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Sample records for 3-kinase inhibitorly294002 induces

  1. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors induce DNA damage through nucleoside depletion.

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    Juvekar, Ashish; Hu, Hai; Yadegarynia, Sina; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Ullas, Soumya; Lien, Evan C; Bellinger, Gary; Son, Jaekyoung; Hok, Rosanna C; Seth, Pankaj; Daly, Michele B; Kim, Baek; Scully, Ralph; Asara, John M; Cantley, Lewis C; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2016-07-26

    We previously reported that combining a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with a poly-ADP Rib polymerase (PARP)-inhibitor enhanced DNA damage and cell death in breast cancers that have genetic aberrations in BRCA1 and TP53. Here, we show that enhanced DNA damage induced by PI3K inhibitors in this mutational background is a consequence of impaired production of nucleotides needed for DNA synthesis and DNA repair. Inhibition of PI3K causes a reduction in all four nucleotide triphosphates, whereas inhibition of the protein kinase AKT is less effective than inhibition of PI3K in suppressing nucleotide synthesis and inducing DNA damage. Carbon flux studies reveal that PI3K inhibition disproportionately affects the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway that delivers Rib-5-phosphate required for base ribosylation. In vivo in a mouse model of BRCA1-linked triple-negative breast cancer (K14-Cre BRCA1(f/f)p53(f/f)), the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 led to a precipitous drop in DNA synthesis within 8 h of drug treatment, whereas DNA synthesis in normal tissues was less affected. In this mouse model, combined PI3K and PARP inhibition was superior to either agent alone to induce durable remissions of established tumors.

  2. Fisetin targets phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and induces apoptosis of human B lymphoma Raji cells

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    Ji Yeon Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant regulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks is known to be involved in the progression of cancers. PI3K-binding flavonoids such as quercetin and myricetin have been shown to inhibit PI3K activity, but the direct targeting of fisetin to PI3K has not been established. Here, we carried out an in silico investigation of fisetin binding to PI3K and determined fisetin’s inhibitory activity in enzymatic and cell-based assays. In addition, fisetin induced apoptosis in human Burkitt’s lymphoma Raji cells by inhibiting both PI3Ks and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Our results indicate that fisetin may serve as a natural backbone for the development of novel dual inhibitors of PI3Ks and mTOR for the treatment of cancer.

  3. TLR-induced activation of neutrophils promotes histamine production via a PI3 kinase dependent mechanism.

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    Smuda, Craig; Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2011-12-30

    Histamine is a bioactive amine that exerts immunomodulatory functions, including many allergic symptoms. It is preformed and stored in mast cells and basophils but recent evidence suggests that other cell types produce histamine in an inducible fashion. During infection, it has been suggested that neutrophils may produce histamine. We also observed that histamine is released in a neutrophil-mediated LPS-induced model of acute lung injury. Therefore, we sought to examine whether innate signals promote histamine production by neutrophils. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils stimulated with a range of TLR agonists secreted histamine in response to LPS or R837, suggesting TLR4 or TLR7 are important. LPS-driven histamine was enhanced by coculture with GM-CSF and led to a transient release of histamine that peaked at 8h post stimulation. This was dependent upon de novo synthesis of histamine, since cells derived from histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficient mice were unable to produce histamine but did generate reactive oxygen species upon stimulation. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we show that histamine production requires PI3 kinase, which has been shown to regulate other neutrophil functions, including activation and selective granule release. However, unlike mast cells, HDC deficiency did not alter the granule structure of neutrophils, suggesting that histamine does not participate in granule integrity in these cells. Consequently, our findings establish that neutrophils generate histamine in response to a select panel of innate immune triggers and that this might contribute to acute lung injury responses.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, induced senescence-like changes in human diploid fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑萍; 张宗玉; 童坦君

    2003-01-01

    Objective To reveal the role of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) in regulating human diploid fibroblast (2BS cell) senescence as well as the possible mechanisms involved.Methods Using a PI3Ks specific inhibitor, LY294002, cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, senescence association β-galactosidase staining as well as senescence association CKIs, p16 INK4 and p21 Cip1 protein expressions were all measured in the low passages of 2BS cells.Results Both 25 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L concentrations of LY294002 could cause a significant decrease in cells entering into S phase, and this cell cycle of G 1 phase arrest was dose-dependent. Meanwhile, LY294002 contributed to apoptosis, caused 2BS cell growth arrest, and activated senescence association β-galactosidase (P<0.05). In addition, LY294002 could induce time-course expressions of p16 INK4 and p21 Cip1 in 2BS cell lines.Conclusions PI3Ks inhibitor LY294002 could induce senescence-like changes in 2BS cell lines. Two enescence associated CKIs,p16 INK4 and p21 Cip1, might be involved in this senescence phenotype proceeding in 2BS cell lines.

  5. Polycystin-1 Induces Resistance to Apoptosis through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

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    Boca, Manila; Distefano, Gianfranco; Boletta, Alessandra; Qian, Feng; Bhunia, Anil K.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2006-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC-1), the PKD1 gene product, is a large receptor whose expression in renal epithelial cells results in resistance to apoptosis and tubulogenesis, a model consistent with the phenotype observed in patients. This study links PC-1 expression to a signaling pathway that is known to be both antiapoptotic and important for normal tubulogenesis. This study found that PC-1 expression results in phosphorylation of Akt and downstream effectors and that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors prevent this process. In addition, it is shown that dominant negative Akt can revert PC-1-induced protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, it was observed that increased PI3-K β activity in PC-1- expressing MDCK cells seems to be dependent on both tyrosine-kinase activity and heterotrimeric G proteins. It also was found that PC-1-induced tubulogenesis is inhibited by PI3-K inhibitors. Taken together, these data suggest that the PI3-K/Akt cascade may be a central modulator of PC-1 function and that its deregulation might be important in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:16452497

  6. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway induces a senescence-like arrest mediated by p27Kip1

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    Collado, M.; Medema, R.H.; Garcia-Cao, I.; Dubuisson, M.L.N.; Barradas, M.; Glassford, J.; Rivas, C.; Burgering, B.M.T.; Serrano, M.; Lam, E.W.-F.

    2000-01-01

    A senescence-like growth arrest is induced in mouse primary embryo fibroblasts by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). We observed that senescence-like growth arrest is correlated with an increase in p27Kip1 but that down-regulation of other cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, inclu

  7. Creatine inhibits adipogenesis by downregulating insulin-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

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    Lee, Nayeon; Kim, Inhee; Park, Soojeong; Han, Dasol; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Kim, Juwan; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Oh, Wonil; Jeon, Hong Bae; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Cho, Jae Youl; Yoon, Keejung

    2015-04-15

    Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid known to function in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that creatine regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in processes such as osteogenesis and myogenesis. In this study, we show that creatine also has a negative regulatory effect on fat cell formation. Creatine inhibits the accumulation of cytoplasmic triglycerides in a dose-dependent manner irrespective of the adipogenic cell models used, including a C3H10T1/2 MSC line, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and primary human MSCs. Consistently, a dramatic reduction in mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), glucose transporters, 1 and 4 (Glut1, Glut4), and adipocyte markers, aP2 and adipsin, was observed in the presence of creatine. Creatine appears to exert its inhibitory effects on adipogenesis during early differentiation, but not late differentiation, or proliferation stages through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-PPARγ signaling pathway. In an in vivo model, administration of creatine into mice resulted in body mass increase without fat accumulation. In summary, our results indicate that creatine downregulates adipogenesis through inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation and imply the potent therapeutic value of creatine in treating obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  8. Involvement of PI3 kinase and MAP kinase in IGF-I and insulin-induced ovarian steroidogenesis in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

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    Paul, Sudipta; Pramanick, Kousik; Kundu, Sourav; Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2013-01-15

    Previously, we observed that in vitro steroidogenesis in intact ovarian follicles of common carp Cyprinus carpio can alone be induced by recombinant human insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and bovine insulin (b-insulin) and this induction was gonadotropin-independent. To investigate early signal transduction components involved in this process, the possible role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) during ovarian steroidogenesis was examined. IGF-I and b-insulin induced testosterone and 17β-estradiol production in carp ovarian theca and granulosa cells in short-term coincubation and this induction was significantly inhibited by Wortmannin and LY294002, two mechanistically different specific inhibitors of PI3 kinase. IGF-I and b-insulin were shown to activate PI3 kinase from 30 min onwards with a maximum at 90 min. In this study, we found the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in the regulation of IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis in carp ovary. An antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase1/2 (MEK1/2) markedly attenuated IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroid production. Cells treated with IGF-I and b-insulin stimulated ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERKs1/2) in a time-dependent manner, which was significantly attenuated in presence of MEK1/2 inhibitor. PI3 kinase inhibitors strongly attenuated phosphorylation and activation of MAP kinase, which was increased during IGF-I and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3 kinase is an initial component of the signal transduction pathway which precedes the MAP kinase during IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis in C. carpio ovarian follicles.

  9. Neuroprotection of geniposide against hydrogen peroxide induced PC12 cells injury: involvement of PI3 kinase signal pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui LIU; Fei YIN; Lixia GUO; Xiaohong DENG; Yinhe HU

    2009-01-01

    Aim:Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenic cascade leading to neuronal degeneration in AD.Consequently,the induction of endogenous antioxidative proteins by antioxidants seems to be a very reasonable strategy for delaying the disease's progression.In previous work,we identified the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of geniposide,which result from the activation of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R).In this study,we explore the role of PI3 kinase sig-naling pathway in the neuroprotection of geniposide in PC12 cells.Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTr assay.Apoptosis was detected by Hoechst and PI double staining.The protein expression of Bcl-2 and phosphorylation of Akt308,Akt473,GSK-3β,and PDK1 was measured by Western blot.Results: Geniposide induced the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2,which inhibited apoptosis in PC12 cells induced by H2O2,and this effect could be inhibited by preincubation with LY294002,a selective inhibitor of PI3K.Further-more,geniposide enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt308,Akt473,GSK-3β and PDK1 under conditions of oxidative stress.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the PI3K signaling pathway is involved in the neuroprotection of geniposide in PC12 cells against the oxidative damage induced by H202 in PC12 cells.

  10. Cbl participates in shikonin-induced apoptosis by negatively regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling.

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    Qu, Dan; Xu, Xiao-Man; Zhang, Meng; Jiang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Yi; Li, Sheng-Qi

    2015-07-01

    Shikonin, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone, exhibits anti-tumorigenic activity. However, its precise mechanisms of action have remained elusive. In the present study, the involvement in the action of shikonin of the ubiquitin ligases Cbl-b and c-Cbl, which are negative regulators of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation, was investigated. Shikonin was observed to reduce cell viability and induce apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in lung cancer cells. In addition, shikonin increased the protein levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X and p53 and reduced those of Bcl-2. Additionally, shikonin inhibited PI3k/Akt activity and upregulated Cbl protein expression. In addition, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, LY294002, was observed to have a synergistic effect on the proliferation inhibition and apoptotic induction of A549 cells with shikonin. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that Cbl proteins promote shikonin-induced apoptosis by negatively regulating PI3K/Akt signaling in lung cancer cells.

  11. Propofol pretreatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats by activating the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway

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    Zhao, L.L. [Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, G.C. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhu, S.S. [Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, J.F. [Department of Anesthesiology, Tengzhou Central People' s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong Province (China); Liu, G.J. [Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propofol pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the role of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway in this procedure. Survival was determined 48 h after LPS injection. At 1 h after LPS challenge, the lung wet- to dry-weight ratio was examined, and concentrations of protein, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined using the bicinchoninic acid method or ELISA. Lung injury was assayed via lung histological examination. PI3K and p-Akt expression levels in the lung tissue were determined by Western blotting. Propofol pretreatment prolonged survival, decreased the concentrations of protein, TNF-α, and IL-6 in BALF, attenuated ALI, and increased PI3K and p-Akt expression in the lung tissue of LPS-challenged rats, whereas treatment with wortmannin, a PI3K/Akt pathway specific inhibitor, blunted this effect. Our study indicates that propofol pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI, partly by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  12. Shiga toxin type-2 (Stx2 induces glutamate release via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway in murine neurons.

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    Fumiko eObata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause central nervous system (CNS damage resulting in paralysis, seizures, and coma. The key STEC virulence factors associated with systemic illness resulting in CNS impairment are Shiga toxins (Stx. While neurons express the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 in vivo, direct toxicity to neurons by Stx has not been studied. We used murine neonatal neuron cultures to study the interaction of Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2 with cell surface expressed Gb3. Single molecule imaging three dimensional STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy - Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (3D STORM-TIRF allowed visualization and quantification of Stx2-Gb3 interactions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Stx2 increases neuronal cytosolic Ca2+, and NMDA-receptor inhibition blocks Stx2-induced Ca2+ influx, suggesting that Stx2-mediates glutamate release. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-specific inhibition by Wortmannin reduces Stx2-induced intracellular Ca2+ indicating that the PI3K signaling pathway may be involved in Stx2-associated glutamate release, and that these pathways may contribute to CNS impairment associated with STEC infection.

  13. Isoorientin induces Nrf2 pathway-driven antioxidant response through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling.

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    Lim, Ju Hee; Park, Hae-Suk; Choi, Jung-Kap; Lee, Ik-Soo; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2007-12-01

    Because oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases and the aging process, antioxidants that can increase the intrinsic antioxidant potency are proposed as desirable therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress-related diseases. NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates important antioxidant and phase II detoxification genes, and therefore, the molecule that regulates nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the induction of antioxidative proteins is thought to be a promising candidate as a cytoprotective agent for oxidative stress. In the present study, we show that isoorientin (luteolin 6-C-beta-D-glucoside) obtained from the leaves of Sasa borealis upregulates and activates Nrf2, and has protective ability against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen intermediates in HepG2 cells. Isoorientin induces increase in the level of antioxidant enzyme proteins, especially NQO1, and the cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of isoorientin are PI3K/Akt pathway-dependent. Together with direct radical scavenging activity, the novel effect of isoorientin on the regulation of antioxidative gene expression provides attractive strategy to prevent diseases associated with oxidative stress and attenuate the progress of the diseases.

  14. Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway and suppresses breast cancer growth

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    Li, Jie; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Hongchuan; Cheng, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. HIF-1α is one of the most compelling anticancer targets. Andrographolide (Andro) was newly identified to inhibit HIF-1 in T47D cells (a half maximal effective concentration [EC50] of 1.03×10−7 mol/L), by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. It suppressed HIF-1α protein and gene accumulation, which was dependent on the inhibition of upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. It also abrogated the expression of HIF-1 target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and protein. Further, Andro inhibited T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, it exhibited significant in vivo efficacy and antitumor potential against the MDA-MB-231 xenograft in nude mice. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which inhibits HIF-1, and hence may be developed as an antitumor agent for breast cancer therapy in future. PMID:25709476

  15. Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway and suppresses breast cancer growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jie Li,1 Chao Zhang,1 Hongchuan Jiang,1 Jiao Cheng21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. HIF-1α is one of the most compelling anticancer targets. Andrographolide (Andro was newly identified to inhibit HIF-1 in T47D cells (a half maximal effective concentration [EC50] of 1.03×10-7 mol/L, by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. It suppressed HIF-1α protein and gene accumulation, which was dependent on the inhibition of upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT pathway. It also abrogated the expression of HIF-1 target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene and protein. Further, Andro inhibited T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, it exhibited significant in vivo efficacy and antitumor potential against the MDA-MB-231 xenograft in nude mice. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which inhibits HIF-1, and hence may be developed as an antitumor agent for breast cancer therapy in future.Keywords: Andrographolide (Andro, HIF-1α, inhibit, breast cancer, hypoxia, PI3k/AKT/mTOR pathway

  16. Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 2 in human platelets induces a thromboinflammatory response through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

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    Blair, Price; Rex, Sybille; Vitseva, Olga; Beaulieu, Lea; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Hayashi, Chie; Genco, Caroline A; Iafrati, Mark; Freedman, Jane E

    2009-02-13

    Cells of the innate immune system use Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to initiate the proinflammatory response to microbial infection. Recent studies have shown acute infections are associated with a transient increase in the risk of vascular thrombotic events. Although platelets play a central role in acute thrombosis and accumulating evidence demonstrates their role in inflammation and innate immunity, investigations into the expression and functionality of platelet TLRs have been limited. In the present study, we demonstrate that human platelets express TLR2, TLR1, and TLR6. Incubation of isolated platelets with Pam(3)CSK4, a synthetic TLR2/TLR1 agonist, directly induced platelet aggregation and adhesion to collagen. These functional responses were inhibited in TLR2-deficient mice and, in human platelets, by pretreatment with TLR2-blocking antibody. Stimulation of platelet TLR2 also increased P-selectin surface expression, activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), generation of reactive oxygen species, and, in human whole blood, formation of platelet-neutrophil heterotypic aggregates. TLR2 stimulation also activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling pathway in platelets, and inhibition of PI3-K significantly reduced Pam(3)CSK4-induced platelet responses. In vivo challenge with live Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that uses TLR2 for innate immune signaling, also induced significant formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates in wild-type but not TLR2-deficient mice. Together, these data provide the first demonstration that human platelets express functional TLR2 capable of recognizing bacterial components and activating the platelet thrombotic and/or inflammatory pathways. This work substantiates the role of platelets in the immune and inflammatory response and suggests a mechanism by which bacteria could directly activate platelets.

  17. Alisol B acetate induces apoptosis of SGC7901 cells via mitochondrial and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases/Akt signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Hong Xu; Li-Jie Zhao; Yan Li

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of alisol B acetate on the growth of human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 and its possible mechanism of action. METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of alisol B acetate on SGC7901 cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Phase-contrast and electron microscopy were used to observe the morphological changes. Cell cycle and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-regulated gene Bcl-2, Bax, Apaf-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, Akt, P-Akt and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K). RESULTS: Alisol B acetate inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 cell line in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PI staining showed that alisol B acetate can change the cell cycle distribution of SGC7901, increase the proportion of cells in G0-G1 phase and decrease the proportion of S phase cells and G2-M phase cells. Alisol B acetate at a concentration of 30 μmol/L induced apoptosis after 24, 48 and 72 h incubation, with occurrence rates of apoptotic cells of 4.36%, 14.42% and 21.16%, respectively. Phase-contrast and electron microscopy revealed that the nuclear fragmentation and chromosomal condensed, cells shrank and attachment loss appeared in the SGC7901 treated with alisol B acetate. Apoptosis of SGC7901 with alisol B acetate. Apoptosis of SGC7901 cells was associated with cell cycle arrest, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and up-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt. CONCLUSION: Alisol B acetate exhibits an antiproliferative effect in SGC7901 cells by inducing apoptosis. Apoptosis of SGC7901 cells involves mitochondria-caspase and PI3K/Akt dependent pathways.

  18. Salinomycin causes migration and invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase pathways.

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    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-06-01

    Salinomycin (SAL) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to regulate a variety of cellular responses in various human cancer cells. However, the effects of SAL on metastatic capacity of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells have not been elucidated. We investigated the effect of SAL on migration and invasion, with emphasis on the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Treatment of SAL promoted the expression and activation of MMP-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as detected by western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. SAL also increased metastatic capacities, as determined by an increase in the migration and invasion of cells using the wound healing assay and the invasion assay, respectively. To confirm the detailed molecular mechanisms of these effects, we measured the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)s (ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase), as detected by the phosphorylated proteins through western blot analysis. SAL treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. Inhibition of PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2, and p38 kinase with LY294002, PD98059, and SB203580, respectively, in the presence of SAL suppressed the metastatic capacity by reducing MMP-2 expression, as determined by gelatin zymography. Our results indicate that the PI3-kinase and MAPK signaling pathways are involved in migration and invasion of HT1080 through induction of MMP-2 expression and activation. In conclusion, SAL significantly increases the metastatic capacity of HT1080 cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase and MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that SAL may be a potential agent for the study of cancer metastatic capacities.

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced migration of multiple myeloma cells is associated with beta 1 integrin- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent PKC alpha activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Klaus; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Boris K; Narsimhan, Radha P; Sattler, Martin; Kijima, Takashi; Salgia, Ravi; Gupta, Deepak; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2002-03-08

    In multiple myeloma (MM), migration is necessary for the homing of tumor cells to bone marrow (BM), for expansion within the BM microenvironment, and for egress into the peripheral blood. In the present study we characterize the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and beta(1) integrin (CD29) in MM cell migration. We show that protein kinase C (PKC) alpha is translocated to the plasma membrane and activated by adhesion of MM cells to fibronectin and VEGF. We identify beta(1) integrin modulating VEGF-triggered MM cell migration on fibronectin. We show that transient enhancement of MM cell adhesion to fibronectin triggered by VEGF is dependent on the activity of both PKC and beta(1) integrin. Moreover, we demonstrate that PKC alpha is constitutively associated with beta(1) integrin. These data are consistent with PKC alpha-dependent exocytosis of activated beta(1) integrin to the plasma membrane, where its increased surface expression mediates binding to fibronectin; conversely, catalytically active PKC alpha-driven internalization of beta(1) integrin results in MM cell de-adhesion. We show that the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (p85) is constitutively associated with FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1). VEGF stimulates activation of PI 3-kinase, and both MM cell adhesion and migration are PI 3-kinase-dependent. Moreover, both VEGF-induced PI 3-kinase activation and beta(1) integrin-mediated binding to fibronectin are required for the recruitment and activation of PKC alpha. Time-lapse phase contrast video microscopy (TLVM) studies confirm the importance of these signaling components in VEGF-triggered MM cell migration on fibronectin.

  20. Plant phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Munnik, T.; Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates the D-3 position of phosphoinositides. In Arabidopsis, only one PI3K exists, which belongs to the class-III PI3K subfamily which makes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The single AtPI3K gene is essential for survival, since loss of its

  1. Regulated assembly of vacuolar ATPase is increased during cluster disruption-induced maturation of dendritic cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mTOR-dependent pathway.

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    Liberman, Rachel; Bond, Sarah; Shainheit, Mara G; Stadecker, Miguel J; Forgac, Michael

    2014-01-17

    The vacuolar (H(+))-ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-driven proton pumps composed of a peripheral V1 domain and a membrane-embedded V0 domain. Regulated assembly of V1 and V0 represents an important regulatory mechanism for controlling V-ATPase activity in vivo. Previous work has shown that V-ATPase assembly increases during maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced by activation of Toll-like receptors. This increased assembly is essential for antigen processing, which is dependent upon an acidic lysosomal pH. Cluster disruption of dendritic cells induces a semi-mature phenotype associated with immune tolerance. Thus, semi-mature dendritic cells are able to process and present self-peptides to suppress autoimmune responses. We have investigated V-ATPase assembly in bone marrow-derived, murine dendritic cells and observed an increase in assembly following cluster disruption. This increased assembly is not dependent upon new protein synthesis and is associated with an increase in concanamycin A-sensitive proton transport in FITC-loaded lysosomes. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with wortmannin or mTORC1 with rapamycin effectively inhibits the increased assembly observed upon cluster disruption. These results suggest that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mTOR pathway is involved in controlling V-ATPase assembly during dendritic cell maturation.

  2. Fluid shear stress inhibits TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts: a role for fluid shear stress-induced activation of PI3-kinase and inhibition of caspase-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Gerard, Rita L.; Ponik, Suzanne M.; Gallagher, Patricia J.; Jin, Yijun; Norvell, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    In bone, a large proportion of osteoblasts, the cells responsible for deposition of new bone, normally undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). Because mechanical loading of bone increases the rate of new bone formation, we hypothesized that mechanical stimulation of osteoblasts might increase their survival. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of fluid shear stress (FSS) on osteoblast apoptosis using three osteoblast cell types: primary rat calvarial osteoblasts (RCOB), MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, and UMR106 osteosarcoma cells. Cells were treated with TNF-alpha in the presence of cyclohexamide (CHX) to rapidly induce apoptosis. Osteoblasts showed significant signs of apoptosis within 4-6 h of exposure to TNF-alpha and CHX, and application of FSS (12 dyne/cm(2)) significantly attenuated this TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. FSS activated PI3-kinase signaling, induced phosphorylation of Akt, and inhibited TNF-alpha-induced activation of caspase-3. Inhibition of PI3-kinase, using LY294002, blocked the ability of FSS to rescue osteoblasts from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and blocked FSS-induced inhibition of caspase-3 activation in osteoblasts treated with TNF-alpha. LY294002 did not, however, prevent FSS-induced phosphorylation of Akt suggesting that activation of Akt alone is not sufficient to rescue cells from apoptosis. This result also suggests that FSS can activate Akt via a PI3-kinase-independent pathway. These studies demonstrate for the first time that application of FSS to osteoblasts in vitro results in inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis through a mechanism involving activation of PI3-kinase signaling and inhibition of caspases. FSS-induced activation of PI3-kinase may promote cell survival through a mechanism that is distinct from the Akt-mediated survival pathway. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Angiotensin Ⅱ suppresses adriamycin-induced apoptosis through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling in human breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin Zhao; Xuesong Chen; Li Cai; Yanmei Yang; Guangjie Sui; Jin Wu

    2008-01-01

    Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) stimulates tumor growth and angiogenesis in some solid cancer cells, but its anti-apoptosis role in breast cancer remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the effect of Ang Ⅱ on adriamycin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with adriamycin, a DNA topoisomerase Hα inhibitor, caused apoptosis. However, cells pretreated with Ang Ⅱ were resistant to this apoptosis. Ang Ⅱ significantly reduced the ratio of apoptotic cells and stimulation of phospho-Akt-Thr308 and phospho-Akt-Ser473 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In addition, Ang Ⅱ significantly prevented apoptosis through inhibiting the cleavage of procaspase-9, a major downstream effector of Akt.The Ang Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R) was responsible for these effects. Among the signaling molecules downstream of AT1R,we revealed that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway plays a predominant role in the anti-apoptotic effect of Ang Ⅱ. Our data indicated that Ang Ⅱ plays a critical antiapoptotic role in breast cancer cells by a mechanism involving AT1R/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation and the subsequent suppression of caspase-9 activation.

  4. Etk/Bmx transactivates vascular endothelial growth factor 2 and recruits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to mediate the tumor necrosis factor-induced angiogenic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Xu, Yingqian; Ekman, Niklas; Wu, Zhenhua; Wu, Jiong; Alitalo, Kari; Min, Wang

    2003-12-19

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), via its receptor 2 (TNFR2), induces Etk (or Bmx) activation and Etk-dependent endothelial cell (EC) migration and tube formation. Because TNF receptor 2 lacks an intrinsic kinase activity, we examined the kinase(s) mediating TNF-induced Etk activation. TNF induces a coordinated phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and Etk, which is blocked by VEGFR2-specific inhibitors. In response to TNF, Etk and VEGFR2 form a complex resulting in a reciprocal activation between the two kinases. Subsequently, the downstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling (but not signaling through phospholipase C-gamma) was initiated and directly led to TNF-induced EC migration, which was significantly inhibited by VEGFR2-, PI3K-, or Akt-specific inhibitors. Phosphorylation of VEGFR2 at Tyr-801 and Tyr-1175, the critical sites for VEGF-induced PI3K-Akt signaling, was not involved in TNF-mediated Akt activation. However, TNF induces phosphorylation of Etk at Tyr-566, directly mediating the recruitment of the p85 subunit of PI3K. Furthermore, TNF- but not VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2, Akt, and EC migration are blunted in EC genetically deficient with Etk. Taken together, our data demonstrated that TNF induces transactivation between Etk and VEGFR2, and Etk directly activates PI3K-Akt angiogenic signaling independent of VEGF-induced VEGFR2-PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

  5. Class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 activates autophagy and induces apoptosis through p53 pathway in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chungen Xing; Baosong Zhu; Huihui Liu; Huihua Yao; Lifeng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to study the effects of LY294002, an inhibitor of classIphosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PDK), on proliferation,apoptosis, and autophagy in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901.In this study, we showed that LY294002 inhibited the viability of gastric cancer SGC7901 cells.We also showed that LY294002 increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3),and increased monodansylcadaverine(MDC)-labeled vesicles.LY294002 activated autophagy by activating p53 and caspase-3,and induced apoptosis by up-regulating p53 and p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis(PUMA).Therefore,LY294002 might induce cytotoxicity in SGC7901 cells through activation of p53 and the downstream point PUMA.These findings suggest that inhibition of the class I PI3K signaling pathway is a potential strategy for managing gastric cancers.

  6. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: wangjianwei1968@gmail.com [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Gu, Tieguang [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto 602-8136 (Japan); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: yuhao@sitcm.edu.au [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in

  7. Telencephalin protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by activating the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping Yang; Dapeng Wu; Xiaojie Zhang; Xiang Wang; Yi Peng; Zhiping Hu

    2012-01-01

    Telencephalin is a neural glycoprotein that reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid beta protein in the human neural tumor cell line PAJU.In this study,we examined the role of the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in this process.Western blot analysis demonstrated that telencephalin,phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B were not expressed in PAJU cells transfected with empty plasmid,while they were expressed in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid.After treatment with 1.0 nM amyloid beta protein 42,expression of telencephalin and phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B in the transfected cells gradually diminished,while levels of phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin increased.In addition,the high levels of telencephalin,phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B expression in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid could be suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002.These findings indicate that telencephalin activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis.

  8. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation. PMID:28072855

  9. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiroko; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation.

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway mediates acupuncture-induced dopaminergic neuron protection and motor function improvement in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Seung-Tae; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Ji-Yeun; Moon, Woongjoon; Chae, Younbyoung; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that acupuncture treatment reduced dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, the mechanistic pathways underlying, such neuroprotection, are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanism of acupuncture in a mouse model of PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). First, we observed that MPTP-induced impairment of Akt activation, but not MPTP-induced c-Jun activation, was effectively restored by acupuncture treatment in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that the brain-specific blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, by intranasal administration of LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, significantly blocked acupuncture-induced dopaminergic neuron protection and motor function improvement. Our results provide evidence that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may play a central role in the mechanism underlying acupuncture-induced benefits in Parkinsonian mice.

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P; Zorzano, A

    1997-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been cloned and characterized in a wide range of organisms. PI 3-kinases are activated by a diversity of extracellular stimuli and are involved in multiple cell processes such as cell proliferation, protein trafficking, cell motility, differentiation, regulation of cytoskeletal structure, and apoptosis. It has recently been shown that PI 3-kinase is a crucial second messenger in the signaling of myogenesis. Two structurally unrelated highly specific inhibitors of PI 3-kinase-wortmannin and LY294002-block the morphological and biochemical differentiation program of different skeletal-muscle cell models. Moreover, L6E9 myoblasts overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant of PI 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit (Δp85) are unable to differentiate. Furthermore, PI 3-kinase is specifically involved in the insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-dependent myogenic pathway. Indeed, the ability of IGF-I, des-1,3-IGF-I, and IGF-II to promote cell fusion and muscle-specific protein expression is impaired after treatment with PI 3-kinase inhibitors or in cells overexpressing Δp85. The identification of additional key downstream elements of the IGF/PI 3-kinase myogenic cascade is crucial to a detailed understanding of the process of muscle differentiation and may generate new tools for skeletal and cardiac muscle regeneration therapies. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:198-202). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Serum albumin protects from cytokine-induced pancreatic beta cell death by a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Caroline; Thams, Peter

    2009-01-01

    ) inhibitors LY294002 (25 micromol/l) and wortmannin (1 micromol/l), suggesting that albumin may rescue beta cells from cytokine-induced cell death by activation of PI3K. In accordance, albumin stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, a down-stream target for PI3K. In conclusion, it is suggested that albumin may...

  13. Extracellular acidosis induces neutrophil activation by a mechanism dependent on activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and ERK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Diego; Vermeulen, Mónica; Trevani, Analía; Ceballos, Ana; Sabatté, Juan; Gamberale, Romina; Alvarez, María Eugenia; Salamone, Gabriela; Tanos, Tamara; Coso, Omar A; Geffner, Jorge

    2006-01-15

    Inflammation in peripheral tissues is usually associated with the development of local acidosis; however, there are few studies aimed at analyzing the influence of acidosis on immune cells. We have shown previously that extracellular acidosis triggers human neutrophil activation, inducing a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, a shape change response, the up-regulation of CD18 expression, and a delay of apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed the signaling pathways responsible for neutrophil activation. We found that acidosis triggers the phosphorylation of Akt (the main downstream target of PI3K) and ERK MAPK, but not that of p38 and JNK MAPK. No degradation of IkappaB was observed, supporting the hypothesis that NF-kappaB is not activated under acidosis. Inhibition of PI3K by wortmannin or LY294002 markedly decreased the shape change response and the induction of Ca2+ transients triggered by acidosis, whereas the inhibition of MEK by PD98059 or U0126 significantly inhibited the shape change response without affecting the induction of Ca2+ transients. We also found that acidosis not only induces a shape change response and the induction of Ca2+ transients in human neutrophils but also stimulates the endocytosis of FITC-OVA and FITC-dextran. Stimulation of endocytosis was partially prevented by inhibitors of PI3K and MEK. Together, our results support the notion that the stimulation of human neutrophils by extracellular acidosis is dependent on the activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways. Of note, using mouse peritoneal neutrophils we observed that the enhancement of endocytosis induced by acidosis was associated with an improved ability to present extracellular Ags through a MHC class I-restricted pathway.

  14. Nitric oxide mediates stretch-induced Ca2+ release via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway in smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hollow smooth muscle organs such as the bladder undergo significant changes in wall tension associated with filling and distension, with attendant changes in muscle tone. Our previous study indicated that stretch induces Ca(2+ release occurs in the form of Ca(2+ sparks and Ca(2+ waves in urinary bladder myocytes. While, the mechanism underlying stretch-induced Ca2+ release in smooth muscle is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the transduction mechanism linking cell stretch to Ca(2+ release. The probability and frequency of Ca(2+ sparks induced by stretch were closely related to the extent of cell extension and the time that the stretch was maintained. Experiments in tissues and single myocytes indicated that mechanical stretch significantly increases the production of nitric oxide (NO and the amplitude and duration of muscle contraction. Stretch-induced Ca(2+ sparks and contractility increases were abrogated by the NO inhibitor L-NAME and were also absent in eNOS knockout mice. Furthermore, exposure of eNOS null mice to exogenously generated NO induced Ca(2+ sparks. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ did not inhibit SICR, but this process was effectively blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitors LY494002 and wortmannin; the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS were up-regulated by 204+/-28.6% and 258+/-36.8% by stretch, respectively. Moreover, stretch significantly increased the eNOS protein expression level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking together, these results suggest that stretch-induced Ca2+ release is NO dependent, resulting from the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway in smooth muscle.

  15. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase accelerates postoperative tumor growth by inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Novel role for an old enemy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin

    2012-02-03

    Tumor removal remains the principal treatment modality in the management of solid tumors. The process of tumor removal may potentiate the resurgent growth of residual neoplastic tissue. Herein, we describe a novel murine model in which flank tumor cytoreduction is followed by accelerated local tumor recurrence. This model held for primary and recurrent tumors generated using a panel of human and murine (LS174T, DU145, SW480, SW640, and 3LL) cell lines and replicated accelerated tumor growth following excisional surgery. In investigating this further, epithelial cells were purified from LS174T primary and corresponding recurrent tumors for comparison. Baseline as well as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis were significantly reduced in recurrent tumor epithelia. Primary and recurrent tumor gene expression profiles were then compared. This identified an increase and reduction in the expression of p110gamma and p85alpha class Ia phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) subunits in recurrent tumor epithelia. These changes were further confirmed at the protein level. The targeting of PI3K ex vivo, using LY294002, restored sensitivity to TRAIL in recurrent tumor epithelia. In vivo, adjuvant LY294002 prolonged survival and significantly attenuated recurrent tumor growth by greatly enhancing apoptosis levels. Hence, PI3K plays a role in generating the antiapoptotic and chemoresistant phenotype associated with accelerated local tumor recurrence.

  16. Prolonged Alzheimer-like Tau Hyperphosphorylation Induced by Simultaneous Inhibition of Phosphoinositol-3 Kinase and Protein Kinase C in N2a cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Gang XU; Yan-Qiu DENG; Shi-Jie LIU; Hong-Lian LI; Jian-Zhi WANG

    2005-01-01

    Co-injection of wortmannin (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, PI3K) and GF109203X (inhibitor of protein kinase C, PKC) into the rat brain was found to induce spatial memory deficiency and enhance tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus of rat brain. To establish a cell model with durative Alzheimer-like tau hyperphosphorylation in this study, we treated N2a neuroblastoma cells with wortmannin and GF109203X separately and simultaneously, and measured the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3)activity by γ-32p-labeling and the level of tau phosphorylation by Western blotting. It was found that the application of wortmannin alone only transitorily increased the activity of GSK-3 (about 1 h) and the level of tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396/Ser404 and Ser199/Ser202 sites (no longer than 3 h); however, a prolonged and intense activation of GSK-3 (over 12 h) and enhanced tau hyperphosphorylation (about 24 h) were observed when these two selective kinase inhibitors were applied together. We conclude that the simultaneous inhibition of PI3K and PKC can induce GSK-3 overactivation, and further strengthen and prolong the Alzheimerlike tau hyperphosphorylation in N2a cells, suggesting the establishment of a cell model with early pathological events of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM/ATR and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in clone-9 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Tsai, Jung-Fa; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Chiou, Shean-Jaw; Chuang, Lea-Yea

    2009-06-01

    Betel-quid use is associated with liver cancer whereas its constituent arecoline is cytotoxic, genotoxic, and induces p53-dependent p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells (rat hepatocytes). The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/rad3-related (ATR)-p53-p21(WAF1) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are involved in the DNA damage response and the pathogenesis of cancers. Thus, we studied the role of ATM/ATR and PI3K in arecoline-induced p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells. We found that arecoline (0.5 mM) activated the ATM/ATR kinase at 30 min. The arecoline-activated ATM/ATR substrate contained p-p53Ser15. Moreover, arecoline only increased the levels of the p-p53Ser6, p-p53Ser15, and p-p53Ser392 phosphorylated p53 isoforms among the known isoforms. ATM shRNA attenuated arecoline-induced p-p53Ser15 and p21(WAF1) at 24 h. Arecoline (0.5 mM) increased phosphorylation levels of p-AktSer473 and p-mTORSer2448 at 30-60 min. Dominant-negative PI3K plasmids attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1), but not p-p53Ser15, at 24 h. Rapamycin attenuated arecoline-induced phosphrylated p-p53Ser15, but not p21(WAF1), at 24 h. ATM shRNA, but not dominant-negative PI3K plasmids, attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) gene transcription. We conclude that arecoline activates the ATM/ATR-p53-p21(WAF1) and the PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p53 pathways in Clone-9 cells. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p-p53Ser15 expression is dependent on ATM whereas arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM and PI3K. Moreover, p21(WAF1) gene is transcriptionally induced by arecoline-activated ATM.

  18. Polycystin-1 Induces Cell Migration by Regulating Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent Cytoskeletal Rearrangements and GSK3β-dependent Cell–Cell Mechanical Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Manila; D'Amato, Lisa; Distefano, Gianfranco; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2007-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC-1) is a large plasma-membrane receptor encoded by the PKD1 gene mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Although the disease is thought to be recessive on a molecular level, the precise mechanism of cystogenesis is unclear, although cytoarchitecture defects seem to be the most likely initiating events. Here we show that PC-1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) and induces cell scattering and cell migration. All of these effects require phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activity. Consistent with these observations Pkd1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) have reduced capabilities to migrate compared with controls. PC-1 overexpressing MDCK cells are able to polarize normally with proper adherens and tight junctions formation, but show quick reabsorption of ZO-1, E-cadherin, and β-catenin upon wounding of a monolayer and a transient epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that favors a rapid closure of the wound and repolarization. Finally, we show that PC-1 is able to control the turnover of cytoskeletal-associated β-catenin through activation of GSK3β. Expression of a nondegradable form of β-catenin in PC-1 MDCK cells restores strong cell–cell mechanical adhesion. We propose that PC-1 might be a central regulator of epithelial plasticity and its loss results in impaired normal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:17671167

  19. Ehrlichia secretes Etf-1 to induce autophagy and capture nutrients for its growth through RAB5 and class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingqun; Liu, Hongyan; Xiong, Qingming; Niu, Hua; Cheng, Zhihui; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2016-11-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes a potentially fatal emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. E. chaffeensis has a limited capacity for biosynthesis and metabolism and thus depends mostly on host-synthesized nutrients for growth. Although the host cell cytoplasm is rich with these nutrients, as E. chaffeensis is confined within the early endosome-like membrane-bound compartment, only host nutrients that enter the compartment can be used by this bacterium. How this occurs is unknown. We found that ehrlichial replication depended on autophagy induction involving class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) activity, BECN1 (Beclin 1), and ATG5 (autophagy-related 5). Ehrlichia acquired host cell preincorporated amino acids in a class III PtdIns3K-dependent manner and ehrlichial growth was enhanced by treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer. Moreover, ATG5 and RAB5A/B/C were routed to ehrlichial inclusions. RAB5A/B/C siRNA knockdown, or overexpression of a RAB5-specific GTPase-activating protein or dominant-negative RAB5A inhibited ehrlichial infection, indicating the critical role of GTP-bound RAB5 during infection. Both native and ectopically expressed ehrlichial type IV secretion effector protein, Etf-1, bound RAB5 and the autophagy-initiating class III PtdIns3K complex, PIK3C3/VPS34, and BECN1, and homed to ehrlichial inclusions. Ectopically expressed Etf-1 activated class III PtdIns3K as in E. chaffeensis infection and induced autophagosome formation, cleared an aggregation-prone mutant huntingtin protein in a class III PtdIns3K-dependent manner, and enhanced ehrlichial proliferation. These data support the notion that E. chaffeensis secretes Etf-1 to induce autophagy to repurpose the host cytoplasm and capture nutrients for its growth through RAB5 and class III PtdIns3K, while avoiding autolysosomal killing.

  20. Microfluidic generated EGF-gradients induce chemokinesis of transplantable retinal progenitor cells via the JAK/STAT and PI3kinase signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna J Unachukwu

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are evaluating retinal progenitor cell (RPC transplantation as an approach to repair retinal degeneration and restore visual function. To advance cell-replacement strategies for a practical retinal therapy, it is important to define the molecular and biochemical mechanisms guiding RPC motility. We have analyzed RPC expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and evaluated whether exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF can coordinate motogenic activity in vitro. Using Boyden chamber analysis as an initial high-throughput screen, we determined that RPC motility was optimally stimulated by EGF concentrations in the range of 20-400 ng/ml, with decreased stimulation at higher concentrations, suggesting concentration-dependence of EGF-induced motility. Using bioinformatics analysis of the EGF ligand in a retina-specific gene network pathway, we predicted a chemotactic function for EGF involving the MAPK and JAK-STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Based on targeted inhibition studies, we show that ligand binding, phosphorylation of EGFR and activation of the intracellular STAT3 and PI3kinase signaling pathways are necessary to drive RPC motility. Using engineered microfluidic devices to generate quantifiable steady-state gradients of EGF coupled with live-cell tracking, we analyzed the dynamics of individual RPC motility. Microfluidic analysis, including center of mass and maximum accumulated distance, revealed that EGF induced motility is chemokinetic with optimal activity observed in response to low concentration gradients. Our combined results show that EGFR expressing RPCs exhibit enhanced chemokinetic motility in the presence of low nanomole levels of EGF. These findings may serve to inform further studies evaluating the extent to which EGFR activity, in response to endogenous ligand, drives motility and migration of RPCs in retinal transplantation paradigms.

  1. ETP-46321, a dual p110α/δ class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor modulates T lymphocyte activation and collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragoneses-Fenoll, L; Montes-Casado, M; Ojeda, G; Acosta, Y Y; Herranz, J; Martínez, S; Blanco-Aparicio, C; Criado, G; Pastor, J; Dianzani, U; Portolés, P; Rojo, J M

    2016-04-15

    Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are essential to function of normal and tumor cells, and to modulate immune responses. T lymphocytes express high levels of p110α and p110δ class IA PI3K. Whereas the functioning of PI3K p110δ in immune and autoimmune reactions is well established, the role of p110α is less well understood. Here, a novel dual p110α/δ inhibitor (ETP-46321) and highly specific p110α (A66) or p110δ (IC87114) inhibitors have been compared concerning T cell activation in vitro, as well as the effect on responses to protein antigen and collagen-induced arthritis in vivo. In vitro activation of naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 was inhibited more effectively by the p110δ inhibitor than by the p110α inhibitor as measured by cytokine secretion (IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-γ), T-bet expression and NFAT activation. In activated CD4(+) T cells re-stimulated through CD3 and ICOS, IC87114 inhibited Akt and Erk activation, and the secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17A, and IFN-γ better than A66. The p110α/δ inhibitor ETP-46321, or p110α plus p110δ inhibitors also inhibited IL-21 secretion by differentiated CD4(+) T follicular (Tfh) or IL-17-producing (Th17) helper cells. In vivo, therapeutic administration of ETP-46321 significantly inhibited responses to protein antigen as well as collagen-induced arthritis, as measured by antigen-specific antibody responses, secretion of IL-10, IL-17A or IFN-γ, or clinical symptoms. Hence, p110α as well as p110δ Class IA PI3Ks are important to immune regulation; inhibition of both subunits may be an effective therapeutic approach in inflammatory autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is essential for kit ligand-mediated survival, whereas interleukin-3 and flt3 ligand induce expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Richard; Engström, Maria; Jönsson, Maria;

    2003-01-01

    not sustain their expression. Moreover, use of inhibitors implied that IL-3 was mainly exerting its effect on Bcl-2 at the level of transcription. The addition of LY294002 did not affect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, and thus, we conclude that expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member genes......Cytokines such as interleukin 3 (IL-3), kit ligand (KL), and flt3 ligand (FL) promote survival of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells. In many cell types, members of the Bcl-2 gene family are major regulators of survival, but the mediating mechanisms are not fully understood...... is not dependent on PI-3 kinase activity. Our results indicate that cytokines exert distinct survival effects and that FL and IL-3 are capable of sustaining progenitor survival by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and related genes....

  4. Herpesvirus gB-induced fusion between the virion envelope and outer nuclear membrane during virus egress is regulated by the viral US3 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Todd W; Wright, Catherine C; Kato, Akihisa; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Mou, Fan; Baines, Joel D; Roller, Richard J; Johnson, David C

    2009-04-01

    Herpesvirus capsids collect along the inner surface of the nuclear envelope and bud into the perinuclear space. Enveloped virions then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane (NM). We previously showed that herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins gB and gH act in a redundant fashion to promote fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM. HSV mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate enveloped virions in herniations, vesicles that bulge into the nucleoplasm. Earlier studies had shown that HSV mutants lacking the viral serine/threonine kinase US3 also accumulate herniations. Here, we demonstrate that HSV gB is phosphorylated in a US3-dependent manner in HSV-infected cells, especially in a crude nuclear fraction. Moreover, US3 directly phosphorylated the gB cytoplasmic (CT) domain in in vitro assays. Deletion of gB in the context of a US3-null virus did not add substantially to defects in nuclear egress. The majority of the US3-dependent phosphorylation of gB involved the CT domain and amino acid T887, a residue present in a motif similar to that recognized by US3 in other proteins. HSV recombinants lacking gH and expressing either gB substitution mutation T887A or a gB truncated at residue 886 displayed substantial defects in nuclear egress. We concluded that phosphorylation of the gB CT domain is important for gB-mediated fusion with the outer NM. This suggested a model in which the US3 kinase is incorporated into the tegument layer (between the capsid and envelope) in HSV virions present in the perinuclear space. By this packaging, US3 might be brought close to the gB CT tail, leading to phosphorylation and triggering fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM.

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-2 Contributes to the Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Induced Neuronal Differentiation in Canine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Nakano

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are considered as candidates for regenerative therapy and a useful model for studying neuronal differentiation. The role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in neuronal differentiation has been previously studied; however, the signaling pathway involved in this process remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway in the bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation of canine BMSCs. bFGF induced the mRNA expression of the neuron marker, microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2 and the neuron-like morphological change in canine BMSCs. In the presence of inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and Akt, i.e., SU5402, LY294002, and MK2206, respectively, bFGF failed to induce the MAP2 mRNA expression and the neuron-like morphological change. bFGF induced Akt phosphorylation, but it was attenuated by the FGFR inhibitor SU5402 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In canine BMSCs, expression of FGFR-1 and FGFR-2 was confirmed, but only FGFR-2 activation was detected by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGFR-2 in canine BMSCs resulted in the attenuation of bFGF-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that the FGFR-2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation of canine BMSCs.

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase occurs upstream of Ca^(2+)-signalling induced by Fcy receptor cross-linking in human neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossebeld, Paula J. M.; Homburg, Christa H. E.; Schweizer, R.C.; Ibarrola, Iñaki; Kessler, Jan; Koenderman, L.; Roos, Dirk; Verhoeven, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of wortmannin on IgG-receptor (FcyR)-mediated stimulation of human neutrophils was investigated. The Ca^(2+) influx induced by clustering of both Fcy receptors was inhibited by wortmannin, as was the release of Ca^(2+) from intracellular stores. Wortmannin also inhibited, with the same ef

  7. IL-4 protects the B-cell lymphoma cell line CH31 from anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis:contribution of the PI-3' kinase/AKT pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory B Carey; Elena Semenova; Xiulan Qi; Achsah D Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin-4(IL-4)promotes lymphocyte survival and protects primary lymphomas from apoptosis.Previous studies reported differential requirements for the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6(STAT6)and IRS2/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI-3K)signaling pathways in mediating the IL-4-induced protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis.In this study,we characterized IL-4-activated signals that suppress anti-IgM-mediated apoptosis and growth arrest of CH31,a model B-cell lymphoma line.In CH31,anti-IgM treatment leads to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential,phospho-Akt,phospho-CDK2,and c-myc protein.These losses are followed by massive induction ofp27Kip1 protein expression,cell cycle arrest,and apoptosis.Strikingly,IL-4 treatment prevented or reversed these changes.Furthermore,IL-4 suppressed the activation of caspases 9 and 3,and,in contrast to previous reports,induced the phosphorylation(deactivation)of BAD.IL-4 treatment also induced expression of BclxL,a STAT6-dependent gene.Pharmacologic inhibitors and dominant inhibitory forms of PI-3K andAkt abrogated the anti-apoptotic function of IL-4.These results suggest that the IL-4 receptor activates several signaling pathways,with the Akt pathway playing a major role in suppression of the apoptotic program activated by anti-IgM.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni induces an anti-inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacterjejuni (C. jejuni) is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Poultry is a major reservoir of C. jejuni and considered an important source of human infections, thus, it is important to understand the host response to C. jejuni from chicken origin. In this study...... for cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) deficient mutants. Moreover, we demonstrated that heat-killed bacteria were able to induce IL-8 and IL-10 expression to a lower level than live bacteria. We therefore conclude that C. jejuni activate a PI3K/Akt-dependent anti-inflammatory pathway in human intestinal...

  9. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor GS-1101 synergistically potentiates histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through the inactivation of PI3K and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, Juraj; Zhao, Xiaoxian; Sharma, Arishya; Hill, Brian T; Portell, Craig A; Lannutti, Brian J; Almasan, Alexandru; Hsi, Eric D

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we showed that inhibition of the protein kinase C β (PKCβ)/AKT pathway augments engagement of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI)-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and mechanisms of cell death induced by the delta isoform-specific phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, GS-1101, in combination with the HDI, panobinostat (LBH589) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Lymphoma cell lines, primary non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells were simultaneously treated with the HDI, LBH589 and GS-1101. An interaction of the LBH589/GS-1101 combination was formally examined by using various concentrations of LBH589 and GS-1101. Combined treatment resulted in a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and showed synergistic effect on apoptotic induction in all tested cell lines and primary NHL and CLL cells. This study indicates that interference with PI3K signalling dramatically increases HDI-mediated apoptosis in malignant haematopoietic cells, possibly through both AKT-dependent or AKT- independent mechanisms. Moreover, the increase in HDI-related apoptosis observed in PI3K inhibitor-treated cells appears to be related to the disruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway. This study provides a strong rational for testing the combination of PI3K inhibitors and HDI in the clinic.

  10. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway Mediates Fip1-like1-platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α-induced Cell Infiltration and Activation: Possible Molecular Mechanism for the Malignant Phenotype of Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fip1-like1/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α fusion gene (F/P is responsible for 14-60% cases of hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES, also known as F/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (F/P(+ CEL. The major pathogenesis of F/P(+ CEL is known to involve migration and activation of mast cells and eosinophils, leading to severe multi-organ dysfunction, but the mechanism was still unclear. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and serine-threonine protein kinase Akt have been reported to be targets of F/P in the F/P-promoted cell proliferation. They are extensively involved in the migration and adhesion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and also control cell invasion in some leukemias. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in eosinophil/neutrophil activation and infiltration; its possible role in regulating F/P induced cytotoxicity and upregulation of A4-integrin in eosinophils, and inducing eosinophil activation through controlling F/P-induced Nuclear factor-kB activity. Akt was recently shown to be stimulated by F/P, synergistically with stem cell factor, resulting in the induction of MCs migration and excessive activation. PI3K/Akt pathway is also a principal mediator of interleukin-5 (IL-5-induced signal transduction promoting eosinophil trafficking and degranulation, whereas IL-5 is a necessary cytokine for F/P-mediated CEL development. We, therefore, propose the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt pathway might be vital downstream of F/P to induce target cell activation and tissue infiltration, resulting in the malignant phenotype seen in F/P(+ CEL.

  11. Manganese-induced integrin affinity maturation promotes recruitment of alpha V beta 3 integrin to focal adhesions in endothelial cells: evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Src.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormond, Olivier; Ponsonnet, Lionel; Hasmim, Meriem; Foletti, Alessandro; Rüegg, Curzio

    2004-07-01

    Integrin activity is controlled by changes in affinity (i.e. ligand binding) and avidity (i.e. receptor clustering). Little is known, however, about the effect of affinity maturation on integrin avidity and on the associated signaling pathways. To study the effect of affinity maturation on integrin avidity, we stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with MnCl(2) to increase integrin affinity and monitored clustering of beta 1 and beta 3 integrins. In unstimulated HUVEC, beta 1 integrins were present in fibrillar adhesions, while alpha V beta 3 was detected in peripheral focal adhesions. Clustered beta 1 and beta 3 integrins expressed high affinity/ligand-induced binding site (LIBS) epitopes. MnCl(2)-stimulation promoted focal adhesion and actin stress fiber formation at the basal surface of the cells, and strongly enhanced mAb LM609 staining and expression of beta 3 high affinity/LIBS epitopes at focal adhesions. MnCl(2)-induced alpha V beta 3 clustering was blocked by a soluble RGD peptide, by wortmannin and LY294002, two pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K), and by over-expressing a dominant negative PI 3-K mutant protein. Conversely, over-expression of active PI 3-K and pharmacological inhibiton of Src with PP2 and CGP77675, enhanced basal and manganese-induced alpha V beta 3 clustering. Transient increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt, a direct target of PI 3K, occurred upon manganese stimulation. MnCl(2) did not alter beta 1 integrin distribution or beta1 high-affinity/LIBS epitope expression. Based on these results, we conclude that MnCl(2)-induced alpha V beta 3 integrin affinity maturation stimulates focal adhesion and actin stress fiber formation, and promotes recruitment of high affinity alpha V beta 3 to focal adhesions. Affinity-modulated alpha V beta 3 clustering requires PI3-K signaling and is negatively regulate by Src.

  12. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-mammalian target of Rapamycin signaling pathway in the hippocampus is essential for the acquisition of morphine-induced place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Zhang, X Q; Cui, Y; Xin, W J; Jing, J; Liu, X G

    2010-11-24

    Hippocampus is a critical structure for the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), which is a usual learning paradigm for assessing drug reward. However, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt, mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), are critical molecules implicated in learning and memory. Here, we tested the role of PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway in morphine-induced CPP in the hippocampus. Our results showed that the acquisition of morphine CPP increased phosphorylation of Akt in the hippocampal CA3, but not in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the CA1. Moreover, the phosphorylated Akt exclusively expressed in the CA3 neurons. Likewise, levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p70S6K were significantly enhanced in the CA3 following morphine CPP. The alterations of these phosphorylated proteins are positively correlated with the acquisition of morphine CPP. More importantly, microinjection of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) into the CA3 prevented the acquisition of CPP and inhibited the activation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In addition, pre-infusion of β-FNA (β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride), a selective irreversible μ opioid receptor antagonist, into CA3 significantly prevented the acquisition of CPP and impaired Akt phosphorylation. All these results strongly implied that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activated by μ opioid receptor in hippocampal CA3 plays an important role in acquisition of morphine-induced CPP.

  13. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates crosstalk between Trk A tyrosine kinase and p75(NTR)-dependent sphingolipid signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderback, T R; Gazula, V R; Dobrowsky, R T

    2001-03-01

    The mechanism of crosstalk between signaling pathways coupled to the Trk A and p75(NTR) neurotrophin receptors in PC12 cells was examined. In response to nerve growth factor (NGF), Trk A activation inhibited p75(NTR)-dependent sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor, LY294002, reversed this inhibition suggesting that Trk A activation of PI 3-kinase is necessary to inhibit sphingolipid signaling by p75(NTR). In contrast, SM hydrolysis induced by neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which did not activate PI-3 kinase, was uneffected by LY294002. However, transient expression of a constituitively active PI 3-kinase inhibited p75(NTR)-dependent SM hydrolysis by both NGF and NT-3. Intriguingly, NGF induced an association of activated PI 3-kinase with acid sphingomyelinase (SMase). This interaction localized to caveolae-related domains and correlated with a 50% decrease in immunoprecipitated acid SMase activity. NGF-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity was necessary for inhibition of acid SMase but was not required for ligand-induced association of the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase with the phospholipase. Finally, this interaction was specific for NGF since EGF did not induce an association of PI 3-kinase with acid SMase. In summary, our data suggest that PI 3-kinase regulates the inhibitory crosstalk between Trk A tyrosine kinase and p75(NTR)-dependent sphingolipid signaling pathways and that this interaction localizes to caveolae-related domains.

  14. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Wan-Ling; Su, Chin-Cheng; Lin, Ping-Yi; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2015-08-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer.

  15. Ethosuximide Induces Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Reverses Cognitive Deficits in an Amyloid-β Toxin-induced Alzheimer Rat Model via the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Seth, Brashket; Agarwal, Swati; Yadav, Anuradha; Karmakar, Madhumita; Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Choubey, Vinay; Sharma, Abhay; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-11-20

    Neurogenesis involves generation of new neurons through finely tuned multistep processes, such as neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration into existing neuronal circuitry in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and subventricular zone. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in cognitive functions and altered in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer disease (AD). Ethosuximide (ETH), an anticonvulsant drug is used for the treatment of epileptic seizures. However, the effects of ETH on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism(s) are yet unexplored. Herein, we studied the effects of ETH on rat multipotent NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in an amyloid β (Aβ) toxin-induced rat model of AD-like phenotypes. ETH potently induced NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hippocampus-derived NSC in vitro. ETH enhanced NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation and reduced Aβ toxin-mediated toxicity and neurodegeneration, leading to behavioral recovery in the rat AD model. ETH inhibited Aβ-mediated suppression of neurogenic and Akt/Wnt/β-catenin pathway gene expression in the hippocampus. ETH activated the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin transduction pathways that are known to be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis. Inhibition of the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin pathways effectively blocked the mitogenic and neurogenic effects of ETH. In silico molecular target prediction docking studies suggest that ETH interacts with Akt, Dkk-1, and GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that ETH stimulates NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro and adult hippocampal neurogenesis via the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin signaling.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 overexpression through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway and transcription factor specificity protein 1 in BGC823 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Li; Xiaojun Wu; Jinling Gong; Jing Yang; Jiayan Leng; Qiaoyun Chen; Wenlin Xu

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the most important causes of chemotherapy failure and carcinoma recurrence.But the roles of the MDR-associated protein MRP1 in MDR remain poorly understood.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),one of the most active and specific vascular growth factors,plays a significant role in proliferation,differentiation,and metastasis of cancers.To explore the effect of VEGF on the expression of MRP1,we used recombinant human VEGF to stimulate K562 and BGC-823 cell lines.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed that the expression of MRP1 at both mRNA and protein levels was increased.3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide results also showed that VEGF significantly enhanced the ICs0 of the cells treated with adriamycin.To explore the underlying regulatory mechanisms,we constructed MRP1 promoter and the luciferase reporter gene recombinant vector.The luciferase reporter gene assay showed that the activity of the MRP1 promoter was markedly increased by VEGF stimulation,while LY294002,an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway,reduced this effect.Transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) binding site mutation partially blocked the up-regulation of MRP1 promoter activity by VEGF.In summary,our results demonstrated that VEGF enhanced the expression of MRP1,and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and SP1 may be involved in this modulation.

  17. Hydroxytyrosol induces antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes and Nrf2 translocation via extracellular regulated kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Trujillo, Mariana; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HTy) is a natural polyphenol abundant in olive oil, which possesses multiple biological actions. Particularly, HTy has cytoprotective activity against oxidative-stress-induced cell damage, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here, we have investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the protection exerted by HTy on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage in human HepG2 liver cells. Treatment of HepG2 cells with HTy increased the expression and the activity of glutathione-related enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase. HTy also induced the nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor (Nrf2), a transcription factor implicated in the expression of several antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes. Moreover, two important signalling proteins involved in Nrf2 translocation, the protein kinase B and the extracellular regulated kinases, were also activated by HTy. Further studies with specific inhibitors confirmed that both molecular pathways are critical for the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, the increased enzyme expression and activity and the beneficial effect against oxidative stress induced by HTy. In conclusion, together with the inherent radical scavenging activity of HTy, our results provide an additional mechanism of action to prevent oxidative stress damage through the modulation of signalling pathways involved in antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes regulation.

  18. The novel pterostilbene derivative ANK-199 induces autophagic cell death through regulating PI3 kinase class III/beclin 1/Atg‑related proteins in cisplatin‑resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Chen, Hao-Ping; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Wu, Tian-Shung; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2014-08-01

    Pterostilbene is an effective chemopreventive agent against multiple types of cancer cells. A novel pterostilbene derivative, ANK-199, was designed and synthesized by our group. Its antitumor activity and mechanism in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells were investigated in this study. Our results show that ANK-199 has an extremely low toxicity in normal oral cell lines. The formation of autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) was observed in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) staining, suggesting that ANK-199 is able to induce autophagic cell death in CAR cells. Neither DNA fragmentation nor DNA condensation was observed, which means that ANK-199-induced cell death is not triggered by apoptosis. In accordance with morphological observation, 3-MA, a specific inhibitor of PI3K kinase class III, can inhibit the autophagic vesicle formation induced by ANK-199. In addition, ANK-199 is also able to enhance the protein levels of autophagic proteins, Atg complex, beclin 1, PI3K class III and LC3-II, and mRNA expression of autophagic genes Atg7, Atg12, beclin 1 and LC3-II in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells. A molecular signaling pathway induced by ANK-199 was therefore summarized. Results presented in this study show that ANK-199 may become a novel therapeutic reagent for the treatment of oral cancer in the near future (patent pending).

  19. Endothelial PI 3-kinase activity regulates lymphocyte diapedesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaei-Nejad, Maryam; Hussain, Amer M; Zhang, Qiu-Xia; Murray, Allan G

    2007-12-01

    Lymphocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation involves a bidirectional series of cues between the endothelial cell (EC) and the leukocyte that culminate in lymphocyte migration into the tissue. Remodeling of the EC F-actin cytoskeleton has been observed after leukocyte adhesion, but the signals to the EC remain poorly defined. We studied the dependence of peripheral blood lymphocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) through an EC monolayer in vitro on EC phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity. Lymphocytes were perfused over cytokine-activated EC using a parallel-plate laminar flow chamber. Inhibition of EC PI 3-kinase activity using LY-294002 or wortmannin decreased lymphocyte TEM (48 +/- 6 or 34 +/- 7%, respectively, vs. control; mean +/- SE; P structure" after intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ligation, whereas this was inhibited by jasplakinolide treatment. A similar fraction of lymphocytes migrated on control or LY-294002-treated EC and localized to interendothelial junctions. However, lymphocytes failed to extend processes below the level of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin on LY-294002-treated EC. Together these observations indicate that EC PI 3-kinase activity and F-actin remodeling are required during lymphocyte diapedesis and identify a PI 3-kinase-dependent step following initial separation of the VE-cadherin barrier.

  20. Quercetin induces apoptosis via caspase activation, regulation of Bcl-2, and inhibition of PI-3-kinase/Akt and ERK pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2006-11-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been associated with the reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, but the precise underlying mechanism of protection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the activation of the apoptotic pathway in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner; however, a shorter treatment (4 h) had no effect on cell viability. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin for 18 h induced apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3 and -9, but not caspase-8. Moreover, this flavonoid decreased the Bcl-xL:Bcl-xS ratio and increased translocation of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. A sustained inhibition of the major survival signals, Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), also occurred in quercetin-treated cells. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade (mitochondrial pathway) and by inhibiting survival signaling in HepG2.

  1. Resveratrol inhibits TNF-α-induced IL-1β, MMP-3 production in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes via modulation of PI3kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Chen, Jin-wei; Gao, Jie-sheng; Li, Len; Xie, Xi

    2013-07-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a natural phytoalexin, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulatory properties and has the potential for treating inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokines production of IL-1β and MMP3 in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and further to explore the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by which resveratrol modulates those cytokines production. The levels of IL-1β, MMP-3 in cultural supernatants among groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Messenger RNA expression of IL-1β and MMP-3 in RA FLS was analyzed using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis was used to detect proteins expression in RA FLS intervened by resveratrol. Resveratrol inhibited both mRNA and proteins expressions of IL-1β and MMP-3 on RA FLS in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol also decreased significantly the expression of phosphorylated Akt dose dependently. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway exists in TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β and MMP3 on RA FLS, which is hampered by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Immunofluorescence staining showed that TNF-α alone increased the production of P-Akt, whereas LY294002 and 50 μM resveratrol suppressed the TNF-α-stimulated expression of P-Akt. Resveratrol attenuates TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β and MMP-3 via inhibition of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RA FLS, suggesting that resveratrol plays an anti-inflammatory role and might have beneficial effects in preventing and treating RA.

  2. The Role of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    1851-1863. 12. Cao, P., Maira, S.M., Garcia- Echeverria , C., and Hedley, D.W. (2009). Activity of a novel, dual PI3-kinase/mTor inhibitor NVP-BEZ235...rapamycin inhibitor with potent in vivo antitumor activity. Mol Cancer Ther 7, 1851-1863. 33. Cao, P., Maira, S.M., Garcia- Echeverria , C., and Hedley

  3. Functional studies of the PI(3)-kinase signalling pathway employing synthetic and expressed siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, Frank; Fechtner, Melanie; Aygün, Hüseyin; Arnold, Wolfgang; Klippel, Anke; Giese, Klaus; Kaufmann, Jörg

    2003-01-15

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a RNA-mediated sequence-specific gene silencing mechanism. Recently, this mechanism has been used to down-regulate protein expression in mammalian cells by applying synthetic- or vector-generated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, for the evaluation of this new knockdown technology, it is crucial to demonstrate biological consequences beyond protein level reduction. Here, we demonstrate that this new siRNA-based technology is suitable to analyse protein functions using the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase signal transduction pathway as a model system. We demonstrate stable and transient siRNA-mediated knockdown of one of the PI 3-kinase catalytic subunits, p110beta, which leads to inhibition of invasive cell growth in vitro as well as in a tumour model system. Importantly, this result is consistent with loss-of-function phenotypes induced by conventional RNase H-dependent antisense molecules or treatment with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. RNAi knockdown of the downstream kinases Akt1 and Akt2 does not reduce cell growth on extracellular matrix. Our data show that synthetic siRNAs, as well as vector-based expression of siRNAs, are a powerful new tool to interfere with signal transduction processes for the elucidation of gene function in mammalian cells.

  4. Epicatechin induces NF-kappaB, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signalling in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Haegeman, Guy; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura; Ramos, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The dietary flavonoid epicatechin has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent regulation by epicatechin on the activity of the main transcription factors (NF-kappaB, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor (Nrf2)) related to antioxidant defence and survival and proliferation pathways in HepG2 cells. Treatment of cells with 10 microm-epicatechin induced the NF-kappaB pathway in a time-dependent manner characterised by increased levels of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and phosphorylated inhibitor of kappaB subunit-alpha (p-IkappaBalpha) and proteolytic degradation of IkappaB, which was consistent with an up-regulation of the NF-kappaB-binding activity. Time-dependent activation of the AP-1 pathway, in concert with enhanced c-Jun nuclear levels and induction of Nrf2 translocation and phosphorylation were also demonstrated. Additionally, epicatechin-induced NF-kappaB and Nrf2 were connected to reactive oxygen species intracellular levels and to the activation of cell survival and proliferation pathways, being phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) associated to Nrf2 modulation and ERK to NF-kappaB induction. These data suggest that the epicatechin-induced survival effect occurs by the induction of redox-sensitive transcription factors through a tight regulation of survival and proliferation pathways.

  5. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated.

  6. REDD1 integrates hypoxia-mediated survival signaling downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Rolf; Tondera, Daniel; Arnold, Wolfgang; Giese, Klaus; Klippel, Anke; Kaufmann, Jörg

    2005-02-10

    Cancer cells frequently evade apoptosis during tumorigenesis by acquiring mutations in apoptotic regulators. Chronic activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway through loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN is one mechanism by which these cells can gain increased protection against apoptosis. We report here that REDD1 (RTP801) can act as a transcriptional downstream target of PI 3-kinase signaling in human prostate cancer cells (PC-3). REDD1 expression is markedly reduced in PC-3 cells treated with LY294002 (LY) or Rapamycin and strongly induced under hypoxic conditions in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent manner. Loss of function studies employing antisense molecules or RNA interference indicate that REDD1 is essential for invasive growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Reduced REDD1 levels can sensitize cells towards apoptosis, whereas elevated levels of REDD1 induced by hypoxia or overexpression desensitize cells to apoptotic stimuli. Taken together our data designate REDD1 as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer.

  7. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Mohd S. [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Enteric and Food Microbiology Laboratory, Laboratory Sciences Division, International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Tsuyama, Naohiro [Department of Analytical Molecular Medicine and Devices, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Obata, Masanori [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Ishikawa, Hideaki, E-mail: hishika@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  8. PKC-ι promotes glioblastoma cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting BAD through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S; Pillai, P; Win-Piazza, H; Acevedo-Duncan, M

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this research was to investigate the role of protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) in regulation of Bad, a pro-apoptotic BH3-only molecule of the Bcl-2 family in glioblastoma. Robust expression of PKC-ι is a hallmark of human glioma and benign and malignant meningiomas. The results were obtained from the two human glial tumor derived cell lines, T98G and U87MG. In these cells, PKC-ι co-localized and directly associated with Bad, as shown by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting. Furthermore, in-vitro kinase activity assay showed that PKC-ι directly phosphorylated Bad at phospho specific residues, Ser-112, Ser-136 and Ser-155 which in turn induced inactivation of Bad and disruption of Bad/Bcl-XL dimer. Knockdown of PKC-ι by siRNA exhibited a corresponding reduction in Bad phosphorylation suggesting that PKC-ι may be a Bad kinase. PKC-ι knockdown also induced apoptosis in both the cell lines. Since, PKC-ι is an essential downstream mediator of the PI (3)-kinase, we hypothesize that glioma cell survival is mediated via a PI (3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-ι/Bad pathway. Treatment with PI (3)-kinase inhibitors Wortmannin and LY294002, as well as PDK1 siRNA, inhibited PKC-ι activity and subsequent phosphorylation of Bad suggesting that PKC-ι regulates the activity of Bad in a PI (3)-kinase dependent manner. Thus, our data suggest that glioma cell survival occurs through a novel PI (3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-ι/BAD mediated pathway.

  9. Growth hormone regulation of p85alpha expression and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in adipose tissue: mechanism for growth hormone-mediated insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rincon, Juan-Pablo; Iida, Keiji; Gaylinn, Bruce D; McCurdy, Carrie E; Leitner, J Wayne; Barbour, Linda A; Kopchick, John J; Friedman, Jacob E; Draznin, Boris; Thorner, Michael O

    2007-06-01

    Phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase is involved in insulin-mediated effects on glucose uptake, lipid deposition, and adiponectin secretion from adipocytes. Genetic disruption of the p85alpha regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase increases insulin sensitivity, whereas elevated p85alpha levels are associated with insulin resistance through PI 3-kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Adipose tissue plays a critical role in the antagonistic effects of growth hormone (GH) on insulin actions on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism through changes in gene transcription. The objective of this study was to assess the role of the p85alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling in GH-mediated insulin resistance in adipose tissue. To do this, p85alpha mRNA and protein expression and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity were measured in white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice with GH excess, deficiency, and sufficiency. Additional studies using 3T3-F442A cells were conducted to confirm direct effects of GH on free p85alpha protein abundance. We found that p85alpha expression 1) is decreased in WAT from mice with isolated GH deficiency, 2) is increased in WAT from mice with chronic GH excess, 3) is acutely upregulated in WAT from GH-deficient and -sufficient mice after GH administration, and 4) is directly upregulated by GH in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. The insulin-induced increase in PI 3-kinase activity was robust in mice with GH deficiency, but not in mice with GH excess. In conclusion, GH regulates p85alpha expression and PI 3-kinase activity in WAT and provides a potential explanation for 1) the insulin hypersensitivity and associated obesity and hyperadiponectinemia of GH-deficient mice and 2) the insulin resistance and associated reduced fat mass and hypoadiponectinemia of mice with GH excess.

  10. Susi, a negative regulator of Drosophila PI3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Franz; Jaquenoud, Malika; Brogiolo, Walter; Zarske, Marcel; Wüstemann, Philipp; Fernandez, Rafael; Stocker, Hugo; Wymann, Matthias P; Hafen, Ernst

    2005-06-01

    The Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/PKB) signaling pathway controls growth, metabolism, and lifespan in animals, and deregulation of its activity is associated with diabetes and cancer in humans. Here, we describe Susi, a coiled-coil domain protein that acts as a negative regulator of insulin signaling in Drosophila. Whereas loss of Susi function increases body size, overexpression of Susi reduces growth. We provide genetic evidence that Susi negatively regulates dPI3K activity. Susi directly binds to dP60, the regulatory subunit of dPI3K. Since Susi has no overt similarity to known inhibitors of PI3K/PKB signaling, it defines a novel mechanism by which this signaling cascade is kept in check. The fact that Susi is expressed in a circadian rhythm, with highest levels during the night, suggests that Susi attenuates insulin signaling during the fasting period.

  11. PI 3-kinase pathway is responsible for antiapoptotic effects of atrial natriuretic peptidein rat liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uwe Grutzner; Melanie Keller; Michael Bach; Alexandra K Kiemer; Herbert Meissner; Manfred Bilzer; Stefan Zahler; Alexander L Gerbes; Angelika M Vollmar

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in vivo effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its signaling pathway during orthotopic rat liver transplantation.METHODS: Rats were infused with NaCl, ANP (5 μg/kg), wortmannin (WM, 16 μg/kg), or a combination of both for 20 min. Livers were stored in UW solution (4°C) for 24 h, transplanted and reperfused. Apoptosis was examined by caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining.Phosphorylation of Akt and Bad was visualized by Western blotting and phospho-Akt-localization by confocai microscopy.RESULTS: ANP-pretreatment decreased caspase-3activity and TUNEL-positive cells after cold ischemia,indicating antiapoptotic effects of ANP in vivo. The antiapoptotic signaling of ANP was most likely caused by phosphorylation of Akt and Bad, since pretreatment with PI 3-kinase inhibitor WM abrogated the ANP-induced reduction of caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, analysis of liver tissue by confocal microscopy showed translocation of phosphorylated Akt to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes evoked by ANP.CONCLUSION: ANP activates the PI-3-kinase pathway in the liver in vivo leading to phosphorylation of Bad,an event triggering antiapoptotic signaling cascade in ischemic liver.

  12. Icaritin requires Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Liu, Jin; Baosheng GUO; Leung, Albert; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting muscle atrophy induced by mechanical unloading/inactivity is of great clinical need and challenge. A therapeutic agent that could counteract muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading in safety is desired. This study showed that natural product Icaritin (ICT) could increase the phosphorylation level of Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) at p110 catalytic subunit and promote PI3K/Akt signaling markers in C2C12 cells. This study further showed that the high dose ICT treatment...

  13. Targeting oncoprotein stability overcomes drug resistance caused by FLT3 kinase domain mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjiang Yu

    Full Text Available FLT3 is the most frequently mutated kinase in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Internal tandem duplications (ITDs in the juxta-membrane region constitute the majority of activating FLT3 mutations. Several FLT3 kinase inhibitors were developed and tested in the clinic with significant success. However, recent studies have reported the development of secondary drug resistance in patients treated with FLT3 inhibitors. Since FLT3-ITD is an HSP90 client kinase, we here explored if targeting the stability of drug-resistant FLT3 mutant protein could be a potential therapeutic option. We observed that HSP90 inhibitor treatment resulted in the degradation of inhibitor-resistant FLT3-ITD mutants and selectively induced toxicity in cells expressing FLT3-ITD mutants. Thus, HSP90 inhibitors provide a potential therapeutic choice to overcome secondary drug resistance following TKI treatment in FLT3-ITD positive AML.

  14. PI3 kinase enzymology on fluid lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Luo, Wei; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-10-21

    We report the use of fluid lipid bilayer membrane as a model platform to study the influence of the bilayer microenvironment and composition on the enzymology in membrane. As a model system we determined the enzyme kinetics on membranes for the transformation of bilayers containing phosphoinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to phosphoinositol(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) by the enzyme phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) using radiolabeled ATP. The activity of the enzyme was monitored as a function of the radioactivity incorporated within the bilayer. The transformation of PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3 was determined using a mass strip assay. The fluidity of the bilayer was confirmed by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Kinetic simulations were performed based on Langmuir adsorption and Michaelis-Menton kinetics equations to generate the rate constants for the enzymatic reaction. The effect of cholesterol on the enzyme kinetics was studied by doping the bilayer with 1% cholesterol. This leads to significant reduction in reaction rate due to change in membrane microenvironment. This strategy provides a method to study the enzymology of various kinases and phosphatases occurring at the membrane and also how these reactions are affected by the membrane composition and surface microenvironment.

  15. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Wendy C; Smith, Janet L; Affleck, Karen; Amour, Augustin

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation in the lung has long been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma. Central to this airway inflammation is a T-cell response to allergens, with Th2 cytokines driving the differentiation, survival and function of the major inflammatory cells involved in the allergic cascade. PI3Kδ (phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ) is a lipid kinase, expressed predominantly in leucocytes, where it plays a critical role in immune receptor signalling. A selective PI3Kδ inhibitor is predicted to block T-cell activation in the lung, reducing the production of pro-inflammatory Th2 cytokines. PI3Kδ is also involved in B-cell and mast cell activation. Therefore the inhibition of PI3Kδ should dampen down the inflammatory cascade involved in the asthmatic response through a wide breadth of pharmacology. Current anti-inflammatory therapies, which are based on corticosteroids, are effective in controlling inflammation in mild asthmatics, but moderate/severe asthmatic patients remain poorly controlled, experiencing recurrent exacerbations. Corticosteroids have no effect on mast cell degranulation and do not act directly on B-cells, so, overall, a PI3Kδ inhibitor has the potential to deliver improvements in onset of action, efficacy and reduced exacerbations in moderate/severe asthmatics. Additionally, PI3Kδ inhibition is expected to block effects of Th17 cells, which are increasingly implicated in steroid-insensitive asthma.

  16. LINGO-1 receptor promotes neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting WNK3 kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohuan; Xu, Xiaohui; Xiang, Zhenghua; Yu, Zhongwang; Feng, Jifeng; He, Cheng

    2013-04-26

    LINGO-1 is a functional component of the Nogo receptor 1 · p75(NTR) · LINGO-1 and Nogo receptor 1 · TAJ (TNFRSF19/TROY)·LINGO-1 signaling complexes. It has recently been shown that LINGO-1 antagonists significantly improve neuronal survival after neural injury. However, the mechanism by which LINGO-1 signaling influences susceptibility to apoptosis remains unknown. In an effort to better understand how LINGO-1 regulates these signaling pathways, we used an established model of serum deprivation (SD) to induce neuronal apoptosis. We demonstrate that treatment either with a construct containing the intracellular domain of LINGO-1 or with Nogo66, a LINGO-1 receptor complex agonist, resulted in an enhanced rate of apoptosis in primary cultured cortical neurons under SD. Reducing the expression levels of the serine/threonine kinase WNK3 using shRNA or inhibiting its kinase activity had similar effects on the survival of serum-deprived neurons. Consistent with these observations, we found that LINGO-1 and WNK3 co-localized and co-precipitated in cultured cortical neurons and brain tissue. Significantly, this co-association was enhanced by Nogo66 treatment. Binding of WNK3 to the intracellular domain of LINGO-1 led to a reduction in WNK3 kinase activity, as did Nogo66 stimulation. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo evidence indicates that endogenous WNK3 suppresses SD-induced neuronal apoptosis in a kinase-dependent manner, as the expression of either a WNK3 RNAi construct or a kinase-dead N-terminal fragment of WNK3 led to increased apoptosis. Taken together, our results show that LINGO-1 potentiates neuronal apoptosis, likely by inhibiting WNK3 kinase activity.

  17. PI3-kinase-dependent activation of apoptotic machinery oc-curs on commitment of epidermal keratinocytes to terminal differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sam M Janes; Tyler A Ofstad; Douglas H Campbell; Ayad Eddaoudi; Gary Warnes; Derek Davies; Fiona M Watt

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the earliest events in commitment of human epidermal keratinocytes to terminal differen-tiation. Phosphorylated Akt and caspase activation were detected in cells exiting the basal layer of the epidermis. Activation of Akt by retroviral transduction of primary cultures of human keratinocytes resulted in an increase in abortive clones founded by transit amplifying cells, while inhibition of the upstream kinase, Pl3-kinase, inhibited suspension-induced terminal differentiation. Caspase inhibition also blocked differentiation, the primary mediator being caspase 8. Caspase activation was initiated by 2 h in suspension, preceding the onset of expression of the termi-nal differentiation marker involucrin by several hours. Incubation of suspended cells with fibronectin or inhibition of PI3-kinase prevented caspase induction. At 2 h in suspension, keratinocytes that had become committed to terminal differentiation had increased side scatter, were 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) positive and annexin V negative; they exhibited loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cardiolipin oxidation, but with no increase in reac-tive oxygen species. These properties indicate that the onset of terminal differentiation, while regulated by Pl3-kinase and caspases, is not a classical apoptotic process.

  18. Insulin utilizes the PI 3-kinase pathway to inhibit SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeanne M

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that high insulin levels may cause delayed lung development in the fetuses of diabetic mothers. A key event in lung development is the production of adequate amounts of pulmonary surfactant. Insulin inhibits the expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A, the major surfactant-associated protein, in lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression. Methods H441 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, or human fetal lung explants were incubated with or without insulin. Transcription run-on assays were used to determine SP-A gene transcription rates. Northern blot analysis was used to examine the effect of various signal transduction inhibitors on SP-A gene expression. Immunoblot analysis was used to evaluate the levels and phosphorylation states of signal transduction protein kinases. Results Insulin decreased SP-A gene transcription in human lung epithelial cells within 1 hour. Insulin did not affect p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation and the insulin inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels was not affected by PD98059, an inhibitor of the p44/42 MAPK pathway. In contrast, insulin increased p70 S6 kinase Thr389 phosphorylation within 15 minutes. Wortmannin or LY294002, both inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase, or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the activation of p70 S6 kinase, a downstream effector in the PI 3-kinase pathway, abolished or attenuated the insulin-induced inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels. Conclusion Insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells probably occurs via the rapamycin-sensitive PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  19. Targeting Glutamatergic Signaling and the PI3 Kinase Pathway to Halt Melanoma Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Rosenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Our group has previously reported that the majority of human melanomas (>60% express the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1 and that the glutamate release inhibitor riluzole, a drug currently used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, can induce apoptosis in GRM1-expressing melanoma cells. Our group previously reported that in vitro riluzole treatment reduces cell growth in three-dimensional (3D soft agar colony assays by 80% in cells with wildtype phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway activation. However, melanoma cell lines harboring constitutive activating mutations of the PI3K pathway (PTEN and NRAS mutations showed only a 35% to 40% decrease in colony formation in soft agar in the presence of riluzole. In this study, we have continued our preclinical studies of riluzole and its effect on melanoma cells alone and in combination with inhibitors of the PI3 kinase pathway: the AKT inhibitor, API-2, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. We modeled these combinatorial therapies on various melanoma cell lines in 3D and 2D systems and in vivo. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is more effective at halting melanoma anchorage-independent growth and xenograft tumor progression than either agent alone. PI3K signaling changes associated with this combinatorial treatment shows that 3D (nanoculture modeling of cell signaling more closely resembles in vivo signaling than monolayer models. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is effective at halting tumor cell progression independent of BRAF mutational status. This makes this combinatorial therapy a potentially viable alternative for metastatic melanoma patients who are BRAF WT and are therefore ineligible for vemurafenib therapy.

  20. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinases in neutrophil activation and the development of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, H K; Arcaroli, J; Kupfner, J; Shenkar, R; Penninger, J M; Sasaki, T; Yang, K Y; Park, J S; Abraham, E

    2001-12-01

    Activated neutrophils contribute to the development and severity of acute lung injury (ALI). Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3-K) and the downstream serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B have a central role in modulating neutrophil function, including respiratory burst, chemotaxis, and apoptosis. In the present study, we found that exposure of neutrophils to endotoxin resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, activation of NF-kappaB, and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha through PI3-K-dependent pathways. In vivo, endotoxin administration to mice resulted in activation of PI3-K and Akt in neutrophils that accumulated in the lungs. The severity of endotoxemia-induced ALI was significantly diminished in mice lacking the p110gamma catalytic subunit of PI3-K. In PI3-Kgamma(-/-) mice, lung edema, neutrophil recruitment, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, and pulmonary levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly lower after endotoxemia as compared with PI3-Kgamma(+/+) controls. Among neutrophils that did accumulate in the lungs of the PI3-Kgamma(-/-) mice after endotoxin administration, activation of NF-kappaB and expression of proinflammatory cytokines was diminished compared with levels present in lung neutrophils from PI3-Kgamma(+/+) mice. These results show that PI3-K, and particularly PI3-Kgamma, occupies a central position in regulating endotoxin-induced neutrophil activation, including that involved in ALI.

  1. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ gene mutation predisposes to respiratory infection and airway damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ivan; Vadas, Oscar; Garçon, Fabien; Banham-Hall, Edward; Plagnol, Vincent; Leahy, Timothy R.; Baxendale, Helen; Coulter, Tanya; Curtis, James; Wu, Changxin; Blake-Palmer, Katherine; Perisic, Olga; Smyth, Deborah; Maes, Mailis; Fiddler, Christine; Juss, Jatinder; Cilliers, Deirdre; Markelj, Gašper; Chandra, Anita; Farmer, George; Kielkowska, Anna; Clark, Jonathan; Kracker, Sven; Debré, Marianne; Picard, Capucine; Pellier, Isabelle; Jabado, Nada; Morris, James A.; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Fischer, Alain; Stephens, Len; Hawkins, Phillip; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Abinun, Mario; Clatworthy, Menna; Durandy, Anne; Doffinger, Rainer; Chilvers, Edwin; Cant, Andrew J.; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Williams, Roger L.; Condliffe, Alison; Nejentsev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which predispose to infections. Here we describe Activated PI3K-δ Syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation E1021K in the p110δ protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3,346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased IgM and reduced IgG2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110δ. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110δ inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, suggesting a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS. PMID:24136356

  2. PKN3 is required for malignant prostate cell growth downstream of activated PI 3-kinase.

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    Leenders, Frauke; Möpert, Kristin; Schmiedeknecht, Anett; Santel, Ansgar; Czauderna, Frank; Aleku, Manuela; Penschuck, Silke; Dames, Sibylle; Sternberger, Maria; Röhl, Thomas; Wellmann, Axel; Arnold, Wolfgang; Giese, Klaus; Kaufmann, Jörg; Klippel, Anke

    2004-08-18

    Chronic activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN signal transduction pathway contributes to metastatic cell growth, but up to now effectors mediating this response are poorly defined. By simulating chronic activation of PI3K signaling experimentally, combined with three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions and gene expression profiling, we aimed to identify novel effectors that contribute to malignant cell growth. Using this approach we identified and validated PKN3, a barely characterized protein kinase C-related molecule, as a novel effector mediating malignant cell growth downstream of activated PI3K. PKN3 is required for invasive prostate cell growth as assessed by 3D cell culture assays and in an orthotopic mouse tumor model by inducible expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We demonstrate that PKN3 is regulated by PI3K at both the expression level and the catalytic activity level. Therefore, PKN3 might represent a preferred target for therapeutic intervention in cancers that lack tumor suppressor PTEN function or depend on chronic activation of PI3K.

  3. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

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    Sriskantharajah, Srividya; Hamblin, Nicole; Worsley, Sally; Calver, Andrew R; Hessel, Edith M; Amour, Augustin

    2013-03-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized in their pathogenesis by chronic inflammation in the airways. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), a lipid kinase expressed predominantly in leukocytes, is thought to hold much promise as a therapeutic target for such inflammatory conditions. Of particular interest for the treatment of severe respiratory disease is the observation that inhibition of PI3Kδ may restore steroid effectiveness under conditions of oxidative stress. PI3Kδ inhibition may also prevent recruitment of inflammatory cells, including T lymphocytes and neutrophils, as well as the release of proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and proteolytic enzymes. In addition, targeting the PI3Kδ pathway could reduce the incidence of pathogen-induced exacerbations by improving macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance. In this review, we discuss the potential and highlight the unknowns of targeting PI3Kδ for the treatment of respiratory disease, focusing on recent developments in the role of the PI3Kδ pathway in inflammatory cell types believed to be critical to the pathogenesis of COPD.

  4. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

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    Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Duk-Sil; Kim, Sung-Wan; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Park, Eui Kyun; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol) is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  5. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

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    In-Gyu Je

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenylethanol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  6. Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway in monocyte-endothelial adhesion induced by serum of rats with electrical burn%磷脂酰肌醇3激酶/蛋白激酶B通路在电烧伤大鼠血清诱导单核-内皮细胞黏附中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮琼芳; 赵超莉; 叶子青; 张卫东; 谢琼慧; 谢卫国

    2014-01-01

    24 h,THP-1细胞中磷酸化蛋白激酶B/Akt比值分别是正常血清组培养同时相点的2.66、3.69、1.17倍.(2)正常血清组、正常血清+阻断剂组、烧伤血清组、烧伤血清+阻断剂组培养3、6h,每100倍视野下黏附EA.hy926细胞的THP-1细胞数量分别为(231 ±45)、(280 ±47)、(703±169)、(335±85)个,(219±49)、(235±21)、(562±123)、(226±29)个,总体比较均差异明显(F值分别为25.630、18.975,P值均小于0.01).与正常血清组比较,烧伤血清组黏附EA.hy926细胞的THP-1细胞数在培养3、6h均明显增多(£值分别为6.189、6.601,P值均小于0.01);烧伤血清+阻断剂组黏附EA.hy926细胞的THP-1细胞数在培养3、6h较烧伤血清组均明显减少(t值分别为6.821、6.465,P值均小于0.01). 结论 电烧伤大鼠血清可诱导单核细胞分泌TNF-α,促进单核-内皮细胞黏附.而阻断PI3K/Akt信号通路,可有效抑制单核-内皮细胞的黏附.%Objective To observe the change in phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal pathway in monocytes as induced by serum of rats with electrical burn,and to explore the effects of PI3K/Akt pathway on monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion.Methods Sixty-four SD rats of clean grade were inflicted with electrical burn for the collection of serum of rats with electrical burn ; another group of twenty-four SD rats were used to obtain normal serum without treatment.(1) Human monocyte line THP-1 was routinely cultured.The THP-1 cells in logarithmic phase were divided into normal serum group (resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium with 20% normal rat serum) and burn serum group (resuspended with RPMI 1640 medium with 20% serum of rats with electrical burn) according to the random number table,with 6 wells in each group.Morphology of THP-1 cells in normal serum group was observed at post culture hour (PCH) 24,and that in burn serum group at PCH 3,6,24.The contents of TNF-α in culture supernatant were determined by double

  7. Involvement of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the regulation of proline catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Anne-Sophie eLeprince

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant adaptation to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity involves complex regulatory processes. Deciphering the signalling components that are involved in stress signal transduction and cellular responses is of importance to understand how plants cope with salt stress. Accumulation of osmolytes such as proline is considered to participate in the osmotic adjustment of plant cells to salinity. Proline accumulation results from a tight regulation between its biosynthesis and catabolism. Lipid signal components such as phospholipases C and D have previously been shown to be involved in the regulation of proline metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we demonstrate that proline metabolism is also regulated by class-III Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, VPS34, which catalyses the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P from phosphatidylinositol. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we show that the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, affects PI3P levels in vivo and that it triggers a decrease in proline accumulation in response to salt treatment of A. thaliana seedlings. The lower proline accumulation is correlated with a lower transcript level of Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 biosynthetic enzyme and higher transcript and protein levels of Proline dehydrogenase 1 (ProDH1, a key-enzyme in proline catabolism. We also found that the ProDH1 expression is induced in a pi3k-hemizygous mutant, further demonstrating that PI3K is involved in the regulation of proline catabolism through transcriptional regulation of ProDH1. A broader metabolomic analysis indicates that LY294002 also reduced other metabolites, such as hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids and sugars like raffinose.

  8. Dual roles of hemidesmosomal proteins in the pancreatic epithelium: the phosphoinositide 3-kinase decides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, S; Laklai, H; Fanjul, M; Pucelle, M; Laurell, H; Billon-Galés, A; Le Guellec, S; Delisle, M-B; Sonnenberg, A; Susini, C; Pyronnet, S; Bousquet, C

    2014-04-10

    Given the failure of chemo- and biotherapies to fight advanced pancreatic cancer, one major challenge is to identify critical events that initiate invasion. One priming step in epithelia carcinogenesis is the disruption of epithelial cell anchorage to the basement membrane which can be provided by hemidesmosomes (HDs). However, the existence of HDs in pancreatic ductal epithelium and their role in carcinogenesis remain unexplored. HDs have been explored in normal and cancer pancreatic cells, and patient samples. Unique cancer cell models where HD assembly can be pharmacologically manipulated by somatostatin/sst2 signaling have been then used to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms of dynamic HD during pancreatic carcinogenesis. We surprisingly report the presence of mature type-1 HDs comprising the integrin α6β4 and bullous pemphigoid antigen BP180 in the human pancreatic ductal epithelium. Importantly, HDs are shown to disassemble during pancreatic carcinogenesis. HD breakdown requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent induction of the matrix-metalloprotease MMP-9, which cleaves BP180. Consequently, integrin α6β4 delocalizes to the cell-leading edges where it paradoxically promotes cell migration and invasion through S100A4 activation. As S100A4 in turn stimulates MMP-9 expression, a vicious cycle maintains BP180 cleavage. Inactivation of this PI3K-MMP-9-S100A4 signaling loop conversely blocks BP180 cleavage, induces HD reassembly and inhibits cell invasion. We conclude that mature type-1 HDs are critical anchoring structures for the pancreatic ductal epithelium whose disruption, upon PI3K activation during carcinogenesis, provokes pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion.

  9. Rapamycin regulates connective tissue growth factor expression of lung epithelial cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

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    Xu, Xuefeng; Wan, Xuan; Geng, Jing; Li, Fei; Yang, Ting; Dai, Huaping

    2013-09-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains largely unknown. It is believed that IPF is mainly driven by activated alveolar epithelial cells that have a compromised migration capacity, and that also produce substances (such as connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) that contribute to fibroblast activation and matrix protein accumulation. Because the mechanisms regulating these processes are unclear, the aim of this study was to determine the role of rapamycin in regulating epithelial cell migration and CTGF expression. Transformed epithelial cell line A549 and normal human pulmonary alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in regular medium or medium containing rapamycin. Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine CTGF mRNA expression. Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for detecting CTGF protein. Wound healing and migration assays were used to determine the cell migration potential. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor (TβRI) inhibitor, SB431542 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 were used to determine rapamycin's mechanism of action. It was found that treatment of A549 and normal human alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells with rapamycin significantly promoted basal or TGF-β1 induced CTGF expression. LY294002, not SB431542 attenuated the promotional effect of rapamycin on CTGF expression. Cell mobility was not affected by rapamycin in wound healing and migration assays. These data suggest rapamycin has a profibrotic effect in vitro and underscore the potential of combined therapeutic approach with PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for the treatment of animal or human lung fibrosis.

  10. Hexamethylenebisacetamide modulation of thyroglobulin and protein levels in thyroid cells is not mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase: a study with wortmannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouani, A; Samih, N; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1999-04-01

    Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) induces in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) the commitment to terminal differentiation leading to globin gene expression. In the thyroid, HMBA acts as a growth factor and also as a differentiating agent. In the present paper, we studied the effect of HMBA on the very specific thyroid marker thyroglobulin (Tg) in two different thyroid cell systems, i.e., porcine cells in primary culture and ovine cells in long term culture. Using wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, we investigated whether this enzyme is involved in HMBA mode of action. We found that HMBA is a positive modulator of Tg production in porcine cells, but a negative effector in the OVNIS cell line. As all HMBA effects studied in the present paper, i.e., Tg production and total protein levels, are not inhibited by wortmannin, we suggest the non-involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in HMBA mode of action.

  11. Phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase: a newer molecular target in metabolic and hormonal pathway of polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Shah, K N; Patel, S S

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia and/or abnormal ovulation, which are the 3 main consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome. The occurrence of polycystic ovary syndrome is higher and 1 out of 45 women gets affected by this disorder. The pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome is very unique, and many hormonal and metabolic changes occur at molecular level. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a hormonal disorder that affects multiple organ systems within the body, which is caused by insensitivity to the hormone insulin. The target organs of insulin action are skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, fibroblasts where metabolic actions of insulin take place. In polycystic ovary syndrome condition, due to insulin resistance, the actions like glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis gets declined along with exhibiting steroidogenic effect in ovaries. The action of phophatidylinositide-3 kinase varies in different tissues. It plays major role in several kinases. The inhibition and activation of phophatidylinositide-3 kinase in different tissues results in differential outcomes. The inhibition of phophatidylinositide-3 kinase in ovary leads to decreased androgen synthesis and the activation affects the positive actions of insulin like glucose uptake. Targeting the hyperandrogenemia of polycystic ovary syndrome, we can get more ameliorating action in polycystic ovary syndrome because glucose uptake, which is mediated by phophatidylinositide-3 kinase activation, is not much altered during polycystic ovary syndrome as much as the androgen levels in polycystic ovary syndrome. Therefore, it is beneficial to control the androgen level. Thus, phophatidylinositide-3 kinase inhibition can be a promising target in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  12. Maternal Disononyl Phthalate Exposure Activates Allergic Airway Inflammation via Stimulatingthe Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway in Rat Pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Jiao; XIE ChangMing; ZHAO Yan; WANG Xiu; andZHANG YunHui

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectof diisononyl phthalate (DINP) exposure during gestation and lacta-tion on allergic response in pups and to explore the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway on it. MethodsFemale Wistar rats were treated with DINP at different dosages (0, 5, 50,and 500 mg/kg of body weight per day). The pups were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA). The airway response was assessed; the airway histological studies were performed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; and the relative cytokines in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis. ResultsThere was no significant difference in DINP’s effect on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) between male pups and female pups. In the 50 mg/(kg·d) DINP-treated group, airway response to OVA significantly increased and pups showed dramatically enhanced pulmonary resistance (RI) compared with those from controls (P<0.05). Enhanced Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation, and Th2 cytokines expression were observed in pups of 50 mg/(kg·d) DINP-treated group. However, in the 5 and 500 mg/(kg·d) DINP-treated pups, no significant effects were observed. ConclusionTherewas an adjuvant effect of DINP on allergic airway inflammation in pups. Maternal DINP exposure could promote OVA-induced allergic airway response in pups in part by upregulation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  13. Characterization of a tumor-associated activating mutation of the p110β PI 3-kinase.

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    Hashem A Dbouk

    Full Text Available The PI3-kinase pathway is commonly activated in tumors, most often by loss of PTEN lipid phosphatase activity or the amplification or mutation of p110α. Oncogenic mutants have commonly been found in p110α, but rarely in any of the other catalytic subunits of class I PI3-kinases. We here characterize a p110β helical domain mutation, E633K, first identified in a Her2-positive breast cancer. The mutation increases basal p110β activity, but does not affect activation of p85/p110β dimers by phosphopeptides or Gβγ. Expression of the mutant causes increases in Akt and S6K1 activation, transformation, chemotaxis, proliferation and survival in low serum. E633 is conserved among class I PI3 Ks, and its mutation in p110β is also activating. Interestingly, the E633K mutant occurs near a region that interacts with membranes in activated PI 3-kinases, and its mutation abrogates the requirement for an intact Ras-binding domain in p110β-mediated transformation. We propose that the E633K mutant activates p110β by enhancing its basal association with membranes. This study presents the first analysis of an activating oncogenic mutation of p110β.

  14. Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by D2 receptor prevents apoptosis in dopaminergic cell lines.

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    Nair, Venugopalan D; Olanow, C Warren; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2003-07-01

    Whereas dopamine agonists are known to provide symptomatic benefits for Parkinson's disease, recent clinical trials suggest that they might also be neuroprotective. Laboratory studies demonstrate that dopamine agonists can provide neuroprotective effects in a number of model systems, but the role of receptor-mediated signalling in these effects is controversial. We find that dopamine agonists have robust, concentration-dependent anti-apoptotic activity in PC12 cells that stably express human D(2L) receptors from cell death due to H(2)O(2) or trophic withdrawal and that the protective effects are abolished in the presence of D(2)-receptor antagonists. D(2) agonists are also neuroprotective in the nigral dopamine cell line SN4741, which express endogenous D(2) receptors, whereas no anti-apoptotic activity is observed in native PC12 cells, which do not express detectable D(2) receptors. Notably, the agonists studied differ in their relative efficacy to mediate anti-apoptotic effects and in their capacity to stimulate [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP[S]) binding, an indicator of G-protein activation. Studies with inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase indicate that the PI 3-kinase pathway is required for D(2) receptor-mediated cell survival. These studies indicate that certain dopamine agonists can complex with D(2) receptors to preferentially transactivate neuroprotective signalling pathways and to mediate increased cell survival.

  15. Pulmonary administration of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor is a curative treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by alveolar regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Michiko; Oiso, Yuki; Sakai, Hitomi; Motomura, Tomoki; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2015-09-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an intractable pulmonary disease, causing widespread and irreversible alveoli collapse. The discovery of a low-molecular-weight compound that induces regeneration of pulmonary alveoli is of utmost urgency to cure intractable pulmonary diseases such as COPD. However, a practically useful compound for regenerating pulmonary alveoli is yet to be reported. Previously, we have elucidated that Akt phosphorylation is involved in a differentiation-inducing molecular mechanism of human alveolar epithelial stem cells, which play a role in regenerating pulmonary alveoli. In the present study, we directed our attention to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling and examined whether PI3K inhibitors display the pulmonary alveolus regeneration. Three PI3K inhibitors with different PI3K subtype specificities (Wortmannin, AS605240, PIK-75 hydrochloride) were tested for the differentiation-inducing effect on human alveolar epithelial stem cells, and Wortmannin demonstrated the most potent differentiation-inducing activity. We evaluated Akt phosphorylation in pulmonary tissues of an elastase-induced murine COPD model and found that Akt phosphorylation in the pulmonary tissue was enhanced in the murine COPD model compared with normal mice. Then, the alveolus-repairing effect of pulmonary administration of Wortmannin to murine COPD model was evaluated using X-ray CT analysis and hematoxylin-eosin staining. As a result, alveolar damages were repaired in the Wortmannin-administered group to a similar level of normal mice. Furthermore, pulmonary administration of Wortmannin induced a significant recovery of the respiratory function, compared to the control group. These results indicate that Wortmannin is capable of inducing differentiation of human alveolar epithelial stem cells and represents a promising drug candidate for curative treatment of pulmonary alveolar destruction in COPD.

  16. Polarization of migrating monocytic cells is independent of PI 3-kinase activity.

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    Silvia Volpe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration of mammalian cells is a complex cell type and environment specific process. Migrating hematopoietic cells assume a rapid amoeboid like movement when exposed to gradients of chemoattractants. The underlying signaling mechanisms remain controversial with respect to localization and distribution of chemotactic receptors within the plasma membrane and the role of PI 3-kinase activity in cell polarization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a novel model for the investigation of human leukocyte migration. Monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with the alpha(2A-adrenoceptor (alpha(2AAR display comparable signal transduction responses, such as calcium mobilization, MAP-kinase activation and chemotaxis, to the noradrenaline homologue UK 14'304 as when stimulated with CCL2, which binds to the endogenous chemokine receptor CCR2. Time-lapse video microscopy reveals that chemotactic receptors remain evenly distributed over the plasma membrane and that their internalization is not required for migration. Measurements of intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET of alpha(2AAR-YFP/CFP suggest a uniform activation of the receptors over the entire plasma membrane. Nevertheless, PI 3-kinase activation is confined to the leading edge. When reverting the gradient of chemoattractant by moving the dispensing micropipette, polarized monocytes--in contrast to neutrophils--rapidly flip their polarization axis by developing a new leading edge at the previous posterior side. Flipping of the polarization axis is accompanied by re-localization of PI-3-kinase activity to the new leading edge. However, reversal of the polarization axis occurs in the absence of PI 3-kinase activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Accumulation and internalization of chemotactic receptors at the leading edge is dispensable for cell migration. Furthermore, uniformly distributed receptors allow the cells to rapidly reorient and adapt to changes in the

  17. Periexercise coingestion of branched-chain amino acids and carbohydrate in men does not preferentially augment resistance exercise-induced increases in phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Li, Rui; Cooke, Matthew; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a single bout of resistance exercise (RE) in conjunction with periexercise branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on skeletal muscle signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis were determined. It was hypothesized that CHO + BCAA would elicit a more profound effect on these signaling markers compared with CHO. Twenty-seven males were randomly assigned to CHO, CHO + BCAA, or placebo (PLC) groups. Four sets of leg presses and leg extensions were performed at 80% 1 repetition maximum. Supplements were ingested 30 minutes and immediately before and after RE. Venous blood and muscle biopsy samples were obtained immediately before supplement ingestion and 0.5, 2, and 6 hours after RE. Serum insulin and glucose and phosphorylated levels of muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphorylated 70S6 kinase, and 4E binding protein 1 were assessed. Data were analyzed by 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant group × time interactions were observed for glucose and insulin (P protein kinase B (P = .031), mammalian target of rapamycin (P = .003), and phosphorylated 70S6 kinase (P = .001). Carbohydrate and CHO + BCAA supplementation significantly increased IRS-1 compared with PLC (P = .002). However, periexercise coingestion of CHO and BCAA did not augment RE-induced increases in skeletal muscle signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis when compared with CHO.

  18. Nuclear translocation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells after treatment with nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L M; Milani, D; Bertolaso, L; Stroscio, M; Bertagnolo, V; Capitani, S

    1994-07-01

    Immunocytochemical analysis of PI 3-kinase localization in PC 12 cells demonstrates that the enzyme translocates to the nucleus after cell treatment with differentiating doses of NGF. The association of PI 3-kinase to the nucleus occurs rapidly (within minutes) and increases with the time of exposure of NGF. We suggest that PI-3 kinase specific localization may determine the production of novel phosphoinositides in cell compartments targeted to effect diverse cell responses. The nuclear translocation is consistent with accumulating data on the existence of a nuclear inositol lipid cycle which could also include 3-phosphorylated inositides, participating to the modulation of the cell response to extracellular stimuli.

  19. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles induces human cervical carcinoma cell line Caski cells growth inhibition by suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B signaling%固体脂质纳米姜黄素通过PI3K/AKT通路对宫颈癌Caski细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁书军; 黄宁; 黄丽霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur-SLN) on apoptosis and growth of human cervical carcinoma cell line Caski cells. Methods Preparing Cur-SLN by Solution diffusion method. Caski cells in logarithmic growth phase were treated with different concentrations of Cur-SLN (0、10、20、40、60umol/L) for 24h. MTT and flow cytometric analysis were used to evaluate the proliferation and apoptosis of Caski cells. The expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 ki-nase (PI3K),p-protein kinase B(p-AKT) and AKT in Caski cells was detected by Western blot. Results Cur-SLN treatment sig-nificantly increased cell apoptosis and decreased the cell proliferation and the expression of PI3K and p-AKT in Caski cells. However,Cur-SLN treatment had no significant influence on the expression of AKT. Conclusion Cur-SLN induces cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in the human cervical carcinoma cell line Caski cells possibly by suppressing PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.%目的:探讨固体脂质纳米姜黄素对宫颈癌Caski细胞增殖的影响。方法采用溶液扩散法制备Cur-SLN,设置Cur-SLN药物组(药物浓度分别为10、20、40、60μmol/L)、阴性对照组(不加Cur-SLN,仅含正常的Caski细胞)及空白对照组(不含细胞仅加培养液)。分别用MTT法测定细胞生长抑制率,流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡,Western-blot检测各组细胞PI3K、AKT和p-AKT蛋白表达。结果随着Cur-SLN浓度的增加,Caski细胞的抑制率与细胞凋亡明显上升,Caski细胞PI3K、p-AKT蛋白则呈现Cur-SLN浓度依赖性下调表达,AKT蛋白表达无明显变化。10、20、40、60umol/L Cur-SLN处理组、阴性对照组,组间差异均有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论 Cur-SLN抑制PI3K/AKT信号通路激活,诱发细胞凋亡,进而导致Caski细胞增殖抑制,为宫颈癌的临床治疗提供了新的理论依据。

  20. Myeloproliferative disorder FOP-FGFR1 fusion kinase recruits phosphoinositide-3 kinase and phospholipase Cγ at the centrosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassin Anne-Marie

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The t(6;8 translocation found in rare and agressive myeloproliferative disorders results in a chimeric gene encoding the FOP-FGFR1 fusion protein. This protein comprises the N-terminal region of the centrosomal protein FOP and the tyrosine kinase of the FGFR1 receptor. FOP-FGFR1 is localized at the centrosome where it exerts a constitutive kinase activity. Results We show that FOP-FGFR1 interacts with the large centrosomal protein CAP350 and that CAP350 is necessary for FOP-FGFR1 localisation at centrosome. FOP-FGFR1 activates the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K pathway. We show that p85 interacts with tyrosine 475 of FOP-FGFR1, which is located in a YXXM consensus binding sequence for an SH2 domain of p85. This interaction is in part responsible for PI3K activation. Ba/F3 cells that express FOP-FGFR1 mutated at tyrosine 475 have reduced proliferative ability. Treatment with PI3K pathway inhibitors induces death of FOP-FGFR1 expressing cells. FOP-FGFR1 also recruits phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1 at the centrosome. We show that this enzyme is recruited by FOP-FGFR1 at the centrosome during interphase. Conclusion These results delineate a particular type of oncogenic mechanism by which an ectopic kinase recruits its substrates at the centrosome whence unappropriate signaling induces continuous cell growth and MPD.

  1. Dual blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways overcomes paclitaxel-resistance in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Nakano, Kenji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Kumagai, Michiaki; Wakabayashi, Rie; Yamasaki, Akio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Mibu, Ryuichi; Onishi, Hideya; Katano, Mitsuo

    2011-07-28

    Paclitaxel, one of key drugs to treat a wide range of malignancies, exhibits relative low sensitivity for colorectal cancer. The present study was to examine whether and how phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) signals affect the sensitivity of colorectal cancer to paclitaxel. Four colorectal cancer cell lines were exposed to paclitaxel in the presence of PI3K signal inhibitors, such as LY294002, siRNA for Akt, or rapamycin, with or without MAPK inhibitor, PD98059. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by MTT assay, cell cycle analysis in flow cytometer and Hoechst nuclear staining. To analyze the PI3K activity, the expression in phosphorylated Akt and downstream effectors of p70S6 kinase (S6K) were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Paclitaxel alone (5-10 nM) did not induce the apoptosis in all four cell lines. Although LY294002 alone did not affect the cell viability, it suppressed the Akt and S6K activities and induced the sub-G1 arrest/apoptosis when paclitaxel was co-administered, as well as the Akt siRNA and rapamycin did. Simultaneous blockade of PI3K and MAPK pathways more suppressed the S6K activity and further increased the apoptosis. In conclusion, PI3K is involved in low susceptibility of colorectal cancer to paclitaxel and dual PI3K/MAPK targeting agents may evolve a new paclitaxel-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer.

  2. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Alok R. [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Peirce, Susan K. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Joshi, Shweta [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Durden, Donald L., E-mail: ddurden@ucsd.edu [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, UCSD Rady Children' s Hospital, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-09-10

    -3 kinase inhibitors reverse the lymphoproliferative phenotype in vivo. - Highlights: • First genetic evidence that PTEN controls LPS/TLR4 signaling in B lymphocytes. • Evidence that PTEN regulates LPS induced lymphoproliferation in vivo. • PI-3 kinase inhibitors block LPS induced lymphoproliferation in vivo.

  3. Enhancement of morphological plasticity in hippocampal neurons by a physically modified saline via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Roy

    Full Text Available Increase of the density of dendritic spines and enhancement of synaptic transmission through ionotropic glutamate receptors are important events, leading to synaptic plasticity and eventually hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory formation. Here we have undertaken an innovative approach to upregulate hippocampal plasticity. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles that are generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline, PNS60 (saline containing a comparable level of oxygen without the TCP modification, or RNS10.3 (TCP-modified normal saline without excess oxygen, stimulated morphological plasticity and synaptic transmission via NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive calcium influx in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Using mRNA-based targeted gene array, real-time PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses, we further demonstrate that RNS60 stimulated the expression of many plasticity-associated genes in cultured hippocampal neurons. Activation of type IA, but not type IB, phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3 kinase by RNS60 together with abrogation of RNS60-mediated upregulation of plasticity-related proteins (NR2A and GluR1 and increase in spine density, neuronal size, and calcium influx by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase, suggest that RNS60 upregulates hippocampal plasticity via activation of PI-3 kinase. Finally, in the 5XFAD transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD, RNS60 treatment upregulated expression of plasticity-related proteins PSD95 and NR2A and increased AMPA- and NMDA-dependent hippocampal calcium influx. These results describe a novel property of RNS60 in stimulating hippocampal plasticity, which may help AD and other dementias.

  4. Enhancement of morphological plasticity in hippocampal neurons by a physically modified saline via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avik; Modi, Khushbu K; Khasnavis, Saurabh; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2014-01-01

    Increase of the density of dendritic spines and enhancement of synaptic transmission through ionotropic glutamate receptors are important events, leading to synaptic plasticity and eventually hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory formation. Here we have undertaken an innovative approach to upregulate hippocampal plasticity. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles that are generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), PNS60 (saline containing a comparable level of oxygen without the TCP modification), or RNS10.3 (TCP-modified normal saline without excess oxygen), stimulated morphological plasticity and synaptic transmission via NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive calcium influx in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Using mRNA-based targeted gene array, real-time PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses, we further demonstrate that RNS60 stimulated the expression of many plasticity-associated genes in cultured hippocampal neurons. Activation of type IA, but not type IB, phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase by RNS60 together with abrogation of RNS60-mediated upregulation of plasticity-related proteins (NR2A and GluR1) and increase in spine density, neuronal size, and calcium influx by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase, suggest that RNS60 upregulates hippocampal plasticity via activation of PI-3 kinase. Finally, in the 5XFAD transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), RNS60 treatment upregulated expression of plasticity-related proteins PSD95 and NR2A and increased AMPA- and NMDA-dependent hippocampal calcium influx. These results describe a novel property of RNS60 in stimulating hippocampal plasticity, which may help AD and other dementias.

  5. Structural basis for isoform selectivity in a class of benzothiazole inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Philip N; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Cornebise, Mark; Cottrell, Kevin M; Doran, John D; Griffith, James P; Mahajan, Sudipta; Maltais, François; Moody, Cameron S; Huck, Emilie Porter; Wang, Tiansheng; Aronov, Alex M

    2015-01-08

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) is an attractive target to potentially treat a range of disease states. Herein, we describe the evolution of a reported phenylthiazole pan-PI3K inhibitor into a family of potent and selective benzothiazole inhibitors. Using X-ray crystallography, we discovered that compound 22 occupies a previously unreported hydrophobic binding cleft adjacent to the ATP binding site of PI3Kγ, and achieves its selectivity by exploiting natural sequence differences among PI3K isoforms in this region.

  6. DMPD: The p110delta subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is required for thelipopolysaccharide response of mouse B cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15494016 The p110delta subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is required for thelipo... 5):789-91. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The p110delta subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is required...e p110delta subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is required for thelipopolysaccharide response of mouse B c

  7. Acanthamoeba castellanii induces host cell death via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Sissons, J.; Kim, K.S.; Stins, M; Jayasekera, S.; Alsam, S.; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba castellanii is a serious human infection with fatal consequences, but it is not clear how the circulating amoebae interact with the blood-brain barrier and transmigrate into the central nervous system. We studied the effects of an Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate belonging to the T1 genotype on human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier. Using an apoptosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent as...

  8. Epidermal growth factor stimulates Rac activation through Src and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to promote colonic epithelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dise, Rebecca S; Frey, Mark R; Whitehead, Robert H; Polk, D Brent

    2008-01-01

    Regulated intestinal epithelial cell migration plays a key role in wound healing and maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell migration and wound closure in intestinal epithelial cells through incompletely understood mechanisms. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTPase Rac in EGF-induced cell migration using an in vitro wound-healing assay. In mouse colonic epithelial (MCE) cell lines, EGF-stimulated wound closure was accompanied by a doubling of the number of cells containing lamellipodial extensions at the wound margin, increased Rac membrane translocation in cells at the wound margin, and rapid Rac activation. Either Rac1 small interfering (si)RNA or a Rac1 inhibitor completely blocked EGF-stimulated wound closure. Whereas EGF failed to activate Rac in colon cells from EGF receptor (EGFR) knockout mice, stable expression of wild-type EGFR restored EGF-stimulated Rac activation and migration. Pharmacological inhibition of either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or Src family kinases reduced EGF-stimulated Rac activation. Cotreatment of cells with both inhibitors completely blocked EGF-stimulated Rac activation and localization to the leading edge of cells and lamellipodial extension. Our results present a novel mechanism by which the PI3K and Src signaling cascades cooperate to activate Rac and promote intestinal epithelial cell migration downstream of EGFR.

  9. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B controls survival and prevents anergy in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Yoann; Quéant, Séverine; Polizzi, Selena; Pouillon, Valérie; Schurmans, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (or Itpkb) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), its reaction product, play an important role in the control of B lymphocyte fate and function in vivo. In order to investigate the fine mechanisms of Itpkb and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 action in B cells, we crossed Itpkb(-/-) mice with transgenic mice expressing a 3-83μδ B cell receptor (BCR) specific for membrane-bound MHC-I H2-K(b) and H2-K(k) molecules. On a non-deleting H2-K(d) genetic background, we show that Itpkb is important for the control of Bim protein expression and B cell survival rather than for the control of B cell development from one stage to another. Analyses of cell surface markers expression, proapoptotic Bim protein expression, in vitro survival and in vivo turnover demonstrated that BCR transgenic Itpkb(-/-) B cells exhibit an anergic phenotype with the notable exception of their enhanced antigen-induced calcium signalling. On a deleting H2-K(b) genetic background, we show that Itpkb is not essential for BCR editing or negative selection. These data establish Itpkb as an important regulator of B cell survival and anergy in vivo.

  10. Gene-Environment Interactions Target Mitogen-activated Protein 3 Kinase 1 (MAP3K1) Signaling in Eyelid Morphogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Jingjing; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Puga, Alvaro; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions determine the biological outcomes through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Mouse embryonic eyelid closure is a well defined model to study the genetic control of developmental programs. Using this model, we investigated how exposure to dioxin-like environmental pollutants modifies the genetic risk of developmental abnormalities. Our studies reveal that mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase 1 (MAP3K1) signaling is a focal point of gene-environment cross-talk. Dioxin exposure, acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), blocked eyelid closure in genetic mutants in which MAP3K1 signaling was attenuated but did not disturb this developmental program in either wild type or mutant mice with attenuated epidermal growth factor receptor or WNT signaling. Exposure also markedly inhibited c-Jun phosphorylation in Map3k1+/− embryonic eyelid epithelium, suggesting that dioxin-induced AHR pathways can synergize with gene mutations to inhibit MAP3K1 signaling. Our studies uncover a novel mechanism through which the dioxin-AHR axis interacts with the MAP3K1 signaling pathways during fetal development and provide strong empirical evidence that specific gene alterations can increase the risk of developmental abnormalities driven by environmental pollutant exposure. PMID:26109068

  11. Andrographolide inhibits osteopontin expression and breast tumor growth through down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Patil, H S; Sharma, P; Kumar, D; Dasari, S; Puranik, V G; Thulasiram, H V; Kundu, G C

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in India and around the world. Despite recent advancement in the treatment of breast cancer, the results of chemotherapy to date remain unsatisfactory, prompting a need to identify natural agents that could target cancer efficiently with least side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is one such molecule which has been shown to possess inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. In this study, Andro, a natural diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase and induces apoptosis through caspase independent pathway. Our experimental evidences suggest that Andro attenuates endothelial cell motility and tumor-endothelial cell interaction. Moreover, Andro suppresses breast tumor growth in orthotopic NOD/SCID mice model. The anti-tumor activity of Andro in both in vitro and in vivo model was correlated with down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt activation and inhibition of pro-angiogenic molecules such as OPN and VEGF expressions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Andro may act as an effective anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Tumor phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling and development of metastatic disease in locally advanced rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hansen Ree

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recognizing EGFR as key orchestrator of the metastatic process in colorectal cancer, but also the substantial heterogeneity of responses to anti-EGFR therapy, we examined the pattern of composite tumor kinase activities governed by EGFR-mediated signaling that might be implicated in development of metastatic disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Point mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA and ERBB2 amplification were determined in primary tumors from 63 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer scheduled for radical treatment. Using peptide arrays with tyrosine kinase substrates, ex vivo phosphopeptide profiles were generated from the same baseline tumor samples and correlated to metastasis-free survival. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering analysis of the resulting phosphorylation of 102 array substrates defined two tumor classes, both consisting of cases with and without KRAS/BRAF mutations. The smaller cluster group of patients, with tumors generating high ex vivo phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related substrates, had a particularly aggressive disease course, with almost a half of patients developing metastatic disease within one year of follow-up. CONCLUSION: High phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated signaling activity of the primary tumor, rather than KRAS/BRAF mutation status, was identified as a hallmark of poor metastasis-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing radical treatment of the pelvic cavity.

  13. Differential regulatory functions of three classes of phosphatidylinositol and phosphoinositide 3-kinases in autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinlei; Long, Yun Chau; Shen, Han-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved and exquisitely regulated self-eating cellular process with important biological functions. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PtdIns3Ks) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are involved in the autophagic process. Here we aim to recapitulate how 3 classes of these lipid kinases differentially regulate autophagy. Generally, activation of the class I PI3K suppresses autophagy, via the well-established PI3K-AKT-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway. In contrast, the class III PtdIns3K catalytic subunit PIK3C3/Vps34 forms a protein complex with BECN1 and PIK3R4 and produces phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P), which is required for the initiation and progression of autophagy. The class II enzyme emerged only recently as an alternative source of PtdIns3P and autophagic initiator. However, the orthodox paradigm is challenged by findings that the PIK3CB catalytic subunit of class I PI3K acts as a positive regulator of autophagy, and PIK3C3 was thought to be an amino acid sensor for MTOR, which curbs autophagy. At present, a number of PtdIns3K and PI3K inhibitors, including specific PIK3C3 inhibitors, have been developed for suppression of autophagy and for clinical applications in autophagy-related human diseases.

  14. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases: functions and regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Jun XIA; Guang YANG

    2005-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase (IP3 3-kinase/IP3K) plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells by phosphorylating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Both IP3 and IP4 are critical second messengers which regulate calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. Mammalian IP3Ks are involved in many biological processes, including brain development, memory, learning and so on. It is widely reported that Ca2+ is a canonical second messenger in higher plants. Therefore, plant IP3K should also play a crucial role in plant development. Recently,we reported the identification of plant IP3K gene (AtIpk2β/AtIP3K) from Arabidopsis thaliana and its characterization.Here, we summarize the molecular cloning, biochemical properties and biological functions of IP3Ks from animal, yeast and plant. This review also discusses potential functions of IP3Ks in signaling crosstalk, inositol phosphate metabolism,gene transcriptional control and so on.

  15. Isotype-specific inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway in hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo JJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jorge J Castillo,1 Meera Iyengar,2 Benjamin Kuritzky,2 Kenneth D Bishop2 1Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, 2Division of Hematology and Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: In the last decade, the advent of biological targeted therapies has revolutionized the management of several types of cancer, especially in the realm of hematologic malignancies. One of these pathways, and the center of this review, is the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K pathway. The PI3K pathway seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis and survival advantage in hematologic malignancies, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. The objectives of the present review, hence, are to describe the current knowledge on the PI3K pathway and its isoforms, and to summarize preclinical and clinical studies using PI3K inhibitors, focusing on the advances made in hematologic malignancies. Keywords: phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway, inhibitors, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma

  16. Anti-malarial drug artesunate attenuates experimental allergic asthma via inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway is linked to the development of asthma. Anti-malarial drug artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the principal active component of a medicinal plant Artemisia annua, and has been shown to inhibit PI3K/Akt activity. We hypothesized that artesunate may attenuate allergic asthma via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA developed airway inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for total and differential cell counts, and cytokine and chemokine levels. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion, and the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Airway hyperresponsiveness was monitored by direct airway resistance analysis. Artesunate dose-dependently inhibited OVA-induced increases in total and eosinophil counts, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. It attenuated OVA-induced lung tissue eosinophilia and airway mucus production, mRNA expression of E-selectin, IL-17, IL-33 and Muc5ac in lung tissues, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, artesunate blocked epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates tuberin, p70S6 kinase and 4E-binding protein 1, and transactivation of NF-κB. Similarly, artesunate blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates in lung tissues from OVA-challenged mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of artesunate was further confirmed in a house dust mite mouse asthma model. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Artesunate ameliorates experimental allergic airway inflammation probably via negative regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway and the downstream NF-κB activity. These findings provide a novel therapeutic value for artesunate in the treatment of allergic asthma.

  17. Role of Host Type IA Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway Components in Invasin-Mediated Internalization of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Georgina C; Bhalla, Manmeet; Kean, Bernard; Thomas, Rowan; Ireton, Keith

    2016-06-01

    Many bacterial pathogens subvert mammalian type IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in order to induce their internalization into host cells. How PI3K promotes internalization is not well understood. Also unclear is whether type IA PI3K affects different pathogens through similar or distinct mechanisms. Here, we performed an RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen to identify components of the type IA PI3K pathway involved in invasin-mediated entry of Yersinia enterocolitica, an enteropathogen that causes enteritis and lymphadenitis. The 69 genes targeted encode known upstream regulators or downstream effectors of PI3K. A similar RNAi screen was previously performed with the food-borne bacterium Listeria monocytogenes The results of the screen with Y. enterocolitica indicate that at least nine members of the PI3K pathway are needed for invasin-mediated entry. Several of these proteins, including centaurin-α1, Dock180, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Grp1, LL5α, LL5β, and PLD2 (phospholipase D2), were recruited to sites of entry. In addition, centaurin-α1, FAK, PLD2, and mTOR were required for remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton during entry. Six of the human proteins affecting invasin-dependent internalization also promote InlB-mediated entry of L. monocytogenes Our results identify several host proteins that mediate invasin-induced effects on the actin cytoskeleton and indicate that a subset of PI3K pathway components promote internalization of both Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes.

  18. Involvement of PI 3 kinase/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation in Toxoplasma gondii-mediated inhibition of host cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Wei; Chu, Jia-Qi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Lee, Young-Ha

    2013-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii-infected cells are resistant to various apoptotic stimuli, however, the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bad protein in T. gondii-imposed inhibition of host cell apoptosis in connection with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-PKB/Akt pathway was not well delineated. Here, we investigated the signaling patterns of Bad, Bax and PKB/Akt in T. gondii-infected and uninfected THP-1 cells treated with staurosporine (STS) or PI3K inhibitors. STS treatment, without T. gondii infection, reduced the viability of THP-1 cells in proportion to STS concentration and triggered many cellular death events such as caspase-3 and -9 activation, Bax translocation, cytochrome c release from host cell mitochondria into cytosol, and PARP cleavage in the host cell. However, T. gondii infection eliminated the STS-triggered mitochondrial apoptotic events described above. Additionally, T. gondii infection in vitro and in vivo induced the phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and Bad in a parasite-load-dependent manner which subsequently inhibited Bax translocation. The PI3K inhibitors, LY294002 and Wortmannin, both blocked parasite-induced phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and Bad. Furthermore, THP-1 cells pretreated with these PI3K inhibitors showed reduced phosphorylation of Bad in a dose-dependent manner and subsequently failed to inhibit the Bax translocation, also these cells also failed to overcome the T. gondii-imposed inhibition of host cell apoptosis. These data demonstrate that the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway may be one of the major route for T. gondii in the prevention of host cell apoptosis and T. gondii phosphorylates the pro-apoptotic Bad protein to prevent apoptosis.

  19. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, T K; Duffy, L R; Frey, J W; Hornberger, T A

    2009-07-15

    Resistance exercise induces a hypertrophic response in skeletal muscle and recent studies have begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. For example, several studies indicate that signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is necessary for a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, resistance exercise has been proposed to activate mTOR signalling through an upstream pathway involving the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB); however, this hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the temporal pattern of signalling through PI3K-PKB and mTOR following a bout of resistance exercise with eccentric contractions (EC). Our results indicated that the activation of signalling through PI3K-PKB is a transient event (12 h). Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K-PKB activity did not prevent the activation of mTOR signalling by ECs, indicating that PI3K-PKB is not part of the upstream regulatory pathway. These observations led us to investigate an alternative pathway for the activation of mTOR signalling involving the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA) by phospholipase D (PLD). Our results demonstrate that ECs induce a sustained elevation in [PA] and inhibiting the synthesis of PA by PLD prevented the activation of mTOR. Furthermore, we determined that similar to ECs, PA activates mTOR signalling through a PI3K-PKB-independent mechanism. Combined, the results of this study indicate that the activation of mTOR following eccentric contractions occurs through a PI3K-PKB-independent mechanism that requires PLD and PA.

  20. Disulfiram Treatment Facilitates Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells In vitro and In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Di; Ringler, Jonathan; Chen, Wei; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Ethier, Stephen P.; Dou, Q. Ping; Wu, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Frequent genetic alterations of the components in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN/AKT signaling pathway contribute greatly to breast cancer initiation and progression, which makes targeting this signaling pathway a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment. In this study, we showed that in the presence of copper (Cu), disulfiram (DSF), a clinically used antialcoholism drug, could potently inhibit breast cancer cell growth regardless of the PIK3CA status. Surprisingly, the treatment with a mixture of DSF and copper (DSF-Cu) led to the decreased expression of PTEN protein and the activation of AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner in different cell lines with or without PIK3CA mutations. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines with a combination of DSF-Cu and LY294002, a pan-PI3K inhibitor, resulted in the significant inhibition of cell growth when compared with either drug alone. In addition, the combined treatment of DSF and LY294002 significantly inhibited the growth of the breast tumor xenograft in nude mice induced by MDA-MB-231 cells expressing mutant PIK3CA-H1047R and PIK3CA-E545K, whereas neither DSF nor LY294002 alone could significantly retard tumor growth. Finally, the observed in vivo inhibitory effects are found associated with aberrant signaling alterations and apoptosis-inducing activities in tumor samples. Thus, our finding shows for the first time that treatment of breast cancer with DSF results in a novel feedback mechanism that activates AKT signaling. Our study also suggests that the combination of DSF and a PI3K inhibitor may offer a new combinational treatment model for breast cancer, particularly for those with PIK3CA mutations. PMID:20424113

  1. Role of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Pathway in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K pathway is one of the most frequently observed molecular alterations in many human malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the prime importance of the PI3K pathway at each stage of tumorigenesis, that is, tumor initiation, progression, recurrence, and metastasis. Expectedly, targeting the PI3K pathway yields some promising results in both preclinical studies and clinical trials for certain cancer patients. However, there are still many questions that need to be answered, given the complexity of this pathway and the existence of its multiple feedback loops and interactions with other signaling pathways. In this paper, we will summarize recent advances in the understanding of the PI3K pathway role in human malignancies, with an emphasis on HNSCC, and discuss the clinical applications and future direction of this field.

  2. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 controls the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway to regulate epidermal growth factor-dependent growth and migration of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Cotton, Mathieu; Melançon, Paul; Claing, Audrey

    2008-12-26

    Activation of intracellular signaling pathways by growth factors is one of the major causes of cancer development and progression. Recent studies have demonstrated that monomeric G proteins of the Ras family are key regulators of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Using an invasive breast cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1), a small GTPase classically associated with the Golgi, is an important regulator of the biological effects induced by epidermal growth factor. Here, we show that this ARF isoform is activated following epidermal growth factor stimulation and that, in MDA-MB-231 cells, ARF1 is found in dynamic plasma membrane ruffles. Inhibition of endogenous ARF1 expression results in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration and proliferation. The underlying mechanism involves the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Our data demonstrate that depletion of ARF1 markedly impairs the recruitment of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit (p110alpha) to the plasma membrane, and the association of the regulatory subunit (p85alpha) to the activated receptor. These results uncover a novel molecular mechanism by which ARF1 regulates breast cancer cell growth and invasion during cancer progression.

  3. Dynamic changes of connexin-43, gap junctional protein, in outer layers of cumulus cells are regulated by PKC and PI 3-kinase during meiotic resumption in porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, M; Maeda, T; Terada, T

    2001-04-01

    Mammalian oocytes are surrounded by numerous layers of cumulus cells, and the loss of gap junctional communication in the outer layers of cumulus cells induces meiotic resumption in oocytes. In this study, we investigated the dynamic changes in the gap junctional protein connexin-43 in cumulus cells during the meiotic resumption of porcine oocytes. The amount of connexin-43 in all layers of cumulus cells recovered from cumulus-oocyte complexes was increased after 4-h cultivation. However, at 12-h cultivation, the positive signal for connexin-43 immunoreactivity was markedly reduced in the outer layers of cumulus cells. When these reductions of connexin-43 were blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor, networks of filamentous bivalents (i.e., advanced chromosomal status) were undetectable in the germinal vesicle of the oocyte. After 28-h cultivation, when the majority of oocytes were reaching the metaphase I (MI) stage, the connexin-43 in the inner layers of cumulus cells was phosphorylated, regardless of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. These results suggest that the initiation of meiotic resumption, namely, the formation of networks of filamentous bivalents in germinal vesicle, is associated with the reduction of gap junctional protein connexin-43 in the outer layers of cumulus cells via the PKC and/or PI 3-kinase pathway. Moreover, the connexin-43 in the inner layers of cumulus cells is phosphorylated during meiotic progression beyond the MI stage, regardless of MAP kinase activation in cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte.

  4. Signals controlling un-differentiated states in embryonic stem and cancer cells: role of the phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase pathway.

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    Voskas, Daniel; Ling, Ling Sunny; Woodgett, James Robert

    2014-10-01

    The capacity of embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into cell lineages comprising the three germ layers makes them powerful tools for studying mammalian early embryonic development in vitro. The human body consists of approximately 210 different somatic cell types, the majority of which have limited proliferative capacity. However, both stem cells and cancer cells bypass this replicative barrier and undergo symmetric division indefinitely when cultured under defined conditions. Several signal transduction pathways play important roles in regulating stem cell development, and aberrant expression of components of these pathways is linked to cancer. Among signaling systems, the critical role of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) coupled to the Jak/STAT3 (signal transduction and activation of transcription-3) pathway in maintaining stem cell self-renewal has been extensively reviewed. This pathway additionally plays multiple roles in tumorigenesis. Likewise, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) pathway has been determined to play an important role in both stem cell maintenance and tumor development. This pathway is often induced in cancer with frequent mutational activation of the catalytic subunit of PI3K or loss of a primary PI3K antagonist, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN). This review focusses on roles of the PI3K signal transduction pathway components, with emphasis on functions in stem cell maintenance and cancer. Since the PI3K pathway impinges on and collaborates with other signaling pathways in regulating stem cell development and/or cancer, aspects of the canonical Wnt, Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and TGF-β signaling pathways are also discussed.

  5. Promotion of melanoma cell invasion and tumor metastasis by microcystin-LR via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Miao, Chen; Fu, Ziyi; Li, Zhengrong; Zhang, Gen; Zheng, Maqing; Liu, Yuefang; Yang, Liuyan; Wang, Ting

    2013-08-06

    Recently, we have indicated that microcystin-LR, a cyanobacterial toxin produced in eutrophic lakes or reservoirs, can increase invasive ability of melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells; however, the stimulatory effect needs identification by in vivo experiment and the related molecular mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of microcystin-LR on invasion and metastasis of human melanoma cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism was also explored. MDA-MB-435 xenograft model assay showed that oral administration of nude mice with microcystin-LR at 0.001-0.1 mg/kg/d posed no significant effect on tumor weight. Histological examination demonstrated that microcystin-LR could promote lung metastasis, which is confirmed by Matrigel chamber assay suggesting that microcystin-LR treatment at 25 nM can increase the invasiveness of MDA-MB-435 cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments consistently showed that microcystin-LR exposure increased mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/-9) by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT. Additionally, microcystin-LR treatment at low doses (≤25 nM) decreased lipid phosphatase PTEN expression, and the microcystin-induced invasiveness enhancement and MMP-2/-9 overexpression were reversed by the PI3-K/AKT chemical inhibitor LY294002 and AKT siRNA, indicating that microcystin-LR promotes invasion and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 cells via the PI3-K/AKT pathway.

  6. A retinoic acid receptor beta agonist (CD2019) overcomes inhibition of axonal outgrowth via phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in the injured adult spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Marta; Yip, Ping; Davies, Meirion; Bradbury, Elizabeth; Doherty, Patrick; McMahon, Stephen; Maden, Malcolm; Corcoran, Jonathan P T

    2010-01-01

    After spinal cord injury in the adult mammal, axons do not normally regrow and this commonly leads to paralysis. Retinoic acid (RA) can stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro of both the embryonic central and peripheral nervous system, via activation of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta2. We show here that regions of the adult CNS, including the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, express RARbeta2. We show that when cerebellar neurons are grown in the presence of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) which inhibits neurite outgrowth, RARbeta can be activated in a dose dependent manner by a RARbeta agonist (CD2019) and neurite outgrowth can occur via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. In a model of spinal cord injury CD2019 also acts through PI3K signalling to induce axonal outgrowth of descending corticospinal fibres and promote functional recovery. Our data suggest that RARbeta agonists may be of therapeutic potential for human spinal cord injuries.

  7. Regulation of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling by muscle-enriched microRNA-486

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Eric M.; O’Rourke, Jason R.; Moresi, Viviana; Sutherland, Lillian B.; McAnally, John; Gerard, Robert D.; Richardson, James A.; Olson, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in modulating a variety of cellular processes through repression of mRNA targets. In a screen for miRNAs regulated by myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A), a coactivator of serum response factor (SRF), we discovered a muscle-enriched miRNA, miR-486, controlled by an alternative promoter within intron 40 of the Ankyrin-1 gene. Transcription of miR-486 is directly controlled by SRF and MRTF-A, as well as by MyoD. Among the most strongly predicted targets of miR-486 are phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and Foxo1a, which negatively affect phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Accordingly, PTEN and Foxo1a protein levels are reduced by miR-486 overexpression, which, in turn, enhances PI3K/Akt signaling. Similarly, we show that MRTF-A promotes PI3K/Akt signaling by up-regulating miR-486 expression. Conversely, inhibition of miR-486 expression enhances the expression of PTEN and Foxo1a and dampens signaling through the PI3K/Akt-signaling pathway. Our findings implicate miR-486 as a downstream mediator of the actions of SRF/MRTF-A and MyoD in muscle cells and as a potential modulator of PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:20142475

  8. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Stanley K.L. [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Neo, Soek-Ying, E-mail: neo_soek_ying@sics.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Yap, Yann-Wan [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L. [Genome Institute of Singapore A-STAR (Singapore); Liau, Kui-Hin [Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Ren, Ee-Chee, E-mail: ren_ee_chee@immunol.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  9. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediates the ability of retinol to decrease colorectal cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Jennifer N Griffin; Park, Eun Young; Brunson, Anna R; Pinali, Daniel; Lane, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that retinol (vitamin A) decreased both colorectal cancer cell invasion and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity through a retinoic acid receptor-independent mechanism. Here, we determined if these phenomena were related by using parental HCT-116 cells that harbor 1 allele of wild-type PI3K and 1 allele of constitutively active (ca) PI3K and 2 mutant HCT-116 cell lines homozygous for caPI3K. In vitro, treatment of parental HCT-116 cells with 10 μM retinol reduced cell invasion whereas treatment of mutant HCT-116 cell lines with retinol did not. Treatment with 10 μM retinol also decreased the activity of matrixmetalloproteinase-9 and increased tissue inhibitor of matrixmetalloproteinase-I levels in parental, but not mutant, HCT-116 cells. Finally, parental or mutant cells were intrasplenically injected into athymic mice consuming diets with or without supplemental vitamin A. As expected, vitamin A supplementation tended (P = 0.18) to reduce the incidence of metastases in mice injected with the parental cell line and consuming the supplemented diet. In contrast, metastatic incidence was not affected (P = 1.00) by vitamin A supplementation in mice injected with mutant cells. These data indicate that the capacity of retinol to inhibit PI3K activity confers its ability to decrease colorectal cancer metastasis.

  10. ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs.

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase γ is required for the development of experimental cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norinne Lacerda-Queiroz

    Full Text Available Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM is characterized by a strong immune response, with leukocyte recruitment, blood-brain barrier breakdown and hemorrhage in the central nervous system. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ is central in signaling diverse cellular functions. Using PI3Kγ-deficient mice (PI3Kγ-/- and a specific PI3Kγ inhibitor, we investigated the relevance of PI3Kγ for the outcome and the neuroinflammatory process triggered by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection. Infected PI3Kγ-/- mice had greater survival despite similar parasitemia levels in comparison with infected wild type mice. Histopathological analysis demonstrated reduced hemorrhage, leukocyte accumulation and vascular obstruction in the brain of infected PI3Kγ-/- mice. PI3Kγ deficiency also presented lower microglial activation (Iba-1+ reactive microglia and T cell cytotoxicity (Granzyme B expression in the brain. Additionally, on day 6 post-infection, CD3+CD8+ T cells were significantly reduced in the brain of infected PI3Kγ-/- mice when compared to infected wild type mice. Furthermore, expression of CD44 in CD8+ T cell population in the brain tissue and levels of phospho-IkB-α in the whole brain were also markedly lower in infected PI3Kγ-/- mice when compared with infected wild type mice. Finally, AS605240, a specific PI3Kγ inhibitor, significantly delayed lethality in infected wild type mice. In brief, our results indicate a pivotal role for PI3Kγ in the pathogenesis of ECM.

  12. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a Drosophila phosphatidylinositol-specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linassier, C; MacDougall, L K; Domin, J; Waterfield, M D

    1997-02-01

    Molecular, biochemical and genetic characterization of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have identified distinct classes of enzymes involved in processes mediated by activation of cell-surface receptors and in constitutive intracellular protein trafficking events. The latter process appears to involve a PtdIns-specific PI3K first described in yeast as a mutant, vps34, defective in the sorting of newly synthesized proteins from the Golgi to the vacuole. We have identified a representative member of each class of PI3Ks in Drosophila using a PCR-based approach. In the present paper we describe the molecular cloning of a PI3K from Drosophila, P13K_59F, that shows sequence similarity to Vps34. PI3K_59F encodes a protein of 108 kDa co-linear with Vps34 homologues, and with three regions of sequence similarity to other PI3Ks. Biochemical characterization of the enzyme, by expression of the complete coding sequence as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Sf9 cells, demonstrates that PI3K_59F is a PtdIns-specific PI3K that can utilize either Mg2+ or Mn2+. This activity is sensitive to inhibition both by non-ionic detergent (Nonidet P40) and by wortmannin (IC50 10 nM). PI3K_59F, therefore, conserves both the structural and biochemical properties of the Vps34 class of enzymes.

  13. Apelin-13 inhibits large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells via a PI3-kinase dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Modgil

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 causes vasoconstriction by acting directly on APJ receptors in vascular smooth muscle (VSM cells; however, the ionic mechanisms underlying this action at the cellular level remain unclear. Large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BKCa channels in VSM cells are critical regulators of membrane potential and vascular tone. In the present study, we examined the effect of apelin-13 on BK(Ca channel activity in VSM cells, freshly isolated from rat middle cerebral arteries. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, apelin-13 (0.001-1 μM caused concentration-dependent inhibition of BK(Ca in VSM cells. Apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly decreased BK(Ca current density from 71.25 ± 8.14 pA/pF to 44.52 ± 7.10 pA/pF (n=14 cells, P<0.05. This inhibitory effect of apelin-13 was confirmed by single channel recording in cell-attached patches, in which extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM decreased the open-state probability (NPo of BK(Ca channels in freshly isolated VSM cells. However, in inside-out patches, extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM did not alter the NPo of BK(Ca channels, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of apelin-13 on BKCa is not mediated by a direct action on BK(Ca. In whole cell patches, pretreatment of VSM cells with LY-294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, markedly attenuated the apelin-13-induced decrease in BK(Ca current density. In addition, treatment of arteries with apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly increased the ratio of phosphorylated-Akt/total Akt, indicating that apelin-13 significantly increases PI3-kinase activity. Taken together, the data suggest that apelin-13 inhibits BK(Ca channel via a PI3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway in cerebral artery VSM cells, which may contribute to its regulatory action in the control of vascular tone.

  14. The inability of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation to stimulate GLUT4 translocation indicates additional signaling pathways are required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakoff, S J; Taha, C; Rose, E; Marcusohn, J; Klip, A; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-10-24

    Recent experimental evidence has focused attention to the role of two molecules, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), in linking the insulin receptor to glucose uptake; IRS-1 knockout mice are insulin resistant, and pharmacological inhibitors of PI3-kinase block insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To investigate the role of PI3-kinase and IRS-1 in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake we examined whether stimulation of insulin-sensitive cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or with interleukin 4 (IL-4) stimulates glucose uptake; the activated PDGF receptor (PDGFR) directly binds and activates PI3-kinase, whereas the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) activates PI3-kinase via IRS-1 or the IRS-1-related molecule 4PS. We found that stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with PDGF resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR and activation of PI3-kinase in these cells. To examine whether IL-4 stimulates glucose uptake, L6 myoblasts were engineered to overexpress GLUT4 as well as both chains of the IL-4R (L6/IL-4R/GLUT4); when these L6/IL-4R/GLUT4 myoblasts were stimulated with IL-4, IRS-1 became tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with PI3-kinase. Although PDGF and IL-4 can activate PI3-kinase in the respective cell lines, they do not possess insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that activation of PI3-kinase is not sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. We postulate that activation of a second signaling pathway by insulin, distinct from PI3-kinase, is necessary for the stimulation of glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive cells.

  15. Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

    2011-03-24

    It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the

  16. Supramolecular nanoparticles that target phosphoinositide-3-kinase overcome insulin resistance and exert pronounced antitumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ashish A; Roy, Bhaskar; Rao, Poornima S; Wyant, Gregory A; Mahmoud, Ayaat; Ramachandran, Madhumitha; Sengupta, Poulomi; Goldman, Aaron; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Basu, Sudipta; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2013-12-01

    The centrality of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) in cancer etiology is well established, but clinical translation of PI3K inhibitors has been limited by feedback signaling, suboptimal intratumoral concentration, and an insulin resistance "class effect." This study was designed to explore the use of supramolecular nanochemistry for targeting PI3K to enhance antitumor efficacy and potentially overcome these limitations. PI3K inhibitor structures were rationally modified using a cholesterol-based derivative, facilitating supramolecular nanoassembly with L-α-phosphatidylcholine and DSPE-PEG [1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polythylene glycol)]. The supramolecular nanoparticles (SNP) that were assembled were physicochemically characterized and functionally evaluated in vitro. Antitumor efficacy was quantified in vivo using 4T1 breast cancer and K-Ras(LSL/+)/Pten(fl/fl) ovarian cancer models, with effects on glucose homeostasis evaluated using an insulin sensitivity test. The use of PI103 and PI828 as surrogate molecules to engineer the SNPs highlighted the need to keep design principles in perspective; specifically, potency of the active molecule and the linker chemistry were critical principles for efficacy, similar to antibody-drug conjugates. We found that the SNPs exerted a temporally sustained inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, S6K, and 4EBP in vivo. These effects were associated with increased antitumor efficacy and survival as compared with PI103 and PI828. Efficacy was further increased by decorating the nanoparticle surface with tumor-homing peptides. Notably, the use of SNPs abrogated the insulin resistance that has been associated widely with other PI3K inhibitors. This study provides a preclinical foundation for the use of supramolecular nanochemistry to overcome current challenges associated with PI3K inhibitors, offering a paradigm for extension to other molecularly targeted therapeutics being explored for cancer

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Couples Localised Calcium Influx to Activation of Akt in Central Nerve Terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Cousin, Michael A; Smillie, Karen J

    2016-03-01

    The efficient retrieval of synaptic vesicle membrane and cargo in central nerve terminals is dependent on the efficient recruitment of a series of endocytosis modes by different patterns of neuronal activity. During intense neuronal activity the dominant endocytosis mode is activity-dependent endocytosis (ADBE). Triggering of ADBE is linked to calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation since the same stimulation intensities trigger both. Dynamin I dephosphorylation is maximised by a simultaneous inhibition of its kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) by the protein kinase Akt, however it is unknown how increased neuronal activity is transduced into Akt activation. To address this question we determined how the activity-dependent increases in intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) control activation of Akt. This was achieved using either trains of high frequency action potentials to evoke localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at active zones, or a calcium ionophore to raise [Ca(2+)]i uniformly across the nerve terminal. Through the use of either non-specific calcium channel antagonists or intracellular calcium chelators we found that Akt phosphorylation (and subsequent GSK3 phosphorylation) was dependent on localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at the active zone. In an attempt to determine mechanism, we antagonised either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or calmodulin. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK3 was arrested on inhibition of PI3K, but not calmodulin. Thus localised calcium influx in central nerve terminals activates PI3K via an unknown calcium sensor to trigger the activity-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway regulates sperm viability but not capacitation on boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, I M; Bragado, M J; Gil, M C; Garcia-Herreros, M; Gonzalez-Fernandez, L; Tapia, J A; Garcia-Marin, L J

    2007-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) plays an important role in cell survival in somatic cells and recent data pointed out a role for this kinase in sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction (AR). This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of PI3-K pathway on porcine spermatozoa capacitation, AR, and viability using two unrelated PI3-K inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin. In boar spermatozoa, we have identified the presence of PDK1, PKB/Akt, and PTEN, three of the main key components of the PI3-K pathway. Incubation of boar sperm in a capacitating medium (TCM) caused a significant increase in the percentage of capacitated (25 +/- 2 to 34 +/- 1% P sperm in basal medium (TBM). Inhibition of PI3-K did affect neither the capacitation status nor AR nor protein p32 tyrosine phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa incubated in TBM or TCM. Boar sperm viability in TBM was significantly decreased by 40 and 20% after pretreatment with LY294002 or wortmannin, respectively. Similar results were observed after incubation of boar spermatozoa in TCM. Treatment of boar spermatozoa with the analog of cAMP, 8Br-cAMP significantly prevented the reduction on sperm viability. Our results provide evidence for an important role of the PI3-K pathway in the regulation of boar sperm viability and suggests that other signaling pathways different from PI3-K must be activated downstream of cAMP to contribute to regulation of sperm viability. Finally, in our conditions the PI3-K pathway seems not related with boar sperm capacitation or AR.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit gene and spinal muscular atrophy disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica STAVARACHI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a frequent neuromuscular disorder caused by motoneuronal apoptosis, as a result of SMN (Survival Motor Neuron protein deficiency. Although the SMA determining gene was identified, the molecular mechanism of the disease is not clearly understood, due to the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations. Trying to complete the molecular describing SMA picture, by identifying potential modulators factors, we investigated the relationship between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit gene (PIK3R1 and SMA pathology. As IGF signaling pathway has been reported to play an important role in motoneurons survival and PIK3 is a key element of this cascade signaling, we focused on the relationship between PIK3R1 gene Met326Ile polymorphism and SMA type I, the most severe form of the disease. A total of 80 subjects (40 SMA type I patients and 40 unrelated healthy controls were included in the study. The statistical analyzes performed consequently to the genotyping by mismatch PCR-RFLP method, revealed that Met326Ile polymorphism is not associated with SMA type I disease: ORMet/Met = 0.398 with a p = 0.072 meanwhile ORMet = 0.495, p = 0.063. However, the Cochrane – Armitage test indicated that there is a statistically association trend between the analyzed polymorphism and SMA type I pathology: ORMet = 0.438, p = 0.032. We concluded that additional researches with an increased subjects number and replicates studies in other populations will clarify the investigated relationship and it may contribute to the SMA molecular mechanism understanding.

  20. The role of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and PTEN in cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudit, Gavin Y; Sun, Hui; Kerfant, Benoit-Gilles; Crackower, Michael A; Penninger, Josef M; Backx, Peter H

    2004-08-01

    Phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of evolutionary conserved lipid kinases that mediate many cellular responses in both physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Class I PI3K can be activated by either receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/cytokine receptor activation (class I(A)) or G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) (class I(B)). Once activated PI3Ks generate phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns) (3,4,5)P(3) leading to the recruitment and activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), PDK1 and monomeric G-proteins (e.g. Rac-GTPases), which then activate a range of downstream targets including glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70S6 kinase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and several anti-apoptotic effectors. Class I(A) (PI3Kalpha, beta and delta) and class I(B) (PI3Kgamma) PI3Ks mediate distinct phenotypes in the heart and under negative control by the 3'-lipid phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) which dephosphorylate PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) into PtdIns(4,5)P(2). PI3Kalpha, gamma and PTEN are expressed in cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells where they modulate cell survival/apoptosis, hypertrophy, contractility, metabolism and mechanotransduction. Several transgenic and knockout models support a fundamental role of PI3K/PTEN signaling in the regulation of myocardial contractility and hypertrophy. Consequently the PI3K/PTEN signaling pathways are involved in a wide variety of diseases including cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, preconditioning and hypertension. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry and molecular biology of PI3K (class I isoforms) and PTEN and their critical role in cardiovascular physiology and diseases.

  1. A new calmodulin-binding motif for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Baños-Sanz, Jose I; Monterroso, Begoña; Round, Adam; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; González, Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    IP3-3K [Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase] is a key enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, using Ins(1,4,5)P3 and ATP as substrates. Both inositides, substrate and product, present crucial roles in the cell. Ins(1,4,5)P3 is a key point in Ca2+ metabolism that promotes Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and together with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 regulates Ca2+ homoeostasis. In addition, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is involved in immune cell development. It has been proved that Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin) regulates the activity of IP3-3K, via direct interaction between both enzymes. Although we have extensive structural knowledge of the kinase domains of the three IP3-3K isoforms, no structural information is available about the interaction between IP3-3K and Ca2+/CaM. In the present paper we describe the crystal structure of the complex between human Ca2+/CaM and the CaM-binding region of human IP3-3K isoform A (residues 158-183) and propose a model for a complex including the kinase domain. The structure obtained allowed us to identify all of the key residues involved in the interaction, which have been evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis, pull-down and fluorescence anisotropy experiments. The results allowed the identification of a new CaM-binding motif, expanding our knowledge about how CaM interacts with its partners.

  2. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase/akt - dependent signaling is required for maintenance of [Ca2+]i,ICa, and Ca2+ transients in HL-1 cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Bridget M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K/Akt dependent signaling pathway plays an important role in cardiac function, specifically cardiac contractility. We have reported that sepsis decreases myocardial Akt activation, which correlates with cardiac dysfunction in sepsis. We also reported that preventing sepsis induced changes in myocardial Akt activation ameliorates cardiovascular dysfunction. In this study we investigated the role of PI3K/Akt on cardiomyocyte function by examining the role of PI3K/Akt-dependent signaling on [Ca2+]i, Ca2+ transients and membrane Ca2+ current, ICa, in cultured murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes. LY294002 (1–20 μM, a specific PI3K inhibitor, dramatically decreased HL-1 [Ca2+]i, Ca2+ transients and ICa. We also examined the effect of PI3K isoform specific inhibitors, i.e. α (PI3-kinase α inhibitor 2; 2–8 nM; β (TGX-221; 100 nM and γ (AS-252424; 100 nM, to determine the contribution of specific isoforms to HL-1 [Ca2+]i regulation. Pharmacologic inhibition of each of the individual PI3K isoforms significantly decreased [Ca2+]i, and inhibited Ca2+ transients. Triciribine (1–20 μM, which inhibits AKT downstream of the PI3K pathway, also inhibited [Ca2+]i, and Ca2+ transients and ICa. We conclude that the PI3K/Akt pathway is required for normal maintenance of [Ca2+]i in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Thus, myocardial PI3K/Akt-PKB signaling sustains [Ca2+]i required for excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyoctyes.

  3. Glycine-extended gastrin activates two independent tyrosine-kinases in upstream of p85/p110 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in human colonic tumour cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Ferrand; Aline Kowalski-Chauvel; Julie Pannequin; Claudine Bertrand; Daniel Fourmy; Marlene Dufresne; Catherine Seva

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Src, JAK2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are involved in the proliferation of human colonic tumour cells induced by glycine-extended gastrin (G-gly), the precursor of the mature amidated gastrin and to elucidate the molecular interaction between these three kinases in response to this peptide.METHODS: Using the human colonic tumour cell line HCT116 as a model, we first measured the activation of PI3K, p60-Src and JAK2 in response to G-gly by in vitro kinase assays. Then we investigated the involvement of these kinases in G-gly-induced cell proliferation by MTT test.RESULTS: G-gly stimulation induced p60-Src, JAK2 and PI3K activation in HCT116. The different pathways were involved in proliferation of human colon cancer cells induced by G-gly. Furthermore, we found that both Src and JAK2 were necessary to PI3K regulation by this peptide. However, we did not find any cross-talk between the two tyrosine kinases.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the p60-Src/ PI3K and JAK2/PI3K pathways act independently to mediate G-gly proliferative effect on human colonic tumour cells.

  4. WNT16B is a new marker of cellular senescence that regulates p53 activity and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, Romuald; Ythier, Damien; Robles, Ana I; Collado, Manuel; Larrieu, Delphine; Fonti, Claire; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Serrano, Manuel; Harris, Curtis C; Pedeux, Rémy

    2009-12-15

    Senescence is a tumor suppression mechanism that is induced by several stimuli, including oncogenic signaling and telomere shortening, and controlled by the p53/p21(WAF1) signaling pathway. Recently, a critical role for secreted factors has emerged, suggesting that extracellular signals are necessary for the onset and maintenance of senescence. Conversely, factors secreted by senescent cells may promote tumor growth. By using expression profiling techniques, we searched for secreted factors that were overexpressed in fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence. We identified WNT16B, a member of the WNT family of secreted proteins. We found that WNT16B is overexpressed in cells undergoing stress-induced premature senescence and oncogene-induced senescence in both MRC5 cell line and the in vivo murine model of K-Ras(V12)-induced senescence. By small interfering RNA experiments, we observed that both p53 and WNT16B are necessary for the onset of replicative senescence. WNT16B expression is required for the full transcriptional activation of p21(WAF1). Moreover, WNT16B regulates activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Overall, we identified WNT16B as a new marker of senescence that regulates p53 activity and the PI3K/AKT pathway and is necessary for the onset of replicative senescence.

  5. Dysregulated Expression of Tensin 2 and Components of the PI3 Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway in Human Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollah Erfani; Mohammad Javad Fattahi; Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh; Mohammad Mehrazmay; Ahmad Monabati; Akbar Rasekhi Kazerouni; Sassan Hafizi; Abbas Ghaderi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is recognized as a key driver of cancer cell survival and proliferation, and is often contingent upon an impairment of expression/function of the PTEN tumor suppressor, a negative regulator of this pathway. In addition, the cytoskeletal signaling protein Tensin 2 has also been implicated as a negative regulator of this pathway. However, the PI3K pathway remains to be fully characterized in clinical thyroid carc...

  6. Constitutive Macropinocytosis in Oncogene-transformed Fibroblasts Depends on Sequential Permanent Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and Phospholipase C

    OpenAIRE

    Amyere, Mustapha; Payrastre, Bernard; Krause, Ulrike; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Veithen, Alex; Courtoy, Pierre J

    2000-01-01

    Macropinocytosis results from the closure of lamellipodia generated by membrane ruffling, thereby reflecting cortical actin dynamics. Both transformation of Rat-1 fibroblasts by v-Src or K-Ras and stable transfection for expression of dominant-positive, wild-type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit p85α constitutively led to stress fiber disruption, cortical actin recruitment, extensive ruffling, and macropinosome formation, as measured by a selecti...

  7. Constitutive macropinocytosis in oncogene-transformed fibroblasts depends on sequential permanent activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase C.

    OpenAIRE

    Amyere, Mustapha; Payrastre, B.; Krause, U.; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Veithen, A.; Courtoy, Pierre J

    2000-01-01

    Macropinocytosis results from the closure of lamellipodia generated by membrane ruffling, thereby reflecting cortical actin dynamics. Both transformation of Rat-1 fibroblasts by v-Src or K-Ras and stable transfection for expression of dominant-positive, wild-type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit p85 alpha constitutively led to stress fiber disruption, cortical actin recruitment, extensive ruffling, and macropinosome formation, as measured by a selective acceleration of flui...

  8. Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Activation in the Adipose Tissue of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Insulin Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初永丽; 刘文娟; 崔青; 冯桂姣; 王彦; 姜学强

    2010-01-01

    The P85 regulatory subunit protein and gene expression and P110 catalylic subunit activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) were investigated in adipose tissue of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in order to explore the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance (IR) of GDM. Samples from patients with GDM (n=50), and controls (n=50) were collected. Fasting insulin (FIN) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured by oxidase assay. Western blot techn...

  9. Pooled Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Pathway Variants and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutros, Stella; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Hayes, Richard B.; Ma, Jing; Huang, Wen-Yi; Albanes, Demetrius; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Giovanucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loïc; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Mier J.; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Travis, Ruth C.; Thun, Michael J.; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates various cellular processes, including cellular proliferation and intracellular trafficking and may impact prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, we explored the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PI3K genes and prostate cancer. Pooled data from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium were examined for associations between 89 SNPs in PI3K genes (PIK3C2B, PIK3AP1, PIK3C2A, PIK3CD, and PIK3R3) and prostate cancer risk in 8,309 cases and 9,286 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression. SNP rs7556371 in PIK3C2B was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (ORper allele=1.08 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.14), p-trend = 0.0017) after adjustment for multiple testing (Padj=0.024). Simultaneous adjustment of rs7556371 for nearby SNPs strengthened the association (ORper allele=1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.34); p-trend =0.0003). The adjusted association was stronger for men who were diagnosed before 65 years (ORper allele= 1.47 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.79), p-trend = 0.0001) or had a family history (ORper allele= 1.57 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.23), p-trend = 0.0114), and was strongest in those with both characteristics (ORper allele= 2.31 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.07), p-interaction = 0.005). Increased risks were observed among men in the top tertile of circulating insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels (ORper allele= 1.46 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.06), p-trend=0.075). No differences were observed with disease aggressiveness (≥8/stage T3/T4/fatal). In conclusion, we observed a significant association between PIK3C2B and prostate cancer risk, especially for familial, early onset disease, which may be attributable to IGF-dependent PI3K signaling. PMID:20197460

  10. The PI3-kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib (GS-1101) targets integrin-mediated adhesion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell to endothelial and marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Brown, Wells S; McIntyre, Bradley W; Estrov, Zeev; Maffei, Rossana; O'Brien, Susan; Sivina, Mariela; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Ding, Wei; Kay, Neil E; Lannutti, Brian J; Marasca, Roberto; Burger, Jan A

    2013-01-01

    CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC). We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106) expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d) resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.

  11. The PI3-kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib (GS-1101 targets integrin-mediated adhesion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cell to endothelial and marrow stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fiorcari

    Full Text Available CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC. We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106 expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.

  12. Antitumor effect of resveratrol on chondrosarcoma cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zixun; Lei, Pengfei; Xie, Jie; Hu, Yihe

    2015-08-01

    Chondrosarcoma is one of the most common types of primary bone cancer that develops in cartilage cells. Resveratrol (Res), a natural polyphenol compound isolated from various fruits, has a suppressive effect on various human malignancies. It has been shown that Res inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-induced differentiation in chondrosarcoma cells. However, the effects of Res on cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, remain largely unknown. To the best of our knowledge, the present study showed for the first time that Res inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it was shown that Res also suppressed chondrosarcoma cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner, probably via the inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 protein expression. Molecular mechanism investigations revealed that Res could inhibit the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, which has been demonstrated to be important in the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis and invasion in various cancer cell types. In conclusion, this study suggests that Res may serve as a promising agent for the treatment of chondrosarcoma.

  13. Hepatoprotective Effect of Quercetin on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Inflammation after Intense Exercise in Mice through Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying intense exercise-induced liver damage and its potential treatments remain unclear. We explored the hepatoprotection and mechanisms of quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, in strenuous exercise-derived endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS and inflammation. Intense exercise (28 m/min at a 5° slope for 90 min resulted in the leakage of aminotransferases in the BALB/C mice. The hepatic ultrastructural malformations and oxidative stress levels were attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg·bw. Intense exercise and thapsigargin- (Tg- induced ERS (glucose-regulated protein 78, GRP78 and inflammatory cytokines levels (IL-6 and TNF-α were decreased with quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin resulted in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K induction, Ca2+ restoration, and blockade of the activities of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6 and especially NF-κB (p65 and p50 nuclear translocation. A PI3K inhibitor abrogated the protection of quercetin on ERS and inflammation of mouse hepatocytes. SP600125 (JNK inhibitor, AEBSF (ATF6 inhibitor, and especially PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor enhanced the quercetin-induced protection against Tg stimulation. Collectively, intense exercise-induced ERS and inflammation were attenuated by quercetin. PI3K/Akt activation and JNK, ATF6, and especially NF-κB suppression were involved in the protection. Our results highlight a novel preventive strategy for treating ERS and inflammation-mediated liver damage induced by intense exercise using natural phytochemicals.

  14. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA; REIS,SÍLVIA R.L.; ANA F.M. PESSOA; LETÍCIA M.I. DE SOUZA; Luiz F. Stoppiglia; Veloso, Roberto V; REIS,MARISE A.B.; Everardo M Carneiro; Boschero, Antonio C.; Edson M. Colodel; ARANTES,VANESSA C.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in ...

  15. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA; REIS,SÍLVIA R.L.; ANA F.M. PESSOA; LETÍCIA M.I. DE SOUZA; Luiz F. Stoppiglia; Veloso, Roberto V; REIS,MARISE A.B.; Everardo M Carneiro; Boschero, Antonio C.; Edson M. Colodel; ARANTES,VANESSA C.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rat...

  16. Activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Bmx/Etk mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and ErbB3 in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Borgesi, Robert A; McKnight, Nicole C; Kaur, Ramneet; Carpenter, Christopher L; Balk, Steven P

    2007-11-09

    Pathways activated downstream of constitutively active phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer (PCa) cells are possible therapeutic targets. We found that the nonreceptor Tec family tyrosine kinase Bmx/Etk was activated by tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of Src and PI 3-kinase in PTEN-deficient LNCaP and PC3 PCa cells and that Bmx down-regulation by short interfering RNA markedly inhibited LNCaP cell growth. Bmx also associated with ErbB3 in LNCaP cells, and heregulin-beta1 enhanced this interaction and further stimulated Bmx activity. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) similarly stimulated an interaction between Bmx and EGF receptor and rapidly increased Bmx kinase activity. Bmx stimulation in response to heregulin-beta1 and EGF was Src-dependent, and heregulin-beta1 stimulation of Bmx was also PI 3-kinase-dependent. In contrast, the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of Bmx in response to EGF was PI 3-kinase-independent. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Bmx is a critical downstream target of the constitutively active PI 3-kinase in PTEN-deficient PCa cells and further show that Bmx is recruited by the EGF receptor and ErbB3 and activated in response to their respective ligands. Therefore, Bmx may be a valuable therapeutic target in PCa and other epithelial malignancies in which PI 3-kinase or EGF receptor family pathways are activated.

  17. Regulation of gene expression by glucose in pancreatic beta -cells (MIN6) via insulin secretion and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Xavier, G; Varadi, A; Ainscow, E K; Rutter, G A

    2000-11-17

    Increases in glucose concentration control the transcription of the preproinsulin (PPI) gene and several other genes in the pancreatic islet beta-cell. Although recent data have demonstrated that secreted insulin may regulate the PPI gene (Leibiger, I. B., Leibiger, B., Moede, T., and Berggren, P. O. (1998) Mol. Cell 1, 933-938), the role of insulin in the control of other beta-cell genes is unexplored. To study the importance of insulin secretion in the regulation of the PPI and liver-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) genes by glucose, we have used intranuclear microinjection of promoter-luciferase constructs into MIN6 beta-cells and photon-counting imaging. The activity of each promoter was increased either by 30 (versus 3) mm glucose or by 1-20 nm insulin. These effects of insulin were not due to enhanced glucose metabolism since culture with the hormone had no impact on the stimulation of increases in intracellular ATP concentration caused by 30 mm glucose. Furthermore, the islet-specific glucokinase promoter and cellular glucokinase immunoreactivity were unaffected by 30 mm glucose or 20 nm insulin. Inhibition of insulin secretion with the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil, the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener diazoxide, or the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine blocked the effects of glucose on L-PK gene transcription. Similarly, 30 mm glucose failed to induce the promoter after inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity with LY294002 and the expression of dominant negative-acting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (Deltap85) or the phosphoinositide 3'-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue). LY294002 also diminished the activation of the L-PK gene caused by inhibition of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase with anti-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 antibodies. Conversely, stimulation of insulin secretion with 13 mm KCl or 10 microm tolbutamide strongly activated the PPI and L-PK promoters. These data indicate that, in MIN6 beta

  18. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling in cancer: Alliance or contradiction? (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Fu; Wang, Jing; Tony To, Shing-Shun

    2015-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway are responsible for regulating a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, migration, invasion and apoptosis. These two pathways are essential to the development and progression of tumors. The dual roles of JNK signaling in apoptosis and tumor development determine the different interactions between the PI3K/Akt and JNK pathways. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling can inhibit stress- and cytokine-induced JNK activation through Akt antagonizing and the formation of the JIP1-JNK module, as well as the activities of upstream kinases ASK1, MKK4/7 and MLK. On the other hand, hyperactivation of Akt and JNK is also found in cancers that harbor EGFR overexpression or loss of PTEN. Understanding the activation mechanism of PI3K/Akt and JNK pathways, as well as the interplays between these two pathways in cancer may contribute to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In the present report, we summarized the current understanding of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling networks, as well as their biological roles in cancers. In addition, the interactions and regulatory network between PI3K/Akt and JNK pathways in cancer were discussed.

  19. Migration of Th1 lymphocytes is regulated by CD152 (CTLA-4-mediated signaling via PI3 kinase-dependent Akt activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Knieke

    Full Text Available Efficient adaptive immune responses require the localization of T lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs and inflamed tissues. To achieve correct localization of T lymphocytes, the migration of these cells is initiated and directed by adhesion molecules and chemokines. It has recently been shown that the inhibitory surface molecule CD152 (CTLA-4 initiates Th cell migration, but the molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains to be elucidated. Using CD4 T lymphocytes derived from OVA-specific TCR transgenic CD152-deficient and CD152-competent mice, we demonstrate that chemokine-triggered signal transduction is differentially regulated by CD152 via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt. In the presence of CD152 signaling, the chemoattractant CCL4 selectively induces the full activation of Akt via phosphorylation at threonine 308 and serine 473 in pro-inflammatory Th lymphocytes expressing the cognate chemokine receptor CCR5. Akt signals lead to cytoskeleton rearrangements, which are indispensable for migration. Therefore, this novel Akt-modulating function of CD152 signals affecting T cell migration demonstrates that boosting CD152 or its down-stream signal transduction could aid therapies aimed at sensitizing T lymphocytes for optimal migration, thus contributing to a precise and effective immune response.

  20. miR-502 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppressing phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Suling, E-mail: suling_chen86@163.com [Department of Infectious Disease, Heping Hospital Attached to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Li, Fang; Chai, Haiyun; Tao, Xin [Department of Infectious Disease, Heping Hospital Attached to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Wang, Haili [Department of Hematology, Heping Hospital Attached to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Ji, Aifang [Central Laboratory, Heping Hospital Attached to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China)

    2015-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-502 significantly inhibits HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HCC cells were induced by miR-502. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma (PIK3CG) was identified as a direct downstream target of miR-502 in HCC cells. Notably, overexpression of PIK3CG reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-502 in HCC cells. Our findings suggest that miR-502 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC via inhibition of PI3KCG, supporting its utility as a promising therapeutic gene target for this tumor type. - Highlights: • miR-502 suppresses HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. • miR-502 regulates cell cycle and apoptosis in HCC cells. • PIK3CG is a direct target of miR-502. • miR-502 and PIK3CG expression patterns are inversely correlated in HCC tissues.

  1. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, Thomas; Daugaard, Mads; Jaattela, Marja

    2011-01-01

    by the lack of specific small molecule inhibitors. Thus, we screened two small molecule kinase inhibitor libraries for inhibitors of rapamycin-induced autophagic flux. The three most potent inhibitors identified conferred profound inhibition of autophagic flux by inhibiting the formation of autophagosomes...

  2. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Hayashi, Norio [Kansai Rosai Hospital, 3-1-69, Inabaso, Amagasaki 660-8511 (Japan); Takehara, Tetsuo, E-mail: takehara@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  3. Irisin prevents high glucose-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B-endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway%鸢尾素通过激活3-磷酸磷脂酰肌醇激酶-蛋白激酶B-内皮型一氧化氮合酶信号转导途径抗高糖诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢俊颜; 向光大; 梅稳; 刘敏; 向林; 董靖

    2015-01-01

    HUVECs, the cellular apoptotic rate significantly increased in HG+Scr⁃siRNA group when compared with that in NG+Scr⁃siRNA group (58.0%±7.8%vs 12.4%±2.8%, t=-13.48, P<0.01). The cellular apoptotic rate significantly decreased in HG+Scr⁃siRNA+irisin group when compared with that in HG+Scr⁃siRNA group (27.8%±5.3%vs 58.0%± 7.8%, t=-7.84, P<0.01), while it significantly increased in HG+eNOS⁃siRNA+irisin group than that in HG+Scr⁃siRNA+irisin group (48.1%±5.5%vs 27.8%±5.3%, t=-6.48, P<0.01). The relative P⁃Akt/Akt, P⁃eNOS/eNOS levels in HG group were significantly lower than those in NG group (all P<0.01). The relative P⁃Akt/Akt, P⁃eNOS/eNOS levels in irisin group were significantly higher than those in HG group (all P<0.01). The relative P⁃Akt/Akt, P⁃eNOS/eNOS levels in LY, L⁃NAME and LY+L⁃NAME group were significantly lower than those in Irisin group (all P<0.01). Conclusions Irisin prevents high glucose⁃induced endothelial oxidative stress and apoptosis. The protective effect of irisin on HUVECs apoptosis is mediated through the PI3K⁃Akt⁃eNOS signaling pathway. Irisin could be a potential therapeutic approach for diabetic vascular complications.%目的:探索鸢尾素对高糖培养的人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)作用及其相关机制。方法 HUVECs加或不加磷脂酰肌醇⁃3⁃激酶(PI3K)抑制剂LY294002或(和)内皮型一氧化氮合酶(eNOS)抑制剂N⁃硝基⁃L⁃精氨酸甲酯(L⁃NAME)预培养30 min后,按是否加入鸢尾素分为6组:正糖(NG)组、高糖(HG)组、高糖+鸢尾素组、高糖+LY294002+鸢尾素(LY)组、高糖+L⁃NAME+鸢尾素(L⁃NAME)组、高糖+LY294002+L⁃NAME+鸢尾素(LY+L⁃NAME)组,培养48 h后应用原位末端标记(TUNEL)法检测各组细胞凋亡率,活性氧试剂盒及实时⁃聚合酶链反应(RT⁃PCR)检测各组细胞氧化应激水平,Western blotting法检测各组细胞蛋白激酶B(Akt)、磷酸化Akt

  4. nitric oxide triggers the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt survival pathway in insulin-producing RINm5F cells by arousing Src to activate insulin receptor substrate-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedo, Juan R; Cahuana, Gladys M; Ramírez, Remedios; Esbert, Margarida; Jiménez, Juan; Sobrino, Francisco; Bedoya, Francisco J

    2004-05-01

    Mechanisms involved in the protective action of nitric oxide (NO) in insulin-producing cells are a matter of debate. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of c-Src cancels the antiapoptotic action of low and sustained concentrations of exogenous NO. In this study, using insulin-producing RINm5F cells that overexpress Src either permanently active (v-Src) or dominant negative (dn-Src) forms, we determine that this tyrosine kinase is the principal mediator of the protective action of NO. We also show that Src-directed activation of insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and Bad phosphorylation conform a substantial component of the survival route because pharmacological inhibition of PI3K and Akt canceled the antiapoptotic effects of NO. Studies performed with the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor KT-5823 revealed that NO-dependent activation of c-Src/ insulin receptor substrate-1 is not affected by PKG activation. By contrast, Akt and Bad activation are partially dependent on PKG activation. Endogenous production of NO after overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in RINm5F cells mimics the effects produced by generation of low amounts of NO from exogenous diethylenetriamine/NO. In addition, we found that NO produces c-Src/PI3K- and PKG-dependent activation of ERK 1/2. The MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 98059 suppresses NO-dependent protection from DNA fragmentation induced by serum deprivation. The protective action of low and sustained concentration of NO is also observed in staurosporine- and Taxol-induced apoptosis. Finally, NO also protects isolated rat islets from DNA fragmentation induced by serum deprivation. These data strengthen the notion that NO production at physiological levels plays a role in protection from apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cells.

  5. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhances TRIF-dependent NF-kappa B activation and IFN-beta synthesis downstream of Toll-like receptor 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ezra; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Detienne, Sophie; Amraoui, Zoulikha; Fitzgerald, Kathrine A; Haegeman, Guy; Goldman, Michel; Willems, Fabienne

    2005-07-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are known to regulate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses, but their impact on the different pathways of TLR signaling remains to be clarified. Here, we investigated the consequences of pharmacological inhibition of PI3K on Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent signaling, which induces IFN-beta gene expression downstream of TLR3 and TLR4. First, treatment of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) with wortmannin or LY294002 was found to enhance IFN-beta expression upon TLR3 or TLR4 engagement. In the same models of DC activation, PI3K inhibition increased DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB, but not interferon response factor (IRF)-3, the key transcription factors required for TLR-mediated IFN-beta synthesis. In parallel, wortmannin-treated DC exhibited enhanced levels of IkappaB kinase (IKK)-alpha/beta phosphorylation and IkappaB-alpha degradation with a concomitant increase in NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. Experiments carried out in HEK 293T cells stably expressing TLR3 or TLR4 confirmed that inhibition of PI3K activity enhances NF-kappaB-dependent promoters as well as IFN-beta promoter activities without interfering with transcription at the positive regulatory domain III-I. Furthermore, wortmannin enhanced NF-kappaB activity induced by TRIF overexpression in HEK 293T cells, while overexpression of catalytically active PI3K selectively attenuated TRIF-mediated NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Finally, in co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed that PI3K physically interacted with TRIF. We conclude that inhibition of PI3K activity enhances TRIF-dependent NF-kappaB activity, and thereby increases IFN-beta synthesis elicited by TLR3 or TLR4 ligands.

  6. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism in rats: Impairments of long-term potentiation are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Song, Binbin; Min, Hui [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Teng, Weiping, E-mail: twpendocrine@yahoo.com.cn [Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: chenjie@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2013-09-01

    Neurotoxicity of iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroidism during developmental period results in serious impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. These impairments are largely irreversible, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to hypothyroidism, iodine deficiency may cause hypothyroxinemia, a relatively subtle form of thyroid hormone deficiency. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia also potentially impairs learning and memory. However, more direct evidence of the associations between developmental hypothyroxinemia and impairments of learning and memory should be provided, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular model of learning and memory, in the hippocampal CA1 region. The activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway – a pathway closely associated with synaptic plasticity and learning and memory – was also investigated. Wistar rats were treated with iodine deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency and developmental hypothyroidism caused by severe iodine deficiency or MMZ significantly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway was also observed in rats subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Our results may support the hypothesis that neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism causes damages to learning and memory. Our results also suggest that decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway may contribute to impairments of LTP caused by neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and

  7. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    In-Gyu Je; Duk-Sil Kim; Sung-Wan Kim; Soyoung Lee; Hyun-Shik Lee; Eui Kyun Park; Dongwoo Khang; Sang-Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol) is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol red...

  8. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibition modulates responses to rhinovirus by mechanisms that are predominantly independent of autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saila Ismail

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRV are a major cause of exacerbations of airways disease. Aspects of cell signalling responses to HRV infection remain unclear, particularly with regard to signalling via PI3K, and the PI3K-dependent pathway, autophagy. We investigated the roles of PI3K and autophagy in the responses of epithelial cells to major and minor group HRV infection. The PI3K inhibitor 3-MA, commonly used to inhibit autophagy, markedly reduced HRV-induced cytokine induction. Further investigation of potential targets of 3-MA and comparison of results using this inhibitor to a panel of general and class I-selective PI3K inhibitors showed that several PI3Ks cooperatively regulate responses to HRV. Targeting by siRNA of the autophagy proteins Beclin-1, Atg7, LC3, alone or in combination, or targeting of the autophagy-specific class III PI3K had at most only modest effects on HRV-induced cell signalling as judged by induction of proinflammatory cytokine production. Our data indicate that PI3K and mTOR are involved in induction of proinflammatory cytokines after HRV infection, and that autophagy has little role in the cytokine response to HRV or control of HRV replication.

  9. Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase/VPS34 and dynamin are critical for apical endocytic recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Sarah; N'Kuli, Francisca; Grieco, Giuseppina; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Janssens, Virginie; Emonard, Hervé; Bilanges, Benoît; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Pierreux, Christophe E; Tyteca, Donatienne; Courtoy, Pierre J

    2013-08-01

    Recycling is a limiting step for receptor-mediated endocytosis. We first report three in vitro or in vivo evidences that class III PI3K/VPS34 is the key PI3K isoform regulating apical recycling. A substractive approach, comparing in Opossum Kidney (OK) cells a pan-class I/II/III PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) with a class I/II PI3K inhibitor (ZSTK474), suggested that class III PI3K/VPS34 inhibition induced selective apical endosome swelling and sequestration of the endocytic receptor, megalin/LRP-2, causing surface down-regulation. GFP-(FYVE)x2 overexpression to sequester PI(3)P caused undistinguishable apical endosome swelling. In mouse kidney proximal tubular cells, conditional Vps34 inactivation also led to vacuolation and intracellular megalin redistribution. We next report that removal of LY294002 from LY294002-treated OK cells induced a spectacular burst of recycling tubules and restoration of megalin surface pool. Acute triggering of recycling tubules revealed recruitment of dynamin-GFP and dependence of dynamin-GTPase, guidance directionality by microtubules, and suggested that a microfilamentous net constrained endosomal swelling. We conclude that (i) besides its role in endosome fusion, PI3K-III is essential for endosome fission/recycling; and (ii) besides its role in endocytic entry, dynamin also supports tubulation of recycling endosomes. The unleashing of recycling upon acute reversal of PI3K inhibition may help study its dynamics and associated machineries.

  10. Selective inhibition of the platelet phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110beta as promising new strategy for platelet protection during extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Andreas; Wendel, Hans Peter; Dietz, Klaus; Schiebold, Daniela; Peter, Karlheinz; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Ziemer, Gerhard

    2008-03-01

    Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is used in cardiac surgery for cardiopulmonary bypass as well as in ventricular assist devices and for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Blood contact with the artificial surface and shear stress of ECC activates platelets and leukocytes resulting in a coagulopathy and proinflammatory events. Blockers of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (CD41/CD61) can protect platelet function during ECC, a phenomenon called "platelet anaesthesia", but may be involved in post-ECC bleeding. We hypothesized that the new selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110beta inhibitor TGX-221 that inhibits shear-induced platelet activation without prolonging the bleeding time in vivo may also protect platelet function during ECC. Heparinized blood of healthy volunteers (n = 6) was treated in vitro with either the GP IIb/IIIa blocker tirofiban, TGX-221 or as control and circulated in an ECC model. Before and after 30 minutes circulation CD41 expression on the ECC-tubing as measure for platelet-ECC binding and generation of the platelet activation marker beta-thromboglobulin were determined using ELISA. Platelet aggregation and platelet-granulocyte binding were analysed in flow cytometry. After log-transforming the data statistical evaluation was performed using multifactor ANOVA in combination with Tukey's HSD test (global alpha = 5%). Tirofiban and TGX-221 inhibited platelet-ECC interaction, platelet aggregation and platelet-granulocyte binding. Tirofiban also inhibited ECC-induced beta-thromboglobulin release. The observed inhibition of platelet-ECC interaction and platelet activation by tirofiban contributes to explain the mechanism of "platelet anaesthesia". TGX-221 represents a promising alternative to GP IIb/IIIa blockade and should be further investigated for use during ECC in vivo.

  11. Dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 has a therapeutic potential and sensitizes cisplatin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Yang

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR pathway is often constitutively activated in human tumor cells and thus has been considered as a promising drug target. To ascertain a therapeutical approach of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, we hypothesized NVP-BEZ235, a novel and potent imidazo[4,5-c] quinolone derivative, that dually inhibits both PI3K and mTOR kinases activities, had antitumor activity in NPC. Expectedly, we found that NVP-BEZ235 selectively inhibited proliferation of NPC cells rather than normal nasopharyngeal cells using MTT assay. In NPC cell lines, with the extended exposure, NVP-BEZ235 selectively inhibited proliferation of NPC cells harboring PIK3CA mutation, compared to cells with wild-type PIK3CA. Furthermore, exposure of NPC cells to NVP-BEZ235 resulted in G1 growth arrest by Propidium iodide uptake assay, reduction of cyclin D1and CDK4, and increased levels of P27 and P21 by Western blotting, but negligible apoptosis. Moreover, we found that cisplatin (CDDP activated PI3K/AKT and mTORC1 pathways and NVP-BEZ235 alleviated the activation by CDDP through dually targeting PI3K and mTOR kinases. Also, NVP-BEZ235 combining with CDDP synergistically inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. In CNE2 and HONE1 nude mice xenograft models, orally NVP-BEZ235 efficiently attenuated tumor growth with no obvious toxicity. In combination with NVP-BEZ235 and CDDP, there was dramatic synergy in shrinking tumor volumes and inducing apoptosis through increasing Noxa, Bax and decreasing Mcl-1, Bcl-2. Based on the above results, NVP-BEZ235, which has entered phase I/II clinical trials in patients with advanced solid tumors, has a potential as a monotherapy or in combination with CDDP for NPC treatment.

  12. The modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channel function via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway activated by phenylephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Masanori; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Hiroki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hatano, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the modulator role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway activated by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in intact vascular smooth muscle. We evaluated the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function and the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the rat thoracic aorta without endothelium. The PI3K inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (10(-5) M) augmented relaxation in response to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener levcromakalim (10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) in aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619; 3 x 10(-8) M), although those agents induced similar contraction. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel currents induced by levcromakalim (10(-6) M) in the presence of phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) were enhanced by the nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (10(-7) M) and LY294002 (10(-5) M). Levels of the regulatory subunits of PI3K p85-alpha and p55-gamma increased in the membrane fraction from aortas without endothelium treated with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with U46619 (3 x 10(-8) M). Phenylephrine simultaneously augmented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Therefore, activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway seems to play a role in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in vascular smooth muscle exposed to alpha-1 adrenergic stimuli.

  13. Regioselective synthesis of 5- and 6-methoxybenzimidazole-1,3,5-triazines as inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle S; Pinson, Jo-Anne; Zheng, Zhaohua; Jennings, Ian G; Thompson, Philip E

    2013-02-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) hold significant therapeutic potential as novel targets for the treatment of cancer. ZSTK474 (4a) is a potent, pan-PI3K inhibitor currently under clinical evaluation for the treatment of cancer. Structural studies have shown that derivatisation at the 5- or 6-position of the benzimidazole ring may influence potency and isoform selectivity. However, synthesis of these derivatives by the traditional route results in a mixture of the two regioisomers. We have developed a straightforward regioselective synthesis that gave convenient access to 5- and 6-methoxysubstituted benzimidazole derivatives of ZSTK474. While 5-methoxy substitution abolished activity at all isoforms, the 6-methoxy substitution is consistently 10-fold more potent. This synthesis will allow convenient access to further 6-position derivatives, thus allowing the full scope of the structure-activity relationships of ZSTK474 to be probed.

  14. Combined blockade of ADP receptors and PI3-kinase p110β fully prevents platelet and leukocyte activation during hypothermic extracorporeal circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Krajewski

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal circulation (ECC and hypothermia are used to maintain stable circulatory parameters and improve the ischemia tolerance of patients in cardiac surgery. However, ECC and hypothermia induce activation mechanisms in platelets and leukocytes, which are mediated by the platelet agonist ADP and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K p110β. Under clinical conditions these processes are associated with life-threatening complications including thromboembolism and inflammation. This study analyzes effects of ADP receptor P(2Y(12 and P(2Y(1 blockade and PI3K p110β inhibition on platelets and granulocytes during hypothermic ECC. Human blood was treated with the P(2Y(12 antagonist 2-MeSAMP, the P(2Y(1 antagonist MRS2179, the PI3K p110β inhibitor TGX-221, combinations thereof, or PBS and propylene glycol (controls. Under static in vitro conditions a concentration-dependent effect regarding the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation was found using 2-MeSAMP or TGX-221. Further inhibition of ADP-mediated effects was achieved with MRS2179. Next, blood was circulated in an ex vivo ECC model at 28°C for 30 minutes and various platelet and granulocyte markers were investigated using flow cytometry, ELISA and platelet count analysis. GPIIb/IIIa activation induced by hypothermic ECC was inhibited using TGX-221 alone or in combination with P(2Y blockers (p<0.05, while no effect of hypothermic ECC or antiplatelet agents on GPIIb/IIIa and GPIbα expression and von Willebrand factor binding was observed. Sole P(2Y and PI3K blockade or a combination thereof inhibited P-selectin expression on platelets and platelet-derived microparticles during hypothermic ECC (p<0.05. P(2Y blockade alone or combined with TGX-221 prevented ECC-induced platelet-granulocyte aggregate formation (p<0.05. Platelet adhesion to the ECC surface, platelet loss and Mac-1 expression on granulocytes were inhibited by combined P(2Y and PI3K blockade (p<0.05. Combined blockade of P

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 directly interacts with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to regulate lymphangiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Coso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including cancer metastasis, lymphedema, and impaired wound healing. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family is a major regulator of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC function and lymphangiogenesis. Indeed, dissemination of malignant cells into the regional lymph nodes, a common occurrence in many cancers, is stimulated by VEGF family members. This effect is generally considered to be mediated via VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. However, the role of specific receptors and their downstream signaling pathways is not well understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we delineate the VEGF-C/VEGF receptor (VEGFR-3 signaling pathway in LECs and show that VEGF-C induces activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk. Furthermore, activation of PI3K/Akt by VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 resulted in phosphorylation of P70S6K, eNOS, PLCγ1, and Erk1/2. Importantly, a direct interaction between PI3K and VEGFR-3 in LECs was demonstrated both in vitro and in clinical cancer specimens. This interaction was strongly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases in primary small cell carcinoma of the lung in clinical specimens. Blocking PI3K activity abolished VEGF-C-stimulated LEC tube formation and migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that specific VEGFR-3 signaling pathways are activated in LECs by VEGF-C. The importance of PI3K in VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-mediated lymphangiogenesis provides a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of lymphatic metastasis.

  16. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 Directly Interacts with Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase to Regulate Lymphangiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coso, Sanja; Zeng, Yiping; Opeskin, Kenneth; Williams, Elizabeth D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including cancer metastasis, lymphedema, and impaired wound healing. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is a major regulator of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) function and lymphangiogenesis. Indeed, dissemination of malignant cells into the regional lymph nodes, a common occurrence in many cancers, is stimulated by VEGF family members. This effect is generally considered to be mediated via VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. However, the role of specific receptors and their downstream signaling pathways is not well understood. Methods and Results Here we delineate the VEGF-C/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 signaling pathway in LECs and show that VEGF-C induces activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk. Furthermore, activation of PI3K/Akt by VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 resulted in phosphorylation of P70S6K, eNOS, PLCγ1, and Erk1/2. Importantly, a direct interaction between PI3K and VEGFR-3 in LECs was demonstrated both in vitro and in clinical cancer specimens. This interaction was strongly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases in primary small cell carcinoma of the lung in clinical specimens. Blocking PI3K activity abolished VEGF-C-stimulated LEC tube formation and migration. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that specific VEGFR-3 signaling pathways are activated in LECs by VEGF-C. The importance of PI3K in VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-mediated lymphangiogenesis provides a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of lymphatic metastasis. PMID:22745786

  17. Possible role of phosphoinositide-3-kinase in Mx1 protein translation and antiviral activity of interferon-omega-stimulated HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngjun; Kim, Mihee; Choi, Minjoung; Kim, Sunhee; Park, Kidae; Oh, Ilung; Chung, Seungtae; Suh, Hongwon; Hong, Seunghwa; Park, Suenie

    2011-01-01

    Interferon ω (IFN-ω), a cytokine released during innate immune activation, is well known for promoting direct antiviral responses; however, the possible signal pathways that are initiated by IFN-ω binding to the type I IFN receptors have not been fully studied. Here, we provide evidence that activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling plays a pivotal role in the generation of IFN-ω-mediated biological responses. We found that LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor)-attenuated antiviral activities are induced by IFN-ω treatment. Although such effects of LY294002 are unrelated to regulatory activities on IFN-ω-dependent Mx1 (myxovirus resistance 1) or Mx2 gene transcriptional regulation, translation of Mx1 protein, which was known as a key mediator of cell-autonomous antiviral resistance, was significantly reduced by PI3K inhibition. Further studies showed that PI3K inhibition using LY294002 leads to a decrease in PI3K substrate Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 phosphorylation/activation. In addition, although LY294002 was not able to reduce STAT1 activation, we found that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 S6 kinase pathway was significantly attenuated by inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results indicate that the PI3K/Akt pathway is a common and central integrator for antiviral responses in IFN-ω signaling via its regulatory effects on mTOR that are required for initiation of mRNA translation of Mx genes.

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). These findings suggested that Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus.

  19. Hexabromocyclododecane and polychlorinated biphenyls increase resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cisplatin through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Wang, Xiu; Guo, Panpan; Zhong, Yufang; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2014-08-17

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in China with high mortality, high chemotherapy resistance incidence, and poor prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on chemoresistance of HCC cells (HepG2, MHCC97H, and MHCC97L) to cisplatin and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. Cell viability, DNA damage, the expression level and activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p53/Mdm4, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway were measured. The results showed that HBCD and PCBs could significantly reduce the chemosensitivity of HCC cells to cisplatin, increasing the cell viability and decreasing DNA damage. Moreover, HBCD and PCBs could induce the transcriptional activity of NF-κb and suppress the p53 expression in HepG2 and MHCC97H cells. In MHCC97L cells, however, opposite changes for NF-κB protein expression, NF-κB transcriptional activity, and p53/Mdm4 expression were observed after HBCD and PCBs exposure. Further investigation revealed that HBCD and PCBs exposure significantly increased the expression level of p-Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in HepG2 and MHCC97H cells, but reduced that in MHCC97L cells. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could relieve the influence of HBCD and PCBs on chemoresistance in HepG2 and MHCC97H cells. Taken together, HBCD and PCBs at low concentrations could increase the resistance of HCC cells to cisplatin through modulation on NF-κB pathway activation and p53 function, which is associated with the activity of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  20. Synergistic inhibition of colon carcinoma cell growth by Hedgehog-Gli1 inhibitor arsenic trioxide and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinyi; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yunfeng; Li, Qiang; Yang, Zhibin; Shen, Tao; Duan, Lincan; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Weiya

    2015-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays important roles in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis, but also in tumorigenesis. Aberrant Hh pathway activation has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors including colon carcinoma. Here, we sought to investigate the regulation of the Hh pathway transcription factor Gli1 by arsenic trioxide and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 in colon carcinoma cells. We transfected cells with siGli1 and observed a significant reduction of Gli1 expression in HCT116 and HT29 cells, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blots. Knocking down endogenous Gli1 reduced colon carcinoma cell viability through inducing cell apoptosis. Similarly, knocking down Gli2 using short interfering RNA impaired colon carcinoma cell growth in vitro. To elucidate the regulation of Gli1 expression, we found that both Gli inhibitor arsenic trioxide and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 significantly reduced Gli1 protein expression and colon carcinoma cell proliferation. Arsenic trioxide treatment also reduced Gli1 downstream target gene expression, such as Bcl2 and CCND1. More importantly, the inhibition of Hedgehog-Gli1 by arsenic trioxide showed synergistic anticancer effect with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 in colon carcinoma cells. Our findings suggest that the Hh pathway transcription factor Gli1 is involved in the regulation of colon carcinoma cell viability. Inhibition of Hedgehog-Gli1 expression by arsenic trioxide and PI3K inhibitor synergistically reduces colon cancer cell proliferation, indicating that they could be used as an effective anti-colon cancer combination therapy.

  1. Roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and NF-kappaB in human cytomegalovirus-mediated monocyte diapedesis and adhesion: strategy for viral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M Shane; Bivins-Smith, Elizabeth R; Tilley, A Michael; Bentz, Gretchen L; Chan, Gary; Minard, Jessica; Yurochko, Andrew D

    2007-07-01

    Infected peripheral blood monocytes are proposed to play a key role in the hematogenous dissemination of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to tissues, a critical step in the establishment of HCMV persistence and the development of HCMV-associated diseases. We recently provided evidence for a unique strategy involved in viral dissemination: HCMV infection of primary human monocytes promotes their transendothelial migration and differentiation into proinflammatory macrophages permissive for the replication of the original input virus. To decipher the mechanism of hematogenous spread, we focused on the viral dysregulation of early cellular processes involved in transendothelial migration. Here, we present evidence that both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI(3)K] and NF-kappaB activities were crucial for the HCMV induction of monocyte motility and firm adhesion to endothelial cells. We found that the beta(1) integrins, the beta(2) integrins, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and ICAM-3 were upregulated following HCMV infection and that they played a key role in the firm adhesion of infected monocytes to the endothelium. The viral regulation of adhesion molecule expression is complex, with PI(3)K and NF-kappaB affecting the expression of each adhesion molecule at different stages of the expression cascade. Our data demonstrate key roles for PI(3)K and NF-kappaB signaling in the HCMV-induced cellular changes in monocytes and identify the biological rationale for the activation of these pathways in infected monocytes, which together suggest a mechanism for how HCMV promotes viral spread to and persistence within host organs.

  2. PI3 kinase/Akt activation mediates estrogen and IGF-1 nigral DA neuronal neuroprotection against a unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Arnulfo; Lee, Becky Y; Micevych, Paul E

    2008-04-01

    Recently, using the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) 6-hydroxydopmaine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD), we have demonstrated that blockade of central IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) attenuated estrogen neuroprotection of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) DA neurons, but exacerbated 6-OHDA lesions in IGF-1 only treated rats (Quesada and Micevych [2004]: J Neurosci Res 75:107-116). This suggested that the IGF-1 system is a central mechanism through which estrogen acts to protect the nigrostriatal DA system. Moreover, these results also suggest that IGF-1R-induced intracellular signaling pathways are involved in the estrogen mechanism that promotes neuronal survival. In vitro, two convergent intracellular signaling pathways used by estrogen and IGF-1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK), and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt), have been demonstrated to be neuroprotective. Continuous central infusions of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt inhibitors were used to test the hypothesis that one or both of these signal transduction pathways mediates estrogen and/or IGF-1 neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons after a unilateral administration of 6-OHDA into the MFB of rats. Motor behavior tests and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity revealed that the inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathway (LY294002) blocked the survival effects of both estrogen and IGF-1, while an inhibitor of the MAPK/ERK signaling (PD98059) was ineffective. Western blot analyses showed that estrogen and IGF-1 treatments increased PI3K/Akt activation in the SN; however, MAPK/ERK activation was decreased in the SN. Indeed, continuous infusions of inhibitors blocked phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK. These findings indicate that estrogen and IGF-1-mediated SNpc DA neuronal protection is dependent on PI3K/Akt signaling, but not on the MAPK/ERK pathway.

  3. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha-dependent regulation of branching morphogenesis in murine embryonic lung: evidence for a role in determining morphogenic properties of FGF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward; Miron-Buchacra, Gabriela; Goldoni, Silvia; Danahay, Henry; Westwick, John; Watson, Malcolm L; Tosh, David; Ward, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a critical step in the development of many epithelial organs. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been identified as a central component of this process but the precise role has not been fully established. Herein we sought to determine the role of PI3K in murine lung branching using a series of pharmacological inhibitors directed at this pathway. The pan-class I PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 greatly enhanced the branching potential of whole murine lung explants as measured by an increase in the number of terminal branches compared with controls over 48 hours. This enhancement of branching was also observed following inhibition of the downstream signalling components of PI3K, Akt and mTOR. Isoform selective inhibitors of PI3K identified that the alpha isoform of PI3K is a key driver in branching morphogenesis. To determine if the effect of PI3K inhibition on branching was specific to the lung epithelium or secondary to an effect on the mesenchyme we assessed the impact of PI3K inhibition in cultures of mesenchyme-free lung epithelium. Isolated lung epithelium cultured with FGF7 formed large cyst-like structures, whereas co-culture with FGF7 and ZSTK474 induced the formation of defined branches with an intact lumen. Together these data suggest a novel role for PI3K in the branching program of the murine embryonic lung contradictory to that reported in other branching organs. Our observations also point towards PI3K acting as a morphogenic switch for FGF7 signalling.

  4. Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase alpha catalytic subunit mutation and response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Matthew J; Lin, Li; Crowder, Robert; Tao, Yu; Hoog, Jeremy; Snider, Jacqueline; Davies, Sherri; DeSchryver, Katherine; Evans, Dean B; Steinseifer, Jutta; Bandaru, Raj; Liu, WeiHua; Gardner, Humphrey; Semiglazov, Vladimir; Watson, Mark; Hunt, Kelly; Olson, John; Baselga, José

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutations in the alpha catalytic subunit of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PIK3CA) occur in ~30% of ER positive breast cancers. We therefore sought to determine the impact of PIK3CA mutation on response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. Methods Exon 9 (helical domain - HD) and Exon 20 (kinase domain- KD) mutations in PIK3CA were determined samples from four neoadjuvant endocrine therapy trials. Interactions with clinical, pathological and biomarker response parameters were examined. Results A weak negative interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and clinical response to neoadjuvant endocrine treatment was detected (N=235 P=<0.05), but not with treatment-induced changes in Ki67-based proliferation index (N=418). Despite these findings, PIK3CA KD mutation was a favorable prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (RFS log rank P=0.02) in the P024 trial (N=153). The favorable prognostic effect was maintained in a multivariable analysis (N=125) that included the preoperative prognostic index (PEPI), an approach to predicting RFS based on post neoadjuvant endocrine therapy pathological stage, ER and Ki67 levels (HR for no PIK3CA KD mutation, 14, CI 1.9–105 P=0.01). Conclusion PIK3CA mutation status did not strongly interact with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy responsiveness in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Nonetheless, as with other recent studies, a favorable interaction between PIK3CA kinase domain mutation and prognosis was detected. The mechanism for the favorable prognostic impact of PIK3CA mutation status therefore remains unexplained. PMID:19844788

  5. 血管内皮生长因子与磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶/蛋白激酶B信号传导通路在早产儿视网膜病变中的作用%Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor and phosphoinositide 3-kinase in retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华静

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor can induce angiogenesis in vivo.Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway widespreads in cells,which plays important roles in cell growth,proliferation,differentiation,and angiogenesis.The phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway can activate vascular endothelial growth factor,such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1,insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ,nitric oxide synthaseand cyclooxygenase-2.The present studies have shown that the vascular endothelial growth factor and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway play an important role in the retinopathy of prematurity.%血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)可在体内诱导血管新生.磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶/蛋白激酶B(phosphoinositide 3-kinase/ protein kinase B,PI3K-AKt)信号通路广泛存在细胞中,在细胞生长、增殖、分化调节、血管新生等过程中发挥着重要作用.PI3K-AKt信号通路可通过缺氧诱导因子-1、胰岛素样生长因子-Ⅰ、一氧化氮合酶、环氧化酶等多种途径激活VEGF的表达.研究显示VEGF、PI3K-AKt信号通路在早产儿视网膜病变的发病机制中起重要作用.

  6. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling pathway in normal and malignant B cells: activation mechanisms, regulation and impact on cellular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha D Pauls

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway is a central signal transduction axis controlling normal B cell homeostasis and activation in humoral immunity. The p110δ PI3K catalytic subunit has emerged as a critical mediator of multiple B cell functions. The activity of this pathway is regulated at multiple levels, with inositol phosphatases PTEN and SHIP both playing critical roles. When deregulated, the PI3K pathway can contribute to B cell malignancies and autoantibody production. This review summarizes current knowledge on key mechanisms that activate and regulate the PI3K pathway and influence normal B cell functional responses including the development of B cell subsets, antigen presentation, immunogloblulin isotype switch, germinal center responses and maintenance of B cell anergy. We also discuss PI3K pathway alterations reported in select B cell malignancies and highlight studies indicating the functional significance of this pathway in malignant B cell survival and growth within tissue microenvironments. Finally, we comment on early clinical trial results, which support PI3K inhibition as a promising treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  7. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway in normal and malignant B cells: activation mechanisms, regulation and impact on cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Samantha D; Lafarge, Sandrine T; Landego, Ivan; Zhang, Tingting; Marshall, Aaron J

    2012-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is a central signal transduction axis controlling normal B cell homeostasis and activation in humoral immunity. The p110δ PI3K catalytic subunit has emerged as a critical mediator of multiple B cell functions. The activity of this pathway is regulated at multiple levels, with inositol phosphatases PTEN and SHIP both playing critical roles. When deregulated, the PI3K pathway can contribute to B cell malignancies and autoantibody production. This review summarizes current knowledge on key mechanisms that activate and regulate the PI3K pathway and influence normal B cell functional responses including the development of B cell subsets, antigen presentation, immunoglobulin isotype switch, germinal center responses, and maintenance of B cell anergy. We also discuss PI3K pathway alterations reported in select B cell malignancies and highlight studies indicating the functional significance of this pathway in malignant B cell survival and growth within tissue microenvironments. Finally, we comment on early clinical trial results, which support PI3K inhibition as a promising treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  8. Regulation of the Tumor-Suppressor Function of the Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Complex by Ubiquitin and SUMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidick, Christina [Biochemie Intrazellulärer Transportprozesse, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801 (Germany); El Magraoui, Fouzi; Meyer, Helmut E. [Biomedical Research, Human Brain Proteomics II, Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS, Dortmund 44139 (Germany); Stenmark, Harald [Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo 0310 (Norway); Platta, Harald W., E-mail: harald.platta@rub.de [Biochemie Intrazellulärer Transportprozesse, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801 (Germany)

    2014-12-23

    The occurrence of cancer is often associated with a dysfunction in one of the three central membrane-involution processes—autophagy, endocytosis or cytokinesis. Interestingly, all three pathways are controlled by the same central signaling module: the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) complex and its catalytic product, the phosphorylated lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The activity of the catalytic subunit of the PI3K-III complex, the lipid-kinase VPS34, requires the presence of the membrane-targeting factor VPS15 as well as the adaptor protein Beclin 1. Furthermore, a growing list of regulatory proteins associates with VPS34 via Beclin 1. These accessory factors define distinct subunit compositions and thereby guide the PI3K-III complex to its different cellular and physiological roles. Here we discuss the regulation of the PI3K-III complex components by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. Especially Beclin 1 has emerged as a highly regulated protein, which can be modified with Lys11-, Lys48- or Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains catalyzed by distinct E3 ligases from the RING-, HECT-, RBR- or Cullin-type. We also point out other cross-links of these ligases with autophagy in order to discuss how these data might be merged into a general concept.

  9. Adenovirus Protein E4-ORF1 Activation of PI3 Kinase Reveals Differential Regulation of Downstream Effector Pathways in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chaudhary

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K regulates metabolism, including the translocation of the Glut4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor. Adenoviral protein E4-ORF1 stimulates cellular glucose metabolism by mimicking growth-factor activation of PI3K. We have used E4-ORF1 as a tool to dissect PI3K-mediated signaling in adipocytes. E4-ORF1 activation of PI3K in adipocytes recapitulates insulin regulation of FoxO1 but not regulation of Glut4. This uncoupling of PI3K effects occurs despite E4-ORF1 activating PI3K and downstream signaling to levels achieved by insulin. Although E4-ORF1 does not fully recapitulate insulin’s effects on Glut4, it enhances insulin-stimulated insertion of Glut4-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane independent of Rab10, a key regulator of Glut4 trafficking. E4-ORF1 also stimulates plasma membrane translocation of ubiquitously expressed Glut1 glucose transporter, an effect that is likely essential for E4-ORF1 to promote an anabolic metabolism in a broad range of cell types.

  10. The tumor suppressor p53 fine-tunes reactive oxygen species levels and neurogenesis via PI3 kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Kirsi; Wuttke, Anja; Quadrato, Giorgia; Chumakov, Peter M; Wizenmann, Andrea; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2013-09-01

    Mounting evidence points to a role for endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell signaling, including in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and fate. However, the function of ROS and their molecular regulation in embryonic mouse neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) has not yet been clarified. Here, we describe that physiological ROS are required for appropriate timing of neurogenesis in the developing telencephalon in vivo and in cultured NPCs, and that the tumor suppressor p53 plays a key role in the regulation of ROS-dependent neurogenesis. p53 loss of function leads to elevated ROS and early neurogenesis, while restoration of p53 and antioxidant treatment partially reverse the phenotype associated with premature neurogenesis. Furthermore, we describe that the expression of a number of neurogenic and oxidative stress genes relies on p53 and that both p53 and ROS-dependent induction of neurogenesis depend on PI3 kinase/phospho-Akt signaling. Our results suggest that p53 fine-tunes endogenous ROS levels to ensure the appropriate timing of neurogenesis in eNPCs. This may also have implications for the generation of tumors of neurodevelopmental origin.

  11. ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase temporally coordinate different modes of actin-based motility during embryonic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Siwei; Soto, Ximena; Woolner, Sarah; Amaya, Enrique

    2013-11-01

    Embryonic wound healing provides a perfect example of efficient recovery of tissue integrity and homeostasis, which is vital for survival. Tissue movement in embryonic wound healing requires two functionally distinct actin structures: a contractile actomyosin cable and actin protrusions at the leading edge. Here, we report that the discrete formation and function of these two structures is achieved by the temporal segregation of two intracellular upstream signals and distinct downstream targets. The sequential activation of ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling divides Xenopus embryonic wound healing into two phases. In the first phase, activated ERK suppresses PI3K activity, and is responsible for the activation of Rho and myosin-2, which drives actomyosin cable formation and constriction. The second phase is dominated by restored PI3K signalling, which enhances Rac and Cdc42 activity, leading to the formation of actin protrusions that drive migration and zippering. These findings reveal a new mechanism for coordinating different modes of actin-based motility in a complex tissue setting, namely embryonic wound healing.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Investigate the Binding Mode of the Natural Product Liphagal with Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase α (PI3Kα is an attractive target for anticancer drug design. Liphagal, isolated from the marine sponge Aka coralliphaga, possesses the special “liphagane” meroterpenoid carbon skeleton and has been demonstrated as a PI3Kα inhibitor. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the dynamic behaviors of PI3Kα binding with liphagal, and free energy calculations and energy decomposition analysis were carried out by use of molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann (generalized Born surface area (MM/PB(GBSA methods. The results reveal that the heteroatom rich aromatic D-ring of liphagal extends towards the polar region of the binding site, and the D-ring 15-hydroxyl and 16-hydroxyl form three hydrogen bonds with Asp810 and Tyr836. The cyclohexyl A-ring projects up into the upper pocket of the lipophilic region, and the hydrophobic/van der Waals interactions with the residues Met772, Trp780, Ile800, Ile848, Val850, Met922, Phe930, Ile932 could be the key interactions for the affinity of liphagal to PI3Kα. Thus, a new strategy for the rational design of more potent analogs of liphagal against PI3Kα is provided. Our proposed PI3Kα/liphagal binding mode would be beneficial for the discovery of new active analogs of liphagal against PI3Kα.

  13. In Vitro Antimetastatic Effect of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Inhibitor ZSTK474 on Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Kong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastasis is the main cause of lethality of prostate cancer, because conventional therapies like surgery and hormone treatment rarely work at this stage. Tumor cell migration, invasion and adhesion are necessary processes for metastasis. By providing nutrition and an escape route from the primary site, angiogenesis is also required for tumor metastasis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks are well known to play important roles in tumorigenesis as well as metastasis. ZSTK474 is a specific PI3K inhibitor developed for solid tumor therapy. In the present report, antimetastatic activities of ZSTK474 were investigated in vitro by determining the effects on the main metastatic processes. ZSTK474 exhibited inhibitory effects on migration, invasion and adhesive ability of prostate cancer PC3 cells. Furthermore, ZSTK474 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt substrate-Girdin, and the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, both of which were reported to be closely involved in migration and invasion. On the other hand, ZSTK474 inhibited the expression of HIF-1α and the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, suggesting its potential antiangiogenic activity on PC3 cells. Moreover, we demonstrated the antiangiogenesis by determining the effect of ZSTK474-reduced VEGF on tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. In conclusion, ZSTK474 was demonstrated to have potential in vitro antimetastatic effects on PC3 cells via dual mechanisms: inhibition of metastatic processes including cell migration, invasion and adhesion, and antiangiogenesis via blockade of VEGF secretion.

  14. Tannerella forsythia invasion in oral epithelial cells requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation and clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Elina; Sharma, Ashu

    2011-08-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobe implicated in periodontitis, has been detected within human buccal epithelial cells and shown to invade oral epithelial cells in vitro. We have previously shown that this bacterium triggers host tyrosine kinase-dependent phosphorylation and actin-dependent cytoskeleton reorganization for invasion. On the bacterial side, the leucine-rich repeat cell-surface BspA protein is important for entry. The present study was undertaken to identify host signalling molecules during T. forsythia entry into human oral and cervical epithelial cells. Specifically, the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Rho-family GTPases, cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains and the endocytic protein clathrin were investigated. For this purpose, cell lines were pretreated with chemical inhibitors or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target PI3Ks, Rho GTPases, clathrin and cholesterol (a critical component of 'lipid rafts'), and the resulting effects on T. forsythia uptake were determined. Our studies revealed that T. forsythia entry is dependent on host PI3K signalling, and that purified BspA protein causes activation of this lipid kinase. Bacterial entry also requires the cooperation of host Rac1 GTPase. Finally, our findings indicate an important role for clathrin and cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains in the internalization process.

  15. PI3 Kinase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  16. ERK 1/2 and PI-3 kinase pathways as a potential mechanism of ghrelin action on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the porcine ovarian follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak-Mardyla, A; Gregoraszczuk, E L

    2010-08-01

    Recently, we reported the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on ovarian cell proliferation in parallel with the inhibitory action of ghrelin on cell apoptosis. The aim of the presented data propose local activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphoinositide-3 (PI-3) kinase pathways as a mechanism of ghrelin effect in the porcine ovary. To test this hypothesis, action of ghrelin on levels of ERK 1/2 with PI-3 kinase activity and protein expression using ELISA and western blot analysis, respectively, was examined. Additionally, to determine which pathways (ERK 1/2 or PI-3 kinase) are the potential signals of ghrelin-mediated cell proliferation and apoptosis in ovarian cells, we used PD098059 (50 microM) and wortmannin (200 microM), well-known inhibitors of these kinases. Treatment of ovarian coculture cells with ghrelin (100, 250, 500 and 1000 pg/ml) showed stimulation of phospho-ERK 1/2 levels and PI-3 kinase activity, with the maximum effect observed after 15 min of cell incubation. Additionally, western blot analysis indicated that ghrelin increased expression of both kinases. Moreover, ghrelin used in combination with PD098059 or wortmannin significantly decreased cell proliferation, which was measured by the Alamar Blue assay and increased apoptosis, which was measured by caspase - 3 activity and DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, these results suggest that the ERK 1/2 and PI-3 kinase pathways may be potential signals of ghrelin mediate the cell proliferation and apoptosis of ovary cells.

  17. Synergistic effect of a combination of nanoparticulate Fe3O4 and gambogic acid on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/Bad pathway of LOVO cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lianghua Fang,1,3 Baoan Chen,2 Shenlin Liu,3 Ruiping Wang,3 Shouyou Hu,3 Guohua Xia,2 Yongli Tian,3 Xiaohui Cai21No 1 Clinical Medical College of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, 3Department of Oncology, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: The present study evaluated whether magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4 could enhance the activity of gambogic acid in human colon cancer cells, and explored the potential mechanisms involved.Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, and cell morphology was observed under both an optical microscope and a fluorescence microscope. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assay were performed to determine the transcription of genes and expression of proteins, respectively.Results: Gambogic acid could inhibit proliferation of LOVO cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner and induce apoptosis, which was dramatically enhanced by magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4. The typical morphological features of apoptosis in LOVO cells were observed after treatment comprising gambogic acid with and without magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4. Transcription of cytochrome c, caspase 9, and caspase 3 genes was higher in the group treated with magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4 and gambogic acid than in the groups that received gambogic acid or magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4, but transcription of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and Bad genes decreased. Notably, expression of cytochrome c, caspase 9, and caspase 3 proteins in the group treated with gambogic acid and magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4 was higher than in the groups receiving magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4 or gambogic acid, while expression of p-PI3

  18. Positron emission tomographic monitoring of dual phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and mTOR inhibition in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graf N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas Graf,1 Zhoulei Li,2 Ken Herrmann,2,4 Daniel Weh,2 Michaela Aichler,3 Jolanta Slawska,2 Axel Walch,3 Christian Peschel,1 Markus Schwaiger,2 Andreas K Buck,2,4 Tobias Dechow,1,* Ulrich Keller1,* 1III Medical Department, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany; 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Dual phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibition offers an attractive therapeutic strategy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma depending on oncogenic nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK signaling. We tested the efficacy of a novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BGT226 (BGT226, in two anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo and performed an early response evaluation with positron emission tomography (PET imaging using the standard tracer, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG and the thymidine analog, 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine (FLT. Methods: The biological effects of BGT226 were determined in vitro in the NPM-ALK positive cell lines SU-DHL-1 and Karpas299 by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, propidium iodide staining, and biochemical analysis of PI3K and mTOR downstream signaling. FDG-PET and FLT-PET were performed in immunodeficient mice bearing either SU-DHL-1 or Karpas299 xenografts at baseline and 7 days after initiation of treatment with BGT226. Lymphomas were removed for immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation and apoptosis to correlate PET findings with in vivo treatment effects. Results: SU-DHL-1 cells showed sensitivity to BGT226 in vitro, with cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and an IC50 in the low nanomolar range, in contrast with Karpas299 cells, which were mainly resistant to BGT226. In

  19. PAQR3 modulates insulin signaling by shunting phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110α to the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Lingdi; Zhu, Lu; Pan, Yi; Xiao, Fei; Liu, Weizhong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Guo, Feifan; Liu, Yong; Thomas, Walter G; Chen, Yan

    2013-02-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) mediates insulin actions by relaying signals from insulin receptors (IRs) to downstream targets. The p110α catalytic subunit of class IA PI3K is the primary insulin-responsive PI3K implicated in insulin signaling. We demonstrate here a new mode of spatial regulation for the p110α subunit of PI3K by PAQR3 that is exclusively localized in the Golgi apparatus. PAQR3 interacts with p110α, and the intracellular targeting of p110α to the Golgi apparatus is reduced by PAQR3 downregulation and increased by PAQR3 overexpression. Insulin-stimulated PI3K activity and phosphoinositide (3,4,5)-triphosphate production are enhanced by Paqr3 deletion and reduced by PAQR3 overexpression in hepatocytes. Deletion of Paqr3 enhances insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, but not phosphorylation of IR and IR substrate-1 (IRS-1), in hepatocytes, mouse liver, and skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake are enhanced by Paqr3 ablation. Furthermore, PAQR3 interacts with the domain of p110α involved in its binding with p85, the regulatory subunit of PI3K. Overexpression of PAQR3 dose-dependently reduces the interaction of p85α with p110α. Thus, PAQR3 negatively regulates insulin signaling by shunting cytosolic p110α to the Golgi apparatus while competing with p85 subunit in forming a PI3K complex with p110α.

  20. The fibrotic role of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H-Y; Zhang, Q-G; Chen, J-W; Chen, S-Q; Chen, S-Y

    2013-09-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine with fibrogenic properties. Previous studies demonstrated that Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ mammalian target of Ramycin (mTOR), a non-Smad TGF-β pathway, plays an important role in the fibrotic pathogenesis of different organs such as the lung, kidney, skin and liver. However, the role of PI3k-Akt pathway in fibrosis in injured skeletal muscle is still unclear. In this study, we determined the fibrotic role of PI3K-Akt pathway in injured skeletal muscle. We established a mouse model for acute muscle contusion. Western blotting analysis showed that TGF-β, phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated mTOR were increased in muscles after acute contusion, which indicated that the PI3K-Akt- mTOR pathway was activated in skeletal muscle after acute contusion. The pathway was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Moreover, the expression of fibrosis markers vimentin, α SMA and collagen I and the area of scar decreased in injured skeletal muscle after PI3K pathway was blocked. The muscle function improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength after PI3K/Akt pathway was inhibited in injured skeletal muscle. In conclusion, activation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway might promote collagen production and scar formation in the acute contused skeletal muscle. Blocking of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway could improve the function of injured skeletal muscle.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays a vital role in regulation of rice seed vigor via altering NADPH oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been reported to be important in normal plant growth and stress responses. In this study, it was verified that PI3K played a vital role in rice seed germination through regulating NADPH oxidase activity. Suppression of PI3K activity by inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 could abate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which resulted in disturbance to the seed germination. And then, the signal cascades that PI3K promoted the ROS liberation was also evaluated. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppressed most of ROS generation in rice seed germination, which suggested that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS in this process. Pharmacological experiment and RT-PCR demonstrated that PI3K promoted the expression of Os rboh9. Moreover, functional analysis by native PAGE and the measurement of the 2, 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazo-lium-5- carboxanilide (XTT) formazan concentration both showed that PI3K promoted the activity of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the western blot analysis of OsRac-1 demonstrated that the translocation of Rac-1 from cytoplasm to plasma membrane, which was known as a key factor in the assembly of NADPH oxidase, was suppressed by treatment with PI3K inhibitors, resulting in the decreased activity of NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these data favored the novel conclusion that PI3K regulated NADPH oxidase activity through modulating the recruitment of Rac-1 to plasma membrane and accelerated the process of rice seed germination.

  2. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aller, Glenn S., E-mail: glenn.s.van.aller@gsk.com [Department of Cancer Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426 (United States); Carson, Jeff D. [Department of Cancer Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426 (United States); Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin [Discovery Biology, BioDuro, No. 29 Life Science Park Road, Changping, Beijing (China); Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J. [Department of Cancer Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426 (United States); Luo, Lusong [Discovery Biology, BioDuro, No. 29 Life Science Park Road, Changping, Beijing (China)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. {yields} EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. {yields} Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. {yields} These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K{sub i} values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  3. Leptin Regulated Insulin Secretion via Stimulating IRS2-associated Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Activity in the isolated Rat Pancreatic Islets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁莉; 安汉祥; 李卓娅; 邓秀玲

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of leptin regulating insulin secretion through determining the regulation of insulin secretion and the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity by leptin in the isolated rat pancreatic islets, pancreatic islets were isolated from male SD rats by the collagenase method. The purified islets were incubated with leptin 2 nmol/L for 1 h in the presence of 5.6 mmol/L or 11.1 mmol/L glucose. Insulin release was measured using radioimmunoassay. IRS-2-associated activity of PI3K was determined by immunoprecipitate assay and Western blot. The results showed that in the presence of 5.6 mmol/L glucose, leptin had no significant effect on both insulin secretion and IRS-2-associated PI3K activity, but in the presence of 11.1 mmol/L glucose, insulin release was significantly inhibited after the islets were exposed to leptin for 1 h (P<0. 01). PI3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked the inhibitory regulation of leptin on insulin release (P<0. 05). Western Blot assay revealed that 2 nmol/L leptin could significantly increase the IRS-2-associated activity of PI3K by 51.5 % (P<0. 05) in the presence of 11.1 mmol/L glucose. It was concluded that Leptin could significantly inhibit insulin secretion in the presence of 11.1 mmol/L glucose by stimulating IRS-2-associated activity of PI3K, which might be the molecular mechanism of leptin regulating insulin secretion.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays a vital role in regulation of rice seed vigor via altering NADPH oxidase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K has been reported to be important in normal plant growth and stress responses. In this study, it was verified that PI3K played a vital role in rice seed germination through regulating NADPH oxidase activity. Suppression of PI3K activity by inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 could abate the reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, which resulted in disturbance to the seed germination. And then, the signal cascades that PI3K promoted the ROS liberation was also evaluated. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppressed most of ROS generation in rice seed germination, which suggested that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS in this process. Pharmacological experiment and RT-PCR demonstrated that PI3K promoted the expression of Os rboh9. Moreover, functional analysis by native PAGE and the measurement of the 2, 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazo-lium-5- carboxanilide (XTT formazan concentration both showed that PI3K promoted the activity of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the western blot analysis of OsRac-1 demonstrated that the translocation of Rac-1 from cytoplasm to plasma membrane, which was known as a key factor in the assembly of NADPH oxidase, was suppressed by treatment with PI3K inhibitors, resulting in the decreased activity of NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these data favored the novel conclusion that PI3K regulated NADPH oxidase activity through modulating the recruitment of Rac-1 to plasma membrane and accelerated the process of rice seed germination.

  5. Dysregulated Expression of Tensin 2 and Components of the PI3 Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway in Human Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Erfani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is recognized as a key driver of cancer cell survival and proliferation, and is often contingent upon an impairment of expression/function of the PTEN tumor suppressor, a negative regulator of this pathway. In addition, the cytoskeletal signaling protein Tensin 2 has also been implicated as a negative regulator of this pathway. However, the PI3K pathway remains to be fully characterized in clinical thyroid carcinomas. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of components of the PI3K pathway in neoplastic and normal tissue sections obtained from patients with thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Tissues from 58 cases with thyroid carcinoma underwent immunohistochemistry for activated Akt (phosphorylated Akt, pAkt, Tensin 2 and PTEN. Results: A total of 100% of thyroid cancerous tissues were positive for pAkt staining compared to 67.9% of normal tissues. In contrast, 46.8% of cancer tissues were positive for Tensin 2 compared to 61.7% of normal tissues. For PTEN, 82.8% of cancerous tissues and 67.2% of normal tissues stained positive for this protein. There were no associations between the expression levels of the molecules with the patients’ clinicopathological characteristics. Conclusion:We have found evidence for an enhanced activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in clinical thyroid carcinoma tissues. This can be coupled with concomitant downregulation of Tensin 2. Further work is required to determine the relative significance of PTEN expression versus its activity in thyroid carcinoma in order to determine its role in the observed increased Akt activity.

  6. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway aberrations in gastric and colorectal cancer: meta-analysis, co-occurrence and ethnic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei-Ling; Loh, Marie; Thakkar, Bhavin; Pang, Brendan; Iacopetta, Barry; Soong, Richie

    2014-03-01

    Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is a cancer treatment strategy that has entered into clinical trials. We performed a meta-analysis on the frequency of prominent genetic (PIK3CA mutation, PIK3CA amplification and PTEN deletion) and protein expression (high PI3K, PTEN loss and high pAkt) aberrations in the PI3K pathway in gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We also performed laboratory analysis to investigate the co-occurrence of these aberrations. The meta-analysis indicated that East Asian and Caucasian GC patients differ significantly for the frequencies of PIK3CA Exon 9 and 20 mutations (7% vs. 15%, respectively), PTEN deletion (21% vs. 4%) and PTEN loss (47% vs. 78%), while CRC patients differed for PTEN loss (57% vs. 26%). High study heterogeneity (I(2) > 80) was observed for all aberrations except PIK3CA mutations. Laboratory analysis of tumors from East Asian patients revealed significant differences between GC (n = 79) and CRC (n = 116) for the frequencies of PIK3CA amplification (46% vs. 4%) and PTEN loss (54% vs. 78%). The incidence of GC cases with 0, 1, 2 and 3 concurrent aberrations was 14%, 52%, 27% and 8%, respectively, while for CRC it was 10%, 60%, 25% and 4%, respectively. Our study consolidates knowledge on the frequency, co-occurrence and clinical relevance of PI3K pathway aberrations in GC and CRC. Up to 86% of GC and 90% of CRC have at least one aberration in the PI3K pathway, and there are significant differences in the frequencies of these aberrations according to cancer type and ethnicity.

  7. A genomewide overexpression screen identifies genes involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushik, Amrita B; Welter, Brenda H; Rock, Michelle L; Temesvari, Lesly A

    2014-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. E. histolytica relies on motility, phagocytosis, host cell adhesion, and proteolysis of extracellular matrix for virulence. In eukaryotic cells, these processes are mediated in part by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Thus, PI3K may be critical for virulence. We utilized a functional genomics approach to identify genes whose products may operate in the PI3K pathway in E. histolytica. We treated a population of trophozoites that were overexpressing genes from a cDNA library with a near-lethal dose of the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. This screen was based on the rationale that survivors would be overexpressing gene products that directly or indirectly function in the PI3K pathway. We sequenced the overexpressed genes in survivors and identified a cDNA encoding a Rap GTPase, a protein previously shown to participate in the PI3K pathway. This supports the validity of our approach. Genes encoding a coactosin-like protein, EhCoactosin, and a serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) were also identified. Cells overexpressing EhCoactosin or SREHP were also less sensitive to a second PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. This corroborates the link between these proteins and PI3K. Finally, a mutant cell line with an increased level of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate, the product of PI3K activity, exhibited increased expression of SREHP and EhCoactosin. This further supports the functional connection between these proteins and PI3K in E. histolytica. To our knowledge, this is the first forward-genetics screen adapted to reveal genes participating in a signal transduction pathway in this pathogen.

  8. Investigation into the Role of PI3K and JAK3 Kinase Inhibitors in Murine Models of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Akshaya D.; Sharma, Manoranjan; Mahapatra, Jogeshwar; Chatterjee, Abhijeet; Jain, Mukul; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a clinical disorder commonly characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation, remodeling and hyper responsiveness of the airways. However, the kinases like Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) are involved in mast cell proliferation, activation, recruitment, migration, and prolonged survival of inflammatory cells. The present study was designed to evaluate the in-vivo comparative effects of two kinase inhibitors on airway inflammation and airway remodeling in acute and chronic models of asthma. Mice were sensitized twice intra-peritoneally and then challenged by inhalation with ovalbumin (OVA). They developed an extensive inflammatory response, goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, airway smooth muscle thickening similar to pathologies observed in human asthma. The effects of PI3K inhibitor (30 mg/kg, p.o), JAK3 inhibitor (30 mg/kg, p.o) and Dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg) on airway inflammation and remodeling in OVA sensitized/challenged BALB/c mice were evaluated. Twenty-four hours after the final antigen challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histological examinations were carried out. It was observed that kinase inhibitors significantly reduced airway inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro inflammatory cytokines in BALF and lung homogenate and inflammatory cell count in sensitized mice after allergen challenge. Lung histological analysis showed increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, hyperplasia of goblet cells and the collagen deposition, which were significantly reduced with kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, our data suggest that PI3K and JAK3 inhibitors showed promising alternative therapeutic activity in asthma, which might significantly counteract the airway inflammation in patients with allergic asthma. PMID:28293189

  9. Tissue kallikrein reverses insulin resistance and attenuates nephropathy in diabetic rats by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B and adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gang; Deng, Juanjuan; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Xizheng; Wang, Peihua; Voltz, James W; Edin, Matthew L; Xiao, Xiao; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie; Zhang, Xin A; Zeldin, Darryl C; Wang, Dao Wen

    2007-05-01

    We previously reported that iv delivery of the human tissue kallikrein (HK) gene reduced blood pressure and plasma insulin levels in fructose-induced hypertensive rats with insulin resistance. In the current study, we evaluated the potential of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing the HK cDNA (rAAV-HK) as a sole, long-term therapy to correct insulin resistance and prevent renal damage in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Administration of streptozotocin in conjunction with a high-fat diet induced systemic hypertension, diabetes, and renal damage in rats. Delivery of rAAV-HK resulted in a long-term reduction in blood pressure, and fasting plasma insulin was significantly lower in the rAAV-HK group than in the control group. The expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110 catalytic subunit and the levels of phosphorylation at residue Thr-308 of Akt, insulin receptor B, and AMP-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased in organs from diabetic animals. These changes were significantly attenuated after rAAV-mediated HK gene therapy. Moreover, rAAV-HK significantly decreased urinary microalbumin excretion, improved creatinine clearance, and increased urinary osmolarity. HK gene therapy also attenuated diabetic renal damage as assessed by histology. Together, these findings demonstrate that rAAV-HK delivery can efficiently attenuate hypertension, insulin resistance, and diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 counteracts glucolipotoxicity in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-wei; ZHU Han-yu; WANG Jian-zhong; FU Bo; L(U) Yang; HONG Quan; XIE Yuan-sheng; CHEN Xiang-mei

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucolipotoxicity might play an important role in the β cell decompensation stage during the development of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes.Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and regulates proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of cell types,including pancreatic β-cells.In the present study,we investigated whether TIMP-1 counteracts glucolipotoxicity in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1.Methods INS-1 cells were incubated in normal or high glucose,with or without palmitate (0.4 mmol/L),in the presence of TIMP-1 or MMP inhibitor GM60001.In some experiments,cells were pretreated with phosphatidylinositol-3 (Pl-3) kinase inhibitor,LY294002 or wortmannin.The amount of dead INS-1 cells was determined by HO342 and propidium iodide staining.Akt phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting analysis to investigate a possible mechanism of TIMP-1's action.Results TIMP-1 protected INS-1 cells from glucolipotoxicity independent of MMP inhibition.TIMP-1 stimulated Akt phosphorylation.Inhibition of the PI-3 kinase pathway abolished the survival effect of TIMP-1.Conclusion TIMP-1 may counteract glucolipotoxicity induced β-cell death via a PI-3 kinase pathway.

  11. The Essential Role of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) in Regulating Pro-Inflammatory Responses and the Progression of Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keqiang Chen; Pablo Iribarren; Wanghua Gong; Ji-Ming Wang

    2005-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are proteins coupled to a variety of cell surface receptors and play a key role in signal transduction cascade regulating fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, proliferation, and survival. PI3Ks also are important in disease processes such as inflammation and cancer. The aim of this review is to outline current understandings of the PI3K family, mechanism of their activation, their role in inflammatory responses and the development of malignant tumors.

  12. Distinct Roles of PI(3,4,5)P3 during Chemoattractant Signaling in Dictyostelium : A Quantitative In Vivo Analysis by Inhibition of PI3-Kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loovers, Harriet; Postma, Marten; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Huang, Yi Elaine; Devreotes, Peter N.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The role of PI(3,4,5)P3 in Dictyostelium signal transduction and chemotaxis was investigated using the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and pi3k-null cells. The increase of PI(3,4,5)P3 levels after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP was blocked >95% by 60 µM LY294002 with half-maximal effect at

  13. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase stimulates activity of the small-conductance K channel in the CCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dimin; Wei, Yuan; Babilonia, Elisa; Wang, Zhijian; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2006-04-01

    We used Western blotting to examine the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the renal cortex and outer medulla and employed the patch-clamp technique to study the effect of PI3K on the ROMK-like small-conductance K (SK) channels in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Low K intake increased the expression of the 110-kDa alpha-subunit (p110alpha) of PI3K compared with rats on a normal-K diet. Because low K intake increases superoxide levels (2), the possibility that increases in superoxide anions may be responsible for the effect of low K intake on the expression of PI3K is supported by finding that addition of H(2)O(2) stimulates the expression of p110alpha in M1 cells. Inhibition of PI3K with either wortmannin or LY-294002 significantly increased channel activity in the CCD from rats on a K-deficient (KD) diet or on a normal-K diet. The stimulatory effect of wortmannin on ROMK channel activity cannot be mimicked by inhibition of phospholipase C with U-73122. This suggests that the effect of inhibiting PI3K was not the result of increasing the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate level. Moreover, application of the exogenous phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate analog had no effect on channel activity in excised patches. Because low K intake has been shown to increase the activity of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), we explored the role of the interaction between PTK and PI3K in the regulation of the SK channel activity. Inhibition of PTK increased SK channel activity in the CCD from rats on a KD diet. However, addition of wortmannin did not further increase ROMK channel activity. Also, the effect of wortmannin was abolished by treatment of CCD with phalloidin. We conclude that PI3K is involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on ROMK channel activity in the CCD and that the effect of PI3K on SK channels requires the involvement of PTK and the cytoskeleton.

  14. Signaling via class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human, breast-derived cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Juvin

    Full Text Available We have addressed the differential roles of class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human breast-derived MCF10a (and iso-genetic derivatives and MDA-MB 231 and 468 cells. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers of p110 catalytic (α, β, δ and γ and p50-101 regulatory subunits and make the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5P3 that can activate effectors, eg protein kinase B (PKB, and responses, eg migration. The PtdIns(3,4,5P3-3-phosphatase and tumour-suppressor, PTEN inhibits this pathway. p110α, but not other p110s, has a number of onco-mutant variants that are commonly found in cancers. mRNA-seq data shows that MCF10a cells express p110β>>α>δ with undetectable p110γ. Despite this, EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB depended upon p110α-, but not β- or δ- activity. EGF-stimulated chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, was also dependent upon p110α, but not β- or δ- activity. In the presence of single, endogenous alleles of onco-mutant p110α (H1047R or E545K, basal, but not EGF-stimulated, phosphorylation of PKB was increased and the effect of EGF was fully reversed by p110α inhibitors. Cells expressing either onco-mutant displayed higher basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis.This latter effect was, however, only partially-sensitive to PI3K inhibitors. In PTEN(-/- cells, basal and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB was substantially increased, but the p110-dependency was variable between cell types. In MDA-MB 468s phosphorylation of PKB was significantly dependent on p110β, but not α- or δ- activity; in PTEN(-/- MCF10a it remained, like the parental cells, p110α-dependent. Surprisingly, loss of PTEN suppressed basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis. These results indicate that; p110α is required for EGF signaling to PKB and chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis; onco-mutant alleles of p110α augment signaling in the absence of EGF and may increase motility, in part, via acutely

  15. [Effects of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase b/bone morphogenetic protein-15 pathway on the follicular development in the mammalian ovary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-qing; Chen, Li-yun; Zhang, Zheng-hong; wang, Zheng-chao

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, ovarian follicle is made of an oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells and theca cells. Follicular growth and development is a highly coordinated programmable process, which guarantees the normal oocyte maturation and makes it having the fertilizing capacity. The paracrine and autocrine between oocytes and granulosa cells are essential for the follicular development to provide a suitable microenvironment. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase /protein kinase B is one of these important regulatory signaling pathways during this developmental process, and bone morphogenetic protein-15 an oocyte-specific secreted signal molecule, which regulates the follicular development by paracrine in the mammalian ovary. The present article overviewed the role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / protein kinase B signaling during the follicular development based on our previous investigation about protein kinase B /forkhead transcription factor forkhead family of transcription factors -3a, and then focused on the regulatory effects of bone morphogenetic protein-15, as a downstream signal molecule of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / forkhead family of transcription factors -3a pathway, on ovarian follicular development, which helped to further understand the molecular mechanism regulating the follicular development and to treat ovarian diseases like infertility.

  16. mTOR signaling is activated by FLT3 kinase and promotes survival of FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiotidis Panayiotis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Activating mutations of the FLT3 gene mediate leukemogenesis, at least in part, through activation of PI3K/AKT. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR-Raptor signaling pathway is known to act downstream of AKT. Here we show that the mTOR effectors, 4EBP1, p70S6K and rpS6, are highly activated in cultured and primary FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. Introduction of FLT3-ITD expressing constitutively activated FLT3 kinase further activates mTOR and its downstream effectors in BaF3 cells. We also found that mTOR signaling contributes to tumor cell survival, as demonstrated by pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR, or total silencing of the mTOR gene. Furthermore, inhibition of FLT3 kinase results in downregulation of mTOR signaling associated with decreased survival of FLT3-mutated AML cells. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling operates downstream of activated FLT3 kinase thus contributing to tumor cell survival, and may represent a promising therapeutic target for AML patients with mutated-FLT3.

  17. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6% for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1 and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2 was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry.

  18. Regulation of NGF-driven neurite outgrowth by Ins(1,4,5)P3 kinase is specifically associated with the two isoenzymes Itpka and Itpkb in a model of PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sandra; Moreau, Colette; Dupont, Geneviève; Scoumanne, Ariane; Erneux, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Four inositol phosphate kinases catalyze phosphorylation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3 ] to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 ]: these enzymes comprise three isoenzymes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase (Itpk), referred to as Itpka, Itpkb and Itpkc, and the inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK). The four enzymes that act on Ins(1,4,5)P3 are all expressed in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, a model that is used to study neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). We compared the effect of over-expression of the four GFP-tagged kinases on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Our data show that over-expression of the Itpka and Itpkb isoforms inhibits NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, but over-expression of Itpkc and IPMK does not. Surprisingly, over-expression of the N-terminal F-actin binding domain of Itpka, which lacks catalytic activity, was as effective at inhibiting neurite outgrowth as the full-length enzyme. Neurite length was also significantly decreased in cells over-expressing Itpka and Itpkb but not Itpkc or IPMK. This result did not depend on the over-expression level of any of the kinases. PC12 cells over-expressing GFP-tagged kinase-dead mutants Itpka/b have shorter neurites than GFP control cells. The decrease in neurite length was never as pronounced as observed with wild-type GFP-tagged Itpka/b. Finally, the percentage of neurite-bearing cells was increased in cells over-expressing the membranous type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. We conclude that Itpka and Itpkb inhibit neurite outgrowth through both F-actin binding and localized Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase activity. Itpkc and IPMK do not influence neurite outgrowth or neurite length in this model.

  19. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 modulates barrier properties of human glomerular endothelial cells through a possible signaling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B and integrin α V β 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunling Li; Li Sun; Hong Xu; Zhengyu Fang; Wantong Yao; Wei Guo; Jia Rao; Xiliang Zha

    2008-01-01

    Podocytes can influence glomerular endothelial cell (GEnC) barrier properties and take part in the development of proteinuria by some molecules. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (Angptl3), secreted by podocytes, is a member of the angiopoietin-like protein family that has important biological functions in endothelial cells. In our previous studies, we showed that mRNA expression of Angptl3 increased significantly in kidneys of children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome. And the mRNA level of Angptl3 was increased in the glomerulus of adriamycin rats with the development of proteinuria. It was also found that Angptl3 was expressed in the cytoplasm of cultured podocytes. Thus, Angptl3 might influence the biological functions of GEnCs in a paracrine manner. In this study, we found that Angptl3 could increase the permeability of GEnCs and increase the level of protein kinase B phosphorylation in cultured GEnCs in vitro. LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor, could prevent the increase of permeability of GEnCs induced by Angptl3. Our results also indicated that the integrin α V β 3 antibody (LM609) could block the Angptl3-induced protein kinase B phosphorylation.

  20. TGF-beta1 modulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in hepatic stellate cells by complex mechanisms involving p38MAPK, PI3-kinase, AKT, and p70S6k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Carmen G; Hernández-Nazara, Zamira H; Domínguez Rosales, José-Alfredo; Morris, Elena R; Rincón, Ana Rosa; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Esteban-Gamboa, Andrés; Rojkind, Marcos

    2004-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), the main cytokine involved in liver fibrogenesis, induces expression of the type I collagen genes in hepatic stellate cells by a transcriptional mechanism, which is hydrogen peroxide and de novo protein synthesis dependent. Our recent studies have revealed that expression of type I collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) mRNAs in hepatic stellate cells is reciprocally modulated. Because TGF-beta1 induces a transient elevation of alpha1(I) collagen mRNA, we investigated whether this cytokine was able to induce the expression of MMP-13 mRNA during the downfall of the alpha1(I) collagen mRNA. In the present study, we report that TGF-beta1 induces a rapid decline in steady-state levels of MMP-13 mRNA at the time that it induces the expression of alpha1(I) collagen mRNA. This change in MMP-13 mRNA expression occurs within the first 6 h postcytokine administration and is accompanied by a twofold increase in gene transcription and a fivefold decrease in mRNA half-life. This is followed by increased expression of MMP-13 mRNA, which reaches maximal values by 48 h. Our results also show that this TGF-beta1-mediated effect is de novo protein synthesis-dependent and requires the activity of p38MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, AKT, and p70(S6k). Altogether, our data suggest that regulation of MMP-13 by TGF-beta1 is a complex process involving transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms.

  1. PSM/SH2-B distributes selected mitogenic receptor signals to distinct components in the PI3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youping; Xu, Hu; Riedel, Heimo

    2007-02-15

    The Pro-rich, PH, and SH2 domain containing mitogenic signaling adapter PSM/SH2-B has been implicated as a cellular partner of various mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases and related signaling mechanisms. Here, we report in a direct comparison of three peptide hormones, that PSM participates in the assembly of distinct mitogenic signaling complexes in response to insulin or IGF-I when compared to PDGF in cultured normal fibroblasts. The complex formed in response to insulin or IGF-I involves the respective peptide hormone receptor and presumably the established components leading to MAP kinase activation. However, our data suggest an alternative link from the PDGF receptor via PSM directly to MEK1/2 and consequently also to p44/42 activation, possibly through a scaffold protein. At least two PSM domains participate, the SH2 domain anticipated to link PSM to the respective receptor and the Pro-rich region in an association with an unidentified downstream component resulting in direct MEK1/2 and p44/42 regulation. The PDGF receptor signaling complex formed in response to PDGF involves PI 3-kinase in addition to the same components and interactions as described for insulin or IGF-I. PSM associates with PI 3-kinase via p85 and in addition the PSM PH domain participates in the regulation of PI 3-kinase activity, presumably through membrane interaction. In contrast, the PSM Pro-rich region appears to participate only in the MAP kinase signal. Both pathways contribute to the mitogenic response as shown by cell proliferation, survival, and focus formation. PSM regulates p38 MAP kinase activity in a pathway unrelated to the mitogenic response.

  2. Sonic hedgehog protein promotes bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell proliferation, migration and VEGF production via PI 3-kinase/ Akt signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-rong FU; Wen-li LIU; Jian-feng ZHOU; Han-ying SUN; Hui-zhen XU; Li LUO; Heng ZHANG; Yu-feng ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of Sonic hedgehog (shh) protein on bone marrowderived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPC) proliferation, migration and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, and the potential signaling pathways involved in these effects. Methods: Bone marrow-derived Flk-l+ cells were enriched using the MACS system from adult Kunming mice and then BM-EPC was cultured in gelatin-coated culture dishes. The effects of shh N-terminal peptide on BM-EPC proliferation were evaluated using the MTT colorimetric assay. Cell migration was assayed using a modified Boyden chamber technique. The production of VEGF was determined by ELIS A and immunofluorescence analysis. The potential involvement of PKC and PI3K signaling pathways was explored using selective inhibitor or Western blot. Results: The proliferation, migration and VEGF production in BM-EPC could be promoted by endogenous shh Nterminal peptide at concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL to 10 ug/mL, and could be inhibited by anti-shh antibodies. Shh-mediated proliferation and migration in BM-EPC could be partly attenuated by anti-VEGF. Phospho-PI3-kinase expression in newly separated BM-EPC was low, and it increased significantly when exogenous shh N-terminal peptide was added, but could be attenuated by anti-human/mouse shh N-terminal peptide antibody. Moreover, the inhibitor of the PI3-kinase, but not the inhibitor of the PKC, significantly inhibited the shh-mediated proliferation, migration and VEGF production. Conclusion: Shh protein can stimulate bone marrow-derived BM-EPC proliferation, migration and VEGF production, which may promote neovascularization to ischemic tissues. This results also suggests that the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways are involved in the angiogenic effects of shh.

  3. Lethal Congenital Contractural Syndrome Type 2 (LCCS2) Is Caused by a Mutation in ERBB3 (Her3), a Modulator of the Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Narkis, Ginat ; Ofir, Rivka ; Manor, Esther ; Landau, Daniella ; Elbedour, Khalil ; Birk, Ohad S. 

    2007-01-01

    Lethal congenital contractural syndrome type 2 (LCCS2) is an autosomal recessive neurogenic form of arthrogryposis that is associated with atrophy of the anterior horn of the spinal cord. We previously mapped LCCS2 to 6.4 Mb on chromosome 12q13 and have now narrowed the locus to 4.6 Mb. We show that the disease is caused by aberrant splicing of ERBB3, which leads to a predicted truncated protein. ERBB3 (Her3), an activator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway—regulating cell survi...

  4. Alterations in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-v-Akt pathway in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasutaka Sukawa; Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Katsuhiko Nosho; Hiroaki Kunimoto; Hiromu Suzuki; Yasushi Adachi; Mayumi Nakazawa

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog signaling pathway.METHODS:We analyzed 231 formalin-fixed,paraffinembedded gastric cancer tissue specimens from Japanese patients who had undergone surgical treatment.The patients' age,sex,tumor location,depth of invasion,pathological type,lymph node metastasis,and pathological stage were determined by a review of the medical records.Expression of HER2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the HercepTestTM kit.Standard criteria for HER2 positivity (0,1+,2+,and 3+) were used.Tumors that scored 3+ were considered HER2-positive.Expression of phospho Akt (pAkt)was also analyzed by IHC.Tumors were considered pAkt-positive when the percentage of positive tumor cells was 10% or more.PI3K,catalytic,alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA) mutations in exons 1,9 and 20 were analyzed by pyrosequencing.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infection was analyzed by in situ hybridization targeting EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) with an EBER-RNA probe.Microsatellite instability (MSI) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using the mononucleotide markers BAT25 and BAT26.RESULTS:HER2 expression levels of 0,1+,2+ and 3+ were found in 167 (72%),32 (14%),12 (5%) and 20 (8.7%) samples,respectively.HER2 overexpression (IHC 3+) significantly correlated with intestinal histological type (15/20 vs 98/205,P =0.05).PIK3CA mutations were present in 20 cases (8.7%) and significantly correlated with MSI (10/20 vs 9/211,P < 0.01).The mutation frequency was high (21%) in T4 cancers and very low (6%) in T2 cancers.Mutations in exons 1,9 and 20 were detected in 5 (2%),9 (4%) and 7(3%) cases,respectively.Two new types of PIK3CA mutation,R88Q and R108H,were found in exon1.All PIK3CA mutations were heterozygous missense singlebase substitutions,the most common being H1047R (6/20,30%) in exon20.Eighteen cancers (8%) were EBV-positive and this

  5. Molecular Basis of Meiotic Maturation and Apoptosis of Oocytes, Sperm-Oocyte Interactions and Early Cleavage of Embryos in Mice, Role of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Mos, Fas-Fas Ligand, Integrinα6 and MAP Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Hoshino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between molecular biology and embryology made an extensive progress in the research on gametogenesis, fertilization and early embryogenesis in mice. In this article, molecules involving in meiotic maturation and apoptosis of oocytes, sperm-oocyte interactions and early cleavage of fertilized embryos in mice are described including our recent following experiments. 1 Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt participate in the follicle stimulating hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. 2 Mos plays a crucial role in normal spindle and chromosome morphology and the reactivation of maturation promoting factor after first meiosis. 3 Follicular atresia is caused by apoptosis and the apoptosis associated with internucleosomal DNA fragmentation is directly regulated by the Fas-Fas ligand system. 4 Integrin α6β1 is involved in sperm-egg binding leading to fusion via direct association of the integrin α 6 with sperm. 5 MAP kinase cascade is activated at the M-phase and some MAP kinases other than ERKs are activated during early cleavage of fertilized eggs.

  6. Inulin increases glucose transport in C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 cells via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hee; Lee, Jong Hwa; Park, Chang Eun; Kim, Min-Jung; Min, Byung-Il; Bae, Hyunsu; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2009-10-01

    Inulin, a naturally occurring, functional food ingredient found in various edible plants, has been reported to exert potential health benefits, including decreased risk of colonic diseases, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and cancer. However, the mechanism of the antidiabetic activity of inulin has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we showed that inulin increased the uptake of glucose in C2C12 myotubes, which was associated with both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling pathways, but both of these pathways appeared to transmit their signals in an independent manner. Moreover, we found that inulin was able to increase the uptake of glucose in C2C12 myotubes in which insulin resistance was induced by exposing cells to high glucose concentrations. The identical effects of inulin were also observed in HepG2 hepatoma cells. Collectively, we report the antidiabetic activity of inulin and further demonstrate for the first time that such activity is associated with AMPK and PI3-K activation.

  7. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling enhances cell migration and invasion by induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Hui-Bin; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Zhang, Ping; Li, Chen-Long; Du, Wen-Zhong; Wang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2015-11-01

    Aberrant hedgehog signaling contributes to the development of various malignancies, including glioblastoma (GBM). However, the potential mechanism of hedgehog signaling in GBM migration and invasion has remained to be elucidated. The present study showed that enhanced hedgehog signaling by recombinant human sonic hedgehog N‑terminal peptide (rhSHH) promoted the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by increases in mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) and MMP‑9. However, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine suppressed the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by decreases in mRNA and protein levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Furthermore, it was found that MMP‑2- and MMP‑9-neutralizing antibodies or GAM6001 reversed the inductive effects of rhSHH on cell migration and invasion. In addition, enhanced hedgehog signaling by rhSHH increased AKT phosphorylation, whereas blockade of hedgehog signaling decreased AKT phosphorylations. Further experiments showed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), decreased rhSHH‑induced upregulation of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Finally, the protein expression of glioblastoma-associated oncogene 1 was positively correlated with levels of phosphorylated AKT as well as protein expressions of MMP‑2 and ‑9 in GBM tissue samples. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the hedgehog pathway regulates GBM-cell migration and invasion by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  9. Overactivation of phospholipase C-gamma1 renders platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor-expressing cells independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway for chemotaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnstrand, L; Siegbahn, A; Rorsman, C;

    1999-01-01

    ., Siegbahn, A. , Rorsman, C., Engström, U., Wernstedt, C., Heldin, C.-H., and Rönnstrand, L. (1996) EMBO J. 15, 5299-5313). Here we show that the increased chemotaxis correlates with increased activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), measured as inositol-1,4, 5-trisphosphate release. By two......-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping, the increase in phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 was shown not to be selective for any site, rather a general increase in phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 was seen. Specific inhibitors of protein kinase C, bisindolylmaleimide (GF109203X), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), LY294002......, did not affect the activation of PLC-gamma1. To assess whether increased activation of PLC-gamma1 is the cause of the hyperchemotactic behavior of the Y934F mutant cell line, we constructed cell lines expressing either wild-type or a catalytically compromised version of PLC-gamma1 under a tetracycline...

  10. MGMT-independent temozolomide resistance in pediatric glioblastoma cells associated with a PI3-kinase-mediated HOX/stem cell gene signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Marshall, Lynley; Perryman, Lara; Bax, Dorine A; Little, Suzanne E; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Sharp, Swee Y; Vassal, Gilles; Pearson, Andrew D J; Reis, Rui M; Hargrave, Darren; Workman, Paul; Jones, Chris

    2010-11-15

    Sensitivity to temozolomide is restricted to a subset of glioblastoma patients, with the major determinant of resistance being a lack of promoter methylation of the gene encoding the repair protein DNA methyltransferase MGMT, although other mechanisms are thought to be active. There are, however, limited preclinical data in model systems derived from pediatric glioma patients. We screened a series of cell lines for temozolomide efficacy in vitro, and investigated the differential mechanisms of resistance involved. In the majority of cell lines, a lack of MGMT promoter methylation and subsequent protein overexpression were linked to temozolomide resistance. An exception was the pediatric glioblastoma line KNS42. Expression profiling data revealed a coordinated upregulation of HOX gene expression in resistant lines, especially KNS42, which was reversed by phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway inhibition. High levels of HOXA9/HOXA10 gene expression were associated with a shorter survival in pediatric high-grade glioma patient samples. Combination treatment in vitro of pathway inhibition and temozolomide resulted in a highly synergistic interaction in KNS42 cells. The resistance gene signature further included contiguous genes within the 12q13-q14 amplicon, including the Akt enhancer PIKE, significantly overexpressed in the KNS42 line. These cells were also highly enriched for CD133 and other stem cell markers. We have thus shown an in vitro link between phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated HOXA9/HOXA10 expression, and a drug-resistant, progenitor cell phenotype in MGMT-independent pediatric glioblastoma.

  11. Phosphoinositide-3-kinases p110alpha and p110beta mediate S phase entry in astroglial cells in the marginal zone of rat neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea eMüller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In cells cultured from neocortex of newborn rats, phosphoinositide-3-kinases of class I regulate the DNA synthesis in a subgroup of astroglial cells. We have studied the location of these cells as well as the kinase isoforms which facilitate the S phase entry. Using dominant negative isoforms as well as selective pharmacological inhibitors we quantified S phase entry by nuclear labeling with bromodeoxyuridine. Only in astroglial cells harvested from the marginal zone of the neocortex inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinases reduced the nuclear labeling with bromodeoxyuridine, indicating that neocortical astroglial cells differ in the regulation of proliferation. The two kinase isoforms p110 and p110were essential for S phase entry. p110 diminished the level of the p27Kip1 which inactivates the complex of cyclin E and CDK2 necessary for entry into the S phase. p110phosphorylated and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3which can prevent S-phase entry. Taken together, both isoforms mediated S phase in a subgroup of neocortical astroglial cells and acted via distinct pathways.

  12. Progesterone increases brain-derived neuroptrophic factor expression and protects against glutamate toxicity in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent manner in cerebral cortical explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K; Underwood, Wendy A; Bowles, Courtney A; de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M; Singh, Meharvan

    2007-08-15

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Evidence that insulin-like growth factor-1 requires protein kinase C-epsilon, PI3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to protect human vascular smooth muscle cells from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Todd R; Krueger, Kristopher D; Hunter, William J; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2005-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has been implicated in the development of occlusive vascular lesions. Although its role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and migration are fairly well characterized, anti-apoptotic signals of IGF-1 in human VSMC remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined IGF-1 signals that protect human and rat VSMC from staurosporine (STAU)- and c-myc- induced apoptosis, respectively. Treatment with STAU resulted in apoptotic DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization and cell shrinkage, but only occasional VSMC 'blebbing'. STAU-induced death and IGF-1-mediated survival were concentration dependent, while time-lapse video microscopy showed that IGF-1 inhibited c-myc-induced apoptosis by 90%. Pretreatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors UO126 and PD098059, or with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin, reversed IGF-1-mediated human VSMC survival by 25-27% and 66%, respectively. Translocation studies showed that IGF-1 activated protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon, but not PKC-alpha or PKC-delta, even in the presence of STAU, while pharmacological PKC inhibition (Ro-318220 or Go6976) implicated PKC-zeta or a novel PKC isozyme in IGF-1-mediated survival. Transient expression of activated PKC-epsilon but not activated PKC-zeta decreased myc-induced apoptosis in rat VSMC. In human VSMC, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to PKC-epsilon partially reversed IGF-1-induced survival. In addition, IGF-1 elicited a mild but sustained activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in human VSMC that was abolished after 1 h in the presence of STAU. PKC downregulation reversed both IGF-1- and PMA-induced ERK activity, but platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced activity was unchanged. These results indicate for the first time that IGF-1 can protect human VSMC via multiple signals, including PKC-epsilon, PI3-K and mitogen

  14. Zscan4 is regulated by PI3-kinase and DNA-damaging agents and directly interacts with the transcriptional repressors LSD1 and CtBP2 in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Storm

    Full Text Available The Zscan4 family of genes, encoding SCAN-domain and zinc finger-containing proteins, has been implicated in the control of early mammalian embryogenesis as well as the regulation of pluripotency and maintenance of genome integrity in mouse embryonic stem cells. However, many features of this enigmatic family of genes are poorly understood. Here we show that undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC lines simultaneously express multiple members of the Zscan4 gene family, with Zscan4c, Zscan4f and Zscan4-ps2 consistently being the most abundant. Despite this, between only 0.1 and 0.7% of undifferentiated mouse pluripotent stem cells express Zscan4 protein at a given time, consistent with a very restricted pattern of Zscan4 transcripts reported previously. Herein we demonstrate that Zscan4 expression is regulated by the p110α catalytic isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinases and is induced following exposure to a sub-class of DNA-damage-inducing agents, including Zeocin and Cisplatin. Furthermore, we observe that Zscan4 protein expression peaks during the G2 phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that it may play a critical role at this checkpoint. Studies with GAL4-fusion proteins suggest a role for Zscan4 in transcriptional regulation, further supported by the fact that protein interaction analyses demonstrate that Zscan4 interacts with both LSD1 and CtBP2 in ESC nuclei. This study advances and extends our understanding of Zscan4 expression, regulation and mechanism of action. Based on our data we propose that Zscan4 may regulate gene transcription in mouse ES cells through interaction with LSD1 and CtBP2.

  15. MGMT-independent temozolomide resistance in pediatric glioblastoma cells associated with a PI3-kinase-mediated HOX/stem cell gene signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Marshall, Lynley; Perryman, Lara

    2010-01-01

    , limited preclinical data in model systems derived from pediatric glioma patients. We screened a series of cell lines for temozolomide efficacy in vitro, and investigated the differential mechanisms of resistance involved. In the majority of cell lines, a lack of MGMT promoter methylation and subsequent...... protein overexpression were linked to temozolomide resistance. An exception was the pediatric glioblastoma line KNS42. Expression profiling data revealed a coordinated upregulation of HOX gene expression in resistant lines, especially KNS42, which was reversed by phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway...... inhibition. High levels of HOXA9/HOXA10 gene expression were associated with a shorter survival in pediatric high-grade glioma patient samples. Combination treatment in vitro of pathway inhibition and temozolomide resulted in a highly synergistic interaction in KNS42 cells. The resistance gene signature...

  16. Skeletal muscle insulin signaling defects downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase at the level of akt are associated with impaired nonoxidative glucose disposal in HIV lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B.; Andersen, Ove; Madsbad, Sten

    2005-01-01

    More than 40% of HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experience fat redistribution (lipodystrophy), a syndrome associated with insulin resistance primarily affecting insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism (NOGM(ins)). Skeletal muscle biopsies, obtaine...... defects were downstream of PI 3-kinase at the level of Akt. These results suggest mechanisms for the insulin resistance greatly enhancing the risk of type 2 diabetes in HIV lipodystrophy....... from 18 lipodystrophic nondiabetic patients (LIPO) and 18 nondiabetic patients without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) before and during hyperinsulinemic (40 mU.m(-2).min(-1))-euglycemic clamps, were analyzed for insulin signaling effectors. All patients were on HAART. Both LIPO and NONLIPO patients were...... normoglycemic (4.9 +/- 0.1 and 4.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, respectively); however, NOGM(ins) was reduced by 49% in LIPO patients (P correlated positively with insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity (I-form, P correlated inversely...

  17. The influence of the stem cell marker ALDH and the EGFR-PI3 kinase act signaling pathway on the radiation resistance of human tumor cell lines; Der Einfluss des Stammzellmarkers ALDH und des EGFR-PI3 Kinase-Akt Signalwegs auf die Strahlenresistenz humaner Tumorzelllinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihatsch, Julia

    2014-07-14

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in industriated nations. Besides surgery and chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT) is an important approach by which about 60% of patients are treated. The response of these patients to RT is very heterogenous. On the one hand, there are patients with tumors which are radiosensitive and can be cured, but on the other hand patients bear tumors which are quite resistant to radiotherapy. A Radioresistant phenotype of tumor cells causes treatment failure consequently leading to a limited response to radiotherapy. It is proposed, that radiotherapy outcome mainly depends on the potential of radiation on controlling growth, proliferation and survival of a specific population of tumor cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells. Based on experimental studies so far reported it is assumed that the population of CSC varies in tumors from different entities and is relatively low compared to the tumor bulk cells in general. According to the CSC hypothesis, it might be concluded that the differential response of tumors to radiotherapy depends on CSC populations, since these supposedly slow replicating cells are able to initiate a tumor, to self renew indefinitely and to generate the differentiated progeny of a tumor. Besides the role of cancer stem cells in radiotherapy response, ionizing radiation (IR) activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. Among these pathways, PI3K/Akt is one of the most important pathways involved in post-irradiation survival: Activation of Akt results in activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). DNA-PKcs is a core enzyme involved in repair of IR-induced DNA-double strand breaks (DNA-DSB) through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The aim of the

  18. Characterization of VPS34-IN1, a selective inhibitor of Vps34, reveals that the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding SGK3 protein kinase is a downstream target of class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bago, Ruzica; Malik, Nazma; Munson, Michael J; Prescott, Alan R; Davies, Paul; Sommer, Eeva; Shpiro, Natalia; Ward, Richard; Cross, Darren; Ganley, Ian G; Alessi, Dario R

    2014-11-01

    The Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) class III PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) phosphorylates PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) at endosomal membranes to generate PtdIns(3)P that regulates membrane trafficking processes via its ability to recruit a subset of proteins possessing PtdIns(3)P-binding PX (phox homology) and FYVE domains. In the present study, we describe a highly selective and potent inhibitor of Vps34, termed VPS34-IN1, that inhibits Vps34 with 25 nM IC50 in vitro, but does not significantly inhibit the activity of 340 protein kinases or 25 lipid kinases tested that include all isoforms of class I as well as class II PI3Ks. Administration of VPS34-IN1 to cells induces a rapid dose-dependent dispersal of a specific PtdIns(3)P-binding probe from endosome membranes, within 1 min, without affecting the ability of class I PI3K to regulate Akt. Moreover, we explored whether SGK3 (serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-3), the only protein kinase known to interact specifically with PtdIns(3)P via its N-terminal PX domain, might be controlled by Vps34. Mutations disrupting PtdIns(3)P binding ablated SGK3 kinase activity by suppressing phosphorylation of the T-loop [PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) site] and hydrophobic motif (mammalian target of rapamycin site) residues. VPS34-IN1 induced a rapid ~50-60% loss of SGK3 phosphorylation within 1 min. VPS34-IN1 did not inhibit activity of the SGK2 isoform that does not possess a PtdIns(3)P-binding PX domain. Furthermore, class I PI3K inhibitors (GDC-0941 and BKM120) that do not inhibit Vps34 suppressed SGK3 activity by ~40%. Combining VPS34-IN1 and GDC-0941 reduced SGK3 activity ~80-90%. These data suggest SGK3 phosphorylation and hence activity is controlled by two pools of PtdIns(3)P. The first is produced through phosphorylation of PtdIns by Vps34 at the endosome. The second is due to the conversion of class I PI3K product, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 into PtdIns(3)P, via the sequential actions of the Ptd

  19. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110α Isoform Regulates Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Expression via c-Myc and miR-125b to Promote Cell Proliferation in Medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Salm

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and represents the main cause of cancer-related death in this age group. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of medulloblastoma cell survival and proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms and downstream effectors underlying PI3K signaling still remain elusive. The impact of RNA interference (RNAi-mediated silencing of PI3K isoforms p110α and p110δ on global gene expression was investigated by DNA microarray analysis in medulloblastoma cell lines. A subset of genes with selectively altered expression upon p110α silencing in comparison to silencing of the closely related p110δ isoform was revealed. Among these genes, the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α (LIFR α was validated as a novel p110α target in medulloblastoma. A network involving c-Myc and miR-125b was shown to be involved in the control of LIFRα expression downstream of p110α. Targeting the LIFRα by RNAi, or by using neutralizing reagents impaired medulloblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and induced a tumor volume reduction in vivo. An analysis of primary tumors revealed that LIFRα and p110α expression were elevated in the sonic hedgehog (SHH subgroup of medulloblastoma, indicating its clinical relevance. Together, these data reveal a novel molecular signaling network, in which PI3K isoform p110α controls the expression of LIFRα via c-Myc and miR-125b to promote MB cell proliferation.

  20. Dependence on phosphoinositide 3-kinase and RAS-RAF pathways drive the activity of RAF265, a novel RAF/VEGFR2 inhibitor, and RAD001 (Everolimus) in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordant, Pierre; Loriot, Yohann; Leteur, Céline; Calderaro, Julien; Bourhis, Jean; Wislez, Marie; Soria, Jean-Charles; Deutsch, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) can induce cellular immortalization, proliferation, and resistance to anticancer therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors or chemotherapy. This study assessed the consequences of inhibiting these two pathways in tumor cells with activation of KRAS, PI3K-AKT, or both. We investigated whether the combination of a novel RAF/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, RAF265, with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, RAD001 (everolimus), could lead to enhanced antitumoral effects in vitro and in vivo. To address this question, we used cell lines with different status regarding KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF mutations, using immunoblotting to evaluate the inhibitors, and MTT and clonogenic assays for effects on cell viability and proliferation. Subcutaneous xenografts were used to assess the activity of the combination in vivo. RAD001 inhibited mTOR downstream signaling in all cell lines, whereas RAF265 inhibited RAF downstream signaling only in BRAF mutant cells. In vitro, addition of RAF265 to RAD001 led to decreased AKT, S6, and Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In vitro and in vivo, RAD001 addition enhanced the antitumoral effect of RAF265 in HCT116 and H460 cells (both KRAS mut, PIK3CA mut); in contrast, the combination of RAF265 and RAD001 yielded no additional activity in A549 and MDAMB231 cells. The combination of RAF and mTOR inhibitors is effective for enhancing antitumoral effects in cells with deregulation of both RAS-RAF and PI3K, possibly through the cross-inhibition of 4E binding protein 1 and S6 protein.

  1. Fine particulate matter leads to reproductive impairment in male rats by overexpressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi-Ning; Yan, Chao; Liu, Dong-Yao; Peng, Jin-Pu; Chen, Jin-Jun; Zhou, Yue; Long, Chun-Lan; He, Da-Wei; Lin, Tao; Shen, Lian-Ju; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-17

    Maintenance of male reproductive function depends on normal sperm generation during which process Sertoli cells play a vital role. Studies found that fine particulate matter (PM) causes decreased male sperm quality, mechanism of which unestablished. We aim to investigate the definite mechanism of PM impairment on male reproduction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily exposed to normal saline (NS) or PM2.5 with the doses of 9 mg/kg.b.w and 24 mg/kg.b.w. via intratracheal instillation for seven weeks. Reproductive function was tested by mating test and semen analysis after last exposure. Testes were collected to assess changes in histomorphology, and biomarkers including connexin 43 (Cx43), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt). Male rats exposed to PM2.5 showed noticeable decreased fertility, significantly reduced sperm count, increased sperm abnormality rate and severe testicular damage in histomorphology. After PM2.5 exposure, the levels of Cx43 was significantly downregulated, and SOD was upregulated and downregulated significantly with different dose, respectively. Protein expression of PI3K and p-Akt dramatically enhanced, and the later one being located in Sertoli cells, the upward or declining trend was in dose dependent. PM2.5 exposure leads to oxidative stress impairment via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on male reproduction in rats.

  2. A Functional Genetic Screen Identifies the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Pathway as a Determinant of Resistance to Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors in FGFR Mutant Urothelial Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqin; Šuštić, Tonći; Leite de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Lieftink, Cor; Halonen, Pasi; van de Ven, Marieke; Beijersbergen, Roderick L; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Bernards, René; van der Heijden, Michiel S

    2017-01-17

    Activating mutations and translocations of the FGFR3 gene are commonly seen in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder and urinary tract. Several fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors are currently in clinical development and response rates appear promising for advanced UCC. A common problem with targeted therapeutics is intrinsic or acquired resistance of the cancer cells. To find potential drug targets that can act synergistically with FGFR inhibition, we performed a synthetic lethality screen for the FGFR inhibitor AZD4547 using a short hairpin RNA library targeting the human kinome in the UCC cell line RT112 (FGFR3-TACC3 translocation). We identified multiple members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and found that inhibition of PIK3CA acts synergistically with FGFR inhibitors. The PI3K inhibitor BKM120 acted synergistically with inhibition of FGFR in multiple UCC and lung cancer cell lines having FGFR mutations. Consistently, we observed an elevated PI3K-protein kinase B pathway activity resulting from epidermal growth factor receptor or Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 reactivation caused by FGFR inhibition as the underlying molecular mechanism of the synergy. Our data show that feedback pathways activated by FGFR inhibition converge on the PI3K pathway. These findings provide a strong rationale to test FGFR inhibitors in combination with PI3K inhibitors in cancers harboring genetic activation of FGFR genes.

  3. The linker domain of the Ha-Ras hypervariable region regulates interactions with exchange factors, Raf-1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumot, Montserrat; Yan, Jun; Clyde-Smith, Jodi; Sluimer, Judith; Hancock, John F

    2002-01-01

    Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras have different distributions across plasma membrane microdomains. The Ras C-terminal anchors are primarily responsible for membrane micro-localization, but recent work has shown that the interaction of Ha-Ras with lipid rafts is modulated by GTP loading via a mechanism that requires the hypervariable region (HVR). We have now identified two regions in the HVR linker domain that regulate Ha-Ras raft association. Release of activated Ha-Ras from lipid rafts is blocked by deleting amino acids 173-179 or 166-172. Alanine replacement of amino acids 173-179 but not 166-172 restores wild type micro-localization, indicating that specific N-terminal sequences of the linker domain operate in concert with a more C-terminal spacer domain to regulate Ha-Ras raft association. Mutations in the linker domain that confine activated Ha-RasG12V to lipid rafts abrogate Raf-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Akt activation and inhibit PC12 cell differentiation. N-Myristoylation also prevents the release of activated Ha-Ras from lipid rafts and inhibits Raf-1 activation. These results demonstrate that the correct modulation of Ha-Ras lateral segregation is critical for downstream signaling. Mutations in the linker domain also suppress the dominant negative phenotype of Ha-RasS17N, indicating that HVR sequences are essential for efficient interaction of Ha-Ras with exchange factors in intact cells.

  4. Insulin dependent apolipoprotein B degradation and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase activation with microsomal translocation are restored in McArdle RH7777 cells following serum deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Janet D.; Magra, Amy L.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey M.; O’Dell, Colleen; Sparks, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in rat hepatocytes demonstrated that insulin-dependent apolipoprotein (apo) B degradation (IDAD) is lost when cells are maintained for 3 d under enriched culture conditions. Loss of IDAD correlates with increased expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) known to be associated with resistance to insulin signaling in the liver. McArdle RH7777 hepatoma (McA) cells cultured in serum containing medium are resistant to IDAD; demonstrate a 30% increase in apo B secretion, and express increased levels of PTP1B protein and mRNA. In addition, insulin-stimulated Class I phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity of anti-pY immunoprecipitates is severely blunted. IDAD resistance in McA cells correlates with diminished translocation of insulin-stimulated pY-IRS1 to intracellular membranes. Incubation of McA cells with RK682, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, is sufficient to restore IDAD in resistant McA cells. Overall, results further support the importance of Class I PI3K activity in IDAD, and suggest that loss of this activity is sufficient to cause resistance. Although other factors are involved in downstream events including sortilin binding to apo B, autophagy, and lysosomal degradation, loss of signal generation and reduced localization of Class I PI3K to intracellular membranes plays a significant role in IDAD resistance. PMID:26616056

  5. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway is involved in the control of modified low-density lipoprotein uptake by human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Daryn R; Davies, Thomas S; Laubertová, Lucia; Gallagher, Hayley; Ramji, Dipak P

    2015-03-01

    The transformation of macrophages into lipid-loaded foam cells is a critical early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Both receptor-mediated uptake of modified LDL, mediated primarily by scavenger receptors-A (SR-A) and CD36 along with other proteins such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and macropinocytosis contribute to macrophage foam cell formation. The signaling pathways that are involved in the control of foam cell formation are not fully understood. In this study, we have investigated the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in relation to foam cell formation in human macrophages. The pan PI3K inhibitor LY294002 attenuated the uptake of modified LDL and macropinocytosis, as measured by Lucifer Yellow uptake, by human macrophages. In addition, the expression of SR-A, CD36 and LPL was attenuated by LY294002. The use of isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors showed that PI3K-β, -γ and -δ were all required for the expression of SR-A and CD36 whereas only PI3K-γ was necessary in the case of LPL. These studies reveal a pivotal role of PI3K in the control of macrophage foam cell formation and provide further evidence for their potential as therapeutic target against atherosclerosis.

  6. The Emerging Role of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/ Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Network in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCubrey

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell theory entails the existence of a hierarchically organized, rare population of cells which are responsible for tumor initiation, self-renewal/maintenance, and mutation accumulation. The cancer stem cell proposition could explain the high frequency of cancer relapse and resistance to currently available therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway regulates a wide array of physiological cell functions which include differentiation, proliferation, survival, metabolism, autophagy, and motility. Dysregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling has been documented in many types of neoplasias. It is now emerging that this signaling network plays a key role in cancer stem cell biology. Interestingly, cancer stem cells displayed preferential sensitivity to pathway inhibition when compared to healthy stem cells. This observation provides the proof-of-principle that functional differences in signaling pathways between neoplastic stem cells and healthy stem cells could be identified. In this review, we present the evidence which links the signals emanating from the PI3K/Akt/mTOR cascade with the functions of cancer stem cells, both in solid and hematological tumors. We then highlight how targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling with small molecules could improve cancer patient outcome.

  7. Insulin promotes Rip11 accumulation at the plasma membrane by inhibiting a dynamin- and PI3-kinase-dependent, but Akt-independent, internalisation event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Frédéric; Hodgson, Lorna R; Reed, Sam E; Yarwood, Sophie E; Just, Victoria J; Stephens, David J; McCaffrey, Mary W; Tavaré, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Rip11 is a Rab11 effector protein that has been shown to be important in controlling the trafficking of several intracellular cargoes, including the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36, V-ATPase and the glucose transporter GLUT4. We have previously demonstrated that Rip11 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin and here we examine the basis of this regulated phenomenon in more detail. We show that Rip11 rapidly recycles between the cell interior and surface, and that the ability of insulin to increase the appearance of Rip11 at the cell surface involves an inhibition of Rip11 internalisation from the plasma membrane. By contrast the hormone has no effect on the rate of Rip11 translocation towards the plasma membrane. The ability of insulin to inhibit Rip11 internalisation requires dynamin and class I PI3-kinases, but is independent of the activation of the protein kinase Akt; characteristics which are very similar to the mechanism by which insulin inhibits GLUT4 endocytosis.

  8. Role of crosstalk between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in artery-vein specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Charles C; Kume, Tsutomu; Peterson, Randall T

    2008-09-12

    Functional and structural differences between arteries and veins lie at the core of the circulatory system, both in health and disease. Therefore, understanding how artery and vein cell identities are established is a fundamental biological challenge with significant clinical implications. Molecular genetic studies in zebrafish and other vertebrates in the past decade have begun to reveal in detail the complex network of molecular pathways that specify artery and vein cell fates during embryonic development. Recently, a chemical genetic approach has revealed evidence that artery-vein specification is governed by cross talk between phosphoinositide 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling in artery-vein specification. We discuss recent findings on the signaling pathways involved in artery-vein specification during zebrafish development and compare and contrast these results to those from mammalian systems. It is anticipated that the complementary approaches of genetics and chemical biology, involving a variety of model organisms and systems, will lead to a better understanding of artery-vein specification and possibly to novel therapeutic approaches to treat vascular diseases.

  9. Intracellular transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor by α1A-adrenoceptor is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase independently of activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 and serine-threonine kinases in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Nadir; Henning, Robert H; Guner, Sahika; Zoto, Teuta; Duman-Dalkilic, Basak; Duin, Marry; Gurdal, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) is implicated in contraction and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We examine whether all α1-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR and explore the mechanism of transactivation. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing one subtype of α1-AR were transiently transfected with EGFR. The transactivation mechanism was examined both by coexpression of a chimeric erythropoietin (EPO)-EGFR with an extracellular EPO and intracellular EGFR domain, and by pharmacologic inhibition of external and internal signaling routes. All three α1-AR subtypes transactivated EGFR, which was dependent on the increase in intracellular calcium. The EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 [4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline] abrogated α1A-AR and α1D-AR induced phosphorylation of EGFR, but both the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by GM6001 [(R)-N4-hydroxy-N(1)-[(S)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-methylcarbamoyl-ethyl]-2-isobutyl-succinamide] or blockade of EGFR by cetuximab did not. Stimulation of α1A-AR and α1D-AR also induced phosphorylation of EPO-EGFR chimeric receptors. Moreover, α1A-AR stimulation enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and serine-threonine kinases (Akt), which were both unaffected by AG1478, indicating that ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation is independent of EGFR transactivation. Accordingly, inhibitors of ERK1/2 or Akt did not influence the α1A-AR-mediated EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Src, however, did block EGFR transactivation by α1A-AR and α1D-AR. These findings demonstrate that all α1-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR, which is dependent on an intracellular signaling route involving an increase in calcium and activation of CaMKII, PI3K, and Src, but not the of ERK1/2 and Akt pathways.

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Detects Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt-Independent Traits Common to Pluripotent Murine Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Malignant Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M. Romanska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells, a potential source of somatic precursors for cell therapies, cause tumors after transplantation. Studies of mammalian carcinogenesis using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy have revealed changes in the choline region, particularly increased phosphocholine (PCho content. High PCho levels in murine ES (mES cells have recently been attributed to cell pluripotency. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway has been implicated in tumor-like properties of mES cells. This study aimed to examine a potential link between the metabolic profile associated with choline metabolism of pluripotent mES cells and PI3K/Akt signaling. We used mES (ES-D3 and murine embryonal carcinoma cells (EC-F9 and compared the metabolic profiles of 1 pluripotent mES (ESD0, 2 differentiated mES (ESD14, and 3 pluripotent F9 cells. Involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway was assessed using LY294002, a selective PI3K inhibitor. Metabolic profiles were characterized in the extracted polar fraction by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Similarities were found between the levels of choline phospholipid metabolites (PCho/total choline and PCho/glycerophosphocholine [GPCho] in ESD0 and F9 cell spectra and a greater-than five-fold decrease of the PCho/GPCho ratio associated with mES cell differentiation. LY294002 caused no significant change in relative PCho levels but led to a greater-than two-fold increase in PCho/GPCho ratios. These results suggest that the PCho/GPCho ratio is a metabolic trait shared by pluripotent and malignant cells and that PI3K does not underlie its development. It is likely that the signature identified here in a mouse model may be relevant for safe therapeutic applications of human ES cells.

  11. Oncogenic mutations weaken the interactions that stabilize the p110α-p85α heterodimer in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Gabelli, Sandra B; Amzel, L Mario

    2015-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) α is a heterodimeric lipid kinase that catalyzes the conversion of phosphoinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to phosphoinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate. The PI3Kα signaling pathway plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, and survival. This pathway is activated in numerous cancers, where the PI3KCA gene, which encodes for the p110α PI3Kα subunit, is mutated. Its mutation often results in gain of enzymatic activity; however, the mechanism of activation by oncogenic mutations remains unknown. Here, using computational methods, we show that oncogenic mutations that are far from the catalytic site and increase the enzymatic affinity destabilize the p110α-p85α dimer. By affecting the dynamics of the protein, these mutations favor the conformations that reduce the autoinhibitory effect of the p85α nSH2 domain. For example, we determined that, in all of the mutants, the nSH2 domain shows increased positional heterogeneity as compared with the wild-type, as demonstrated by changes in the fluctuation profiles computed by normal mode analysis of coarse-grained elastic network models. Analysis of the interdomain interactions of the wild-type and mutants at the p110α-p85α interface obtained with molecular dynamics simulations suggest that all of the tumor-associated mutations effectively weaken the interactions between p110α and p85α by disrupting key stabilizing interactions. These findings have important implications for understanding how oncogenic mutations change the conformational multiplicity of PI3Kα and lead to increased enzymatic activity. This mechanism may apply to other enzymes and/or macromolecular complexes that play a key role in cell signaling.

  12. Insulin-Mediated Down-Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway: Role of Upstream Stimulatory Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Martin, Geneviève; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2005-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been repeatedly implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 is regulated by insulin. Here, we show that cell lines and mice treated with insulin down-regulate APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that insulin decreases human APOA5 promoter activity, and subsequent deletion and mutation analyses uncovered a functional E box in the promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this APOA5 E box binds upstream stimulatory factors (USFs). Moreover, in transfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity, and the treatment with insulin reduced the binding of USF1/USF2 to the APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway abolished insulin's effect on APOA5 gene expression, while the inhibition of the P70 S6 kinase pathway with rapamycin reversed its effect and increased APOA5 gene expression. Using an oligonucleotide precipitation assay for USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrate that phosphorylated USF1 fails to bind to the APOA5 promoter. Taken together, these data indicate that insulin-mediated APOA5 gene transrepression could involve a phosphorylation of USFs through the PI3K and P70 S6 kinase pathways that modulate their binding to the APOA5 E box and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in men showed a decrease in the plasma ApoAV level. These results suggest a potential contribution of the APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia. PMID:15684402

  13. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Gail T.; Sullivan, Richard; Pare, Genevieve C.; Graham, Charles H., E-mail: grahamc@queensu.ca

    2010-11-15

    Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}; and knockdown of p27{sup kip1} with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

  14. Targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway: an emerging treatment strategy for squamous cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joseph Thaddeus; Ismail, Amen; Tolomeo, Christina

    2014-09-01

    Squamous cell lung carcinoma accounts for approximately 30% of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite progress in the understanding of the biology of cancer, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the standard of care for patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma, but the prognosis is generally poor. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is one of the most commonly activated signaling pathways in cancer, leading to cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. It has therefore become a major focus of clinical research. Various alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway have been identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma and a number of agents targeting these alterations are in clinical development for use as single agents and in combination with other targeted and conventional treatments. These include pan-PI3K inhibitors, isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors, AKT inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. These agents have demonstrated antitumor activity in preclinical models of NSCLC and preliminary clinical evidence is also available for some agents. This review will discuss the role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in cancer and how the discovery of genetic alterations in this pathway in patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma can inform the development of targeted therapies for this disease. An overview of ongoing clinical trials investigating PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in squamous cell lung carcinoma will also be included.

  15. Two PI 3-kinases and one PI 3-phosphatase together establish the cyclic waves of phagosomal PtdIns(3P critical for the degradation of apoptotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3P is a signaling molecule important for many membrane trafficking events, including phagosome maturation. The level of PtdIns(3P on phagosomes oscillates in two waves during phagosome maturation. However, the physiological significance of such oscillation remains unknown. Currently, the Class III PI 3-kinase (PI3K Vps34 is regarded as the only kinase that produces PtdIns(3P in phagosomal membranes. We report here that, in the nematode C. elegans, the Class II PI3K PIKI-1 plays a novel and crucial role in producing phagosomal PtdIns(3P. PIKI-1 is recruited to extending pseudopods and nascent phagosomes prior to the appearance of PtdIns(3P in a manner dependent on the large GTPase dynamin (DYN-1. PIKI-1 and VPS-34 act in sequence to provide overlapping pools of PtdIns(3P on phagosomes. Inactivating both piki-1 and vps-34 completely abolishes the production of phagosomal PtdIns(3P and disables phagosomes from recruiting multiple essential maturation factors, resulting in a complete arrest of apoptotic-cell degradation. We have further identified MTM-1, a PI 3-phosphatase that antagonizes the activities of PIKI-1 and VPS-34 by down-regulating PtdIns(3P on phagosomes. Remarkably, persistent appearance of phagosomal PtdIns(3P, as a result of inactivating mtm-1, blocks phagosome maturation. Our findings demonstrate that the proper oscillation pattern of PtdIns(3P on phagosomes, programmed by the coordinated activities of two PI3Ks and one PI 3-phosphatase, is critical for phagosome maturation. They further shed light on how the temporally controlled reversible phosphorylation of phosphoinositides regulates the progression of multi-step cellular events.

  16. The Neuron-Specific Rai (ShcC) Adaptor Protein Inhibits Apoptosis by Coupling Ret to the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelicci, Giuliana; Troglio, Flavia; Bodini, Alessandra; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Pettirossi, Valentina; Coda, Laura; De Giuseppe, Antonio; Santoro, Massimo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Rai is a recently identified member of the family of Shc-like proteins, which are cytoplasmic signal transducers characterized by the unique PTB-CH1-SH2 modular organization. Rai expression is restricted to neuronal cells and regulates in vivo the number of postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We report here that Rai is not a common substrate of receptor tyrosine kinases under physiological conditions and that among the analyzed receptors (Ret, epidermal growth factor receptor, and TrkA) it is activated specifically by Ret. Overexpression of Rai in neuronal cell lines promoted survival by reducing apoptosis both under conditions of limited availability of the Ret ligand glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and in the absence of Ret activation. Overexpressed Rai resulted in the potentiation of the Ret-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. Notably, increased Akt phosphorylation and PI3K activity were also found under basal conditions, e.g., in serum-starved neuronal cells. Phosphorylated and hypophosphorylated Rai proteins form a constitutive complex with the p85 subunit of PI3K: upon Ret triggering, the Rai-PI3K complex is recruited to the tyrosine-phosphorylated Ret receptor through the binding of the Rai PTB domain to tyrosine 1062 of Ret. In neurons treated with low concentrations of GDNF, the prosurvival effect of Rai depends on Rai phosphorylation and Ret activation. In the absence of Ret activation, the prosurvival effect of Rai is, instead, phosphorylation independent. Finally, we showed that overexpression of Rai, at variance with Shc, had no effects on the early peak of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, whereas it increased its activation at later time points. Phosphorylated Rai, however, was not found in complexes with Grb2. We propose that Rai potentiates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways and regulates Ret-dependent and -independent survival signals. PMID:12242309

  17. Theoretical calculations, DNA interaction, topoisomerase I and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase studies of water soluble mixed-ligand nickel(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumoorthy, Perumal; Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Kalilur Rahiman, Aziz

    2016-03-25

    Eight water soluble mixed-ligand nickel(II) complexes of the type [NiL(1-4)(diimine)H2O]·(ClO4)2, (1-8) where L(1-4) = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, and diimine = 2,2'-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The uncoordinated perchlorate anions was ascertained form IR spectra of the complexes, and the absorption spectra reveal the octahedron geometry around nickel(II) ion with tridentate Schiff base ligand, diimine and a coordinated water molecule. Cyclic voltammograms of the complexes indicate the one-electron irreversible processes in the cathodic and anodic region. In vitro antioxidant activity proved the significant radical scavenging activity of the complexes against DPPH radical. The groove/electrostatic binding nature of complexes with CT-DNA (calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid) were affirmed by absorption, hydrodynamic and voltammetric titration experiments and docking analysis. All the complexes exhibit significant cleavage activity on plasmid DNA via hydrolytic and oxidatively, in which the oxidative mechanism involves hydroxyl radicals and supports the possibility of minor-groove binding. The complex 4 shows significant topoisomerase I (Topo-I) inhibitory activity. The molecular modeling analysis of complexes with phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) receptor indicate the hydrogen bonding with Met1039, Asp837 and Leu1027, and hydrophobic interactions with Ser488, Asn498, Asp500, Gln662, Lys668, Ile844, Ile847, Ile850, Val941, Leu942, Leu1020, Met1034, Leu1035, Thr1037, Met1039, Gln1041 and Ile1051 of subdomain IIA of BSA. The complexes show σ-π interaction between diimines and amino groups of Leu1030 and Arg839.

  18. Identification and classification of genes regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during neuronal differentiation in two subtypes of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaki Yoshiyuki

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SH-SY5Y cells exhibit a neuronal phenotype when treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA, but the molecular mechanism of activation in the signalling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K is unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the gene expression profiles in SK-N-SH cells and two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y-A and SH-SY5Y-E, each of which show a different phenotype during RA-mediated differentiation. Findings SH-SY5Y-A cells differentiated in the presence of RA, whereas RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells required additional treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF for full differentiation. After exposing cells to a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, we identified 386 genes and categorised these genes into two clusters dependent on the PI3K signalling pathway during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y-A cells. Transcriptional regulation of the gene cluster, including 158 neural genes, was greatly reduced in SK-N-SH cells and partially impaired in SH-SY5Y-E cells, which is consistent with a defect in the neuronal phenotype of these cells. Additional stimulation with BDNF induced a set of neural genes that were down-regulated in RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells but were abundant in differentiated SH-SY5Y-A cells. Conclusion We identified gene clusters controlled by PI3K- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during the differentiation of two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells. The TRKB-mediated bypass pathway compensates for impaired neural function generated by defects in several signalling pathways, including PI3K in SH-SY5Y-E cells. Our expression profiling data will be useful for further elucidation of the signal transduction-transcriptional network involving PI3K or TRKB.

  19. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  20. Prostate specific membrane antigen knockdown impairs the tumorigenicity of LNCaP prostate cancer cells by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhenghui; Lai Yiming; Du Tao; Zhang Yiming; Chen Jieqing; Bi Liangkuan; Lin Tianxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) can facilitate the growth,migration,and invasion of the LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines,but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined.Here,we investigated whether PSMA serves as a novel regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling by employing PSMA knockdown model and PI3K pharmacological inhibitor (LY294002) in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.Methods PSMA knockdown had been stably established by transfecting with lentivirus-mediated siRNA in our previous study.Then,LNCaP cells were divided into interference,non-interference,and blank groups.We first testified the efficacy of PSMA knockdown in our LNCaP cell line.Then,we compared the expression of PSMA and total/activated Akt by Westem blotting in the above three groups with or without LY294002 treatment.Furthermore,immunocytochemistry was performed to confirm the changes of activated Akt (p-Akt,Ser473) in groups.Besides,cell proliferation,migration,and cell cycle were measured by CCK-8 assay,Transwell analysis,and Flow cytometry respectively.Results After PSMA knockdown,the level of p-Akt (Ser473) but not of total-Akt (Akt1/2) was significantly decreased when compared with the non-interference and blank groups.However,LY294002 administration significantly reduced the expression of p-Akt (Ser473) in all the three groups.The results of immunocytochemistry further confirmed that PSMA knockdown or LY294002 treatment was associated with p-Akt (Ser473) down-regulation.Decrease of cell proliferation,migration,and survival were also observed upon PSMA knockdown and LY294002 treatment.Conclusions Taken together,our results reveal that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibition may serve as a novel molecular mechanism in LNCaP prostate cancer cells of PSMA knockdown and suggest that Akt (Ser473) may play a critical role as a downstream signaling target effector of PSMA in this cellular model.

  1. Effects of lysophosphatidic acid on human colon cancer cells and its mechanisms of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Sun; Juan Ren; Qing Zhu; Fan-Zhong Kong; Lei Wu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on proliferation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosisin the human colon cancer cell line, SW480, and its mechanisms of action. METHODS: Methyl tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis. Cell migration was measured by using a Boyden transwell migration chamber. Cell adhesion assay was performed in 96-well plates according to protocol.RESULTS: LPA significantly stimulated SW480 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner compared with the control group (P < 0.05) while the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor,PD98059, significantly blocked the LPA stimulation effect on proliferation. LPA also significantly stimulated adhesion and migration of SW480 cells in a dosedependent manner (P < 0.05). Rho kinase inhibitor,Y-27632, significantly inhibited the up-regulatory effect of LPA on adhesion and migration (P < 0.05). LPA significantly protected cells from apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin and 5-FU (P < 0.05),but the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor,LY294002, significantly blocked the protective effect of LPA on apoptosis.CONCLUSION: LPA stimulated proliferation, adhesion,migration of SW480 cells, and protected from apoptosis.The Ras/Raf-MAPK, G12/13-Rho-RhoA and PI3KAKT/ PKB signal pathways may be involved.

  2. Protective Role of PI3-kinase/Akt/eNOS Signaling in Mechanical Stress Through Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Mouse Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Materials and methods Materials CMRL 1066 medium was purchased from Invitrogen (Carls- bad, CAl, and fetal bovine serum was obtained from Hyclone... endotoxin -induced inflammatory lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 169: 1245-51. 3 Miyahara T. Hamanaka K. Weber OS. Drake DA. Anghelescu...kinase up-regulates LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in the development of lung injury and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Toxicology 2006; 225: 36-47. 15

  3. Tissue Kallikrein Reverses Insulin Resistance and Attenuates Nephropathy in Diabetic Rats by Activation of PI3 kinase/Akt and AMPK Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Gang; Deng, Juanjuan; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Xizheng; Wang, Peihua; Voltz, James W.; Edin, Matthew L.; Xiao, Xiao; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie; Zhang, Xin A.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wang, Dao Wen

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that intravenous delivery of the human tissue kallikrein (HK) gene reduced blood pressure and plasma insulin levels in fructose-induced hypertensive rats with insulin resistance. In the current study, we evaluated the potential of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing the HK cDNA (rAAV·HK) as a sole, long term therapy to correct insulin resistance and prevent renal damage in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Administration of streptozotocin i...

  4. New strategies in colorectal cancer: biomarkers of response to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies and potential therapeutic targets in phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Arvind; Messersmith, Wells A

    2010-08-01

    Initial experience with the epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (EGFR MoAb) in unselected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) showed that most of the treated patients did not derive therapeutic benefit. This outcome has driven the search for biomarkers for this population. Recent advances have further shown the heterogeneous nature of this disease with multiple interlinked pathways being implicated. Two such pathways downstream to the EGFR, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) PI3K, have gained increasing attention and become targets for development of novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Here, we highlight recent progress.

  5. Exogenous Bradykinin Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Deep Vein Thrombosis via Activating the eNOS/Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolan Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bradykinin has been shown to exert a variety of protective effects against vascular injury, and to reduce the levels of several factors involved in the coagulation cascade. A key determinant of thrombin generation is tissue factor (TF. However, whether bradykinin can regulate TF expression remains to be investigated. Methods: To study the effect of bradykinin on TF expression, we used Lipopolysaccharides (LPS to induce TF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes. Transcript levels were determined by RT-PCR, protein abundance by Western blotting. In the in vivo study, bradykinin and equal saline were intraperitoneally injected into mice for three days ahead of inferior cava vein ligation that we took to induce thrombus formation, after which bradykinin and saline were injected for another two days. Eventually, the mice were sacrificed and tissues were harvested for tests. Results: Exogenous bradykinin markedly inhibited TF expression in mRNA and protein level induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the NO synthase antagonist L-NAME and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abolished the inhibitory effects of bradykinin on tissue factor expression. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation induced by bradykinin administration reduced the activity of GSK-3ß and MAPK, and reduced NF-κB level in the nucleus, thereby inhibiting TF expression. Consistent with this, intraperitoneal injection of C57/BL6 mice with bradykinin also inhibited the thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava. Conclusion: Bradykinin suppressed TF protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes in vitro; in line with this, it inhibits thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava in vivo.

  6. Effect of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in angiogenesis-related diseases%磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶在血管新生相关性疾病中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权伟; 张丽莙

    2011-01-01

    @@ 血管新生参与了人体多种生理与病理过程,前者如创伤愈合,后者包括肿瘤、动脉粥样硬化(atherosclerosis,AS)、类风湿性关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis,RA)等多种疾病,血管新生与这些疾病的发生发展密切相关.磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K)作为细胞内重要的信号蛋白,可介导细胞迁移、增殖与血管新生等多种生物学行为的信号转导.%Angiogenesis is involved in the pathological processes such as wound healing, atherosclerosis,rheumatoid arthritis and tumor, in which the pathogenesis and development are closely related to the new blood vessel formation. Phosphatidylinositol 3 - kinase ( PI3 K ), one of the important intracellular signaling proteins, mediates many signal transductions in cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. The activity of PI3 K and its signaling pathway play a unique role in atherogenesis, unstability of atherosclerotic plaque, tumor metastasis and recurrence, etc. This review summarizes the effect of PI3 K in angiogenesis - related diseases.

  7. High glucose enhances transient receptor potential channel canonical type 6-dependent calcium influx in human platelets via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Maier, Alexandra; Scholze, Alexandra;

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channels mediating 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG)-induced calcium entry have been identified on human platelets. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia increases the expression of TRPC6 channels....

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid is a major serum noncytokine survival factor for murine macrophages which acts via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, J. S.; Lieberthal, W; Heydrick, S; Levine, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the smallest and structurally simplest of all the glycerophospholipids. It occurs normally in serum and binds with high affinity to albumin, while retaining its biological activity. The effects of LPA are pleiotropic and range from mitogenesis to stress fiber formation. We show a novel role for LPA: as a macrophage survival factor with potency equivalent to serum. Administration of LPA protects macrophages from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation, and protect...

  9. Nimbolide, a neem limonoid inhibits Phosphatidyl Inositol-3 Kinase to activate Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophia, Josephraj; Kiran Kishore T, Kranthi; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-02-23

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase is frequently inactivated by the oncogenic signalling kinases PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK in diverse malignancies. The present study was designed to investigate GSK-3β signalling circuits in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model and the therapeutic potential of the neem limonoid nimbolide. Inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at serine 9 and activation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK and β-catenin was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion during stepwise evolution of HBP carcinomas. Administration of nimbolide inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling with consequent activation of GSK-3β thereby inducing trafficking of β-catenin away from the nucleus and enhancing the expression of miR-126 and let-7. Molecular docking studies confirmed interaction of nimbolide with PI3K, Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. Furthermore, nimbolide attenuated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased p-cyclin D1(Thr286) and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present study has unravelled aberrant phosphorylation as a key determinant for oncogenic signalling and acquisition of cancer hallmarks in the HBP model. The study has also provided mechanistic insights into the chemotherapeutic potential of nimbolide that may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of natural compounds targeting PI3K for oral cancer treatment.

  10. Dual Roles of Quercetin in Platelets: Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase and MAP Kinases Inhibition, and cAMP-Dependent Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Jun Oh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Progressive diseases including cancer, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders are marked by platelet activation and chronic inflammation. Studies suggest that dietary flavonoids such as quercetin possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet properties, which could prevent various chronic diseases including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. However, the mechanism and the signaling pathway that links quercetin's antiplatelet activity with its anti-inflammatory property is limited and thus further exploration is required. The aim of this paper was to examine the link between antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory roles of quercetin in agonist-induced platelet activation. Methods. Quercetin effects on agonist-activated platelet-aggregation, granule-secretion, [Ca2+]i, and glycoprotein-IIb/IIIa activation were examined. Its effects on PI3K/Akt, VASP, and MAPK phosphorylations were also studied on collaged-activated platelets. Results. Quercetin dose dependently suppressed collagen, thrombin, or ADP-induced platelet aggregation. It significantly inhibited collagen-induced ATP release, P-selectin expression, [Ca2+]i mobilization, integrin-αIIbβ3 activation, and augmented cAMP and VASP levels. Moreover, quercetin attenuated PI3K, Akt, ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAPK activations, which were supported by platelet-aggregation inhibition with the respective kinase inhibitors. Conclusion. Quercetin-mediated antiplatelet activity involves PI3K/Akt inactivation, cAMP elevation, and VASP stimulation that, in turn, suppresses MAPK phosphorylations. This result suggests quercetin may have a potential to treat cardiovascular diseases involving aberrant platelet activation and inflammation.

  11. PI 3 kinase related kinases-independent proteolysis of BRCA1 regulates Rad51 recruitment during genotoxic stress in human cells.

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    Ian Hammond-Martel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The function of BRCA1 in response to ionizing radiation, which directly generates DNA double strand breaks, has been extensively characterized. However previous investigations have produced conflicting data on mutagens that initially induce other classes of DNA adducts. Because of the fundamental and clinical importance of understanding BRCA1 function, we sought to rigorously evaluate the role of this tumor suppressor in response to diverse forms of genotoxic stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated BRCA1 stability and localization in various human cells treated with model mutagens that trigger different DNA damage signaling pathways. We established that, unlike ionizing radiation, either UVC or methylmethanesulfonate (MMS (generating bulky DNA adducts or alkylated bases respectively induces a transient downregulation of BRCA1 protein which is neither prevented nor enhanced by inhibition of PIKKs. Moreover, we found that the proteasome mediates early degradation of BRCA1, BARD1, BACH1, and Rad52 implying that critical components of the homologous recombination machinery need to be functionally abrogated as part of the early response to UV or MMS. Significantly, we found that inhibition of BRCA1/BARD1 downregulation is accompanied by the unscheduled recruitment of both proteins to chromatin along with Rad51. Consistently, treatment of cells with MMS engendered complete disassembly of Rad51 from pre-formed ionizing radiation-induced foci. Following the initial phase of BRCA1/BARD1 downregulation, we found that the recovery of these proteins in foci coincides with the formation of RPA and Rad51 foci. This indicates that homologous recombination is reactivated at later stage of the cellular response to MMS, most likely to repair DSBs generated by replication blocks. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together our results demonstrate that (i the stabilities of BRCA1/BARD1 complexes are regulated in a mutagen-specific manner

  12. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of DNA methyltransferase 3B is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chuanzhong; Sun, Lidong; Liu, Yonglei; Yang, Yong; Cai, Xiumei; Liu, Mingzhu; Yao, Wantong; Wang, Can; Li, Xin; Wang, Liying; Li, Zengxia; Shi, Yinghong; Qiu, Shuangjian; Fan, Jia; Zha, Xiliang

    2010-09-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are essential for maintenance of aberrant methylation in cancer cells and play important roles in the development of cancers. Unregulated activation of PI3K/Akt pathway is a prominent feature of many human cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In present study, we found that DNMT3B mRNA and protein levels were decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCC cell lines with LY294002 treatment. However, we detected that LY294002 treatment did not induce increase of the degradation of DNMT3B protein using protein decay assay. Moreover we found that Akt induced alteration of the expression of DNMT3B in cells transfected with myristylated variants of Akt2 or cells transfected with small interfering RNA respectively. Based on DNMT3B promoter dual-luciferase reporter assay, we found PI3K pathway regulates DNMT3B expression at transcriptional level. And DNMT3B mRNA decay analysis suggested that down-regulation of DNMT3B by LY294002 is also post-transcriptional control. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LY294002 down-regulated HuR expression in a time-dependent manner in BEL-7404. In summary, we have, for the first time, demonstrate that PI3K/Akt pathway regulates the expression of DNMT3B at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which is particularly important to understand the effects of PI3K/Akt and DNMT3B on hepatocarcinogenesis.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT Pathway Inhibition by Doxazosin Promotes Glioblastoma Cells Death, Upregulation of p53 and Triggers Low Neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maier Gaelzer

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Treatment includes chemotherapy with temozolomide concomitant with surgical resection and/or irradiation. However, a number of cases are resistant to temozolomide, as well as the human glioblastoma cell line U138-MG. We investigated doxazosin's (an antihypertensive drug activity against glioblastoma cells (C6 and U138-MG and its neurotoxicity on primary astrocytes and organoptypic hippocampal cultures. For this study, the following methods were used: citotoxicity assays, flow cytometry, western-blotting and confocal microscopy. We showed that doxazosin induces cell death on C6 and U138-MG cells. We observed that doxazosin's effects on the PI3K/Akt pathway were similar as LY294002 (PI3K specific inhibitor. In glioblastoma cells treated with doxasozin, Akt levels were greatly reduced. Upon examination of activities of proteins downstream of Akt we observed upregulation of GSK-3β and p53. This led to cell proliferation inhibition, cell death induction via caspase-3 activation and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in glioblastoma cells. We used in this study Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a comparison with doxazosin because they present similar chemical structure. We also tested the neurocitotoxicity of doxazosin in primary astrocytes and organotypic cultures and observed that doxazosin induced cell death on a small percentage of non-tumor cells. Aggressiveness of glioblastoma tumors and dismal prognosis require development of new treatment agents. This includes less toxic drugs, more selective towards tumor cells, causing less damage to the patient. Therefore, our results confirm the potential of doxazosin as an attractive therapeutic antiglioma agent.

  14. Chronic Hyperinsulinism Induced Down-regulation of Insulin Post-Recentor Signaling Transduction in Hep G2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the regulatory effect of acute and chronic insulin treatment on insulin post-re-ceptor signaling transduction pathway in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2), Hep G2 cells wereincubated in the presence or absence of insulin with different concentrations in serum free mediafor 16 h and then stimulated with 100 nmol/L insulin for 1 min. Protein levels of insulin receptorβ-subunit (IRβ), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) were determined in total cell lysates by Western-immunoblot. Phosphorylat-ed proteins IRβ, IRS-1 and interaction of PI 3-kinase with IRS-1 were determined by immunopre-cipitation. Results showed that 1-min insulin stimulation rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylationof IRβ and IRS-l, which in turn, resulting in association of PI 3-kinase with IRS-1. 1-100 nmol/L chronic insulin treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in the protein level of IRβ and aslight decrease in the protein level of IRS-1. There wass more marked reduction in the phospho-rylation of IRβ, IRS-1, reaching a nadir of 22 % (P<0. 01) and 15 % (P<0. 01) of control lev-els, respectively, after 16 h treatment with 100 nmol/L insulin. The association between IRS-1and PI 3-kinase was decreased by 66 % (P<0. 01). There was no significant change in PI 3-ki-nase protein levels. These data suggest that chronic insulin treatment can induce alterations ofIRβ, IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase three early steps in insulin action, which contributes significantly toinsulin resistance, and may account for desensitization of insulin action.

  15. Adhesion of ZAP-70+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to stromal cells is enhanced by cytokines and blocked by inhibitors of the PI3-kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Sandrine T; Johnston, James B; Gibson, Spencer B; Marshall, Aaron J

    2014-01-01

    CLL cell survival and proliferation is enhanced through direct contact with supporting cells present in lymphoid tissues. PI3Ks are critical signal transduction enzymes controlling B cell survival and activation. PI3K inhibitors have entered clinical trials and show promising therapeutic activity; however, it is unclear whether PI3K inhibitor drugs differentially affect ZAP-70 positive versus negative CLL cells or target specific microenvironmental interactions. Here we provide evidence that CD40L+IL-4, IL-8 or IL-6 enhance adhesion to stromal cells, with IL-6 showing a selective effect on ZAP-70 positive cells. Stimulatory effects of IL-8 or IL-6 are fully reversed by PI3K inhibition, while the effects of CD40L+IL-4 are partially reversed. While CD40L+IL-4 is the only stimulation increasing CLL cell survival for all patient groups, IL-6 protects ZAP-70 positive cells from cell death induced by PI3K inhibition. Altogether, our results indicate that targeting the PI3K pathway can reverse protective CLL-microenvironment interactions in both ZAP-70 positive and negative CLL despite their differences in cytokine responsiveness.

  16. Maternal and fetal genomes interplay through phosphoinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)-p110α signaling to modify placental resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; López-Tello, Jorge; Fowden, Abigail L; Constancia, Miguel

    2016-10-04

    Pregnancy success and life-long health depend on a cooperative interaction between the mother and the fetus in the allocation of resources. As the site of materno-fetal nutrient transfer, the placenta is central to this interplay; however, the relative importance of the maternal versus fetal genotypes in modifying the allocation of resources to the fetus is unknown. Using genetic inactivation of the growth and metabolism regulator, Pik3ca (encoding PIK3CA also known as p110α, α/+), we examined the interplay between the maternal genome and the fetal genome on placental phenotype in litters of mixed genotype generated through reciprocal crosses of WT and α/+ mice. We demonstrate that placental growth and structure were impaired and associated with reduced growth of α/+ fetuses. Despite its defective development, the α/+ placenta adapted functionally to increase the supply of maternal glucose and amino acid to the fetus. The specific nature of these changes, however, depended on whether the mother was α/+ or WT and related to alterations in endocrine and metabolic profile induced by maternal p110α deficiency. Our findings thus show that the maternal genotype and environment programs placental growth and function and identify the placenta as critical in integrating both intrinsic and extrinsic signals governing materno-fetal resource allocation.

  17. IL-7 activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in normal human thymocytes but not normal human B cell precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sonja E; Shah, Nisha; Bajer, Anna A; LeBien, Tucker W

    2008-06-15

    IL-7 signaling culminates in different biological outcomes in distinct lymphoid populations, but knowledge of the biochemical signaling pathways in normal lymphoid populations is incomplete. We analyzed CD127/IL-7Ralpha expression and function in normal (nontransformed) human thymocytes, and human CD19(+) B-lineage cells purified from xenogeneic cord blood stem cell/MS-5 murine stromal cell cultures, to further clarify the role of IL-7 in human B cell development. IL-7 stimulation of CD34(+) immature thymocytes led to phosphorylation (p-) of STAT5, ERK1/2, AKT, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, and increased AKT enzymatic activity. In contrast, IL-7 stimulation of CD34(-) thymocytes (that included CD4(+)/CD8(+) double-positive, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive cells) only induced p-STAT5. IL-7 stimulation of CD19(+) cells led to robust induction of p-STAT5, but minimal induction of p-ERK1/2 and p-glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta. However, CD19(+) cells expressed endogenous p-ERK1/2, and when rested for several hours following removal from MS-5 underwent de-phosphorylation of ERK1/2. IL-7 stimulation of rested CD19(+) cells resulted in robust induction of p-ERK1/2, but no induction of AKT enzymatic activity. The use of a specific JAK3 antagonist demonstrated that all IL-7 signaling pathways in CD34(+) thymocytes and CD19(+) B-lineage cells were JAK3-dependent. We conclude that human CD34(+) thymocytes and CD19(+) B-lineage cells exhibit similarities in activation of STAT5 and ERK1/2, but differences in activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. The different induction of PI3K/AKT may at least partially explain the different requirements for IL-7 during human T and B cell development.

  18. Determinants Present in the Receptor Carboxy Tail Are Responsible for Differences in Subtype-Specific Coupling of β-Adrenergic Receptors to Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Simard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An agonist-occupied β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR recruits G protein receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is recruited to the membrane. Thus, the physical proximity of activated β2-AR and PI-3K allows the activation of the latter. In contrast, it has been observed that the β1-AR is unable to activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway. We hypothesized that the difference might be due to molecular determinants present in the carboxy termini of the two β-AR subtypes. Using transiently transfected HEK 293 cells expressing either β1- or β2-AR, we also observed that in presence of an agonist, β2-AR, but not β1-AR, is able to activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway. Switching the seventh transmembrane domain and the carboxy tail between the two receptors reverses this phenotype; that is, β1×β2-AR can activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway whereas β2×β1-AR cannot. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin abolished the activation of PI-3K by β2- or β1×β2-AR stimulation. Ligand-mediated internalization of the β2-AR induced by a 15-minute stimulation with agonist was abolished in the presence of a dominant negative of PI-3K or following pertussis toxin pretreatment. These results indicate that the subtype-specific differences in the coupling to PI-3K/Akt pathway are due to molecular determinants present in the carboxy tail of the receptor and further that β2-AR activates PI-3K via a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism.

  19. FoxO3a regulates erythroid differentiation and induces BTG1, an activator of protein arginine methyl transferase 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, WJ; Blazquez-Domingo, M; Kolbus, A; Besooyen, J; Steinlein, P; Beug, H; Coffer, PJ; Lowenberg, B; von Lindern, M; van Dijk, TB

    2004-01-01

    Erythropoiesis requires tight control of expansion, maturation, and survival of erythroid progenitors. Because activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is required for erythropoietin/stem cell factor-induced expansion of erythroid progenitors, we examined the role of the PI3K-controlled Fo

  20. Neural stem cell transplantation in the hippocampus of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhao; Shengtao Yao; Shijun Wang

    2010-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are involved in neurological functional recovery following cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we hypothesized that mechanisms of neuroprotection by transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) on cerebral ischemia contributed to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and enhanced BDNF expression. In the present study, Wortmannin (a specific, covalent inhibitor of PI3K) was administered adjacent to ischemic hippocampus by stereotactic transplantation to further confirm the neuroprotective mechanisms of NSC transplantation following cerebral ischemia. Results showed that focal infarct volume was significantly smaller in the NSCs group, but the neurological behavior score in the NSC group was significantly greater than the middle cerebral artery occlusion model group, Wortmannin treatment group, and NSCs + Wortmannin treatment group. Protein expression of RDNF was significantly greater in the NSC group compared with the Wortmannin treatment group and NSCs + Wortmannin treatment group. These results suggest that the neuroprotective role of NSC transplantation in the cerebral ischemia activated the PI3K/Akt pathway and upregulated BDNF expression in lesioned brains.

  1. Progress in clinical study of Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-Kinase Inhibitors as anticancer Agents%磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶抑制剂抗肿瘤临床研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴炜辰; 朱雍; 陆涛

    2014-01-01

    对磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(Phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase,PI3K)抑制剂作为抗肿瘤药物的临床研究进展作一综述。 PI3K在细胞生长,增殖和凋亡等过程中起重要调节作用,与乳腺癌、卵巢癌、前列腺癌等肿瘤的发生发展密切相关。因此,PI3K已成为很有前途的癌症治疗靶标,超过10多种PI3K抑制剂作为抗肿瘤药物已进入临床研究。%This review focused on the progress in clinical trials testing phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase inhibitors (PI3Ki) as anticancer agents.PI3K is involved in various cellular processes and regulates many physiological func-tions including cell growth ,survival,amplification and apoptosis.The PI3K pathway is closely related to the occur-rence and development of breast cancer ,ovarian cancer,prostate cancer,etc.Therefore targeting PI3Ks is a promising approach for cancer therapy.Clinical trials of more than ten different PI 3K inhibitors as anticancer agents are under-way.

  2. Static magnetic field enhances the viability and proliferation rate of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells potentially through activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marędziak, Monika; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Polinceusz, Paulina; Lewandowski, Daniel; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 0.5T static magnetic field (sMF) on the viability and proliferation rate of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hASCs) via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. In a 7-d culture we examined cell growth kinetic and population doubling time (PDT). We also examined cell morphology and the cellular senescence markers level. Exposure to sMF enhanced the viability of these cells. However, the effect was blocked by treating the cells with LY294002, a P13K inhibitor. We compared this effect by Western Blot analysis of Akt protein expression. We also examined whether the cell response on sMF stimulation is dependent on integrin engagement and we measured integrin gene expression. Our results suggest that stimulation using sMF is a viable method to improve hASC viability. sMF is involved in mechanisms associated with controlling cell proliferative potential signaling events.

  3. Autophosphorylation of serine 608 in the p85 regulatory subunit of wild type or cancer-associated mutants of phosphoinositide 3-kinase does not affect its lipid kinase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layton Meredith J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The α-isoform of the Type 1A Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Kα has protein kinase activity as well as phosphoinositide lipid kinase activity. The best described substrate for its protein kinase activity is its regulatory subunit, p85α, which becomes phosphorylated on Serine 608. Phosphorylation of Serine 608 has been reported to down-regulate its lipid kinase activity. Results We have assessed whether oncogenic mutants of PI3Kα, which have up-regulated lipid kinase activity, have altered levels of Serine 608 phosphorylation compared to wild type PI3Kα, and whether differential phosphorylation of Serine 608 contributes to increased activity of oncogenic forms of PI3Kα with point mutations in the helical or the kinase domains. Despite markedly increased lipid kinase activity, protein kinase activity was not altered in oncogenic compared to wild type forms of PI3Kα. By manipulating levels of phosphorylation of Serine 608 in vitro, we found no evidence that the protein kinase activity of PI3Kα affects its phosphoinositide lipid kinase activity in either wild-type or oncogenic mutants of PI3Kα. Conclusions Phosphorylation of p85α S608 is not a significant regulator of wild-type or oncogenic PI3Kα lipid kinase activity.

  4. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Interacting Protein Deficiency Uncovers the Role of the Co-receptor CD19 as a Generic Hub for PI3 Kinase Signaling in B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Selina Jessica; Gasparrini, Francesca; Burbage, Marianne; Aggarwal, Shweta; Frederico, Bruno; Geha, Raif S; Way, Michael; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Batista, Facundo D

    2015-10-20

    Humans with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome display a progressive immunological disorder associated with compromised Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Interacting Protein (WIP) function. Mice deficient in WIP recapitulate such an immunodeficiency that has been attributed to T cell dysfunction; however, any contribution of B cells is as yet undefined. Here we have shown that WIP deficiency resulted in defects in B cell homing, chemotaxis, survival, and differentiation, ultimately leading to diminished germinal center formation and antibody production. Furthermore, in the absence of WIP, several receptors, namely the BCR, BAFFR, CXCR4, CXCR5, CD40, and TLR4, were impaired in promoting CD19 co-receptor activation and subsequent PI3 kinase (PI3K) signaling. The underlying mechanism was due to a distortion in the actin and tetraspanin networks that lead to altered CD19 cell surface dynamics. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, by regulating the cortical actin cytoskeleton, WIP influences the function of CD19 as a general hub for PI3K signaling.

  5. Targeting PI3 kinase in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Todd M; Patel, Manish R; Infante, Jeffrey R

    2015-02-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is the most frequently known activated aberrant pathway in human cancers. Pathologic activation can occur at multiple levels along the signaling pathway by a variety of mechanisms, including point mutations, amplifications, and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. This pathway is also a known resistance pathway, as it can be activated by both receptor tyrosine kinases and other oncogenes. mTOR inhibitors were the first targeted molecules in this pathway, and have already been FDA-approved in multiple indications. Because of the broad potential applications of inhibiting this pathway upstream of mTOR, multiple compounds targeting PI3K are in development. In this review, we discuss the clinical development of these inhibitors, including dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, pan-PI3K inhibitors, and isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors. Common adverse events, including rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia, have created a narrow therapeutic window for all classes of PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, single agent clinical activity has also been limited, with the exception of isoform-selective inhibitors, particularly the PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ inhibitors in hematologic malignancies. The future role of inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in the clinical practice of oncology likely depends on the development of patient selection strategies and the results of combination trials that are currently ongoing.

  6. Inducible shRNA expression for application in a prostate cancer mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, Frank; Santel, Ansgar; Hinz, Michael; Fechtner, Melanie; Durieux, Birgit; Fisch, Gerald; Leenders, Frauke; Arnold, Wolfgang; Giese, Klaus; Klippel, Anke; Kaufmann, Jörg

    2003-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to induce loss-of-function phenotypes by inhibiting gene expression post-transcriptionally. Synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as well as vector-based siRNA expression systems have been used successfully to silence gene expression in a variety of biological systems. We describe the development of an inducible siRNA expression system that is based on the tetracycline repressor and eukaryotic RNA polymerase III promoters (U6 and 7SK). For proof of concept we selectively inhibited expression of two catalytic subunits of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), p110alpha and p110beta, by using vector-derived short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Stable pools of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) exhibiting reduced levels of both PI 3-kinase catalytic subunits due to the expression of corresponding shRNAs in an inducible fashion were established and analyzed for their invasive potential in vitro as well as in an orthotopic metastatic mouse model. This inducible system for RNAi allows an unbiased and comparable analysis of loss-of-function phenotypes by comparing selected isogenic cell populations on the induced and non-induced level. In addition, conditional RNAi allows the study of essential and multifunctional genes involved in complex biological processes by preventing inhibitory and compensatory effects caused by constitutive knockdown.

  7. A novel Rho-dependent pathway that drives interaction of fascin-1 with p-Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3 kinase (LIMK 1/2 to promote fascin-1/actin binding and filopodia stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayo Asier

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fascin-1 is an actin crosslinking protein that is important for the assembly of cell protrusions in neurons, skeletal and smooth muscle, fibroblasts, and dendritic cells. Although absent from most normal adult epithelia, fascin-1 is upregulated in many human carcinomas, and is associated with poor prognosis because of its promotion of carcinoma cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Rac and Cdc42 small guanine triphosphatases have been identified as upstream regulators of the association of fascin-1 with actin, but the possible role of Rho has remained obscure. Additionally, experiments have been hampered by the inability to measure the fascin-1/actin interaction directly in intact cells. We investigated the hypothesis that fascin-1 is a functional target of Rho in normal and carcinoma cells, using experimental approaches that included a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET/fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM method to measure the interaction of fascin-1 with actin. Results Rho activity modulates the interaction of fascin-1 with actin, as detected by a novel FRET method, in skeletal myoblasts and human colon carcinoma cells. Mechanistically, Rho regulation depends on Rho kinase activity, is independent of the status of myosin II activity, and is not mediated by promotion of the fascin/PKC complex. The p-Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3 kinases (LIMK, LIMK1 and LIMK2, act downstream of Rho kinases as novel binding partners of fascin-1, and this complex regulates the stability of filopodia. Conclusions We have identified a novel activity of Rho in promoting a complex between fascin-1 and LIMK1/2 that modulates the interaction of fascin-1 with actin. These data provide new mechanistic insight into the intracellular coordination of contractile and protrusive actin-based structures. During the course of the study, we developed a novel FRET method for analysis of the fascin-1/actin interaction, with potential general

  8. Molecular alterations of Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathways in colorectal cancers from a tertiary hospital at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wai Kien; Choo, Chee Wei; Leong, Vincent Ching-Shian; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Jabar, Mohd Faisal; Seow, Heng Fong

    2013-10-01

    Molecular alterations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and PTEN have been implicated in designing targeted therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to determine the status of these molecular alterations in Malaysian CRCs as such data are not available in the literature. We investigated the mutations of KRAS, BRAF, and PTEN, the gene amplification of PIK3CA, and the protein expression of PTEN and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (p110α) by direct DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 49 CRC samples. The frequency of KRAS (codons 12, 13, and 61), BRAF (V600E), and PTEN mutations, and PIK3CA amplification was 25.0% (11/44), 2.3% (1/43), 0.0% (0/43), and 76.7% (33/43), respectively. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated loss of PTEN protein in 54.5% (24/44) of CRCs and no significant difference in PI3K p110α expression between CRCs and the adjacent normal colonic mucosa (p = 0.380). PIK3CA amplification was not associated with PI3K p110α expression level, but associated with male cases (100% of male cases vs 56% of female cases harbored amplified PIK3CA, p = 0.002). PI3K p110α expression was significantly higher (p = 0.041) in poorly/moderately differentiated carcinoma compared with well-differentiated carcinoma. KRAS mutation, PIK3CA amplification, PTEN loss, and PI3K p110α expression did not correlate with Akt phosphorylation or Ki-67 expression. KRAS mutation, PIK3CA amplification, and PTEN loss were not mutually exclusive. This is the first report on CRC in Malaysia showing comparable frequency of KRAS mutation and PTEN loss, lower BRAF mutation rate, higher PIK3CA amplification frequency, and rare PTEN mutation, as compared with published reports.

  9. Flt3 is a target of coumestrol in protecting against UVB-induced skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gaeun; Baek, Sohee; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lim, Tae-gyu; Lee, Charles C; Yang, Hee; Kang, Young-Gyu; Park, Jun Seong; Augustin, Martin; Mrosek, Michael; Lee, Chang Yong; Dong, Zigang; Huber, Robert; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-12-01

    While skin aging is a naturally occurring process by senescence, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation accelerates wrinkle formation and sagging of skin. UV induces skin aging by degrading collagen via activating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we show that coumestrol, a metabolite of the soybean isoflavone daidzein, has a preventive effect on skin photoaging in three-dimensional human skin equivalent model. Coumestrol inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and activity. Whole human kinase profiling assay identified FLT3 kinase as a novel target protein of coumestrol in UVB-induced signaling pathway in skin. Coumestrol suppresses FLT3 kinase activity, and subsequently, Ras/MEK/ERK and Akt/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase pathway. This suppresses AP-1 activity and in turn, diminishes MMP-1 gene transcription. Using X-ray crystallography, the binding of coumestrol to FLT3 was defined and implied ATP-competitive inhibition. Residues Lys644 and Phe830 showed local changes to accommodate coumestrol in the ATP-binding pocket. 4-APIA, a pharmacological inhibitor of FLT3, inhibited MMP-1 expression and induced signal transduction changes similar to coumestrol. Taken together, coumestrol inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing FLT3 kinase activity. These findings suggest that coumestrol is a novel dietary compound with potential application in preventing and improving UVB-associated skin aging.

  10. Metformin prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis through AMPK-PI3K-c-Jun NH2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, Y.-J.; Kim, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to be partially associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress toxicity on pancreatic beta cells and the result of decreased insulin synthesis and secretion. In this study, we showed that a well-known insulin sensitizer, metformin, directly protects against dysfunction and death of ER stress-induced NIT-1 cells (a mouse pancreatic beta cell line) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation. We also showed that exposure of NIT-1 cells to metformin (5mM) increases cellular resistance against ER stress-induced NIT-1 cell dysfunction and death. AMPK and PI3 kinase inhibitors abolished the effect of metformin on cell function and death. Metformin-mediated protective effects on ER stress-induced apoptosis were not a result of an unfolded protein response or the induced inhibitors of apoptotic proteins. In addition, we showed that exposure of ER stressed-induced NIT-1 cells to metformin decreases the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK). These data suggest that metformin is an important determinant of ER stress-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells and may have implications for ER stress-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction via regulation of the AMPK-PI3 kinase-JNK pathway.

  11. Significance of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase expression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis atrophy muscle fibers%磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶在ALS萎缩肌纤维中表达的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈宏锐; 靳陶然; 赵哲; 胡静

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(PI3K)在肌萎缩侧索硬化(ALS)患者骨骼肌细胞中的表达及意义.探讨ALS肌纤维萎缩的发病机制. 方法 选取河北医科大学第三医院神经肌肉病科住院部自2005年6月至2013年1月收治的90例ALS患者临床资料,分析临床、血肌酸激酶及电生理特点.全部患者行开放式骨骼肌活检,冰冻连续切片,组织化学、酶学染色及PI3K、神经细胞黏附分子(NCAM)免疫组织化学染色病理分析,电镜观察其超微结构. 结果 (1)ALS患者骨骼肌病理可见大量小角化肌纤维、萎缩肌纤维和核聚集现象.(2)PI3K在萎缩肌纤维膜上呈阳性表达,NCAM在萎缩肌纤维中阴性表达.(3)电镜下萎缩肌纤维中存在典型的线粒体形态异常. 结论 (1)ALS骨骼肌细胞存在线粒体结构和功能异常.(2)ALS的肌纤维萎缩与肌细胞凋亡机制有关.(3)PI3K的异常表达对ALS的诊断或有意义.%Objective To study the significance of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) expression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) atrophy muscle fibers and investigate the pathogenesis of muscle fiber atrophy.Methods The clinical data of 90 ALS inpatients,admitted to our hospital from June 2005 to January 2013,were collected; and the features of clinical manifestations,creatine kinase level and electrophysiology were investigated.All patients accepted open muscle biopsy; the frozen tissues were performed histochemical,enzymology,anti-PI3K and nerve cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) monoclonal antibody immunohistochemistry staining; the pathological and ultrastructure characteristics were observed.Results A lot of small angular fibers,atrophy fibers and nuclear clump grouping were observed in skeletal muscle samples of ALS.PI3K positively expressed in sarcolemma of atrophy fibers,while NCAM negatively expressed.The pathologic changes of ultrastructure in transmission electromicroscope illustrated ALS atrophy fibers,having typical

  12. IL-2 induces beta2-integrin adhesion via a wortmannin/LY294002-sensitive, rapamycin-resistant pathway. Phosphorylation of a 125-kilodalton protein correlates with induction of adhesion, but not mitogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A; Skov, S;

    1996-01-01

    beta2-integrin-dependent, homotypic adhesion in Ag-specific, human T cell lines. The IL-2 adhesion response is blocked by wortmannin and LY294002, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity. In contrast, rapamycin strongly inhibits IL-2-induced proliferation without inhibiting IL-2......, and cytochalasin E almost completely inhibit cytokine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p125, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation of PI-3 kinase, Janus kinases, Stat3, Stat5, and other proteins is unaffected. In contrast, rapamycin has little effect on IL-2-induced phosphorylation of p125. Taken together......, these data suggest that 1) IL-2R ligation induces homotypic adhesion through a wortmannin/LY294002-sensitive, rapamycin-resistant pathway, 2) tyrosine kinases play a critical role in cytokine-induced adhesion, and 3) adhesion, but not mitogenesis, correlates with enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation...

  13. Etk/Bmx, a PH-domain containing tyrosine kinase, protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy or thapsigargin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L Y; Qiu, Y; He, J; Kung, H J; Oleinick, N L

    1999-06-03

    Prostate carcinoma (PCA) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men. PCA at advanced stages can both proliferate abnormally and resist apoptosis. Among the many known signal transduction pathways, phosphatidylinositide-3'OH kinase (PI3-kinase) has been shown to play an important role in cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we investigate the involvement of Etk/Bmx, a newly discovered tyrosine kinase that is a substrate of PI3-kinase, in protection of prostate cancer cells from apoptosis. Parental LNCaP cells and two derivative cell lines, one overexpressing wild type Etk (Etkwt) and the other expressing a dominant negative Etk (EtkDN), were used to study the function of Etk. The cells were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), a newly approved cancer treatment which employs a photosensitizer and visible light to produce an oxidative stress in cells, often leading to apoptosis. Our results indicate that PDT induces apoptosis in LNCaP cells, as measured by DNA fragmentation and by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and moreover, the extent of apoptosis was much reduced in Etkwt cells as compared to LNCaP or EtkDN cells. Assay of overall cell viability confirmed that Etkwt cells were considerably less sensitive to PDT than were the parental LNCaP or EtkDN cells. Similar results were found in response to thapsigargin (TG). A specific inhibitor of PI3-kinase, LY294002, abolished Etk activity and markedly increased TG-induced PARP cleavage. The results suggest that Etk/Bmx is an efficient effector of PI3-kinase and that the newly described PI3-kinase/Etk pathway is involved in the protection of prostate carcinoma cells from apoptosis in response to PDT or TG.

  14. The Phosphoinositide 3-OH Kinase/AKT2 Pathway as a Critical Target for Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor-Induced Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Kun; Coppola, Domenico; Crespo, Nichole C.; Nicosia, Santo V.; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Sebti, Said M.; Cheng, Jin Q.

    2000-01-01

    Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) represent a novel class of anticancer drugs that exhibit a remarkable ability to inhibit malignant transformation without toxicity to normal cells. However, the mechanism by which FTIs inhibit tumor growth is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that FTI-277 inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase)/AKT2-mediated growth factor- and adhesion-dependent survival pathways and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells that overexpress AKT2. Fu...

  15. Ischemic postconditioning alleviates rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway%缺血后处理通过PI3K信号通路抑制脑缺血再灌注损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫利; 王志; 肖松华; 刘运林; 周海红; 邢诒刚

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neuroprotective effect of ischcmic posteonditioning (IP)against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase(P13K)signaling pathway in the neuroprotection. Methods Focal cerebral ischernia was induced in 24 SD rats by permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion and transient bilateral comlllOn carotid artery occlusion.The rats were then randomized into 4 groups for treatment with IP,LY294002+IP,DMSO+IP,or without IP.In LY294002+IP and DMSO+IP groups,LY294002 or DMSO was injcoted into the ventricular space on the ischemic side 1 h before ischemia.The cerebral infarct sizes wgre measured in all the 4 groups at 48h after the reperfusion.Results Cerebral infarcts were observed in all the groups on theischemic side,all locating in the left neocortex and the middle cerebral artery territory.At48h after reperfusion,the infarct size was significantly smaller in rats with IP(34.02%±7.17%)than in those without IP(57.05%±10.05%)(P<0.05),and significantly larger in LY294002+IP group(73.41%±2.06%)than in DMSO+IP group(35.76%±1.51%)(P<0.05).No significant difference was found in the infarctsize between DMSO+IP group and IP group(P>0.05).Conclusion IP ameliorates cerebral reperfusion mjury in rats,and the mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves the preservation of PI3K activity.%目的 研究缺血后处理(IP)对脑缺血再灌注损伤的影响及其机制.方法 采用开颅机械闭塞法建立SD大鼠局灶性脑缺血模型,通过开放/夹闭双侧颈总动脉实现IP.24只大鼠按照随机数字表法分为IP组、非IP组、LY294002+IP组、DMSO+IP组,每组6只,再灌注48 h后测脑梗死面积;其中LY294002、DMSO于建模前1 h侧脑室注入.结果 各组左侧大脑皮层均可见清晰梗死灶,符合血管分布范围.其中IP组腩梗死面积(34.02%±7.17%)明显小于非IP组(57.05%±10.05%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);LY294002+IP组脑梗死面积(73.41%±2.06%)

  16. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  17. Ivabradine Reduces Chemokine-Induced CD4-Positive Lymphocyte Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Walcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes into the vessel wall is a critical step in atherogenesis. Recent data suggest that ivabradine, a selective I(f-channel blocker, reduces atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, hitherto nothing is known about the mechanism by which ivabradine modulates plaque formation. Therefore, the present study investigated whether ivabradine regulates chemokine-induced migration of lymphocytes. Methods and results. Stimulation of CD4-positive lymphocytes with SDF-1 leads to a 2.0±0.1 fold increase in cell migration (P<.01; n=7. Pretreatment of cells with ivabradine reduces this effect to a maximal 1.2±0.1 fold induction at 0.1 µmol/L ivabradine (P<.01 compared to SDF-1-treated cells, n=7. The effect of ivabradine on CD4-positive lymphocyte migration was mediated through an early inhibition of chemokine-induced PI-3 kinase activity as determined by PI-3 kinase activity assays. Downstream, ivabradine inhibits activation of the small GTPase Rac and phosphorylation of the Myosin Light Chain (MLC. Moreover, ivabradine treatment reduces f-actin formation as well as ICAM3 translocation to the uropod of the cell, thus interfering with two important steps in T cell migration. Conclusion. Ivabradine inhibits chemokine-induced migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes. Given the crucial importance of chemokine-induced T-cell migration in early atherogenesis, ivabradine may be a promising tool to modulate this effect.

  18. Experimental study on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signal transduction pathway in Barrett esophagus genesis%磷脂酰肌醇3激酶信号转导通路与Barrett食管发生的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭东梅; 周超; 白研; 白文元

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨磷脂酰肌醇3激酶(PI3K)/蛋白激酶B(Akt)/哺乳动物雷帕霉素靶蛋白(mTOR)信号转导通路与Barrett食管发生的关系.方法 将140只大鼠分为假手术组10只、铁剂组10只、食管十二指肠端侧吻合组30只、食管十二指肠端侧吻合加铁剂组30只、食管胃十二指肠侧侧吻合组30只、食管胃十二指肠侧侧吻合加铁剂组30只.最后共获得10份正常食管组织、62份反流性食管炎组织、34份Barrett食管组织,应用免疫组织化学方法检测以上3种组织中表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)、Akt、磷酸化Akt和磷酸化mTOR蛋白的表达水平.采用单因素方差分析、SNK两两比较和非参数相关性分析进行统计学处理.结果 Barrett食管组织中EGFR、Akt、磷酸化Akt、磷酸化mTOR蛋白的表达水平高于反流性食管炎和正常的食管组织(EGFR为0.1799±0.0367比0.0438±0.0025和0.0277±0.0069,q=6.79、4.13; Akt为0.1874±0.0250比0.0986±0.0093和0.0383±0.0048,q=6.51、3.56;磷酸化Akt为0.1418±0.0130比0.0592±0.0027和0.0281±0.0017,q=7.68、3.99;磷酸化mTOR为0.1591±0.0275比0.0674±0.0059和0.0112±0.0017,q=5.62、4.11,P均<0.05).反流性食管炎食管组织中EGFR、Akt、磷酸化Akt、磷酸化mTOR蛋白的表达水平高于正常食管组织(q=4.67、4.29、4.27、4.03,P均<0.05).结论 反流性食管炎、Barrett食管组织中PI3K/Akt/mTOR信号转导通路被激活,为临床多靶点治疗疾病提供了一定的理论依据.%Objective To explore the relationship between phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammals target protein rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway and Barrett esophagus genesis.Methods A total of 140 rats were divided into sham operated group (n=10),iron group (n =10),esophageal duodenal side anastomosis group (n =30),esophageal duodenal side anastomosis plus iron group (n-30),esophageal gastric duodenal side anastomosis group (n=30) and esophageal gastric duodenal

  19. MHC-I-induced apoptosis in human B-lymphoma cells is dependent on protein tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Bregenholt, S; Johansen, B;

    1999-01-01

    B lymphoma cells, is dependent on protein tyrosine kinases and the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase. Functional studies showed that MHC-I crosslinking induced almost complete inhibition of the spontaneous proliferation of the B lymphoma cells as early as 6 h post-crosslinking and apoptosis 24 h...... post-crosslinking. Preincubation with either protein tyrosine kinase or protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitors reduced the MHC-I-induced apoptosis to background levels, whereas inhibition of PI-3 kinase had no effect. These data demonstrate a pivotal role for protein tyrosine and serine....../threonine kinases in MHC-I-mediated apoptosis in human B-cells and suggest the presence of several MHC-I signaling pathways leading to diverse effects in these cells....

  20. Stimulatory Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Proliferation and Migration of Porcine Trophectoderm Cells and Their Regulation by the Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-AKT and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cell Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent stimulator for angiogenesis, is likely to regulate implantation by stimulating endometrial angiogenesis and vascular permeability. In addition to known angiogenetic effects, VEGF has been suggested to participate in development of the early embryo as a mediator of fetal-maternal dialogue. Current studies have determined VEGF in terms of its role in endometrial vascular events, but VEGF-induced effects on the peri-implantation conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membranes) remains unknown. In the present study, endometrial VEGF, VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) mRNAs increased significantly during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy as compared to the estrous cycle. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 mRNAs was abundant in endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia, endothelial blood vessels, and scattered cells in the stroma and conceptus trophectoderm. In addition, porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells treated with VEGF exhibited increased abundance of phosphorylated (p)-AKT1, p-ERK1/2, p-p70RSK, p-RPS6, and p-4EBP1 in a time-dependent manner. The addition of U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, inhibited VEGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but AKT1 phosphorylation was not affected. The addition of LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT1. Furthermore, VEGF significantly stimulated proliferation and migration of pTr cells, but these effects were blocked by SB203580, U0126, rapamycin, and LY294002, which inhibit p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, mTOR, and PI3K, respectively. These results suggest that VEGF is critical to successful growth and development of pTr during early pregnancy and that VEGF-induced stimulatory effect is coordinately regulated by multiple cell signaling pathways, including PI3K-AKT1 and MAPK signaling pathways.

  1. Interleukin-3 prevents neuronal death induced by amyloid peptide

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    Otth Carola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-3 (IL-3 is an important glycoprotein involved in regulating biological responses such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Its effects are mediated via interaction with cell surface receptors. Several studies have demonstrated the expression of IL-3 in neurons and astrocytes of the hippocampus and cortices in normal mouse brain, suggesting a physiological role of IL-3 in the central nervous system. Although there is evidence indicating that IL-3 is expressed in some neuronal populations, its physiological role in these cells is poorly known. Results In this study, we demonstrated the expression of IL-3 receptor in cortical neurons, and analyzed its influence on amyloid β (Aβ-treated cells. In these cells, IL-3 can activate at least three classical signalling pathways, Jak/STAT, Ras/MAP kinase and the PI 3-kinase. Viability assays indicated that IL-3 might play a neuroprotective role in cells treated with Aβ fibrils. It is of interest to note that our results suggest that cell survival induced by IL-3 required PI 3-kinase and Jak/STAT pathway activation, but not MAP kinase. In addition, IL-3 induced an increase of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Conclusion Altogether these data strongly suggest that IL-3 neuroprotects neuronal cells against neurodegenerative agents like Aβ.

  2. Predicting the structures of complexes between phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and romidepsin-related compounds for the drug design of PI3K/histone deacetylase dual inhibitors using computational docking and the ligand-based drug design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akifumi; Saijo, Ken; Ishioka, Chikashi; Narita, Koichi; Katoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Yurie; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2014-11-01

    Predictions of the three-dimensional (3D) structures of the complexes between phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and two inhibitors were conducted using computational docking and the ligand-based drug design approach. The obtained structures were refined by structural optimizations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The ligands were located deep inside the ligand binding pocket of the p110α subunit of PI3K, and the hydrogen bond formations and hydrophobic effects of the surrounding amino acids were predicted. Although rough structures were obtained for the PI3K-inhibitor complexes before the MD simulations, the refinement of the structures by these simulations clarified the hydrogen bonding patterns of the complexes.

  3. The developments in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in cerebral protection%磷脂酰肌醇-3-激酶/蛋白激酶B信号通路在脑保护中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠; 王海云; 王国林

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3 -kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal pathway is an important intracellular transduction pathway. It plays an important role in inhibiting cellular apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation by affecting the activity of downstream targets. Studies show that pharmacological and other strategies can activate PI3K/Akt pathway and downstream targets accordingly to improve neuronal survival. Such findings indicate that PI3K and Akt may be potential targets for cerebral protective therapy. This review serves to introduce the construction and functionof PI3K/Akt pathway, its substrates, and the new developments of this pathway in cerebral protection.%磷脂酰肌醇-3-激酶/蛋白激酶B(phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B,PI3K/Akt)通路是细胞内重要的信号转导通路,通过影响下游多个靶点而发挥抑制凋亡、促进增殖的作用.研究发现通过药物及非药物手段可以激活PI3K/Akt通路及其下游靶点,促进神经元存活.提示PI3K/Akt通路可能是脑保护的重要靶点.现就PI3K/Akt信号转导通路的组成、功能、下游靶点及其脑保护作用的研究进展作一综述.

  4. 烧伤血清作用下心肌细胞蛋白激酶B和p38丝裂原活化蛋白激酶通路的交叉对话研究%Study on crosstalk between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in cardiomyocyte with challenge of bum serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕根法; 陈璧; 张万福; 王耘川; 朱雄翔; 胡大海

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility of erosstalk between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K)/Akt pathway and p38 mitogen-aetivated protein kinase (p38MAPK) pathway in cardiomyocyte with challenge of burn serum, and to explore their influence on eardiomyocyte injury after bum. Methods The model of murine cardiomyocyte with stimulation of burn serum was established. ( 1 ) The level of Akt and p38 phosphorlation in cardiomyocyte were examined with stimulation of 10% bum serum before stimulation and 1,3,6,12,24 hour after stimulation. (2) The levels of Akt and p38 phosphorylation in cardiomyocyte were determined with stimulation of burn serum (at concentration of 5% ,10% ,20% ) or 10% burn serum plus insulin( at concentration of 1 × 10-8, 1 × 10-7,1 × 10-6mol/L). The content of creatine kinase (CK) in superuate was also detected. (3)Addition to the inhibitor of p38 MAPK pathway(SB203580) and PI3K/ Akt pathway ( LY294002 ), the level of p38 M APK , PI3 K/Akt and the content of CK in supernate were deter- mined. Results (1)The level of p-p38 in cardiomyocyte was 4.0±0.8,3.6±0.8,5.1±1.6,2.4± 0.5,3.0 ± 0.6 at 1 ,3,6,12,24 hour(s) after stimulation of burn serum,which was obviously higher than that immediate after stimulation ( 1.0, P < 0.01 ). The level of p-Akt was 0. 15 ± 0.07,0.64 ± 0.10,0.26 ± 0.08,0.38 ± 0.11,0.59 ± 0.13, which was obviously lower than that before stimulation ( 1.00, P < 0. 01 ). (2) With stimulation of different concentration of burn serum or burn serum plus insulin,the level of p-Akt and p- p38 changed in the opposite directions comparatively. The content of CK increased along with increase of burn serum concentration ,but decreased obviously with treatment of insulin ( P < 0.05 or 0.01 ). (3) Low level of p38 induced by burn serum was increased after treatment of LY294002, which neutralized the protection of insulin( P < 0.01 ). Low level of p-Akt induced by burn serum increased after treatment of SB203580( P <0.01 ),which

  5. Involvement of PIKE in icariin induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Limin; Zheng, Bei; Tang, Leilei; Huang, Yujie; Zhu, Danyan

    2014-03-01

    Icariin (ICA) has demonstrated to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, however, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PIKE was applied to investigate the role of PIKE in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. The cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells were verified using immunofluorescence. The expressions of Troponin T, PIKE, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were detected by western blot. The change of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was estimated using the fluorescent dye 2', 7' - dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The results showed that PIKE expression increased during cardiomyocyte differentiation. ICA markedly enhanced PIKE and PI3K expression in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of PIKE by siRNAs blocked the differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes expressing alpha-actinin for cardiac sarcomeric structures. Moreover, reduced ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were responsible for the inhibitory effect of si-PIKE. In conclusion, PIKE was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation, and ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were associated with PIKE activation.

  6. RIP3 induces apoptosis independent of pronecrotic kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pratyusha; Berger, Scott B; Pillay, Sirika; Moriwaki, Kenta; Huang, Chunzi; Guo, Hongyan; Lich, John D; Finger, Joshua; Kasparcova, Viera; Votta, Bart; Ouellette, Michael; King, Bryan W; Wisnoski, David; Lakdawala, Ami S; DeMartino, Michael P; Casillas, Linda N; Haile, Pamela A; Sehon, Clark A; Marquis, Robert W; Upton, Jason; Daley-Bauer, Lisa P; Roback, Linda; Ramia, Nancy; Dovey, Cole M; Carette, Jan E; Chan, Francis Ka-Ming; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J; Mocarski, Edward S; Kaiser, William J

    2014-11-20

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) has emerged as a central player in necroptosis and a potential target to control inflammatory disease. Here, three selective small-molecule compounds are shown to inhibit RIP3 kinase-dependent necroptosis, although their therapeutic value is undermined by a surprising, concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis. These compounds interact with RIP3 to activate caspase 8 (Casp8) via RHIM-driven recruitment of RIP1 (RIPK1) to assemble a Casp8-FADD-cFLIP complex completely independent of pronecrotic kinase activities and MLKL. RIP3 kinase-dead D161N mutant induces spontaneous apoptosis independent of compound, whereas D161G, D143N, and K51A mutants, like wild-type, only trigger apoptosis when compound is present. Accordingly, RIP3-K51A mutant mice (Rip3(K51A/K51A)) are viable and fertile, in stark contrast to the perinatal lethality of Rip3(D161N/D161N) mice. RIP3 therefore holds both necroptosis and apoptosis in balance through a Ripoptosome-like platform. This work highlights a common mechanism unveiling RHIM-driven apoptosis by therapeutic or genetic perturbation of RIP3.

  7. Anaesthesia generates neuronal insulin resistance by inducing hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Calum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaesthesia is commonly employed prior to surgical investigations and to permit icv injections in rodents. Indeed it is standard practise in many studies examining the subsequent actions of hormones and growth factors on the brain. Recent evidence that the basal activity of specific intracellular signalling proteins can be affected by anaesthesia prompted us to examine the effect of anaesthesia not only on the basal activity but also the insulin sensitivity of the major insulin signalling pathways. Results We find that urethane- and ketamine-induced anaesthesia results in rapid activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PKB signalling pathway in the brain, increases tau phosphorylation while at the same time reducing basal activity of the Ras-ERK pathway. Subsequent injection of insulin does not alter the activity of either the PI 3-kinase or ERK signalling pathways, indicating a degree of neuronal molecular insulin resistance. However, if body temperature is maintained during anaesthesia then there is no alteration in the basal activity of these signalling molecules. Subsequent response of both pathways to insulin injection is restored. Conclusion The data is consistent with a hypothermia related alteration in neuronal signalling following anaesthesia, and emphasises the importance of maintaining the body temperature of rodents when monitoring insulin (or growth factor/neurotrophic agent action in the brain of anesthetised rodents.

  8. PI3K signaling supports amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Brandon J; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Saunders, Christine; Sen, Namita; Lin, Richard Z; Javitch, Jonathan A; Galli, Aurelio

    2008-08-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a major molecular target of the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH). AMPH, as a result of its ability to reverse DAT-mediated inward transport of DA, induces DA efflux thereby increasing extracellular DA levels. This increase is thought to underlie the behavioral effects of AMPH. We have demonstrated previously that insulin, through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, regulates DA clearance by fine-tuning DAT plasma membrane expression. PI3K signaling may represent a novel mechanism for regulating DA efflux evoked by AMPH, since only active DAT at the plasma membrane can efflux DA. Here, we show in both a heterologous expression system and DA neurons that inhibition of PI3K decreases DAT cell surface expression and, as a consequence, AMPH-induced DA efflux.

  9. The effect of Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration of non-small cell lung cancer%磷脂酰肌醇-3激酶调节亚基3在非小细胞肺癌上皮-间充质转化及迁移中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨熹; 胡福清; 李海杰; 兰静芩; 罗学来; 龚建平; 胡俊波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the expression of phosphoinositide-3-kinase,regulatory subunit 3 (PIK3R3) in the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues,and to observe the effect of PIK3R3 on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration of NSCLC cell lines A549 and PC-9.Methods Total RNA and total protein lysate from the NSCLC tissues and paratumor tissues of 22 or 7 patients with NSCLC were prepared respectively,and the expression of PIK3R3 was tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) and Western blotting; PIK3R3 was overexpressed or down-regulated by lentivirus infection,then the effect of PIK3R3 on the migration was detected by Transwell assay,and the expression of EMT related proteins were detected by Western blotting,and the binding of snail family zinc finger (SNAI) 1 and SNAI2 on the promoter of cadherin 1 (CDH1) were measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP),and the transcription activity of CDH1 was detected by luciferase reporter assay.Results The expression of PIK3R3 was elevated in NSCLC patients' tumor tissues compared with the paratumor tissues; The migration of A549 and PC-9 cells was enhanced after PIK3R3 overexpression (A549 Control:46 ±3,PIK3R3:92 ±5; PC-9 Control:25 ±2,PIK3R3:53 ± 3),with the expression of CDH1 depressed and elevation of VIM,SNAI1 and SNAI2,which were related to the progress of EMT; The binding activity of SNAI1 and SNAI2 on the CDH1 promoter was elevated 9 times and 3.8 times,respectively,and the transcriptive activity of CDH1 was depressed to 30%.To the opposite,the migration of A.549 and PC-9 cells were inhibited after PIK3R3 down-regulated (A549 sh-Control:58 ± 5,sh-PIK3 R3:13-± 3 ; PC-9 sh-Control:28 ± 5,sh-PIK3 R3:10 ± 3),with the expression of CDH1 elevation and depressed of VIM,SNAI1 and SNAI2.The binding activity of SNAI1 and SNAI2 on the CDH1 promoter was reduced,and the transcriptive activity of CDH1 was increased 3.6 times.Conclusion The expression of PIK

  10. 3-Bromopyruvate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by downregulating Mcl-1 through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qian-Wen; Zhao, Su-Rong; Wu, Cheng-Zhu; Cheng, Xiu; Jiang, Chen-Chen; Jiang, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    The hexokinase inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) can inhibit glycolysis in tumor cells to reduce ATP production, resulting in apoptosis. However, as 3-BrPA is an alkylating agent, its cytotoxic action may be induced by other molecular mechanisms. The results presented here reveal that 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis is caspase independent. Further, 3-BrPA induces the generation of reactive oxygen species in MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that caspase-independent apoptosis may be induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we also demonstrated that 3-BrPA induces apoptosis through the downregulation of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The results of Mcl-1 knockdown indicate that Mcl-1 plays an important role in 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis. Further, the upregulation of Mcl-1 expression in 3-BrPA-treated MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increases cell viability. In addition, 3-BrPA treatment resulted in the downregulation of p-Akt, suggesting that 3-BrPA may downregulate Mcl-1 through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway. These findings indicate that 3-BrPA induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by downregulating Mcl-1 through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

  11. Reviews of class IA phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase' effects on tumorigenesis as well as the inhibitors' molecular mechanism%IA型磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶与肿瘤的关系及其抑制剂分子机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玥; 毛伟峰; 张玉彬

    2014-01-01

    磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase,PI3K)是细胞内重要的信号分子,它具有调节细胞增殖、分化、代谢、凋亡等功能.PI3K的基因易发生突变和扩增,从而导致PI3K被激活,与肿瘤的形成和发展密切相关.IA型的PI3K及其下游的信号分子组成的通路参与调节肿瘤细胞的增殖、存活、黏附、迁移等活动.综述了IA型PI3K-PI3Kα、PI3Kβ和PI3Kδ与肿瘤发生、发展的关系,列举了20个具有代表性的IA型PI3K抑制剂,并讨论了它们的分子抑制机制.

  12. TCDD induces the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α regulatory pathway in human trophoblastic JAR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tien-Ling; Chen, Su-Chee; Tzeng, Chii-Reuy; Kao, Shu-Huei

    2014-09-30

    The exposure to dioxin can compromise pregnancy outcomes and increase the risk of preterm births. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been demonstrated to induce placental hypoxia at the end of pregnancy in a rat model, and hypoxia has been suggested to be the cause of abnormal trophoblast differentiation and placental insufficiency syndromes. In this study, we demonstrate that the non-hypoxic stimulation of human trophoblastic cells by TCDD strongly increased hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) stabilization. TCDD exposure induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide. TCDD-induced HIF-1α stabilization and Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor) or N-acetylcysteine (a ROS scavenger). The augmented HIF-1α stabilization by TCDD occurred via the ROS-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Additionally, a significant increase in invasion and metallomatrix protease-9 activity was found in TCDD-treated cells. The gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor was induced upon TCDD stimulation, whereas the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), PPARγ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor, and uncoupling protein 2 were decreased. Our results indicate that an activated HIF-1α pathway, elicited oxidative stress, and induced metabolic stress contribute to TCDD-induced trophoblastic toxicity. These findings may provide molecular insight into the TCDD-induced impairment of trophoblast function and placental development.

  13. Clinical development of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2010-01-01

    The PI3K pathway is the most commonly altered in human cancer. Several recent phase I studies with therapeutic inhibitors of this pathway have shown that pharmacological inhibition of PI3K in humans is feasible and overall well tolerated. Furthermore, there has already been clinical evidence of anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced cancer. The intensity and duration of PI3K inhibition required for an antitumor effect and the optimal pharmacodynamic biomarker(s) of pathway inactivation remain to be established. Preclinical and early clinical data support focusing on trials with PI3K inhibitors that are at a minimum enriched with patients with alterations in this signaling pathway. These inhibitors are likely to be more effective in combination with established and other novel molecular therapies.

  14. 磷脂酰肌醇3激酶/蛋白激酶B通过上调内皮型一氧化氮合酶参与远端缺血后处理的脑保护作用%Phosphoinositide-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway participates in the neuroprotection of remote ischemic postconditioning by up-regulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭蓓; 郭曲练; 叶治; 王娜; 郑利民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway in the neuroprotection of remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC) on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Methods One hundred male adult SD rats weighing 200 g-250 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=20 each):group sham,group I/R,group I/R+RIPoC,group L-NAME+I/R+RIPoC,group LY+I/R+RIPoC.Global cerebral I/R was induced by four-vessel occlusion.Group I/R+RIPoC,group L-NAME+I/R+RIPoC and group LY+I/R+RIPoC received 3 cycles of 15 min ischemia in bilateral femoral arteries at the beginning of cerebral reperfusion followed by 15 min repeffusion.The group L-NAME+I/R+RIPoC:4-VO with coinjection of N (ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME),5 mg/kg,in normal saline.intraperitoneslly,10 min before 4-VO,then followed by RIPoC and 48 h and 7 d of reperfusion.The group LY+I/R+RIPoC:I/R+RIPoC with injection of LY294002(a highly selective inhibitor of PI3K,LY,10 μL,10 mol/L,in 3% DMSO,intracerebroventricularly.10 min before 4-VO),then followedby RIPoC and 48 h and 7 d of reperfusion.The rats were sacrificed at 48 h of cerebral rep effusion,and brains were removed for determination of neuronal apoptosis [by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method] in hippocampal CA1 region and p-eNOS,eNOS,p-Akt and Akt expression (by Western blot)in hippocampal CA1 region.Morris water maze task was used to test the learning and memory function at 4 d of cerebral reperfusion,and the rats were sacrificed at 7 d of cerebral reperfusion,and brains were removed for determination of neuronal density in hippocampal CA1 region.Results Compared with group sham,the number of apoptotic neurons in CA1 region [(0.8±0.8),(84.7±6.8), (52.8±7.8), (74.3±9.0), (79.5±7.3)/mm] increased (P<0.01),learning and memory function decreased (P<0.01) and neuronal density in CA1 region [ (193±7

  15. Valproic acid induces cutaneous wound healing in vivo and enhances keratinocyte motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving several signaling pathways such as the Wnt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathways. Valproic acid (VPA is a commonly used antiepileptic drug that acts on these signaling pathways; however, the effect of VPA on cutaneous wound healing is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created full-thickness wounds on the backs of C3H mice and then applied VPA. After 7 d, we observed marked healing and reduced wound size in VPA-treated mice. In the neo-epidermis of the wounds, β-catenin and markers for keratinocyte terminal differentiation were increased after VPA treatment. In addition, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III in the wounds were significantly increased. VPA induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of cells in the wounds, as determined by Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining analyses, respectively. In vitro, VPA enhanced the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes by activating Wnt/β-catenin, ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: VPA enhances cutaneous wound healing in a murine model and induces migration of HaCaT keratinocytes.

  16. LY294002 induces p53-dependent apoptosis of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-gen XING; Bao-song ZHU; Hui-hui LIU; Fang LIN; Hui-hua YAO; Zhong-qin LIANG; Zheng-hong QIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To study the effects of LY294002, an inhibitor of class Ⅰ phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), on proliferation and apoptosis of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. Methods:The MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of LY294002. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry and apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry analysis after staining DNA with propidium iodide. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent probe JC-1. Expression of p53 and PUMA was determined using real-time RT-PCR and West-ern blotting analysis. Results:The viability of SGC7901 cells was significantly reduced by LY294002 treatment. Expression of p53 and PUMA was induced, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed after treatment with LY294002. LY294002 induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion:Activation of the p53 path-way is involved in LY294002-induced SGC7901 cell death.

  17. Staphylococcus enterotoxin A modulates interleukin 15-induced signaling and mitogenesis in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerwien, J; Kaltoft, K; Nielsen, M;

    1998-01-01

    T cells expressing the appropriate T-cell receptor Vbeta chain proliferate in response to Staphylococcus enterotoxin A (SEA) pulsed antigen-presenting cells (APC), whereas other T cells do not (SEA "non-responders"). Activated human T cells express MHC class II molecules that are high affinity......-mediated mitogenesis correlates with an inhibition of IL-2Rbeta expression and ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IL-2R. Cyclosporin A (CyA), an inhibitor of the protein phosphatase (PP2B) calcineurin, strongly inhibits the SEA-induced modulations of cytokine receptor expression. Moreover, CyA inhibits both...... the anti-mitogenic effect of SEA on cytokine-induced proliferation and the pro-mitogenic effect of PMA. In contrast, inhibitors of PP1, PP2A, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI-3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are unable to inhibit the effects of SEA. In a SEA "non...

  18. Regulation of mouse hepatic genes in response to diet induced obesity, insulin resistance and fasting induced weight reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantzoros Christos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can often be improved by caloric restriction and weight reduction. Although many physiological changes accompanying insulin resistance and its treatment have been characterized, the genetic mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance are largely unknown. We used DNA microarrys and RT-PCR to investigate significant changes in hepatic gene transcription in insulin resistant, diet-induced obese (DIO-C57/BL/6J mice and DIO-C57/BL/6J mice fasted for 48 hours, whose weights returned to baseline levels during these conditions. Results Transcriptional profiling of hepatic mRNA revealed over 1900 genes that were significantly perturbed between control, DIO, and fasting/weight reduced DIO mice. From this set, our bioinformatics analysis identified 41 genes that rigorously discriminate these groups of mice. These genes are associated with molecular pathways involved in signal transduction, and protein metabolism and secretion. Of particular interest are genes that participate in pathways responsible for modulating insulin sensitivity. DIO altered expression of genes in directions that would be anticipated to antagonize insulin sensitivity, while fasting/ weight reduction partially or completely normalized their levels. Among these discriminatory genes, Sh3kbp1 and RGS3, may have special significance. Sh3kbp1, an endogenous inhibitor of PI-3-kinase, was upregulated by high-fat feeding, but normalized to control levels by fasting/weight reduction. Because insulin signaling occurs partially through PI-3-kinase, increased expression of Sh3kbp1 by DIO mice may contribute to hepatic insulin resistance via inhibition of PI-3-kinase. RGS3, a suppressor of G-protein coupled receptor generation of cAMP, was repressed by high-fat feeding, but partially normalized by fasting/weight reduction. Decreased expression of RGS3 may augment levels of cAMP and thereby contribute to increased, cAMP-induced

  19. Peroxynitrite mediates testosterone-induced vasodilation of microvascular resistance vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Yashoda; Stallone, John N; Ergul, Adviye; El-Remessy, Azza B; Kumar, Sanjiv; Black, Stephen; Johnson, Maribeth; Owen, Mary P; White, Richard E

    2013-04-01

    Our knowledge of how androgens influence the cardiovascular system is far from complete, and this lack of understanding is especially true of how androgens affect resistance vessels. Our aim was to identify the signaling mechanisms stimulated by testosterone (TES) in microvascular arteries and to understand how these mechanisms mediate TES-induced vasodilation. Mesenteric microvessels were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Tension studies demonstrated a rapid, concentration-dependent, vasodilatory response to TES that did not involve protein synthesis or aromatization to 17β-estradiol. Dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and nitrotyrosine immunoblot experiments indicated that TES stimulated peroxynitrite formation in microvessels, and functional studies demonstrated that TES-induced vasodilation was inhibited by scavenging peroxynitrite. As predicted, TES enhanced the production of both peroxynitrite precursors (i.e., superoxide and nitic oxide), and xanthine oxidase was identified as the likely source of TES-stimulated superoxide production. Functional and biochemical studies indicated that TES signaling involved activity of the phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase-protein kinase B (Akt) cascade initiated by activation of the androgen receptor and culminated in enhanced production of cGMP and microvascular vasodilation. These findings, derived from a variety of analytical and functional approaches, provide evidence for a novel nongenomic signaling mechanism for androgen action in the microvasculature: TES-stimulated vasodilation mediated primarily by peroxynitrite formed from xanthine oxidase-generated superoxide and NO. This response was associated with activation of the PI3 kinase-Akt signaling cascade initiated by activation of the androgen receptor. We propose this mechanism could account for TES-stimulated cGMP production in microvessels and, ultimately, vasodilation.

  20. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O'Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-11-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9, whereas caspase-8 was also activated late during neem-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cancer cells with pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD inhibited activities of both initiator caspases (e.g., caspase-8 and -9) and executioner caspase-3. Neem induced the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of both caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis. p21 deficiency caused an increase in caspase activities at lower doses of neem, whereas p53 deficiency did not modulate neem-induced caspase activation. Additionally, neem treatment resulted in the accumulation of LC3-II in cancer cells, suggesting the involvement of autophagy in neem-induced cancer cell death. Low doses of autophagy inhibitors (i.e., 3-methyladenine and LY294002) did not prevent accumulation of neem-induced LC3-II in cancer cells. Silencing of ATG5 or Beclin-1 further enhanced neem-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or autophagy inhibitors increased neem-induced caspase-3 activation and inhibition of caspases enhanced neem-induced autophagy. Together, for the first time, we demonstrate that neem induces caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis, and autophagy in cancer cells.

  1. Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110β in spinal dorsal horn neurons in the development of arthritic pain in rats: relationship with TRPV1 and ASIC1a%脊髓背角神经元磷脂酰肌醇-3激酶p110β在大鼠关节炎性痛形成中的作用:与辣椒素受体及酸敏感离子通道1a的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚军; 杨承祥; 王汉兵; 张斌; 项红兵; 田玉科

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价脊髓背角神经元磷脂酰肌醇-3激酶(PI3K) p110β在大鼠关节炎性痛形成中的作用及与辣椒素受体(TRPV1)及酸敏感离子通道1a(ASIC1a)的关系.方法 鞘内置管成功的成年雌性SD大鼠40只,3月龄,体重250 ~ 300 g,采用随机数字表法,将其分为4组(n=10)∶对照组(C组)、关节炎性痛组(AP组)、AP+ PI3K p110β错义寡核苷酸组(MS组)和AP+ PI3K p110β反义寡核苷酸组(AS组).采用右踝关节腔内注射完全弗氏佐剂建立关节炎性痛模型,模型制备后即刻AP组、MS组、AS组分别经鞘内注射生理盐水、错义寡核苷酸15 μg和反义寡核苷酸15 μg,容量20μl,1次/d,连续6d.于术前1d、术后4、7、10d时测定机械缩足反应阈(MWT)和热缩足反应潜伏期(TWL),术后10 d处死大鼠,取腰段脊髓,采用Western blot法检测脊髓背角神经元PI3K p110β表达,采用免疫组化法检测脊髓背角神经元TRPV1和ASICla的表达.结果 与C组比较,AP组、MS组和AS组术后各时点MWT降低,TWL缩短,脊髓背角神经元PI3K p110β、TRPV1和ASICla表达上调(P<0.01);与AP组和MS组比较,AS组术后各时点MWT升高,TWL延长,脊髓背角神经元PI3K p110β、TRPV1和ASIC1a表达下调(P<0.01).结论 脊髓背角神经元PI3K p110β参与大鼠关节炎性痛的形成,其机制与上调脊髓背角神经元TRPVl和ASICla的表达有关.%Objective To evaluate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p110β in spinal dorsal horn neurons in the development of arthritic pain (AP) in rats and the relationship with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC)1 a.Methods Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats in which intrathecal catheters were successfully placed,aged 3 months,weighing 250-300 g,were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =10 each):control group (group C),group AP,AP + PI3K p110β missense oligo-deoxynucleotide group (group MS) and AP + PI3K p110β antisense oligo

  2. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy.

  3. Advance of progesterone and the signal pathway of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B in hypoxic ischemic brian damage%孕酮和 PI3 K/Akt信号通路在缺氧缺血性脑损伤中的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐之良; 陈卫萍; 钟森

    2015-01-01

    磷酸肌醇-3羟激酶/蛋白激酶B( PI3K/Akt)是一种经典的抗凋亡、促存活信号传导通路,在脑梗死、帕金森病、癫痫等神经系统疾病中发挥调节作用。孕酮是一种脂溶性甾体激素,对创伤性脑损伤、卒中、阿尔茨海默病等患者的神经保护有重要作用,其与p-Akt上调有关。本文通过收集讨论新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病( HIE)、孕酮和PI3K/Akt的研究报道,以期为进一步探讨孕酮在HIE中的神经保护作用与 PI3 K/Akt信号通路的关系提供一定的理论依据。%Phosphatidylinositol 3 -kinase /protein kinase B ( PI3 K/Akt) is a classic anti -apoptotic and pro -survival signaling pathway, which plays a role in the regulation of cerebral infarction, Parkinson's dis-ease , epilepsy and other neurological diseases.Progesterone is one of the fat-soluble sex hormones, which has been proved to have neuro-pro-tective effect on nerological disease, such as brain injury, stroke and Alzheimer's disease, and it′s relevant to the up-regulation of p-Akt. Studies about the advance of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy ( HIE) , progesterone and PI3K/Akt were collected and reviewed, antici-pating that it will provide theoretical basis for the further research of the relationship between progesterone and the signal pathway of PI3K/Akt in HIE.

  4. Constitutive Activation of AKT Pathway Inhibits TNF-induced Apoptosis in Mitochondrial DNA-Deficient human myelogenous leukemia ML-1a

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Seigo; Naito, Akihiro; Asano, Takayuki; Evans, Teresa T; Reddy, Shrikanth A.G.; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    TNF plus protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide induced apoptosis in human myelogenous leukemia ML-1a but not in C19, respiration minus mitochondrial DNA deficient C19 cells, derived from ML-1a. To investigate how mitochondrial DNA depletion inhibits apoptosis, we investigated AKT. Both AKT and its phosphorylated form were observed only in C19, indicating that depletion of mtDNA increased protein and the active form of AKT. Treatment of C19 with LY294002, which inhibits PI-3 kinase and inh...

  5. RIP3 induces apoptosis independent of pro-necrotic kinase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pratyusha; Berger, Scott B.; Pillay, Sirika; Moriwaki, Kenta; Huang, Chunzi; Guo, Hongyan; Lich, John D.; Finger, Joshua; Kasparcova, Viera; Votta, Bart; Ouellette, Michael; King, Bryan W.; Wisnoski, David; Lakdawala, Ami S.; DeMartino, Michael P.; Casillas, Linda N.; Haile, Pamela A.; Sehon, Clark A.; Marquis, Robert W.; Upton, Jason; Daley-Bauer, Lisa P.; Roback, Linda; Ramia, Nancy; Dovey, Cole M.; Carette, Jan E.; Chan, Francis; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J.; Mocarski, Edward S.; Kaiser, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) has emerged as a central player in necroptosis and a potential target to control inflammatory disease. Here, three selective small molecule compounds are shown to inhibit RIP3 kinase-dependent necroptosis, although their therapeutic value is undermined by a surprising, concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis. These compounds interact with RIP3 to activate caspase 8 (Casp8) via RHIM-driven recruitment of RIP1 (RIPK1) to assemble a Casp8-FADD-cFLIP complex completely independent of pro-necrotic kinase activities and MLKL. RIP3 kinase-dead D161N mutant induces spontaneous apoptosis independent of compound; whereas, D161G, D143N, and K51A mutants only trigger apoptosis when compound is present. Accordingly, RIP3-K51A mutant mice (Rip3K51A/K51A) are viable and fertile, in stark contrast to the perinatal lethality of Rip3D161N/D161N mice. RIP3 therefore holds both necroptosis and apoptosis in balance through a Ripoptosome-like platform. This work highlights a common mechanism unveiling RHIM-driven apoptosis by therapeutic or genetic perturbation of RIP3. PMID:25459880

  6. Role of oxidative stress in impaired insulin signaling associated with exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is a major tissue that utilizes blood glucose. A single bout of exercise improves glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through insulin-dependent and insulin-independent signal transduction mechanisms. However, glucose utilization is decreased in muscle damage induced by acute, unaccustomed, or eccentric exercise. The decrease in glucose utilization is caused by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in damaged muscles with inhibition of the membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 through phosphatidyl 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In addition to inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and peroxynitrate can induce degradation or inactivation of signaling proteins through posttranslational modification, thereby resulting in a disturbance in insulin signal transduction. In contrast, treatment with factors that attenuate oxidative stress in damaged muscle suppresses the impairment of insulin sensitivity. Muscle-damaging exercise may thus lead to decreased endurance capacity and muscle fatigue in exercise, and it may decrease the efficiency of exercise therapy for metabolic improvement.

  7. Therapeutic effect of wortmannin on acute pancreatitis with renal dysfunction and on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway%渥曼青霉素对急性胰腺炎并发肾功能损伤的治疗作用及对磷酸肌醇3激酶/蛋白激酶B信号转导通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余伟; 黄长山; 王谦; 丁月超; 马超; 黄涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of wortmannin on acute pancreatitis (AP) with renal dysfunction and on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathway.Methods Eighty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group,sham operation group (SO group),AP group and wortmannin group.SO group,AP group and wortmannin group were further divided into 3,6 and 12 h sub-groups (n =8 each).The AP model was established by bile duct retrograde injection.Wortmannin was intraperitoneally injected 4 h before operation.Serum urea nitrogen,creatinine,amylase,pathological findings of the kidney and pancreas,and PKB,p-PKB and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins in the kidney and pancreas were observed.Results Histopathological damage of the kidney and pancreas was severer,blood urea nitrogen [(9.81 ± 1.28) and (77.49±1.17) vs.(5.33 ±0.32) mmol/L],creatinine [(62.19 ±5.84) and (55.12 ±5.27) vs.(45.13 ±3.01) μmol/L] and amylase levels [(2 931 ±619) and (2 061 ±897) vs.(677 ± 120) U/L] were significantly higher in AP group and wortmannin group than in SO group 3 h after operation (P < 0.05),more significantly in 6 h and 12 h sub-groups.Histopathological damage of the kidney and pancreas was severed,blood urea nitrogen [(16.51 ± 2.00) vs.(21.16 ± 2.57) mmol/L],creatinine [(94.63±11.30) vs.(116.24± 14.82) μmol/L],amylase levels [(3264±932) vs.(7725± 1 517) U/L],p-PKB (1.01 ± 0.24 vs.1.23±0.30) andTNF-αproteins (1.11±0.29vs.1.33± 0.37) levels were significantly lower in wortmannin group than in AP group at 12 h after operation (P < 0.05).Conclusion Activation of PI3K/PKB signaling pathway plays a very important role in the occurrence and development of AP with renal function dysfunction.PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin) can significantly alleviate the renal function damage induced by AP.%目的 观察渥曼青霉素(wortmannin)对急性胰腺炎并发肾功能损伤的治

  8. 盐酸多奈派齐对APP/PSI双转基因AD小鼠海马PI3K表达的影响%The effect of donepezil on expression of phosphoinositide 3 kinase in hippocampus of APP/PSI double transgenic mice of Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝桂芬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of donepezil on learning and memory and the expression level of phosphoinositide 3-kinases(PI3K) in hippocampus of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice of Alzheimer disease. Method 20 APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided into AD model group (10), donepezil treatment group(l0) and 10 negative control group. The behavioral scores were investigated by step-down test and water maze test. The expression of PI3K was examined in hippocampus of APP/PS1 double transgenic by immunohistochemistry and western blot methods. Results Compared with AD group, the grades of learning and memory of mice in donepezil treated group and control group were obviously increased (P<0.05). The positive expression level of PI3K in hippocampus was higher in donepezil treated and control groups than in AD model mice by immunohistochemistry. The MOD values in donepezil treated ( 0.39 ± 0.09 ) and control groups ( 0.61 ± 0.21 ) were significantly increased than that in AD group ( 0.26 ± 0.07, P<0.05 = by Western blot. Conclusion The improvement of learning and memory abilities in AD mice might be related to the upregulation of PI3K expression caused by donepezil in hippocampus.%目的 本实验利用APP/PS1双转基因阿尔茨海默病(AIzheimer disease,AD)小鼠模型,观察盐酸多奈派齐对AD小鼠学习记忆能力及海马磷脂酰肌醇3激酶(phosphoinositide 3-kinases,PI3K)表达的影响.方法 APP/PSI双转基因模型小鼠20只,随机分为AD模型组(10)和盐酸多奈派齐组(10),再取同窝阴性小鼠10只,作为对照组.经跳台试验和水迷宫试验进行行为学测试,用免疫组化方法检测各组小鼠海马PI3K的表达变化.结果 与对照组相比,AD模型组小鼠的学习和记忆成绩明显降低(P<0.05);相比于AD模型组小鼠,盐酸多奈哌齐组小鼠的学习和记忆成绩明显提高(P<0.05).免疫组化检测结果证明,盐酸多奈哌齐组小鼠和对照组小鼠海马PI3K蛋白阳性表

  9. Phospholipase D signaling in serotonin-induced mitogenesis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Fanburg, B L

    2008-09-01

    We have previously reported the participation of mitogen-activated protein, Rho, and phosphoinositide-3 (PI3) kinases in separate pathways in serotonin (5-HT)-induced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In this study, we investigated the possible participation of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in this growth process. 5-HT stimulated a time-dependent increase in [(3)H]phosphatidylbutanol and PA generation. Exposure of SMCs to 1-butanol or overexpression of an inactive mutant of human PLD1R898R blocked 5-HT-induced proliferation. Furthermore, 1-butanol inhibited 5-HT activation of S6K1 and S6 protein, downstream effectors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), by 80 and 72%, respectively, and partially blocked activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by 30% but had no effect on other associated signaling pathways. Exogenous PA caused cellular proliferation and revitalized cyclin D1 expression by 5-HT of the 1-butanol-treated cells. PA also reproduced activations by 5-HT of mTOR, S6K1, and ERK. Transfection with inactive human PLD1 reduced 5-HT-induced activation of S6K1 by approximately 50%. Inhibition of 5-HT receptor 2A (R 2A) with ketaserin blocked PLD activation by 5-HT. Inhibition with PI3-kinase inhibitor failed to block either activation of PLD by 5-HT or PA-dependent S6K1 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that ligation of the 5-HTR 2A by 5-HT initiates PLD activation in SMCs, and that its product, PA, is an early signaling molecule in 5-HT-induced pulmonary artery SMC proliferation. Signaling by PA produces its downstream effects primarily through the mTOR/S6K1 pathway and to a lesser extent through the ERK pathway. Hydrolysis of cell membrane lipid may be important in vascular effects of 5-HT.

  10. Adriamycin induces H2AX phosphorylation in human spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Xiang Li; Ting-Ting Wang; Yan-Ting Wu; Chen-Ming Xu; Min-Yue Dong; Jian-Zhong Sheng; He-Feng Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether adriamycin induces DNA damage and the formation of γH2AX (the phosphorylated form of histone H2AX) foci in mature spermatozoa. Methods: Human spermatozoa were treated with adriamycin at different concentrations. γH2AX was analyzed by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry and double- strand breaks (DSB) were detected by the comet assay. Results: The neutral comet assay revealed that the treatment with adriamycin at 2 μg/mL for different times (0.5, 2, 8 and 24 h), or for 8 h at different concentrations (0.4, 2 and 10 μg/mL), induced significant DSB in spermatozoa. Immunofluorent staining and flow cytometry showed that the expression of γH2AX was increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependant manner after the treatment of adriamycin. Adriamycin also induced the concurrent appearance of DNA maintenance/repair proteins RAD50 and 53BP1 with γH2AX in spermatozoa. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family, abolished the co-appearance of these two proteins with γH2AX. Conclusion: Human mature spermatozoa have the same response to DSB-induced H2AX phosphorylation and subsequent recruitment of DNA maintenance/repair proteins as somatic cells.

  11. The Src family tyrosine kinases src and yes have differential effects on inflammation-induced apoptosis in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Leif D; White, Hilary A; Jin, Yi; Trittmann, Jennifer K; Chen, Bernadette; Liu, Yusen

    2016-05-01

    Endothelial cells are essential for normal lung function: they sense and respond to circulating factors and hemodynamic alterations. In inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, endothelial cell apoptosis is an inciting event in pathogenesis and a prominent pathological feature. Endothelial cell apoptosis is mediated by circulating inflammatory factors, which bind to receptors on the cell surface, activating signal transduction pathways, leading to caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. We hypothesized that yes and src have differential effects on caspase-3 activation in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (hPMVEC) due to differential downstream signaling effects. To test this hypothesis, hPMVEC were treated with siRNA against src (siRNAsrc), siRNA against yes (siRNAyes), or their respective scramble controls. After recovery, the hPMVEC were treated with cytomix (LPS, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ). Treatment with cytomix induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. Treatment with siRNAsrc blunted cytomix-induced ERK activation and enhanced cleaved caspase-3 levels, while treatment with siRNAyes enhanced cytomix-induced ERK activation and attenuated levels of cleaved caspase-3. Inhibition of the ERK pathway using U0126 enhanced cytomix-induced caspase-3 activity. Treatment of hPMVEC with cytomix induced Akt activation, which was inhibited by siRNAsrc. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway using LY294002 prevented cytomix-induced ERK activation and augmented cytomix-induced caspase-3 cleavage. Together, our data demonstrate that, in hPMVEC, yes activation blunts the ERK cascade in response to cytomix, resulting in greater apoptosis, while cytomix-induced src activation induces the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, which leads to activation of Akt and ERK and attenuation of apoptosis.

  12. TCDD Induces the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF-1α Regulatory Pathway in Human Trophoblastic JAR Cells

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    Tien-Ling Liao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to dioxin can compromise pregnancy outcomes and increase the risk of preterm births. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD has been demonstrated to induce placental hypoxia at the end of pregnancy in a rat model, and hypoxia has been suggested to be the cause of abnormal trophoblast differentiation and placental insufficiency syndromes. In this study, we demonstrate that the non-hypoxic stimulation of human trophoblastic cells by TCDD strongly increased hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α stabilization. TCDD exposure induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide. TCDD-induced HIF-1α stabilization and Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor or N-acetylcysteine (a ROS scavenger. The augmented HIF-1α stabilization by TCDD occurred via the ROS-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Additionally, a significant increase in invasion and metallomatrix protease-9 activity was found in TCDD-treated cells. The gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor was induced upon TCDD stimulation, whereas the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor, and uncoupling protein 2 were decreased. Our results indicate that an activated HIF-1α pathway, elicited oxidative stress, and induced metabolic stress contribute to TCDD-induced trophoblastic toxicity. These findings may provide molecular insight into the TCDD-induced impairment of trophoblast function and placental development.

  13. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Improves Motor Dysfunction in the Rotenone-Induced Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wang, Lijie; Li, Cuiting; Han, Bing; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Ji; Lv, Yan; Wang, Shuyun; Fu, Fenghua

    2017-01-17

    Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) is diminished in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is responsible for regulating expression of the DRD3 in the brain. Our previous study showed that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could increase BDNF content in the striatum of PD mice. This experiment aimed to evaluate whether HSYA can improve the motor dysfunction induced by rotenone through regulating the BDNF/TrkB/DRD3 signaling pathway in mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with HSYA. Thirty minutes later, they were intragastrically administered with rotenone at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Pole, rotarod and open field tests were investigated at 28 d. Then, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in substantia nigra was observed by immunohistochemistry. Dopamine content was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The expressions of BDNF, phospho-tropomyosin-related kinase B (p-TrkB), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), phospho-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT), protein kinase B (AKT), and DRD3 were assayed by western blotting. Behavioral tests showed that rotenone-challenged mice displayed motor dysfunction. However, treatment with HSYA improved motor dysfunction induced by rotenone. HSYA treatment increased not only the number of TH-containing dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra, but also the dopamine content in the striatum in PD mice. Moreover, the expressions of BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, DRD3, p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT were significantly increased in rotenone plus HSYA group. Our results indicated that HSYA improved motor dysfunction in rotenone-induced PD model and the pharmacological action of HSYA was related to regulating BDNF/TrkB/DRD3 signaling pathway, at least, in part.

  14. Noxa/Mcl-1 balance regulates susceptibility of cells to camptothecin-induced apoptosis.

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    Mei, Yide; Xie, Chongwei; Xie, Wei; Tian, Xu; Li, Mei; Wu, Mian

    2007-10-01

    Although camptothecin (CPT) has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, the molecular details of this regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that BH3-only protein Noxa is upregulated during CPT-induced apoptosis, which is independent of p53. In addition, we show that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is responsible for Noxa's induction. Luciferase assay and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) knockdown experiments further demonstrate that CREB is involved in the transcriptional upregulation of Noxa. Moreover, blocking Noxa expression using specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) significantly reduces the apoptosis in response to CPT, indicating that Noxa is an essential mediator for CPT-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, antiapoptotic Mcl-1 was also upregulated through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway upon CPT treatment. Using immunoprecipitation assay, Noxa was found to interact with Mcl-1 in the presence or absence of CPT. Knockdown of Mcl-1 expression by short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) was shown to potentiate CPT-induced apoptosis. Consistently, ectopic overexpression of Mcl-1 rescued cells from apoptosis induced by CPT. Cells coexpressing Noxa and Mcl-1 at different ratio correlates well with the extent of apoptosis, suggesting that the balance between Noxa and Mcl-1 may determine the susceptibility of HeLa cells to CPT-induced apoptosis.

  15. Noxa/Mcl-1 Balance Regulates Susceptibility of Cells to Camptothecin-Induced Apoptosis

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    Yide Mei

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although camptothecin (CPT has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, the molecular details of this regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that 131-113-only protein Noxa is upregulated during CPT-induced apoptosis, which is independent of p53. In addition, we show that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is responsible for Noxa's induction. Luciferase assay, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB knockdown experiments further demonstrate that CREB is involved in the transcriptional upregulation of Noxa. Moreover, blocking Noxa expression using specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA significantly reduces the apoptosis in response to CPT, indicating that Noxa is an essential mediator for CPT-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, antiapoptotic Mcl-1 was also upregulated through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway upon CPT treatment. Using immunoprecipitation assay, Noxa was found to interact with Mcl-1 in the presence or absence of CPT. Knockdown of Mcl-1 expression by short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA was shown to potentiate CPT-induced apoptosis. Consistently, ectopic overexpression of Mcl-1 rescued cells from apoptosis induced by CPT. Cells coexpressing Noxa, Mcl-1 at different ratio correlates well with the extent of apoptosis, suggesting that the balance between Noxa, Mcl-1 may determine the susceptibility of HeLa cells to CPT-induced apoptosis.

  16. Angiogenesis is induced by airway smooth muscle strain.

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    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Zucker, Stanley; Lin, Richard Z; Vaday, Gayle G; Panettieri, Reynold A; Foda, Hussein D

    2007-10-01

    Angiogenesis is an important feature of airway remodeling in both chronic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airways in those conditions are exposed to excessive mechanical strain during periods of acute exacerbations. We recently reported that mechanical strain of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) led to an increase in their proliferation and migration. Sustained growth in airway smooth muscle in vivo requires an increase in the nutritional supply to these muscles, hence angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that cyclic mechanical strain of HASM produces factors promoting angiogenic events in the surrounding vascular endothelial cells. Our results show: 1) a significant increase in human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) proliferation, migration, and tube formation following incubation in conditioned media (CM) from HASM cells exposed to mechanical strain; 2) mechanical strain of HASM cells induced VEGF expression and release; 3) VEGF neutralizing antibodies inhibited the proliferation, migration, and tube formations of HMVEC-L induced by the strained airway smooth muscle CM; 4) mechanical strain of HASM induced a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA and protein, a transcription factor required for VEGF gene transcription; and 5) mechanical strain of HASM induced HIF-1alpha/VEGF through dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK pathways. In conclusion, exposing HASM cells to mechanical strain induces signal transduction pathway through PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK pathways that lead to an increase in HIF-1alpha, a transcription factor required for VEGF expression. VEGF release by mechanical strain of HASM may contribute to the angiogenesis seen with repeated exacerbation of asthma and COPD.

  17. GSK-3 inhibitors induce chromosome instability

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    Staples Oliver D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanisms operate during mitosis to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, during tumour evolution these mechanisms go awry resulting in chromosome instability. While several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC may promote chromosome instability, at least in colon cancer, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we turn our attention to GSK-3 – a protein kinase, which in concert with APC, targets β-catenin for proteolysis – and ask whether GSK-3 is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Results To probe the role of GSK-3 in mitosis, we inhibited GSK-3 kinase activity in cells using a panel of small molecule inhibitors, including SB-415286, AR-A014418, 1-Azakenpaullone and CHIR99021. Analysis of synchronised HeLa cells shows that GSK-3 inhibitors do not prevent G1/S progression or cell division. They do, however, significantly delay mitotic exit, largely because inhibitor-treated cells have difficulty aligning all their chromosomes. Although bipolar spindles form and the majority of chromosomes biorient, one or more chromosomes often remain mono-oriented near the spindle poles. Despite a prolonged mitotic delay, anaphase frequently initiates without the last chromosome aligning, resulting in chromosome non-disjunction. To rule out the possibility of "off-target" effects, we also used RNA interference to selectively repress GSK-3β. Cells deficient for GSK-3β exhibit a similar chromosome alignment defect, with chromosomes clustered near the spindle poles. GSK-3β repression also results in cells accumulating micronuclei, a hallmark of chromosome missegregation. Conclusion Thus, not only do our observations indicate a role for GSK-3 in accurate chromosome segregation, but they also raise the possibility that, if used as therapeutic agents, GSK-3 inhibitors may induce unwanted side effects by inducing chromosome instability.

  18. Lysophosphatidate induces chemo-resistance by releasing breast cancer cells from taxol-induced mitotic arrest.

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    Nasser Samadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taxol is a microtubule stabilizing agent that arrests cells in mitosis leading to cell death. Taxol is widely used to treat breast cancer, but resistance occurs in 25-69% of patients and it is vital to understand how Taxol resistance develops to improve chemotherapy. The effects of chemotherapeutic agents are overcome by survival signals that cancer cells receive. We focused our studies on autotaxin, which is a secreted protein that increases tumor growth, aggressiveness, angiogenesis and metastasis. We discovered that autotaxin strongly antagonizes the Taxol-induced killing of breast cancer and melanoma cells by converting the abundant extra-cellular lipid, lysophosphatidylcholine, into lysophosphatidate. This lipid stimulates specific G-protein coupled receptors that activate survival signals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we determined the basis of these antagonistic actions of lysophosphatidate towards Taxol-induced G2/M arrest and cell death using cultured breast cancer cells. Lysophosphatidate does not antagonize Taxol action in MCF-7 cells by increasing Taxol metabolism or its expulsion through multi-drug resistance transporters. Lysophosphatidate does not lower the percentage of cells accumulating in G2/M by decreasing exit from S-phase or selective stimulation of cell death in G2/M. Instead, LPA had an unexpected and remarkable action in enabling MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells, which had been arrested in G2/M by Taxol, to normalize spindle structure and divide, thus avoiding cell death. This action involves displacement of Taxol from the tubulin polymer fraction, which based on inhibitor studies, depends on activation of LPA receptors and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates a previously unknown consequence of lysophosphatidate action that explains why autotaxin and lysophosphatidate protect against Taxol-induced cell death and promote resistance to the action of this

  19. Far-infrared therapy induces the nuclear translocation of PLZF which inhibits VEGF-induced proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

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    Yung-Ho Hsu

    Full Text Available Many studies suggest that far-infrared (FIR therapy can reduce the frequency of some vascular-related diseases. The non-thermal effect of FIR was recently found to play a role in the long-term protective effect on vascular function, but its molecular mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the biological effect of FIR on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. We found that FIR ranging 3∼10 µm significantly inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation in HUVECs. According to intensity and time course analyses, the inhibitory effect of FIR peaked at an effective intensity of 0.13 mW/cm(2 at 30 min. On the other hand, a thermal effect did not inhibit VEGF-induced proliferation in HUVECs. FIR exposure also inhibited the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in HUVECs. FIR exposure further induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase (eNOS and NO generation in VEGF-treated HUVECs. Both VEGF-induced NO and reactive oxygen species generation was involved in the inhibitory effect of FIR. Nitrotyrosine formation significantly increased in HUVECs treated with VEGF and FIR together. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K by wortmannin abolished the FIR-induced phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt in HUVECs. FIR exposure upregulated the expression of PI3K p85 at the transcriptional level. We further found that FIR exposure induced the nuclear translocation of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF in HUVECs. This induction was independent of a thermal effect. The small interfering RNA transfection of PLZF blocked FIR-increased PI3K levels and the inhibitory effect of FIR. These data suggest that FIR induces the nuclear translocation of PLZF which inhibits VEGF-induced proliferation in HUVECs.

  20. Influence of SM22α promoter/enhancer gene regulation phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signaling pathway attenuates graft neointimal hyperplasia%SM22α启动子/增强子基因调控磷酸肌醇3激酶信号通路对移植血管新生内膜增生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊文; 邓勇志; 王倩; 陈丽; 杨雪峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 采用组织特异性启动子SM22α,构建靶向大鼠磷脂酰肌醇3激酶β亚单位(Pik3cb)的短发卡RNA(shRNA)真核表达载体,观察其对静脉移植血管血栓形成和新生内膜增生的影响.方法 建立大鼠颈静脉-动脉移植模型,通过Pluronic F-127质粒缓释系统在血管吻合完成后局部喷涂凝胶进行RNA干扰.实验分4组,每组30只SD大鼠,A组:对照组,空白Pluronic F-127凝胶;B组:SM22α组,含特异性SM22α启动子质粒的凝胶;C组:巨细胞病毒(CMV)组,含非特异性CMV启动子质粒的凝胶;D组:Wortmannin阳性对照组.分别于术后1、3、7、14、28 d截取移植血管,苏木素-伊红(HE)染色观察新生内膜厚度;免疫组织化学检测磷酸化哺乳动物雷帕霉素靶蛋白(mTOR,Ser2448),原位末端转移酶标记技术(TUNEL)检测细胞捌亡.另设一平行实验组(12只SD大鼠),按上述方法分为4组,于术后3d取材,实时荧光定量逆转录-聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)测定Pik3cb mRNA的相对表达量.结果 大体观察移植血管通畅率B组最高(86.7%),与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);Pik3cb mRNA相对表达量B、C、D组分别下降了73.3%、81.2%、68.4%,与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);术后1、3、7、14、28 d,B组与A组比较,磷酸化mTOR(Ser2448)阳性面积均显著降低,细胞凋亡阳性面积均显著增加,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),术后7、14、28 d,B组与A组比较,血管内膜厚度显著降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 SM22α特异性启动子/增强子真核表达载体可通过下调血管平滑肌细胞磷酸肌醇3激酶-蛋白激酶B-mTOR(PI3 K-Akt-mTOR)信号通路而抑制其向内膜增殖、迁移,促进其凋亡,防止血管新生内膜增生,提高移植血管通畅率.%Objective To construct rat phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase,catalytic,beta polypeptide (Pik3eb) shRNA eukaryon plasmid expression vector using SM22α specific promoter

  1. Far-infrared protects vascular endothelial cells from advanced glycation end products-induced injury via PLZF-mediated autophagy in diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Wu, Mei-Yi; Chou, Tz-Chong; Chen, Jia-Rung; Wei, Meng-Jun; Lee, San-Liang; Hong, Li-Yu; Zheng, Cai-Mei; Chiu, I-Jen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Hsu, Ching-Min; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in diabetic patients induces vascular endothelial injury. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) is a transcription factor that can be activated by low-temperature far-infrared (FIR) irradiation to exert beneficial effects on the vascular endothelium. In the present study, we investigated the influence of FIR-induced PLZF activation on AGE-induced endothelial injury both in vitro and in vivo. FIR irradiation inhibited AGE-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PLZF activation increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K), which are important kinases in the autophagic signaling pathway. FIR-induced PLZF activation led to autophagy in HUVEC, which was mediated through the upregulation of PI3K. Immunofluorescence staining showed that AGEs were engulfed by HUVECs and localized to lysosomes. FIR-induced autophagy promoted AGEs degradation in HUVECs. In nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, FIR therapy reduced serum AGEs and AGEs deposition at the vascular endothelium. FIR therapy also reduced diabetes-induced inflammatory markers in the vascular endothelium and improved vascular endothelial function. These protective effects of FIR therapy were not found in PLZF-knockout mice. Our data suggest that FIR-induced PLZF activation in vascular endothelial cells protects the vascular endothelium in diabetic mice from AGE-induced injury. PMID:28071754

  2. Blocking autophagic flux enhances matrine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

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    Wang, Li; Gao, Chun; Yao, Shukun; Xie, Bushan

    2013-11-25

    Autophagy, a self-defense mechanism, has been found to be associated with drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study was designed to investigate the role and related mechanisms of autophagy in matrine-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells of HepG2 and Bel7402. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis (Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay), the activity and activating cleavages of caspase-3, -8, and -9. MTT assay and colony forming assay were used to assess the effect of matrine on growth and proliferation of HCC cells. Autophagic flux in HCC cells was analyzed using the expression of LC3BI/II and p62/SQSTM1, GFP-LC3 transfection, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, regarding to the associated mechanisms, the effects of matrine on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and beclin-1 were studied. Our results showed that: (1) both autophagy and apoptosis could be induced by treatment with matrine; (2) using the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine and beclin-1 small-interfering RNA, cell apoptosis induced by matrine could be enhanced in a caspase-dependent manner; and (3) autophagy was induced via inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and up-regulation of beclin-1. In conclusion, inhibition of autophagy could enhance matrine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

  3. Blocking Autophagic Flux Enhances Matrine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a self-defense mechanism, has been found to be associated with drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Our study was designed to investigate the role and related mechanisms of autophagy in matrine-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells of HepG2 and Bel7402. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis (Annexin V–FITC/PI double-staining assay, the activity and activating cleavages of caspase-3, -8, and -9. MTT assay and colony forming assay were used to assess the effect of matrine on growth and proliferation of HCC cells. Autophagic flux in HCC cells was analyzed using the expression of LC3BI/II and p62/SQSTM1, GFP-LC3 transfection, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, regarding to the associated mechanisms, the effects of matrine on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and beclin-1 were studied. Our results showed that: (1 both autophagy and apoptosis could be induced by treatment with matrine; (2 using the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine and beclin-1 small-interfering RNA, cell apoptosis induced by matrine could be enhanced in a caspase-dependent manner; and (3 autophagy was induced via inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and up-regulation of beclin-1. In conclusion, inhibition of autophagy could enhance matrine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

  4. RhoA/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling after growth arrest-specific protein 6/mer receptor tyrosine kinase engagement promotes epithelial cell growth and wound repair via upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Hyun-Jung; Woo, So-Youn; Park, Eun-Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) signaling modulates cytokine secretion and helps to regulate the immune response and apoptotic cell clearance. Signaling pathways that activate an epithelial growth program in macrophages are still poorly defined. We report that Gas6/Mer/RhoA signaling can induce the production of epithelial growth factor hepatic growth factor (HGF) in macrophages, which ultimately promotes epithelial cell proliferation and wound repair. The RhoA/protein kinase B (Akt)/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, including p38 MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, and Jun NH2-terminal kinase axis in RAW 264.7 cells, was identified as Gas6/Mer downstream signaling pathway for the upregulation of HGF mRNA and protein. Conditioned medium from RAW 264.7 cells that had been exposed to Gas6 or apoptotic cells enhanced epithelial cell proliferation of the epithelial cell line LA-4 and wound closure. Cotreatment with an HGF receptor-blocking antibody or c-Met antagonist downregulated this enhancement. Inhibition of Mer with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by RhoA siRNA or Rho kinase pharmacologic inhibitor suppressed Gas6-induced HGF mRNA and protein expression in macrophages and blocked epithelial cell proliferation and wound closure induced by the conditioned medium. Our data provide evidence that macrophages can be reprogrammed by Gas6 to promote epithelial proliferation and wound repair via HGF, which is induced by the Mer/RhoA/Akt/MAP kinase pathway. Thus, defects in Gas6/Mer/RhoA signaling in macrophages may delay tissue repair after injury to the alveolar epithelium.

  5. [6]-Shogaol Inhibits α-MSH-Induced Melanogenesis through the Acceleration of ERK and PI3K/Akt-Mediated MITF Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Chun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [6]-Shogaol is the main biologically active component of ginger. Previous reports showed that [6]-shogaol has several pharmacological characteristics, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, the effects of [6]-shogaol on melanogenesis remain to be elucidated. The study aimed to evaluate the potential skin whitening mechanisms of [6]-shogaol. The effects of [6]-shogaol on cell viability, melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and the expression of the tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF were measured. The results revealed that [6]-shogaol effectively suppresses tyrosinase activity and the amount of melanin and that those effects are more pronounced than those of arbutin. It was also found that [6]-shogaol decreased the protein expression levels of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1 and microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (MITF. In addition, the MITF mRNA levels were also effectively decreased in the presence of 20 μM [6]-shogaol. The degradation of MITF protein was inhibited by the MEK 1-inhibitor (U0126 or phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor (PI3K inhibitor (LY294002. Further immunofluorescence staining assay implied the involvement of the proteasome in the downregulation of MITF by [6]-shogaol. Our confocal assay results also confirmed that [6]-shogaol inhibited α-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (α-MSH- induced melanogenesis through the acceleration of extracellular responsive kinase (ERK and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase- (PI3K/Akt- mediated MITF degradation.

  6. Aronia melanocarpa juice, a rich source of polyphenols, induces endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via the redox-sensitive activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Auger, Cyril; Kurita, Ikuko; Anselm, Eric; Rivoarilala, Lalainasoa Odile; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2013-11-30

    This study examined the ability of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) juice, a rich source of polyphenols, to cause NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanism and the active polyphenols. A. melanocarpa juice caused potent endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings. Relaxations to A. melanocarpa juice were minimally affected by inhibition of the formation of vasoactive prostanoids and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated responses, and markedly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor), membrane permeant analogs of superoxide dismutase and catalase, PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor). In cultured endothelial cells, A. melanocarpa juice increased the formation of NO as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using the spin trap iron(II)diethyldithiocarbamate, and reactive oxygen species using dihydroethidium. These responses were associated with the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. A. melanocarpa juice-derived fractions containing conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids induced the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The present findings indicate that A. melanocarpa juice is a potent stimulator of the endothelial formation of NO in coronary arteries; this effect involves the phosphorylation of eNOS via the redox-sensitive activation of the Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway mostly by conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids.

  7. The PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Mediates the High Glucose-Induced Expression of Extracellular Matrix Molecules in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged hyperglycemia is an important risk factor of the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. Extracellular matrix molecules, such as fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin, are associated with fibrotic membranes. In this study, we investigated the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin in RPE cells under high glucose conditions. Furthermore, we also detected the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt under high glucose conditions in RPE cells. Our results showed that high glucose upregulated fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin expression, and activated Akt in RPE cells. We also found that pretreatment with LY294002 (an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase abolished high glucose-induced expression of fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin in RPE cells. Thus, high glucose induced the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in RPE cells, and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may contribute to the formation of fibrotic membrane during the development of DR.

  8. Inhibition of p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) activity by A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, induces autophagy through TAK1-mediated AMPK and JNK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulong; Sun, Jing; Song, Ruilong; Doscas, Michelle E; Williamson, Ashley J; Zhou, Jingsong; Sun, Jun; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan; Li, Yi

    2017-03-31

    mTOR activation suppresses autophagy by phosphorylating ULK1 at S757 and suppressing its enzymatic activity. Here we report that feedback activation of mTOR in the PI-3 kinase pathway by two p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) inhibitors (PF-4708671 and A77 1726, the active metabolite of an immunosuppressive drug leflunomide) or by S6K1 knockdown did not suppress but rather induced autophagy. Suppression of S6K1 activity led to the phosphorylation and activation of AMPK, which then phosphorylated ULK1 at S555. While mTOR feedback activation led to increased phosphorylation of ULK1 at S757, this modification did not the disrupt ULK1-AMPK interaction nor dampen ULK1 S555 phosphorylation and the induction of autophagy. In addition, inhibition of S6K1 activity led to JNK activation, which also contributed to autophagy. 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, a specific inhibitor of TAK1, or TAK1 siRNA blocked A77 1726-induced activation of AMPK and JNK, and LC3 lipidation. Taken together, our study establishes S6K1 as a key player in the PI-3 kinase pathway to suppress autophagy through inhibiting AMPK and JNK in a TAK1-dependent manner.

  9. Activation of CB1 inhibits NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in adult mouse afferent neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z-Y; McDowell, T; Wang, P; Alvarez, R; Gomez, T; Bjorling, D E

    2014-09-26

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-containing afferent neurons convey nociceptive signals and play an essential role in pain sensation. Exposure to nerve growth factor (NGF) rapidly increases TRPV1 activity (sensitization). In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with the selective cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) affects NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) afferent neurons. We found that CB1, NGF receptor tyrosine kinase A (trkA), and TRPV1 are present in cultured adult mouse small- to medium-sized afferent neurons and treatment with NGF (100ng/ml) for 30 min significantly increased the number of neurons that responded to capsaicin (as indicated by increased intracellular Ca(2 +) concentration). Pretreatment with the CB1 agonist ACEA (10nM) inhibited the NGF-induced response, and this effect of ACEA was reversed by a selective CB1 antagonist. Further, pretreatment with ACEA inhibited NGF-induced phosphorylation of AKT. Blocking PI3 kinase activity also attenuated the NGF-induced increase in the number of neurons that responded to capsaicin. Our results indicate that the analgesic effect of CB1 activation may in part be due to inhibition of NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 and also that the effect of CB1 activation is at least partly mediated by attenuation of NGF-induced increased PI3 signaling.

  10. Ret-dependent and Ret-independent mechanisms of Gfl-induced sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meadows Rena M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GDNF family ligands (GFLs are regulators of neurogenic inflammation and pain. We have previously shown that GFLs increase the release of the sensory neuron neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP from isolated mouse DRG. Results Inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway abolished the enhancement of CGRP release by GDNF. Neurturin-induced enhancement in the stimulated release of CGRP, used as an indication of sensory neuronal sensitization, was abolished by inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K pathway. Reduction in Ret expression abolished the GDNF-induced sensitization, but did not fully inhibit the increase in stimulus-evoked release of CGRP caused by neurturin or artemin, indicating the presence of Ret-independent GFL-induced signaling in sensory neurons. Integrin β-1 and NCAM are involved in a component of Ret-independent GFL signaling in sensory neurons. Conclusions These data demonstrate the distinct and variable Ret-dependent and Ret-independent signaling mechanisms by which GFLs induce sensitization of sensory neurons. Additionally, there is a clear disconnect between intracellular signaling pathway activation and changes in sensory neuronal function.

  11. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes induces fibrogenic activation of hepatic stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hella Wobser; Christoph Dorn; Thomas S Weiss; Thomas Amann; Cornelius Bollheimer; Roland Büttner; Jürgen Sc(o)lmerich; Claus Hellerbrand

    2009-01-01

    Despite the initial belief that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a benign disorder, it is now recognized that fbrosis progression occurs in a significant number of patients. Furthermore, hepatic steatosis has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of hepatic fibrosis in a wide range of other liver diseases. Here, we established an in vitro model to study the effect of hepatic lipid accumulation on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the central mediators of liver fibrogenesis. Primary human hepatocytes were incubated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate to induce intracellular lipid accumulation. Subsequently, human HSCs were incubated with conditioned media (CM) from steatotic or control hepatocytes. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes induced the release of factors that accelerated the activation and proliferation of HSC, and enhanced their resistance to apoptosis, largely mediated via activation of the PI-3-kinase pathway. Furthermore, CM from steatotic hepatocytes induced the expression of the profibrogenic genes TGF-β, tissue inhibitor of metallo-proteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and matrix-metallo-proteinase-2, as well as nuclear-factor Κb-dependent MCP-1 expression in HSC. In summary, our in vitro data indicate a potential mechanism for the pathophysiological link between hepatic steatosis and fibrogenesis in vivo. Herewith, this study provides an attractive in vitro model to study the molecular mechanisms of steatosis-induced fibrogenesis, and to identify and test novel targets for antifibrotic therapies in fatty liver disease.

  12. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    -terminal His-tag and the p85alpha regulatory domain in Sf9 insect cells. The complex consisting of p110alpha and p85alpha was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The authors established an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion assay to measure the activity of p110alpha/p85alpha. The assay...

  13. Amoebic PI3K and PKC is required for Jurkat T cell death induced by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-08-01

    The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amebiasis. During infection, adherence of E. histolytica through Gal/GalNAc lectin on the surface of the amoeba can induce caspase-3-dependent or -independent host cell death. Phosphorylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) in E. histolytica play an important function in the adhesion, killing, or phagocytosis of target cells. In this study, we examined the role of amoebic PI3K and PKC in amoeba-induced apoptotic cell death in Jurkat T cells. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were markedly increased compared to those of cells incubated with medium alone. However, when amoebae were pretreated with a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin before being incubated with E. histolytica, E. histolytica-induced PS externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were significantly reduced compared to results for amoebae pretreated with DMSO. In addition, pretreatment of amoebae with a PKC inhibitor, staurosporine strongly inhibited Jurkat T cell death. However, E. histolytica-induced cleavage of caspase-3, -6, and -7 were not inhibited by pretreatment of amoebae with wortmannin or staurosporin. In addition, we found that amoebic PI3K and PKC have an important role on amoeba adhesion to host compartment. These results suggest that amebic PI3K and PKC activation may play an important role in caspase-independent cell death in Entamoeba-induced apoptosis.

  14. The New Synthetic H2S-Releasing SDSS Protects MC3T3-E1 Osteoblasts against H2O2-Induced Apoptosis by Suppressing Oxidative Stress, Inhibiting MAPKs, and Activating the PI3K/Akt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaofei; Wu, Haixia; Wu, Zhiyuan; Hua, Fei; Liang, Dong; Sun, Hong; Yang, Yong; Huang, Dejian; Bian, Jin-Song

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in osteoporosis development. Oxidative stress induces apoptosis of osteoblasts and arrest of their differentiation. Both Danshensu (DSS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produce significant antioxidant effect in various systems. In this study, we synthesized SDSS, a novel H2S-releasing compound derived from DSS, and studied its antioxidant effect in an H2O2-induced MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell injury model. We first characterized the H2S releasing property of SDSS in both in vivo and in vitro models. HPLC chromatogram showed that intravenous injection of SDSS in adult rats released ADT-OH, a well proved H2S sustained-release moiety, within several minutes in the rat plasma. Using an H2S selective fluorescent probe, we further confirmed that SDSS released H2S in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Biological studies revealed that SDSS had no significant toxic effect but produced protective effects against H2O2-induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis. SDSS also reversed the arrest of cell differentiation caused by H2O2 treatment. This was caused by the stimulatory effect of SDSS on bone sialoprotein, runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone nodule formation. Further studies revealed that SDSS reversed the reduced superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content, and the increased ROS production in H2O2 treated cells. In addition, SDSS significantly attenuated H2O2-induced activation of p38-, ERK1/2-, and JNK-MAPKs. SDSS also stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Blockade of this pathway attenuated the cytoprotective effect of SDSS. In conclusion, SDSS protects MC3T3-E1 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress, inhibiting MAPKs, and activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

  15. Roles of phosphoinositide 3 kinase/serine -threonine kinase signal pathway in cardioprotection of fentanyl postconditioning and limb remote postconditioning%磷脂酰肌醇3激酶/丝苏氨酸蛋白激酶信号转导通路在芬太尼后处理和远隔缺血后处理心肌保护中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许亚超; 薛富善; 袁玉静; 王强; 廖旭; 程怡; 李瑞萍; 刘建华; 王天龙

    2012-01-01

    目的 在心肌缺血/再灌注损伤(ischemia/reperfusion injury,I/RI)大鼠探讨磷脂酰肌醇3激酶/丝苏氨酸蛋白激酶(phosphoinositide 3 kinase/serine-threonine kinase,PI3K/Akt)信号转导通路在芬太尼后处理和远隔缺血后处理心肌保护中的作用.方法 将32只成年雄性SD大鼠(体重250g~350 g)麻醉后,采用计算机产生的随机数随机分为4组:对照组(C组)、芬太尼后处理组(F组)、肢体远隔缺血后处理组(R组)及联合应用芬太尼后处理和肢体远隔缺血后处理组(F-R组).在结扎大鼠冠状动脉左前降支(left anterior descending coronary artery,LAD)30 min造成局部心肌缺血后,开放心肌再灌注60 min建立大鼠心肌I/RI模型.采用SA Bioscience公司功能分类基因芯片和免疫蛋白印迹分析法检测再灌注60 min后缺血区心肌内与PI3K/Akt相关基因的表达和磷酸化Akt蛋白的表达情况.结果 利用基因芯片检测的与PI3K/Akt相关的基因中,与C组比较,F组共有9个基因的表达显著上调,而R组仅2个基因的表达显著上调;但F-R组共有33个基因的表达较C组显著上调.蛋白印记分析结果显示,与C组比较,F组、R组和F-R组心肌标本内磷酸化Akt蛋白表达量均增高;而与F组和R组比较,F-R组心肌标本内磷酸化Akt蛋白表达量进一步增高.结论 联合应用芬太尼后处理和肢体远隔缺血后处理可明显增强PI3K/Akt信号转导通路激活.%Objective To assess the roles of phosphoinositide 3 kinase/serine-threonine kinase(PI3K/Akt) signal pathway in cardioprotection of fentanyl postconditioning and limb remote postconditioning in an in vivo rat model with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.Methods Thirty-two anesthetized male SD rats (weighed 250 g-350 g) were randomly allocated into the four groups:group C (control),group F (fentanyl postconditioning),group R (RIPOC),and group F-R (combined fentanyl postconditioning and RIPOC).All rats were treated with left

  16. Effects of Natural Products on Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a sugar additive, fructose is widely used in processed foods and beverages. Excessive fructose consumption can cause hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Recent research revealed that fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is related to several pathological processes, including: (1 augmenting lipogenesis; (2 leading to mitochondrial dysfunction; (3 stimulating the activation of inflammatory pathways; and (4 causing insulin resistance. Cellular signaling research indicated that partial factors play significant roles in fructose-induced NAFLD, involving liver X receptor (LXRα, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1/1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid synthase (FAS, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα, leptin nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Until now, a series of natural products have been reported as regulators of NAFLD in vivo and in vitro. This paper reviews the natural products (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol, and (−-epicatechin and their mechanisms of ameliorating fructose-induced NAFLD over the past years. Although, as lead compounds, natural products usually have fewer activities compared with synthesized compounds, it will shed light on studies aiming to discover new drugs for NAFLD.

  17. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Progranulin-Deficient Frontotemporal Dementia Uncover Specific Reversible Neuronal Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Almeida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic mechanisms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD remain poorly understood. Here we generated multiple induced pluripotent stem cell lines from a control subject, a patient with sporadic FTD, and an FTD patient with a novel heterozygous GRN mutation (progranulin [PGRN] S116X. In neurons and microglia differentiated from PGRN S116X induced pluripotent stem cells, the levels of intracellular and secreted PGRN were reduced, establishing patient-specific cellular models of PGRN haploinsufficiency. Through a systematic screen of inducers of cellular stress, we found that PGRN S116X neurons, but not sporadic FTD neurons, exhibited increased sensitivity to staurosporine and other kinase inhibitors. Moreover, the serine/threonine kinase S6K2, a component of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, was specifically downregulated in PGRN S116X neurons. Both increased sensitivity to kinase inhibitors and reduced S6K2 were rescued by PGRN expression. Our findings identify cell-autonomous, reversible defects in patient neurons with PGRN deficiency, and provide a compelling model for studying PGRN-dependent pathogenic mechanisms and testing potential therapies.

  18. The memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Ko, Hae Ju; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Ha Neul; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid isolated from the seed of Raphanus sativus L. that is known to normalize the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in the brains of patients suffering from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Here, we investigated whether erucic acid enhanced cognitive function or ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) enhanced memory performance in normal naïve mice. In addition, erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment, as assessed via the behavioral tasks. We then investigated the underlying mechanism of the memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid. The administration of erucic acid increased the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and additional protein kinase B (Akt) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that erucic acid has an ameliorative effect in mice with scopolamine-induced memory deficits and that the effect of erucic acid is partially due to the activation of PI3K-PKCζ-ERK-CREB signaling as well as an increase in phosphorylated Akt in the hippocampus. Therefore, erucic acid may be a novel therapeutic agent for diseases associated with cognitive deficits, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  19. The transcription factor MEF2C mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Juan Pablo; Collao, Andres; Chiong, Mario; Maldonado, Carola; Adasme, Tatiana; Carrasco, Loreto; Ocaranza, Paula; Bravo, Roberto; Gonzalez, Leticia; Diaz-Araya, Guillermo [Centro FONDAP Estudios Moleculares de la Celula, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Hidalgo, Cecilia [Centro FONDAP Estudios Moleculares de la Celula, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Lavandero, Sergio, E-mail: slavander@uchile.cl [Centro FONDAP Estudios Moleculares de la Celula, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile)

    2009-10-09

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) plays an important role in cardiovascular development and is a key transcription factor for cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we describe MEF2C regulation by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its role in IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We found that IGF-1 addition to cultured rat cardiomyocytes activated MEF2C, as evidenced by its increased nuclear localization and DNA binding activity. IGF-1 stimulated MEF2 dependent-gene transcription in a time-dependent manner, as indicated by increased MEF2 promoter-driven reporter gene activity; IGF-1 also induced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, while an inhibitor of p38-MAPK decreased both effects. Additionally, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and calcineurin prevented IGF-1-induced MEF2 transcriptional activity. Via MEF2C-dependent signaling, IGF-1 also stimulated transcription of atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal {alpha}-actin but not of fos-lux reporter genes. These novel data suggest that MEF2C activation by IGF-1 mediates the pro-hypertrophic effects of IGF-1 on cardiac gene expression.

  20. Effects of Natural Products on Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Wang, Tingting; Li, Jian; Wang, Sijian; Qiu, Feng; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    As a sugar additive, fructose is widely used in processed foods and beverages. Excessive fructose consumption can cause hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Recent research revealed that fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to several pathological processes, including: (1) augmenting lipogenesis; (2) leading to mitochondrial dysfunction; (3) stimulating the activation of inflammatory pathways; and (4) causing insulin resistance. Cellular signaling research indicated that partial factors play significant roles in fructose-induced NAFLD, involving liver X receptor (LXR)α, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1/1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα), leptin nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Until now, a series of natural products have been reported as regulators of NAFLD in vivo and in vitro. This paper reviews the natural products (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol, and (−)-epicatechin) and their mechanisms of ameliorating fructose-induced NAFLD over the past years. Although, as lead compounds, natural products usually have fewer activities compared with synthesized compounds, it will shed light on studies aiming to discover new drugs for NAFLD. PMID:28146130

  1. Curcumin improves high glucose-induced INS-1 cell insulin resistance via activation of insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenfeng; Wang, Huan; Zhu, Lin; Han, Mingbao; Gao, Yuan; Du, Yu; Wen, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin is a yellow pigment isolated from Corcuma longan. This research investigates the improvement of curcumin on INS-1 cells with insulin resistance induced by high glucose. INS-1 cells were treated with high glucose (30 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h. Subsequently, the medium was replaced with curcumin for 24 h. Curcumin effectively increased insulin gene expression and glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of curcumin-induced insulin expression and secretion in high glucose-induced INS-1 cells was investigated in this study. Curcumin increased the expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT in the INS-1 cells. Moreover, curcumin stimulation increased the expression of PDX-1 and GCK. This investigation suggests that curcumin prevented high glucose-reduced insulin expression and secretion through activation of the PI3K/Akt/GLUT2 pathway in INS-1 cells.

  2. Shikonin inhibits TNF-α-induced growth and invasion of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemin; Hu, Wenyu; Wu, Fang; Yuan, Xue; Hu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Shikonin is a naphthoquinone compound extracted from the Chinese herb purple gromwell. Shikonin has broad antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced proliferation and invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is an important factor that contributes to atherosclerosis. The effects of shikonin on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs have been reported; however, the function of shikonin on TNF-α-mediated growth and invasion of VSMCs during atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we used Western blot, flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate the effect of shikonin on the TNF-α-induced growth and invasion of VSMCs and to determine the underlying mechanism. Our results showed that shikonin inhibits the TNF-α-mediated growth and invasion. Further study revealed that shikonin regulates the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase signaling pathways; modulates the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, B-cell lymphoma 2, and Bax; activates caspase-3 and caspase-9; induces cell cycle arrest; and promotes the apoptosis of VSMCs. Together, our results indicate that shikonin may become a promising agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis and they also establish foundation for the development of anti-atherosclerosis drugs.

  3. Isoliquiritigenin isolated from licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Chun, Hong Sung

    2012-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a medicinal herb containing various bioactive components implicated in antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective effects, but the effects of licorice against Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death have not been studied. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in a dopaminergic cell line, SN4741. ISL (1 µM) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA (50 µM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation and apoptotic cell death. ISL pretreatment effectively suppressed 6-OHDA-mediated upregulation of Bax, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, cytochrome c release, and caspase 3 activation. In addition, ISL significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction. Pharmacological inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway reversed ISL-mediated neuroprotection against 6-OHDA toxicity in SN4741 cells. These results provide the first evidence that ISL can protect dopaminergic cells under oxidative stress conditions by regulating the apoptotic process.

  4. Inhibition by anandamide of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in PC12 cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mnich, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a selective neurotoxin that is widely used to investigate cell death and protective strategies in models of Parkinson\\'s disease. Here, we investigated the effects of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in rat adrenal phaeochromocytoma PC12 cells. Morphological analysis and caspase-3 activity assay revealed that anandamide inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis. The protection was not affected by antagonists of either cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) or CB(2)) or the vanilloid receptor TRPV1. Anandamide-dependent protection was reduced by pretreatment with LY294002 (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K) and unaffected by U0126 (inhibitor of extracellularly-regulated kinase). Interestingly, phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in cells exposed to 6-OHDA was strongly reduced by anandamide pre-treatment. Furthermore, 6-OHDA induced c-Jun activation and increased Bim expression, both of which were inhibited by anandamide. Together, these data demonstrate antiapoptotic effects of anandamide and also suggest a role for activation of PI3K and inhibition of JNK signalling in anandamide-mediated protection against 6-OHDA.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa eliminates natural killer cells via phagocytosis-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woong Chung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is an opportunistic pathogen that causes the relapse of illness in immunocompromised patients, leading to prolonged hospitalization, increased medical expense, and death. In this report, we show that PA invades natural killer (NK cells and induces phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD of lymphocytes. In vivo tumor metastasis was augmented by PA infection, with a significant reduction in NK cell number. Adoptive transfer of NK cells mitigated PA-induced metastasis. Internalization of PA into NK cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, PA invaded NK cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K activation, and the phagocytic event led to caspase 9-dependent apoptosis of NK cells. PA-mediated NK cell apoptosis was dependent on activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These data suggest that the phagocytosis of PA by NK cells is a critical event that affects the relapse of diseases in immunocompromised patients, such as those with cancer, and provides important insights into the interactions between PA and NK cells.

  6. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  7. PDGF induces reorganization of vimentin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgeirsdóttir, S; Claesson-Welsh, L; Bongcam-Rudloff, E; Hellman, U; Westermark, B; Heldin, C H

    1998-07-30

    In this study we demonstrate that stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) leads to a marked reorganization of the vimentin filaments in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells ectopically expressing the PDGF beta-receptor. Within 20 minutes after stimulation, the well-spread fine fibrillar vimentin was reorganized as the filaments aggregated into a dense coil around the nucleus. The solubility of vimentin upon Nonidet-P40-extraction of cells decreased considerably after PDGF stimulation, indicating that PDGF caused a redistribution of vimentin to a less soluble compartment. In addition, an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of vimentin was observed. The redistribution of vimentin was not a direct consequence of its tyrosine phosphorylation, since treatment of cells with an inhibitor for the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Src, attenuated phosphorylation but not redistribution of vimentin. These changes in the distribution of vimentin occurred in conjunction with reorganization of actin filaments. In PAE cells expressing a Y740/751F mutant receptor that is unable to bind and activate phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase), the distribution of vimentin was virtually unaffected by PDGF stimulation. Thus, PI3-kinase is important for vimentin reorganization, in addition to its previously demonstrated role in actin reorganization. The small GTPase Rac has previously been shown to be involved downstream of PI3-kinase in the reorganization of actin filaments. In PAE cells overexpressing dominant negative Rac1 (N17Rac1), no change in the fine fibrillar vimentin network was seen after PDGF-BB stimulation, whereas in PAE cells overexpressing constitutively active Rac1 (V12Rac1), there was a dramatic change in vimentin filament organization independent of PDGF stimulation. These data indicate that PDGF causes a reorganization of microfilaments as well as intermediate filaments in its target cells and suggest an important role for Rac downstream of PI3-kinase in

  8. Higenamine 4'-O-β-d-glucoside in the lotus plumule induces glucose uptake of L6 cells through β2-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Eisuke; Inagaki, Yosuke; Kawabata, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Hypoglycemic effect is an efficient means to modulate elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. We found that the extract of lotus plumule (the germ of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. seed) showed potent glucose uptake enhancement activity against L6 myotubes, which results in a hypoglycemic effect. This activity was further investigated, and an active constituent was identified as a single bioactive compound, higenamine 4'-O-β-d-glucoside. Mechanistic studies employing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, or adrenergic receptor antagonist showed that the compound induced its activity through β2-adrenergic receptor. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus frequently develop insulin resistance. Owing to the differences between the mechanism of action of insulin and of the isolated compound, the compound or lotus plumule itself may have the possibility of modulating blood glucose levels in insulin-resistant patients effectively.

  9. Inhibition of ALK enzymatic activity in T-cell lymphoma cells induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation independently of Jak3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Kasprzycka, Monika; Ptasznik, Andrzej;

    2005-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the ALK tyrosine kinase as a chimeric protein with nucleophosmin (NPM) and other partners plays a key role in malignant cell transformation of T-lymphocytes and other cells. Here we report that two small-molecule, structurally related, quinazoline-type compounds, WHI-131...... and WHI-154, directly inhibit enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK as demonstrated by in vitro kinase assays using a synthetic tyrosine-rich oligopeptide and the kinase itself as the substrates. The inhibition of NPM/ALK activity resulted in malignant T cells in suppression of their growth, induction...... of apoptosis and inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, the key effector of the NPM/ALK-induced oncogenesis. We also show that the STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated in the malignant T cells by NPM/ALK independently of Jak3 kinase as evidenced by the presence of STAT3 phosphorylation...

  10. Potentially probiotic bacteria induce efficient maturation but differential cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sinikka Latvala; Taija E Pietil(a); Ville Veckman; Riina A Kekkonen; Soile Tynkkynen; Riitta Korpela; Ilkka Julkunen

    2008-01-01

    MM: To analyze the ability of nine different potentially probiotic bacteria to induce maturation and cytokine production in human monocyLe-derived dendritic cells (moDCs).METHODS: Cytokine production and maturation of moDCs in response to bacterial stimulation was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometric analysis (FACS),respectively.The kinetics of mRNA expression of cytokine genes was determined by Northern blotting.The involvement of different signaling pathways in cytokine gene expression was studied using specific pharmacological signaling inhibitors.RESULTS: All studied bacteria induced the maturation of moDCs in a dose-dependent manner.More detailed analysis with S.thermophilus THS,B.breve Bb99,and L.lactis subsp,cremoris ARH74 indicated that these bacteria induced the expression of moDC maturation markers HLA class II and CD86 as efficiently as pathogenic bacteria.However,these bacteria differed in their ability to induce moDC cytokine gene expression.S.therrnophilus induced the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-a,IL-12,IL-6,and CCL20)and Th1 type (IL-12 and IFN-y) cytokines,while B.breve and L.lactis were also potent inducers of antiinflammatory IL-10.Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38,phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase,and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways were shown to be involved in bacteria-induced cytokine production.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that potentially probiotic bacteria are able to induce moDC maturation,but their ability to induce cytokine gene expression varies significantly from one bacterial strain to another.

  11. A novel compound DSC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses by inhibition of Akt/NF-κB signalling in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Pan, Li-Long; Jia, Yao-Ling; Wu, Dan; Xiong, Qing-Hui; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2013-05-15

    A novel compound [4-(2-acetoxy-3-((R)-3-(benzylthio)-1-methoxy-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-3-oxopropyl)-1,2-phenylene diacetate (DSC)], derived from Danshensu, exerted cytoprotective effects by anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities in vitro. Herein, we reported the protective effects of DSC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that DSC concentration-dependently attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression with less cytotoxicity. Signal transduction studies indicated that DSC significantly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Meanwhile, LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was decreased by DSC. Furthermore, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, iNOS expression, and NO production, which was also mimicked by pretreatment with DSC. These results suggested that DSC attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages, at least in part, through suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling and NF-κB activation.

  12. Induction of HSPA4 and HSPA14 by NBS1 overexpression contributes to NBS1-induced in vitro metastatic and transformation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chih-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS is a chromosomal-instability syndrome associated with cancer predisposition, radiosensitivity, microcephaly, and growth retardation. The NBS gene product, NBS1 (p95 or nibrin, is a part of the MRN complex, a central player associated with double-strand break (DSB repair. We previously demonstrated that NBS1 overexpression contributes to transformation through the activation of PI 3-kinase/Akt. NBS1 overexpression also induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the Snail/MMP2 pathway. Methods RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, in vitro migration/invasion, soft agar colony formation, and gelatin zymography assays were performed. Results Here we show that heat shock protein family members, A4 and A14, were induced by NBS1 overexpression. siRNA mediated knockdown of HSPA4 or HSPA14 decreased the in vitro migration, invasion, and transformation activity in H1299 cells overexpressing NBS1. However, HSPA4 or HSPA14 induced activity was not mediated through MMP2. NBS1 overexpression induced the expression of heat shock transcription factor 4b (HSF4b, which correlated with the expression of HSPA4 and HSPA14. Conclusion These results identify a novel pathway (NBS1-HSF4b-HSPA4/HSPA14 axis to induce migration, invasion, and transformation, suggesting the activation of multiple signaling events induced by NBS1 overexpression.

  13. Role of somatostatin receptor-2 in gentamicin-induced auditory hair cell loss in the Mammalian inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Brand

    Full Text Available Hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons of the mammalian auditory system do not regenerate, and their loss leads to irreversible hearing loss. Aminoglycosides induce auditory hair cell death in vitro, and evidence suggests that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling opposes gentamicin toxicity via its downstream target, the protein kinase Akt. We previously demonstrated that somatostatin-a peptide with hormone/neurotransmitter properties-can protect hair cells from gentamicin-induced hair cell death in vitro, and that somatostatin receptors are expressed in the mammalian inner ear. However, it remains unknown how this protective effect is mediated. In the present study, we show a highly significant protective effect of octreotide (a drug that mimics and is more potent than somatostatin on gentamicin-induced hair cell death, and increased Akt phosphorylation in octreotide-treated organ of Corti explants in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrate that somatostatin receptor-1 knockout mice overexpress somatostatin receptor-2 in the organ of Corti, and are less susceptible to gentamicin-induced hair cell loss than wild-type or somatostatin-1/somatostatin-2 double-knockout mice. Finally, we show that octreotide affects auditory hair cells, enhances spiral ganglion neurite number, and decreases spiral ganglion neurite length.

  14. Icariin Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Pathway in PC-12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and shows promise in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of icariin against amyloid beta protein fragment 25–35 (Aβ25–35 induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that icariin dose-dependently increased cell viability and decreased Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis, as assessed by MTT assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Results of western blot analysis revealed that the selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed icariin-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that the protective effects of icariin are associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. LY294002 also blocked the icariin-induced downregulation of proapoptotic factors Bax and caspase-3 and upregulation of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 in Aβ25–35-treated PC12 cells. These findings provide further evidence for the clinical efficacy of icariin in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. iTRAQ proteomics analysis reveals that PI3K is highly associated with bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Liu, Zhongjie; Yu, Xujiao; Lai, Luying; Li, Haobo; Liu, Zipeng; Li, Le; Jiang, Shan; Xia, Zhengyuan; Xu, Shi-yuan

    2016-02-01

    Bupivacaine, a commonly used local anesthetic, has potential neurotoxicity through diverse signaling pathways. However, the key mechanism of bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. Cultured human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated (bupivacaine) or untreated (control) with bupivacaine for 24 h. Compared to the control group, bupivacaine significantly increased cyto-inhibition, cellular reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, mitochondrial injury, apoptosis (increased TUNEL-positive cells, cleaved caspase 3, and Bcl-2/Bax), and activated autophagy (enhanced LC3II/LC3I ratio). To explore changes in protein expression and intercommunication among the pathways involved in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity, an 8-plex iTRAQ proteomic technique and bioinformatics analysis were performed. Compared to the control group, 241 differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which, 145 were up-regulated and 96 were down-regulated. Bioinformatics analysis of the cross-talk between the significant proteins with altered expression in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity indicated that phosphatidyl-3-kinase (PI3K) was the most frequently targeted protein in each of the interactions. We further confirmed these results by determining the downstream targets of the identified signaling pathways (PI3K, Akt, FoxO1, Erk, and JNK). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that PI3K may play a central role in contacting and regulating the signaling pathways that contribute to bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity.

  16. Dissociation between fat-induced in vivo insulin resistance and proximal insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in men at risk for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Jensen, Christine B; Björnholm, Marie

    2004-01-01

    The effect of short- (2 h) and long-term (24 h) low-grade Intralipid infusion on whole-body insulin action, cellular glucose metabolism, and proximal components of the insulin signal transduction cascade was studied in seven obese male glucose intolerant first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic......-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity, insulin receptor substrate-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity, or Akt serine phosphorylation in IGT relatives or matched controls. In fact, a paradoxical increase in both basal and insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity was noted in the total study population after...

  17. Cytoprotective effects of fisetin against hypoxia-induced cell death in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Ho, Yi-Ru; Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Huang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Po-Kong; Tai, Mi-Hsueh; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol compound of flavonoids, exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytoprotective effect of fisetin and the underlying molecular mechanism against hypoxia-induced cell death in PC12 cells. The results of this study showed that fisetin significantly restored the cell viability of PC12 cells under both cobalt chloride (CoCl₂)- and low oxygen-induced hypoxic conditions. Treatment with fisetin successfully reduced the CoCl₂-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was accompanied by an increase in the cell viability of PC12 cells. Furthermore, we found that treatment of PC12 cells with fisetin markedly upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), its nuclear accumulation and the hypoxia-response element (HRE)-driven transcriptional activation. The fisetin-mediated cytoprotection during CoCl₂ exposure was significantly attenuated through the administration of HIF-1α siRNA. Moreover, we demonstrated that MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitors significantly blocked the increase in cell survival that was induced by fisetin treatment under hypoxic conditions. Consistently, increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and Akt proteins was observed in PC12 cells treated with fisetin. However, the fisetin-induced HRE-driven transcription was not affected by inhibition of these kinase signaling pathways. Current results reveal for the first time that fisetin promotes cell survival and protects against hypoxia-induced cell death through ROS scavenging and the activation of HIF1α-, MAPK/ERK-, p38 MAPK- and PI3 K/Akt-dependent signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

  18. MCPIP1 mediates silica-induced cell migration in human pulmonary fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Cheng, Yusi; Fang, Shencun; Zhang, Yingming; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Wei; Liao, Hong; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie

    2016-01-15

    Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO2). Phagocytosis of SiO2 in the lungs initiates an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration followed by fibrosis. According to previous data from our laboratory, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) plays a critical role in fibroblast proliferation and migration in conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. The present study aimed to explore the downstream cascade of MCP-1 in both 2D and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models of silicosis. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF-a) demonstrated the following: 1) SiO2 treatment induces expression of MCP-1-induced protein (MCPIP1) in a time- and dose-dependent manner in both 2D and 3D cultures; 2) the MAPK and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways are involved in SiO2-induced MCPIP1 expression; and 3) MCPIP1 induction mediates the SiO2-induced increase in cell migration in both 2D and 3D cultures. The effect of MCP-1 in silicosis occurs mainly through MCPIP1, which, in turn, mediates the observed SiO2-induced increase in pulmonary fibroblast migration. However, the time frame for MCPIP1 induction differed between 2D and 3D cultures, indicating that, compared with conventional 2D cell culture systems, 3D culture may be useful for analyses of fibroblast physiology under conditions that more closely resemble in vivo environments. Our study determined the link between fibroblast-derived MCPIP1 and SiO2-induced cell migration, and this finding provides novel evidence of the potential of MCPIP1 in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis.

  19. Factor Xa induces tissue factor expression in endothelial cells by P44/42 MAPK and NF-κB-dependent pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Wang, Ning-Ping; Tanaka, Kenichi A.; Levy, Jerrold H.; Guyton, Robert A.; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Vinten-Johansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Tissue factor (TF) is an initiator of coagulation. The serine protease factor Xa (FXa) is the convergence point of the extrinsic and intrinsic components of the coagulation cascade. In addition to its hemostatic function, FXa elicits inflammatory responses in endothelial cells that may be important in surgical procedures in which inflammation is triggered. This study tested the hypothesis that FXa can upregulate TF on vascular endothelial cells by a MAPK- and NF-κB- dependent pathway. Methods and results Incubation of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with FXa increased TF protein expression and activity in a dose–dependent manner. Pre-incubation of HUVECs with the serine protease inhibitor antithrombin, which targets not only thrombin but also FXa and FIXa, inhibited FXa-induced TF expression, but the selective thrombin inhibitor hirudin did not inhibit FXa-induced TF expression, ruling out a thrombin-mediated pathway. After 10 min incubation with HUVECs, FXa rapidly induced P44/42 MAPK activation (immunoblotting of phosphorylated P44/42 MAPK) with a peak at 30 minutes. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor PD98059 partially reduced FXa-induced TF expression and activity (3.82±0.11 vs 6.54±0.08 fmol/min/cm2, P<0.05). NF-κB was activated by FXa, confirmed by cytoplasmic IkB α degradation and increased NF-κB P65 nuclear translocation. Interruption of the NF-κB pathway by the IkB α phosphorylation inhibitor Bay 11-7802 abrogated FXa-induced TF protein expression and activity (1.93± 0.02 vs 6.54±0.08 fmol/min/cm2, P<0.05). However, inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY 294002 did not attenuate FXa-induced TF protein expression and activity. Conclusions 1) FXa upregulates TF protein expression and activity in HUVECs 2) FXa-induced upregulation of TF is independent of the thrombin-PAR1 pathway, and 3) the MAPK and NF-kB pathways, but not PI3 kinase pathway, are involved in FXa-induced TF expression on human umbilical endothelial cells. FXa

  20. Inducing autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Lea M; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Andersen, Jens S.

    2014-01-01

    catabolism, which has recently been found to induce autophagy in an MTOR independent way and support cancer cell survival. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to investigate the initial signaling events linking ammonia to the induction of autophagy. The MTOR inhibitor rapamycin was used...

  1. 3',4',7-Trihydroxyflavone prevents apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Sa-Ik; Ma, Shi-Xun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (THF) protection of neuronal cells from neuronal cell death induced by the oxidative stress-related neurotoxin hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pretreatment with THF significantly elevated cell viability, reduced H2O2-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) loss. Western blot data demonstrated that THF inhibited the H2O2-induced up- or down-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL, and attenuated the H2O2-induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. In addition, pretreatment with THF attenuated H2O2-induced rapid and significant phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt. THF also inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation to the nucleus induced by H2O2, down-stream of H2O2-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and PI3K/Akt. These data provide the first evidence that THF protects neuronal cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress, possibly through ROS reduction, mitochondria protection, and NF-κB modulation via MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways. The neuroprotective effects of THF make it a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Interleukin-21 induces migration and invasion of fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, R; Jin, Y; Sun, L; Yang, L; Li, C; Li, Z; Liu, X; Zhao, J

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial fibroblast hyperplasia and bone erosion. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a pivotal role in RA pathogenesis through aggressive migration and matrix invasion, and certain proinflammatory cytokines may affect synoviocyte invasion. Whether interleukin (IL)-21 influences this process remains controversial. Here, we evaluated the potential regulatory effect of IL-21 on the migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in RA-FLS. We found that IL-21 promoted the migration, invasion and MMP (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13) production in RA-FLS. Moreover, IL-21 induced activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathways, and blockage of these pathways [PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT) inhibitor LY294002, STAT-3 inhibitor STA-21 and ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059] attenuated IL-21-induced migration and secretion of MMP-3 and MMP-9. In conclusion, our results suggest that IL-21 promotes migration and invasion of RA-FLS. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-21 might be effective for the treatment of RA.

  3. Cesium chloride protects cerebellar granule neurons from apoptosis induced by low potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jin; Yao, Weiguo; Lee, Weihua

    2007-10-01

    Neuronal apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and neuroprotective agents targeting apoptotic signaling could have therapeutic use. Here we report that cesium chloride, an alternative medicine in treating radiological poison and cancer, has neuroprotective actions. Serum and potassium deprivation induced cerebellar granule neurons to undergo apoptosis, which correlated with the activation of caspase-3. Cesium prevented both the activation of caspase-3 and neuronal apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Cesium at 8 mM increased the survival of neurons from 45 +/- 3% to 91 +/- 5% of control. Cesium's neuroprotection was not mediated by PI3/Akt or MAPK signaling pathways, since it was unable to activate either Akt or MAPK by phosphorylation. In addition, specific inhibitors of PI3 kinase and MAP kinase did not block cesium's neuroprotective effects. On the other hand, cesium inactivated GSK3beta by phosphorylation of serine-9 and GSK3beta-specific inhibitor SB415286 prevented neuronal apoptosis. These data indicate that cesium's neuroprotection is likely via inactivating GSK3beta. Furthermore, cesium also prevented H(2)O(2)-induced neuronal death (increased the survival of neurons from 72 +/- 4% to 89 +/- 3% of control). Given its relative safety and good penetration of the brain blood barrier, our findings support the potential therapeutic use of cesium in neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. MET Suppresses Epithelial VEGFR2 via Intracrine VEGF-induced Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom T. Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF drive cancer through their respective receptors, MET and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2. VEGFR2 inhibits MET by promoting MET dephosphorylation. However, whether MET conversely regulates VEGFR2 remains unknown. Here we show that MET suppresses VEGFR2 protein by inducing its endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD, via intracrine VEGF action. HGF–MET signaling in epithelial cancer cells promoted VEGF biosynthesis through PI3-kinase. In turn, VEGF and VEGFR2 associated within the ER, activating inositol-requiring enzyme 1α, and thereby facilitating ERAD-mediated depletion of VEGFR2. MET disruption upregulated VEGFR2, inducing compensatory tumor growth via VEGFR2 and MEK. However, concurrent disruption of MET and either VEGF or MEK circumvented this, enabling more profound tumor inhibition. Our findings uncover unique cross-regulation between MET and VEGFR2—two RTKs that play significant roles in tumor malignancy. Furthermore, these results suggest rational combinatorial strategies for targeting RTK signaling pathways more effectively, which has potentially important implications for cancer therapy.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide-induced multinuclear cells: Increased internalization of polystyrene beads and possible signals for cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp; Yano, Shio; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. •Large beads are internalized by cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. •The multinuclear cell formation is inhibited by anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL10. •Signal transduction for cell fusion is different from that for inflammation. -- Abstract: A murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, becomes multinuclear on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. These multinuclear cells internalized more polystyrene beads than mononuclear cells or osteoclasts (Nakanishi-Matsui, M., Yano, S., Matsumoto, N., and Futai, M., 2012). In this study, we analyzed the time courses of cell fusion in the presence of large beads. They were internalized into cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. However, the multinuclear cells once formed showed only low phagocytosis activity. These results suggest that formation of the multinuclear cells and bead internalization took place simultaneously. The formation of multinuclear cells was blocked by inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospholipase C, calcineurin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, interleukin 6 and 10 also exhibited inhibitory effects. These signaling molecules and cytokines may play a crucial role in the LPS-induced multinuclear cell formation.

  6. Inhibition of hypothalamic Foxo1 expression reduced food intake in diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropelle, Eduardo R; Pauli, José R; Prada, Patrícia; Cintra, Dennys E; Rocha, Guilherme Z; Moraes, Juliana C; Frederico, Marisa J S; da Luz, Gabrielle; Pinho, Ricardo A; Carvalheira, José B C; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario A; De Souza, Cláudio T

    2009-05-15

    Insulin signalling in the hypothalamus plays a role in maintaining body weight. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 is an important mediator of insulin signalling in the hypothalamus. Foxo1 stimulates the transcription of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related protein through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signalling pathway, but the role of hypothalamic Foxo1 in insulin resistance and obesity remains unclear. Here, we identify that a high-fat diet impaired insulin-induced hypothalamic Foxo1 phosphorylation and degradation, increasing the nuclear Foxo1 activity and hyperphagic response in rats. Thus, we investigated the effects of the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinfusion of Foxo1-antisense oligonucleotide (Foxo1-ASO) and evaluated the food consumption and weight gain in normal and diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Three days of Foxo1-ASO microinfusion reduced the hypothalamic Foxo1 expression by about 85%. i.c.v. infusion of Foxo1-ASO reduced the cumulative food intake (21%), body weight change (28%), epididymal fat pad weight (22%) and fasting serum insulin levels (19%) and increased the insulin sensitivity (34%) in DIO but not in control animals. Collectively, these data showed that the Foxo1-ASO treatment blocked the orexigenic effects of Foxo1 and prevented the hyperphagic response in obese rats. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of Foxo1 may be used to prevent or treat obesity.

  7. Capsaicin Enhances the Drug Sensitivity of Cholangiocarcinoma through the Inhibition of Chemotherapeutic-Induced Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zai-Fa; Zhao, Wen-Xiu; Yin, Zhen-Yu; Xie, Cheng-Rong; Xu, Ya-Ping; Chi, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a devastating cancer with a poor prognosis, is resistant to the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient found in hot red chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, suppresses the growth of several malignant cell lines. Our aims were to investigate the role and mechanism of capsaicin with respect to the sensitivity of CCA cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of capsaicin on CCA tumor sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was assessed in vitro in CCA cells and in vivo in a xenograft model. The drug sensitivity of QBC939 to 5-FU was significantly enhanced by capsaicin compared with either agent alone. In addition, the combination of capsaicin with 5-FU was synergistic, with a combination index (CI) capsaicin. Moreover, the decrease in AKT and S6 phosphorylation induced by 5-FU was effectively reversed by capsaicin, indicating that capsaicin inhibits 5-FU-induced autophagy by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in CCA cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that capsaicin may be a useful adjunct therapy to improve chemosensitivity in CCA. This effect likely occurs via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation, suggesting a promising strategy for the development of combination drugs for CCA.

  8. The effects of diet-induced obesity on hepatocyte insulin signaling pathways and induction of non-alcoholic liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Fatani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sameer Fatani1, Imose Itua2, Paul Clark3, Christopher Wong3, Ebrahim K Naderali21Obesity Biology Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 2Department of Health and Applied Social Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, Liverpool UK; 3Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool, UKAbstract: The prevalence of diet-induced obesity is increasing amongst adults and children worldwide, predisposing millions of people to an array of health problems that include metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this study we used experimental animals to investigate the effects of dietary obesity on markers of hepatic insulin signaling as well as structural changes in hepatocytes. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized and assigned to either a control group or a test group. Controls were fed standard laboratory pelleted diet (chow-fed, while the test group had free access to a highly-palatable diet (HPD. After eight weeks, the HPD-fed animals were subdivided into three subgroups and their diets altered as follows: HPD-to-chow, HPD with the addition of fenofibrate given by oral gavage for a further seven weeks, or HPD with vehicle (1% carboxymethylcellulose at 1 mL/kg body weight given by oral gavage for a further seven weeks, respectively. Untreated diet-fed animals had significantly higher body weight, liver weight, and all measured metabolic profiles compared with chow-fed and treated diet-fed groups. Expression of kinases IRβ, IRS-1, AKt, eNOS, Shc and ERK1/2 were unaffected by obesity, while IRS-2 and P I3 kinase levels were significantly reduced in untreated HPD animals. Compared with chow-fed animals, steatosis and steatohepatitis were almost doubled in animals from untreated HPD, while removal of HPD and fenofibrate-treatment reduced steatosis by 40% and 80% respectively. These data suggest that diet-induced obesity affects

  9. Regulation of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated immune responses through Pasteurella multocida toxin-induced G protein signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand Dagmar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-triggered Toll-like receptor (TLR 4-signalling belongs to the key innate defence mechanisms upon infection with Gram-negative bacteria and triggers the subsequent activation of adaptive immunity. There is an active crosstalk between TLR4-mediated and other signalling cascades to secure an effective immune response, but also to prevent excessive inflammation. Many pathogens induce signalling cascades via secreted factors that interfere with TLR signalling to modify and presumably escape the host response. In this context heterotrimeric G proteins and their coupled receptors have been recognized as major cellular targets. Toxigenic strains of Gram-negative Pasteurella multocida produce a toxin (PMT that constitutively activates the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαq, Gα13 and Gαi independently of G protein-coupled receptors through deamidation. PMT is known to induce signalling events involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Results Here we show that the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins through PMT suppresses LPS-stimulated IL-12p40 production and eventually impairs the T cell-activating ability of LPS-treated monocytes. This inhibition of TLR4-induced IL-12p40 expression is mediated by Gαi-triggered signalling as well as by Gβγ-dependent activation of PI3kinase and JNK. Taken together we propose the following model: LPS stimulates TLR4-mediated activation of the NFĸB-pathway and thereby the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40. PMT inhibits the production of IL-12p40 by Gαi-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase and cAMP accumulation and by Gβγ-mediated activation of PI3kinase and JNK activation. Conclusions On the basis of the experiments with PMT this study gives an example of a pathogen-induced interaction between G protein-mediated and TLR4-triggered signalling and illustrates how a bacterial toxin is able to interfere with the host’s immune

  10. Polyphenols isolated from Allium cepa L. induces apoptosis by suppressing IAP-1 through inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in human leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Ho; Lee, Won Sup; Jung, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae-Hun; Park, Cheol; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, GonSup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Gi-Young; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Allium cepa Linn is commonly used as supplementary folk remedy for cancer therapy. Evidence suggests that Allium extracts have anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of A. cepa Linn are not fully elucidated in human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated anti-cancer effects of polyphenols extracted from lyophilized A. cepa Linn (PEAL) in human leukemia cells and their mechanisms. PEAL inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptosis was suppressed by caspase 8 and 9 inhibitors. PEAL also up-regulated TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor DR5 and down-regulated survivin and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP-1). We confirmed these findings in other leukemic cells (THP-1, K562 cells). In addition, PEAL suppressed Akt activity and the PEAL-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated in Akt-overexpressing U937 cells. In conclusion, our data suggested that PEAL induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in several human leukemic cells including U937 cells. The apoptosis was triggered through extrinsic pathway by up-regulating DR5 modulating as well as through intrinsic pathway by modulating IAP family members. In addition, PEAL induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at least in part through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides evidence that PEAL might be useful for the treatment of leukemia.

  11. Cardiotoxin III Inhibits Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Suppresses Invasion of MDA-MB-231 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Fu, Yaw-Syan; Chang, Long-Sen; Lin, Shinne-Ren

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. In this study, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was used as a metastatic inducer of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cardiotoxin III (CTX III) inhibited HGF-induced morphological changes and upregulation of E-cadherin with the concomitant decrease in N-cadherin and Vimentin protein levels, resulting in inhibition of cell migration and invasion. CTX III-induced downregulation of transcription factors, Snail, Twist, and Slug, in MDA-MB-231 cells. CTX III suppressed c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. The c-Met specific inhibitor PHA665752 attenuated ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, cell migration and invasion, as well as the expressional changes of EMT markers induced by HGF. Taken together, our data suggest that CTX III suppresses HGF/c-Met-induced cell migration and invasion by reversing EMT, which involves the inactivation of the HGF/c-Met-mediated ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways in MDA-MB-231 cells.

  12. An increase in galectin-3 causes cellular unresponsiveness to IFN-γ-induced signal transduction and growth inhibition in gastric cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Po-Chun; Chen, Chia-Ling; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β facilitates interferon (IFN)-γ signaling by inhibiting Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP) 2. Mutated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) cause AKT activation and GSK-3β inactivation to induce SHP2-activated cellular unresponsiveness to IFN-γ in human gastric cancer AGS cells. This study investigated the potential role of galectin-3, which acts upstream of AKT/GSK-3β/SHP2, in gastric cancer cells. Increasing or decreasing galectin-3 altered IFN-γ signaling. Following cisplatin-induced galectin-3 upregulation, surviving cells showed cellular unresponsiveness to IFN-γ. Galectin-3 induced IFN-γ resistance independent of its extracellular β-galactoside-binding activity. Galectin-3 expression was not regulated by PI3K activation or by a decrease in PTEN. Increased galectin-3 may cause GSK-3β inactivation and SHP2 activation by promoting PDK1-induced AKT phosphorylation at a threonine residue. Overexpression of AKT, inactive GSK-3βR96A, SHP2, or active SHP2D61A caused cellular unresponsiveness to IFN-γ in IFN-γ-sensitive MKN45 cells. IFN-γ-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in AGS cells were observed until galectin-3 expression was downregulated. These results demonstrate that an increase in galectin-3 facilitates AKT/GSK-3β/SHP2 signaling, causing cellular unresponsiveness to IFN-γ. PMID:26934444

  13. Renal cortical hexokinase and pentose phosphate pathway activation through the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway in endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua A; Stallons, L Jay; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2014-08-15

    While disruption of energy production is an important contributor to renal injury, metabolic alterations in sepsis-induced AKI remain understudied. We assessed changes in renal cortical glycolytic metabolism in a mouse model of sepsis-induced AKI. A specific and rapid increase in hexokinase (HK) activity (∼2-fold) was observed 3 h after LPS exposure and maintained up to 18 h, in association with a decline in renal function as measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN). LPS-induced HK activation occurred independently of HK isoform expression or mitochondrial localization. No other changes in glycolytic enzymes were observed. LPS-mediated HK activation was not sufficient to increase glycolytic flux as indicated by reduced or unchanged pyruvate and lactate levels in the renal cortex. LPS-induced HK activation was associated with increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity but not glycogen production. Mechanistically, LPS-induced HK activation was attenuated by pharmacological inhibitors of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and Akt, indicating that EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling is responsible. Our findings reveal LPS rapidly increases renal cortical HK activity in an EGFR- and Akt-dependent manner and that HK activation is linked to increased pentose phosphate pathway activity.

  14. Interleukin-13-induced MUC5AC expression is regulated by a PI3K-NFAT3 pathway in mouse tracheal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fugui; Li, Wen; Zhou, Hongbin; Wu, Yinfang; Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihua; Shen, Huahao

    2014-03-28

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) plays a critical role in asthma mucus overproduction, while the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully elucidated. Previous studies showed that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, but whether it can directly regulate IL-13-induced mucus (particularly MUC5AC) production is still not clear. Here we showed that IL-13 specifically induced NFAT3 activation through promoting its dephosphorylation in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs). Furthermore, both Cyclosporin A (CsA, a specific NFAT inhibitor) and LY294002 (a Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor) significantly blocked IL-13-induced MUC5AC mRNA and protein production through the inhibition of NFAT3 activity. We also confirmed that CsA could not influence the forkhead Box A2 (Foxa2) and mouse calcium dependent chloride channel 3 (mClca3) expression in IL-13-induced MUC5AC production, which both are known to be important in IL-13-stimulated mucus expression. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the PI3K-NFAT3 pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, and provided novel insights into the molecular mechanism of asthma mucus hypersecretion.

  15. Matrine induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through downregulation of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and the Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Huiyan; Zhang, Yifei; Wu, Baogang; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Hongfang; He, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer‑related mortality in humans. The prognosis for advanced lung cancer patients is extremely poor. Current standard care is rather ineffective for prolonging patient life while preserving satisfactory quality of life due to adverse side-effects. Matrine extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal plant Sophora flavescens was shown to induce cancer cell death in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on the proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and the molecular basis of matrine-induced apoptosis. The results showed that matrine inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer A549 and 95D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptotic effects of matrine on lung cancer cells appeared to act via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling pathway and downregulation of the expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins. Matrine exerts its cancer-killing effect via promoting apoptosis in lung cancer cells and may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic scheme for treating advanced lung cancer patients.

  16. Impairment of Atg5-dependent autophagic flux promotes paraquat- and MPP⁺-induced apoptosis but not rotenone or 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Anandhan, Annandurai; Burns, Michaela; Chen, Han; Zhou, You; Franco, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    Controversial reports on the role of autophagy as a survival or cell death mechanism in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins exist. We investigated the alterations in autophagic flux and the role of autophagy protein 5 (Atg5)-dependent autophagy in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins. Dopaminergic cell death induced by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitors 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP⁺) and rotenone, the pesticide paraquat, and the dopamine analog 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was paralleled by increased autophagosome accumulation. However, when compared with basal autophagy levels using chloroquine, autophagosome accumulation was a result of impaired autophagic flux. Only 6-OHDA induced an increase in autophagosome formation. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Atg5 increased paraquat- and MPP⁺-induced cell death. Stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent signaling protected against cell death induced by paraquat, whereas MPP⁺-induced toxicity was enhanced by wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase class III inhibitor, rapamycin, and trehalose, an mTOR-independent autophagy activator. Modulation of autophagy by either pharmacological or genetic approaches had no effect on rotenone or 6-OHDA toxicity. Cell death induced by parkinsonian neurotoxins was inhibited by the pan caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD), but only caspase-3 inhibition was able to decrease MPP⁺-induced cell death. Finally, inhibition of the lysosomal hydrolases, cathepsins, increased the toxicity by paraquat and MPP⁺, supporting a protective role of Atg5-dependent autophagy and lysosomes degradation pathways on dopaminegic cell death. These results demonstrate that in dopaminergic cells, Atg5-dependent autophagy acts as a protective mechanism during apoptotic cell death induced by paraquat and MPP⁺ but not during rotenone or 6-OHDA toxicity.

  17. Effect of paired using tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber on the expressions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt in rabbits with carotid atherosclerosis%配对使用陈皮半夏对颈动脉粥样硬化家兔磷脂酰肌醇3激酶和磷酸化蛋白激酶B表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文强; 黄小波; 王宁群; 陈玉静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate paired using tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber to regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)and protein kinase B (p-Akt)signal pathways in rabbits in order to treat carotid atherosclerosis. Methods According to a random number table,20 rabbits were divided into 4 groups:a control,a model,a tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber,and a tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber+LY294002 (a PI3K/Akt signal pathway specific inhibitor)group (n=5 in each group). The rabbits in the control group were fed with basal diet,while those in other groups were given high-cholesterol diet and air drying of carotid artery intima were performed. After procedure,the rabbits in the tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber group and the tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber +LY294002 group were treated with the decoction of traditional Chinese medicine. Carotid atherosclerosis was observed via HE staining;the effect of tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber on the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt in rabbits with carotid atherosclerosis was observed by western blot. Results (1)the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt in carotid in the model group were 107. 0 ± 2. 6 and 113. 0 ± 1. 7,and those in the tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber group were 174. 7 ± 14. 5 and 186. 3 ± 18. 3. There were significant differences between the two groups (P <0. 01). After using PI3K/Akt signal pathway specific inhibitor LY294002,the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt (117. 0 ± 4. 0,127. 3 ± 4. 7)were lower than the tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber group. There were significant differences between the two groups (P <0. 01). (2)The tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber group had mild intimal hyperplasia and foam cell formation under the artery intima,however,they were better than those of the model group and the tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber+LY294002 group. Conclusion Tangerine peel and ternate pinellia tuber may play a role in the

  18. Effects of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine threonine kinase pathway on expression of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 in the hippocampus neurons%胰岛素信号通路磷脂酰肌醇-3激酶/丝氨酸苏氨酸蛋白激酶对海马神经元β-淀粉样前体蛋白裂解酶1表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁颖; 晏勇; 蔡志友; 冯占辉; 张华; 吴芳; 孟涛; 代政伟

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过胰岛素和磷脂酰肌醇-3激酶(PDK)抑制剂渥曼青霉素(wortmannin,WORT)对PI3K/丝氨酸苏氨酸蛋白激酶(PDK/Akt)信号通路的激活和抑制作用,观察PI3K/Akt信号通路对海马神经元B-淀粉样前体蛋白裂解酶1(BACE1)表达的影响.方法 40只SD大鼠随机分为空白对照组、假手术组、胰岛素组和WORT组(每组10只),海马立体定向注射胰岛素和PI3K抑制剂WORT.免疫组织化学和Western blot法检测PI3K/Akt信号传导相关蛋白以及BACE1的表达水平.结果 注射胰岛素的海马PI3K信号通路下游信号分子较对照组:Akt表达增加(0.952±0.060与0.835±0.029,t=4.9150,P=0.0001),Akt set473位点磷酸化(pAkt)水平上调(0.800±0.075与0.657±0.025,t=4.5598,P=0.0002),糖原合成激酶-3α(GSK-3α)磷酸化水平降低(0.604±0.062与0.726±0. 041,t=3.5871,P=0.0018),而成熟的BACE1及其裂解产物β分泌酶C末端(β-CTF)表达下调.WORT组的PI3K下游信号分子Akt、pAkt表达明显被抑制,磷酸化GSK-3α表达增加,同时成熟的BACE1(1.004±0.096)和β-CTF(1.031±0.048)的表达较对照组(分别0.498±0.064,0.786±0.101)上调(分别t=11.5980,P=0.0000;t=4.2194,P=0.0004).结论 胰岛素信号通路PI3K/AKt可以调节BACE1的表达和活性并参与阿尔茨海默病的发病机制.%Objective To investigate the effect of phosphatidylinesitol-3 kinase/serine threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway on expression of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) in the hippocampus neurons of rat brain. Methods Forty SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: blank control group, sham-operated group, insulin group and wortmannin group. Insulin or the specific inhibitor of PI3K, wortmannin was injected into hippocampus neurons to activate or inhibit the signaling pathway in insulin group or wortmannin group, respectively. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot were used to analyze the proteins levels of PI3K/Akt and BACE1. Results In insulin

  19. DMPD: Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sep;30(9):1617-23. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml... K, Hazeki O. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Sep;30(9):1617-23. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Role of phosphoino... file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  20. Abnormal Wnt and PI3Kinase signaling in the malformed intestine of lama5 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Ritié

    Full Text Available Laminins are major constituents of basement membranes and are essential for tissue homeostasis. Laminin-511 is highly expressed in the intestine and its absence causes severe malformation of the intestine and embryonic lethality. To understand the mechanistic role of laminin-511 in tissue homeostasis, we used RNA profiling of embryonic intestinal tissue of lama5 knockout mice and identified a lama5 specific gene expression signature. By combining cell culture experiments with mediated knockdown approaches, we provide a mechanistic link between laminin α5 gene deficiency and the physiological phenotype. We show that laminin α5 plays a crucial role in both epithelial and mesenchymal cell behavior by inhibiting Wnt and activating PI3K signaling. We conclude that conflicting signals are elicited in the absence of lama5, which alter cell adhesion, migration as well as epithelial and muscle differentiation. Conversely, adhesion to laminin-511 may serve as a potent regulator of known interconnected PI3K/Akt and Wnt signaling pathways. Thus deregulated adhesion to laminin-511 may be instrumental in diseases such as human pathologies of the gut where laminin-511 is abnormally expressed as it is shown here.

  1. Breast Cancer Chemoresistance Mechanisms Through PI 3-Kinase and Akt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    for overcoming chemotherapy resistance . INTRODUCTION As a component of both monotherapy and combination therapy regimens, the anthracycline antibiotic ...exposed to these drugs evade cell death by apoptosis and thus become resistant to the damaging effects of clinically-relevant chemotherapy agents...as a clinically relevant biomarker for resistance to doxorubicin. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Akt, MERIT40, PI 3-K, chemotherapy, signaling, chemoresistance

  2. Structural, Biochemical, and Biophysical Characterization of Idelalisib Binding to Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase δ*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, John R.; Koditek, David; Villaseñor, Armando G.; Novikov, Nikolai; Wong, Melanie H.; Liclican, Albert; Xing, Weimei; Lagpacan, Leanna; Wang, Ruth; Schultz, Brian E.; Papalia, Giuseppe A.; Samuel, Dharmaraj; Lad, Latesh; McGrath, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Idelalisib (also known as GS-1101, CAL-101, IC489666, and Zydelig) is a PI3Kδ inhibitor that has recently been approved for the treatment of several hematological malignancies. Given its use in human diseases, we needed a clear picture of how idelalisib binds to and inhibits PI3Kδ. Our data show that idelalisib is a potent and selective inhibitor of the kinase activity of PI3Kδ. A kinetic characterization clearly demonstrated ATP-competitive inhibition, and several additional biochemical and biophysical assays showed that the compound binds reversibly and noncovalently to the kinase. A crystal structure of idelalisib bound to the p110δ subunit of PI3Kδ furthers our understanding of the binding interactions that confer the potency and selectivity of idelalisib. PMID:25631052

  3. Involvement of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the regulation of proline catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Leprince; N. Magalhaes; D. de Vos; M. Bordenave; E. Crilat; G. Clément; C Meyer; T. Munnik; A. Savouré

    2014-01-01

    Plant adaptation to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity involves complex regulatory processes. Deciphering the signaling components that are involved in stress signal transduction and cellular responses is of importance to understand how plants cope with salt stress. Accumulation of osmoly

  4. Dual ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways control airway smooth muscle proliferation : differences in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K; Lee, Jin Hee; Ge, Qi; Ramsay, Emma E; Poniris, Maree H; Parmentier, Johannes; Roth, Michael; Johnson, Peter R A; Hunt, Nicholas H; Black, Judith L; Ammit, Alaina J

    2008-01-01

    Hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle (ASM) within the bronchial wall of asthmatic patients has been well documented and is likely due to increased muscle proliferation. We have shown that ASM cells obtained from asthmatic patients proliferate faster than those obtained from non-asthmatic patients. In

  5. Sensitization of Dictyostelium chemotaxis by phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated self-organizing signalling patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.; Roelofs, J.; Goedhart, J.; Loovers, H.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Haastert, van P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The leading edge of Dictyostelium cells in chemoattractant gradients can be visualized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged to the pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain of cytosolic regulator of adenylyl cyclase (CRAC), which presumable binds phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)

  6. Sensitization of Dictyostelium chemotaxis by phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated self-organizing signalling patches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.; Roelofs, J.; Goedhart, J.; Loovers, H.M.; Visser, A.J.; van Haastert, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leading edge of Dictyostelium cells in chemoattractant gradients can be visualized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged to the pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain of cytosolic regulator of adenylyl cyclase (CRAC), which presumable binds phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)

  7. Characterization of the Met326Ile variant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Katrine; Delahaye, Laurent; Hansen, Torben;

    2002-01-01

    knockout mice. Both p85alpha(Met) and p85alpha(Ile) had similar effects on AKT activity and were able to reconstitute differentiation of the preadipocytes, although the triglyceride concentration in fully differentiated adipocytes and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake were slightly lower than...

  8. PIN protein phosphorylation by plant AGC3 kinases and its role in polar auxin transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Polar cell-to-cell transport of plant hormone auxin mediated by plasma membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers generates auxin gradients that provide positional information for various plant developmental processes. The apical-basal polar localization of the PIN proteins that

  9. A single ataxia telangiectasia gene with a product similar to PI-3 kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitsky, K.; Bar-Shira, A.; Gilad, S.; Rotman, G.; Ziv, Y.; Vanagaite, L.; Smith, S.; Uziel, T.; Sfez, S.; Ashkenazi, M. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)] [and others

    1995-06-23

    A gene, ATM, that is mutated in the autosomal recessive disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) was identified by positional cloning on chromosome 11q22-23. AT is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, cancer predisposition, radiation sensitivity, and cell cycle abnormalities. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, with four complementation groups that have been suspected to represent different genes. ATM, which has a transcript of 12 kilobases, was found to be mutated in AT patients from all complementation groups, indicating that it is probably the sole gene responsible for this disorder. A partial ATM complementary DNA clone of 5.9 kilobases encoded a putative protein that is similar to several yeast and mammalian phosphatidylinositol-3{prime} kinases that are involved in mitogenic signal transduction, meiotic recombination, and cell cycle control. The discovery of ATM should enhance understanding of AT and related syndromes and may allow the identification of AT heterozygotes, who are at increased risk of cancer. 54 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The Critical Role of Membrane Cholesterol in Salmonella-Induced Autophagy in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was previously observed that plasma membrane cholesterol plays a critical role in the Salmonella-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent (PI3K-dependent anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs. The PI3K/Akt pathway is associated with autophagy which has emerged as a critical mechanism of host defense against several intracellular bacterial pathogens. Plasma membrane contributes directly to the formation of early Atg16L1-positive autophagosome precursors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of plasma membrane cholesterol on the Salmonella-induced autophagy in IECs. By using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD, it was demonstrated that disruption of membrane cholesterol by MBCD enhanced NOD2 and Atg16L1 proteins expression in membrane, and autophagic LC3II proteins expression and LC3 punctae in Salmonella-infected Caco-2 cells, which was counteracted by Atg16L1 siRNA. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2 siRNA enhanced the Salmonella-induced activation of Akt in Caco-2 cells. However, inhibitors of Akt or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK had no significant effect on Salmonella-induced autophagy Beclin 1 or LC3 proteins expression. In conclusion, our study suggests that cholesterol accumulation in the plasma membrane at the entry site of Salmonella results in the formation of Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV and decreased autophagy. Our results offer mechanistic insights on the critical role of membrane cholesterol in the pathogenesis of Salmonella infection in intestinal epithelial cells and the therapeutic potential of its antagonists.

  11. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: jonathan.little@ubc.ca [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  12. Arctigenin Attenuates Learning and Memory Deficits through PI3k/Akt/GSK-3β Pathway Reducing Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Aβ-Induced AD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Dou, De-Qiang; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Bing-Bing; Qin, Wen-Yan; Kang, Kai; Zhang, Na; Jia, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Arctigenin is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan compound possessing antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, antioxidant, antibacterial, and hypoglycaemic activities. Our previous study demonstrated that arctigenin exerts neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo in a Parkinson's disease model. However, the exact mechanism through which arctigenin improves amyloid beta-induced memory impairment by inhibiting the production of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein is unknown. Amyloid β1-42 was slowly administered via the intracerebroventricular route in a volume of 3 µL (≈ 410 pmmol/mouse) to mice. The mice were administered arctigenin (10, 40, or 150 mg/kg) or vehicle starting from the second day after amyloid β1-42 injection to the end of the experiment. Behavioural tests were performed from days 9 to 15. On day 16 after the intracerebroventricular administration of amyloid β1-42, the mice were sacrificed for biochemical analysis. Arctigenin (10-150 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the impairment of spontaneous alternation behaviours in the Y-maze task, decreased the escape latency in the Morris water maze test, and increased the swimming times and swimming distances to the platform located in the probe test. Arctigenin attenuated the level of phosphorylated tau at the Thr-181, Thr-231, and Ser-404 sites in the hippocampus, and increased the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, threonine/serine protein kinase B, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Arctigenin effectively provides protection against learning and memory deficits and in inhibits hyperphosphorylated tau protein expression in the hippocampus. The possible mechanism may occur via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B-dependent glycogen synthase kinase-3β signalling pathway.

  13. PKCη/Rdx-driven phosphorylation of PDK1: a novel mechanism promoting cancer cell survival and permissiveness for parvovirus-induced lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Bär

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic oncotropism and oncosuppressive activities of rodent protoparvoviruses (PVs are opening new prospects for cancer virotherapy. Virus propagation, cytolytic activity, and spread are tightly connected to activation of the PDK1 signaling cascade, which delays stress-induced cell death and sustains functioning of the parvoviral protein NS1 through PKC(η-driven modifications. Here we reveal a new PV-induced intracellular loop-back mechanism whereby PKCη/Rdx phosphorylates mouse PDK1:S138 and activates it independently of PI3-kinase signaling. The corresponding human PDK1phosphoS135 appears as a hallmark of highly aggressive brain tumors and may contribute to the very effective targeting of human gliomas by H-1PV. Strikingly, although H-1PV does not trigger PDK1 activation in normal human cells, such cells show enhanced viral DNA amplification and NS1-induced death upon expression of a constitutively active PDK1 mimicking PDK1phosphoS135. This modification thus appears as a marker of human glioma malignant progression and sensitivity to H-1PV-induced tumor cell killing.

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C induces osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells through the ERK and RUNX2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Juri; Ishii, Masakazu; Suehiro, Fumio; Ishihata, Kiyohide; Nakamura, Norifumi; Nishimura, Masahiro

    2017-03-11

    Vascular endothelial cell growth factor C (VEGF-C) is a member of the VEGF family and plays a role in a variety of biological activities including lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and 3 (VEGFR3). However, it has not been elucidated whether VEGF-C promotes osteogenic differentiation. Herein, we investigated the effects of VEGF-C on osteogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanisms. VEGF-C treatment significantly increased RUNX2 expression, and led to the promotion of osteogenic marker gene expression and mineralization of MSCs. VEGF-C treatment induced the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 in MSCs. Treatment with the VEGFR3-specific ligand VEGF-C156S also promoted MSC mineralization. Furthermore, co-treatment with VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 kinase inhibitors blocked VEGF-C-induced MSC mineralization. VEGF-C treatment activated ERK signaling in MSCs, and inhibition of ERK signaling effectively suppressed VEGF-C-induced RUNX2 expression and mineralization. These results indicate that VEGF-C-induced MSC osteogenesis is mediated through VEGFR2 and VEGFR3, and followed the activation of the ERK/RUNX2 signaling pathway.

  15. Anti-tumour-promoting and thermal-induced protein denaturation inhibitory activities of β-sitosterol and lupeol isolated from Diospyros lotus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Khan, Haroon; Raza, Muslim; Zafar, Muhammad; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the anti-tumour-promoting and thermal-induced protein denaturation inhibitory activities of β-sitosterol (1) and lupeol (2), isolated from Diospyros lotus L., were explored. Compound 1 showed a marked concentration-dependent inhibition against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (20 ng/32 pmol)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation in Raji cells with IC50 of 270 μg/ml, without significant toxicity (70% viability). Compound 2 showed significant anti-tumour-promoting effect with IC50 of 412 μg/ml, without significant toxicity (60% viability). In heat-induced protein denaturation assay, compound 1 exhibited a concentration-dependent attenuation with a maximum effect of 73.5% at 500 μg/ml with EC50 of 117 μg/ml, while compound 2 exhibited a maximum effect of 59.2% at 500 μg/ml with EC50 of 355 μg/ml. Moreover, in silico docking studies against the phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzyme also show the inhibitory potency of these compounds. In short, both the compounds exhibited a marked anti-tumour-promoting and potent inhibitory effect on thermal-induced protein denaturation.

  16. Honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, inhibits photocarcinogenesis by targeting UVB-induced inflammatory mediators and cell cycle regulators: development of topical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Mudit; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-11-01

    To develop newer and more effective chemopreventive agents for skin cancer, we assessed the effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis using the SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Topical treatment of mice with honokiol in a hydrophilic cream-based topical formulation before or after UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) irradiation resulted in a significant protection against photocarcinogenesis in terms of tumor multiplicity (28-60%, P skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice were analyzed for inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and survival signals using immunostaining, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with honokiol significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E(2) (P skin as well as in skin tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that honokiol: (i) inhibited the levels of cyclins D1, D2 and E and associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)2, CDK4 and CDK6, (ii) upregulated Cip/p21 and Kip/p27 and (iii) inhibited the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in UVB-induced skin tumors. Together, our results indicate that honokiol holds promise for the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer by targeting inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and cell survival signals in UVB-exposed skin.

  17. Bioinformatics analysis of the factors controlling type I IFN gene expression in autoimmune disease and virus-induced immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di eFeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS display increased levels of type I IFN-induced genes. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs are natural interferon producing cells and considered to be a primary source of IFN-α in these two diseases. Differential expression patterns of type I IFN inducible transcripts can be found in different immune cell subsets and in patients with both active and inactive autoimmune disease. A type I IFN gene signature generally consists of three groups of IFN-induced genes - those regulated in response to virus-induced type I IFN, those regulated by the IFN-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK pathway, and those by the IFN-induced phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K pathway. These three groups of type I IFN-regulated genes control important cellular processes such as apoptosis, survival, adhesion, and chemotaxis, that when dysregulated, contribute to autoimmunity. With the recent generation of large datasets in the public domain from next-generation sequencing and DNA microarray experiments, one can perform detailed analyses of cell type-specific gene signatures as well as identify distinct transcription factors that differentially regulate these gene signatures. We have performed bioinformatics analysis of data in the public domain and experimental data from our lab to gain insight into the regulation of type I IFN gene expression. We have found that the genetic landscape of the IFNA and IFNB genes are occupied by transcription factors, such as insulators CTCF and cohesin, that negatively regulate transcription, as well as IRF5 and IRF7, that positively and distinctly regulate IFNA subtypes. A detailed understanding of the factors controlling type I IFN gene transcription will significantly aid in the identification and development of new therapeutic strategies targeting the IFN pathway in autoimmune disease.

  18. mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhao, Qingwei [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 79, Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Danyan, E-mail: zdyzxb@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-06-10

    Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with α-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 μM. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-κB activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  19. Exogenous PTEN Gene Induces Apoptosis in Breast Carcinoma Cell Line MDA468

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qingyong; WANG Chunyou; JIANG Chunfang; CHEN Daoda

    2007-01-01

    The effects and mechanisms of exogenous phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome ten (PTEN) gene on phosphatase activity-dependent apoptosis of breast cancer cell line MDA468 were investigated. PTEN gene packaged with lipofectin was transferred into breast cancer cell line MDA468 and parental MDA468 cells served as controls. RT-PCR and Western blot were done to detect the expression of target genes. The expression of phosphospecific protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) was also detected. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry with a double-staining method using FITC-conjugated annexin V and PI. MDA468 cells transfected with PTEN gene could express PTEN mRNA and protein. PTEN decreased the phosphorylation level of AKT protein and down-regulated FAK protein expression in MDA468 stimulated by EGF. The apoptosis rate was 21.68%. PTEN induced breast cancer apoptosis phosphatase activity-dependently. The mechanism is possibly relatedwith phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT signaling pathway. Those results may provide new clues on the gene therapy in breast cancer.

  20. Tumor-derived microvesicles induce proangiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells via endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Kawamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TEC differ from normal endothelial cells (NEC. Our previous reports also showed that TEC were different from NEC. For example, TEC have chromosomal abnormality and proangiogenic properties such as high motility and proliferative activity. However, the mechanism by which TEC acquire a specific character remains unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we focused on tumor-derived microvesicles (TMV. Recent studies have shown that TMV contain numerous types of bioactive molecules and affect normal stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, most of the functional mechanisms of TMV remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we showed that TMV isolated from tumor cells were taken up by NEC through endocytosis. In addition, we found that TMV promoted random motility and tube formation through the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in NEC. Moreover, the effects induced by TMV were inhibited by the endocytosis inhibitor dynasore. Our results indicate that TMV could confer proangiogenic properties to NEC partly via endocytosis. CONCLUSION: We for the first time showed that endocytosis of TMV contributes to tumor angiogenesis. These findings offer new insights into cancer therapies and the crosstalk between tumor and endothelial cells mediated by TMV in the tumor microenvironment.

  1. Growth factors induce monocyte binding to vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for monocyte retention in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiangjun; Lanting, Linda; Natarajan, Rama

    2004-09-01

    Adhesive interactions between monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) may contribute to subendothelial monocyte-macrophage retention in atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB on VSMC-monocyte interactions. Treatment of human aortic VSMC (HVSMC) with ANG II or PDGF-BB significantly increased binding to human monocytic THP-1 cells and to peripheral blood monocytes. This was inhibited by antibodies to monocyte beta(1)- and beta(2)-integrins. The binding was also attenuated by blocking VSMC arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism by inhibitors of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Conversely, binding was enhanced by overexpression of 12/15-LO or COX-2. Direct treatment of HVSMC with AA or its metabolites also increased binding. Furthermore, VSMC derived from 12/15-LO knockout mice displayed reduced binding to mouse monocytic cells relative to genetic control mice. Using specific signal transduction inhibitors, we demonstrated the involvement of Src, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and MAPKs in ANG II- or PDGF-BB-induced binding. Interestingly, after coculture with HVSMC, THP-1 cell surface expression of the scavenger receptor CD36 was increased. These results show for the first time that growth factors may play additional roles in atherosclerosis by increasing monocyte binding to VSMC via AA metabolism and key signaling pathways. This can lead to monocyte subendothelial retention, CD36 expression, and foam cell formation.

  2. Transcriptomic and functional pathways analysis of ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity and resistance of Burkitt lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zenglin; Zhang, Xuan; Ji, Chunxia; Liu, Song-Mei; Wang, Jin

    2016-09-27

    Ascorbate is a pro-oxidant that generates hydrogen peroxide-dependent cytotoxity in cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. To determine the mechanistic basis for this phenotype, we selected Burkitt lymphoma cells resistant to ascorbate (JLPR cells) and their ascorbate-sensitive parental cells (JLPS cells). Compared with JLPS cells, the increased glucose uptake in JLPR cells (with upregulated glucose transporters, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and altered cell cycling) conferred ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity and resistance. Transcriptomic profiles and function pathway analysis identified differentially expressed gene signatures for JLPR cells and JLPS cells, which differential expression levels of five genes (ATF5, CD79B, MHC, Myosin, and SAP18) in ascorbate-resistant cells were related to phosphoinositide 3 kinase, cdc42, DNA methylation and transcriptional repression, polyamine regulation, and integrin-linked kinase signaling pathways. These results suggested that coordinated changes occurred in JLPR cells to enable their survival when exposed to the cytotoxic pro-oxidant stress elicited by pharmacologic ascorbate treatment.

  3. Src mutation induces acquired lapatinib resistance in ERBB2-amplified human gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sang Hong

    Full Text Available ERBB2-directed therapy is now a routine component of therapy for ERBB2-amplified metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. However, there is little knowledge of the mechanisms by which these tumors develop acquired resistance to ERBB2 inhibition. To investigate this question we sought to characterize cell line models of ERBB2-amplified gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma with acquired resistance to ERBB2 inhibition. We generated lapatinib-resistant (LR subclones from an initially lapatinib-sensitive ERBB2-amplified esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line, OE19. We subsequently performed genomic characterization and functional analyses of resistant subclones with acquired lapatinib resistance. We identified a novel, acquired SrcE527K mutation in a subset of LR OE19 subclones. Cells with this mutant allele harbour increased Src phosphorylation. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of Src resensitized these subclones to lapatinib. Biochemically, Src mutations could activate both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase pathways in the lapatinib-treated LR OE19 cells. Ectopic expression of SrcE527K mutation also was sufficient to induce lapatinib resistance in drug-naïve cells. These results indicate that pathologic activation of Src is a potential mechanism of acquired resistance to ERBB2 inhibition in ERBB2-amplified gastroesophageal cancer. Although Src mutation has not been described in primary tumor samples, we propose that the Src hyperactivation should be investigated in the settings of acquired resistance to ERBB2 inhibition in esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Solip; Nguyen, Van Thu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE2, butyl lucidenateD2 (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum.

  5. Interleukin-13-induced MUC5AC expression is regulated by a PI3K–NFAT3 pathway in mouse tracheal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Fugui; Li, Wen; Zhou, Hongbin; Wu, Yinfang; Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihua [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Shen, Huahao, E-mail: huahaoshen@163.com [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); State Key Lab. of Respiratory Disease (SKLRS) (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • IL-13 specifically induced NFAT3 activation in mouse tracheal epithelial cells. • CsA and LY294002 significantly blocked IL-13-induced MUC5AC production. • The PI3K–NFAT3 pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced MUC5AC production. - Abstract: Interleukin-13 (IL-13) plays a critical role in asthma mucus overproduction, while the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully elucidated. Previous studies showed that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, but whether it can directly regulate IL-13-induced mucus (particularly MUC5AC) production is still not clear. Here we showed that IL-13 specifically induced NFAT3 activation through promoting its dephosphorylation in air–liquid interface (ALI) cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs). Furthermore, both Cyclosporin A (CsA, a specific NFAT inhibitor) and LY294002 (a Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor) significantly blocked IL-13-induced MUC5AC mRNA and protein production through the inhibition of NFAT3 activity. We also confirmed that CsA could not influence the forkhead Box A2 (Foxa2) and mouse calcium dependent chloride channel 3 (mClca3) expression in IL-13-induced MUC5AC production, which both are known to be important in IL-13-stimulated mucus expression. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the PI3K–NFAT3 pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, and provided novel insights into the molecular mechanism of asthma mucus hypersecretion.

  6. beta1-integrin-mediated signaling essentially contributes to cell survival after radiation-induced genotoxic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, N; Seidler, J; Durzok, R;

    2006-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express ...... in tumor cells may promote the development of innovative molecular-targeted therapeutic antitumor strategies.......Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express...... signaling-incompetent beta1B variants. Cells grown on fibronectin, collagen-III, beta1-integrin-IgG or poly-l-lysine were exposed to 0-6 Gy X-rays in presence or depletion of growth factors and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002, wortmannin). In order to test the relevance...

  7. Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Rui-Guo; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Pei-Long; Su, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal crops and has various toxic effects in animals and humans. DON primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract, the first barrier against ingested food contaminants. In this study, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based phosphoproteomic approach was employed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying DON-mediated intestinal toxicity in porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) exposed to 20 μM DON for 60 min. There were 4153 unique phosphopeptides, representing 389 phosphorylation sites, detected in 1821 phosphoproteins. We found that 289 phosphopeptides corresponding to 255 phosphoproteins were differentially phosphorylated in response to DON. Comprehensive Gene Ontology (GO) analysis combined with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment revealed that, in addition to previously well-characterized mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, DON exposure altered phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and Janus kinase/signal transducer, and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. These pathways are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including apoptosis, the intestinal barrier, intestinal inflammation, and the intestinal absorption of glucose. DON-induced changes are likely to contribute to the intestinal dysfunction. Overall, identification of relevant signaling pathways yielded new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying DON-induced intestinal toxicity, and might help in the development of improved mechanism-based risk assessments in animals and humans. PMID:27669298

  8. Asiaticoside attenuates diabetes-induced cognition deficits by regulating PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhujun; Yu, Haiyang; Chen, She; Ma, Chunhua; Ma, Xiao; Xu, Lixing; Ma, Zhanqiang; Qu, Rong; Ma, Shiping

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction, referred as "diabetic encephalopathy", has been confirmed in a great deal of literature. Current evidence support that oxidative stress, inflammation, energy metabolism imbalance, and aberrant insulin signaling are associated with cognition deficits induced by diabetes. The present study explore the effect of asiaticoside on the cognition behaviors, synapses, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Asiaticoside could markedly ameliorate the performance in the Morris Water Maze (decreased latency time and path length, and increased time spent in the target quadrant), which was correlated with its capabilities of suppressing oxidative stress, restoring Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and protecting hippocampal synapses. In vitro, asiaticoside could up-regulate synaptic proteins expression via modulating Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B(AKT)/Nuclear Factor -kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory pathway in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with high glucose chronically. In conclusion, asiaticoside had beneficial effects on the prevention and treatment of diabetes-associated cognitive deficits, which was involved in oxidative stress, PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway and synaptic function in the development of cognitive decline induced by diabetes.

  9. Defective CFTR induces aggresome formation and lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis through ROS-mediated autophagy inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Alessandro; Villella, Valeria Rachela; Esposito, Speranza; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Medina, Diego; Settembre, Carmine; Gavina, Manuela; Pulze, Laura; Giardino, Ida; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; D'Apolito, Maria; Guido, Stefano; Masliah, Eliezer; Spencer, Brian; Quaratino, Sonia; Raia, Valeria; Ballabio, Andrea; Maiuri, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    Accumulation of unwanted/misfolded proteins in aggregates has been observed in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a life-threatening genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Here we show how the defective CFTR results in defective autophagy and decreases the clearance of aggresomes. Defective CFTR-induced upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) drive the crosslinking of beclin 1, leading to sequestration of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI(3)K) complex III and accumulation of p62, which regulates aggresome formation. Both CFTR knockdown and the overexpression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged-CFTR(F508del) induce beclin 1 downregulation and defective autophagy in non-CF airway epithelia through the ROS-TG2 pathway. Restoration of beclin 1 and autophagy by either beclin 1 overexpression, cystamine or antioxidants rescues the localization of the beclin 1 interactome to the endoplasmic reticulum and reverts the CF airway phenotype in vitro, in vivo in Scnn1b-transgenic and Cftr(F508del) homozygous mice, and in human CF nasal biopsies. Restoring beclin 1 or knocking down p62 rescued the trafficking of CFTR(F508del) to the cell surface. These data link the CFTR defect to autophagy deficiency, leading to the accumulation of protein aggregates and to lung inflammation.

  10. Differential Expression of microRNAs in the Ovaries from Letrozole-Induced Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Li, Chunjin; Xu, Ying; Xu, Duo; Li, Hongjiao; Gao, Liwei; Chen, Shuxiong; Fu, Lulu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yongzheng; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Jingshun; Ming, Hao; Zheng, Lianwen

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disorder. To understand the pathogenesis of PCOS, we established rat models of PCOS induced by letrozole and employed deep sequencing to screen the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in PCOS rats and control rats. We observed vaginal smear and detected ovarian pathological alteration and hormone level changes in PCOS rats. Deep sequencing showed that a total of 129 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the ovaries from letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control, including 49 miRNAs upregulated and 80 miRNAs downregulated. Furthermore, the differential expression of miR-201-5p, miR-34b-5p, miR-141-3p, and miR-200a-3p were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these four miRNAs were predicted to target a large set of genes with different functions. Pathway analysis supported that the miRNAs regulate oocyte meiosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling, Rap1 signaling, and Notch signaling. These data indicate that miRNAs are differentially expressed in rat PCOS model and the differentially expressed miRNA are involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of PCOS. Our findings will help identify miRNAs as novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for PCOS.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of ZD1839 (Iressa)-induced apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-oh MOON; Moon-ok KIM; Jae-dong LEE; Yung-hyun CHOI; Min-ki LEE; Gi-young KIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the molecular mechanisms of ZD1839-induced apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells. Methods: The inhibition of human leukemic U937 cell growth was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphnyl-2H-tetrazolim bromide (MTT) assays, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and cell cycle distribution. The expression of anti- and ro-apoptotic proteins was detected by Western blot analysis. Results: This study demonstrated that ZD 1839 induced apoptosis in leukemic U937 cells by the downregulation of Bcl-2, caspase activa-tion and subsequent apoptotic features. Cotreatment with ZD1839 and the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk blocked apoptosis, indicating that caspase-3 activationis at least partially responsible for ZD 1839-induced apoptosis. The ectopic expres-sion of Bcl-2 attenuated caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and subsequent indicators of apoptosis, including sub-G1 DNA content and LDH release. These results indicate that the downregulation of Bcl-2 plays a major role in the initiation of ZD1839-nduced apoptosis, and that the activation of a caspase cascade is involved in the execution of apoptosis. Furthermore, ZD 1839 treatment triggered the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the down-regulation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase PI3K)/Akt. The inhibition of the ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways also significantly increased cellular death. Conclusion:ZD1839 activated caspase-3 and the inhibited Bcl-2 in human leukemic U937 cells through the downregulation of the ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  12. Inflammation-induced loss of Pdcd4 is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tobias; Bajer, Magdalena M; Blees, Johanna S; Eifler, Lisa K; Milke, Larissa; Rübsamen, Daniela; Schulz, Kathrin; Weigert, Andreas; Baker, Alyson R; Colburn, Nancy H; Brüne, Bernhard

    2011-10-01

    The tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is lost in various tumor tissues. Loss of Pdcd4 has been associated with increased tumorigenic potential and tumor progression. While various mechanisms of Pdcd4 regulation have been described, the effect of an inflammatory tumor microenvironment on Pdcd4 protein expression has not been characterized so far. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of Pdcd4 protein regulation in tumor cells under inflammatory conditions. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced differentiation of human U937 monocytes increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Exposure to conditioned medium (CM) of these activated macrophages markedly decreased Pdcd4 protein expression in various tumor cells. Similarly, indirect coculture with such activated U937 monocyte-derived macrophages resulted in the loss of Pdcd4 protein in tumor cells. Decreased Pdcd4 protein levels were attributable to enhanced proteasomal degradation, diminishing Pdcd4 protein half-life. Proteasomal degradation required activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Since macrophage-CM sufficed to induce Pdcd4 degradation, Pdcd4 downregulation was determined to be an indirect unidirectional effect of the macrophages on the tumor cells. Pdcd4 protein expression was also attenuated in vivo in mouse colon tissue in response to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. In summary, we characterized PI3K-mTOR-dependent proteasome-mediated Pdcd4 degradation in tumor cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Consequently, stabilization of Pdcd4 protein could provide a promising novel avenue for therapeutics targeting inflammation-associated tumors.

  13. Pore-Forming Toxins Induce Macrophage Necroptosis during Acute Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto González-Juarbe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Necroptosis is a highly pro-inflammatory mode of cell death regulated by RIP (or RIPK1 and RIP3 kinases and mediated by the effector MLKL. We report that diverse bacterial pathogens that produce a pore-forming toxin (PFT induce necroptosis of macrophages and this can be blocked for protection against Serratia marcescens hemorrhagic pneumonia. Following challenge with S. marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, and purified recombinant pneumolysin, macrophages pretreated with inhibitors of RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL were protected against death. Alveolar macrophages in MLKL KO mice were also protected during S. marcescens pneumonia. Inhibition of caspases had no impact on macrophage death and caspase-1 and -3/7 were determined to be inactive following challenge despite the detection of IL-1β in supernatants. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from RIP3 KO, but not caspase-1/11 KO or caspase-3 KO mice, were resistant to PFT-induced death. We explored the mechanisms for PFT-induced necroptosis and determined that loss of ion homeostasis at the plasma membrane, mitochondrial damage, ATP depletion, and the generation of reactive oxygen species were together responsible. Treatment of mice with necrostatin-5, an inhibitor of RIP1; GW806742X, an inhibitor of MLKL; and necrostatin-5 along with co-enzyme Q10 (N5/C10, which enhances ATP production; reduced the severity of S. marcescens pneumonia in a mouse intratracheal challenge model. N5/C10 protected alveolar macrophages, reduced bacterial burden, and lessened hemorrhage in the lungs. We conclude that necroptosis is the major cell death pathway evoked by PFTs in macrophages and the necroptosis pathway can be targeted for disease intervention.

  14. Proteomic analysis of pathways involved in estrogen-induced growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Zhi Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estrogen is a known growth promoter for estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer cells. Paradoxically, in breast cancer cells that have been chronically deprived of estrogen stimulation, re-introduction of the hormone can induce apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we sought to identify signaling networks that are triggered by estradiol (E2 in isogenic MCF-7 breast cancer cells that undergo apoptosis (MCF-7:5C versus cells that proliferate upon exposure to E2 (MCF-7. The nuclear receptor co-activator AIB1 (Amplified in Breast Cancer-1 is known to be rate-limiting for E2-induced cell survival responses in MCF-7 cells and was found here to also be required for the induction of apoptosis by E2 in the MCF-7:5C cells. Proteins that interact with AIB1 as well as complexes that contain tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were isolated by immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry (MS at baseline and after a brief exposure to E2 for two hours. Bioinformatic network analyses of the identified protein interactions were then used to analyze E2 signaling pathways that trigger apoptosis versus survival. Comparison of MS data with a computationally-predicted AIB1 interaction network showed that 26 proteins identified in this study are within this network, and are involved in signal transduction, transcription, cell cycle regulation and protein degradation. CONCLUSIONS: G-protein-coupled receptors, PI3 kinase, Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were most strongly associated with E2-induced proliferation or apoptosis and are integrated here into a global AIB1 signaling network that controls qualitatively distinct responses to estrogen.

  15. Capsaicin Enhances the Drug Sensitivity of Cholangiocarcinoma through the Inhibition of Chemotherapeutic-Induced Autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zai-Fa Hong

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, a devastating cancer with a poor prognosis, is resistant to the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient found in hot red chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, suppresses the growth of several malignant cell lines. Our aims were to investigate the role and mechanism of capsaicin with respect to the sensitivity of CCA cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of capsaicin on CCA tumor sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU was assessed in vitro in CCA cells and in vivo in a xenograft model. The drug sensitivity of QBC939 to 5-FU was significantly enhanced by capsaicin compared with either agent alone. In addition, the combination of capsaicin with 5-FU was synergistic, with a combination index (CI < 1, and the combined treatment also suppressed tumor growth in the CCA xenograft to a greater extent than 5-FU alone. Further investigation revealed that the autophagy induced by 5-FU was inhibited by capsaicin. Moreover, the decrease in AKT and S6 phosphorylation induced by 5-FU was effectively reversed by capsaicin, indicating that capsaicin inhibits 5-FU-induced autophagy by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway in CCA cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that capsaicin may be a useful adjunct therapy to improve chemosensitivity in CCA. This effect likely occurs via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation, suggesting a promising strategy for the development of combination drugs for CCA.

  16. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and