if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the implanted metallic component of this VAD (i.e., the venous cannula. Conclusion The results of this investigation demonstrated that it would be acceptable for a patient with this VAD (AB5000 Ventricle with a prototype Nitinol wire-reinforced In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Notably, it is likely that the operation console for this device requires positioning a suitable distance (beyond the 100 Gauss line or in the MR control room from the 3-Tesla MR system to ensure proper function of the VAD.

  16. Breast MRI at 7 Tesla with a bilateral coil and T1-weighted acquisition with robust fat suppression: image evaluation and comparison with 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ryan; Storey, Pippa; McGorty, KellyAnne; Klautau Leite, Ana Paula; Babb, James; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Wiggins, Graham C.; Moy, Linda [New York University Langone Medical Center, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Geppert, Christian [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-11-15

    To evaluate the image quality of T1-weighted fat-suppressed breast MRI at 7 T and to compare 7-T and 3-T images. Seventeen subjects were imaged using a 7-T bilateral transmit-receive coil and 3D gradient echo sequence with adiabatic inversion-based fat suppression (FS). Images were graded on a five-point scale and quantitatively assessed through signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), fibroglandular/fat contrast and signal uniformity measurements. Image scores at 7 and 3 T were similar on standard-resolution images (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1-1.6 mm{sup 3}), indicating that high-quality breast imaging with clinical parameters can be performed at 7 T. The 7-T SNR advantage was underscored on 0.6-mm isotropic images, where image quality was significantly greater than at 3 T (4.2 versus 3.1, P {<=} 0.0001). Fibroglandular/fat contrast was more than two times higher at 7 T than at 3 T, owing to effective adiabatic inversion-based FS and the inherent 7-T signal advantage. Signal uniformity was comparable at 7 and 3 T (P < 0.05). Similar 7-T image quality was observed in all subjects, indicating robustness against anatomical variation. The 7-T bilateral transmit-receive coil and adiabatic inversion-based FS technique produce image quality that is as good as or better than at 3 T. (orig.)

  17. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Barchetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se and specificity (Spe of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metastases were calculated. Histological results from neck dissection were used as standard of reference. Results. In the 239 histologically proven metastatic lymphadenopathies, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value was 0.903 × 10−3 mm2/sec. In the 412 pathologically confirmed benign lymph nodes, an average ADC value of 1.650 × 10−3 mm2/sec was found. For differentiating between benign versus metastatic lymph nodes, DWI showed Se of 97% and Spe of 93%, whereas morphological criteria displayed Se of 61% and Spe of 98%. DWI showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.964, while morphological criteria displayed an AUC of 0.715. Conclusions. In a DWI negative neck for malignant lymph nodes, the planned dissection could be converted to a wait-and-scan policy, whereas DWI positive neck would support the decision to perform a neck dissection.

  18. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranno, Nicola; Sartori, Alessandro; Gigli, Silvia; Lo Mele, Luigi; Marsella, Luigi Tonino

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Spe) of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metastases were calculated. Histological results from neck dissection were used as standard of reference. Results. In the 239 histologically proven metastatic lymphadenopathies, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was 0.903 × 10−3 mm2/sec. In the 412 pathologically confirmed benign lymph nodes, an average ADC value of 1.650 × 10−3 mm2/sec was found. For differentiating between benign versus metastatic lymph nodes, DWI showed Se of 97% and Spe of 93%, whereas morphological criteria displayed Se of 61% and Spe of 98%. DWI showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.964, while morphological criteria displayed an AUC of 0.715. Conclusions. In a DWI negative neck for malignant lymph nodes, the planned dissection could be converted to a wait-and-scan policy, whereas DWI positive neck would support the decision to perform a neck dissection. PMID:25003115

  19. Assessment of Safety and Interference Issues of Radio Frequency Identification Devices in 0.3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Periyasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate two issues regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI including device functionality and image artifacts for the presence of radio frequency identification devices (RFID in association with 0.3 Tesla at 12.7 MHz MRI and computed tomography (CT scanning. Fifteen samples of RFID tags with two different sizes (wristband and ID card types were tested. The tags were exposed to several MR-imaging conditions during MRI examination and X-rays of CT scan. Throughout the test, the tags were oriented in three different directions (axial, coronal, and sagittal relative to MRI system in order to cover all possible situations with respect to the patient undergoing MRI and CT scanning, wearing a RFID tag on wrist. We observed that the tags did not sustain physical damage with their functionality remaining unaffected even after MRI and CT scanning, and there was no alternation in previously stored data as well. In addition, no evidence of either signal loss or artifact was seen in the acquired MR and CT images. Therefore, we can conclude that the use of this passive RFID tag is safe for a patient undergoing MRI at 0.3 T/12.7 MHz and CT Scanning.

  20. Dapsone improves functional deficit and diminishes brain damage evaluated by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance image after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Heras-Romero, Yessica; Mendez-Armenta, Marisela; Osorio-Rico, Laura; Nava-Ruiz, Concepción; Ríos, Camilo

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is a frequent cause of death and the first of disability in the world population. We have shown that dapsone acts as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic agent after brain Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats; however, its therapeutic efficacy, measured by imaging has not been characterized. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dapsone by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to correlate imaging markers with motor function and oxidative stress after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). We used male rats throughout the experiment. Functional deficit after I/R was assessed by using Longa scale. The area of brain tissue damage was measured by histology. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Finally, difussion tensor MRI was employed to measure the fractional anisotropy (FA), as a MRI marker of the pathophysiologic brain status. Results showed a better functional recovery and less damaged tissue in animals treated with dapsone vs control group. The values of FA were higher in animals receiving treatment, indicating a better preservation of brain structure. At early stages of the damage, dapsone was able to reduce both oxidative markers (Nrf-2 and ROS). Our findings provide new evidence for the efficacy of dapsone when administered during the acute phase after I/R and that quantitative sequences of MRI are useful for characterizing its potential therapeutic benefits after stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can magnetic resonance imaging be an alternative to computed tomography in immunocompromised patients with suspected fungal infections? Feasibility of a speed optimized examination protocol at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Sebastian Niko; Wyschkon, Sebastian; Schwartz, Stefan; Hamm, Bernd; Elgeti, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    To prospectively evaluate a short MRI examination protocol for the detection of nodular pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients with hematologic diseases and suspected invasive fungal infections. Patients with nodular infiltrates on CT scans were examined on a 3T MRI scanner. The standardized protocol included axial T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences +/- fat saturation (FS), and axial T1-weighted gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Long and short axis diameters of nodular infiltrates and visibility were assessed on MR images at least six months after the CT scan, blinded to patient and examination data. Inter- and intra-reader reliability was assessed in two patients. Statistical testing included Wilcoxon-test, Cohen's kappa, and intra-class correlation coefficients. Bland-Altman plots were created to visualize differences in the measurements. In all 13 patients MRI examinations were completed successfully (average examination time 12 min and maximum breath-hold time of 8s). CT detected 409 nodules. Sensitivity of MRI was 93.2% when using all sequences in combination; considering nodules >5mm, sensitivity increased to 97.9%. Reliability analysis showed excellent correlations with an intra-class correlation coefficient of at least 0.89 for T2 FSE (95% CI 0.79-0.93, p<0.01) images for the intra-, and the lowest of 0.77 for T2 FSE (95% CI 0.55-0.89, p<0.01) images for the inter-reader comparison. Agreement on nodule visibility was at least kappa=0.95 (p<0.01) for the intra- and 0.72 (p<0.01) for the inter-reader analysis. With an average examination time of 12 min, pulmonary MRI at 3T is feasible in immunocompromised patients with hematologic diseases and suspected invasive fungal infections. MRI might serve as an alternative diagnostic tool during follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison between functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 and 3 Tesla: effect of increased field strength on 4 paradigms used during presurgical work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, Ann; Vandemaele, Pieter; Seurinck, Ruth; Deblaere, Karel; Achten, Eric

    2007-02-01

    We sought to evaluate the benefit of 3 T compared with 1.5 T during presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Six participants performed a motor, a visual, and 2 language paradigms both at 1.5 and 3 T. The number of activated voxels, mean t-value, and assessment of language dominancy were compared between both field strengths. Group analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of field strength on the cortical language activation patterns. The number of activated voxels and mean t-values were significantly higher at 3 T for all paradigms. Using the same statistical threshold, language activation was significantly less lateralized, and more activation zones were depicted at 3 T compared with 1.5 T. Sensitivity associated with visual, motor and language functional magnetic resonance imaging increased significantly at 3 T. Additional cortical areas were depicted during language processing at 3 T. For assessment of language dominancy, usage of more stringent statistical thresholds at 3 T is suggested.

  3. Is the Susceptibility Vessel Sign on 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance T2*-Weighted Imaging a Useful Tool to Predict Recanalization in Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Satomi, J; Harada, M; Izumi, Y; Nagahiro, S; Kaji, R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the independent factors associated with the absence of recanalization approximately 24 h after intravenous administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV TPA). The previous studies have been conducted using 1.5-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied whether the characteristics of 3-T MRI findings were useful to predict outcome and recanalization after IV tPA. Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) (horizontal portion, M1; Sylvian portion, M2) occlusion and treated by IV tPA were enrolled. We studied whether the presence of susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) at M1 and low clot burden score on T2*-weighted imaging (T2*-CBS) on 3-T MRI were associated with the absence of recanalization. A total of 49 patients were enrolled (27 men; mean age, 73.9 years). MR angiography obtained approximately 24 h after IV tPA revealed recanalization in 21 (42.9 %) patients. Independent factors associated with the absence of recanalization included ICA or proximal M1 occlusion (odds ratio, 69.6; 95 % confidence interval, 5.05-958.8, p = 0.002). In this study, an independent factor associated with the absence of recanalization may be proximal occlusion of the cerebral arteries rather than SVS in the MCA or low T2*-CBS on 3-T MRI.

  4. A systematic review of the utility of 1.5 versus 3 Tesla magnetic resonance brain imaging in clinical practice and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, Joanna M. [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Western General Hospital, SINAPSE Collaboration, Brain Research Imaging Centre, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Brindle, Will; Casado, Ana M.; Thomas, Brenda; Morris, Zoe [University of Edinburgh, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Shuler, Kirsten; Henderson, Moira; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Lymer, Katherine; Pernet, Cyril; Tao, Yuehui [Terry; Parikh, Jehill; Royle, Natalie A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Farrall, Andrew; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C. [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Macfarlane, Jennifer [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Nailon, William [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ahearn, Trevor [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Mumuni, Abdul Nashirudeen [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Glasgow, Department of Clinical Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Mugruza, Carlos [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Dundee, School of Psychology, Dundee (United Kingdom); McLean, John [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Chakirova, Goultchira [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Division of Psychiatry, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Simpson, Johanna [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Stirling, Department of Psychology, Stirling (United Kingdom); Stanfield, Andrew C. [University of Edinburgh, Division of Psychiatry, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Johnston, Harriet [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of St Andrews, Department of Psychology, St Andrews (United Kingdom); De Wilde, Janet [Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); The Higher Education Academy, York (United Kingdom); Weir, Nick [Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Department of Medical Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Collaboration: SINAPSE Collaborative Group

    2012-11-15

    MRI at 3 T is said to be more accurate than 1.5 T MR, but costs and other practical differences mean that it is unclear which to use. We systematically reviewed studies comparing diagnostic accuracy at 3 T with 1.5 T. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and other sources from 1 January 2000 to 22 October 2010 for studies comparing diagnostic accuracy at 1.5 and 3 T in human neuroimaging. We extracted data on methodology, quality criteria, technical factors, subjects, signal-to-noise, diagnostic accuracy and errors according to QUADAS and STARD criteria. Amongst 150 studies (4,500 subjects), most were tiny, compared old 1.5 T with new 3 T technology, and only 22 (15 %) described diagnostic accuracy. The 3 T images were often described as ''crisper'', but we found little evidence of improved diagnosis. Improvements were limited to research applications [functional MRI (fMRI), spectroscopy, automated lesion detection]. Theoretical doubling of the signal-to-noise ratio was not confirmed, mostly being 25 %. Artefacts were worse and acquisitions took slightly longer at 3 T. Objective evidence to guide MRI purchasing decisions and routine diagnostic use is lacking. Rigorous evaluation accuracy and practicalities of diagnostic imaging technologies should be the routine, as for pharmacological interventions, to improve effectiveness of healthcare. (orig.)

  5. Tumor Detection at 3 Tesla with an Activatable Cell Penetrating Peptide Dendrimer (ACPPD-Gd, a T1 Magnetic Resonance (MR Molecular Imaging Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Malone

    Full Text Available The ability to detect small malignant lesions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is limited by inadequate accumulations of Gd with standard chelate agents. To date, no T1-targeted agents have proven superiority to Gd chelates in their ability to detect small tumors at clinically relevant field strengths. Activatable cell-penetrating peptides and their Gd-loaded dendrimeric form (ACPPD-Gd have been shown to selectively accumulate in tumors. In this study we compared the performance of ACPPD-Gd vs. untargeted Gd chelates to detect small tumors in rodent models using a clinical 3T-MR system.This study was approved by the Institutional-Animal Care-and-Use Committee. 2 of 4 inguinal breast fat pads of 16 albino-C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with tumor Py8119 cells and the other 2 with saline at random. MRI at 3T was performed at 4, 9, and 14 days after inoculation on 8 mice 24-hours after injection of 0.036mmol Gd/kg (ACPPD-Gd, and before and 2-3 minutes after 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol on the other 8 mice. T1-weighted (T1w tumor signal normalized to muscle, was compared among the non-contrast, gadobutrol, and ACPPD-Gd groups using ANOVA. Experienced and trainee readers blinded to experimental conditions assessed for the presence of tumor in each of the 4 breast regions. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves and area-under-curve (AUC values were constructed and analyzed.Tumors ≥1mm3 were iso-intense to muscle without contrast on T1w sequences. They enhanced diffusely and homogeneously by 57±20% (p5mm3 were removed from the ROC analysis for both the experienced observer (0.96 vs. 0.86 and more so for the trainee (0.86 vs. 0.69, p = 0.04.ACPPD-Gd enhances MMP-expressing tumors of any size at 3T 24 hours after administration, improving their detection by blinded observers when compared to non-contrast and contrast groups given commercial Gd-chelates and imaged during the equilibrium phase.

  6. Interdependencies of aortic arch secondary flow patterns, geometry, and age analysed by 4-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydrychowicz, Alex [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Luebeck (Germany); Berger, Alexander; Russe, Maximilian F.; Bock, Jelena [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Munoz del Rio, Alejandro [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Harloff, Andreas [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Northwestern University, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    It was the aim to analyse the impact of age, aortic arch geometry, and size on secondary flow patterns such as helix and vortex flow derived from flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (4D PC-MRI). 62 subjects (age range = 20-80 years) without circumscribed pathologies of the thoracic aorta (ascending aortic (AAo) diameter: 3.2 {+-} 0.6 cm [range 2.2-5.1]) were examined by 4D PC-MRI after IRB-approval and written informed consent. Blood flow visualisation based on streamlines and time-resolved 3D particle traces was performed. Aortic diameter, shape (gothic, crook-shaped, cubic), angle, and age were correlated with existence and extent of secondary flow patterns (helicity, vortices); statistical modelling was performed. Helical flow was the typical pattern in standard crook-shaped aortic arches. With altered shapes and increasing age, helicity was less common. AAo diameter and age had the highest correlation (r = 0.69 and 0.68, respectively) with number of detected vortices. None of the other arch geometric or demographic variables (for all, P {>=} 0.177) improved statistical modelling. Substantially different secondary flow patterns can be observed in the normal thoracic aorta. Age and the AAo diameter were the parameters correlating best with presence and amount of vortices. Findings underline the importance of age- and geometry-matched control groups for haemodynamic studies. (orig.)

  7. Molecular MRI differentiation between primary central nervous system lymphomas and high-grade gliomas using endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shanshan [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yu, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Lu, Shilong; Feng, Lyujin; Wen, Zhibo [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Li, Yufa [Southern Medical University, Department of Pathology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yi; Heo, Hye-Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To show the ability of using the amide proton transfer-weighted (APTW) MRI signals as imaging biomarkers to differentiate primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Eleven patients with lymphomas and 21 patients with HGGs were examined. Magnetization-transfer (MT) spectra over an offset range of ±6 ppm and the conventional MT ratio (MTR) at 15.6 ppm were acquired. The APTW signals, total chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer signal (integral between 0 and 5 ppm, CEST{sub total}), and MTR signal were obtained and compared between PCNSLs and HGGs. The diagnostic performance was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The PCNSLs usually showed more homogeneous APTW hyperintensity (spatially compared to normal brain tissue) than the HGGs. The APTW{sub max}, APTW{sub max-min} and CEST{sub total} signal intensities were significantly lower (P < 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively), while the APTW{sub min} and MTR were significantly higher (both P < 0.01) in PCNSL lesions than in HGG lesions. The APTW values in peritumoral oedema were significantly lower for PCNSLs than for HGGs (P < 0.01). APTW{sub max-min} had the highest area under the ROC curve (0.963) and accuracy (94.1 %) in differentiating PCNSLs from HGGs. The protein-based APTW signal would be a valuable MRI biomarker by which to identify PCNSLs and HGGs presurgically. (orig.)

  8. Functional imaging of acute kidney injury at 3 Tesla. Investigating multiple parameters using DCE-MRI and a two-compartment filtration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Klotz, Sarah; Hoeger, Simone [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Medicine V

    2015-05-01

    To investigate how MR-based parameters reflect functional changes in kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and a two-compartment renal filtration model. MRI data of eight male Lewis rats were analyzed retrospectively. Five animals were subjected to AKI, three native rats served as control. All animals underwent perfusion imaging by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Renal blood volume, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as well as plasma and tubular mean transit times were estimated from regions-of-interest drawn in the renal cortex. Differences between healthy kidneys and kidneys subjected to AKI were analyzed using a paired t-test. Significant differences between ischemic and healthy kidneys could only be detected for the glomerular filtration rate. For all other calculated parameters, differences were present, however not significant. In rats with AKI, average single kidney GFR was 0.66 ± 0.37 ml/min for contralateral and 0.26 ± 0.12 ml/ min for diseased kidneys (P = 0.0254). For the healthy control group, the average GFR was 0.39 ± 0.06 ml/min and 0.41 ± 0.11 ml/min, respectively. Differences between diseased kidneys of AKI rats and ipsilateral kidneys of the healthy control group were significant (P=0.0381). Significant differences of functional parameters reflecting damage of the renal tissue of kidneys with AKI compared to the contralateral, healthy kidneys could only be detected by GFR. GFR might be a useful parameter that allows for a spatially resolved detection of abnormal changes of renal tissue by AKI.

  9. Meralgia paresthetica: 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Del Grande, Filippo; Soldatos, Theodoros; Chalian, Majid; Belzberg, Allan J; Williams, Eric H; Jalali, Farahani S; Thawait, Gaurav K; Eng, John; Carrino, John A

    2013-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy and observer performance of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in the evaluation of meralgia paresthetica (MP). Two independent readers were blinded to the clinical diagnosis and evaluated the MRN studies of the pelvis of 11 patients with MP and 28 control participants. In each study, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerves were assessed for signal alteration and/or neuroma formation, indicating lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy, at various levels along their course. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated. Both readers exhibited substantial intraobserver agreement in detecting signal alterations and neuroma formation of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). The readers demonstrated moderate interobserver agreement in detecting signal alteration of the LFCN and poor interobserver agreement in diagnosing neuroma formation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of LFCN neuropathy diagnosis were ≥ 71 % and ≥ 94 % for both readers respectively. The diagnostic test accuracy was ≥ 90 % for both readers. 3-Tesla MRN provides reliable and accurate diagnostic evaluation of meralgia paresthetica.

  10. Correlation of structural abnormalities of the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints evaluated by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and conventional radiographs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Hee; Srikhum, Waraporn; Burghardt, Andrew J; Virayavanich, Warapat; Imboden, John B; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) hands, we applied high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are new methods for erosion detection and bone marrow edema (BME) quantification. We compared the erosion measurements between these techniques with conventional radiographs (CR) in order to examine their significance for evaluating structural abnormalities. In 16 RA patients, HR-pQCT of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints, 3 T MRI of wrist joints, as well as CR in both hands and feet were performed. Ten patients had 1-year follow-up CR. CRs were graded according to the modified Sharp score (MSS). Bone erosions were evaluated in HR-pQCT and MRI. BME pattern was quantified from MRI for volume, signal change and total burden. The erosion detection sensitivity of MRI was 85.7% and CR was 60.9% when HR-pQCT was considered as a reference method. The smallest dimensions of erosion detected by HR-pQCT, MRI and CR were 0.09, 0.14 and 0.66 cm, respectively. Baseline total MSS was correlated with HR-pQCT erosion measures, MRI erosion measures and MRI BME volume (P < 0.05). The mean difference between baseline and 1-year follow-up MSS (delta MSS) was 1.2. A trend was observed toward a correlation between delta MSS and MRI BME volume and burden. This study demonstrates that HR-pQCT detects more and smaller bone erosions compared to MRI and CR. In addition, 3 T MRI can provide quantitative measurement of BME. Combination of HR-pQCT and MRI modalities may provide powerful tools to evaluate joint inflammation and bone damage in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Rapid parametric mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 using two-dimensional variable flip angle magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Matthias A; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of parametric MR based lesion detection and

  12. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  13. Nonenhanced hybridized arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance angiography of the extracranial carotid arteries using a fast low angle shot readout at 3 Tesla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioannis Koktzoglou; Matthew T Walker; Joel R Meyer; Ian G Murphy; Robert R Edelman

    2016-01-01

    ... (MRA) of the extracranial carotid arteries using a fast low angle shot (FLASH) readout at 3 Tesla. Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved and HIPAA-compliant study, we evaluated the image quality...

  14. Evaluation of preoperative high magnetic field motor functional MRI (3 Tesla) in glioma patients by navigated electrocortical stimulation and postoperative outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roessler, K; Donat, M; Lanzenberger, R; Novak, K; Geissler, A; Gartus, A; Tahamtan, A R; Milakara, D; Czech, T; Barth, M; Knosp, E; Beisteiner, R

    2005-01-01

    The validity of 3 Tesla motor functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with gliomas involving the primary motor cortex was investigated by intraoperative navigated motor cortex stimulation (MCS...

  15. 3-Tesla MRI: Beneficial visualization of the meniscofemoral ligaments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrecht, Johanna; Krasny, Andrej; Hartmann, Dinah Maria; Rückbeil, Marcia Viviane; Ritz, Thomas; Prescher, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Recent investigations have confirmed an important stabilizing and protective function of the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) to the knee joint and suggest a clinical relevance. Concerning their incidences, however, there have been discrepancies between data acquired from cadaveric studies and MRI data using 0.3- to 1.5-Tesla field strengths probably due to lower resolution. This study aims to investigate whether imaging with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-T MRI) is beneficial in gaining information regarding the ligaments' incidence, length, width and anatomic variation. 3-T MRI images of 448 patients (224 males, 224 females, with, respectively, 32 patients of each sex in the age groups: 0-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, >70years) were retrospectively reviewed. The influence of the parameters 'sex' and 'age' was determined. Whereas 71% of the patients had at least one MFL, 22% had an anterior MFL (aMFL), 53% had a posterior MFL (pMFL) and five percent had coexisting ligaments. The pMFLs were more likely to be present in female patients (P<0.05) but if so, they were longer in the males (P<0.05). The pMFL was categorized according to its insertion on the medial femoral condyle. 3-T MRI enables an excellent illustration of the anatomic variations of pMFLs. By modifying an anatomic classification for radiological use we measured lengths and widths of the MFLs without any difficulties. Despite its increased resolution, 3-T MRI lends no diagnostic benefit in visualizing the course of the aMFL or filigree coexisting ligaments as compared to MRI at lower field strengths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M; Shellock, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or "MR Conditional" (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less.

  17. Evaluation of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Mahrad; Thomas, Asish; Shellock, Frank G

    2015-05-01

    Replacement of the aortic heart valve typically requires open-heart surgery. A new transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) bioprosthesis made from metallic material was recently developed that is an advantageous alternative insofar as it is implanted using a minimally invasive procedure. Because of the presence of metal, there are safety issues related to MRI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use standardized testing techniques to evaluate MRI issues for this TAVR bioprosthesis in association with a 3-Tesla MR system. The TAVR bioprosthesis (Hydra Aortic Valve, Percutaneous Heart Valve Prosthesis, Vascular Innovations Company, Ltd, Thailand) was evaluated for magnetic field interactions (translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating at a relative high specific absorption rate level (whole body average SAR, 2.9-W/kg), and artifacts (T1-weighted, spin echo, and gradient echo pulse sequences) at 3-Tesla. The TAVR bioprosthesis demonstrated negligible magnetic field interactions (deflection angle, 3-degrees; torque, 0) and minimal heating (maximum temperature rise, 2.5°C; background temperature rise, 1.7°C). Artifacts were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the implant. The TAVR bioprosthesis that was evaluated in this investigation is acceptable, or using current MRI terminology "MR Conditional", for a patient undergoing MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Programs for Girls www.womensmediacenter.com/pages/media-programs-for-girls Glossary Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which distorted body image leads a person to diet excessively. Body Mass Index (BMI): A number calculated from height and ...

  19. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guy's Guide to Body Image KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to Body ... image can be a problem. Why Is Body Image Important? Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, ...

  20. Incidental optochiasmatic cavernoma: Case report of an unusual finding on 3 Tesla MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentadue, Mirko; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto; Piovan, Enrico; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta

    2016-08-01

    Cavernoma is a vascular hamartoma, which represents 10-20% of all central nervous system vascular malformations. The majority (80%) of them are supratentorial, while involvement of the cranial nerves and the optic pathways is extremely rare. The main clinical presentation of optochiasmatic cavernomas consists of chiasmatic apoplexy, which is a neurosurgical emergency. Here, we report a case in which the finding was incidentally detected in a 49-year-old man. We describe the imaging characteristics of the lesion in such a rare location, highlighting the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (specifically 3 Tesla) in the management of asymptomatic patients.

  1. Inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy of myocardial perfusion reserve quantification by cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3 Tesla in comparison to quantitative coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuye, Katharina; Buckert, Dominik; Schaaf, Lisa; Walcher, Thomas; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Quantification of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) at 1.5 Tesla has been shown to correlate to invasive evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and to yield good inter-observer agreement. However, little is known about quantitative adenosine-perfusion CMR at 3 Tesla and no data about inter-observer agreement is available. Aim of our study was to evaluate inter-observer agreement and to assess the diagnostic accuracy in comparison to quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Fifty-three patients referred for coronary x-ray angiography were previously examined in a 3 Tesla whole-body scanner. Adenosine and rest perfusion CMR were acquired for the quantification of MPR in all segments. Two blinded and independent readers analyzed all images. QCA was performed in case of coronary stenosis. QCA data was used to assess diagnostic accuracy of the MPR measurements. Inter-observer agreement was high for all myocardial perfusion territories (ρ = 0.92 for LAD, ρ = 0.93 for CX and RCA perfused segments). Compared to QCA receiver-operating characteristics yielded an area under the curve of 0.78 and 0.73 for RCA, 0.66 and 0.69 for LAD, and 0.52 and 0.53 for LCX perfused territories. Inter-observer agreement of MPR quantification at 3 Tesla CMR is very high for all myocardial segments. Diagnostic accuracy in comparison to QCA yields good values for the RCA and LAD perfused territories, but moderate values for the posterior LCX perfused myocardial segments.

  2. Evaluation of MRI artifacts at 3 Tesla for 38 commonly used cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Kirin; Shellock, Frank G

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate MRI artifacts at 3-Tesla for 38 commonly used cosmetics. Thirty-eight cosmetics (16, nail polishes; 5, eyeliners; 3, mascaras; 10, eye shadows; 1, lip gloss; 1, body lotion; 1, body glitter, and 1, hair loss concealer) underwent evaluation for MRI artifacts at 3-Tesla. The cosmetics were applied a copper-sulfate-filled, phantom and initially assessed using a "screening" gradient echo (GRE) pulse sequence. Of the 38 different cosmetics, 14 (37%) exhibited artifacts. For these 14 cosmetics, additional characterization of artifacts was performed using a GRE pulse sequence. A qualitative scale was applied to characterize the artifact size. Artifacts were observed, as follows: 2, nail polishes; 5, eyeliners; 3, mascaras; 3, eye shadows; 1, hair loss concealer. Artifact size ranged from small (eye shadow) to very large (hair loss concealer) and tended to be associated with the presence of iron oxide or other metal-based ingredient. Commonly used cosmetics caused artifacts that may create issues if the area of interest is the same as where the cosmetic was applied or if its presence was unknown, thus, potentially causing it to be construed as pathology. Therefore, these findings have important implications for patients referred for MRI examinations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging of Metastatic Brain Tumor at 3 Tesla: Utility of T1-weighted SPACE Compared with 2D Spin Echo and 3D Gradient Echo Sequence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KOMADA, Tomohiro; NAGANAWA, Shinji; OGAWA, Hiroshi; MATSUSHIMA, Masaya; KUBOTA, Seiji; KAWAI, Hisashi; FUKATSU, Hiroshi; IKEDA, Mitsuru; KAWAMURA, Minako; SAKURAI, Yasuo; MARUYAMA, Katsuya

    2008-01-01

    ...), and 2-dimensional T1-weighted spin echo (2D-SE) imaging at 3T. We quantitatively compared SPACE, MP-RAGE, and 2D-SE images by using signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM...

  4. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  5. Three-dimensional isotropic fat-suppressed proton density-weighted MRI at 3 tesla using a T/R-coil can replace multiple plane two-dimensional sequences in knee imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Luetkens, J.A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate whether a 3D proton density-weighted fat-suppressed sequence (PDwFS) of the knee is able to replace multiplanar 2D-PDwFS. 52 patients (26 men, mean age: 41.9±14.5 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee at 3.0 Tesla using a T/R-coil. The imaging protocol included 3 planes of 2D-PDwFS (acquisition time (AT): 6:40 min; voxel sizes: 0.40-0.63 x 0.44-0.89 x 3 mm{sup 3}) and a 3D-PDwFS (AT: 6:31 min; voxel size: 0.63 x 0.68 x 0.63 mm{sup 3}). Homogeneity of fat suppression (HFS), artifacts, and image sharpness (IS) were evaluated on a 5-point scale (5[excellent] - 1[non-diagnostic]). The sum served as a measure for the overall image quality (OIQ). Contrast ratios (CR) compared to popliteal muscle were calculated for the meniscus (MEN), anterior (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL). In 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery, two radiologists evaluated the presence of meniscal, ligamental and cartilage lesions to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. The CR was higher in the ACL, PCL and MEN in 3D- PDwFS compared to 2D-PDwFS (p<0.01 for ACL and PCL; p=0.07 for MEN). Compared to 2D images, the OIQ was rated higher in 3D-PDwFS images (p<0.01) due to fewer artifacts and HFS despite the lower IS (p<0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection in 3D- and 2D-PDwFS were similar. Compared to standard multiplanar 2D-PDwFS knee imaging, isotropic high spatial resolution 3D-PDwFS of the knee at 3.0T can be acquired with high image quality in a reasonable scan time. Multiplanar reformations in arbitrary planes may serve as an additional benefit of 3D-PDwFS.

  6. Comparison of Quantitative Assessment of BLADE and Isotropic Three-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Cube (3D T2 SPACE Sequences with Conventional Protocols of wrist Joint at 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the wrist joint is a useful method in the diagnosis of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC, ligaments and tendons, peripheral nerves, cartilage and carpal tunnel syndrome. However, the evaluation of these small anatomical structures is a topic of investigation. In some instances, the diagnostic indices of MRI in tears and other lesions of cartilage and ligamentous structures are relatively low, so the protocols should be optimized. Objectives In this study, we aim to compare new MRI protocols of 3D T2SPACE, PD BLADE and T2 BLADE with the conventional protocols, including T2 FSE, PD FSE, and T1 FSE in case of signal intensity. Patients and Methods Twenty patients with a history of wrist trauma or suspected wrist lesions were referred by orthopedic hand surgeons and enrolled into the study. All the protocols were carried out on all patients and the images were assessed quantitatively by measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR and contrast to noise ratio (CNR. Then, these parameters were compared between different protocols. SPSS ver.18 was used for the statistical analyses. Results SNR of the cartilage, TFCC on 3D T2SPACE and T1 FSE was better than other sequences (P < 0.001. SNR of the bone on PD BLADE was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than that of conventional protocols. PD BLADE images showed significantly higher bone- cartilage CNR and bone- TFCC CNR (P < 0.001 to P < 0.001. CNR of cartilage-TFCC on T1 FSE was better than other sequences, but no significant statistical differences were seen. Conclusion High-resolution MR images of the wrist using 3D T2SPACE, PD BLADE and T2 BLADE were superior to those using conventional sequences quantitatively. High-SNR and CNR MR imaging with SPACE and BLADE would be a promising method to diagnose wrist lesions.

  7. Body image in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Böserová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The Master's Thesis deals with the marketing research of the body image meaning in female and male life style magazines chosen. The main aim is to analyze the advertisement using the quantitative content analysis and to identify the most common elements presented, furthermore to analyse these elements based on the data obtained and to find out the difference of human body presented when female and male are the target groups. The secondary aim is defined as to prepare this analysis for the fro...

  8. Orthodontic brackets in high field MR imaging: experimental evaluation of magnetic field interactions at 3.0 tesla; Kieferorthopaedische Brackets in der Hochfeld-Magnetresonanz-Tomographie: Experimentelle Beurteilung magnetischer Anziehungs- und Rotationskraefte bei 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, J.; Adam, G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B. [Poliklinik fuer Kieferorthopaedie, Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate static magnetic field interactions for 32 commonly used orthodontic brackets in a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Materials and methods: 32 orthodontic brackets consisting of a steel alloy (n=27), a cobalt-chromium alloy (n=2), ceramic (n=1), ceramic with a steel slot (n=1), and titanium (n=1) from 13 different manufacturers were tested for magnetic field interactions in a static magnetic field at 3.0 T (Gyroscan Intera 3.0 T, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands). The magnetic deflection force F{sub Z} [mN] was evaluated by determining the deflection angle {beta}[ ] using the established deflection angle test according to the ASTM guidelines. The magnetic-field-induced rotational force F{sub rot} or torque was qualitatively determined using a 5-point grading scale (0: no torque; +4: very strong torque). Results: In 18 of the 32 brackets, the deflection angle {beta} was found to be > 45 and the translational force exceeded the gravitational force F{sub G} on the particular bracket (F{sub Z}: 1.2-45.7 mN). The translational force F{sub Z} was found to be up to 68.5 times greater than the gravitational force F{sub G} (F{sub Z}/F{sub G}: 1.4-68.5). The rotational force F{sub rot} was correspondingly high (+3/+4) for those brackets. For the remaining 14 objects, the deflection angles were < 45 and the torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. The static magnetic field did not affect the titanium bracket and the ceramic bracket. No measurable translational and rotational forces were found. (orig.)

  9. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  10. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations.

  11. A free-breathing non-contrast-enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography at 3 Tesla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WANG Wei; WANG Ya-rong; NIU Gang; JIN Chen-wang; WU Ed Xuekui

    2009-01-01

    Background The breathhold contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging sequence is the standard technique for MRA of the thorax. However, this technique is not desirable for certain patients with respiratory insufficiency, serious renal impairment, or allergy to contrast agents. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a non-contrast-enhanced free-breathing pulmonary MRA protocol at 3 Tesla.Methods The time-of-flight protocol was based on a two-dimensional T1-weighted turbo field echo sequence with slice-selective inversion recovery and magnetization transfer preparation together with respiratory navigator gating, cardiac gating, and parallel imaging. Optimal values for time of inversion delay, flip angle and slice thickness were experimentally determined and used for all subjects.Results Excellent pulmonary MRA images, in which the 7th order branches of pulmonary arteries could be reliably identified, were obtained in the 12 free-breathing healthy volunteers. TI of ~300 ms provides the best suppression of background thoracic and cardiac muscles and effective inflow enhancement. With increasing flip angle, the pulmonary vessels gradually brightened and exhibited optimal contrast at 20°-30°. The 2 mm slice thickness and 0.5 mm slice overlap is suitable for visualization of the peripheral pulmonary vessel.Conclusions The MRA protocol at 3 Tesla may have clinical significance for pulmonary vascular imaging in patients who are not available for contrast-enhanced 3D MRA and CT angiography examination or are unable to sustain a long breath-hold.

  12. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3 Tesla in patients with advanced peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolja M Thierfelder

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of ECG-gated non-contrast-enhanced quiescent interval single-shot (QISS magnetic resonance angiography at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla in patients with advanced peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD. METHOD AND MATERIALS: A total of 21 consecutive patients with advanced PAOD (Fontaine stage IIb and higher referred for peripheral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA were included. Imaging was performed on a 3 T whole body MR. Image quality and stenosis diameter were evaluated in comparison to contrast-enhanced continuous table and TWIST MRA (CE-MRA as standard of reference. QISS images were acquired with a thickness of 1.5 mm each (high-resolution QISS, HR-QISS. Two blinded readers rated the image quality and the degree of stenosis for both HR-QISS and CE-MRA in 26 predefined arterial vessel segments on 5-point Likert scales. RESULTS: With CE-MRA as the reference standard, HR-QISS showed high sensitivity (94.1%, specificity (97.8%, positive (95.1%, and negative predictive value (97.2% for the detection of significant (≥ 50% stenosis. Interreader agreement for stenosis assessment of both HR-QISS and CE-MRA was excellent (κ-values of 0.951 and 0.962, respectively. As compared to CR-MRA, image quality of HR-QISS was significantly lower for the distal aorta, the femoral and iliac arteries (each with p<0.01, while no significant difference was found in the popliteal (p = 0.09 and lower leg arteries (p = 0.78. CONCLUSION: Non-enhanced ECG-gated HR-QISS performs very well in subjects with severe PAOD and is a good alternative for patients with a high risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  13. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3 Tesla in patients with advanced peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierfelder, Kolja M; Meimarakis, Georgios; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Sommer, Wieland H; Schmitt, Peter; Kazmierczak, Philipp M; Reiser, Maximilian F; Theisen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of ECG-gated non-contrast-enhanced quiescent interval single-shot (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla in patients with advanced peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). A total of 21 consecutive patients with advanced PAOD (Fontaine stage IIb and higher) referred for peripheral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were included. Imaging was performed on a 3 T whole body MR. Image quality and stenosis diameter were evaluated in comparison to contrast-enhanced continuous table and TWIST MRA (CE-MRA) as standard of reference. QISS images were acquired with a thickness of 1.5 mm each (high-resolution QISS, HR-QISS). Two blinded readers rated the image quality and the degree of stenosis for both HR-QISS and CE-MRA in 26 predefined arterial vessel segments on 5-point Likert scales. With CE-MRA as the reference standard, HR-QISS showed high sensitivity (94.1%), specificity (97.8%), positive (95.1%), and negative predictive value (97.2%) for the detection of significant (≥ 50%) stenosis. Interreader agreement for stenosis assessment of both HR-QISS and CE-MRA was excellent (κ-values of 0.951 and 0.962, respectively). As compared to CR-MRA, image quality of HR-QISS was significantly lower for the distal aorta, the femoral and iliac arteries (each with p<0.01), while no significant difference was found in the popliteal (p = 0.09) and lower leg arteries (p = 0.78). Non-enhanced ECG-gated HR-QISS performs very well in subjects with severe PAOD and is a good alternative for patients with a high risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  14. Flow-sensitive in-vivo 4D MR imaging at 3T for the analysis of aortic hemodynamics and derived vessel wall parameters; Die Analyse aortaler Haemodynamik und Gefaesswandparameter mittels fluss-sensitiver in-vivo 4D-MRT bei 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydrychowicz, A.; Markl, M.; Stalder, A.F.; Bock, J.; Bley, T.A.; Berger, A.; Russe, M.F.; Hennig, J.; Langer, M. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik; Harloff, A. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Klinische Neurologie und Neurophysiologie; Schlensak, C. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

    2007-05-15

    Modern phase contrast MR imaging at 3 Tesla allows the depiction of 3D morphology as well as the acquisition of time-resolved blood flow velocities in 3 directions. In combination with state-of-the-art visualization and data processing software, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hemodynamic changes associated with vascular pathologies is possible. The 4D nature of the acquired data permits free orientation within the vascular system of interest and offers the opportunity to quantify blood flow and derived vessel wall parameters at any desired location within the data volume without being dependent on predefined 2D slices. The technique has the potential of overcoming the limitations of current diagnostic strategies and of implementing new diagnostic parameters. In light of the recent discussions regarding the influence of the wall shear stress and the oscillatory shear index on the genesis of arteriosclerosis and dilatative vascular processes, flow-sensitive 4D MRI may provide the missing diagnostic link. Instead of relying on experience-based parameters such as aneurysm size, new hemodynamic considerations can deepen our understanding of vascular pathologies. This overview reviews the underlying methodology at 3T, the literature on time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping, and presents case examples. By presenting the pre- and postoperative assessment of hemodynamics in a thoracic aortic aneurysm and the detailed analysis of blood flow in a patient with coarctation we underline the potential of time-resolved 3D phase contrast MR at 3T for hemodynamic assessment of vascular pathologies, especially in the thoracic aorta. (orig.)

  15. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  16. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  17. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  18. Implementation of fast macromolecular proton fraction mapping on 1.5 and 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanners: preliminary experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnykh, V.; Korostyshevskaya, A.

    2017-08-01

    Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) is a biophysical parameter describing the amount of macromolecular protons involved into magnetization exchange with water protons in tissues. MPF represents a significant interest as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarker of myelin for clinical applications. A recent fast MPF mapping method enabled clinical translation of MPF measurements due to time-efficient acquisition based on the single-point constrained fit algorithm. However, previous MPF mapping applications utilized only 3 Tesla MRI scanners and modified pulse sequences, which are not commonly available. This study aimed to test the feasibility of MPF mapping implementation on a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner using standard manufacturer’s sequences and compare the performance of this method between 1.5 and 3 Tesla scanners. MPF mapping was implemented on 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI units of one manufacturer with either optimized custom-written or standard product pulse sequences. Whole-brain three-dimensional MPF maps obtained from a single volunteer were compared between field strengths and implementation options. MPF maps demonstrated similar quality at both field strengths. MPF values in segmented brain tissues and specific anatomic regions appeared in close agreement. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of fast MPF mapping using standard sequences on 1.5 T and 3 T clinical scanners.

  19. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p < 0.001). There was a moderate, significant inverse correlation of prostate volume to a positive biopsy result (r = -0.24, p = 0.004). The ellipsoid formula gives sufficient approximation of prostate volume on 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets.

  20. Cortical microinfarcts detected in vivo on 3 tesla MRI : Clinical and radiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, Jan Willem; Scuric, Eva E M; Van Veluw, Susanne J.; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J.; Biessels, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; Van Gool, Willem A.; Richard, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are a common postmortem finding associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Recently, CMIs identified in vivo on 7 Tesla MRI also proved retraceable on 3 Tesla MRI. Methods-We evaluated CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI in a populati

  1. Cortical microinfarcts detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI: clinical and radiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, J.W. van; Scuric, E.E.; Veluw, S.J. van; Caan, M.W.; Nederveen, A.J.; Biessels, G.J.; Gool, W.A. van; Richard, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are a common postmortem finding associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Recently, CMIs identified in vivo on 7 Tesla MRI also proved retraceable on 3 Tesla MRI. METHODS: We evaluated CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI in a popula

  2. Cortical microinfarcts detected in vivo on 3 tesla MRI : Clinical and radiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, Jan Willem; Scuric, Eva E M; Van Veluw, Susanne J.; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Van Gool, Willem A.; Richard, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are a common postmortem finding associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Recently, CMIs identified in vivo on 7 Tesla MRI also proved retraceable on 3 Tesla MRI. Methods-We evaluated CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI in a

  3. Cortical microinfarcts detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI: clinical and radiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, J.W. van; Scuric, E.E.; Veluw, S.J. van; Caan, M.W.; Nederveen, A.J.; Biessels, G.J.; Gool, W.A. van; Richard, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are a common postmortem finding associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Recently, CMIs identified in vivo on 7 Tesla MRI also proved retraceable on 3 Tesla MRI. METHODS: We evaluated CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI in a

  4. Cortical microinfarcts detected in vivo on 3 tesla MRI : Clinical and radiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, Jan Willem; Scuric, Eva E M; Van Veluw, Susanne J.; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Van Gool, Willem A.; Richard, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are a common postmortem finding associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Recently, CMIs identified in vivo on 7 Tesla MRI also proved retraceable on 3 Tesla MRI. Methods-We evaluated CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI in a populati

  5. High-resolution motion compensated MRA in patients with congenital heart disease using extracellular contrast agent at 3 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabir Darius

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using first-pass MRA (FP-MRA spatial resolution is limited by breath-hold duration. In addition, image quality may be hampered by respiratory and cardiac motion artefacts. In order to overcome these limitations an ECG- and navigator-gated high-resolution-MRA sequence (HR-MRA with slow infusion of extracellular contrast agent was implemented at 3 Tesla for the assessment of congenital heart disease and compared to standard first-pass-MRA (FP-MRA. Methods 34 patients (median age: 13 years with congenital heart disease (CHD were prospectively examined on a 3 Tesla system. The CMR-protocol comprised functional imaging, FP- and HR-MRA, and viability imaging. After the acquisition of the FP-MRA sequence using a single dose of extracellular contrast agent the motion compensated HR-MRA sequence with isotropic resolution was acquired while injecting the second single dose, utilizing the timeframe before viability imaging. Qualitative scores for image quality (two independent reviewers as well as quantitative measurements of vessel sharpness and relative contrast were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Quantitative measurements of vessel diameters were compared using the Bland-Altman test. Results The mean image quality score revealed significantly better image quality of the HR-MRA sequence compared to the FP-MRA sequence in all vessels of interest (ascending aorta (AA, left pulmonary artery (LPA, left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV, coronary sinus (CS, and coronary ostia (CO; all p  Conclusions An ECG- and navigator-gated HR-MRA-protocol with infusion of extracellular contrast agent at 3 Tesla is feasible. HR-MRA delivers significantly better image quality and vessel sharpness compared to FP-MRA. It may be integrated into a standard CMR-protocol for patients with CHD without the need for additional contrast agent injection and without any additional examination time.

  6. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate student...... strategies and activities should address the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and BIC and should moreover pay attention to the gender-specific correlates of BIC for tailoring evidence based interventions for females and for males....

  7. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  8. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas eHeider; Adriaan eSpruyt; Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  9. Comparison of T1-weighted 2D TSE, 3D SPGR, and two-point 3D Dixon MRI for automated segmentation of visceral adipose tissue at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Faezeh; Machann, Jürgen; Martirosian, Petros; Bamberg, Fabian; Schick, Fritz; Yang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare conventional T1-weighted 2D turbo spin echo (TSE), T1-weighted 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), and two-point 3D Dixon-VIBE sequences for automatic segmentation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 3 Tesla by measuring and compensating for errors arising from intensity nonuniformity (INU) and partial volume effects (PVE). The body trunks of 28 volunteers with body mass index values ranging from 18 to 41.2 kg/m(2) (30.02 ± 6.63 kg/m(2)) were scanned at 3 Tesla using three imaging techniques. Automatic methods were applied to reduce INU and PVE and to segment VAT. The automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from all acquisitions were then statistically and objectively evaluated against the manually segmented (reference) VAT volumes. Comparing the reference volumes with the VAT volumes automatically segmented over the uncorrected images showed that INU led to an average relative volume difference of -59.22 ± 11.59, 2.21 ± 47.04, and -43.05 ± 5.01 % for the TSE, VIBE, and Dixon images, respectively, while PVE led to average differences of -34.85 ± 19.85, -15.13 ± 11.04, and -33.79 ± 20.38 %. After signal correction, differences of -2.72 ± 6.60, 34.02 ± 36.99, and -2.23 ± 7.58 % were obtained between the reference and the automatically segmented volumes. A paired-sample two-tailed t test revealed no significant difference between the reference and automatically segmented VAT volumes of the corrected TSE (p = 0.614) and Dixon (p = 0.969) images, but showed a significant VAT overestimation using the corrected VIBE images. Under similar imaging conditions and spatial resolution, automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from the corrected TSE and Dixon images agreed with each other and with the reference volumes. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the signal correction methods and the similar accuracy of TSE and Dixon imaging for automatic volumetry of VAT at 3 Tesla.

  10. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    for the association between four increasing levels of BIC as the dependent variables (no BIC, mild BIC, moderate BIC and marked BIC) on the one hand, and the socio-demographic (gender, age, year at university), lifestyle (physical activity, nutrition) and mental well-being variables (quality of life, perceived stress......, perceived health, depressive symptoms) on the other. RESULTS: More females (35%) than males (8%) reported being moderately or markedly concerned with their body image. For both genders, BIC was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms and to variable extents, with nutrition and year...... strategies and activities should address the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and BIC and should moreover pay attention to the gender-specific correlates of BIC for tailoring evidence based interventions for females and for males....

  11. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  12. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Savarese, Eugenio; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario A; Masala, Salvatore; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-01-27

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR) repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR) repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA), showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, surgical time and implant expense. The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant expense, despite no difference in clinical outcomes. We think that

  13. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudisco Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA, showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. Methods The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST scores, surgical time and implant expense. Results The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant

  14. Double-bundle depiction of the anterior cruciate ligament at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaensen, M.E.A.P.M. [Atrium Medical Center Parkstad, Department of Radiology, Heerlen (Netherlands); Hogan, B. [Sports Surgery Clinic, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Al-Bulushi, H.I.J. [Armed Forces Hospital, Department of Radiology, Muscat (Oman); Kavanagh, E.C. [Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging on 3 Tesla (3T MRI) with arthroscopic correlation has proven to adequately identify the anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) in cadaver knees. The purpose of this study was to describe the depiction of ACL bundle anatomy on 3T MRI in daily practice. In a retrospective cohort study, we included 50 consecutive patients who underwent standard 3T MRI of the knee and had an intact ACL. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed all scans for depiction of ACL bundle anatomy using standardized forms. Descriptive statistics were used. Twenty-three right knees (46%) and 27 left knees (54%) were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 35 years (range 12 to 68 years); 37 patients were male (74%). ACL bundle anatomy was best depicted in the axial plane in 44 knees (88%) and in the coronal plane in six knees (12%). Two bundles were seen in 47 knees (94%). The AMB was completely seen in 45 knees (90%). The PLB was completely seen in 40 knees (80%). Both bundles were completely seen in 37 knees (76%). The double-bundle anatomy of the ACL is visualized in 94% of patients on 3T MRI. Because of potentially associated clinical benefits, we advocate to report separately on the anteromedial bundle and posterolateral bundle in case of anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee. (orig.)

  15. Variations of the posterior cerebral artery diagnosed by MR angiography at 3 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Takahashi, Masahiro; Okano, Nanami; Tanisaka, Megumi [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Fenestration, early bifurcation, and duplication of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and the so-called hyperplastic anterior choroidal artery (AChA), considered a variation of the PCA, are rare. We evaluated the prevalence and characteristic features of these PCA variations on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. We reviewed intracranial MR angiographic images of 2402 patients examined using a 3-tesla scanner. Images from the skull base to the intracranial region were obtained using the standard time-of-flight technique. We excluded images of 52 patients with insufficient image quality or occlusion of the PCA(s) and retrospectively evaluated the images of 2350 patients using a picture archiving and communication system. We observed PCA fenestration in eight (0.34 %) patients, most at the P1 segment and P1-P2 junction and all small in size, early bifurcation at the P1-P2 junction or proximal P2A segment in eight (0.34 %) patients, complete duplication in one patient, and hyperplastic AChA in 13 (0.55 %) patients. Eleven of the 13 hyperplastic AChAs supplied only the territory of the temporal branch of the PCA, and the remaining two supplied the entire territory of the PCA. We observed PCA variations in 30 (1.28 %) patients. We believe the name ''hyperplastic AChA'' inaccurately describes variations of the PCA in which the AChA supplies part of or all of the territory of the PCA and propose ''accessory PCA'' to describe an AChA that supplies part of the territory of the PCA or ''replaced PCA'' to describe that vessel that supplies the territory all branches of the PCA. (orig.)

  16. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities include running, swimming, jumping rope, or soccer. Exercise is good for your mind and your body. Staying active relieves stress, helps you sleep better, and can help ease depression and anxiety. Should I go on a diet? Many teenage ...

  17. Differentiation of brain metastases by percentagewise quantification of intratumoral-susceptibility-signals at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radbruch, Alexander, E-mail: Alexander.Radbruch@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Graf, Markus, E-mail: m.graf@dkfz.de [Software Development for Integrated Diagnosis and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Kramp, Linda, E-mail: linda.kramp@gmx.de [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Wiestler, Benedikt, E-mail: b.wiestler@dkfz.de [Department of Neurooncology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Floca, Ralf, E-mail: r.floca@dkfz.de [Software Development for Integrated Diagnosis and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Bäumer, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.baeumer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Roethke, Matthias, E-mail: m.roethke@dkfz.de [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram, E-mail: b.stieltjes@dkfz.de [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter, E-mail: h.schlemmer@dkfz.de [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Heiland, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.heiland@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Bendszus, Martin, E-mail: martin.bendszus@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Introduction: Evaluation of intratumoral-susceptibility-signals (ITSS) in susceptibility-weighted-imaging (SWI) has been reported to improve diagnostic performance for solitary enhancing brain lesions. Due to the distinct morphologic variability of ITSS, standardized evaluation proved to be difficult. We analyzed, if a new postprocessing method using percentagewise quantification (PQ) of ITSS enables differentiation between different entities of cerebral metastases and may thus improve differential diagnosis in cases of unknown primary. Materials and methods: SWI and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MR images were acquired from 84 patients with intracerebral metastases (20 patients with mamma carcinoma (MC), 15 patients with malignant melanoma (MM), 49 patients with bronchial carcinoma (BC)) at 3 Tesla MR. Images were co-registered and enhancing lesions were delineated on T1-weighted images and the outline transferred to the corresponding SWI map. All voxels within the lesion presenting values below a reference value placed in the ventricular system were determined and percentagewise calculated. Results: Diagnostic performance of percentagewise quantification (PQ) of ITSS, as determined with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was excellent (AUC = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90, 1.00) to discriminate MM from MC, good for the discrimination of MM and BC (AUC = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70, 0.92) and poor for the discrimination of MC and BC (AUC = 0.60; 95% CI 0.47, 0.73). Conclusion: PQ is a new approach for the assessment of SWI that can be used for differential diagnosis of intracerebral metastases. Metastases of MM and MC or BC can be distinguished with high sensitivity and specificity.

  18. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure t...

  19. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to media and body image was found while negative influence was found between self-esteem and body image. No relationship was found between religiosity and body image. The results showed mixed outcomes as compared to past studies. The scope of this study is limited to one city only and hence the finding could not be generalized. Future researcher may use a larger sample drawn throughout Pakistan, and by examining whether body image perception varies ethnically, age and gender. Media exposure is affecting the traditional norms and values of Pakistan culture and body image. The obsessions of the media and thin body image have to be controlled and this requires policy changes. Corporate sector might take initiative by not selecting ultra-thin models. They might also sponsors public service messages showing ill effects of being ultra-thin, and showing that the ultra-thin models are not real but is results of artworks and camera angles. Social Comparison Theory with two addition variable religiosity and self-esteem has been successfully extended/empirically tested in the domain of Pakistan culture.

  20. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  1. Vascular compression in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: demonstration by high-resolution MRI at 3 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbach, F.; Ricke, J.; Bruhn, H. [Department of Radiology, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13352, Berlin (Germany); Lehmann, T.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Augustenberger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    We report a case of glossopharyngeal neuralgia with vascular compression. High-resolution MRI at 3 tesla demonstrated the posterior inferior cerebellar artery to be closely related to the rootlets of the left glossopharyngeal nerve in a patient who suffered attacks of burning sensation in the left side of the throat. The MRI findings were confirmed at curative surgery. (orig.)

  2. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  3. Orbitofrontal lobe volume deficits in Antipsychotic-Naive schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behere Rishikesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prefrontal cortex deficits have been consistently demonstrated in schizophrenia. The orbitofrontal lobe (OFL, a critical component of the prefrontal cortex, subserves social and neuro-cognitive functions. While these functional impairments are established in schizophrenia, the OFL volume deficits have not been well studied, especially in antipsychotic-naοve patients. Aim: To study OFL volume deficits in antipsychotic-naοve schizophrenia patients in comparison with matched healthy controls using high-resolution 3-tesla (3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Materials and Methods: Fourteen antipsychotic-naοve schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV and 14 age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls were scanned using 3T MRI. Psychopathology was assessed in the patient group using the scale for assessment of negative symptoms and the scale for assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS. The OFL volume was measured using Region of Interest (ROI-based manual morphometry technique, with good inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.98. Results: Total OFL volume was significantly smaller in schizophrenia patients (43.3 ± 9.6 mL in comparison with healthy controls (52.1 ± 12.2 mL after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and intracranial volume (F = 5.3, P = .03. Duration of untreated psychosis did not correlate significantly with OFL volumes. There was a trend towards significant negative correlation between the left and total OFL volumes and SAPS scores (r = -0.49, P = .06. Conclusion: OFL volume deficits might underlie the pathogenesis of schizophrenia symptoms with possible neuro-developmental origins.

  4. Clinical correlates of thalamus volume deficits in anti-psychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients: A 3-Tesla MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Naren P; Kalmady, Sunil; Arasappa, Rashmi; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2010-07-01

    Thalamus, the sensory and motor gateway to the cortex, plays an important role in cognitive and perceptual disturbances in schizophrenia. Studies examining the volume of the thalamus in schizophrenia have reported conflicting findings due to the presence of potential confounding factors such as low-resolution imaging and anti-psychotics. The thalamus volume in anti-psychotic-naïve patients determined using high-resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been examined. Using 3-Tesla MRI, this study for the first time examined anti-psychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients (n=18; M:F:11:7) in comparison with healthy controls (n=19;M:F:9:10) group-matched for age, sex, handedness, education, and socioeconomic status. The volume of the thalamus was measured using a three-dimensional, interactive, semi-automated analysis with good inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Psychopathology was assessed using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Right, left, and total thalamus volumes of patients were significantly smaller than those of controls after controlling for the potential confounding effect of intracranial volume. Thalamus volumes had significant positive correlation with positive symptoms score (SAPS) and significant negative correlation with negative symptoms score (SANS). Thalamus volume deficits in anti-psychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients support a neurodevelopmental pathogenesis. The contrasting correlation of thalamus volume deficits with psychopathology scores suggests that contrasting pruning aberrations underlie symptom genesis in schizophrenia.

  5. Calculating body frame size (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images ... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...

  6. MRI at 3 Tesla detects no evidence for ischemic brain damage in intensively treated patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Stephan A.; O' Regan, Declan P.; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Hajnal, Joseph V. [Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imaging Sciences Department, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Neuwirth, Clare; Potter, Elizabeth; Tosi, Isabella; Naoumova, Rossi P. [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Clinical Research Facility, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Lipid Clinic, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is considered a model disease for excessive plasma cholesterol levels. Patients with untreated homozygous FH have a markedly increased risk for premature atherosclerosis. The frequency and extent of ischemic brain damage detectable by high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after long-term intensive treatment are unknown. In a case control study, five patients with homozygous FH (one male and four females; mean age: 23.6 {+-} 9.2, range: 12-36 years; mean pre-treatment serum total cholesterol level: 26.9 {+-} 3.24 mmol/L; all patients with documented atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries) and five age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. All patients had been on maximal lipid-lowering medication since early childhood, and four of them were also on treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis at bi-weekly intervals. Brain MRI was performed at 3 Tesla field strength with fluid-attenuated T2-weighted inversion recovery and T1-weighted spin-echo MR pulse sequences and subsequently evaluated by two independent readers. The maximal lipid-lowering treatment reduced the total serum cholesterol by more than 50% in the patients, but their serum concentrations were still 3.6-fold higher than those found in the controls (11.9 {+-} 4.2 vs. 4.5 {+-} 0.5 mmol/L; p < 0.0047). No brain abnormality was observed in any of the patients with homozygous FH. Homozygous FH patients on intensive cholesterol-lowering therapy have no evidence of ischemic brain damage at 3 Tesla MRI despite the remaining high cholesterol levels. (orig.)

  7. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  8. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  9. Diagnosis of rotator cuff tears using 3-Tesla MRI versus 3-Tesla MRA: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Ciaran; Harb, Ziad; Smith, Christian; Houghton, Russell; Corbett, Steven; Ajuied, Adil

    2016-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2-dimensional magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) and 3-dimensional isotropic MRA in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears when performed exclusively at 3-T. A systematic review was undertaken of the Cochrane, MEDLINE and PubMed databases in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Studies comparing 3-T MRI or 3-T MRA (index tests) to arthroscopic surgical findings (reference test) were included. Methodological appraisal was performed using QUADAS 2. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated and summary receiver-operating curves generated. Kappa coefficients quantified inter-observer reliability. Fourteen studies comprising 1332 patients were identified for inclusion. Twelve studies were retrospective and there were concerns regarding index test bias and applicability in nine and six studies respectively. Reference test bias was a concern in all studies. Both 3-T MRI and 3-T MRA showed similar excellent diagnostic accuracy for full-thickness supraspinatus tears. Concerning partial-thickness supraspinatus tears, 3-T 2D MRA was significantly more sensitive (86.6 vs. 80.5 %, p = 0.014) but significantly less specific (95.2 vs. 100 %, p Tesla 3D isotropic MRA showed similar accuracy to 3-T conventional 2D MRA. Three-Tesla MRI appeared equivalent to 3-T MRA in the diagnosis of full- and partial-thickness tears, although there was a trend towards greater accuracy in the diagnosis of subscapularis tears with 3-T MRA. Three-Tesla 3D isotropic MRA appears equivalent to 3-T 2D MRA for all types of tears.

  10. Diagnosis of rotator cuff tears using 3-Tesla MRI versus 3-Tesla MRA: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, Ciaran; Harb, Ziad; Smith, Christian; Ajuied, Adil [Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, King' s Health Partners, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, London (United Kingdom); Houghton, Russell [Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, King' s Health Partners, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Corbett, Steven [Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, King' s Health Partners, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, London (United Kingdom); Fortius Clinic, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2-dimensional magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) and 3-dimensional isotropic MRA in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears when performed exclusively at 3-T. A systematic review was undertaken of the Cochrane, MEDLINE and PubMed databases in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Studies comparing 3-T MRI or 3-T MRA (index tests) to arthroscopic surgical findings (reference test) were included. Methodological appraisal was performed using QUADAS 2. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated and summary receiver-operating curves generated. Kappa coefficients quantified inter-observer reliability. Fourteen studies comprising 1332 patients were identified for inclusion. Twelve studies were retrospective and there were concerns regarding index test bias and applicability in nine and six studies respectively. Reference test bias was a concern in all studies. Both 3-T MRI and 3-T MRA showed similar excellent diagnostic accuracy for full-thickness supraspinatus tears. Concerning partial-thickness supraspinatus tears, 3-T 2D MRA was significantly more sensitive (86.6 vs. 80.5 %, p = 0.014) but significantly less specific (95.2 vs. 100 %, p < 0.001). There was a trend towards greater accuracy in the diagnosis of subscapularis tears with 3-T MRA. Three-Tesla 3D isotropic MRA showed similar accuracy to 3-T conventional 2D MRA. Three-Tesla MRI appeared equivalent to 3-T MRA in the diagnosis of full- and partial-thickness tears, although there was a trend towards greater accuracy in the diagnosis of subscapularis tears with 3-T MRA. Three-Tesla 3D isotropic MRA appears equivalent to 3-T 2D MRA for all types of tears. (orig.)

  11. Marketing importance of body image

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In China, applicants for flight attendant job voluntarily visit the hospital to break the tibia bone, into which is inserted gradually the expanding facility to ultimately adds the necessary centimeters to them to have chase to become flight attendants. The physical appearance seems to play in our lives increasingly greater role. How far we can go and what we can do to make us look better? Bachelor's work "The Marekting Importance of Body Image" introduces the reader with a theoretical part o...

  12. Cortical microinfarcts detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI: clinical and radiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Jan Willem; Scuric, Eva E M; van Veluw, Susanne J; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Biessels, Geert Jan; van Gool, Willem A; Richard, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are a common postmortem finding associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Recently, CMIs identified in vivo on 7 Tesla MRI also proved retraceable on 3 Tesla MRI. We evaluated CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI in a population-based cohort of 194 nondemented older people (72-80 years) with systolic hypertension. Using a case-control design, participants with and without CMIs were compared on age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and white matter hyperintensity volume. We identified 23 CMIs in 12 participants (6%). CMIs were associated with older age, higher diastolic blood pressure, and a history of recent stroke. There was a trend for a higher white matter hyperintensity volume in participants with CMIs. We found an association of CMIs with clinical parameters, including age and cardiovascular risk factors. Although the prevalence of CMIs is relatively low, our results suggest that the study of CMIs in larger clinical studies is possible using 3 Tesla MRI. This opens the possibility of large-scale prospective investigation of the clinical relevance of CMIs in older people. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  14. [Body image and low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenig, C G; Hasenbring, M I; Kleinert, J; Kellmann, M

    2016-10-01

    Many factors seem to be causal for non-specific low back pain and are sometimes controversially discussed. Some years ago the concept of subjective body image attracted attention but due to the inconsistent use of terms and concepts it is difficult to classify publications in the literature. Studies confirmed a difference between the body images of patients with low back pain and healthy controls so that an inclusion of body image concepts could be relevant for causation and therapy. This article presents an overview of the current state of research on the association between body image and low back pain and with respect to the allocation of body image in psychosocial concepts of low back pain. Relevant studies on body image and low back pain were reviewed and are discussed with respect to the different use of terms and concepts of body image. Moreover, an approach for integration of the body image into current psychosocial concepts and therapy of low back pain is presented. Finally, it is discussed whether consideration of the body image could be of value in the therapy of low back pain. Studies have shown that low back pain patients have a more negative body image compared to healthy controls. There is a lack of studies on clinical evidence for the application and effectiveness of interventions that influence the body image in low back pain. Further studies are necessary which include body image concepts as a possible psychosocial risk factor, in particular studies on the mechanism of body image procedures.

  15. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  16. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  17. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  18. Fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient measurement using diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 Tesla: Correlation with gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afacan, Onur; Gholipour, Ali; Mulkern, Robert V; Barnewolt, Carol E; Estroff, Judy A; Connolly, Susan A; Parad, Richard B; Bairdain, Sigrid; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to assess the fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at 3 Tesla (T). Seventy-one pregnant women (32 second trimester, 39 third trimester) were scanned with a twice-refocused Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging sequence with 6 different b-values in 3 orthogonal diffusion orientations at 3T. After each scan, a region-of-interest (ROI) mask was drawn to select a region in the fetal lung and an automated robust maximum likelihood estimation algorithm was used to compute the ADC parameter. The amount of motion in each scan was visually rated. When scans with unacceptable levels of motion were eliminated, the lung ADC values showed a strong association with gestational age (P < 0.01), increasing dramatically between 16 and 27 weeks and then achieving a plateau around 27 weeks. We show that to get reliable estimates of ADC values of fetal lungs, a multiple b-value acquisition, where motion is either corrected or considered, can be performed. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1650-1655. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Implicit body representations and the conscious body image.

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, M. R.; Haggard, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that somatosensory processing relies on a class of implicit body representations showing large distortions of size and shape. The relation between these representations and the conscious body image remains unclear. Dissociations have been reported in the clinical literature on eating disorders between different body image measures, with larger and more consistent distortions found with depictive measures, in which participants compare their body to a visual depict...

  20. Implicit body representations and the conscious body image

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R. Longo; Haggard, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that somatosensory processing relies on a class of implicit body representations showing large distortions of size and shape. The relation between these representations and the conscious body image remains unclear. Dissociations have been reported in the clinical literature on eating disorders between different body image measures, with larger and more consistent distortions found with depictive measures, in which participants compare their body to a visual depict...

  1. MR imaging of the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummeny, Ernst J. [Rechts der Isar Hospital, TU Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Reimer, Peter [Karlsruhe Municipal Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Heindel, Walter [Muenster Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2009-07-01

    Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first introduced into clinical medicine more than 25 years ago, tremendous advances have been made both in the technology and in the clinical applications of the method, particularly during the last 10 years. MRI is now a core imaging modality and represents an extremely effective method of diagnosing various diseases in every region of the body. The advances made in recent years have optimized techniques for examining the chest and heart, abdominal organs, urogenital system, and musculoskeletal system. Higher magnetic fields and total body examinations are becoming clinical realities. In view of these dynamic developments, there is, of course, a need for continuous learning. The present volume provides systematic coverage of the various disease entities that can be identified on MRI, with clearly organized tables and charts listing the details of examination strategies at a glance. Along with the outstanding illustrations, the book offers a conceptual framework for everyday use. This book may help experienced colleagues, as well as residents and fellows, to understand the physical basis for MRI, and it may be able to guide them not only in the correct choice of techniques, but also in the appropriate and rational use of contrast media. MRI has a bright future in clinical diagnosis and scientific research, and this book provides an excellent reflection of the current state of the specialty.

  2. Body image and media use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Bayer, Angela M

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on body image and media use among adolescents. We begin by defining body image and how it is constructed, especially among young people. We then offer information on when one's body image perception is askew with one's perception of personal ideal, which can result in disordered eating, including obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Next, we describe the research literature on media use and its relationship to adolescents' body image perceptions and discuss content analyses and correlational, experimental, and qualitative studies. Lastly, we recommend, beyond conducting further and improved research studies, interventions and policies that may have an impact on body image and media use.

  3. Personality and body image: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E

    2016-12-01

    This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion. Agreeableness was not related to body image, and findings for Conscientiousness and Openness were indeterminate. After taking study quality into account, negative body image was also associated with lower levels of Conscientiousness. Neuroticism was associated with negative body image in both women and men. Sex moderation effects for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness were indeterminate. Large-sample, prospective studies of personality and body image are recommended.

  4. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  5. 3D calculations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 3 Tesla magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lari, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A 20 TeV Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) proton accelerator is being proposed by the High Energy Physics Community. One proposal would consist of a ring of magnets 164 km in circumference with a field strength of 3 Tesla and would cost 2.7 billion dollars. The magnet consists of stacked steel laminations with superconducting coils. The desired field uniformity is obtained for all fields from 0.2 to 3 Tesla by using three (or more) different pole shapes. These three different laminations are stacked in the order 1-2-3-1-2-3-... creating a truly three dimensional geometry. A three laminated stack 1-2-3 with periodic boundary conditions at 1 and 3 was assigned about 5000 finite elements per lamination and solved using the computer program TOSCA. To check the TOSCA results, the field of each of the three different shaped laminations was calculated separately using periodic boundary conditions and compared to the two dimensional field calculations using TRIM. This was done for a constant permeability of 2000 and using the B-H table for fully annealed 1010 steel. The difference of the field calculations in the region of interest was always less than +-.2%

  6. Intraoperative 3-tesla MRI in the management of paediatric cranial tumours - initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avula, Shivaram; Garlick, Deborah; Abernethy, Laurence J. [Alder Hey Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mallucci, Connor L. [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pizer, Barry [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Department of Oncology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Crooks, Daniel [Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Pathology, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) has been gaining recognition because of its value in the neurosurgical management of cranial tumours. There is limited documentation of its value in children. To review the initial experience of a paediatric 3-Tesla ioMRI unit in the management of cranial tumours. Thirty-eight children underwent ioMRI during 40 cranial tumour resections using a 3-Tesla MR scanner co-located with the neurosurgical operating theatre. IoMRI was performed to assess the extent of tumour resection and/or to update neuronavigation. The intraoperative and follow-up scans, and the clinical records were reviewed. In 27/40 operations, complete resection was intended. IoMRI confirmed complete resection in 15/27 (56%). As a consequence, surgical resection was extended in 5/27 (19%). In 6/27 (22%), ioMRI was equivocal for residual tumour. In 13/40 (33%) operations, the surgical aim was to partially resect the tumour. In 7 of the 13 (54%), surgical resection was extended following ioMRI. In our initial experience, ioMRI has increased the rate of complete resection, with intraoperative surgical strategy being modified in 30% of procedures. Collaborative analysis of ioMRI by the radiologist and neurosurgeon is vital to avoid errors in interpretation. (orig.)

  7. Optimizing texture measures quantifying bone structures as well as MR-sequences at 3 Tesla: an integrative statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeth, Christoph W.; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Link, Thomas M.; Vogel, Mika; Koenig, Hartmut; Boehm, Holger; Monetti, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    High resolution MR-scanners working with magnetic field strengths of 3 Tesla are clinically available nowadays. They offer the possibility to obtain 3D images with unprecedented spatial resolution and/or signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) allowing for an accurate visualization of the trabecular bone structure. It has been demonstrated that scaling indices are well suited to quantify these structures, especially to discriminate between plate-like and rod-like structural elements, which is crucial for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Until now image quality has mainly been assessed by visual impression or by measures based on the SNR. In this work we present a methodology to assess different MR-sequences with respect to the texture measure that is used later in the image analysis. We acquired for a bone specimen HR-MR-sequences with different spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio. For these data sets we selected two volumes of interest (VOI) of same size located in the trabecular bone and in the background of the image. For both VOIs the scaling indices are calculated for different scale parameters. Subsequently the 'texture contrast' between structure and background is calculated by comparing the probability distributions of the scaling indices using a quadratic distance measure. By means of the contrast the optimal set of scale parameters is determined. By comparing the contrast for the different MR sequences the best suited ones are determined. It turns out that sequences with slightly lower spatial resolution but better signal to noise ration yield a better texture contrast than sequences with the best spatial resolution. The presented methodology offers the possibility to optimize simultaneously texture measures and MR-sequences, which will allow for an adapted and thus optimized analysis of image structures, e.g. trabecular bone, in the HR-MR data.

  8. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  9. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  10. Body image distortions following spinal cord injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuentes, Christina T; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Longo, Matthew R; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) or anaesthesia, people may continue to experience feelings of the size, shape and posture of their body, suggesting that the conscious body image is not fully determined by immediate sensory signals...

  11. Importance of body image in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Váradyová, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The thesis dedicated to the issue of body image in the context of marketing communication emphasizing female body imaging in advertising. The aim of Master's thesis is to identify differences in the perception of beauty between the German and Czechoslovak culture. The theoretical part is intended to explain the body image issues, including historical development. Furthermore points out the influence of mass media on women's physical self-concept. The practical part deals with content analysis...

  12. Adolescent body image and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P

    2006-02-01

    Researchers have highlighted the significance of a poor body image in the development of dysfunctional eating but have systematically investigated few other outcomes. The authors examined the relationships between different aspects of body image and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 245 boys and 173 girls from Grades 8 and 9 (M age = 13.92 years, SD = 0.69 years). Respondents completed measures of physical attractiveness, body satisfaction, body image importance, body image behaviors, appearance comparison, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and same-sex and opposite-sex relations. Whereas girls tended to report a more negative body image than did boys, the relevance of body image to self-esteem was similar for boys and girls. Concern about others' evaluation of their bodies was especially important in understanding low female self-esteem, whereas for boys, ratings of general attractiveness most strongly predicted self-esteem. The authors found a negative body image to be unrelated to symptoms of negative affect but to be strongly associated with poor opposite-sex peer relationships, especially among boys. A negative body image also affected same-sex relations among girls.

  13. Body enhancement : body images, vulnerability and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dikken, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this explorative study is to show that it is highly relevant to integrate cultural and personal body images into the ethical debate on human enhancement. The current debate has little attention for the motivations to make use of technology to alter the human body, such as cultural

  14. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  15. The -Curvature Images of Convex Bodies and -Projection Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Songjun Lv; Gangsong Leng

    2008-08-01

    Associated with the -curvature image defined by Lutwak, some inequalities for extended mixed -affine surface areas of convex bodies and the support functions of -projection bodies are established. As a natural extension of a result due to Lutwak, an -type affine isoperimetric inequality, whose special cases are -Busemann–Petty centroid inequality and -affine projection inequality, respectively, is established. Some -mixed volume inequalities involving -projection bodies are also established.

  16. Clinical functional MRI of sensorimotor cortex using passive motor and sensory stimulation at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatow, Maria; Reinhardt, Julia; Riffel, Katharina; Nennig, Ernst; Wengenroth, Martina; Stippich, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    To establish a passive motor paradigm for clinical functional MRI (fMRI) that could be beneficial for patients with motor or attention deficits who are not able to perform active motor tasks. A novel standardized sensorimotor fMRI protocol was applied in 16 healthy volunteers at 3 Tesla (T) using active and passive motor tasks as well as sensory stimulation of hands and feet. Data analysis was carried out individually using a dynamic thresholding routine. Active motor tasks yielded time efficient and robust blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in primary motor cortex. Noteworthy, it was possible to achieve equal activation levels within identical anatomical localization for passive and active motor tasks with these paradigms. Patients unable to perform active movements can benefit from paradigms with passive motor and sensory stimulation. Therefore, we recommend these paradigms for functional somatotopic mapping of the central region at 3T in clinical routine. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  18. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  19. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  20. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  1. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  2. [Eating disorders, body image and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricio; Kes, Mariana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a growing problem in healthcare. Altered eating behaviors are a consequence of cognitions and emotions generated by low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with body image and schema. It is possible, that a negative body image, and in many cases, distorted, may be the most difficult feature to approach and improve in this disorders. But the dissatisfaction to one's own body would not be related only to altered eating behaviors. Several studies show that body image and one's own body perception are an essential feature in sexual experiences, especially in women's sexuality. This article describes the relation and influences between body image and women's sexuality, and the sexuality in women with eating disorders.

  3. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guía sobre la imagen corporal para chicos The Truth About Guys People might think of guys as ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  4. An in vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for antimicrobial, silver-containing wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Kirin B; Shellock, Frank G

    2012-11-01

    Although no reports of adverse events have been published to date, the presence of metallic dressing ingredients may present an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety concern for patients using silver-containing wound dressings. The purpose of this in vitro study was to test magnetic field interactions (ie, translational attraction and torque), heating, artifacts, and conductivity (ie, electrical resistance) when using MRI at 3-Tesla for two (nonborder and border) silver-containing wound dressings. The results indicated the dressings displayed no magnetic field interactions (deflection angle 0˚; no torque), and in each case, MRI-related heating effects were at the same levels as the background temperature increases (ie, <1.8˚C). The dressings created extremely subtle artifacts (one-for-one relationship) on the MR images. With regard to the conductivity assessments, the average resistance values were 20 kOhm and 1.1 kOhm, respectively, for the nonborder and border wound dressings, which were acceptable levels. The findings show the two silver-containing wound dressings tested will not pose hazards or risks to patients and, thus, are considered "MR safe" according to the current labeling terminology used for medical products, and each dressing may be left in place when a patient undergoes an MRI examination. To date, only a hydrofiber silver-containing dressing has been tested for MRI safety. Because of potential variances in material characteristics, MRI test results are specific to the dressings tested and cannot be applied to other products. Future studies to define the level of silver concentration in dressings that may pose a hazard for performing an MRI are warranted.

  5. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  6. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  7. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  8. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality after Amputation Original article by Sandra Houston, PhD First Step - Volume 4, 2005 Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne of Health Literacy Consulting ...

  9. Sociocultural context of women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Marie-Claude; Raine, Kim

    2004-09-01

    In our society, women's bodies are the locus of both increasing rates of obesity and body dissatisfaction. While these trends may seem contradictory or to result from each other, an alternative explanation is that they are both the products of an unfavourable sociocultural environment in the area of food and weight. Both body dissatisfaction and excess weight can seriously impact women's physical and emotional health. The strong cultural value placed on thinness, especially for women, unfortunately may take precedence over health. To effectively address the impact of women's body image dissatisfaction requires an understanding of the multiple contexts of women's lives. This study used a naturalistic paradigm to explore how women's personal and sociocultural context influences their body image. Forty-four non-eating disordered women ranging from 21 to 61 years old were interviewed twice using a semi-structured interview guide. Women's narratives revealed that body image is not a static construct, but is dynamic and fluctuates as women encounter new experiences and re-interpret old ones. The powerful and unconscious impact of the media on body image was mediated by women's internal contexts (self-confident and self-critical) and their relationships with others, such as partners and other women. Body image was not so much influenced by the nature of others' comments but interpretation of their meaning. However, health professionals' comments were typically not reinterpreted due to the health context in which they were given. While some women's narratives expressed their internalized sociocultural norms, others' described acceptance of their bodies following a process of reflection and empowerment. In light of these findings, efforts to improve women's body image, and by extension their health, can no longer only focus on diminishing the tangible power of industry and media, but must include transforming the social ties, practices and conventions in everyday

  10. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  11. The "mirror-neuron system" in MS: A 3 tesla fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, M A; Tortorella, P; Ceccarelli, A; Falini, A; Tango, D; Scotti, G; Comi, G; Filippi, M

    2008-01-22

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is an observation-execution matching system activated, in humans, during action observation, motor learning, and imitation of action. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the properties of the MNS in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Using a 3 tesla scanner, we acquired fMRI in 16 right-handed patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 14 controls. Two motor tasks were studied. The first consisted of repetitive flexion-extension of the last four fingers of the right hand (simple task) alternated to epochs of rest; the second (MNS task) consisted of observation of a movie showing the hand of another subject while performing the same task. During the simple task, compared to controls, patients with MS had more significant activations of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area. During the MNS task, both groups showed the activation of several visual areas, the infraparietal sulcus, and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilaterally. The IFG and the visual areas were significantly more active in patients than controls. The between-group interaction analysis showed that in patients with MS, part of the regions of the MNS were more active also during the simple task. This study suggests increased activation of the mirror neuron system in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with a normal level of function and widespread CNS damage. The potentialities of this system in facilitating clinical recovery in patients with MS and other neurologic conditions should be investigated.

  12. Blood oxygen-level dependent functional assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity: Feasibility for intraoperative 3 Tesla MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; van Niftrik, Christiaan Hendrik Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Pangalu, Athina; Kocian, Roman; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Valavanis, Antonios; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of functional blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI to evaluate intraoperative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at 3 Tesla field strength. Ten consecutive neurosurgical subjects scheduled for a clinical intraoperative MRI examination were enrolled in this study. In addition to the clinical protocol a BOLD sequence was implemented with three cycles of 44 s apnea to calculate CVR values on a voxel-by-voxel basis throughout the brain. The CVR range was then color-coded and superimposed on an anatomical volume to create high spatial resolution CVR maps. Ten subjects (mean age 34.8 ± 13.4; 2 females) uneventfully underwent the intraoperative BOLD protocol, with no complications occurring. Whole-brain CVR for all subjects was (mean ± SD) 0.69 ± 0.42, whereas CVR was markedly higher for tumor subjects as compared to vascular subjects, 0.81 ± 0.44 versus 0.33 ± 0.10, respectively. Furthermore, color-coded functional maps could be robustly interpreted for a whole-brain assessment of CVR. We demonstrate that intraoperative BOLD MRI is feasible in creating functional maps to assess cerebrovascular reactivity throughout the brain in subjects undergoing a neurosurgical procedure. Magn Reson Med 77:806-813, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use.

  14. 3Tesla MRI surface coil: Is it sensitive for prostatic imaging??

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahmoud Agha

    2014-01-30

    Jan 30, 2014 ... anemia, bone aches, with or without pathologic fracture, and neurologic deficits from spinal ..... mic prostate cancer on DWI.18. Application of .... 269:1 159–166. 8. Johannes G, Korporaal, Cornelis AT, van den Berg, Jeukens.

  15. Sacrotuberous Ligament Healing following Surgical Division during Transgluteal Pudendal Nerve Decompression: A 3-Tesla MR Neurography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jan; Fritz, Benjamin; Dellon, A. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic pain due to chronic pudendal nerve (PN) compression, when treated surgically, is approached with a transgluteal division of the sacrotuberous ligament (STL). Controversy exists as to whether the STL heals spontaneously or requires grafting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how surgically divided and unrepaired STL heal. A retrospective evaluation of 10 patients who had high spatial resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI) exams of the pelvis was done using an IRB-approved protocol. Each patient was referred for residual pelvic pain after a transgluteal STL division for chronic pudendal nerve pain. Of the 10 patients, 8 had the STL divided and not repaired, while 2 had the STL divided and reconstructed with an allograft tendon. Of the 8 that were left unrepaired, 6 had bilateral surgery. Outcome variables included STL integrity and thickness. Normative data for the STL were obtained through a control group of 20 subjects. STL integrity and thickness were measured directly on 3 T MR Neurography images, by two independent Radiologists. The integrity and thickness of the post-surgical STL was evaluated 39 months (range, 9–55) after surgery. Comparison was made with the native contra-lateral STL in those who had unilateral STL division, and with normal, non-divided STL of subjects of the control group. The normal STL measured 3 mm (minimum and maximum of absolute STL thickness, 2–3 mm). All post-operative STL were found to be continuous regardless of the surgical technique used. Measured at level of Alcock’s canal in the same plane as the obturator internus tendon posterior to the ischium, the mean anteroposterior STL diameter was 5 mm (range, 4–5 mm) in the group of prior STL division without repair and 8 mm (range, 8–9 mm) in the group with the STL reconstructed with grafts (p<0.05). The group of healed STLs were significantly thicker than the normal STL (p<0.05). We conclude that a surgically divided STL will heal

  16. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  17. Do children emotionally rehearse about their body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fiona C M; McManus, Alison M; Knowles, Gemma; Masters, Rich S W; Polman, Remco C J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the association between propensity for emotional rehearsal, body image self-perception and weight status in Chinese Hong Kong pre-adolescents. Children 8-12 years of age (n = 278) completed measurement of body mass index, body image and emotional rehearsal. Multinomial regression analyses revealed that body mass index was positively associated with body image dissatisfaction and a significant predictor of body size estimation. However, only body size underestimation was associated with lower rehearsal tendencies. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and body size estimation was also reported for this population. Future research is suggested for greater understanding of emotional coping in body image dissatisfaction in young children.

  18. Nonenhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the calf arteries at 3 Tesla: intraindividual comparison of 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA and 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch, Gesine; Lauff, Marie-Teres; Hirsch, Sebastian; Hamm, Bernd; Wagner, Moritz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS Statistical Consulting, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To prospectively compare 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA vs. 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA for assessment of the calf arteries at 3 Tesla. Forty-two patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease underwent nonenhanced MRA of calf arteries at 3 Tesla with 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA (fast spin echo sequence; 3D-FSE-MRA) and 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA (balanced steady-state-free-precession sequence; 2D-bSSFP-MRA). Moreover, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as standard-of-reference. Two readers performed a per-segment evaluation for image quality (4 = excellent to 0 = non-diagnostic) and severity of stenosis. Image quality scores of 2D-bSSFP-MRA were significantly higher compared to 3D-FSE-MRA (medians across readers: 4 vs. 3; p < 0.0001) with lower rates of non-diagnostic vessel segments on 2D-bSSFP-MRA (reader 1: <1 % vs. 15 %; reader 2: 1 % vs. 29 %; p < 0.05). Diagnostic performance of 2D-bSSFP-MRA and 3D-FSE-MRA across readers showed sensitivities of 89 % (214/240) vs. 70 % (168/240), p = 0.0153; specificities: 91 % (840/926) vs. 63 % (585/926), p < 0.0001; and diagnostic accuracies of 90 % (1054/1166) vs. 65 % (753/1166), p < 0.0001. 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA (2D-bSSFP-MRA) is a robust nonenhanced MRA technique for assessment of the calf arteries at 3 Tesla with significantly higher image quality and diagnostic accuracy compared to 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA (3D-FSE-MRA). (orig.)

  19. [Body image of adolescents in rural cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 1.572 p = 0.387) and the female sex (BSQ: OR = 3.694 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 0.922, p = 0.840). Participants from the intermediary and final stages of adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction.

  20. Teaching Body Image to EFL Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Miss `Victoria L

    2010-01-01

    An extract of an Upper-Intermediate EFL coursebook for teenage learners I designed in partial requirement for MA Applied Linguistics & English Language Teaching. The material is centred about the topic of 'Body Image' and includes a focus on learner training; infinitives & gerunds; skimming and scanning reading tasks; intensive listening practice; giving opinions/speculating; rhyming words.

  1. 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI for GTV-definition of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions in patients with Prostate Cancer – an interobserver variability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the interobserver variability of gross tumor volume (GTV) - delineation of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions (DIPL) in patients with prostate cancer using published MRI criteria for multiparametric MRI at 3 Tesla by 6 different observers. Material and methods 90 GTV-datasets based on 15 multiparametric MRI sequences (T2w, diffusion weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) of 5 patients with prostate cancer were generated for GTV-delineation of DIPL by 6 observers. The reference GTV-dataset was contoured by a radiologist with expertise in diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using MRI. Subsequent GTV-delineation was performed by 5 radiation oncologists who received teaching of MRI-features of primary prostate cancer before starting contouring session. GTV-datasets were contoured using Oncentra Masterplan® and iplan® Net. For purposes of comparison GTV-datasets were imported to the Artiview® platform (Aquilab®), GTV-values and the similarity indices or Kappa indices (KI) were calculated with the postulation that a KI > 0.7 indicates excellent, a KI > 0.6 to 0.5 to < 0.6 moderate agreement. Additionally all observers rated difficulties of contouring for each MRI-sequence using a 3 point rating scale (1 = easy to delineate, 2 = minor difficulties, 3 = major difficulties). Results GTV contouring using T2w (KI-T2w = 0.61) and DCE images (KI-DCE = 0.63) resulted in substantial agreement. GTV contouring using DWI images resulted in moderate agreement (KI-DWI = 0.51). KI-T2w and KI-DCE was significantly higher than KI-DWI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003). Degree of difficulty in contouring GTV was significantly lower using T2w and DCE compared to DWI-sequences (both p < 0.0001). Analysis of delineation differences revealed inadequate comparison of functional (DWI, DCE) to anatomical sequences (T2w) and lack of awareness of non-specific imaging findings as a source of erroneous delineation. Conclusions Using T

  2. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  3. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females. The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ to 78.9% (SST. Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001. Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05. Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents.

  4. Do children emotionally rehearse about their body image?

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, F.C.M.; McManus, A. M.; Knowles, G; Masters, R.S.W.; Polman, Remco C.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between propensity for emotional rehearsal, body image self-perception \\ud and weight status in Chinese Hong Kong pre-adolescents. Children 8–12 years of age (n = 278) completed \\ud measurement of body mass index, body image and emotional rehearsal. Multinomial regression analyses \\ud revealed that body mass index was positively associated with body image dissatisfaction and a significant \\ud predictor of body size estimation. However, only body size undere...

  5. Body image in persons with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito Alcón, María Frenzi; Rodríguez Molina, José Miguel

    2015-05-15

    For subjects with gender dysphoria, body image is an important aspect of their condition. These people sometimes exhibit a strong desire to change their primary and secondary sexual characteristics. In addition, idealization of beauty has grown in importance and it may increase body dissatisfaction. The aim of this paper is to analyze whether body dissatisfaction in people with gender dysphoria is similar to that in clinical population or if it is more similar to that which may appear in general population. We also looked at gender differences in body dissatisfaction. A set of questionnaires was administered to patients with gender dysphoria: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT- 26), body dissatisfaction sub-scale of Eating disorder inventory-two (EDI-2) and IMAGEN questionnaire. In the case of body dissatisfaction subscale of Eating disorder inventory-two with a cut-off 11; body dissatisfaction in our sample was close to the level presented in clinical population. However, using cut-off points 14 and 16, they exhibited a body dissatisfaction level that was similar to the general population. The same occurred for the IMAGEN questionnaire. No gender differences were found when looking at the level of dissatisfaction. The data seem to indicate that people with gender dysphoria would be at an intermediate point in relation to body dissatisfaction between general population and clinical population; in both female and male transsexuals. It seems that some level of body dissatisfaction may be perceived in relation to the ideal of beauty, but this dissatisfaction is significantly lower than in clinical populations.

  6. Image Quality Stability of Whole-body Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-bin Chen; Chun-miao Hu; Jing Zhong; Fei Sun

    2009-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique in healthy volunteers under normal breathing with background body signal suppression. Methods WB-DWI was performed on 32 healthy volunteers twice within two-week period using short TI inversion-recovery diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence and built-in body coil. The volunteers were scanned across six stations continuously covering the entire body from the head to the feet under normal breathing. The bone apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and exponential ADC (eADC) of regions of interest (ROIs) were measured. We analyzed correlation of the results using paired-t-test to assess the reproducibility of the WB-DWl technique.Results We were successful in collecting and analyzing data of 64 WB-DWI images. There was no significant difference in bone ADC and eADC of 824 ROIs between the paired observers and paired scans (P>0.05). Most of the images from all stations were of diagnostic quality.Conclusion The measurements of bone ADC and eADC have good reproducibility. WB-DWI technique under normal breathing with background body signal suppression is adequate.

  7. Body image: Marketingovy vyznam vnimania zenskej postavy

    OpenAIRE

    Nosková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to map the perception of female body in our society and demonstrate the impact of marketing on the ideal of woman beauty. The work is divided into three major parts. The first part, which is theoretical, provides a basis for subsequent research and familiarizes the reader with the issue of body image. The second part is devoted to content analysis of women's web magazines that offer an interesting area for marketing communication. The third part contents an analysis ...

  8. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of

  9. Nonenhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the calf arteries at 3 Tesla: intraindividual comparison of 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA and 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Gesine; Lauff, Marie-Teres; Hirsch, Sebastian; Schwenke, Carsten; Hamm, Bernd; Wagner, Moritz

    2016-12-01

    To prospectively compare 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA vs. 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA for assessment of the calf arteries at 3 Tesla. Forty-two patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease underwent nonenhanced MRA of calf arteries at 3 Tesla with 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA (fast spin echo sequence; 3D-FSE-MRA) and 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA (balanced steady-state-free-precession sequence; 2D-bSSFP-MRA). Moreover, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as standard-of-reference. Two readers performed a per-segment evaluation for image quality (4 = excellent to 0 = non-diagnostic) and severity of stenosis. Image quality scores of 2D-bSSFP-MRA were significantly higher compared to 3D-FSE-MRA (medians across readers: 4 vs. 3; p Tesla with significantly higher image quality and diagnostic accuracy compared to 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA (3D-FSE-MRA). • 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA (2D-bSSFP-MRA) is a robust NE-MRA technique at 3T • 2D-bSSFP-MRA outperforms 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA (3D-FSE-MRA) as NE-MRA of calf arteries • 2D-bSSFP-MRA is a promising alternative to CE-MRA for calf PAOD evaluation.

  10. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  11. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  12. Body image, compulsory heterosexuality, and internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, G E

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies.

  13. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckbach, Sabine [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)], E-mail: sabine.weckbach@umm.de; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  14. Effects of Negative Body Image on Our Lives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟良锴

    2015-01-01

    <正>According to Wikipedia,body image can be defined as"a person’s perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of his or her own body".Body image can be influenced by many factors such as media,social values,culture,gender.These influences can lead to both positive and negative body images.The positive body image shows people’s satisfaction with their

  15. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  16. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  17. Marketing importance of women's body image

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana KŘÍŽOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with research of the marketing importance of women's body image. The research methods including quantitative research performed by assisted interviewing and content analysis of printed advertisements in five magazines targeted on female population were used. The aims of the interviewing are to determine the current physical condition of Czech women and their views on the display "ideal" of feminine beauty in advertising. The content analysis finds out "ideal" state of physic...

  18. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  19. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  20. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  1. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-09-05

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors and sociocultural influences on body image among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Mellor, David; Kiehne, Melanie; Ricciardelli, Lina A; McCabe, Marita P; Xu, Yangang

    2010-03-01

    Body dissatisfaction and body image disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent in developing non-Western countries such as China, but there is a lack of research examining the sociocultural factors that in other contexts have been associated with these problems. The current study investigated body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors, and sociocultural pressures on body image, and the relationships between these variables among 517 adolescent males (N=219) and females (N=298) in China. Females reported greater body dissatisfaction than males, and males reported using strategies to increase their muscle bulk more often than females. Males reported pressure from a variety of sociocultural sources to increase their muscles or weight, while females reported pressure from the media to lose weight. For males body dissatisfaction was predicted by pressure from peers to increase their muscle bulk, while for females pressure to lose weight from peers, adult relatives, and the media was likely to increase body dissatisfaction. Pressure from the media and adult relatives was also predictive of body change behaviors in both males and females. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research in both Western and non-Western contexts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  4. Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.L. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to systematically review Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image. A literature review of his work on body perception, distorted body image, body boundary, assigned meanings to specific body areas, and general body awareness was carried out on four of the books written by the author. Fisher correlated those variables with defense mechanisms, adaptation, and body anxiety. Moreover, he also considered the roles played by culture and personality on the complex phenomenon of body experience. This review intends to disseminate Seymour Fisher contributions among Brazilian researchers on body image.

  5. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  6. Preoperative imaging diagnosis of carotid body tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ojeda, Luis A; Martínez-Viteri, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are relatively frequent lesions encountered at high altitudes, such in as the Andean Mountains. A correct preoperative diagnosis is essential for surgical planning and performance. For this reason, we have reviewed the evolution of our experience in the imaging diagnosis of these tumors. Between 1980 and June 2008, 160 CBTs were diagnosed. A total of 138 tumors were operated on, 4 are waiting for surgery, and 18 were not operated on because of age, medical conditions, or patient refusal. We have reviewed retrospectively the modalities of imaging diagnosis in our patients who underwent operation. Among the 138 tumors operated on, a correct preoperative diagnosis was done in 127 cases (92%). The preoperative diagnosis of the remaining 11 patients was unspecified benign tumor for 6 patients and neck lymph node for 5 patients. The imaging methods performed by different radiologists were conventional ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, carotid conventional angiography (CA), axial tomography, magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Most patients had more than one image study. Review of radiologist reports revealed a correct diagnosis in all carotid CA, magnetic resonance studies, and CTA. Additionally, CTA appeared to be a valuable method to predict the Shamblin group. Clinical suspicion and current image techniques permit a correct diagnosis in practically all cases of CBT.

  7. Marketingový význam body image

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers...

  8. Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Melioli, Tiffany; Laconi, Stéphanie; Bui, Eric; Chabrol, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is an increasing concern among young adults. Self-presentational theory posits that the Internet offers a context in which individuals are able to control their image. Little is known about body image and eating concerns among pathological Internet users. The aim of this study was to explore the association between Internet addiction symptoms, body image esteem, body image avoidance, and disordered eating. A sample of 392 French young adults (68 percent women) completed an online questionnaire assessing time spent online, Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance. Fourteen men (11 percent) and 26 women (9.7 percent) reported Internet addiction. Body image avoidance was associated with Internet addiction symptoms among both genders. Controlling for body-mass index, Internet addiction symptoms, and body image avoidance were both significant predictors of disordered eating among women. These findings support the self-presentational theory of Internet addiction and suggest that body image avoidance is an important factor.

  9. Quantitative assessment of right ventricular function and pulmonary regurgitation in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot using 256-slice CT: comparison with 3-Tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Yonezawa, Masato; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Higuchi, Ko; Honda, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamura, Kenichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Pediatrics, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Ichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiokawa, Yuichi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare 256-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Thirty-three consecutive patients with repaired TOF underwent retrospective ECG-gated CCT and 3-Tesla CMR. RV and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured using CCT and CMR. PRF-CCT (%) was defined as (RVSV - LVSV)/RVSV. PRF-CMR (%) was measured by the phase-contrast method. Repeated measurements were performed to determine intra- and interobserver variability. CCT measurements, including PRF, correlated highly with the CMR reference (r = 0.71-0.96). CCT overestimated RVEDV (mean difference, 17.1 ± 2.9 ml), RVESV (12.9 ± 2.1 ml) and RVSV (4.2 ± 2.0 ml), and underestimated RVEF (-2.6 ± 1.0 %) and PRF (-9.1 ± 2.0 %) compared with CMR. The limits of agreement between CCT and CMR were in a good range for all measurements. The variability in CCT measurements was lower than those in CMR. The estimated effective radiation dose was 7.6 ± 2.6 mSv. 256-slice CCT can assess RV function and PRF with relatively low dose radiation exposure in patients with repaired TOF, but overestimates RV volume and underestimates PRF. (orig.)

  10. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Teens > Body Image and Self-Esteem ... self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all about how much you feel you ...

  11. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: assessment of skeletal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynagh, Michael R; Colleran, Gabrielle C; Tavernaraki, Katarina; Eustace, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2010-03-01

    The concept of a rapid whole-body imaging technique with high resolution and the absence of ionizing radiation for the assessment of osseous metastatic disease is a desirable tool. This review article outlines the current perspective of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of skeletal metastatic disease, with comparisons made to alternative whole-body imaging modalities.

  12. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Teens > Body Image and Self-Esteem ... really bring down your self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all ...

  13. Light on Body Image Treatment: Acceptance Through Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of body image has to be multifaceted and should be directed toward the treatment of the whole individual - body, mind, and spirit - with an ultimate culmination of acceptance and compassion for the self. This article presents information on a mindful approach to the treatment of body image as it pertains to concerns with body size…

  14. Resection and Resolution of Bone Marrow Lesions Associated with an Improvement of Pain after Total Knee Replacement: A Novel Case Study Using a 3-Tesla Metal Artefact Reduction MRI Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Thomas; Kerslake, Robert; Haywood, Brett; Pearson, Richard G; Scammell, Brigitte E

    2016-01-01

    We present our case report using a novel metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to observe resolution of subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which are strongly associated with pain, in a patient after total knee replacement surgery. Large BMLs were seen preoperatively on the 3-Tesla MRI scans in a patient with severe end stage OA awaiting total knee replacement surgery. Twelve months after surgery, using a novel metal artefact reduction MRI sequence, we were able to visualize the bone-prosthesis interface and found complete resection and resolution of these BMLs. This is the first reported study in the UK to use this metal artefact reduction MRI sequence at 3-Tesla showing that resection and resolution of BMLs in this patient were associated with an improvement of pain and function after total knee replacement surgery. In this case it was associated with a clinically significant improvement of pain and function after surgery. Failure to eradicate these lesions may be a cause of persistent postoperative pain that is seen in up to 20% of patients following TKR surgery.

  15. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  16. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  17. Body image concern among Australian adolescent girls: the role of body comparisons with models and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern.

  18. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  19. [Associations between body dysmorphic symptoms, body image and self-consciousness in a representative population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daig, Isolde; Burkert, Silke; Albani, Cornelia; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body image and body dysmorphic symptoms in the population by taking different kinds of self-consciousness into account. Body dysmorphic symptoms are characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. A representative sample of 1621 persons in Germany was examined with screening instruments for body image, body dysmorphic symptoms and self-consciousness. Women reported more body dysmorphic symptoms and higher self-consciousness than men. People with body dysmorphic symptoms reported a more negative body image and higher self-consciousness. Different aspects of self-consciousness moderated the association between body dysmorphic symptoms and negative body image. Results were discussed towards hypotheses of affect modulation and depression tendency of patients with body dysmorphic symptoms.

  20. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of understand

  1. First test of a power-pulsed electronics system on a GRPC detector in a 3-Tesla magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Caponetto, L; de la Taille, C; Dulucq, F; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Seguin-Moreau, N

    2012-01-01

    An important technological step towards the realization of an ultra-granular hadronic calorimeter to be used in the future International Linear Collider (ILC) experiments has been made. A 33X50 cm2 GRPC detector equipped with a power-pulsed electronics board offering a 1cm2 lateral segmentation was successfully tested in a 3-Tesla magnet operating at the H2 beam line of the CERN SPS. An important reduction of power consumption with no deterioration of the detector performance is obtained when the power-pulsing mode is applied. This important result shows that ultra-granular calorimeters for ILC experiments are not only an attractive but also a realistic option.

  2. BodyWise: evaluating a pilot body image group for patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, Victoria A; Brown, Amy; Bamford, Bryony; Saeidi, Saeideh; Morgan, John F; Lacey, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance can be enduring and distressing to individuals with eating disorders and effective treatments remain limited. This pilot study evaluated a group-based treatment-BodyWise-developed for use in full and partial hospitalization with patients with anorexia nervosa at low weight. A partial crossover waitlist design was used. BodyWise (N = 50) versus treatment as usual (N = 40) were compared on standardized measures of body image disturbance. Results demonstrated significant improvement in the group compared to treatment as usual for the primary outcome measure (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Shape Concern subscale) and other manifestations of body image disturbance including body checking and body image quality of life. BodyWise appeared acceptable to participants, and was easy to deliver within the pragmatics of a busy eating disorder service. There is potential for its wider dissemination as a precursor to more active body image interventions.

  3. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  4. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  5. Evaluation of preoperative high magnetic field motor functional MRI (3 Tesla) in glioma patients by navigated electrocortical stimulation and postoperative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, K; Donat, M; Lanzenberger, R; Novak, K; Geissler, A; Gartus, A; Tahamtan, A R; Milakara, D; Czech, T; Barth, M; Knosp, E; Beisteiner, R

    2005-08-01

    The validity of 3 Tesla motor functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with gliomas involving the primary motor cortex was investigated by intraoperative navigated motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Twenty two patients (10 males, 12 females, mean age 39 years, range 10-65 years) underwent preoperative fMRI studies, performing motor tasks including hand, foot, and mouth movements. A recently developed high field clinical fMRI technique was used to generate pre-surgical maps of functional high risk areas defining a motor focus. Motor foci were tested for validity by intraoperative motor cortex stimulation (MCS) employing image fusion and neuronavigation. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Modified Rankin Scale. FMRI motor foci were successfully detected in all patients preoperatively. In 17 of 22 patients (77.3%), a successful stimulation of the primary motor cortex was possible. All 17 correlated patients showed 100% agreement on MCS and fMRI motor focus within 10 mm. Technical problems during stimulation occurred in three patients (13.6%), no motor response was elicited in two (9.1%), and MCS induced seizures occurred in three (13.6%). Combined fMRI and MCS mapping results allowed large resections in 20 patients (91%) (gross total in nine (41%), subtotal in 11 (50%)) and biopsy in two patients (9%). Pathology revealed seven low grade and 15 high grade gliomas. Mild to moderate transient neurological deterioration occurred in six patients, and a severe hemiparesis in one. All patients recovered within 3 months (31.8% transient, 0% permanent morbidity). The validation of clinically optimised high magnetic field motor fMRI confirms high reliability as a preoperative and intraoperative adjunct in glioma patients selected for surgery within or adjacent to the motor cortex.

  6. The role of scar origin in shaping men's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anne; Mayer-Eckhard, Lennart; White, Andrew J; Alpers, Georg W

    2015-03-01

    Men generally have a more positive body image than women. However, the extent to which scars negatively influence men's body image is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to assess body image in men with and without scars while taking scar origin into account (nonsuicidal self-harming injuries [NSSI] vs. accidents or surgery). One hundred and nine men (n = 19 with NSSI) and 185 women (n = 96 with NSSI) filled in multidimensional body image questionnaires. Results indicate that on most clinical subscales women had a significantly more negative body image compared with men. However, within a subsample whose scars resulted from NSSI, gender differences vanished. Among men, scar origin was significantly associated with negative body image after partialling out scar characteristics, age, and borderline symptomatology. The visibility of scars was not associated with more severe body image disturbances. The results of our study indicate that self-inflicted scars adversely affect body image. Although women generally reported having a more negative body image, disturbances in body image should not be neglected among men, especially in those who have self-inflicted scars.

  7. Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Zoe; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-12-01

    A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an externa

  9. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  10. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  11. Feasibility of differential phase contrast CT for whole body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Bevins, Nicholas B.; Zambelli, Joseph N.; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast based imaging techniques have shown improved contrast in certain biological materials. This has led to an increased interest for the potential of preclinical and clinical imaging systems that incorporate phase sensitive imaging techniques. However, the interplay between the phase contrast mechanism and the so-called small-angle scattering or dark-field mechanism is often not considered. In this work we explore the potential for phase-sensitive whole body imaging by imaging a freshly euthanized specimen. The results suggest that when extrapolating phantom and ex vivo results to whole body imaging, one must consider the complex anatomy of the entire body and its effect on each contrast mechanism.

  12. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  13. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  14. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  15. BOLD MRI of the human cervical spinal cord at 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, P W; Nance, P W; Ryner, L N

    1999-09-01

    The feasibility of functional MRI of the spinal cord was investigated by carrying out blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging of the human cervical spinal cord at a field of 3 T. BOLD imaging of the cervical spinal cord showed an average intensity increase of 7.0% during repeated exercise with the dominant hand with a return to baseline during rest periods. The areas of activation were predominantly on the same side of the spinal cord as the hand performing the exercise, between the levels of the sixth cervical and first thoracic spinal cord segments. The direct correspondence between these areas and those involved with the transmission of motor impulses to the hand, and reception of sensory information from the hand, demonstrates that spinal functional magnetic resonance imaging is feasible. Magn Reson Med 42:571-576, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun;

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have....... Objectives The aim is to explore perceived body image and sexuality after having had mastectomy in the acute phase. Further, the aim is to focus on body image and sexuality as determinants for whether women choose reconstruction or not. Insight into women's perceived body image and sexuality is valuable...

  17. Marketingový význam body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers. Commonly substantial attention is devoted to problems connected with body image due to their healthy life relations and media attractiveness. Arising occurrence of critical data with regard to the worsening health condition of population used to be connected with marketing activities that leads to the increasing pressure on marketing regulation. That is why the research of this potential influence is very actual. Both the real body image impact on consumer behavior and the ideal body image imaginary should be explored. Contrary to the importance of body image in consumer behavior, concentrated attention to it is relatively rare or even missing in marketing literature. There is also the other reason why to investigate it: naturally, there exist many differences in body image behavior among consumers . This implies the possibilities of physiognomic variables in market segmentation processes. A lot of research lines and methods could be employed to investigate marketing specifics of body image. One area is represented by comparative analyses of various secondary data. For example, the Body Mass Index date, their structure and trends can indicate some backgrounds moments. Data mining of syndicated data of marketing research agencies (such as project Market&Media&Lifestyle-TGI of Median agency in CR offer an immense possibility to explore overall tendencies in body image consumer behavior, changes in time, cross relations between several body image variables and consumer descriptive characteristics. Moreover, body image behavior could be related to media behavior and attitudes to advertising. Quantitative and qualitative ad hoc research represents further important research direction. It enables to explore specific levels of

  18. Correlates of Bio-Psychosocial Factors on Perceived Body Image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    According to medical experts, individuals who are overweight (Body Mass ... exercise program improves physical health, enhance body image, raise ..... behavior in children and adolescents: what places youth at risk and how can these.

  19. Pre-biopsy 3-Tesla MRI and targeted biopsy of the index prostate cancer: correlation with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Uday; Dasgupta, Prokar; Challacombe, Ben; Cahill, Declan; Brown, Christian; Patel, Roshnee; Kirby, Roger

    2017-01-01

    To study whether pre-biopsy 3-Tesla prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with targeted biopsy allows accurate anatomical and oncological characterization of the index prostate tumour, and whether this translates into improved positive surgical margin (PSM) rates after radical prostatectomy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all men (n = 201) who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) between July 2012 and July 2014. Patients were divided into a study group (n = 63) who had undergone pre-biopsy 3-Tesla MRI, followed by visual targeted and systematic prostate biopsy, and a control group (n = 138) who had undergone systematic biopsy alone. The two groups were well matched regarding patient and cancer characteristics. The primary study objective was to assess the accuracy of pre-biopsy MRI for localizing the index tumour. Secondary study objectives were to assess the accuracy of MRI in assessing the maximum tumour diameter (MTD) of the index tumour focus and accuracy of the targeted biopsy in determining the Gleason score and primary Gleason grade of the index tumour focus and whether PSMs were improved after RARP. The reference standard was whole-gland pathology of the resected prostate gland. Continuous variables and proportions were compared using the t-test and Mann-Whitney test or contingency tables, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare measurement of MTD. The MRI accurately located the index tumour focus in 73% of patients. Accuracies, stratified according to use of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) categories 5, 4 and 3, were 94, 75 and 60% respectively. Accuracies stratified according to MTD of ≤0.7, ≤1 and >1 cm were 50, 57 and 79%, respectively. There was a positive linear correlation between MRI and histological MTD (r = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.63; P = 0.002), but MRI generally underestimated the MTD: the mean MRI-measured MTD was 1

  20. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  1. Male Body Image: The Role of Muscle Magazine Exposure, Body Mass Index, and Social Comparison in Men's Body Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonason, Peter K; Krcmar, Marina; Sohn, Steve

    2009-01-01

    ...). However, research on male body image tends to assume that the same theoretical models used to account for body satisfaction in women are appropriate for men (e.g., McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2004...

  2. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Behshid Garrusi; Saeide Garousi; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultura...

  3. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  4. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers. Commonly substantial attention is devoted to problems connected with body image due to their healthy life relations and media attractiveness. Arising occurrence of critical data with regard to the worsening health condition of population used to be connected wi...

  5. Diagnostic Usefulness of 3 Tesla MRI of the Brain for Cushing Disease in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Erina; Ozawa, Ayako; Matoba, Kaori; Motoki, Takanori; Tajima, Asako; Miyata, Ichiro; Ito, Junko; Inoshita, Naoko; Yamada, Syozo; Ida, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to confirm the location of a microadenoma in Cushing disease. Recently, we experienced an 11-yr-old female case of Cushing disease with hyperprolactinemia. She was referred to our hospital because of decrease of height velocity with body weight gain. On admission, she had typical symptoms of Cushing syndrome. Although no pituitary microadenomas were detected on 1.5 Tesla MRI of the brain, endocrinological examinations including IPS and CS sampling were consistent wit...

  6. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  7. Study of Body Image in Fertile and Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Dadkhah, Asghar; Bagherpour, Ahmad; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Binaafar, Sima; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background Body Image as a multidimensional entity is related to both physical and psychological aspects of the image one has of his or her own body. Lack/absence of an acceptable body image is one of the reasons of mental distress in infertile individuals. Methods In this study, an equal number (No=120) of fertile and infertile men attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic (AIC) were enrolled. The participants were compared in regard to body image variables based on the "Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ)" consisting of 10 subscales. Data was analyzed by SPSS, version 11.5, using Chi square and independent t-tests. Results Fertile men had a more positive body image as compared to infertile individuals. Significant statistical differences were observed when body image subscales were compared in both groups; in other words appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, Novy, health evaluation, health orientation, illness orientation, body satisfaction, overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight showed differences, while no significant difference was observed in regard to fitness orientation. Conclusion It seems that the ability and efficiency of body image is affected by infertility leading to dissatisfaction of one's body image. PMID:23926517

  8. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  9. Measurement of coronary flow response to cold pressor stress in asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors using spiral velocity-encoded cine MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroules, Christopher D.; Peshock, Ronald M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)), e-mail: Ron.Peshock@UTSouthwestern.edu; Chang, Alice Y.; Kontak, Andrew (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Dimitrov, Ivan; Kotys, Melanie (Dept. of Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Coronary sinus (CS) flow in response to a provocative stress has been used as a surrogate measure of coronary flow reserve, and velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique for measuring CS flow. In this study, the cold pressor test (CPT) was used to measure CS flow response because it elicits an endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation that may afford greater sensitivity for detecting early changes in coronary endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of CS flow reactivity (CSFR) to CPT using spiral VEC MRI at 3 Tesla in a sample of asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: Fourteen asymptomatic women (age 38 years +- 10) with cardiovascular risk factors were studied using 3D spiral VEC MRI of the CS at 3 T. The CPT was utilized as a provocative stress to measure changes in CS flow. CSFR to CPT was calculated from the ratio of CS flow during peak stress to baseline CS flow. Results: CPT induced a significant hemodynamic response as measured by a 45% increase in rate-pressure product (P<0.01). A significant increase in CS volume flow was also observed (baseline, 116 +- 26 ml/min; peak stress, 152 +- 34 ml/min, P=0.01). CSFR to CPT was 1.31 +- 0.20. Test-retest variability of CS volume flow was 5% at baseline and 6% during peak stress. Conclusion: Spiral CS VEC MRI at 3 T is a feasible and reproducible technique for measuring CS flow in asymptomatic women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Significant changes in CSFR to CPT are detectable, without demanding pharmacologic stress

  10. An investigation into potential gender-specific differences in myocardial triglyceride content assessed by 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritsch, Bernhard; Köstler, Herbert; Gassenmaier, Tobias; Kunz, Andreas S; Bley, Thorsten A; Horn, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, myocardial triglyceride content has become an accepted biomarker for chronic metabolic and cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to use proton (hydrogen 1)-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 3Tesla (3 T) field strength to assess potential gender-related differences in myocardial triglyceride content in healthy individuals. Cardiac MR imaging was performed to enable accurate voxel placement and obtain functional and morphological information. Double triggered (i.e., ECG and respiratory motion gating) (1)H-MRS was used to quantify myocardial triglyceride levels for each gender. Two-sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analyses. In total, 40 healthy volunteers (22 male, 18 female; aged >18 years and age matched) were included in the study. Median myocardial triglyceride content was 0.28% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.17-0.42%) in male and 0.24% (IQR 0.14-0.45%) in female participants, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the genders. Furthermore, no gender-specific difference in ejection fraction was observed, although on average, male participants presented with a higher mean ± SD left ventricular mass (136.3 ± 25.2 g) than female participants (103.9 ± 16.1 g). The study showed that (1)H-MRS is a capable, noninvasive tool for acquisition of myocardial triglyceride metabolites. Myocardial triglyceride concentration was shown to be unrelated to gender in this group of healthy volunteers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence......Audio visual style has a complex multi-functionality and the important part of this deals with the way that the character body is visualized and how body language is implemented in the moving image. With a number of examples of contemporary film and television, the article will line up of key...... in the moving image...

  12. Human Body Image Edge Detection Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 付小莉

    2003-01-01

    Human dresses are different in thousands way.Human body image signals have big noise, a poor light and shade contrast and a narrow range of gray gradation distribution. The application of a traditional grads method or gray method to detect human body image edges can't obtain satisfactory results because of false detections and missed detections. According to tte peculiarity of human body image, dyadic wavelet transform of cubic spline is successfully applied to detect the face and profile edges of human body image and Mallat algorithm is used in the wavelet decomposition in this paper.

  13. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-01-01

    on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients...... made during interviews. Conclusion: An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle......Background: Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. Objectives: To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM...

  14. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed.

  15. Body image and sexuality in women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie; Miller, Janis M

    2009-01-01

    The effect of physical changes associated with pelvic organ prolapse on a woman's body image and how that may influence sexuality has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to assess the implementation and utility of a body image questionnaire in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Two research questions were asked: (1) What is the impact of pelvic organ prolapse on women's body image and how does this affect their sexual health?, and (2) Does the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE) Scale show utility for use in assessing body image and sexual health in women with pelvic organ prolapse? A qualitative design was used for this study. Telephone interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire and an adapted body image and sexuality questionnaire specific to genital body image. Thirteen women with pelvic organ prolapse completed the study. Eight women were classified as sexually active, and 5 women were not sexually active. Data showed women with pelvic organ prolapse, classified as sexually active, scored significantly lower on the VSBE scale than women who were not sexually active. There was a positive correlation between severity of prolapse and VSBE scores. The VSBE scale questionnaire showed utility and potential for demonstrating change in body image in women with pelvic organ prolapse. This tool may assist clinicians in a more thorough assessment of body image and sexuality in this population of women.

  16. Beyond muscles: unexplored parts of men's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Martins, Yolanda; Churchett, Libby

    2008-11-01

    Thus far the study of men's body image has been largely restricted to the dimensions of adiposity and muscularity. The aim of this study was to investigate in a systematic way multiple aspects of men's body images, in particular, head hair, body hair, height and penis size, in addition to body weight and muscularity. Questionnaires were completed online by 200 heterosexual men. It was found that men were dissatisfied with all six aspects of their bodies, and worried primarily about body weight, penis size and height. In addition, aspects of weight, muscularity, height and penis size, but not head or body hair, were related to overall appearance self-esteem. It was concluded that men's body image is both multi-faceted and complex.

  17. Customization of normal data base specific for 3-tesla MRI is mandatory in VSRAD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Suzuki, Yuuichi; Abe, Osamu; Hayashi, Naoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Mori, Harushi; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Yasushi; Satake, Yoshirou; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Iida, Kyouhito; Mima, Kazuo; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2008-07-01

    A voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) was used for quantitative analysis of parahippocampal atropy with 1.5-tesla (T) MRI in a voxel-wise manner. The analysis of images acquired under a different imaging condition provides an error factor that has a calculated value. Clinical application of 3T-MRI is necessary for establishing a normal data base (N-DB) specific for 3T-MRI data, which permits appropriate application of VSRAD. We established an N-DB specific for 3T-MRI for use in VSRAD. The "Z-score of the parahippocampal gyrus" was 0.79 +/- 0.32, and the N-DB of each age group did not have a big deflection when we analyzed a group of physically unimpaired persons in an N-DB specific for 3T-MRI. Therefore, we were able to confirm the validity of the customized N-DB. The "Z-score of the parahippocampal gyrus" was 1.62 +/- 0.47 for the N-DB of VSRAD. The numerical value was high for the group of physically unimpaired persons.

  18. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  19. Non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses: comparison at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Furuta, Akihiro; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-05-01

    A 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance (MR) scanner is a promising tool for upper abdominal MR angiography. However, there is no report focused on the image quality of non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography at 3 T. To compare and evaluate images of non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses (Time-SLIP) at 1.5 Tesla (1.5 T) and 3 T. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were examined using respiratory-triggered three-dimensional balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) with Time-SLIP. For portography, we used one tagging pulse (selective inversion recovery) and one non-selective inversion recovery pulse; for venography, two tagging pulses were used. The relative signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were quantified, and the quality of visualization was evaluated. The CNRs of the main portal vein, right portal vein, and left portal vein at 3 T were better than at 1.5 T. The image quality scores for the portal branches of segment 4, 5, and 8 were significantly higher at 3 T than at 1.5 T. The CNR of the right hepatic vein (RHV) at 3 T was significantly lower than at 1.5 T. The image quality scores of RHV and the middle hepatic vein were higher at 1.5 T than at 3 T. For RHV visualization, the difference was statistically significant. Non-contrast-enhanced MR portography with Time-SLIP at 3 T significantly improved visualization of the peripheral branch in healthy volunteers compared with1.5 T. Non-contrast-enhanced MR hepatic venography at 1.5 T was better than at 3 T.

  20. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  1. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-07-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research.

  2. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  3. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  4. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  5. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  6. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  7. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  8. Treatment of Body Image Dissatisfaction among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1990-01-01

    Sees body image dissatisfaction as contributing to development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa and bulimic's desire for thinness breeding low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, and resistance to recovery. Offers treatment suggestions for body image dissatisfaction as it relates to bulimia. Advises counselors to be satisfied with their own…

  9. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  10. Body image and adolescence: A behavioral impairment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senín-Calderón, Cristina; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan F; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by important physical and social changes that can lead to a negative body image. The purpose of this study was to find a model enabling the appearance of behavioral impairment related to body image (restrictions, avoidance, and checking) to be predicted by body image attitudes (concern or Appearance Orientation, and dissatisfaction or Appearance Evaluation), Gender, emotional symptomatology, self-consciousness, ideas of reference (IR) and age. A total of 661 participants (67.47% girls) with an average age of 17.14 years (SD=2.34) filled in the GHQ-28, SCS on self-consciousness, REF referential thinking scale, MBSRQ (AO and AE), and BIAQ. A partial mediation model was found for IR, age and depressive symptomatology between dissatisfaction and concern about body image and Gender, to behavioral impairment related to body image. The results found suggest that age, depressive symptomatology, and IR may be mediator variables in the relationship between dissatisfaction and concern about body image, on body image behavioral impairment. This relationship implies a severity to be considered in intervention and monitoring of body image behavioral impairments in adolescents.

  11. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  12. Body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Zhao, Liming; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based medical applications, body-wide anatomy recognition on whole-body PET/CT images becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem and seldom studied due to unclear anatomy reference frame and low spatial resolution of PET images as well as low contrast and spatial resolution of the associated low-dose CT images. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [15] whose applicability was demonstrated on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in different body regions on 35 objects. The aim of the present work is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to low-dose CT and PET images toward automated body-wide disease quantification. Our adaptation of the previous AAR methodology to PET/CT images in this paper focuses on 16 objects in three body regions - thorax, abdomen, and pelvis - and consists of the following steps: collecting whole-body PET/CT images from existing patient image databases, delineating all objects in these images, modifying the previous hierarchical models built from diagnostic CT images to account for differences in appearance in low-dose CT and PET images, automatically locating objects in these images following object hierarchy, and evaluating performance. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the performance of the AAR approach on low-dose CT images achieves object localization accuracy within about 2 voxels, which is comparable to the accuracies achieved on diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT images. Object recognition on low-dose CT images from PET/CT examinations without requiring diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT seems feasible.

  13. Body image and day-to-day social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, J B

    1999-10-01

    Participants maintained a social interaction diary and completed a measure of body image. Body image was found to have three factors, body attractiveness, social attractiveness (how attractive people believed others found them to be), and general attractiveness. For both men and women, self-perceptions of body attractiveness and of social attractiveness were positively related to the intimacy they found in interaction. Self-perceptions of social attractiveness were positively related to women's confidence in social interaction and their perceived influence over interaction, whereas for men, confidence and influence were unrelated to social attractiveness. For both men and women, body image was unrelated to how enjoyable people found interactions to be and was weakly related to how responsive they felt others were to them. For both men and women, body image was also unrelated to how socially active people were and to the relative distribution of same- and opposite-sex interactions.

  14. Inferior parietal lobule volume and schneiderian first-rank symptoms in Antipsychotic-Naive schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danivas Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As per Frith′s neuro-cognitive model, inferior parietal lobule (IPL is implicated in the pathogenesis of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms (FRS in schizophrenia. The specific role of IPL structural abnormalities in the pathogenesis of FRS is yet to be ascertained. Materials and Methods: Using 3-tesla MRI scanner, this first-time study examined antipsychotic-naοve schizophrenia patients ( n = 28 (patients with FRS [FRS +]: N = 14, M: F = 7:7; and patients without FRS [FRS-]: N = 14, M: F = 7:7 in comparison with sex-, handedness-, education- and socioeconomic status-matched healthy controls ( n = 14, M: F = 7:7. The volume of IPL was measured using a three-dimensional, interactive, semi-automated analysis, with good inter-rater reliability. Results: FRS + patients showed significant volume deficit in right IPL in comparison with healthy controls (F = 4.0; P=.028 after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and intracranial volume. Conclusions: Right IPL volume deficit in FRS+patients adds further support to the Frith′s model of FRS in schizophrenia.

  15. Evaluation of Iron Deposition in the Adrenal Glands of β Thalassemia Major Patients Using 3-Tesla MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzelbey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM patients need blood transfusions, which result in iron deposition. To regulate chelation therapy, iron load has to be measured. With MRI, the amount of signal loss and T2* decay time shortening are used for iron quantification. Objectives The aim was to measure adrenal iron load with T2* relaxometry using MRI, and to compare it with liver and cardiac iron and serum ferritin, and to find out whether adrenal iron could be predicted from those parameters. Patients and Methods Between October 2014 and March 2015, MRI was performed in 21 patients with β-TM, recieving blood transfusions and chelation therapy. The control group (n = 11 included healthy volunteers with no known history of adrenal, hematologic, chronic disease, and blood transfusion. Results Among patients, there was no significant correlation between plasma ferritin and adrenal T2*. Significant difference was detected among T2* values of adrenals between the patient and control groups. There was no significant correlation between adrenal gland and liver T2* in β-TM patients, moderate correlation was detected between adrenal T2* and cardiac T2*. Conclusion Adrenal iron in β-TM can be reliably measured in 3 Tesla MRI. The results highlight the absence of correlation between adrenal iron deposition both with serum ferritin and hepatic iron.

  16. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.

  17. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Audio visual style has a complex multi-functionality and the important part of this deals with the way that the character body is visualized and how body language is implemented in the moving image. With a number of examples of contemporary film and television, the article will line up of key...... issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence...

  18. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal assessment of cerebellar vermian lobulation: fetal MRI with 3 Tesla post-mortem correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovjak, Gregor O; Brugger, Peter C; Gruber, Gerlinde M; Song, Jae W; Weber, Michael; Langs, Georg; Bettelheim, Dieter; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor

    2017-08-06

    To optimize the imaging assessment of fetal hindbrain malformations, this observational MRI study aimed to provide quantitative biometric data in normal vermian development in human fetal brains in vivo. In this retrospective, review board approved study, 78 fetuses (18-32 gestational weeks (GW)) scanned prenatally at 1.5T, and seven fetuses (16-30GW), scanned within 24 hours post-mortem at 3T,were included. All fetal brains were segmented on a T2-weighted midline sagittal slice. The mean relative area contribution (MRAC, proportion of the lobule relative to total vermian area) of all discernable vermian lobules was determined. Inter- and intrarater variability of a representative selection (22 cases) was determined with the Intraclass correlation coefficient based on voxel based differences. Furthermore, a linear regression model was used to assess the correlation between vermian lobules and gestational age. After 22GW 7 of 9 vermian lobules could be reliably discriminated. MRAC showed a mean difference of 2.89 ± 3.01% between in vivo and post-mortem measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of voxel based interrater differences was 0.91 ± 0.05 and intrarater ICC was 0.95 ± 0.03. Growth of cerebellar lobules was non-uniform - the MRAC of Culmen and DFT (Declive + Folium + Tuber) increased with gestational age, whereas Lingula, Centralis, Pyramis and Nodulus decreased. Vermian lobulation can be accurately and reliably assessed prenatally, on exact midsagittal T2-weighted sequences after 22GW. Fetal vermian lobules show non-uniform growth, with an expansion of DFT and Culmen at the expense of spinocerebellar structures. An evaluation of vermian lobulation could supply a better characterization of fetuses with hindbrain malformations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Dilated perivascular spaces and fatigue: is there a link? Magnetic resonance retrospective 3Tesla study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conforti, Renata; Cirillo, Mario; Sardaro, Angela; Negro, Alberto; Cirillo, Sossio [Second University of Naples, Neuroradiology Service, Department of Radiology, Naples (Italy); Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Paccone, Antonella [Second University of Naples, MRI Research Center SUN-FISM, Naples (Italy); Sacco, Rosaria; Sparaco, Maddalena; Gallo, Antonio; Lavorgna, Luigi; Tedeschi, Gioacchino [Second University of Naples, Department of Neurology, Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Fatigue (F) is a common, inexplicable, and disabling symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a possible correlation between fatigue and morpho-volumetric features and site of dilated perivascular spaces (dPS), visible on 3T magnetic resonance (MR) in fatigued multiple sclerosis patients (FMS). We studied 82 relapsing remitting (RR) FMS patients and 43 HC, matched for age, sex, and education. F was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). To evaluate a possible correlation between degree of F and characteristics of dPS, patients were divided in two groups: more (mFMS) (FSS ≥ 5; n = 30) and less fatigued (lFMS) (FSS ≥ 4; n = 52), compared to a matched healthy control (HC) subject group. The MR study was performed with 3T scanner by SpinEcho T1, Fast-SpinEcho DP-T2, FLAIR, and 3D FSPGR T1 sequences. dPS volumes were measured with Medical Image Processing Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV); Global Cerebral Atrophy (GCA), expressed as Brain Parenchymal Fraction (BPF), was assessed by FSL SIENAX. The t test showed significantly increased dPS number (p = 0.021) in FMS patients (mFMS p = 0.0024 and lFMS p = 0.033) compared to HC. Pearson correlation revealed a significant correlation between dPS number and FSS (r = 0.208 p = 0.051). Furthermore, the chi-squared test confirms the intragroup (HC, mFMS, lFMS) differences about dPS location (p = 0.01) and size (p = 0.0001). Our study confirms that PS in MS patients presents with different volumetric and site characteristics as compared to HC; moreover, F severity significantly correlates with dPS number, site, and size. (orig.)

  1. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Factors that influence body image representations of black Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants' views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women.

  3. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs.

  4. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions.

  5. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model.

  6. BODY IMAGE AND ATTITUDE: A QUALITY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Silva Dalbosco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a study that seeks o determine whether people is able to build impressions through the perception of other's body. The study seeks to determine whether the different body shapes or configurations produce different attitudes in female recipients. Through a qualitative methodology and in-depth interviews which took place subsequent content analysis, we observed the reactions of subjects to five different forms of silhouettes, all with the same BMI (Body Mass Index. The article defends the method and realizes the most important conclusions of the investigation

  7. Prevalence and correlates of body image dissatisfaction in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Tinker, Lesley; Liu, Jingmin; Gray, James; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with one's body image is widespread and can have serious health consequences; however, research about its prevalence and correlates in older women is limited. We analyzed data from 75,256 women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal study of postmenopausal women's health. Measures used in the study were collected at baseline and/or the third year of follow-up between 1993 and 2002. The majority of participants (83%) in this study were dissatisfied with their bodies because they perceived themselves as heavier than their ideal. Overall, the multiple and significant correlates of body image dissatisfaction explained 36.2% of the variance in the body image dissatisfaction score, with body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI being the two most important contributors to explaining the variance. The results of this study suggest future research should focus on the utility of interventions to reduce dissatisfaction with body image in postmenopausal women that target either maintenance of a lower BMI through diet and exercise, and/or body acceptance. Further, future research should aim to identify factors in addition to body size that drive body image dissatisfaction.

  8. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  9. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have...

  10. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: initial results in comparison to HRCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenberger, U I; Morelli, J N; Henzler, T; Buchheidt, D; Fink, C; Schoenberg, S O; Reichert, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23-77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TETesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were disseminated in these patients, accurate treatment decisions were possible in every case based on MRI. In one case MRI showed a central area of cavitation, which was not visualized by HRCT. Infectious nodules and consolidations can be detected in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy by 3 Tesla MRI. Detection of ground glass opacity areas is the main limitation of 3-Tesla MRI when compared to HRCT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  12. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  13. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  14. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  15. The Body Image Psychological Inflexibility Scale: development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Glenn M; Sandoz, Emily K; Darrow, Sabrina M; Feeney, Timothy K

    2015-03-30

    Body image disturbance and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been researched from a variety of psychological approaches. Psychological inflexibility, or avoidance of one's own cognitive and affective states at a cost to personal values, may be a useful construct to understand these problems. In an effort to clarify the role of psychological inflexibility in body image disturbance and BDD, a measure was created based on the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The scale was developed by generating new items to represent the construct and revising items from an existing scale measuring aspects of body image psychological inflexibility. The study was conducted with an ethnically diverse undergraduate population using three samples during the validation process. Participants completed multiple assessments to determine the validity of the measure and were interviewed for BDD. The 16-item scale has internal consistency (α = 0.93), a single factor solution, convergent validity, and test re-test reliability (r = 0.90). Data demonstrate a relationship between psychological inflexibility and body image disturbance indicating empirical support for an ACT conceptualization of body image problems and the use of this measure for body image disturbance and BDD.

  16. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  17. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  18. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  19. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    focused on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, especially radiography and CT scanning with advanced 3D visualizations. Indeed, the development of commercially available CT scanners in the 1970s meant that for the first time the 3D internal structure of mummies...... severely degraded, bone is quite readily visualized, but accurate imaging of preserved soft tissues, and pathological lesions therein, may require considerable post-image capture processing of CT data....

  20. The Association between Body Image and Adjustment in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Tamannaeifar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decades a large amount of research has been done on body image of adolescents. The motivation for this new surge is based on its effect on their functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between body image and adjustment in both sexes. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study included 400 male and female students of high school selected by cluster sampling. Information was gathered using Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis.Results: Results indicated that there was significant relationship between body image and adjustment in both sexes.Conclusion: In general, findings demonstrate that positive body image lead to high self worth and adjustive behaviors in both sexes.

  1. Body Image Distortion and Pathological Eating Behaviors : Sociocultural Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    OMORI, Mika

    2000-01-01

    Body image distortion is often cited as a causal factor contributing to the development of eating disorders or pathological eating behaviors. Sociocultural factors, such as the societal preference for thinness and ...

  2. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances.

  3. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  4. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  5. The impact of anal sphincter injury on perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, David; Khan, Rabia; Naidoo, Kristina; Kearney, Rohna; Myers, Jenny; Reid, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury is common but the effect on body image is unreported. The aim of this study was to explore patient perceived changes in body image and other psychological aspects in women attending a perineal follow-up clinic. This retrospective study analysed women's responses to a self-reported questionnaire. Consecutive women with anal sphincter injury who attended a United Kingdom Maternity Hospital perineal follow-up clinic between January 1999 and January 2012 were identified and the records obtained and reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine variables influencing self-reported change in body image. Questionnaires and operation notes were analysed from 422 women who attended at a median of four months after delivery. 222 (53%) reported a change in body image with 80 (19%) reporting lower self-esteem and 75 (18%) a change in their personality due to the change in body image. 248 (59%) perceived an anatomical change due to the delivery. Factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting a change in body image were reporting a perceived change in anatomy due to the delivery, adjusted OR 6.11 (3.56-10.49), anal incontinence, OR 1.97 (1.16-3.36), and delivery by forceps, OR 2.59 (1.23-5.43). This is the first study to quantify body image changes in women after anal sphincter injury sustained in childbirth. These were found to be very common, affecting up to 50% of women. The study has several limitations but it does highlight the significant psychosocial problems of negative self-esteem and personality changes associated with a perceived change in body image that has not previously been reported. It also outlines the further research questions that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Body image perception in adolescents and concern with weight

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Maria Geraldes Rodrigues; Antão, Celeste; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2016-01-01

    In a holistic conception of health, youth health is moderated by their self image and the perception that adolescents have of themselves is conditioned by social and cultural pressure, and low selfesteem is often observed, possibly caused by the way they perceive their own body, having as a consequence, an health proile with morbidities. Recognize the level of youth heath assessing Body Image perception and their concern with weight. It is a descriptive, quantitative and ...

  7. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis focuses on proving the relevance and importance of body image in marketing. In theoretical part the thesis initially outlines basic marketing knowledge with special concentration on marketing research and segmentation. Next, sources of data and methodology used in the analytical part are described. In the analytical part itself the thesis firstly proves the relevance of body image as a segmentation variable on a few examples. First variable used for segmentation is the natu...

  8. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: Initial results in comparison to HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, U.I., E-mail: ulrike.attenberger@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, J.N. [Scott and White Hospital, Texas A and M Health Sciences Center, Temple (United States); Henzler, T. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Buchheidt, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Fink, C. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology, AKH Celle, Celle (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reichert, M. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Material and methods: In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23–77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24 h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6 mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TE < 1 ms (TE/TR 0.8/2.9 ms, slice thickness 2 mm). The VIBE sequence was examined before and after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet). The presence of pulmonary abnormalities, their location within the lung, and lesion type (nodules, consolidations, glass opacity areas) were analyzed by one reader and compared to the findings of HRCT, which was evaluated by a second independent radiologist who served as the reference standard. The findings were compared per lobe in each patient and rated as true positive (TP) findings if all three characteristics (presence, location, and lesion type) listed above were concordant to HRCT. Results: Pulmonary abnormalities were characterized by 3 Tesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were

  9. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  10. Perceptions of body image among Malaysian male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, G L; Zalilah, M S; Phan, Y Y; Ang, M; Maznah, B; Norimah, A K

    2009-03-01

    Body image concerns are common among adolescents as they undergo rapid physical growth and body shape changes. Having a distorted body image is a risk factor for the development of disordered eating behaviours and eating disorders. This study was undertaken to investigate body image concerns among Malaysian male and female adolescents aged 11-15 years. A total of 2,050 adolescents (1,043 males and 1,007 females) with a mean age of 13.1 +/- 0.8 years from secondary schools in Kedah and Pulau Pinang were included in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect socioeconomic data and body image indicators. The majority (87 percent) of the adolescents were concerned with their body shape. While the majority of underweight, normal weight and overweight male and female subjects perceived their body weight status correctly according to their body mass index (BMI), a noteworthy proportion in each category misjudged their body weight. About 35.4 percent of the males and 20.5 percent of the females in the underweight category perceived themselves as having a normal weight, while 29.4 percent and 26.7 percent of the overweight males and females respectively also perceived that they had a normal weight. A higher proportion of the females (20 percent) than males (9 percent) with a normal BMI perceived themselves as fat. Most of the male (78-83 percent) and female subjects (69-74 percent) in all the BMI categories desired to be taller than their current height. An appreciable proportion of both the males (41.9 percent) and females (38.2 percent) preferred to remain thin, or even to be thinner (23.7 percent of males and 5.9 percent of females). Females had a significantly higher mean body dissatisfaction score than males, indicating their preference for a slimmer body shape. More males (49.1 percent) preferred a larger body size while more females (58.3 percent) idealised a smaller body size. Compared to normal weight and underweight subjects, overweight males and females

  11. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  12. MR visualization of the inner ear structures: comparison of 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, H.; Schick, F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Experimentelle Radiologie; Claussen, C.D.; Seemann, M.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2004-01-01

    Aim of the Study: To compare high resolution MRI examinations of inner ear structures at 1.5 T and at 3 T. Method: Temporal bones were measured bilaterally in 3 healthy volunteers in a 1.5 T and in a 3 T MR-scanner using the respective one channel head coil (quadrature detection) of the manufacturer. The same steady-state gradient echo sequence (3D-CISS) was employed at a voxel size of 0.4x0.4x0.4mm{sup 3}. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was determined quantitatively. Results: An SNR of 8 could be achieved for the measurements at 3 T in 7:37 min. The SNR at 3 T was, on average, a factor of 1.34 higher than that at 1.5 T despite the fact that the excitation angle had to be drastically reduced ({alpha} = 42 instead of {alpha} = 70 at 1.5 T) due to the limit of the specific absorption rate (SAR). Discussion: The MR representation of the inner ear is clearly improved at 3 T. To obtain the same SNR at 1.5 T approximately the double measuring time would be required, connected with reduced patient comfort and an increased risk for a displacement of the head during the high resolution measurement. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie: Vergleich der hochaufloesenden MR-Bildgebung der Innenohrstrukturen bei 1,5 T und 3 T. Methode: Es wurden jeweils beide Felsenbeine von 3 freiwilligen, gehoergesunden Probanden an einem 1,5 T und einem 3 T MR-Tomographen mit einer einkanaligen Quadratur-Kopfspule des Herstellers gemessen. An beiden Tomographen wurde dieselbe Steady-State Gradientenecho-Sequenz (3D-CISS) bei einer Voxelgroesse von 0,4x0,4x0,4mm{sup 3} verwendet. Das erhaltene Signal-Rausch-Verhaeltnis (SNR) wurde quantitativ ermittelt. Ergebnis: Ein SNR von 8 wurde fuer die Messungen bei 3 T in 7:37 min erreicht. Der SNR-Wert bei 3 T uebertraf den Wert bei 1,5 T um durchschnittlich das 1,34-fache, obwohl aufgrund der Begrenzung in der spezifischen Absorptionsrate (SAR) nur mit deutlich reduziertem Anregewinkel ({alpha} = 42 anstatt {alpha} = 70 bei 1,5 T) gearbeitet werden konnte. Diskussion: Die Innenohrdarstellung mittels MRT wird bei 3 T deutlich verbessert. Bei 1,5 T waere fuer dasselbe SNR ungefaehr die doppelte Messzeit erforderlich, verbunden mit deutlich reduziertem Patientenkomfort und einem erhoehten Risiko fuer eine Verlagerung des Kopfes waehrend der hochaufgeloesten Messung. (orig.)

  13. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  14. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  15. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  16. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  17. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  18. Whole-body MR imaging in tumor staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic and Mater Misericordiae Hospitals, Dublin (Ireland)

    2003-11-01

    Recent refinements allow widespread use of turboSTIR MRI as a whole-body imaging tool and, in particular, as a powerful oncologic screening tool. Whole-body MRI screening can play a primary role in assessing skeletal metastases, as well as metastatic breast and lung carcinoma. (orig.)

  19. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  20. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  1. Reconceptualization of the body image construct from a multidisciplinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Castro-Lemus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article carries out a systematic review of the main conceptualizations that currently exist of the body image construct from different disciplines, such as philosophy, psychology, sociology, and even Physical Education. This review argues the terminological unification of terms such as body, embodiment, corporeality, corporal identity, self-concept, corporal asset, and body schema. It also offers a reconceptualization of the construct.

  2. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender.Patients and methods: The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57% and 277 women (66.43%, and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12. After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women.Conclusion: The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.Keywords: body appreciation, wellbeing, self-esteem, social

  3. Automatic nonrigid registration of whole body CT mice images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Peterson, Todd E; Gore, John C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional intra- and intersubject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, computing population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. While a number of methods have been proposed to address this problem, few have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the majority of registration algorithms have been applied. This article presents a new method for the automatic registration of whole body computed tomography (CT) volumes, which consists of two main steps. Skeletons are first brought into approximate correspondence with a robust point-based method. Transformations so obtained are refined with an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm that includes spatial adaptation of the transformation's stiffness. The approach has been applied to whole body CT images of mice, to CT images of the human upper torso, and to human head and neck CT images. To validate the authors method on soft tissue structures, which are difficult to see in CT images, the authors use coregistered magnetic resonance images. They demonstrate that the approach they propose can successfully register image volumes even when these volumes are very different in size and shape or if they have been acquired with the subjects in different positions.

  4. Body image, body satisfaction, and unsafe anal intercourse among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Welles, Seth L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Ross, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Using survey results from the 1998 Twin Cities Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride Festival (N = 535), we explored associations between body image and unsafe anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), and evaluated whether body satisfaction mediated this association. MSM who reported underweight body image had lower odds than those who reported average weight of UAI (AOR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.13, 0.85); body satisfaction was not found to mediate this association. 13.3% of men who reported overweight/obese body image had engaged in UAI compared with 21.6% of those who reported average weight and 8.2% of those who reported underweight (p < .05). Compared with MSM in exclusive relationships, MSM in non exclusive relationships had increased odds of UAI (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.96, 11.29) as did men who were not partnered (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.72, 5.93). These findings highlight the importance of including body image in sexual behavior models of MSM to better understand body image's role in influencing sexual risk and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission.

  5. What I look like: college women, body image, and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2013-12-01

    Despite public acknowledgment of the importance of spiritual development, little has been written globally on female young adults' personal views of their spiritual values and body image. This article briefly presents the findings of a pilot study that explored female college students' reflections on body image and spirituality. Responses from participants showed that (1) many students are interested in faith and spiritual development; (2) body dissatisfaction affects those women who viewed themselves as spiritual (92%) as well as those who said they were free thinkers (49%). Nevertheless, religion and spiritual values seemed to confer some behavioral protection. Implications for educational programs that will address the spiritual dimension of learning are discussed.

  6. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  7. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  8. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  9. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  10. Advanced imaging techniques in pediatric body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtier, Jesse [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, Anil G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    While there are many challenges specific to pediatric abdomino-pelvic MRI, many recent advances are addressing these challenges. It is therefore essential for radiologists to be familiar with the latest advances in MR imaging. Laudable efforts have also recently been implemented in many centers to improve the overall experience of pediatric patients, including the use of dedicated radiology child life specialists, MRI video goggles, and improved MR suite environments. These efforts have allowed a larger number of children to be scanned while awake, with fewer studies being done under sedation or anesthesia; this has resulted in additional challenges from patient motion and difficulties with breath-holding and tolerating longer scan times. In this review, we highlight common challenges faced in imaging the pediatric abdomen and pelvis and discuss the application of the newest techniques to address these challenges. Additionally, we highlight the newest advances in quantified imaging techniques, specifically in MR liver iron quantification. The techniques described in this review are all commercially available and can be readily implemented. (orig.)

  11. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  12. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.

  13. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-06-01

    To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents' feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects' context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents' self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  14. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  15. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-12

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. 12 figs.

  16. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator.

  17. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung.

  18. Body Image as Strategy for Engagement in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Torres Silva

    2015-06-01

    This work intends to analyze not only how communication technologies have contributed to the emergence of such events but also how image production can be interpreted in such environments. Since the use of social media in protests caught the attention of broadcasting media in 2009 during demonstrations in Iran, a strong connection can be noticed between the content circulating through digital communication technologies and the body. For images produced during the Arab Spring, the same is observed with a series of strategies connecting body image and social mobilization. Our intention is to contribute to the debate of political images, considering the way they have been produced in contemporary society, which deals with a complex environment composed of communication technologies, social organization, and the body itself.

  19. Depression and body image among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelein, Melissa J; Thatcher, Samuel S

    2006-07-01

    Common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and obesity, can be highly distressing. We compared 40 women with PCOS to women with infertility but not PCOS, and to women with neither PCOS nor infertility, on measures of depression and body image. Women with PCOS reported higher depression scores and greater body dissatisfaction (p depression overall, even after controlling body mass. Among women with PCOS, body dissatisfaction measures and education explained 66 percent of the variance in depression, suggesting explanations of the PCOS-depression link should consider the role of potentially mediating psychosocial variables.

  20. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets.

  1. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too.Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men; 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men, and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men, with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The ED patients' ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and —6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively. The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients.Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body

  2. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  3. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the body image satisfaction - dissa tisfaction among adolescent age group , to correlate the components of body image with body mass index and the influence of parents , peers and mass media on body image .

  4. Poor body image and alcohol use in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Zenner, Ashley; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2016-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the association between body image and alcohol use. Of interest was the extent to which alcohol outcome expectancies act as a moderator in this relationship, particularly in women. In Study 1, 421 college students (175 men, 246 women) provided self-report data on body image, social expressiveness expectancies, and average weekly alcohol use; the data were examined using a moderation model. Results showed that women with poor body image and high social expressiveness expectancies reported a significantly greater amount of average weekly alcohol consumption, whereas no such interaction was observed for men. Study 2 tested the same moderation model with 67 female participants; however, this second study utilized an in-lab behavioral measure of alcohol consumption as the outcome variable. The second study replicated results from Study 1, showing that women with overweight body image and alcohol-related high social expressiveness expectancies consumed significantly more beer during a taste rating task than women with other combinations of these variables. Taken together, the results of Studies 1 and 2 indicate that, specifically for women, an overweight body image and positive expectancies about the social, confidence-enhancing benefits of alcohol act as risk factors for excessive drinking. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women.

  6. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  7. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (ppain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (pnegative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  8. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  9. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  10. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  11. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  12. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  13. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  14. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  15. Body Image in Anorexia Nervosa: Body Size Estimation Utilising a Biological Motion Task and Eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Troje, Nikolaus Friedrich; Abel, Larry Allen

    2016-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterised by a distortion of body image. However, whether individuals with AN can accurately perceive the size of other individuals' bodies is unclear. In the current study, 24 women with AN and 24 healthy control participants undertook two biological motion tasks while eyetracking was performed: to identify the gender and to indicate the walkers' body size. Anorexia nervosa participants tended to 'hyperscan' stimuli but did not demonstrate differences in how visual attention was directed to different body areas, relative to controls. Groups also did not differ in their estimation of body size. The hyperscanning behaviours suggest increased anxiety to disorder-relevant stimuli in AN. The lack of group difference in the estimation of body size suggests that the AN group was able to judge the body size of others accurately. The findings are discussed in terms of body image distortion specific to oneself in AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. The body image in ancient tragedy: a verbal visuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana De Carli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two tragedies of Sophocles and two others from Seneca are analyzed in order to identify the visuality given to the body through the word, image built for the character’s body, their levels of meaning and reverberation in text and scene. This information can be characterized as internal rubric because such data supports the scene’s construction. Thus, structure and content engender enhancing body's significance on scene either by its presence or a verbal visual, figuring a semantic occupation, which configures as one of the marks of the ancient theater.

  17. Should women be "All About That Bass?": Diverse body-ideal messages and women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Diana E; Ramsey, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N=189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women's responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; El-Ghazale, Hiba; Achkar, Alice; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Dieting is becoming a popular phenomenon among university students to achieve or maintain a healthy weight. The purpose of this study is to obtain a preliminary understanding of what dieting practices university students use in order to achieve their desirable body weight and to determine the magnitude of body dissatisfaction in relation to weight status among a sample of students (n=252) from the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. Students filled out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their dieting and physical activity practices in addition to the body shape questionnaire (BSQ). Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Percentage body fat was measured using Tanita scale body fat analyzer 300A. The outcome of this study showed that smoking and unhealthy dieting practices were not common among students (only 26% reported smoking, 8% reported taking laxatives and 4% taking diet pills). Half of the students reported practicing regular physical activity. Multivitamin intake was also not popular among students. BSQ scores indicate that the majority of students were not worried about their body image perception (64% reported not being worried, 19% were slightly worried, 12% were moderately worried and 5% were extremely worried). A gender difference was observed in the BSQ scores, as 89% of the "extremely worried" students were females. Collectively, results indicate that unhealthy dieting practices are uncommon among students. However, developing health promotion awareness' programs to promote good self image within the concept of a realistic healthy weight will be beneficial, especially among females.

  19. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS : A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS : Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS : The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  20. Three-dimensional coherence of the conscious body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    We experience our body as a coherent object in the three-dimensional (3-D) world. In contrast, the body is represented in somatosensory cortex as a fragmented collection of two-dimensional (2-D) maps. Recent results have suggested that some forms of higher level body representations maintain this fragmentation, for example by showing different patterns of distortion for two surfaces of a single body part, such as the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces. This study investigated the 3-D coherence of the conscious body image of the hand by comparing perceptual biases of perceived hand shape on the dorsal and palmar surfaces. Participants made forced-choice judgements of whether observed hand images were thinner or wider than their own left or right hand, and perceptual distortions of the hand image were assessed by fitting psychometric functions. The results suggested that the hand is consciously represented as a fully coherent, 3-D object. Specifically: (a) Similar overall levels of distortion were found on the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces, (b) comparable laterality effects were found on both surfaces (left hand represented as wider than right hand), and (c) the magnitude of distortions were strongly correlated across the two surfaces. Whereas other recent results have suggested that perceptual abilities such as position sense, tactile size perception, and tactile localization may rely on fragmented, 2-D representations of individual skin surfaces, the present results suggest that, in striking contrast, the conscious body image represents the body (or, at least the hand) as a coherent, 3-D object.

  1. Body image hos mastektomiopererede kvinder, med og uden rekonstruktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Gregersen, Anette Møller; Damgaard, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    Baggrund: I Danmark er incidensen for brystkræft ca. 5.000 årligt. Kvinder, der er mastektomiopereret, risikerer ubalance i body image. De kan føle sig amputeret, lemlæstede, mindre kvindelige og mindre seksuelt attraktive. De kan frygte at se sig selv i spejlet. De kan opleve, at kroppen ikke er...... hel. Mange undersøgelser er kvantitative og kun få har undersøgt kvindernes oplevelse af body image kvalitativt. Formål: At opnå indsigt i danske mastektomiopererede kvinders oplevelse af body image, med fokus på den akutte fase samt år efter operationen, hvor beslutningen om valg eller fravalg af...... rekonstruktion var taget. Metode: Undersøgelsen var fænomenologisk hermeneutisk, idet hensigten var at opnå indsigt i kvinders oplevelser af body image relateret til mastektomi. Fund: Undersøgelsen resulterede i tre temaer, der følger Bob Price begreber. Kropsrealiteten viste sig som ”en krop, der ikke var hel...

  2. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  3. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  4. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  5. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...

  6. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  7. Body image and self-esteem in adolescent ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettle, N; Bettle, O; Neumärker, U; Neumärker, K J

    2001-08-01

    Body-image disturbances and low self-esteem have been implicated in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. This study investigated self-perception of body and personality among adolescent ballet dancers in a cross-sectional survey. Two questionnaires assessing "my body right now" and "my personality right now," using semantic differentials were completed by 90 ballet school students and 156 controls. Adolescent female dancers (ages 13 to 17 years) scored higher than age-matched controls and 11- to 12-yr. old peers on Undesirability and Sensitivity for personality and Unattractiveness for body. For both subscales of personality, differences were also found between male and female dancers; female ballet students scored higher. Within the control group a difference could be found only for Sensitivity on which girls scored higher than boys. Male dancers did not differ from controls except for a lower score on the Body mass measure. Adolescent female dancers showed a distinct answering profile for 7 of 16 semantic differentials in each questionnaire implicating less favorable body image and self-esteem. Interventions focused particularly on enhancing self-esteem may be useful in the prevention of psychopathology in adolescent ballet dancers.

  8. Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has explored how, or even whether, exercise is associated with positive body image. Therefore, we examined whether exercise frequency was positively related to three aspects of positive body image (body appreciation, internal body orientation, and functional body satisfaction) among 321 college women. Appearance-based exercise motivation (the extent exercise is pursued to influence weight or shape) was hypothesized to moderate these associations. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that exercise frequency was related to higher positive body image, but high levels of appearance-based exercise motivation weakened these relationships. Thus, messages promoting exercise need to de-emphasize weight loss and appearance for positive body image.

  9. Body MR Imaging: Artifacts, k-Space, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Susie Y; Seethamraju, Ravi T; Patel, Pritesh; Hahn, Peter F; Kirsch, John E; Guimaraes, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is challenging because of the complex interaction of multiple factors, including motion arising from respiration and bowel peristalsis, susceptibility effects secondary to bowel gas, and the need to cover a large field of view. The combination of these factors makes body MR imaging more prone to artifacts, compared with imaging of other anatomic regions. Understanding the basic MR physics underlying artifacts is crucial to recognizing the trade-offs involved in mitigating artifacts and improving image quality. Artifacts can be classified into three main groups: (a) artifacts related to magnetic field imperfections, including the static magnetic field, the radiofrequency (RF) field, and gradient fields; (b) artifacts related to motion; and (c) artifacts arising from methods used to sample the MR signal. Static magnetic field homogeneity is essential for many MR techniques, such as fat saturation and balanced steady-state free precession. Susceptibility effects become more pronounced at higher field strengths and can be ameliorated by using spin-echo sequences when possible, increasing the receiver bandwidth, and aligning the phase-encoding gradient with the strongest susceptibility gradients, among other strategies. Nonuniformities in the RF transmit field, including dielectric effects, can be minimized by applying dielectric pads or imaging at lower field strength. Motion artifacts can be overcome through respiratory synchronization, alternative k-space sampling schemes, and parallel imaging. Aliasing and truncation artifacts derive from limitations in digital sampling of the MR signal and can be rectified by adjusting the sampling parameters. Understanding the causes of artifacts and their possible solutions will enable practitioners of body MR imaging to meet the challenges of novel pulse sequence design, parallel imaging, and increasing field strength.

  10. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  11. Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hadji-Michael, Maria; Furnham, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, 101 women and 106 men from a community sample of British adults completed the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), along with a battery of individual difference measures and demographics. Contrary to previous findings, there were no sex differences in BAS scores, either before or after controlling for individual differences in other measures. The results also showed that, moderating for participants' sex, self-assessed attractiveness, educational qualifications, neuroticism, extraversion, and BMI were all significant predictors of body appreciation. In addition, higher media consumption and higher (male-stereotypic) instrumentality were associated with, but did not predict, higher body appreciation. These results are discussed in relation to the extant work on body image.

  12. Living into the imagined body: how the diagnostic image confronts the lived body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Devan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper I will show how the medical image, presented to the patient by the physician, participates in medicine's cold culture of abstraction, objectification and mandated normativity. I begin by giving a brief account of the use of anatomical imaging since the Renaissance to show how images have historically functioned in contrast to how they are currently used in medical practice. Next, I examine how contemporary medical imaging techniques participate in a kind of knowledge production that objectifies the human body. Finally, I elucidate how physicians ought to place the medical image within the context of the lived body so as to create a healing relationship with the patient. In all this I hope to show that the medical image, far from a piece of objective data, testifies to the interplay of particular beliefs, practices and doctrines contemporary medicine holds dear. To best treat her patient, the physician must appreciate the influence of these images and appropriately place them within the context of the patient's lived experience.

  13. Food choice criteria in adolescents according to body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousana K. Papadopoulou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased worldwide, while the percentage of adolescents who are dissatisfied with their body image has also increased. Disturbed body image is an important criterion for eating disturbances. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of body image on the food choice criteria of adolescents. The participants consisted of 1003 students (495 boys and 508 girls from High and Junior High schools in Thessaloniki, with mean age of 14.6±1.5 years. The sample for our study was chosen with stratified sampling plan. Data was collected with the use of a questionnaire regarding the food choice criteria, based on the studies of Lappalainen et al. (1998, Steptoe et al. (1995, Contento et al. (1995 and Worsley and Leitch (1981. Body image was assessed using Contento et al. (1995 questionnaire. The difference between desired and real body weight was used to estimate the desire of body weight change. The SPSS computer program was used for the statistical analysis. Chi square (X2 test was used to assess the differences between subgroups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results showed that 35.9% of the adolescents (45% females and 26.6% males wanted to lose weight, while 14% (6.3% females and 22% males wished to gain weight. The remaining 50.1% (48.7% females and 51.4% males wanted to maintain their body weight. Food appearance constituted a more important criterion for the adolescents who wished to gain weight compared to those who wished to maintain their weight and the adolescents who wanted to lose weight. Dietary value was more important for the individuals who wanted to lose weight, than those who wished to maintain their weight and those who wished to gain weight. Overall, the majority of the girls was dissatisfied with their body image and wanted to lose weight. More boys wished to gain weight compared to girls. Adolescents who wished to lose weight seemed more concerned about food dietary value than

  14. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars.

  15. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  16. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  17. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  18. Evaluation of cutaneous body image dissatisfaction in the dermatology patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous body image (CBI), defined as the individual's mental representation of his or her skin, hair, and nails, is an important clinical factor in dermatologic disorders and often the primary consideration in deciding whether to proceed with cosmetic procedures or institute treatment in some skin disorders such as acne. CBI is a highly subjective construct that can be significantly confounded by cultural, psychosocial, and psychiatric factors. Assessment of CBI in the dermatology patient is best accomplished using a biopsychosocial model that involves (1) evaluation of concerns about the appearance of the skin, hair, and nails, (2) assessment of comorbid body image pathologies, especially body dysmorphic disorder, and (3) assessment of other psychiatric comorbidities such as major depressive disorder that can confound the presentation of the CBI complaint. Depending on the psychiatric comobidities, an assessment of suicide risk may have to be done, and if necessary, a referral made to a mental health professional. The clinician should consider the patient's developmental stage (eg, body image concerns are likely to be much greater in the adolescent patient independent of his or her dermatologic disorder) and sociocultural background (eg, a desire for lighter skin in some ethnic groups), factors that can also have a major effect on CBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body image and genital self-image in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-08-01

    With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  20. Body image perception of African immigrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2016-08-23

    Nutritional disorders are now spreading worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Body image ideals and dissatisfaction have been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including nutritional disorders. While previous studies have offered insight into weight status and body image perception of immigrants in North America, very few studies have analysed these aspects in migrants from Africa to Europe. Our review examines the effects of the migration process on beauty ideals and body dissatisfaction in African immigrants in Europe compared to residents in their own countries. The PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published from January 2000 till November 2015. Of the 730 titles identified, 26 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Among African residents, the body preferences depend on the country of residence and their socio-cultural status. Ethnic groups living in great isolation or with low incomes still have an ancestral idea of beauty, preferring a shapely body. However ethnic groups living in urban areas are moving toward Westernization of beauty ideals, preferring underweight or normal weight bodies. This review highlights that both residents and migrants are at high risk of nutritional disorders due to the adoption of Western beauty ideals. The results suggest that body dissatisfaction and BMI are increasing from Southern Africa to Europe according to a geographical gradient (described for females by Spearman's coefficient and linear regression, respectively). We emphasize the need for monitoring of the weight and psychological status of immigrants and the development of specific preventive strategies in European countries.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging susceptibility artifacts due to metallic foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H; Narak, Jill; Thomas, William B

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility artifacts due to metallic foreign bodies may interfere with interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies. Additionally, migration of metallic objects may pose a risk to patients undergoing MR imaging. Our purpose was to investigate prevalence, underlying cause, and diagnostic implications of susceptibility artifacts in small animal MR imaging and report associated adverse effects. MR imaging studies performed in dogs and cats between April 2008 and March 2010 were evaluated retrospectively for the presence of susceptibility artifacts associated with metallic foreign bodies. Studies were performed using a 1.0 T scanner. Severity of artifacts was graded as 0 (no interference with area of interest), 1 (extension of artifact to area of interest without impairment of diagnostic quality), 2 (impairment of diagnostic quality but diagnosis still possible), or 3 (severe involvement of area of interest resulting in nondiagnostic study). Medical records were evaluated retrospectively to identify adverse effects. Susceptibility artifacts were present in 99/754 (13.1%) of MR imaging studies and were most common in examinations of the brachial plexus, thorax, and cervical spine. Artifacts were caused by identification microchips, ballistic fragments, skin staples/suture material, hemoclips, an ameroid constrictor, and surgical hardware. Three studies were nondiagnostic due to the susceptibility artifact. Adverse effects were not documented.

  2. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-21

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq (18)F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  3. Engaging stakeholder communities as body image intervention partners: The Body Project as a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Perez, Marisol; Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Trujillo, Eva; Stice, Eric

    2016-03-11

    Despite recent advances in developing evidence-based psychological interventions, substantial changes are needed in the current system of intervention delivery to impact mental health on a global scale (Kazdin & Blase, 2011). Prevention offers one avenue for reaching large populations because prevention interventions often are amenable to scaling-up strategies, such as task-shifting to lay providers, which further facilitate community stakeholder partnerships. This paper discusses the dissemination and implementation of the Body Project, an evidence-based body image prevention program, across 6 diverse stakeholder partnerships that span academic, non-profit and business sectors at national and international levels. The paper details key elements of the Body Project that facilitated partnership development, dissemination and implementation, including use of community-based participatory research methods and a blended train-the-trainer and task-shifting approach. We observed consistent themes across partnerships, including: sharing decision making with community partners, engaging of community leaders as gatekeepers, emphasizing strengths of community partners, working within the community's structure, optimizing non-traditional and/or private financial resources, placing value on cost-effectiveness and sustainability, marketing the program, and supporting flexibility and creativity in developing strategies for evolution within the community and in research. Ideally, lessons learned with the Body Project can be generalized to implementation of other body image and eating disorder prevention programs.

  4. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison of body image concerns and explicit and implicit attractiveness beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S

    2015-06-01

    Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (ps<.001). Also, both clinical groups shared greater explicit beliefs about the importance of attractiveness (ps<.001). In addition to supporting previous research with regard to comparable body image disturbance, this study also showed that beliefs regarding the importance of appearance (e.g., "one must be attractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders.

  5. Psychological predictors of body image dissatisfaction in women suffering from eating discorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify factors influencing body image dissatisfaction in female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 61 women, aged 16 to 31, (M = 21.69; SD = 3.85) filled questionnaires evaluating dissatisfaction with their body (Body Dissatisfaction Scale by Garner & al., 1984), attitudes about the body (Body Attitude Test by Probst & al., 1995), avoidance with regard to body image (Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire by Rosen & al., 1991), negative mood states (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) as well as self-esteem (Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, 1984). Negative appreciation of body size, symptoms of depression, grooming and weighting, lack of familiarity with one's own body, as well as low self-esteem in general, could predict the body image dissatisfaction among eating disordered women. The fact of knowing the most important determinants of body image could give indications for the prevention of the cognitive distortions concerning body image.

  6. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  7. Images and bodies subject: sexuality in advertising campaign be stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Luiz Menegazzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the portrayal of sexuality and gender in contemporary advertising by the image and it focuses on visual analysis of the case study of the campaign Be Stupid, the clothing brand Diesel. Examines some of the ads clearer suggestions to the theme of sexuality, about fifteen images, running between 2010 and 2011em many countries, including Brazil, having won the controversial impact of media such as magazines, billboards and especially the Internet. Perform a survey of theoretical and methodological aspects that facilitate the action of reading and deciphering the images, mainly based on the theory Flusser conceptions of technical image, apparatus, with a view to focus on media production, broadcasting, and formats distribution. These advertising images as visual anthropological objects who discourse through the triad body, image and media conditions of power and surveillance, eroticism, stereotypes and cultural life of the spectacle. Contextualizes the scenario analysis within the postmodern perspective, the society of advanced capitalism and diffuse power and media, marked by profound changes in the scale of the feeling of their individual identities unstable. With an emphasis on Foucauldian theory, discusses the concepts of identity, gender intelligible and cultural practices of subjection of the individual mechanisms for language and sexuality. Discusses how is the construction of visual messages of sexuality and gender roles specified by the images and search on it, demonstrating the wider aspects of visual advertising messages today.

  8. Self-image differences as related to body image of students in a middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna M; Skemp, Karen M

    2012-07-01

    To examine whether gender and ethnic self-image differences exist among Asian and white adolescents within the context of body image. One hundred seventy-seven students in a Midwestern US middle school were surveyed on self-image. Analyzed using 2-way ANOVA by gender and race. Asian students have lower self-image compared to white students, including the subcomponents of self-esteem, identity, and integrity. Asian students have more critical feelings about themselves, base their identities on a few sources rather than on diverse sources, and choose unrealistic standards. However, Asian girls scored better on the image-consciousness subscale.

  9. My body looks like that girl's : Body mass index modulates brain activity during body image self-reflection among young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in proces

  10. My body looks like that girl's : Body mass index modulates brain activity during body image self-reflection among young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in

  11. Assessment of Body Image: Instruments Available in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Gabriela Salim; Pasian,Sonia Regina; Almeida,Sebastião de Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Because of the increasing number of Brazilian studies on body image (BI), the aim of the present study was to review Brazilian scientific research on the construction and adaptation of systematic assessment instruments for this construct. After conducting a broad literature search, 34 BI assessment studies were analyzed, including 27 adaptation studies and seven construction studies. The results were summarized based on the procedures that were used for the adaptation and constructio...

  12. Projekce body image do marketingové komunikace

    OpenAIRE

    Diblíková, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis discusses the main issues in regards to the topic of body image in marketing, such as its overall description, its negative impacts and the influence it has among the media and advertising. A content analysis was the primary methodology used in this thesis. Furthermore, not only were Czech television commercials analysed, but also Australian ones. The work also discusses the fundamental media indicators which help to form a better understanding of the television market. Th...

  13. Toward imaging the body at 10.5 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, M Arcan; Wu, Xiaoping; Eryaman, Yiğitcan; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Auerbach, Edward J; Lagore, Russell L; DelaBarre, Lance; Vaughan, J Thomas; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Adriany, Gregor; Metzger, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) comparisons were also performed. A 10-channel antenna array was constructed to image the abdomen of a swine at 10.5T. Numerical methods were validated with phantom studies at both field strengths. Similar power efficiencies were observed inside target organs with phase-only shimming, but RF nonuniformity was significantly higher at 10.5T. Spokes RF pulses allowed similar transmit performance with accompanying local specific absorption rate increases of 25-90% compared with 7.0T. Relative SNR gains inside the target anatomies were calculated to be >two-fold higher at 10.5T, and 2.2-fold SNR gain was measured in a phantom. Gradient echo and fast spin echo imaging demonstrated the feasibility of body imaging at 10.5T with the designed array. While comparable power efficiencies can be achieved using dipole antenna arrays with static shimming at 10.5T; increasing RF nonuniformities underscore the need for efficient, robust, and safe parallel transmission methods. Magn Reson Med 77:434-443, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Body image during pregnancy: an evaluation of the suitability of the body attitudes questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the BAQ: (1 across key phases of pregnancy, and (2 between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods A total of 176 pregnant women from Melbourne, Victoria filled out a questionnaire battery containing demographic questions and the Body Attitudes Questionnaire at 16, 24, and 32 weeks during pregnancy. A comparison group of 148 non-pregnant women also completed the questionnaire battery at Time 1. Evaluations of the psychometric properties of the BAQ consisted of a series of measurement invariance tests conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Results Although the internal consistency and factorial validity of the subscales of the BAQ were established across time and also in comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women, measurement invariance tests showed non-invariant item intercepts across pregnancy and also in comparison with the non-pregnant subgroup. Inspection of modification indices revealed a complex, non-uniform pattern of differences in item intercepts across groups. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that comparisons of body dissatisfaction between pregnant and non-pregnant women (at least based on the BAQ are likely to be conflated by differential measurement biases that serve to undermine attempts to accurately assess level of body dissatisfaction. Researchers should be cautious in assessments of body dissatisfaction among pregnant women until a suitable measure has been established for use in this population. Given

  15. Body after baby: a pilot survey of genital body image and sexual esteem following vaginal birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Lisa Kane Low,1–3 Abigail R Smith,4 Janis M Miller1,3 1Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Women’s Studies, College of Literature, Science and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to determine acceptability of the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE scale for women post childbirth and explore the association between childbirth events and sexual/body esteem.Design: This is a cross-sectional study within the Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery study.Setting: This study was conducted in a community setting.Population: The study was conducted in women post first vaginal birth with birth events that posed risk factors for levator ani muscle tears.Methods: Survey, magnetic resonance images of levator ani, and physical examination were the data collected 8 months postpartum. Birth variables were collected by hospital chart review. Descriptive analysis of VSBE response rates and distribution of responses was conducted. An exploratory analysis of the potential association of demographic, birth, clinical, and magnetic resonance image characteristics with VSBE scores was conducted.Main outcome measures: The outcome measure used in this study is VSBE scale.Results: The majority of participants (97% completed the scale, with responses to most questions skewed toward positive sexual/body esteem, with the exception of sexual enjoyment, where 38% indicated some interference due to genital changes. The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha =0.93. In the exploratory analysis of potential characteristics associated with VSBE, women with episiotomies had lower sexual/body esteem compared to those who did not (median

  16. Neurocognitive processing of body representations in artistic and photographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Aline; Nassehi, Armin; Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Sztrókay, Anikó; Reiser, Maximilian; Fehse, Kai; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-02-01

    Visual art because of its artistic context can be related to the general idea of providing alternative perceptual experiences. However, research examining the neural basis of art beyond the paradigm of beauty has been neglected. This study seeks to determine how the perception of a body in an artwork can be distinguished from the perception of a body in a non-artistic photography. While viewing different body representations in both artworks and photographs, subjects were required to evaluate the appeal of the portrayed persons. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that the perception of a body within the context of art leads to a higher activation in the right parietal cortex and the extrastriate cortex bilaterally. Relating this result to concepts from previous research, we suggest that the perception of art is linked to visuo-spatial coding and also motor mapping. In contrast, the higher activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the primary visual cortex during the perception of a body in a non-artistic frame of reference, i.e. in a photograph, can be linked to processes of person evaluation. Possibly, the task to judge the appeal of a person in a photograph might be more daunting and, thus, cause emotional and even moral challenges being reflected in the ventromedial prefrontal activity. Taken together, perceptual experiences within an artistic vs. a non-artistic frame of reference are based on distinct patterns of neuronal activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy.

  18. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography with balanced steady-state free-precession and time spatial labeling inversion pulse: optimization of the inversion time at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Seiya; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Furuta, Akihiro; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-12-01

    A 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance (MR) scanner is a promising tool for upper abdominal angiography. However, no report has focused on the contrast behavior of non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography at 3 T. To establish the optimal inversion time (TI) for favorable selective visualization of the hepatic arteries on non-contrast-enhanced MR arteriography with time spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) at 3 T. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were examined using respiratory-triggered three-dimensional balanced steady-state free-precession combined with Time-SLIP. According to the difference in the TI, five image groups (A, B, C, D, and E, from 1200 to 2000 ms, increasing at 200-ms intervals) were performed and compared to detect the optimal TI for hepatic artery visualization. The relative Cv-l (vessel-to-liver contrast) was quantified. For qualitative evaluation, the vessel visualization quality and order of the depicted hepatic artery branches were evaluated. In group C (TI of 1600 ms), the Cv-l showed the highest probably due to a favorable balance between the hepatic vessel signal and signal recovery of the surrounding tissue. Regarding qualitative assessment, in group C, the mean image quality score of all hepatic arteries and mean maximal visible order of the hepatic artery branches were the highest. However, there was no significant difference between these results. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography with Time-SLIP at 3 T enabled the selective visualization of hepatic arteries at a TI of 1600 ms with an optimal balance between Cv-l and peripheral hepatic artery visualization.

  19. Infection imaging using whole-body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpe, K.D.M.; Schulthess, G.K. von [Department of Medical Radiology: Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Dazzi, H.; Schaffner, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the detection of soft tissue and bone infections. Forty-five PET examinations in 39 patients (26 male, 13 female, age range 27-86 years) with suspected infectious foci were examined with whole- or partial-body PET scans using FDG. Twenty-seven scans were done in patients with soft tissue and 18 in patients with bone infections. Corrected and uncorrected transaxial PET images were acquired. Seven hundred and twelve body regions in these 45 PET scans were evaluated. Pathological findings were graded using a confidence scale from A to E (A, definitive infection; E, no infection). Disease status was defined in all patients by culture, biopsy or surgery and clinical follow-up. In 45 PET scans there were 40 true-positive, four false-positive and one false-negative findings. Twelve foci suspected to be infectious in nature on the basis of other imaging examinations were identified as negative by PET, thus representing true-negative findings. Sensitivities for the patients with soft tissue (STI) and bone infections (BI) and for the pooled data were 96%, 100% and 98%, respectively. As the calculation of specificity is not straightforward, it was calculated on a per lesion as well as on a per body region basis to permit estimation of an upper and a lower limit. On a per lesion basis, specificities were 70% (STI), 83% (BI) and 75% for the pooled data and on a per body region basis (dividing the body into 22 regions) they were 99% (STI), 99% (BI) and 99% for the pooled data. One false-negative result was found in a patient with cholangitis. It is concluded that PET appears to be a highly sensitive method to detect infectious foci. Specificity is more difficult to estimate, but is probably in the range from 70% to above 90%. (orig.)

  20. Human body motion capture from multi-image video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    In this paper is presented a method to capture the motion of the human body from multi image video sequences without using markers. The process is composed of five steps: acquisition of video sequences, calibration of the system, surface measurement of the human body for each frame, 3-D surface tracking and tracking of key points. The image acquisition system is currently composed of three synchronized progressive scan CCD cameras and a frame grabber which acquires a sequence of triplet images. Self calibration methods are applied to gain exterior orientation of the cameras, the parameters of internal orientation and the parameters modeling the lens distortion. From the video sequences, two kinds of 3-D information are extracted: a three-dimensional surface measurement of the visible parts of the body for each triplet and 3-D trajectories of points on the body. The approach for surface measurement is based on multi-image matching, using the adaptive least squares method. A full automatic matching process determines a dense set of corresponding points in the triplets. The 3-D coordinates of the matched points are then computed by forward ray intersection using the orientation and calibration data of the cameras. The tracking process is also based on least squares matching techniques. Its basic idea is to track triplets of corresponding points in the three images through the sequence and compute their 3-D trajectories. The spatial correspondences between the three images at the same time and the temporal correspondences between subsequent frames are determined with a least squares matching algorithm. The results of the tracking process are the coordinates of a point in the three images through the sequence, thus the 3-D trajectory is determined by computing the 3-D coordinates of the point at each time step by forward ray intersection. Velocities and accelerations are also computed. The advantage of this tracking process is twofold: it can track natural points

  1. Objective estimation of body condition score by modeling cow body shape from digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, G; Caccamo, M; Ferguson, J D; Battiato, S; Farinella, G M; Guarnera, G C; Puglisi, G; Petriglieri, R; Licitra, G

    2011-04-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is considered an important tool for management of dairy cattle. The feasibility of estimating the BCS from digital images has been demonstrated in recent work. Regression machines have been successfully employed for automatic BCS estimation, taking into account information of the overall shape or information extracted on anatomical points of the shape. Despite the progress in this research area, such studies have not addressed the problem of modeling the shape of cows to build a robust descriptor for automatic BCS estimation. Moreover, a benchmark data set of images meant as a point of reference for quantitative evaluation and comparison of different automatic estimation methods for BCS is lacking. The main objective of this study was to develop a technique that was able to describe the body shape of cows in a reconstructive way. Images, used to build a benchmark data set for developing an automatic system for BCS, were taken using a camera placed above an exit gate from the milking robot. The camera was positioned at 3 m from the ground and in such a position to capture images of the rear, dorsal pelvic, and loin area of cows. The BCS of each cow was estimated on site by 2 technicians and associated to the cow images. The benchmark data set contained 286 images with associated BCS, anatomical points, and shapes. It was used for quantitative evaluation. A set of example cow body shapes was created. Linear and polynomial kernel principal component analysis was used to reconstruct shapes of cows using a linear combination of basic shapes constructed from the example database. In this manner, a cow's body shape was described by considering her variability from the average shape. The method produced a compact description of the shape to be used for automatic estimation of BCS. Model validation showed that the polynomial model proposed in this study performs better (error=0.31) than other state-of-the-art methods in estimating BCS even at the

  2. Factors Associated With Body Image Perception Among Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Thábyta Silva; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; de Almeida, Paulo César; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.

  3. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  4. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Quinn-Nilas, MA

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest important linkages between body image and sexual functioning constructs and indicates that interventions to improve body image could have concomitant benefits related to sexual experience.

  5. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression...

  6. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  7. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  8. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  9. Testing a dissonance body image intervention among young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2014-02-01

    Body image and eating disorder interventions based on cognitive dissonance have been shown to be effective among girls and women aged 14 and above. This article reports a preliminary examination of whether a dissonance intervention is also effective when delivered in a school setting to 12- and 13-year-old girls in the United Kingdom. Girls (N = 106, mean age = 12.07 years, SD = .27) were allocated to the intervention condition or a waitlist control. In contrast to the control group, girls in the intervention condition reported significant reductions in body dissatisfaction and internalization of a thin body ideal post-intervention. There was no significant change in self-reported dietary restraint for either condition. In addition, compared with the control group, girls in the intervention condition showed increased resilience to negative media effects 1-month post-intervention. Results suggests that dissonance based programs can reduce body dissatisfaction, internalization and negative media effects among a younger group of girls than previously examined and in a United Kingdom school setting. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Changes in neuronal correlates of body image processing by means of cognitive-behavioural body image therapy for eating disorders: a randomized controlled fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, S; Schulte, D; Busch, M; Grönemeyer, D; Herpertz, S; Suchan, B

    2011-08-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities in visual body image processing in anorexia and bulimia nervosa, possibly underlying body image disturbance in these disorders. Although cognitive behavioural interventions have been shown to be successful in improving body image disturbance in eating disorders, no randomized controlled study has yet analysed treatment-induced changes in neuronal correlates of visual body image processing. Altogether, 32 females with eating disorders were randomly assigned either to a manualized cognitive behavioural body image therapy consisting of 10 group sessions, or to a waiting list control condition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses to viewing photographs of one's own and another female's body taken from 16 standardized perspectives while participants were wearing a uniform bikini were acquired before and after the intervention and the waiting time, respectively. Data indicate a general blood oxygen level dependent signal enhancement in response to looking at photographs of one's own body from pre- to post-treatment, whereas exclusively in the control group activation decreases from pre- to post-waiting time were observed. Focused activation increases from pre- to post-treatment were found in the left middle temporal gyrus covering the coordinates of the extrastriate body area and in bilateral frontal structures including the middle frontal gyrus. Results point to a more intense neuronal processing of one's own body after the cognitive behavioural body image therapy in cortical regions that are responsible for the visual processing of the human body and for self-awareness. © Cambridge University Press 2010

  11. Integrated whole-body PET/MR imaging with 18F-FDG, 18F-FDOPA, and 18F-fluorodopamine in paragangliomas, in comparison to PET/CT: NIH first clinical experience with a single-injection, dual-modality imaging protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Elise M.; Millo, Corina; Martucci, Victoria; Maass-Moreno, Roberto; Bluemke, David A.; Pacak, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Paragangliomas (PGLs) are tumors that can metastasize and recur; therefore, lifelong imaging follow-up is required. Hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (/CT) is an essential tool to image PGLs. Novel hybrid PET/magnetic resonance (/MR) scanners are currently being studied in clinical oncology. We studied the feasibility of simultaneous whole-body PET/MR imaging to evaluate patients with PGLs. Methods Fifty-three PGLs or PGL-related lesions from eight patients were evaluated. All patients underwent a single-injection, dual-modality imaging protocol consisting of a PET/CT and subsequent PET/MR scan. Four patients were evaluated with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), two with 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA), and two with 18F-fluorodopamine (18F-FDA). PET/MR data were acquired using a hybrid whole-body 3-Tesla integrated PET/MR scanner. PET and MR data (DIXON images for attenuation correction and T2-weighted sequences for anatomic allocation) were acquired simultaneously. Imaging workflow and imaging times were documented. PET/MR and PET/CT data were visually assessed (blindly) in regards to image quality, lesion detection, and anatomic allocation and delineation of the PET findings. Results With hybrid PET/MR, we obtained high quality images in an acceptable acquisition time (median: 31 min, range: 25–40 min) with good patient compliance. A total of 53 lesions, located in the head-and-neck area (6), mediastinum (2), abdomen and pelvis (13), lungs (2), liver (4), and bone (26) were evaluated. 51 lesions were detected with PET/MR and confirmed by PET/CT. Two bone lesions (L4 body (8 mm) and sacrum (6 mm)) were not detectable on an 18F-FDA scan PET/MR, likely due to washout of the 18F-FDA. Co-registered MR tended to be superior to co-registered CT for head-and-neck, abdomen, pelvis, and liver lesions for anatomic allocation and delineation. Conclusions Clinical PGL evaluation with hybrid PET/MR is feasible with high image

  12. Overweight, obesity, and perception of body image among slum residents in Nairobi, Kenya, 2008-2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ettarh, Remare; Van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Sam; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    .... Height and weight were measured during interviews; body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Perceptions of current and ideal body image were determined by using 18 silhouette drawings of body sizes ranging from very thin to very obese...

  13. Body image dissatisfaction in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sumona; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Shah, Samir A; Esposti, Silvia Degli; Lidofsky, Sheldon; Shapiro, Jason; Leleiko, Neal; Bright, Renee; Law, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Samad, Zahid; Merrick, Marjorie; Sands, Bruce E

    2015-02-01

    Despite the fact that the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and their treatments may affect physical appearance, the effect of IBD on body image is poorly understood. The aims of this study were to determine whether body image dissatisfaction (BID) changes over time in patients with IBD and to examine the demographic and disease-related variables associated with decreased body image. Adults aged 18 and above in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All patients were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. BID was assessed using a modified version of the Adapted Satisfaction With Appearance questionnaire. Total Adapted Satisfaction With Appearance scores and 2 subscores were calculated. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes, and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. Two hundred seventy-four patients were studied. BID was found to be stable over time among men and women with IBD despite overall improvements in disease activity. No differences were found in BID according to IBD subtype. Female gender, greater disease activity, higher symptom burden, longer duration of steroid use, dermatologic and musculoskeletal manifestations of IBD, and ileocolonic disease location among patients with Crohn's disease were associated with greater BID. Greater BID was associated with lower health-related quality of life. BID remains stable in an incident cohort of IBD despite improved disease activity and is associated with lower health-related quality of life.

  14. Body image in patients with mental disorders : Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety

  15. Body image in patients with mental disorders : Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety

  16. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L; Ertel, Karen A; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996-2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association.

  17. Body image in patients with mental disorders : Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    Objective: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety

  18. [The modern body image as ethical device for biomedical enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsameter, C

    2013-01-01

    Ovid's "De medicamine faciei feminae" contains the astonishing sentence "Culta placent - all that is artificial is beautiful". In his "Éloge du maquillage" Baudelaire, buidling on Ovid's argument, states that first culture as picture and construction of beauty brings forth the truth of Nature and claims that cosmetics that allow errors of beauty to disappear artificially produce the true fulfillment of human nature. The present article looks into the historical roots of the body images that have emerged in modern times and attempts to derive structural devices for an ethical assessment of the potential we have to enhance human nature.

  19. Explorations in body image care: Peplau and practice knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B

    1998-06-01

    Practitioners in mental health care have long utilized the work of Hildegard Peplau, both for nursing discourse and for practice. At a time when the role of theory in practice is once more being debated, and when theories are being applied in new contexts, this paper examines the contribution that Peplau's work may have to offer altered body image nursing care. A case study is used to highlight concepts in practice, the paper examining the ways in which Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations complement the other elements of practice knowledge that the nurse uses to assist patients and lay carers alike.

  20. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  1. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  2. Qualitative Evaluation of a High-Resolution 3D Multi-Sequence Intracranial Vessel Wall Protocol at 3 Tesla MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Nikki; Yang, Wenjie; van der Kolk, Anja G; Abrigo, Jill; Lee, Ka Lok; Chu, Winnie Chiu Wing; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Siero, Jeroen C. W.; Wong, Ka Sing; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Chen, Fiona Xiang Yan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial vessel wall imaging using MRI has great potential as a clinical method for assessing intracranial atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current study was to compare three 3T MRI vessel wall sequences with different contrast weightings (T1w, PD, T2w) and dedicated s

  3. Pediatric vasculitis: recognizing multisystemic manifestations at body imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Geetika; Sargar, Kiran; Baszis, Kevin W

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric vasculitides are multisystem diseases that can be diagnostic challenges because of variable clinical manifestations. The clinical manifestation is determined by the size of the affected vessels, organs involved, extent of vascular injury, and underlying pathologic characteristics. Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are the two most common subtypes of pediatric vasculitis. Diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis can be difficult, and the outcome can be serious or fatal in the absence of timely intervention. Imaging plays a central role in establishing the diagnosis of vasculitis involving large- and medium-sized vessels, visualizing its vascular and extravascular manifestations, and monitoring the disease course and response to treatment. Although imaging cannot depict the vessel changes of small-vessel vasculitis directly, it can be used to detect tissue damage resulting from vessel inflammation. This article discusses the classification and clinical features of the major pediatric vasculitides. The imaging approach to and nonneurologic findings of major pediatric vasculitis subtypes are reviewed for the pediatric body imager.

  4. Monitoring of gadolinium-BOPTA uptake into the vessel wall during magnetic resonance (MR)-guided angioplasty of the peripheral arteries with a paclitaxel/gadolinium-BOPTA-coated balloon. An experimental study at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neizel, M.; Kelm, M. [University Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology, Pneumology and Angiology; Ruebben, A.; Weiss, N. [Aachen Resonance, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Krombach, G.A. [University Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The success of paclitaxel distribution within the vessel wall during paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty to prevent restenosis cannot be monitored under X-ray guidance. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring Gadolinium-BOPTA delivery within the vessel wall during magnetic resonance (MR)-guided paclitaxel/Gadolinium-BOPTA-coated balloon angioplasty of the peripheral arteries. Materials and methods: 6 pigs (47 ± 2 kg) were investigated. All experiments were performed using a 3 Tesla MR scanner. MR-guided bilaterial angioplasty of the iliac arteries was performed using a paclitaxel/MR contrast agent-coated balloon catheter. The feasibility of monitoring the delivery of Gadolinium-BOPTA to the vessel was assessed in 4 animals. In two additional animals, bilateral stenosis was surgically induced in the iliac arteries. Delivery of paclitaxel to the vessel wall was monitored using a 3 D T1-weighted gradient echo (GE) sequence for delineation of the vessel wall. Normalized signal intensity (SI) of the vessel wall was measured before and repeatedly after the intervention for 45 min. in all animals. Results: Paclitaxel/gadolinium-BOPTA-coated balloon angioplasty was successfully accomplished in all iliac arteries (n = 12). In animals with stenosis MR-angiography demonstrated successful dilatation (n = 4). The normalized SI of the vessel wall on T1-weighted GE images significantly increased after the intervention in all animals with and without stenosis for more than 45 min. (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Monitoring of Gadolinium-BOPTA into the vessel wall during MR-guided coated balloon angioplasty is feasible. This is a first step towards providing a tool for the online control of homogenous drug delivery after paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty. (orig.)

  5. Limited role of body satisfaction and body image self-consciousness in sexual frequency and satisfaction in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoš, Sandra Nakić; Vraneš, Hrvojka Soljačić; Šunjić, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the role of maternal body image and body image self-consciousness in sexual satisfaction and intercourse frequency during pregnancy when controlling for satisfaction with partnership. Pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy (N = 150) participated in the study. Body image was measured by the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) and Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale (BISC), while relationship satisfaction was measured by different subscales of the Perceived Quality of Marital Relationship (PQMR) Scale. Sexual satisfaction was also measured by one of the subscales of the PQMR (Intimate Relationship). The sexual behavior questionnaire comprised questions about frequency of sexual intercourse, desire, and other aspects of sexual functioning as well as the reasons that might prevent women from having intercourse during pregnancy. Findings suggested that satisfaction with body image and body image self-consciousness were related to sexual satisfaction. Nevertheless, other aspects of partnership, such as communication, appeared to be much more important predictors of sexual satisfaction than body image variables. The best predictor of sexual frequency was fear that intercourse might harm the fetus. Implications for education about sexuality issues in pregnancy are discussed.

  6. The effects of aerobic- versus strength-training on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Strong, Heather A; Arent, Shawn M; Bray, Steven R; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L

    2014-06-01

    This experiment compared the effects of aerobic-training (AT) versus strength-training (ST) on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns. Theory-based correlates of body image change were also examined. Participants were 46 women (M age=21.5 years), randomly assigned to an 8-week AT or ST intervention consisting of supervised exercise 3 days/week. Multidimensional measures of body image were administered pre- and post-intervention, along with measures of physical fitness, perceived fitness, and exercise self-efficacy. Women in the AT condition reported greater reductions in social physique anxiety (p=.001) and tended to report greater improvements in appearance evaluation (p=.06) than women in the ST condition. Changes in perceived fatness, perceived aerobic endurance and aerobic self-efficacy were significantly correlated with body image change (psbody image and advancing theory to account for the effects of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major...

  8. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4-8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic).

  9. Pregnancy, labor and body image in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E

    1984-01-01

    Although substantial research has been done showing how alienation (which in Ollman's terms means that "an essential tie has been cut in the middle") manifests itself in the domain of human labor, little has been done to discover how similar processes might operate in other domains. I examine women's images of their bodies while they are pregnant, using Lakoff and Johnson's method of looking for metaphors that are presupposed in our ordinary language. I uncover several central images, all of which display a marked sense of separation of self from the parts of the body, and a passive stance in which events are described as happening to rather than being brought about by the speaker. Turning to written texts, I find that the literature on childbirth (from opposite ends of the spectrum--popular literature advocating prepared childbirth on one end and obstetrical texts for medical students on the other) holds an assumption in common: that the uterus is an involuntary muscle. This is so despite evidence to the contrary cited in the texts themselves. I explore the implications of this imagery for obstetrical treatment of 'uterine inertia' and show the similarity between this imagery and ideas about women's physiology that were current in the 19th century.

  10. Impressions of female body: representations of women and body-image in the brazilian press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Helena Mazer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the representations of women and bodyimage in the brazilian press and it questions the sexual divisions in the society by the images published in the media. It also presents an iconological analysisof the photographs in six editions of the periodical Folha de São Paulo in 2012, randomly chosen. From a critical theory and analysis it shows that the image of women, which has long been used as merchandise in advertising, is increasingly perceived by print journalism as a decoy for readers. The use of certain female images in the media reinforces stereotypes and builds limits for the understanding of more complex contexts. The hypothesis that the female body-image is used in the press in order to determine positions from recurrent aesthetic patterns can be confirmed. The paper also describes the three main female stereotypes in the media, based on three major pictorial stereotypes in history, being the madona, the seductive and the politician (HIGONNET, 1991. It expresses the confirmation of the superlative visibility of some groups of women and the invisibility of others. The survey reveals that, despite the assumption that they are very imagetically represented in newspapers, women are under-represented, especially in news photographs. It shows that the editorship of the “culture” and “varieties” sections are exceptions, because those special fragments are considered “light”, referring to art, music, dance, celebrities, television, film and cultural activities” (HEDLER, 2011. We conclude that even in a visual culture, visibility is not guaranteed at all. This research enables to deconstructthe concept that it´s normal to use certain images as representations of such a heterogeneous group like women. We expect to expand the horizon of the discussion about the leading roles for women in the society and their relationship to the images produced about them in the newspapers.

  11. The externality of the inside: body images of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, V; Lupton, D

    2001-03-01

    This paper draws on literature, empirical data and a range of theoretical perspectives on the maternal body to examine understandings of the relationship between a pregnant woman and her foetus, with a particular focus on the body images used by women to represent this relationship. Psychoanalytic and nursing accounts of the relationship between mother and foetus have often described a symbiotic 'oneness' or unity during pregnancy. Such accounts, however, stress the temporary nature of this unity and identify a series of 'stages' of separation or 'polarisation' between mother and foetus during pregnancy. In contrast, many of the 25 women who participated in our interview study of new motherhood described a confusion of the boundary between self and foetus. For many women the experience of pregnancy and the relationship with the unborn baby was ambiguous and uncertain. Importantly, none of these women described her relationship with the foetus as a series of developmental stages, but rather saw it as fluctuating throughout pregnancy. These findings are more consistent with the work of feminist theorists who describe pregnancy as a dynamic and fluid merging of the inside and the outside of the body/self.

  12. Body image, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa in male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Blouin, Arthur G; Woodside, D Blake

    2006-03-01

    Male bodybuilders (MBB) exhibit more severe body dissatisfaction, bulimic eating behaviour, and negative psychological characteristics, compared with male athletic and nonathletic control subjects, but few studies have directly compared MBB and men with eating disorders. This study compared men with bulimia nervosa (MBN), competitive male bodybuilders (CMBB), and recreational male bodybuilders (RMBB) on a broad range of eating attitudes and behaviours and psychological characteristics to more accurately determine similarities and differences among these groups. Anonymous questionnaires, designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, prevalence of binge eating, weight loss practices, lifetime rates of eating disorders, anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use, and general psychological factors, were completed by 22 MBN, 27 CMBB, and 25 RMBB. High rates of weight and shape preoccupation, extreme body modification practices, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa (BN) were reported among MBB, especially among those who competed. CMBB reported higher rates of binge eating, BN, and AAS use compared with RMBB, but exhibited less eating-related and general psychopathology compared with MBN. Few psychological differences were found between CMBB and RMBB. MBB, especially competitors, and MBN appear to share many eating-related features but few general psychological ones. Longitudinal research is needed to determine whether men with a history of disordered eating or BN disproportionately gravitate to competitive bodybuildin and (or) whether competitive bodybuilding fosters disordered eating, BN, and AAS use.

  13. Body image in patients with mental disorders: Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety of mental disorders and to compare scores with those in the general population in order to obtain more insight in the relative disturbance of body image in the patients group compared to healthy controls. In a further exploration associations with self-reported mental health, quality of life and empowerment were established as well as the changes in body image in patients over time. 176 women and 91 men in regular psychiatric treatment completed the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire, the Outcome Questionnaire, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life and the Mental Health Confidence Scale. Measurements were repeated after four months. Patients with mental disorders, especially those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), scored significantly lower on body image, with large effect sizes, in comparison with the healthy controls. Scores of patients from different diagnostic groups varied across domains of body image, with body acceptance lowest in the group with eating disorders, and sexual fulfillment extremely low in PTSD. Vitality did not differ significantly between the various disorders. Gender differences were large for body acceptance and sexual fulfillment and small for vitality. Associations of body image with self-reported mental health, quality of life and empowerment were moderate to strong. After four months of treatment positive changes in body image were observed. Negative body image is a common problem occurring in most patients with mental disorders. Diagnosis-specific profiles emerge, with PTSD being the most affected disorder. Body acceptance and sexual fulfillment were the most differentiating aspects of body image between diagnoses. Changes in body

  14. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  15. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  16. Relationships among muscle dysmorphia characteristics, body image quality of life, and coping in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, D; Edwards, C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among bodybuilding dependence, muscle satisfaction, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping strategies, and test the hypothesis that muscle dysmorphia characteristics may predict quality of life via coping strategies. Participants (294 males, Mage=20.5 years, SD=3.1) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed questionnaires assessing muscle satisfaction, bodybuilding dependence, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping. Quality of life was correlated positively with muscle satisfaction and bodybuilding dependence but negatively with body image coping (Plife both directly and indirectly via body image coping strategies (as evidenced by the bias corrected and accelerated bootstrapped confidence intervals). These results provide preliminary evidence regarding the ways that muscularity concerns might influence body image-related quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal study of the protective effect of hope on reducing body image distress in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianlin; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel A; Tan, Joyce Y S; Mahendran, Rathi

    2017-01-01

    Body image distress is well-documented in patients with cancer, but little is known about the course of body image distress over time and the role of psychosocial resources such as hope. This prospective study sought to explore the dynamics between trajectories of body image distress and hope across time. Cancer patients receiving outpatient treatment at a cancer center completed self-reported measures of body image distress (Body Image Scale) and hope (Adult Hope Scale) at baseline (within three months of their cancer diagnosis) and follow-up (six months post-baseline; N = 111). Trajectories of intra-individual change (improved, stable, and declined) for body image distress were calculated based on the minimal clinically important difference (±0.5 baseline SD). There was a significant increase in body image distress at follow-up (p image distress trajectory groups and time on hope, suggesting that patients experiencing improvements in body image distress reported higher levels of hope than those who had stable or deteriorating levels of body image distress F(2,108) = 3.25, p image distress across time in a sample of cancer patients, although the mechanisms of interaction require further examination. Supportive care could lend greater focus to improving patients' hope to alleviating body image distress.

  18. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirus Alipoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in Iran. Approach: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical self-concept and body Image dissatisfaction in female. The importance of body image in Iranian culture has, recently, became more significant to the extent that tremendous expenditure of time, effort and money has been paid by people, particularly by women, seeking to alert their appearances to resemble an idea image. A survey of 140 female students selected through random sampling was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Demographic Information form the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP and Nine Figure Silhouette Scale was used. The physical self-perception profile have five subscales, which were sport competence (SPORT, body attractiveness (BODY, physical condition (CONDITION and physical strength (STRENGTH and one subscale that assesses a global perception of overall Physical Self-Worth (PSW. Results: The finding of the research indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between the physical self-concept and body image dissatisfaction. The correlations magnitude ranged between 0.49-0.79 for body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction correlated strongest with physical self-worth and with body physical self-concept in female students in Iran. Thinness had the most influential impact on body image dissatisfaction. The findings also showed discrepancy between the

  19. Binge Eating Disorder and body image perception among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Marina G; Junior, Raphael D R Liberatore

    2011-12-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of compulsive eating, without any compensatory behavior to avoid possible gain weight. Individuals who suffer from eating disorders often show negative self-image. The present paper aimed to assess BED prevalence and self-image disorders among university students in the city of São José do Rio Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The survey had the participation of 217 undergraduates. The following procedures were carried out: a personal data questionnaire, the Binge Eating Scale and a figure scale. In the surveyed population, 12.90% showed BED. Most subjects (86.32%) chose larger figures when compared to their current BMI, overestimating their body size. Furthermore, BED individuals showed higher self-image inadequacy in comparison to people without the disorder. Therefore, this is a public health problem to which undergraduates are exposed; forthcoming studies may be carried out to understand BED and associated commorbidities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Change in body weight and body image in young adults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintem, Gicele Costa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-03-06

    The goal of this study was to identify the effect of the change in body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood on body image satisfaction at 23 years of age in members of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. The study used data from the 1986 and 2004-5 follow-up studies. Body shape satisfaction was evaluated using the Stunkard scale. Body shape dissatisfaction was defined as the difference between the figures chosen for the current and ideal body size. BMI z-score changes were calculated as the difference between z-score values at 4 and 23 years of age, using the population internal z-score as standard. The analysis was stratified by sex, and multinomial logistic regression was used in crude and adjusted analyses. A total of 1963 men and 1739 women were analyzed. The mean age of the participants in 2004-5 was 22.7 years. Of the participants exhibiting increased BMI z-scores, 17% perceived themselves as thinner than ideal, whereas 48% perceived themselves as fatter than ideal. The prevalence of dissatisfaction was higher in women because they perceived themselves as fatter than ideal on the three categories of z-score change (≥ + 0.5 sd; -0.49 to + 0.49 sd and ≤ -0.5 sd); 81% of women exhibiting an increased BMI z-score reported dissatisfaction. The analysis adjusted for confounding factors revealed that women with increased BMI z-scores were less prone to feel thinner than ideal. Additionally, the increased risk of dissatisfaction due to perceiving oneself as fatter than ideal was similar between men and women (RRR = 3.52 95% CI: 2.17 to 4.56 and RRR = 4.08 95% CI: 3.00 to 5.56, respectively) using -0.49 to +0.49 sd as the reference category. Individuals exhibiting increased BMI z-scores between 4 and 23 years of age reported higher risks of body dissatisfaction at 23 years of age. This finding is important because body dissatisfaction can cause psychological, social, self-esteem problems, and well-being.

  1. Assessing liver function by liver enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Schlabeck, M.; Schreyer, A.G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P. [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Zeman, F. [University Hospital Regensburg, Center for Clinical Trials, Regensburg (Germany); Barreiros, A. [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Gastroenterology, Regensburg (Germany); Loss, M. [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Surgery, Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3-T MRI to determine the hepatic functional reserve expressed by the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. A total of 121 patients with normal liver function (NLF; MELD score ≤ 10) and 29 patients with impaired liver function (ILF; MELD score > 10) underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 min after contrast injection. Relative enhancement (RE) between plain signal intensity and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated and was used to determine Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake into the liver parenchyma for patients with different MELD scores. RE differed significantly (p ≤ 0.001) between patients with NLF (87.2 ± 29.5 %) and patients with ILF (45.4 ± 26.5 %). The optimal cut-off value for RE to differentiate NLF from ILF was 47.7 % (AUC 0.87). This cut-off value showed a sensitivity of 82.8 % and a specificity of 92.7 % for the differentiation of the analysed groups. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in hepatocytes is strongly affected by liver function. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and assessment of RE during the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) may serve as a useful image-based test in liver imaging for determining regional and global liver function. (orig.)

  2. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature.

  3. A qualitative exploration of body image experiences of women progressing through pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brittany; Broadbent, Jaclyn; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Pregnancy provides an interesting challenge to body image theories in that the natural physiological changes push women further from the socioculturally prescribed thin ideal which these theories hinge upon. The impact that these significant physiological changes have on the woman's body image during pregnancy may depend on the extent to which they retain or revise the ideal. However, little is known about body image experiences during pregnancy. To provide a comprehensive exploration of the body image experiences of pregnant women. Individual structured interviews were conducted with 19 currently pregnant women. Transcriptions were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Themes extracted from the qualitative data included: (1) women's body image experiences during pregnancy were complex and changing, and shaped by the salience of specific body parts, the women's expectations for future changes to their body within the perinatal period, the functionality of the body, and their experience of maternity clothing, (2) women were able to negotiate the changes to their bodies as they recognised the functionality of the pregnant body, (3) women were surprised by the public nature of the pregnant body, (4) partner support and positive feedback about the pregnant body was highly valued, and (5) the importance of open communication around weight and body image in antenatal healthcare. Our findings highlight the need for the adaptation and expansion of existing body image theories to be used as a framework for women's experiences of pregnancy. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilola M Pedro

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.

  5. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

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    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  6. Velocity-selective magnetization-prepared non-contrast-enhanced cerebral MR angiography at 3 Tesla: Improved immunity to B0/B1 inhomogeneity.

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    Qin, Qin; Shin, Taehoon; Schär, Michael; Guo, Hua; Chen, Hanwei; Qiao, Ye

    2016-03-01

    To develop a Fourier-transform based velocity-selective (VS) pulse train that offers improved robustness to B0/B1 inhomogeneity for non-contrast-enhanced cerebral MR angiography (MRA) at 3 Tesla (T). VS pulse train I and II with different saturation bands are proposed to incorporate paired and phase cycled refocusing pulses. Their sensitivity to B0/B1 inhomogeneity was estimated through simulation and compared with a single refocused VS pulse train. The implementation was compared to standard time of flight (TOF) among eight healthy subjects. In contrast to single refocused VS pulse train, the simulated VS profiles from proposed pulse trains indicate much improved immunity to field inhomogeneity in the brain at 3T. Successive application of two identical VS pulse trains yields a better suppression of static tissue at the cost of 20 ∼ 30% signal loss within large vessels. Average relative contrast ratios of major cerebral arterial segments applying both pulse train I and II with two preparations are 0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.81 ± 0.05, respectively, significantly higher than 0.67 ± 0.07 of TOF-MRA. VS MRA, in particular, the pulse train II with the narrower saturation band, depicts more small vessels with slower flow. VS magnetization-prepared cerebral MRA was demonstrated among normal subjects on a 3T scanner. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of longitudinal metabolite relaxation times in different regions of the human brain at 1.5 and 3 Tesla.

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    Ethofer, Thomas; Mader, Irina; Seeger, Uwe; Helms, Gunther; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Ludolph, Albert; Klose, Uwe

    2003-12-01

    In vivo longitudinal relaxation times of N-acetyl compounds (NA), choline-containing substances (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), and tissue water were measured at 1.5 and 3 T using a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with short echo time (TE). T(1) values were determined in six different brain regions: the occipital gray matter (GM), occipital white matter (WM), motor cortex, frontoparietal WM, thalamus, and cerebellum. The T(1) relaxation times of water protons were 26-38% longer at 3 T than at 1.5 T. Significantly longer metabolite T(1) values at 3 T (11-36%) were found for NA, Cho, and Cr in the motor cortex, frontoparietal WM, and thalamus. The amounts of GM, WM, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the voxel were determined by segmentation of a 3D image data set. No influence of tissue composition on metabolite T(1) values was found, while the longitudinal relaxation times of water protons were strongly correlated with the relative GM content. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Negative Body-Image Bias in College Women as a Function of Self-Awareness and Self-Reported Body Dissatisfaction

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    Lebowitz Elkoubi, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Research on body image and body image disturbance has met with great debate and inconsistency regarding definition, conceptualization, and measurement. The fundamental understanding of body image ranges from being a perceptual or visual concept to actually representing attitudes or judgments individuals hold regarding their bodies. The present…

  9. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

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    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  10. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  11. Psychological and Cortisol Responses to and Recovery From Exposure to a Body Image Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin Lamarche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of body image research has failed to measure what occurs beyond the immediate presentation of a body image threat, or after a body image threat is no longer present. This is particularly true for physiological outcomes. The present study examined psychological and cortisol responses to, and recovery from, a body composition assessment as a social-evaluative body image threat. Women (N = 64 were randomized into either a control or threat group. Participants completed a measure of social physique anxiety and provided a sample of saliva (to assess cortisol at baseline, and immediately following and 20 min following their condition. The threat group reported higher social physique anxiety following the threat in comparison with both baseline levels and recovery levels. Cortisol was higher immediately following the threat in comparison with baseline levels. Findings support the inclusion of a recovery time point in body image research to provide a more complete picture of the psychobiology of body image experiences.

  12. Sketching people: Prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing on body image.

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    Swami, Viren

    2017-03-01

    Three studies were conducted to establish the extent to which life drawing is effective at promoting positive body image. Study 1 (N=84 women) showed that life drawing had a positive impact on state body image, but only if artists observed a human model and not non-human objects. Study 2 (N=61 women, 61 men) showed that life drawing had a positive impact on state body image for women and men, irrespective of whether artists observed a sex-congruent or -incongruent model. Study 3 (N=23) showed that participating in weekly life drawing sessions for a 6-week period resulted in significantly elevated trait positive body image (body appreciation and body pride) and embodiment, and in reduced social physique anxiety; however, the intervention had no significant impact on negative body image (drive for thinness or muscularity). These results highlight the potential of life drawing for promoting positive body experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Body image and dissatisfaction among rural Deep South African American women in a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica R; Affuso, Olivia; Levitan, Emily B; Carson, Tiffany L; Baskin, Monica L

    2017-02-01

    Body image perception may impact health-promoting behaviors as well as knowledge regarding health risks associated with obesity. Our cross-sectional analysis evaluated body image and its association with body mass index among overweight and obese treatment-seeking African American women ( N = 409). Differences between current and desired body image were captured using the Pulvers scale. Results indicated the presence of body image dissatisfaction among participants (median = 2.00, interquartile range: 2.00-3.00), with greater dissatisfaction observed at higher categories of body mass index. Additionally, receiver operating curves demonstrated the ability of the Pulvers scale to correctly identify participants classified by body mass index. Further research is needed to identify factors that influence body image perception.

  14. Eating disorders awareness week: the effectiveness of a one-time body image dissatisfaction prevention session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Danielle R; Vander Wal, Jillion S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a body image dissatisfaction prevention session that provided informat