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Sample records for 3-kinase class ii

  1. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

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    Ng, Stanley K.L. [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Neo, Soek-Ying, E-mail: neo_soek_ying@sics.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Yap, Yann-Wan [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L. [Genome Institute of Singapore A-STAR (Singapore); Liau, Kui-Hin [Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Ren, Ee-Chee, E-mail: ren_ee_chee@immunol.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  2. Involvement of class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase α-isoform in antigen-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells.

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    Kiyomi Nigorikawa

    Full Text Available In this study, we present findings that suggest that PI3K-C2α, a member of the class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K subfamily, regulates the process of FcεRI-triggered degranulation. RBL-2H3 cells were transfected with shRNA targeting PI3K-C2α. The knockdown impaired the FcεRI-induced release of a lysosome enzyme, β-hexosaminidase, without affecting the intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. The release of mRFP-tagged neuropeptide-Y, a reporter for the regulated exocytosis, was also decreased in the PI3K-C2α-deficient cells. The release was increased significantly by the expression of the siRNA-resistant version of PI3K-C2α. In wild-type cells, FcεRI stimulation induced the formation of large vesicles, which were associated with CD63, a marker protein of secretory granules. On the vesicles, the existence of PI3K-C2α and PtdIns(3,4P2 was observed. These results indicated that PI3K-C2α and its product PtdIns(3,4P2 may play roles in the secretory process.

  3. Differential regulatory functions of three classes of phosphatidylinositol and phosphoinositide 3-kinases in autophagy.

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    Yu, Xinlei; Long, Yun Chau; Shen, Han-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved and exquisitely regulated self-eating cellular process with important biological functions. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PtdIns3Ks) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are involved in the autophagic process. Here we aim to recapitulate how 3 classes of these lipid kinases differentially regulate autophagy. Generally, activation of the class I PI3K suppresses autophagy, via the well-established PI3K-AKT-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway. In contrast, the class III PtdIns3K catalytic subunit PIK3C3/Vps34 forms a protein complex with BECN1 and PIK3R4 and produces phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P), which is required for the initiation and progression of autophagy. The class II enzyme emerged only recently as an alternative source of PtdIns3P and autophagic initiator. However, the orthodox paradigm is challenged by findings that the PIK3CB catalytic subunit of class I PI3K acts as a positive regulator of autophagy, and PIK3C3 was thought to be an amino acid sensor for MTOR, which curbs autophagy. At present, a number of PtdIns3K and PI3K inhibitors, including specific PIK3C3 inhibitors, have been developed for suppression of autophagy and for clinical applications in autophagy-related human diseases.

  4. Role of protein kinase A and class II phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase C2β in the downregulation of KCa3.1 channel synthesis and membrane surface expression by lyso-globotriaosylceramide

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    Choi, Ju Yeon; Park, Seonghee, E-mail: sp@ewha.ac.kr

    2016-02-19

    The intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa3.1) mediates proliferation of many cell types including fibroblasts, and is a molecular target for intervention in various cell proliferative diseases. Our previous study showed that reduction of KCa3.1 channel expression by lyso-globotriaosylceramide (lyso-Gb3) inhibits differentiation into myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis, which might lead to development of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm secondary to Fabry disease. However, how lyso-Gb3 downregulates KCa3.1 channel expression is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of lyso-Gb3-mediated KCa3.1 channel downregulation, focusing on the cAMP signaling pathway. We found that lyso-Gb3 increased the intracellular cAMP concentration by upregulation of adenylyl cyclase 6 and inhibited ERK 1/2 phosphorylation through the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, leading to the inhibition of KCa3.1 channel synthesis, not the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) pathway. Moreover, lyso-Gb3 suppressed expression of class II phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase C2β (PI3KC2β) by PKA activation, which reduces the production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P], and the reduced membrane surface expression of KCa3.1 channel was recovered by increasing the intracellular levels of PI(3)P. Consequently, our findings that lyso-Gb3 inhibited both KCa3.1 channel synthesis and surface expression by increasing intracellular cAMP, and controlled surface expression through changes in PI3KC2β-mediated PI(3)P production, suggest that modulation of PKA and PI3KC2β activity to control of KCa3.1 channel expression can be an alternative important target to attenuate ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in Fabry disease. - Highlights: • Lyso-Gb3 causes elevation of intracellular cAMP. • Lyso-Gb3 inhibits the ERK 1/2 phosphorylation through PKA, thereby reducing KCa3.1 channel synthesis. • Lyso-Gb3 reduces PI3KC2

  5. Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110α regulates phagosome maturation.

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    Emily P Thi

    Full Text Available Of the various phosphatidylinositol 3- kinases (PI3Ks, only the class III enzyme Vps34 has been shown to regulate phagosome maturation. During studies of phagosome maturation in THP-1 cells deficient in class IA PI3K p110α, we discovered that this PI3K isoform is required for vacuole maturation to progress beyond acquisition of Rab7 leading to delivery of lysosomal markers. Bead phagosomes from THP-1 cells acquired p110α and contained PI3P and PI(3,4,5P3; however, p110α and PI(3,4,5P3 levels in phagosomes from p110α knockdown cells were decreased. Phagosomes from p110α knock down cells showed normal acquisition of both Rab5 and EEA-1, but were markedly deficient in the lysosomal markers LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, and the lysosomal hydrolase, β-galactosidase. Phagosomes from p110α deficient cells also displayed impaired fusion with Texas Red dextran-loaded lysosomes. Despite lacking lysosomal components, phagosomes from p110α deficient cells recruited normal levels of Rab7, Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP and homotypic vacuole fusion and protein sorting (HOPs components Vps41 and Vps16. The latter observations demonstrated that phagosomal Rab7 was active and capable of recruiting effectors involved in membrane fusion. Nevertheless, active Rab7 was not sufficient to bring about the delivery of lysosomal proteins to the maturing vacuole, which is shown for the first time to be dependent on a class I PI3K.

  6. Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase/VPS34 and dynamin are critical for apical endocytic recycling.

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    Carpentier, Sarah; N'Kuli, Francisca; Grieco, Giuseppina; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Janssens, Virginie; Emonard, Hervé; Bilanges, Benoît; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Pierreux, Christophe E; Tyteca, Donatienne; Courtoy, Pierre J

    2013-08-01

    Recycling is a limiting step for receptor-mediated endocytosis. We first report three in vitro or in vivo evidences that class III PI3K/VPS34 is the key PI3K isoform regulating apical recycling. A substractive approach, comparing in Opossum Kidney (OK) cells a pan-class I/II/III PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) with a class I/II PI3K inhibitor (ZSTK474), suggested that class III PI3K/VPS34 inhibition induced selective apical endosome swelling and sequestration of the endocytic receptor, megalin/LRP-2, causing surface down-regulation. GFP-(FYVE)x2 overexpression to sequester PI(3)P caused undistinguishable apical endosome swelling. In mouse kidney proximal tubular cells, conditional Vps34 inactivation also led to vacuolation and intracellular megalin redistribution. We next report that removal of LY294002 from LY294002-treated OK cells induced a spectacular burst of recycling tubules and restoration of megalin surface pool. Acute triggering of recycling tubules revealed recruitment of dynamin-GFP and dependence of dynamin-GTPase, guidance directionality by microtubules, and suggested that a microfilamentous net constrained endosomal swelling. We conclude that (i) besides its role in endosome fusion, PI3K-III is essential for endosome fission/recycling; and (ii) besides its role in endocytic entry, dynamin also supports tubulation of recycling endosomes. The unleashing of recycling upon acute reversal of PI3K inhibition may help study its dynamics and associated machineries.

  7. Structural basis for isoform selectivity in a class of benzothiazole inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ.

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    Collier, Philip N; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Cornebise, Mark; Cottrell, Kevin M; Doran, John D; Griffith, James P; Mahajan, Sudipta; Maltais, François; Moody, Cameron S; Huck, Emilie Porter; Wang, Tiansheng; Aronov, Alex M

    2015-01-08

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) is an attractive target to potentially treat a range of disease states. Herein, we describe the evolution of a reported phenylthiazole pan-PI3K inhibitor into a family of potent and selective benzothiazole inhibitors. Using X-ray crystallography, we discovered that compound 22 occupies a previously unreported hydrophobic binding cleft adjacent to the ATP binding site of PI3Kγ, and achieves its selectivity by exploiting natural sequence differences among PI3K isoforms in this region.

  8. Class II Microcins

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    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  9. Role of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the brain development: possible involvement in specific learning disorders.

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    Inaguma, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Noda, Mariko; Tabata, Hidenori; Maeda, Akihiko; Goto, Masahide; Usui, Daisuke; Jimbo, Eriko F; Kikkawa, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Momoi, Mariko Y; Osaka, Hitoshi; Yamagata, Takanori; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3C3 or mammalian vacuolar protein sorting 34 homolog, Vps34) regulates vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and nutrient sensing. Recently, we reported that PIK3C3 is expressed in mouse cerebral cortex throughout the developmental process, especially at early embryonic stage. We thus examined the role of PIK3C3 in the development of the mouse cerebral cortex. Acute silencing of PIK3C3 with in utero electroporation method caused positional defects of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis. Time-lapse imaging revealed that the abnormal positioning was at least partially because of the reduced migration velocity. When PIK3C3 was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axon extension to the contralateral hemisphere was also delayed. These aberrant phenotypes were rescued by RNAi-resistant PIK3C3. Notably, knockdown of PIK3C3 did not affect the cell cycle of neuronal progenitors and stem cells at the ventricular zone. Taken together, PIK3C3 was thought to play a crucial role in corticogenesis through the regulation of excitatory neuron migration and axon extension. Meanwhile, when we performed comparative genomic hybridization on a patient with specific learning disorders, a 107 Kb-deletion was identified on 18q12.3 (nt. 39554147-39661206) that encompasses exons 5-23 of PIK3C3. Notably, the above aberrant migration and axon growth phenotypes were not rescued by the disease-related truncation mutant (172 amino acids) lacking the C-terminal kinase domain. Thus, functional defects of PIK3C3 might impair corticogenesis and relate to the pathophysiology of specific learning disorders and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Acute knockdown of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3C3) evokes migration defects of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis. PIK3C3-knockdown also disrupts axon outgrowth, but not progenitor proliferation in vivo. Involvement of PIK3C3 in neurodevelopmental disorders might be an interesting future

  10. Plant phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

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    Lee, Y.; Munnik, T.; Lee, Y.; Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates the D-3 position of phosphoinositides. In Arabidopsis, only one PI3K exists, which belongs to the class-III PI3K subfamily which makes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The single AtPI3K gene is essential for survival, since loss of its

  11. Plant phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

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    Lee, Y.; Munnik, T.; Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates the D-3 position of phosphoinositides. In Arabidopsis, only one PI3K exists, which belongs to the class-III PI3K subfamily which makes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The single AtPI3K gene is essential for survival, since loss of its

  12. Regulation of the Tumor-Suppressor Function of the Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Complex by Ubiquitin and SUMO

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    Reidick, Christina [Biochemie Intrazellulärer Transportprozesse, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801 (Germany); El Magraoui, Fouzi; Meyer, Helmut E. [Biomedical Research, Human Brain Proteomics II, Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS, Dortmund 44139 (Germany); Stenmark, Harald [Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo 0310 (Norway); Platta, Harald W., E-mail: harald.platta@rub.de [Biochemie Intrazellulärer Transportprozesse, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801 (Germany)

    2014-12-23

    The occurrence of cancer is often associated with a dysfunction in one of the three central membrane-involution processes—autophagy, endocytosis or cytokinesis. Interestingly, all three pathways are controlled by the same central signaling module: the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) complex and its catalytic product, the phosphorylated lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The activity of the catalytic subunit of the PI3K-III complex, the lipid-kinase VPS34, requires the presence of the membrane-targeting factor VPS15 as well as the adaptor protein Beclin 1. Furthermore, a growing list of regulatory proteins associates with VPS34 via Beclin 1. These accessory factors define distinct subunit compositions and thereby guide the PI3K-III complex to its different cellular and physiological roles. Here we discuss the regulation of the PI3K-III complex components by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. Especially Beclin 1 has emerged as a highly regulated protein, which can be modified with Lys11-, Lys48- or Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains catalyzed by distinct E3 ligases from the RING-, HECT-, RBR- or Cullin-type. We also point out other cross-links of these ligases with autophagy in order to discuss how these data might be merged into a general concept.

  13. Signaling via class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human, breast-derived cell lines.

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    Veronique Juvin

    Full Text Available We have addressed the differential roles of class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human breast-derived MCF10a (and iso-genetic derivatives and MDA-MB 231 and 468 cells. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers of p110 catalytic (α, β, δ and γ and p50-101 regulatory subunits and make the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5P3 that can activate effectors, eg protein kinase B (PKB, and responses, eg migration. The PtdIns(3,4,5P3-3-phosphatase and tumour-suppressor, PTEN inhibits this pathway. p110α, but not other p110s, has a number of onco-mutant variants that are commonly found in cancers. mRNA-seq data shows that MCF10a cells express p110β>>α>δ with undetectable p110γ. Despite this, EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB depended upon p110α-, but not β- or δ- activity. EGF-stimulated chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, was also dependent upon p110α, but not β- or δ- activity. In the presence of single, endogenous alleles of onco-mutant p110α (H1047R or E545K, basal, but not EGF-stimulated, phosphorylation of PKB was increased and the effect of EGF was fully reversed by p110α inhibitors. Cells expressing either onco-mutant displayed higher basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis.This latter effect was, however, only partially-sensitive to PI3K inhibitors. In PTEN(-/- cells, basal and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB was substantially increased, but the p110-dependency was variable between cell types. In MDA-MB 468s phosphorylation of PKB was significantly dependent on p110β, but not α- or δ- activity; in PTEN(-/- MCF10a it remained, like the parental cells, p110α-dependent. Surprisingly, loss of PTEN suppressed basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis. These results indicate that; p110α is required for EGF signaling to PKB and chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis; onco-mutant alleles of p110α augment signaling in the absence of EGF and may increase motility, in part, via acutely

  14. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in myogenesis.

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    Kaliman, P; Zorzano, A

    1997-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been cloned and characterized in a wide range of organisms. PI 3-kinases are activated by a diversity of extracellular stimuli and are involved in multiple cell processes such as cell proliferation, protein trafficking, cell motility, differentiation, regulation of cytoskeletal structure, and apoptosis. It has recently been shown that PI 3-kinase is a crucial second messenger in the signaling of myogenesis. Two structurally unrelated highly specific inhibitors of PI 3-kinase-wortmannin and LY294002-block the morphological and biochemical differentiation program of different skeletal-muscle cell models. Moreover, L6E9 myoblasts overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant of PI 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit (Δp85) are unable to differentiate. Furthermore, PI 3-kinase is specifically involved in the insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-dependent myogenic pathway. Indeed, the ability of IGF-I, des-1,3-IGF-I, and IGF-II to promote cell fusion and muscle-specific protein expression is impaired after treatment with PI 3-kinase inhibitors or in cells overexpressing Δp85. The identification of additional key downstream elements of the IGF/PI 3-kinase myogenic cascade is crucial to a detailed understanding of the process of muscle differentiation and may generate new tools for skeletal and cardiac muscle regeneration therapies. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:198-202). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  15. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

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    David R Fooksman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation.

  16. Class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 activates autophagy and induces apoptosis through p53 pathway in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901

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    Chungen Xing; Baosong Zhu; Huihui Liu; Huihua Yao; Lifeng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to study the effects of LY294002, an inhibitor of classIphosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PDK), on proliferation,apoptosis, and autophagy in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901.In this study, we showed that LY294002 inhibited the viability of gastric cancer SGC7901 cells.We also showed that LY294002 increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3),and increased monodansylcadaverine(MDC)-labeled vesicles.LY294002 activated autophagy by activating p53 and caspase-3,and induced apoptosis by up-regulating p53 and p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis(PUMA).Therefore,LY294002 might induce cytotoxicity in SGC7901 cells through activation of p53 and the downstream point PUMA.These findings suggest that inhibition of the class I PI3K signaling pathway is a potential strategy for managing gastric cancers.

  17. Ehrlichia secretes Etf-1 to induce autophagy and capture nutrients for its growth through RAB5 and class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

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    Lin, Mingqun; Liu, Hongyan; Xiong, Qingming; Niu, Hua; Cheng, Zhihui; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2016-11-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes a potentially fatal emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. E. chaffeensis has a limited capacity for biosynthesis and metabolism and thus depends mostly on host-synthesized nutrients for growth. Although the host cell cytoplasm is rich with these nutrients, as E. chaffeensis is confined within the early endosome-like membrane-bound compartment, only host nutrients that enter the compartment can be used by this bacterium. How this occurs is unknown. We found that ehrlichial replication depended on autophagy induction involving class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) activity, BECN1 (Beclin 1), and ATG5 (autophagy-related 5). Ehrlichia acquired host cell preincorporated amino acids in a class III PtdIns3K-dependent manner and ehrlichial growth was enhanced by treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer. Moreover, ATG5 and RAB5A/B/C were routed to ehrlichial inclusions. RAB5A/B/C siRNA knockdown, or overexpression of a RAB5-specific GTPase-activating protein or dominant-negative RAB5A inhibited ehrlichial infection, indicating the critical role of GTP-bound RAB5 during infection. Both native and ectopically expressed ehrlichial type IV secretion effector protein, Etf-1, bound RAB5 and the autophagy-initiating class III PtdIns3K complex, PIK3C3/VPS34, and BECN1, and homed to ehrlichial inclusions. Ectopically expressed Etf-1 activated class III PtdIns3K as in E. chaffeensis infection and induced autophagosome formation, cleared an aggregation-prone mutant huntingtin protein in a class III PtdIns3K-dependent manner, and enhanced ehrlichial proliferation. These data support the notion that E. chaffeensis secretes Etf-1 to induce autophagy to repurpose the host cytoplasm and capture nutrients for its growth through RAB5 and class III PtdIns3K, while avoiding autolysosomal killing.

  18. Characterization of VPS34-IN1, a selective inhibitor of Vps34, reveals that the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding SGK3 protein kinase is a downstream target of class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

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    Bago, Ruzica; Malik, Nazma; Munson, Michael J; Prescott, Alan R; Davies, Paul; Sommer, Eeva; Shpiro, Natalia; Ward, Richard; Cross, Darren; Ganley, Ian G; Alessi, Dario R

    2014-11-01

    The Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) class III PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) phosphorylates PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) at endosomal membranes to generate PtdIns(3)P that regulates membrane trafficking processes via its ability to recruit a subset of proteins possessing PtdIns(3)P-binding PX (phox homology) and FYVE domains. In the present study, we describe a highly selective and potent inhibitor of Vps34, termed VPS34-IN1, that inhibits Vps34 with 25 nM IC50 in vitro, but does not significantly inhibit the activity of 340 protein kinases or 25 lipid kinases tested that include all isoforms of class I as well as class II PI3Ks. Administration of VPS34-IN1 to cells induces a rapid dose-dependent dispersal of a specific PtdIns(3)P-binding probe from endosome membranes, within 1 min, without affecting the ability of class I PI3K to regulate Akt. Moreover, we explored whether SGK3 (serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-3), the only protein kinase known to interact specifically with PtdIns(3)P via its N-terminal PX domain, might be controlled by Vps34. Mutations disrupting PtdIns(3)P binding ablated SGK3 kinase activity by suppressing phosphorylation of the T-loop [PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) site] and hydrophobic motif (mammalian target of rapamycin site) residues. VPS34-IN1 induced a rapid ~50-60% loss of SGK3 phosphorylation within 1 min. VPS34-IN1 did not inhibit activity of the SGK2 isoform that does not possess a PtdIns(3)P-binding PX domain. Furthermore, class I PI3K inhibitors (GDC-0941 and BKM120) that do not inhibit Vps34 suppressed SGK3 activity by ~40%. Combining VPS34-IN1 and GDC-0941 reduced SGK3 activity ~80-90%. These data suggest SGK3 phosphorylation and hence activity is controlled by two pools of PtdIns(3)P. The first is produced through phosphorylation of PtdIns by Vps34 at the endosome. The second is due to the conversion of class I PI3K product, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 into PtdIns(3)P, via the sequential actions of the Ptd

  19. ETP-46321, a dual p110α/δ class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor modulates T lymphocyte activation and collagen-induced arthritis.

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    Aragoneses-Fenoll, L; Montes-Casado, M; Ojeda, G; Acosta, Y Y; Herranz, J; Martínez, S; Blanco-Aparicio, C; Criado, G; Pastor, J; Dianzani, U; Portolés, P; Rojo, J M

    2016-04-15

    Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are essential to function of normal and tumor cells, and to modulate immune responses. T lymphocytes express high levels of p110α and p110δ class IA PI3K. Whereas the functioning of PI3K p110δ in immune and autoimmune reactions is well established, the role of p110α is less well understood. Here, a novel dual p110α/δ inhibitor (ETP-46321) and highly specific p110α (A66) or p110δ (IC87114) inhibitors have been compared concerning T cell activation in vitro, as well as the effect on responses to protein antigen and collagen-induced arthritis in vivo. In vitro activation of naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 was inhibited more effectively by the p110δ inhibitor than by the p110α inhibitor as measured by cytokine secretion (IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-γ), T-bet expression and NFAT activation. In activated CD4(+) T cells re-stimulated through CD3 and ICOS, IC87114 inhibited Akt and Erk activation, and the secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17A, and IFN-γ better than A66. The p110α/δ inhibitor ETP-46321, or p110α plus p110δ inhibitors also inhibited IL-21 secretion by differentiated CD4(+) T follicular (Tfh) or IL-17-producing (Th17) helper cells. In vivo, therapeutic administration of ETP-46321 significantly inhibited responses to protein antigen as well as collagen-induced arthritis, as measured by antigen-specific antibody responses, secretion of IL-10, IL-17A or IFN-γ, or clinical symptoms. Hence, p110α as well as p110δ Class IA PI3Ks are important to immune regulation; inhibition of both subunits may be an effective therapeutic approach in inflammatory autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. The bovine class II major histocompatibility complex : serological definition and further characterization of class II haplotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis an analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in cattle is reported, with emphasis on the development of class II serology. First, the production of class II alloantisera, and the serological definition of bovine MHC class II polymorphism is described.

  1. The bovine class II major histocompatibility complex: Serological definition and further characterization of class II haplotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, Ph.R.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis an analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in cattle is reported, with emphasis on the development of class II serology. First, the production of class II alloantisera, and the serological definition of bovine MHC class II polymorphism is described. Subsequentl

  2. Theoretical calculations, DNA interaction, topoisomerase I and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase studies of water soluble mixed-ligand nickel(II) complexes.

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    Gurumoorthy, Perumal; Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Kalilur Rahiman, Aziz

    2016-03-25

    Eight water soluble mixed-ligand nickel(II) complexes of the type [NiL(1-4)(diimine)H2O]·(ClO4)2, (1-8) where L(1-4) = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, and diimine = 2,2'-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The uncoordinated perchlorate anions was ascertained form IR spectra of the complexes, and the absorption spectra reveal the octahedron geometry around nickel(II) ion with tridentate Schiff base ligand, diimine and a coordinated water molecule. Cyclic voltammograms of the complexes indicate the one-electron irreversible processes in the cathodic and anodic region. In vitro antioxidant activity proved the significant radical scavenging activity of the complexes against DPPH radical. The groove/electrostatic binding nature of complexes with CT-DNA (calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid) were affirmed by absorption, hydrodynamic and voltammetric titration experiments and docking analysis. All the complexes exhibit significant cleavage activity on plasmid DNA via hydrolytic and oxidatively, in which the oxidative mechanism involves hydroxyl radicals and supports the possibility of minor-groove binding. The complex 4 shows significant topoisomerase I (Topo-I) inhibitory activity. The molecular modeling analysis of complexes with phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) receptor indicate the hydrogen bonding with Met1039, Asp837 and Leu1027, and hydrophobic interactions with Ser488, Asn498, Asp500, Gln662, Lys668, Ile844, Ile847, Ile850, Val941, Leu942, Leu1020, Met1034, Leu1035, Thr1037, Met1039, Gln1041 and Ile1051 of subdomain IIA of BSA. The complexes show σ-π interaction between diimines and amino groups of Leu1030 and Arg839.

  3. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  4. Structural Properties of MHC Class II Ligands, Implications for the Prediction of MHC Class II Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Buus, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure......Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule...... of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC...

  5. The Relationship between Class I and Class II Methanol Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P

    2005-01-01

    The Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra millimetre telescope has been used to search for 95.1-GHz class I methanol masers towards sixty-two 6.6-GHz class II methanol masers. A total of twenty-six 95.1-GHz masers were detected, eighteen of these being new discoveries. Combining the results of this search with observations reported in the literature, a near complete sample of sixty-six 6.6-GHz class II methanol masers has been searched in the 95.1-GHz transition, with detections towards 38 per cent (twenty-five detections ; not all of the sources studied in this paper qualify for the complete sample, and some of the sources in the sample were not observed in the present observations). There is no evidence of an anti-correlation between either the velocity range, or peak flux density of the class I and II transitions, contrary to suggestions from previous studies. The majority of class I methanol maser sources have a velocity range that partially overlaps with the class II maser transitions. The presence...

  6. Targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in hematologic malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Elias; Ottmann, Oliver G.; Deininger, Michael; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway represents an important anticancer target because it has been implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, and motility. Recent studies show that PI3K may also play a role in the development of resistance to currently available therapies. In a broad range of cancers, various components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling axis are genetically modified, and the pathway can be activated through many different mechanisms. The frequency of genetic alterations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, coupled with the impact in oncogenesis and disease progression, make this signaling axis an attractive target in anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the critical function of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in leukemias and lymphomas has led to the clinical evaluation of novel rationally designed inhibitors in this setting. Three main categories of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors have been developed so far: agents that target phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (dual inhibitors), pan-phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors that target all class I isoforms, and isoform-specific inhibitors that selectively target the α, -β, -γ, or -δ isoforms. Emerging data highlight the promise of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in combination with other therapies for the treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies. Further evaluation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in first-line or subsequent regimens may improve clinical outcomes. This article reviews the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in hematologic malignancies and the potential clinical utility of inhibitors that target this pathway. PMID:24425689

  7. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  8. Class III PI 3-kinase is the main source of PtdIns3P substrate and membrane recruitment signal for PIKfyve constitutive function in podocyte endomembrane homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Venkatareddy, Madhusudan; Tisdale, Ellen; Garg, Puneet; Shisheva, Assia

    2015-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved PIKfyve, which synthesizes PtdIns5P from PtdIns, and PtdIns(3,5)P2 from PtdIns3P, requires PtdIns3P as both an enzyme substrate and a membrane recruitment signal. Whereas the PtdIns3P source is undetermined, class III PI3K (Vps34), the only evolutionarily conserved of the eight mammalian PI3Ks, is presumed as a main candidate. A hallmark of PIKfyve deficiency is formation of multiple translucent cytoplasmic vacuoles seen by light microscopy in cells cultured in complete media. Such an aberrant phenotype is often observed in cells from conditional Vps34 knockout (KO) mice. To clarify the mechanism of Vps34 KO-triggered vacuolation and the PtdIns3P source for PIKfyve functionality, here we have characterized a podocyte cell type derived from Vps34fl/fl mice, which, upon Cre-mediated gene KO, robustly formed cytoplasmic vacuoles resembling those in PikfyveKO MEFs. Vps34wt, expressed in Vps34KO podocytes restored the normal morphology, but only if the endogenous PIKfyve activity was intact. Conversely, expressed PIKfyvewt rescued completely the vacuolation only in PikfyveKO MEFs but not in Vps34KO podocytes. Analyses of phosphoinositide profiles by HPLC and localization patterns by a PtdIns3P biosensor revealed that Vps34 is the main supplier of localized PtdIns3P not only for PIKfyve activity but also for membrane recruitment. Concordantly, Vps34KO podocytes had severely reduced steady-state levels of both PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns5P, along with PtdIns3P. We further revealed a plausible physiologically-relevant Vps34-independent PtdIns3P supply for PIKfyve, operating through activated class I PI3Ks. Our data provide the first evidence that the vacuolation phenotype in Vps34KO podocytes is due to PIKfyve dysfunction and that Vps34 is a main PtdIns3P source for constitutive PIKfyve functionality.

  9. Contemporary treatment of class II dens invaginatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathorn, C; Parashos, P

    2007-04-01

    To present the nonsurgical management of a tooth with class II dens invaginatus with an open apex utilizing contemporary techniques. Root canal treatment of teeth with complex root canal anatomy such as dens invaginatus can be problematic because infected pulpal tissues may remain in inaccessible areas of the canal system. The cleaning and debridement of such root canal systems are therefore challenging and may sometimes be considered impossible. An immature apical root-end development is another challenge in root canal treatment especially in controlling the apical extent of the filling material and achieving an apical seal. When difficulties in cleaning and filling combine, management options may include surgical intervention or extraction. This article reports the nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a case of an open apex and dens invaginatus utilizing the operating microscope, endodontic ultrasonic instruments and mineral trioxide aggregate. Teeth with class II dens evaginatus and an open apex may be managed successfully with contemporary nonsurgical materials and techniques.

  10. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  11. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  12. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall...

  13. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female Brazilian children aged between 12 to 15 years old were randomly and proportionally divided into three groups: Group 1 (Class I, Group 2 (Class II and Group 3 (Class II subdivision. Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for this study. RESULTS: In accordance with an Index of Dental Asymmetry (IDA, greater mandibular dental asymmetry was identified in Group 3. An Index of Mandibular Asymmetry (IMA revealed less skeletal and dental mandibular asymmetry in Group 2, greater skeletal mandibular asymmetry in Group 1, and greater mandibular dental asymmetry in Group 3. CONCLUSION: Both IDA and IMA revealed greater mandibular dental asymmetry for Group 3 in comparison to Groups 1 and 2. These results are in accordance with those found by other diagnostic methods, showing that lateral cephalometric radiography is an acceptable method to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in malocclusions.

  14. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) Class II is a Xenoantigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladowski, Joseph M; Reyes, Luz M; Martens, Gregory R; Butler, James R; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Eckhoff, Devin E; Tector, Matt; Tector, A Joseph

    2017-08-24

    Over 130 000 patients in the United States alone need a life-saving organ transplant. Genetically modified porcine organs could resolve the donor organ shortage, but human xenoreactive antibodies destroy pig cells and are the major barrier to clinical application of xenotransplantation. The objective of this study was to determine whether waitlisted patients possess preformed antibodies to swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II, homologs of the class II human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Sera from people currently awaiting solid organ transplant were tested for IgG binding to class II SLA proteins when expressed on mammalian cells. Pig fibroblasts were made positive by transfection with the class II transactivator (CIITA). As a second expression system, transgenes encoding the alpha and beta chains of class II SLA were transfected into Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Human sera containing IgG specific for class II HLA molecules exhibited greater binding to class II SLA positive cells than to SLA negative cells. Sera lacking antibodies against class II HLA showed no change in binding regardless of the presence of class II SLA. These antibodies could recognize either SLA-DR or SLA-DQ complexes. Class II SLA proteins may behave as xenoantigens for people with humoral immunity towards class II HLA molecules.

  15. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K;

    1994-01-01

    lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1......MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...

  16. Regulation of L-type inward calcium channel activity by captopril and angiotensin II via the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase pathway in cardiomyocytes from volume-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Zikiar; Laurence, Graham G.; Coleman, Bernell R; Zhao, Aiqiu; Hajj-Moussa, Majd; Haddad, Georges E.

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure can be caused by pro-hypertrophic humoral factors such as angiotensin II (Ang II), which regulates protein kinase activities. The intermingled responses of these kinases lead to the early compensated cardiac hypertrophy, but later to the uncompensated phase of heart failure. We have shown that although beneficial, cardiac hypertrophy is associated with modifications in ion channels that are mainly mediated through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. This study evaluates the control of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) by the Ang II/PI3K pathway in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes from volume-overload rats using the perforated patch-clamp technique. To assess activation of the ICa,L in cardiomyocytes, voltages of 350 ms in 10 mV increments from a holding potential of −85 mV were applied to cardiocytes, with a pre-pulse to −45 mV for 300 ms. Volume overload-induced hypertrophy reduces ICa,L, whereas addition of Ang II alleviates the hypertrophic-induced decrease in a PI3K-dependent manner. Acute administration of Ang II (10−6 mol/L) to normal adult cardiomyocytes had no effect; however, captopril reduced their basal ICa,L. In parallel, captopril regressed the hypertrophy and inverted the Ang II effect on ICa,L seemingly through a PI3K upstream effector. Thus, it seems that regression of cardiac hypertrophy by captopril improved ICa,L partly through PI3K. PMID:21423294

  17. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  18. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  19. The systems biology of MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC class II) are one of the key regulators of adaptive immunity because of their specific expression by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). They present peptides derived from endocytosed material to T helper lymphocytes. Consequently, MHC class

  20. Early Intervention in Skeletal Class II and dental Class II division I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Class II malocclusion may occur as a result of mandibular deficiency, maxillary excess, or a combination of both. However, the most common finding is mandibular skeletal retrusion. The use of functional jaw orthopedics, at the right time during growth, can ultimately result in malocclusion patients achieving an excellent functional occlusion, a broad beautiful smile, a full face with a beautiful jaw line, and profile. Functional jaw orthopedic (FJO appliances are designed to encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position. The activator developed by Andresen is one of the most widely used for this purpose. A 12-year-old boy with skeletal Class II malocclusion and dental Class II div I malocclusion, a low mandibular plane angle was treated with growth modulation using an activator followed by molar distalization using fixed orthodontics for detailing of the occlusion. The major effects of the activator treatment in this case have been due to increase in condylar growth and also an increase in mandibular base length. Further, non-extraction fixed orthodontic treatment for proper interdigitation of the dentition also helped to maintain the stability of the satisfactory results achieved.

  1. Orthopedic cervical headgear in Class II treatment: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoki Carla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early treatment for Class II malocclusion was undertaken with the objective of correcting skeletal disproportion by altering the growth pattern. A case of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion in the mixed dentition was corrected to Class I molar relationship using orthopedic cervical headgear, with nonextraction edgewise therapy. Cephalometric analysis indicated a reduction in the maxillomandibular discrepancy (ANB correcting the Class II malocclusion to Class I malocclusion. The treatment showed that this was achieved by downward displacement and inhibition of the forward growth of the maxilla and growth of the mandible. There was no downward rotation of the mandible nor maxillary first molar extrusion. There was improvement in the jaw relationship.

  2. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  3. HLA Class I and Class II Associations with ESRD in Saudi Arabian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Nuha Mahmoud Hamdi; Fadel Hassan Al-Hababi; Amr Ekhlas Eid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF) leads in the majority of instances to end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of HLA class I and class II antigens with ESRD independent of other factors, in Saudi Arabia population. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study to determine the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms and their association with ESRD, was performed on 350 patients with ESRD, and 105 healthy unrelated ...

  4. 78 FR 37114 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming AGENCY... concerning the issuance of certificates for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming: To correct a section... on the same day that it receives a tribe's response to the Office of Self Regulation's recommendation...

  5. Class II correction prior to orthodontics with the carriere distalizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Class II correction is a challenge in orthodontics with many existing devices being complex, too compliance-driven, or too prone to breakage. The Carriere Distalizer allows for straightforward Class II correction prior to orthodontics (fixed or clear aligners) at a time when no other mechanics interfere, and compliance is at its best.

  6. Dentofacial characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed some cephalometric measurements of the soft tissue profile in order to observe the behavior of facial convexity in patients with Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty pre-treatment teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: H.SN, Cx, NLA, MLA, UL-SUL-S, LL-S, IMPA, and 1-SN. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test were applied for measurements H.SN, Cx, IMPA, 1-SN, MLA, and NLA, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were applied for UL-S and LL-S. RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant differences for the measurements H.SN, Cx, UL-S, and IMPA between Groups I, II-1 and II-2 (p < 0.05. Measurements LL-S and MLA showed statistically significant difference between Groups I and II-1 only (p < 0.05. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were found for measurement NLA among the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Regarding facial characteristics expressed by measurements H.SN, Cx, and UL-S, one could conclude that Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 malocclusions, both differed from Class I malocclusion. In addition, Class II division 1 malocclusion was found to have facial characteristics expressed by MLA, which differentiate it from the Class II division 2 and Class 1 malocclusions. Class I, Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 malocclusions showed no difference in facial characteristics expressed by the measurement NLA, and measurement LL-S was directly related to eversion of the lower lip.

  7. The novel pterostilbene derivative ANK-199 induces autophagic cell death through regulating PI3 kinase class III/beclin 1/Atg‑related proteins in cisplatin‑resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Chen, Hao-Ping; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Wu, Tian-Shung; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2014-08-01

    Pterostilbene is an effective chemopreventive agent against multiple types of cancer cells. A novel pterostilbene derivative, ANK-199, was designed and synthesized by our group. Its antitumor activity and mechanism in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells were investigated in this study. Our results show that ANK-199 has an extremely low toxicity in normal oral cell lines. The formation of autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) was observed in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) staining, suggesting that ANK-199 is able to induce autophagic cell death in CAR cells. Neither DNA fragmentation nor DNA condensation was observed, which means that ANK-199-induced cell death is not triggered by apoptosis. In accordance with morphological observation, 3-MA, a specific inhibitor of PI3K kinase class III, can inhibit the autophagic vesicle formation induced by ANK-199. In addition, ANK-199 is also able to enhance the protein levels of autophagic proteins, Atg complex, beclin 1, PI3K class III and LC3-II, and mRNA expression of autophagic genes Atg7, Atg12, beclin 1 and LC3-II in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells. A molecular signaling pathway induced by ANK-199 was therefore summarized. Results presented in this study show that ANK-199 may become a novel therapeutic reagent for the treatment of oral cancer in the near future (patent pending).

  8. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  9. The simple class II and class III corrector: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spary, David John; Little, Rachel Ann

    2015-03-01

    This article illustrates three case reports which describe a very simple appliance that is used to correct both class II and class III buccal segments. A class I molar relationship is achieved within 2-6 months. Hundreds of cases have been treated with these appliances over a number of years at Queen's Hospital, Burton upon Trent with great success.

  10. Pitchfork Analysis of Class II Correction using Forsus FRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Goel

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The FRD protocol led to a successful correction of Class II malocclusion with more of skeletal than dental correction. However, more parameters are required to assess the mandibular growth and remodeling of the glenoid fossa.

  11. Class II barodontalgia: review and report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Barodontalgia is a rarely reported condition involving changes in ambient pressure resulting in tooth pain. According to Ferjentsik and Aker, Class II barodontalgia is observed in teeth that have pre-existing pulpal disease and an ultimate diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.1 This article describes a case of Class II barodontalgia that was experienced on a commercial airline flight and reviews current knowledge regarding this phenomenon, including proposed etiologic mechanisms.

  12. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A wi

  13. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A

  14. An Investigation of Craniocervical Posture in Class II & Class III Skeletal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HoseinZadeh-Nik

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Craniocervical Posture is a factor in the development and function of Craniofacial Structure. Previous studies of different samples have demonstrated associations between craniocervical posture and craniofacial morphology.Purpose: This study aimed lo examine whether any significant association is evident or not between craniocervical posture and the occurrence of Class il & Class III skeletal malocclusions.Materials and Methods: A sample of 76 subjects with Class II & Class III skeletal malocclusion aged 9-i 1 and>18 years were selected. None of them had received orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken in natural head position (NHP, and craniocervical and craniohorizental angels were traced and determined for analysis of craniocervical posture. Results: According to the craniocervical posture, most class II skeletal patients have flexed heads and class MI skeletal patients have extended heads, as a result malocclusion in these patients seems to become more severe. With increase in age. class II skeletal patients have more flexed their heads and malocclusion become more severe, while with increase in age in class ill skeletal patients, their heads become extended and once again malocclusion thought lo be more severe. In class II skeletal patients, craniocervical posture has a significant correlation with the vertical growth pattern, but shows little correlation with the horizontal growth pattern. In class 111 skeletal patients, craniocervical posture shows no correlation to any of the vertical & horizontal growth patterns, of course the mean of vertical angles is less in these patients and probably in order to make these relation significant in Class III skeletal patients there is need for more samples, in class II & class III skeletal patients, the amount of Na.prep-point A and pog-Na.prep with craniocervical posture shows a significant correlation. Conclusion: Consideration of craniocervical

  15. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in alopecia areata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Frentz, G; Fugger, L

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction polymorphism (RFLP) of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DQA, -DQB, -DPA, and -DPB in 20 Danish patients with alopecia areata (AA) and in healthy Danes. The frequency in AA of the DQB1*0301 and DQw7 associated DQB Bgl/II 4.2 kb...

  16. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Buus, S

    2010-01-01

    in the predictions. All attempts to make ab initio predictions based on protein structure have failed to reach predictive performances similar to those that can be obtained by data-driven methods. Thousands of different MHC-II alleles exist in humans. Recently developed pan-specific methods have been able to make...

  17. A retrospective study of Class II mixed-dentition treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heesoo; Baumrind, Sheldon; Korn, Edward L; Dugoni, Steven; Boero, Roger; Aubert, Maryse; Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To consider the effectiveness of early treatment using one mixed-dentition approach to the correction of moderate and severe Class II malocclusions. Three groups of Class II subjects were included in this retrospective study: an early treatment (EarlyTx) group that first presented at age 7 to 9.5 years (n = 54), a late treatment (LateTx) group whose first orthodontic visit occurred between ages 12 and 15 (n = 58), and an untreated Class II (UnTx) group to assess the pretreatment comparability of the two treated groups (n = 51). Thirteen conventional cephalometric measurements were reported for each group and Class II molar severity was measured on the study casts of the EarlyTx and LateTx groups. Successful Class II correction was observed in approximately three quarters of both the EarlyTx group and the LateTx group at the end of treatment. EarlyTx patients had fewer permanent teeth extracted than did the LateTx patients (5.6% vs 37.9%, P < .001) and spent less time in full-bonded appliance therapy in the permanent dentition than did LateTx patients (1.7 ± 0.8 vs 2.6 ± 0.7years, P < .001). When supervision time is included, the EarlyTx group had longer total treatment time and averaged more visits than did the LateTx group (53.1 ± 18. 8 vs 33.7 ± 8.3, P < .0001). Fifty-five percent of the LateTx extraction cases involved removal of the maxillary first premolars only and were finished in a Class II molar relationship. EarlyTx comprehensive mixed-dentition treatment was an effective modality for early correction of Class II malocclusions.

  18. HLA class II genes: typing by DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, J L; Bidwell, E A; Bradley, B A

    1990-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the structure and function of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has ensued from studies by molecular biologist during the last decade. Virtually all of the HLA genes have now been cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of their different allelic forms have been determined. Typing for these HLA alleles is a fundamental prerequisite for tissue matching in allogeneic organ transplantation. Until very recently, typing procedures have been dominated by serological and cellular methods. The availability of cloned DNA from HLA genes has now permitted the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to be applied, with remarkable success and advantage, to phenotyping of both HLA Class I and Class II determinants. For the HLA Class II genes DR and DQ, a simple two-stage RFLP analysis permits the accurate identification of all specificities defined by serology, and of many which are defined by cellular typing. At the present time, however, RFLP typing of HLA Class I genes is not as practicable or as informative as that for HLA Class II genes. The present clinical applications of HLA-DR and DQ RFLP typing are predominantly in phenotyping of living donors, including selection of HLA-matched volunteer bone marrow donors, in allograft survival studies, and in studies of HLA Class II-associated diseases. However, the time taken to perform RFLP analysis precludes its use for the typing of cadaveric kidney donors. Nucleotide sequence data for the alleles of HLA Class II genes have now permitted the development of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing, a second category of DNA analysis. This has been greatly facilitated by the ability to amplify specific HLA Class II DNA 'target' sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The accuracy of DNA typing techniques should ensure that this methodology will eventually replace conventional HLA phenotyping.

  19. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  20. Non-extraction treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Every orthodontist at some point in his clinical practice has faced the dilemma of how ′best′ to manage a mild to moderate Class II malocclusion. Aims and Objectives: To demonstrate the efficacy of Forsus™ Fatigue Resistant Device in the management of Class II malocclusion. Materials and Method: A patient having Class II division 1 malocclusion with functional jaw retrusion was treated using MBT 0.022" prescription and Forsus FRD appliance. Pre- and post-treatment photographs and lateral cephalograms were taken. Cephalometric analysis was done, and results were superimposed. Result: 7-8 months of Forsus wear obtained stable and successful results with improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship, and mild increase in IMPA. Discussion and Conclusion: Greater forward displacement of the mandible was the predominant factor for successful treatment Class II patient. Forsus gives good results for class II management, and it would be wise to consider treating such cases by non-extraction approach rather than contemplating extractions.

  1. Class II malocclusion therapy using fixed orthodontic appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škufca Bojan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depending on the indication, and the age of a patient, class II division I malocclusion can be treated by a fixed or mobile orthodontic appliance, with or without teeth extraction. Case report. A treatment of a male patient, 15 years old, with dentoalveolar class II division I was described. On the base of clinical findings, study case analysis, analysis of orthopan and profile cephalogram, there were class II division I with protrusion of frontal teeth and mild crowding in lower jaw assessed. The patient was treated by fixed orthodontics appliances (SWA Roth .022" in both jaws for 18 months, with the retention period of the same length. Conclusion. Fixed ortodontic appliances are necessary when bodily movement of the teeth is indicated - in this case for cuspids distalization and retraction of incisors.

  2. PI3KC2{alpha}, a class II PI3K, is required for dynamin-independent internalization pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Claudia; Malmberg, Emily Kim; Salcini, Anna Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cellular uptake of several molecules can occur independently of functional dynamin, but the molecular players that regulate dynamin-independent endocytosis and the subsequent trafficking steps are still largely unknown. A survival-based short-hairpin (sh) RNA...... screen using a cell line expressing a diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR, officially known as HBEGF) anchored to GPI (DTR-GPI), which internalizes diphtheria toxin (DT, officially known as DTX) in a dynamin-independent manner, identified PI3KC2a, a class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), as a specific...... regulator of dynamin-independent DT internalization. We found that the internalization of several proteins that enter the cell through dynamin-independent pathways led to a relocalization of PI3KC2a to cargo-positive vesicles. Furthermore, downregulation of PI3KC2a impaired internalization of CD59 as well...

  3. Class II malocclusion nonextraction treatment with growth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Lúcia Valentim Assunção

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a case of Angle Class II malocclusion treatment of a male growing patient with 10-mm overjet, excessive overbite and transverse maxillary deficiency. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  4. Class II malocclusion nonextraction treatment with growth control*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Zilda Lúcia Valentim

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports a case of Angle Class II malocclusion treatment of a male growing patient with 10-mm overjet, excessive overbite and transverse maxillary deficiency. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25628088

  5. Treatment of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion using Cervical Headgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Lestari Hendrawan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Class II division 1 malocclusions have many variation and treatment options. Choosing the right treatment begins with a correct diagnosis. The aim of this article is to describe treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion in a growing patient using combined cervical headgear and non-extraction fixed orthodontic therapy. Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved with normal overbite and overjet. There is improvement in jaw relationship and facial profile. This correction was achieved by downward displacement and inhibition of the forward growth of maxilla with favorable growth of mandible, upper molar distalization and retraction of upper incisors from cervical headgear use. There was neither downward rotation of the mandible nor maxillary first molar extrusion. Treatment time, favorable mandibular growth pattern and patient compliance proved to be determining factors in the success of this treatment.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.106

  6. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder;

    2004-01-01

    to the MHC class II complex HLA-DR4(B1*0401). Prior identification of information-rich (anchor) positions in the binding motif is shown to improve the predictive performance of the Gibbs sampler. Similarly, a consensus solution obtained from an ensemble average over suboptimal solutions is shown...

  7. Evaluation of mandibular length in subjects with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using the cervical vertebrae maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Generoso; Elaine Cristina Sadoco; Mônica Costa Armond; Gustavo Hauber Gameiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular size in boys and girls with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, taking into consideration the bone maturation stage, as defined by the cervical vertebrae maturation. One hundred and sixty cephalometric radiographs were obtained from subjects (aged between 7 and 12 years) with Class I or Class II skeletal patterns, according to the ANB angle and WITS appraisal. The Class I sample consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls). The Class II ...

  8. Angle Class II malocclusion treated with extraction of permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Gustavo Mattos

    2013-01-01

    Angle Class II malocclusion associated with anterior open bite in adult patients demands a carefully elaborated orthodontic planning, aiming at restoring not only harmonious dental and facial esthetics, but also a balanced masticatory function. Orthognathic surgery or permanent teeth extraction are often the choice of treatment, therefore, treatment decision is related to all dental, skeletal and functional aspects. The present report discusses orthodontic compensation carried out by means of upper premolar extraction performed to correct the Class II canine relationship and, consequently, the anterior open bite, accepting that the upper incisors be retroclined. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certification.

  9. Multiple regenerative techniques for class II furcation defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of the periodontium is a major goal in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration is quite challenging, especially when it is in the furcation area. There are several techniques used alone or in combination, considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in the response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case report describes the management of a buccal class II furcation defect, with the help of surgical intervention, including the guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in a healthy periodontium, with radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of the etiological factors and utilizing combined treatment modalities, restored health and function of the tooth with severe attachment loss, at the 18-month follow-up.

  10. Angle Class II malocclusion treated with extraction of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mattos Barreto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class II malocclusion associated with anterior open bite in adult patients demands a carefully elaborated orthodontic planning, aiming at restoring not only harmonious dental and facial esthetics, but also a balanced masticatory function. Orthognathic surgery or permanent teeth extraction are often the choice of treatment, therefore, treatment decision is related to all dental, skeletal and functional aspects. The present report discusses orthodontic compensation carried out by means of upper premolar extraction performed to correct the Class II canine relationship and, consequently, the anterior open bite, accepting that the upper incisors be retroclined. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certification.

  11. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  12. Classification and treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sara E; Jackson, Stona R; Turpin, David L; Ramsay, Douglas S; Spiekerman, Charles; Huang, Greg J

    2014-04-01

    Patients with Class II subdivision malocclusions are a challenge for clinicians because reestablishing symmetry in 1 arch or both arches is often a treatment goal. In patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, surgery is often a treatment option. However, patients may be unwilling to undergo surgery, and other options might have to be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and outcomes of Class II subdivision patients treated at the University of Washington graduate orthodontic clinic in Seattle from 1995 through 2011. A search of patients treated between 1995 and 2011 resulted in the identification of 110 consecutively treated Class II subdivision subjects with complete records. Ninety-eight subjects could be classified into 1 of 3 groups, based on midline position and dental or skeletal etiology. Initial and final models were used to measure the peer assessment rating scores, midlines, overjet, overbite, and molar positions. Initial and final cephalograms were traced and measured. Charts were reviewed for information regarding treatment. Twenty-five percent of the 98 subjects had their maxillary and mandibular midlines coincident with the facial midline; their asymmetries were due to a maxillary posterior dental asymmetry. Another 15% had maxillary midlines deviated from their facial midlines, caused by maxillary anterior and posterior dental asymmetry. About 50% of the subjects had mandibular midlines that were not coincident with their facial midlines, and most of them exhibited some degree of mandibular skeletal asymmetry. Over the past 15 years, treatment strategies used at the University of Washington indicated trends toward less surgery, fewer extractions, less use of headgear, and more reliance on fixed functional appliances. Ideal correction of midlines was not always achieved, especially in patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, with undercorrection occurring more commonly than overcorrection. Final peer assessment

  13. [Routine application of HLA class II oligotyping. Value of automatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat-Zucman, S; Bach, J F

    1992-12-02

    HLA class II typing by DNA amplification and hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides has led to an improvement of the overall typing accuracy. In an attempt to apply this procedure to a large-scale analysis, we sought to implement an automation system using the Biomek 1,000 robotic work-station. This system allows a rapid preparation of many consecutive samples and avoids the risk of human errors. It is now routinely used in several laboratories.

  14. Characterization of recombination in the HLA class II region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, M.; Carrington, M. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States); Noble, J. [Roche Molecular Systems, Almeda, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Studies of linkage disequilibrium across the HLA class II region have been useful in predicting where recombination is most likely to occur. The strong associations between genes within the 85-kb region from DQB1 to DRB1 are consistent with low frequency of recombination in this segment of DNA. Conversely, a lack of association between alleles of TAP1 and TAP2 ({approximately}15 kb) has been observed, suggesting that recombination occurs here with relatively high frequency. Much of the HLA class II region has now been sequenced, providing the tools to undertake detailed analysis of recombination. Twenty-seven families containing one or two recombinant chromosomes within the 500-kb interval between the DPB1 and DRB1 genes were used to determine patterns of recombination across this region. SSCP analysis and microsatellite typing yielded identification of 127 novel polymorphic markers distributed throughout the class II region, allowing refinement of the site of crossover in 30 class II recombinant chromosomes. The three regions where recombination was observed most frequently are as follows: the 45-kb interval between HLA-DNA and RING3 (11 cases), the 50-kb interval between DQB3 and DQB1 (6 cases), and an 8.8-kb segment of the TAP2 gene (3 cases). Six of the 10 remaining recombinants await further characterization, pending identification of additional informative markers, while four recombinants were localized to other intervals (outliers). Analysis of association between markers flanking HLA-DNA to RING3 (45 kb), as well as TAP1 to TAP2 (15 kb), by use of independent CEPH haplotypes indicated little or no linkage disequilibrium, supporting the familial recombination data. A notable sequence motif located within a region associated with increased rates of recombination consisted of a (TGGA){sub 12} tandem repeat within the TAP2 gene. 74 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Cylindrical bubbles and blobs from a Class II Hydrophobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul; Pham, Michael; Blalock, Brad

    2012-02-01

    Cerato ulmin is a class II hydrophobin. In aqueous suspensions, it easily forms cylindrical air bubbles and cylindrical oil blobs. The conditions for formation of these unusual structures will be discussed, along with scattering and microscopic investigations of their remarkable stability. Possible applications in diverse fields including polymer synthesis and oil spill remediation will be considered. Acknowledgment is made to Dr. Wayne C. Richards of the Canadian Forest Service for the gift of Cerato ulmin.

  16. PI3K class II α regulates δ-opioid receptor export from the trans-Golgi network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwarski, Daniel J; Darr, Marlena; Telmer, Cheryl A; Bruchez, Marcel P; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between signaling and trafficking by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has focused mainly on endocytic trafficking. Whether and how surface delivery of newly synthesized GPCRs is regulated by extracellular signals is less understood. Here we define a signaling-regulated checkpoint at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) that controls the surface delivery of the delta opioid receptor (δR). In PC12 cells, inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) activity blocked export of newly synthesized δR from the Golgi and delivery to the cell surface, similar to treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF). Depletion of class II phosphoinositide-3 kinase α (PI3K C2A), but not inhibition of class I PI3K, blocked δR export to comparable levels and attenuated δR-mediated cAMP inhibition. NGF treatment displaced PI3K C2A from the Golgi and optogenetic recruitment of the PI3K C2A kinase domain to the TGN-induced δR export downstream of NGF. Of importance, PI3K C2A expression promotes export of endogenous δR in primary trigeminal ganglion neurons. Taken together, our results identify PI3K C2A as being required and sufficient for δR export and surface delivery in neuronal cells and suggest that it could be a key modulator of a novel Golgi export checkpoint that coordinates GPCR delivery to the surface. © 2017 Shiwarski et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Treatment of a Class II deepbite with microimplant anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Ji-Yeun; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this report was to illustrate new treatment mechanics for using microimplants for the treatment of a Class II Division 2 deepbite malocclusion. A 29-year-old woman with a deepbite was treated with the aid of microimplant anchorage. Microimplants placed between the maxillary second premolars and first molars were used as anchorage to apply a distal force to the anterior teeth to correct the Class II canine and molar relationships. A distal force was applied to long hooks that were crimped between the lateral incisors and the canines. By applying a backward force to the long hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced palatal root movement with no change in the vertical and anteroposterior positions of the incisal edges. The distal extrusive movement of the maxillary second molars achieved by disengaging the second molars from the archwire during distal force application and an anterior bite-block bonded on the lingual surface of the maxillary central incisors produced the increase in vertical dimension. The distal force to the long extended hooks from the microimplants was possibly good mechanics for obtaining the palatal root movement and correcting the Class II canine and molar relationships. The anterior bite-block and disengagement of the maxillary second molars during distal force application were effective for increasing the vertical dimension.

  18. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  19. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Yunis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family, Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family, Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families, Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family, Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family, Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family. for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1. Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  20. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  1. Comparison of soft tissue facial morphometry in children with Class I and Class II occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Puletto, S; Bignotto, M; Tartaglia, G

    1994-01-01

    Three-dimensional soft tissue facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 167 children aged 6 to 9 years by using a new noninvasive computerized method. For each child, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared CCD cameras, real-time hardware for the recognition of markers, and software for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the x, y, and z coordinates of landmarks. From these landmarks, 15 linear and 10 angular measurements and five linear distance ratios were computed. For each age class, mean values were computed for all children with a bilateral Angle Class I occlusion (modified according to Katz) and compared with values obtained in children with a bilateral Class II occlusion. Most of the differences involved three-dimensional angular measurements: Class II children had more convex faces in the sagittal plane and a less prominent mandible than did Class I children. No differences were found in the linear measurements. Only the lower facial height ratio was different between the two occlusion groups, but the difference was not consistent among all the age groups.

  2. Evolução dos preparos das cavidades de classe II Developments in preparation of class II cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Miyuki ONO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A evolução dos preparos de classe II com a introdução de novos materiais e a conscientização da importância da preservação de estrutura dental sadia são abordadas nos preparos do tipo Almqvist, Roggenkamp e túnel, em que se observa a necessidade de menor desgaste da estrutura dentária, com aumento da resistência à fratura, melhor estética e melhor retençãoDevelopments in preparation of class II cavities with the introduction of new materials and awareness of the importance of preservation of a sound dental structure are broached in preparations of the type Almqvist, Roggenkamp and tunnel, where the need for less wear of the dental structure was observed with an increase in fracture strength, better aesthetics, and better retention

  3. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the shape and measure the size of the sella turcica in Saudi subjects with different skeletal types. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 individuals (90 males and 90 females) with an age range of 11-26 years were taken and distributed according to skeletal classification; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter. A Student's t-test was used to calculate differences in linear dimensions, while a one-way analysis of variance was performed to study the relationship between skeletal type and sella size. The results show that the sella turcica presented with a normal morphology in the majority of subjects (67 per cent). No significant differences in linear dimensions between genders could be found. When age was evaluated, significant differences were found between the older (15 years or more) and the younger (11-14 years) age groups at the 0.01 and 0.001 levels for length, depth, and diameter. Sella size of the older age group was larger than in the younger age group. When skeletal type was compared with sella size, a significant difference was found in the diameter of sella between the Class II and Class III subjects (P sella turcica area in Saudi subjects.

  4. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known... another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices,...

  5. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  6. HLA class I and class II associations with ESRD in Saudi Arabian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Mahmoud Hamdi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF leads in the majority of instances to end stage renal disease (ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of HLA class I and class II antigens with ESRD independent of other factors, in Saudi Arabia population. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study to determine the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms and their association with ESRD, was performed on 350 patients with ESRD, and 105 healthy unrelated control. Patients and control groups were typed by SSOP lumenix techniques. The alleles positively associated to the ESRD were: HLA-B*15, B*18, B*49 - DRB1*03, negatively associated alleles were A*26, HLA-B*39, B*50. The haplotypes positively associated with ESRD were: HLA-A*01-DRB1*13 and HLA-A*30-DRBI*03. The negatively associated haplotypes were: HLA-A*02-B*39, A*02-B*50, A*24-B*35, A*24-B*58, A*24-DRB1*16, A*68-DRB1*04, A*02-DQB1*03, A*29-DQB1*02, A*29-DOB1*05 and B*27-DRB1*07 and the last one is the most significant protective haplotypes. CONCLUSION: The high Relative Risk (RR observed and its statistical correlation reflect the strength of the described association between HLA antigens and ESRD.

  7. Simultaneous observation of water and class I methanol masers toward class II methanol maser sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyunwoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Seokho; Park, Yong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    We present a simultaneous single-dish survey of 22 GHz water maser and 44 GHz and 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward 77 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser sources, which were selected from the Arecibo methanol maser Galactic plane survey (AMGPS) catalog.Water maser emission is detected in 39 (51%) sources, of which 15 are new detections. Methanol maser emission at 44 GHz and 95 GHz is found in 25 (32%) and 19 (25%) sources, of which 21 and 13 sources are newly detected, respectively. We find 4 high-velocity (> 30 km/s) water maser sources, including 3 dominant blue- or redshifted outflows.The 95 GHz masers always appear with the 44 GHz maser emission. They are strongly correlated with 44 GHz masers in velocity, flux density, and luminosity, while they are not correlated with either water or 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers. The average peak flux density ratio of 95 GHz to 44 GHz masers is close to unity, which is two times higher than previous estimates. The flux densities of class I methanol masers are more ...

  8. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  9. 40 CFR 147.3006 - Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule. 147.3006 Section 147.3006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule. (a) Rule-authorized Class II saltwater...

  10. MHC class II antigen presentation by B cells in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souwer, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    MHC class II antigen presentation by B cells is important to activate CD4+ T cells that stimulate the B cell to produce antibodies. Besides this, disruption of MHC class II antigen presentation could play a role in immune escape by tumor cells. This thesis describes MHC class II antigen presentation

  11. Signal transduction by HLA class II antigens expressed on activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Martin, P J; Schieven, G L;

    1991-01-01

    Human T cells express HLA class II antigens upon activation. Although activated, class II+ T cells can present alloantigens under certain circumstances, the functional role of class II antigens on activated T cells remains largely unknown. Here, we report that cross-linking of HLA-DR molecules ex...

  12. Interfacial Chemistry of Moisture-Aged Class II Composite Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Paulette; Wang, Yong; Bohaty, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Under in vivo conditions, the adhesive/dentin bond at the gingival margin of class II composite restorations can be the first defense against substances that may penetrate and ultimately undermine the composite restoration. Deterioration of this bond during aqueous aging is an area of intense investigation, but to date, the majority of our techniques have provided only an indirect assessment of the degrading components. The purpose of this study was to analyze the in situ molecular structure of adhesive/dentin interfaces in class II composite restorations, following aging in aqueous solutions. Class II preparations were cut from 12 unerupted human third molars, with a water-cooled, high-speed, dental handpiece. The prepared teeth were randomly selected for restoration with single bond (SB) and Z100 (3M). Teeth were restored, as per the manufacturer’s directions, under environmental conditions that simulated humidity and temperature characteristics of the oral cavity. Restored teeth were kept in sterile Delbecco’s phosphate saline for 48 h or 90 days. The samples were sectioned occlusogingivally and micro-Raman spectra were acquired at ~1.5 μm spatial resolution across the composite/adhesive/dentin interfaces at the gingival margins. Samples were wet throughout spectral acquisition. The relative intensity of bands associated with the adhesive in the interfacial region decreased dramatically after aqueous storage. This decrease in concert with the similar depth of dentin demineralization provides direct spectroscopic evidence of leaching of adhesive monomer from the interface during the 90 days of storage. SB adhesive infiltrated 4 –5 μm of 12-μm demineralized dentin at the gingival margin. After 90 days of aqueous storage, SB adhesive infiltration was reduced to ~2 μm, leaving ~10 μm of demineralized dentin collagen exposed at the gingival margin. The unprotected collagen at the gingival margin of the aged class II composite restorations was disorganized

  13. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses.

  14. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  15. Regulation of the instantaneous inward rectifier and the delayed outward rectifier potassium channels by Captopril and Angiotensin II via the Phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway in volume-overload-induced hypertrophied cardiac myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Zikiar; Laurence, Graham G.; Coleman, Bernell R.; Zhao, Aiqiu; Hajj-Moussa, Majd; Haddad, Georges E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Early development of cardiac hypertrophy may be beneficial but sustained hypertrophic activation leads to myocardial dysfunction. Regulation of the repolarizing currents can be modulated by the activation of humoral factors, such as angiotensin II (ANG II) through protein kinases. The aim of this work is to assess the regulation of IK and IK1 by ANG II through the PI3-K pathway in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes. Material/Methods Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced through volume-overload in adult male rats by aorto-caval shunt (3 weeks). After one week half of the rats were given captopril (2 weeks; 0.5 g/l/day) and the other half served as control. The voltage-clamp and western blot techniques were used to measure the delayed outward rectifier potassium current (IK) and the instantaneous inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) and Akt activity, respectively. Results Hypertrophied cardiomyocytes showed reduction in IK and IK1. Treatment with captopril alleviated this difference seen between sham and shunt cardiomyocytes. Acute administration of ANG II (10−6M) to cardiocytes treated with captopril reduced IK and IK1 in shunts, but not in sham. Captopril treatment reversed ANG II effects on IK and IK1 in a PI3-K-independent manner. However in the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, ANG II increased both IK and IK1 in a PI3-K-dependent manner in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions Thus, captopril treatment reveals a negative effect of ANG II on IK and IK1, which is PI3-K independent, whereas in the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition IK and IK1 regulation is dependent upon PI3-K. PMID:21709626

  16. Preferred SLA class I/class II haplotype combinations in German Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimsa, Ulrike; Ho, Chak-Sum; Hammer, Sabine E

    2017-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are responsible for the antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. High recombination rates in the MHC genes, as observed in humans, are believed to serve the evolutionary goal to achieve a high genetic diversity, allowing for a broad and efficient immune response. In a cohort of 155 pedigreed German Landrace pigs (65 founders and 90 piglets), we found that MHC genes occur in particular class I and class II haplotype combinations. This phenomenon has not been described before, probably because most of the earlier MHC studies in pigs were not pedigree-based. After comparing our data with published genotypes of different European pig breeds and Asian pigs, we hypothesise that the combination of particular but different haplotypes in different geographical regions may have developed under the evolutionary pressure of regionally endemic pathogens. This proposed mechanism ensures an efficient immune response despite low recombination rates.

  17. Dental cavity liners for Class I and Class II resin-based composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Andrew B; Peltz, Ivy; Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2016-10-25

    Resin-based composite (RBC) is currently accepted as a viable material for the restoration of caries for posterior permanent teeth requiring surgical treatment. Despite the fact that the thermal conductivity of the RBC restorative material closely approximates that of natural tooth structure, postoperative hypersensitivity is sometimes still an issue. Dental cavity liners have historically been used to protect the pulp from the toxic effects of some dental restorative materials and to prevent the pain of thermal conductivity by placing an insulating layer between restorative material and the remaining tooth structure. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of using dental cavity liners in the placement of Class I and Class II resin-based composite posterior restorations in permanent teeth in children and adults. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 25 May 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 4) in the Cochrane Library (searched 25 May 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 25 May 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 25 May 2016) and LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 25 May 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of the use of liners under Class I and Class II posterior resin-based composite restorations in permanent teeth (in both adults and children). We included both parallel and split-mouth designs. We utilized standard methodological procedures prescribed by Cochrane for data collection and analysis. Two review authors screened the search results and assessed the eligibility of studies for

  18. A growth-related concept for skeletal class II treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, U

    1978-09-01

    The use of a combined activator--high-pull headgear appliance for treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is presented as a preliminary report. The activator itself is equipped with a palatal bar, lower lip pads, and torque-control auxiliaries for the upper incisors. The face-bow is mounted directly on the activator, and the extraoral force vector is equivalent to that of an anterior high-pull vector. During bite registration the veritcal displacement of the mandible is restricted to a minimum, and the anterior displacement should not exceed 6 mm. On the basis of current knowledge of the growth of the bony facial structures, treatment objectives and a specific approach for skeletal Class II correction are defined. Following these objectives, the therapy aims at correcting the malocclusion without diverting the anterior landmarks of the bony face from their specific lines of growth. This is brought about by the corresponding mechanics of the activator-headgear combination. The corrective effect of this appliance may be assumed to be the result of several different factors. The maxillary dentition is restrained in a posterior cranial direction, and an inhibitory effect on the maxilla counter to its line of development is attained. The mandibular dentition is influenced in an anterior downward direction by means of the bite registration, and the occlusion is unlocked during treatment. Any transfer of distally directed headgear forces from the maxilla to the mandible is prevented. Temporary stimulation of condylar growth, possibly combined with temporary posterior deflection of condylar growth, may also be induced. In this way it is possible to take maximum advantage of condylar growth in the sagittal dimension. Thus, not only is the malocclusion corrected but, at the same time, decisive profile improvement is achieved by anterior development of the mandible. From the experience gained so far with a Class II, Division 1 sample undergoing treatment with the

  19. Evaluation of mandibular length in subjects with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using the cervical vertebrae maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Generoso

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular size in boys and girls with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, taking into consideration the bone maturation stage, as defined by the cervical vertebrae maturation. One hundred and sixty cephalometric radiographs were obtained from subjects (aged between 7 and 12 years with Class I or Class II skeletal patterns, according to the ANB angle and WITS appraisal. The Class I sample consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls. The Class II sample also consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls. On a cross-sectional basis, mandibular length (Co-Gn was compared between groups and genders. The between-stages changes were also evaluated, with the cervical vertebrae analysis used for establishing the bone maturation stages at CS2, CS3, CS4 and CS5. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The mandibular length differed between skeletal patterns only at the earlier stages of development. In the Class I pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS4 and CS5, whereas in the Class II pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS3 and CS4. The present results indicate a sexual dimorphism in the mandibular length at almost all stages of bone maturation, in exception of the CS5 stage in Class II.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of cooperative gene mutations between class I and class II in de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuichi; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Akane; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Tomonaga, Masao; Naoe, Tomoki

    2009-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been thought to be the consequence of two broad complementation classes of mutations: class I and class II. However, overlap-mutations between them or within the same class and the position of TP53 mutation are not fully analyzed. We comprehensively analyzed the FLT3, cKIT, N-RAS, C/EBPA, AML1, MLL, NPM1, and TP53 mutations in 144 newly diagnosed de novo AML. We found 103 of 165 identified mutations were overlapped with other mutations, and most overlap-mutations consisted of class I and class II mutations. Although overlap-mutations within the same class were found in seven patients, five of them additionally had the other class mutation. These results suggest that most overlap-mutations within the same class might be the consequence of acquiring an additional mutation after the completion both of class I and class II mutations. However, mutated genes overlapped with the same class were limited in N-RAS, TP53, MLL-PTD, and NPM1, suggesting the possibility that these irregular overlap-mutations might cooperatively participate in the development of AML. Notably, TP53 mutation was overlapped with both class I and class II mutations, and associated with morphologic multilineage dysplasia and complex karyotype. The genotype consisting of complex karyotype and TP53 mutation was an unfavorable prognostic factor in entire AML patients, indicating this genotype generates a disease entity in de novo AML. These results collectively suggest that TP53 mutation might be a functionally distinguishable class of mutation.

  1. SED analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gramajo, Luciana V; Gómez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUORS) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUORS in an homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUORS stage. We modeled the SEDs of 24 of the 26 currently known FUORS, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al (2003b). We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. (2007) for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods, by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUORS have more massive disks: we find that $\\sim80\\%$ of the disks in FUORS are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ~ 1.e-7 Msun/yr vs ~ 1.e-5 Msun/yr for standard YSOs (young stellar o...

  2. 40 CFR 147.3108 - Plugging Class I, II, and III wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging Class I, II, and III wells... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3108 Plugging Class I, II, and III wells. In addition to the... well: (a) For Class I and III wells: (1) The well shall be filled with mud from the bottom of the...

  3. Identification of MHC class II restricted T‐cell‐mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Stryhn, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide...... blocking with HLA class I and II subtype antibodies in the ELISPOT assay culture, none of the eight antigenic peptides induced HLA class I restricted CD8+ T‐cell responses. Instead all responses were blocked by pan‐HLA class II and anti‐HLA‐DR antibodies. In addition, CD4+ T‐cell depletion before the 10...

  4. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... annular pressure; (iii) The results from ground-water monitoring wells prescribed in paragraph (g)(1)(iii... drinking water and the well bore is prohibited. (2) The owner or operator of a Class I, II or III injection... water. (ii) For Class II wells: (A) The owner or operator shall not exceed a maximum injection...

  5. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  6. 40 CFR 53.35 - Test procedure for Class II and Class III methods for PM2.5 and PM-2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-volatile organic pollutants. (B) Test site B shall be in a western city such as Denver, Salt Lake City, or... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure for Class II and Class... Test procedure for Class II and Class III methods for PM2.5 and PM-2.5 (a) Overview. Class II and Class...

  7. Comparison of Class II HLA antigen expression in normal and carcinomatous human breast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.J.; Maurizis, J.C.; Chassagne, J.; Chollet, P.; Plagne, R.

    1985-03-01

    Class II HLA antigen expression in breast carcinoma and normal breast gland cells was compared using a method more accurate than immunofluorescence. This new method involves labeling membrane proteins with /sup 131/I and the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody with /sup 125/I. The isolation and purification of the doubly labeled (/sup 125/I-/sup 131/I) immune complex was performed by affinity chromatography and chromatofocusing successively. When the specific activity of glycoproteins is known, the amount of glycoprotein which bind specifically to the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody can be deduced. In breast carcinoma cells, 1.5 to 2% of the purified glycoproteins bind specifically to the monoclonal antibody, whereas less than 0.3% of normal breast gland cells binds. In contrast, leukemic cells, of which 80 to 90% possess Class II HLA antigens, 2 to 3% of Class II HLA glycoproteins bind specifically with the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody.

  8. Expression of HLA Class I and HLA Class II by Tumor Cells in Chinese Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xin; van den Berg, Anke; Gao, Zifen; Visser, Lydia; Nolte, Ilja; Vos, Hans; Hepkema, Bouke; Kooistra, Wierd; Poppema, Sibrand; Diepstra, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Caucasian populations, the tumor cells of Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-positive classical Hodgkin Lymphomas (cHL) patients more frequently express HLA class I and HLA class II molecules compared to EBV-negative cHL patients. HLA expression (in relation to EBV) in Asian cHL patients has no

  9. DIFFERENT ROLES OF CLASS-I AND CLASS-II CLOSTRIDIUM-HISTOLYTICUM COLLAGENASE IN RAT PANCREATIC-ISLET ISOLATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTERS, GHJ; VOSSCHEPERKEUTER, GH; LIN, HC; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    1995-01-01

    Crude Clostridium histolyticum collagenase was purified by gel filtration and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into class I with high collagen digestion activity (CDA) and low FALGPA (2-furanacryloyl-L-leucylglycyl-L-prolyI-L-alanine )hydrolysis activity (FHA), class II with low CDA and

  10. Management of Class I and Class II Amalgam Restorations with Localized Defects: Five-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of dental restorations has been the traditional treatment for defective restorations. This five-year prospective clinical trial evaluated amalgam restorations with localized defects that were treated by means of repair or refurbishing. Fifty-two patients (50% female and 50% male, mean age 28.3±18.1 years, range 18–80 with 160 class I and class II defective restorations were included. The study focused on the application of two minimally invasive treatments for localized restoration defects and compared these with no treatment and total replacement as negative and positive controls, respectively. Restorations were assessed by two calibrated examiners according to modified U.S. Public Health Service criteria, including marginal adaptation, anatomic form, secondary caries, and roughness. At five years, recall was examined in 45 patients with 108 restorations (67.5%. The results suggest that repair treatment is as effective as total replacement of restorations with localized defects, reducing biological costs to the patient and providing new tools to the clinician. Refinishing restoration is a useful treatment for localized anatomic form defects.

  11. Características cefalométricas de pacientes portadores de más oclusões Classe I e Classe II de Angle Cephalometric characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o presente estudo comparou algumas medidas cefalométricas relacionadas às características faciais em pacientes com má oclusão Classe I, Classe II 1ª divisão e Classe II 2ª divisão. METODOLOGIA: foram selecionadas 130 telerradiografias de pacientes leucodermas em fase inicial de tratamento ortodôntico, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos (média de 12,6 anos; e divididos em 3 grupos. As medidas cefalométricas utilizadas neste estudo foram: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī e EI. A análise de variância e o teste de Tukey foram realizados nas medidas ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN e Li-ī. Para as demais variáveis (EI e Ls-ı foi utilizado o teste de Kruskal Wallis e Dunn. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que as medidas Ls-ı e EI tiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos I e II-1 e entre os grupos II-1 e II-2 (p AIM: The present study compared some cephalometric measurements related to facial characteristics in patients having Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years under initial orthodontic treatment were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī, and EI. Variance analysis and Tukey's test were carried out for ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN, and Li-ī measurements, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were used for EI and Ls-ı. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found for EI and Ls-ı measurements when Group II-1 was compared to Group I and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. ANB and IMPA measurements also had statistically significant differences when Group I was compared to Group II-1 and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. The measurement ı-SN had statistically significant differences between the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: One can conclude that the measurement

  12. II-Q restriction endonucleases--new class of type II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarev, S K; Rechkunova, N I; Kolyhalov, A A; Dedkov, V S; Zhilkin, P A

    1990-10-11

    Unique restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil have been isolated from Bacillus pumilas and Bacillus sphaericus, respectively. The recognition sequences and cleavage points of these enzymes have been determinated as 5'-CC1TNAGC-3'/3'-GGANT1CG-5' for Bpu 10l and 5'-C1TCGTG-3'/3'-GAGCA1C-5' for Bsil. Restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil represent a new class of enzymes which recognize non-palindromic nucleotide sequences and hydrolize DNA within the recognition sequence. Bpu 10l and Bsil recognition sequences may be regarded as quasipalindromic and the enzymes may be designated as type II-Q restriction endonucleases.

  13. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  14. Gravitational Waves in Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS Class II Cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bradley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider perturbations of homogeneous and hypersurface orthogonal cosmological backgrounds with local rotational symmetry (LRS, using a method based on the 1 + 1 + 2 covariant split of spacetime. The backgrounds, of LRS class II, are characterised by that the vorticity, the twist of the 2-sheets, and the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor all vanish. They include the flat Friedmann universe as a special case. The matter contents of the perturbed spacetimes are given by vorticity-free perfect fluids, but otherwise the perturbations are arbitrary and describe gravitational, shear, and density waves. All the perturbation variables can be given in terms of the time evolution of a set of six harmonic coefficients. This set decouples into one set of four coefficients with the density perturbations acting as source terms, and another set of two coefficients describing damped source-free gravitational waves with odd parity. We also consider the flat Friedmann universe, which has been considered by several others using the 1 + 3 covariant split, as a check of the isotropic limit. In agreement with earlier results we find a second-order wavelike equation for the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor which decouples from the density gradient for the flat Friedmann universes. Assuming vanishing vector perturbations, including the density gradient, we find a similar equation for the electric part of the Weyl tensor, which was previously unnoticed.

  15. MHC class II polymorphisms, autoreactive T-cells and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eTsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA in humans, are the prevailing contributors of genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, among others (Todd and Wicker, 2001;MacKay et al., 2002;Hafler et al., 2007. Although the pathways through which MHC molecules afford autoimmune risk or resistance remain to be fully mapped out, it is generally accepted that they do so by shaping the central and peripheral T cell repertoires of the host towards autoimmune proclivity or resistance, respectively. Disease-predisposing MHC alleles would both spare autoreactive thymocytes from central tolerance and bias their development towards a pathogenic phenotype. Protective MHC alleles, on the other hand, would promote central deletion of autoreactive thymocytes and skew their development towards non-pathogenic phenotypes. This interpretation of the data is at odds with two other observations: that in MHC-heterozygous individuals, resistance is dominant over susceptibility; and that it is difficult to understand how deletion of one or a few clonal autoreactive T cell types would suffice to curb autoimmune responses driven by hundreds if not thousands of autoreactive T cell specificities. This review provides an update on current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MHC class II-associated autoimmune disease susceptibility and/or resistance and attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposing concepts.

  16. 40 CFR 147.300 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tower Building, 1580 Logan Street, Denver, Colorado, 80203. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII, 999 18th Street, Suite 500, Denver, Colorado, 80202-2405, or at the National... administration for Class II wells, and describing Mechanical Integrity Test procedures for Class II wells, March...

  17. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  18. The effectiveness of different polymerization protocols for class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, L.C.G. de; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Geitenbeek, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of reduced light exposure times on Vickers hardness (VH) of class II composite resin restorations. METHODS: Class II restorations were made in vitro in three 2mm thick increments in a human molar. Two composite resins (Clearfil AP-X; Esthet-X) were polymerized w

  19. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  20. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II... delay of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming... sections of established Minimum Internal Control Standards and replaced them with a new part titled...

  1. Long-term evaluation of Class II subdivision treatment with unilateral maxillary first molar extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique

  2. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  3. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  4. Overjet correction and space closure mechanisms for Class II treatment by extracting the maxillary first molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Goeke, J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Pancherz, H.; Ruf, S.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanism of overjet correction and space closure when treating Class II Division 1 patients by extracting the maxillary first molars. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 100 prospective, consecutively treated Class II Division 1 patients (45 female, 55 male; 10.5-17.2 years

  5. Insect Cells Encode a Class II α-Mannosidase with Unique Properties*

    OpenAIRE

    Kawar, Ziad; Karaveg, Khanita; Moremen, Kelley W.; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we cloned and characterized an insect (Sf9) cell cDNA encoding a class II α-mannosidase with amino acid sequence and biochemical similarities to mammalian Golgi α-mannosidase II. Since then, it has been demonstrated that other mammalian class II α-mannosidases can participate in N-glycan processing. Thus, the present study was performed to evaluate the catalytic properties of the Sf9 class II α-mannosidase and to more clearly determine its relationship to mammalian Golgi α-mannosi...

  6. HLA II class antigens and susceptibility to coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is a systemic autoimmune, complex and multifactorial disorder, which is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The only established genetic risk factors so far are the human leucocyte antigens. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of II class human leukocyte antigens (HLA in patients with coeliac disease and to investigate the susceptibility to coeliac disease in family members. We typed HLA DR and DQ antigens in 37 patients from Vojvodina with coeliac disease, 23 first-degree relatives, and 210 controls, serologically using standard lymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA DQ5(1, DQ6(1, DR11(5, DQ7(3, DQ2 and DR15(2 were the most common antigens in the control group. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 was higher in CD patients than in the control group. The relative risks for HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 were 4.846, 6.986 and 2.106, respectively, while positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3 and CD. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR16(2 was higher in first-degree relatives than in the control group while a positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3. A negative association was found between HLA DQ5(1 and DQ6(1 in coeliac patients from Vojvodina and their relatives, in addition to HLA DR11(5 in the group of relatives (RR=0.363,PF=0.232. These findings indicate the impact of the HLA testing for CD in clinical practice in order to rule out the possibility to CD in doubtful cases or in at-risk subjects.

  7. Astrocyte cytolysis by MHC class II-specific mouse T cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, A T; Lascola, C D; Flanders, S A; Maimone, D; Jensen, M A; Skias, D D; Lancki, D W

    1993-08-01

    The brain is "immunologically privileged," in part because class I and II MHC antigens are not normally present on glia or neurons. However, under certain conditions such as transplantation, glial cells express MHC proteins at levels sufficient for glia to become targets of immune responses. Cultured astrocytes expressing very low levels of MHC class I protein are killed efficiently by MHC class I antigen-specific CTL. Mouse brain allografts, however, are rejected by CD4+ T cells that are likely to be class II MHC-specific. The level of expression of MHC class II antigen needed to trigger specific killing of astrocytes by CD4+ T cells, independent of exogenous antigen, has not been studied. We examined the role of glial class II MHC in the lysis of cultured neonatal mouse astrocytes by an alloreactive murine CD4+ CTL alone. IFN-gamma induced functionally relevant increases in MHC class II antigen on target cells. Astrocytes were lysed by the CD4+ clone only when class II MHC antigens reached levels readily detectable by flow cytometry. MHC class II expression and lysis increased when astrocytes were coincubated with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Conversely, lysis decreased when class II expression was downregulated by IFN-alpha/beta or dbcAMP. Cytolysis by CD4+ clones was blocked by antibodies to CD4 and LFA-1 on T cells, and to ICAM-1 and class II molecules on astrocytes. The role of LFA-1 in CD4+ cell-mediated lysis was greater than that of LFA-1/ICAM-1 in CD8+ T cell-mediated lysis. CD4+ cells may lyse activated astrocytes when the immune privilege of the brain is compromised as in transplantation, tumors, and inflammatory diseases.

  8. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class II Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Howe, Sara C.; Kummet, Colleen; Vela, Kaci C.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class II malocclusion affects about 15 % of the US population and is characterized by a convex profile and occlusion disharmonies. The specific etiological mechanisms resulting in the range of Class II dento-skeletal combinations observed is not yet understood. Most studies describing the class II phenotypic diversity have utilized moderate sample sizes or have focused on younger individuals that later in life may outgrow their class II discrepancies; such a focus may also preclude the visualization of adult class II features. The majority have utilized simple correlation methods resulting in phenotypes that may not be generalizable to different samples and thus may not be suitable for studies of malocclusion etiology. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps by capturing the maximum phenotypic variation present in a large Caucasian sample of class II individuals selected with strict eligibility criteria and rigorously standardized multivariate reduction analyses. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 309 Class II Caucasian adults (82 males, 227 females; ages 16–60 years). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate comprehensive phenotypes in an effort to identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals reducing heterogeneity and improving the power of future malocclusion etiology studies. RESULTS PCA resulted in 7 principal components that accounted for 81% of the variation. The first three components represented variation on mandibular rotation, upper incisor angulation and mandibular length, respectively. The cluster analysis identified 5 distinct Class II phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive spectrum of Class II phenotypic definitions was obtained that could be generalized to other samples advancing our efforts to the identification of etiological factors underlying Class II malocclusion. PMID:24582022

  9. Class II antigen-associated invariant chain mRNA in mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, A J; Frederick, D; Hagen, S J; Katz, J D

    1991-09-30

    MHC class II antigen-associated invariant (Ii) chain mRNA appears in mouse small intestine during postnatal development. Ii chain cDNA hybridizes to RNA from epithelial sheets dissociated from the lamina propria with EDTA. Of several mouse organs tested, only bone marrow and spleen contain higher levels of Ii chain mRNA than small bowel. Ii chain mRNA is not detected in stomach, colon, duodenum, testis, liver, submandibular gland, or L-cell RNA; brain contains a cross-reactive but uncharacterized sequence. cDNA amplification using primers specific for both Ii31 and Ii41 chain mRNAs showed that both forms occur in small intestine. These results support the conclusion that regulation of the class II Ii chain gene is associated with the ontogeny of intestinal immunity.

  10. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas Shri Nalaka Jayaratne

    Full Text Available 1 To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2 To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients.Cone-beam CT (CBCT scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG and retropalatal (RP compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom.The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3 compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3. The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities.Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency.

  11. Regulation of MHC Class II-Peptide Complex Expression by Ubiquitination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Jin eCho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MHC class II (MHC-II molecules are present on antigen presenting cells (APCs and these molecules function by binding antigenic peptides and presenting these peptides to antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. APCs continuously generate and degrade MHC-II molecules, and ubiquitination of MHC-II has recently been shown to be a key regulator of MHC-II expression in dendritic cells (DCs. In this mini-review we will examine the mechanism by which the E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I regulates MHC-II expression on APCs and will discuss the functional consequences of altering MHC-II ubiquitination.

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, H.; Targan, S. [Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  13. Recent development of ATP-competitive small molecule phosphatidylinostitol-3-kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wan, Wen-zhu; Li, Yan; Zhou, Guan-lian; Liu, Xin-guang

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidylinostitol-3-kinase (PI3K) is the potential anticancer target in the PI3K/Akt/ mTOR pathway. Here we reviewed the ATP-competitive small molecule PI3K inhibitors in the past few years, including the pan Class I PI3K inhibitors, the isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors and/or the PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitors. PMID:27769061

  14. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient.

  15. β2-Glycoprotein I/HLA class II complexes are novel autoantigens in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kenji; Jin, Hui; Suenaga, Tadahiro; Morikami, Satoko; Arase, Noriko; Kishida, Kazuki; Hirayasu, Kouyuki; Kohyama, Masako; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Horita, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Kiyoshi; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Ken; Katayama, Ichiro; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Lanier, Lewis L; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Hideto; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-04-30

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications. β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) complexed with phospholipid is recognized as a major target for autoantibodies in APS; however, less than half the patients with clinical manifestations of APS possess autoantibodies against the complexes. Therefore, the range of autoantigens involved in APS remains unclear. Recently, we found that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules transport misfolded cellular proteins to the cell surface via association with their peptide-binding grooves. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G heavy chain/HLA class II complexes were specific targets for autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we demonstrate that intact β2GPI, not peptide, forms a complex with HLA class II molecules. Strikingly, 100 (83.3%) of the 120 APS patients analyzed, including those whose antiphospholipid antibody titers were within normal range, possessed autoantibodies that recognize β2GPI/HLA class II complexes in the absence of phospholipids. In situ association between β2GPI and HLA class II was observed in placental tissues of APS patients but not in healthy controls. Furthermore, autoantibodies against β2GPI/HLA class II complexes mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity against cells expressing the complexes. These data suggest that β2GPI/HLA class II complexes are a target in APS that might be involved in the pathogenesis.

  16. MHC class II expression in human basophils: induction and lack of functional significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid L Voskamp

    Full Text Available The antigen-presenting abilities of basophils and their role in initiating a Th2 phenotype is a topic of current controversy. We aimed to determine whether human basophils can be induced to express MHC Class II and act as antigen presenting cells for T cell stimulation. Isolated human basophils were exposed to a panel of cytokines and TLR-ligands and assessed for MHC Class II expression. MHC Class II was expressed in up to 17% of isolated basophils following incubation with a combination of IL-3, IFN-γ and GM-CSF for 72 hours. Costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86 were expressed at very low levels after stimulation. Gene expression analysis of MHC Class II-positive basophils confirmed up-regulation of HLA-DR, HLA-DM, CD74 and Cathepsin S. However, MHC Class II expressing basophils were incapable of inducing antigen-specific T cell activation or proliferation. This is the first report of significant cytokine-induced MHC Class II up-regulation, at both RNA and protein level, in isolated human basophils. By testing stimulation with relevant T cell epitope peptide as well as whole antigen, the failure of MHC Class II expressing basophils to induce T cell response was shown not to be solely due to inefficient antigen uptake and/or processing.

  17. Downregulation of class II transactivator (CIITA) expression by synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Celine; Hose, Stacey; O'Brien, Terrence P; Sinha, Debasish

    2004-01-30

    Cannabinoid receptors are known to be expressed in microglia; however, their involvement in specific aspects of microglial immune function has not been demonstrated. Many effects of cannabinoids are mediated by two G-protein coupled receptors, designated CB1 and CB2. We have shown that the CB1 receptor is expressed in microglia that also express MHC class II antigen (J. Neuroimmunol. 82 (1998) 13-21). In our present study, we have analyzed the effect of cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 on MHC class II expression on the surface of IFN-gamma induced microglial cells by flow cytometry. CP55,940 blocked the class II MHC expression induced by IFN-gamma. It has been shown that the regulation of class II MHC genes occurs primarily at the transcriptional level, and a non-DNA binding protein, class II transactivator (CIITA), has been shown to be the master activator for class II transcription. We find that mRNA levels of CIITA are increased in IFN-gamma induced EOC 20 microglial cells and that this increase is almost entirely eliminated by the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940. These data suggests that cannabinoids affect MHC class II expression through actions on CIITA at the transcriptional level.

  18. On the Relationship of UC H II Regions and Class II Methanol Masers: I. Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Bo; Wu, Yuanwei; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Rygl, Kazi; Reid, Mark J; Urquhart, James S; Zheng, Xingwu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted VLA C-configuration observations to measure positions and luminosities of Galactic Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and their associated ultra-compact H II regions. The spectral resolution was 3.90625 kHz and the continuum sensitivity reached 45 \\uJypb. We mapped 372 methanol masers with peak flux densities of more than 2 Jy selected from the literature, 367 of them were detected. Absolute positions have nominal uncertainties of 0.3 arcsec. In this first paper on the data analysis, we present three catalogs, the first gives information on the strongest feature of 367 methanol maser sources, and the second on all detected maser spots. The third catalog present derived data of the 279 radio continuum sources found in the vicinity of maser sources. Among them, 140 show evidence of physical association with maser sources. Our catalogs list properties including distance, flux density, radial velocity and the distribution of masers on the Galactic plane is then provided as well. We found no significant...

  19. Antigen-B Cell Receptor Complexes Associate with Intracellular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II Molecules*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Margarida; Tucker, Heidi; Drake, Lisa; Nichol, Kathleen; Drake, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen processing and MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and B cells allows the activation of naïve CD4+ T cells and cognate interactions between B cells and effector CD4+ T cells, respectively. B cells are unique among class II-restricted antigen-presenting cells in that they have a clonally restricted antigen-specific receptor, the B cell receptor (BCR), which allows the cell to recognize and respond to trace amounts of foreign antigen present in a sea of self-antigens. Moreover, engagement of peptide-class II complexes formed via BCR-mediated processing of cognate antigen has been shown to result in a unique pattern of B cell activation. Using a combined biochemical and imaging/FRET approach, we establish that internalized antigen-BCR complexes associate with intracellular class II molecules. We demonstrate that the M1-paired MHC class II conformer, shown previously to be critical for CD4 T cell activation, is incorporated selectively into these complexes and loaded selectively with peptide derived from BCR-internalized cognate antigen. These results demonstrate that, in B cells, internalized antigen-BCR complexes associate with intracellular MHC class II molecules, potentially defining a site of class II peptide acquisition, and reveal a selective role for the M1-paired class II conformer in the presentation of cognate antigen. These findings provide key insights into the molecular mechanisms used by B cells to control the source of peptides charged onto class II molecules, allowing the immune system to mount an antibody response focused on BCR-reactive cognate antigen. PMID:26400081

  20. Incisor inclination changes produced by two compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A; Tieu, Long; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    To compare the changes in incisor inclination between two compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions. Among Class II malocclusion patients a total of 38 consecutive patients treated with the Xbow appliance and later with full brackets (XB) were compared to 36 consecutive patients treated with Forsus connected to the archwire while on full brackets (FO). Evaluated cephalometric variables were overjet, overbite, skeletal Class II, lower incisor inclination, and upper incisor inclination. Factors that were analyzed were gender, treatment type, age at start of treatment (T1), and treatment length. Independent t-tests, χ(2), multiple analysis of variance, and Pearson correlations were applied. No differences in incisor inclination between both treatment protocols were identified. At T1 no statistical difference for any cephalometric variable was demonstrated with regard to gender and treatment type. Gender was also not associated with a different treatment time or age at T1. The mean treatment time was 24.2 months for XB and 30.2 months for the FO group (P  =  .037). XB patients averaged 10 fewer months of fixed edgewise appliances compared to FO patients. Neither gender nor treatment type had any influence on the changes of the evaluated dependent variables between T1 and the end of treatment. Lower incisors proclined more the longer the treatment (P  =  .005). Both overjet and upper incisor inclination were affected by age at T1 (P  =  .001 and P  =  .014, respectively). Both compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions appear to generate the same amount of incisor inclination. Large variability was identified.

  1. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guided bone regeneration (GBR is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2 associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is an option in the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defects and cyanoacrylate surgical glue, acting as a mechanic barrier and providing an efficient stability for the graft.

  2. Class II direct composite resin restorations with beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, R E

    1993-11-01

    With the increasing demand for esthetic posterior restorations, numerous techniques have been developed. The direct resin restoration has probably been used most extensively in Class II situations. Problems with Class II direct resin restorations include difficulty in developing proximal contact, occlusal wear, and polymerization shrinkage. Beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts have been developed in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these potential problems. They can be placed in a one-appointment technique, are relatively inexpensive, and can readily be utilized by the clinician adept in placing Class II composite resin restorations.

  3. Exposing the specific roles of the invariant chain isoforms in shaping the MHC class II peptidome

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Simon eFortin; Maryse eCloutier; Jacques eThibodeau

    2013-01-01

    The peptide repertoire (peptidome) associated with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs) is influenced by the polymorphic nature of the peptide binding groove but also by cell-intrinsic factors. The invariant chain (Ii) chaperones MHCIIs, affecting their folding and trafficking. Recent discoveries relating to Ii functions have provided insights as to how it edits the MHCII peptidome. In humans, the Ii gene encodes four different isoforms for which structure-function analyses have highlighted common...

  4. Rheumatoid Rescue of Misfolded Cellular Proteins by MHC Class II Molecules: A New Hypothesis for Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arase, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins localized in the endoplasmic reticulum are degraded promptly and thus are not transported outside cells. However, misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum are rescued from protein degradation upon association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without being processed to peptides. Studies on the misfolded proteins rescued by MHC class II molecules have revealed that misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules are specific targets for autoantibodies produced in autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, a strong correlation has been observed between autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules and the autoimmune disease susceptibility conferred by each MHC class II allele. These new insights into MHC class II molecules suggest that misfolded proteins rescued from protein degradation by MHC class II molecules are recognized as "neo-self" antigens by immune system and are involved in autoimmune diseases as autoantibody targets.

  5. Histochemical analysis of the role of class I and class II Clostridium histolyticum collagenase in the degradation of rat pancreatic extracellular matrix for islet isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VosScheperkeuter, GH; vanSuylichem, PTR; Wolters, GHJ; vanSchilfgaarde, R

    1997-01-01

    To understand why class II Clostridium histolyticum collagenase is much more effective than class I in the isolation of rat pancreatic islets, we analyzed the role of these collagenases in pancreatic tissue dissociation. Crude collagenase was purified and then fractionated into class I and II with d

  6. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge [Clinic of Orthodontics, Ministry of Health, Tepebasi Oral and Dental Health Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2017-03-15

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods.

  7. A Case of Probable MHC Class II Deficiency with Disseminated BCGitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyasin, Soheyla; Abolnezhadian, Farhad; Khoshkhui, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by abnormality of MHC class II molecules surface expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections but the immunodeficiency is not as severe as SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency), as evidenced by failure to develop disseminated infection after BCG vaccination. Therefore, MHC II deficiency with BCGosis, that is disseminated BCGitis, is not reported commonly. We report an interesting case of BCGosis after vaccination that was diagnosed to have probable MHC II deficiency.

  8. 78 FR 20236 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... could be a valuable tool in assessing a TGRA's capabilities, there is no value in submitting a list of... revenues; (ii) Has resulted in a reputation for safe, fair, and honest operation of the activity; and (iii...

  9. MHC class II tetramers made from isolated recombinant α and β chains refolded with affinity-tagged peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braendstrup, Peter; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Osterbye, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Targeting CD4+ T cells through their unique antigen-specific, MHC class II-restricted T cell receptor makes MHC class II tetramers an attractive strategy to identify, validate and manipulate these cells at the single cell level. Currently, generating class II tetramers is a specialized undertaking...

  10. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on a Class II gaming system? 547.12 Section 547.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II... modification, in accordance with § 547.15(a). (4) Downloads conducted during operational periods shall be...

  11. 25 CFR 547.8 - What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.8 Section 547.8 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.8 What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II... game provided to players pursuant to § 547.16. Any change in rules constitutes a different game. There...

  12. N-Sulfonyl hydroxamate derivatives as inhibitors of class II fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalda, Sabine; Braga, Rémi; Dax, Chantal; Vigroux, Alain; Blonski, Casimir

    2005-12-15

    Dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and phosphonate derivatives were synthesized bearing a N-sulfonyl hydroxamate moiety. The phosphate derivatives represent competitive inhibitors for the class II-FBP aldolase catalyzed reaction, while the phosphonate isosteres are comparatively weaker inhibitors.

  13. 40 CFR 82.24 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility; (vii) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of raw materials and feedstock chemicals used...) Recordkeeping and reporting. Any person who produces, imports, exports, transforms, or destroys class II... total of expended and unexpended production allowances, consumption allowances, export...

  14. Effect of Incisor Angulation on Overjet and Overbite in Class II Camouflage Treatment. A typodont study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sangcharearn, Yasinee; Ho, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    To determine the amount of variation in overjet and overbite that may result from changes in upper and lower incisor angulations following upper first premolar extraction treatment in Class II malocclusions...

  15. Treatment of Angle Class II malocclusions with a newly modified bionator combined with headgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bionator is one of the most commonly used functional appliances in treating Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions. However, the original type of bionator often causes lower incisor flaring and is limited in cases with mild crowding. There is little published literature on treating Angle Class II division 2 malocclusions using bionators. Our group suggested some modifications to the original-type bionator, including addition of an anterior resin cap, upper and lower labial bows, an expansion screw and a posterior resin wedge, to attempt to overcome limitations of the original design. This article shows our results on two male patients, one with an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a large overjet and the other with an Angle Class II division 2 malocclusion. The treatment was completed using a newly modified bionator with no other fixed appliance and resulted in a decrease in facial convexity, a reduced overjet and overbite, ideal interincisal relationships, and a harmonious profile.

  16. Klammt open elastic activator and twin blocks in Class II malocclusion treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduardo Maikel Curbeira Hernández; Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-01-01

    ...; however, there are different opinions about their effect on the cranium-facial complex. Objective : To determine the efficacy of these appliances in the functional treatment in Class II division I syndrome in early mixed teething...

  17. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  18. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a "noncompliant corrector" and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  19. Activation of MyD88 Signaling upon Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Binding to MHC Class II Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    Activation of MyD88 Signaling upon Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Binding to MHC Class II Molecules Teri L. Kissner, Gordon Ruthel, Shahabuddin Alam...mediated signaling, which activates pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. Recently we reported that staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA or SEB), which...upon Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Binding to MHC Class II Molecules. PLoS ONE 6(1): e15985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015985 Editor: Jacques Zimmer

  20. The biogenesis of the MHC class II compartment in human I-cell disease B lymphoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The localization and intracellular transport of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules nd lysosomal hydrolases were studied in I-Cell Disease (ICD) B lymphoblasts, which possess a mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P)-independent targeting pathway for lysosomal enzymes. In the trans-Golgi network (TGN), MHC class II- invariant chain complexes colocalized with the lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D in buds and vesicles that lacked markers of clathrin-coated vesicle-mediated transport. ...

  1. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  2. Class II correction in a growing patient with hyperdivergent growth patterns and severe overjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2010-01-01

    In general, the success of Class II treatment depends as much on the skill of the orthodontist as it does on a favorable facial-growth pattern. Lack of sufficient favorable growth during treatment will make it difficult to correct the skeletal malrelationship or significantly improve the facial profile. The case report presents the treatment of a patient with a Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with severe overjet and a hyperdivergent growth pattern. © 2011 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  3. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer; Gabriela dos Santos Kummer; Shaban Mirco; Joao Cesar Zielak

    2014-01-01

    The guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2) associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx) for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is a...

  4. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement

    OpenAIRE

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizo...

  5. Oral Impacts on Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Class I, II and III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Omair; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the social impact of malocclusion on quality of life between adult patients with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 222 adult patients (139, 42 and 41 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion, respectively) were recruited voluntarily from those attending the Orthodontic Clinic of Khyber College of Dentistry in Pesh awar, Pakistan. Participants were asked to complete the Urdu version of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profil...

  6. Targeting PI3 kinase in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Todd M; Patel, Manish R; Infante, Jeffrey R

    2015-02-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is the most frequently known activated aberrant pathway in human cancers. Pathologic activation can occur at multiple levels along the signaling pathway by a variety of mechanisms, including point mutations, amplifications, and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. This pathway is also a known resistance pathway, as it can be activated by both receptor tyrosine kinases and other oncogenes. mTOR inhibitors were the first targeted molecules in this pathway, and have already been FDA-approved in multiple indications. Because of the broad potential applications of inhibiting this pathway upstream of mTOR, multiple compounds targeting PI3K are in development. In this review, we discuss the clinical development of these inhibitors, including dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, pan-PI3K inhibitors, and isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors. Common adverse events, including rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia, have created a narrow therapeutic window for all classes of PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, single agent clinical activity has also been limited, with the exception of isoform-selective inhibitors, particularly the PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ inhibitors in hematologic malignancies. The future role of inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in the clinical practice of oncology likely depends on the development of patient selection strategies and the results of combination trials that are currently ongoing.

  7. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; K. Santhanakrishnan; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e....

  8. Class II genes of miniature swine. II. Molecular identification and characterization of B (beta) genes from the SLAc haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K; Sachs, D H; Germana, S; el-Gamil, M; Hirsch, F; Gustafsson, K; LeGuern, C

    1990-01-01

    Genomic clones corresponding to class II beta genes of the SLAc haplotype of miniature swine have been isolated and characterized. These genes have been grouped into seven non-overlapping clusters on the basis of restriction mapping. Ordering of exons within each cluster was accomplished by hybridization of Southern blots of restriction fragments with exon-specific probes. The two clusters (clusters 2 and 3) encoding the DRB and DQB genes were identified on the basis of hybridization with locus-specific 3' untranslated cDNA probes. Cluster 4 contained exons of both DOB and DQB genes, the basis for which remains to be determined. The remaining four clusters (1, 5, 6, 7) were identified as containing DP, DR, and DO coding sequences, respectively, on the basis of sequence analysis. The porcine class II region appears very similar to that of man in number and nature of the class II genes identified and in the intron/exon organization of corresponding genes.

  9. ZAP-70 and p72syk are signaling response elements through MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Grosmaire, L S; Blake, J

    1995-01-01

    of intracellular calcium. Similar responses have been observed in B-cells following stimulation of MHC class II molecules, including the increased production of intracellular cAMP. In this report, we demonstrate that the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase is a responsive signaling element following cross-linking of HLA......-DR in class II+ T-cells, and that the homologous tyrosine kinase p72syk is stimulated in B-cells following ligation of class II antigens. Antibody mediated co-ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR/CD3) with class II molecules resulted in augmented tyrosine phosphorylation of ZAP-70. Comparable...... to antibody induced receptor ligation, bacterial superantigen (SEA and SEB) treatment of HLA-DR+ T-cells stimulated ZAP-70 tyrosine phosphorylation, consistent with class II transmembrane signaling by ligation of HLA-DR and V beta in cis. Modulation of the TCR/CD3 led to abrogation of class II induced ZAP-70...

  10. Discovery of Two New Class II Methanol Maser Transitions in G345.01+1.79

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Cragg, D M; Godfrey, P D

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) to search for new class II methanol maser transitions towards the southern source G345.01+1.79. Over a period of 5 days we observed 11 known or predicted class II methanol maser transitions. Emission with the narrow line width and characteristic velocity of class II methanol masers (in this source) was detected in 8 of these transitions, two of which have not previously been reported as masers. The new class II methanol maser transitions are the 13(-3)-12(-4)E transition at 104.1 GHz and the 5(1)-4(2)E transition at 216.9 GHz. Both of these are from transition series for which there are no previous known class II methanol maser transitions. This takes the total number of known class II methanol maser series to 10, and the total number of transitions (or transition groups) to 18. The observed 104.1 GHz maser suggests the presence of two or more regions of masing gas with similar line of sight velocities, but quite different physical conditions. Althou...

  11. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  12. Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafuji, Asako; Biskup, Till; Hitomi, Kenichi; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kaiser, Gebhard; Batschauer, Alfred; Bacher, Adelbert; Hidema, Jun; Teranishi, Mika; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Schleicher, Erik; Weber, Stefan

    2010-05-04

    Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa has been examined by UV/Vis and pulsed Davies-type electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, and the results compared with structure-known class I enzymes, CPD photolyase and (6-4) photolyase. By ENDOR spectroscopy, the local environment of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor is probed by virtue of proton hyperfine couplings that report on the electron-spin density at the positions of magnetic nuclei. Despite the amino-acid sequence dissimilarity as compared to class I enzymes, the results indicate similar binding motifs for FAD in the class II photolyases. Furthermore, the photoreduction kinetics starting from the FAD cofactor in the fully oxidized redox state, FAD(ox), have been probed by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In Escherichia coli (class I) CPD photolyase, light-induced generation of FADH from FAD(ox), and subsequently FADH(-) from FADH, proceeds in a step-wise fashion via a chain of tryptophan residues. These tryptophans are well conserved among the sequences and within all known structures of class I photolyases, but completely lacking from the equivalent positions of class II photolyase sequences. Nevertheless, class II photolyases show photoreduction kinetics similar to those of the class I enzymes. We propose that a different, but also effective, electron-transfer cascade is conserved among the class II photolyases. The existence of such electron transfer pathways is supported by the observation that the catalytically active fully reduced flavin state obtained by photoreduction is maintained even under oxidative conditions in all three classes of enzymes studied in this contribution.

  13. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  14. DMPD: Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17827709 Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in innate immunity. Hazeki K, Nigorikawa...sitide 3-kinase in innate immunity. PubmedID 17827709 Title Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in innate immunit

  15. A Novel Approach to Correction of Class II Malocclusion with Lower Premolar Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Bali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion has been the subject of interest because of diversity in its presentation as well as multiple treatment strategies available to correct the same. Appropriate diagnosis of the case is very important to formulate the proper treatment plan. A 12-year-old girl presented with skeletal Class II malocclusion with retrognathic mandible and with Class I molar and canine relations bilaterally. There was sufficient overjet to advance the mandible but presence of crowding in the lower arch necessitated reduction of tooth material in the form of lower first premolar extractions so as to unravel the crowding and maintain the overjet. After closure of spaces in the lower arch, mandibular advancement was done by placing mandibular protraction appliance IV (MPA IV. An Angle Class III molar relation was achieved with Class I canines and Class I incisor relations. Treatment time was 21 months.

  16. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes a

  17. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human......, but not the class I-negative parental line, 221, showed homotypic aggregation in response to an HLA-G specific mAb (87G) and a broad reacting class I-specific mAb (IOT2). Both cell lines responded with aggregation to anti-class II mAb (TU35). The anti-class I mAb, W6/32, had no effect on all cell lines tested...... and two anti-beta 2-microglobulin mAb had variable, weak effects. The aggregation response was an active, temperature-sensitive process which was almost totally abrogated by azide and by cytochalasins B and E, but unaffected by colchicine, EDTA, aphidicolin, actinomycin D and protein tyrosine kinase...

  18. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Anup Belludi; Anand Patil

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal ov...

  19. Do orthodontists recommend Class II treatment according to evidence-based knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Azevedo Almeida

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionThe adequate indications for the timing of treatment for Class II malocclusion are mandatory for the ethical and efficient practice of orthodontics, but clinicians are reluctant to accept new information that contradicts their preferred method of treatment.ObjectiveThe aim of this investigation was to assess the agreement regarding the indications for Class II malocclusion interceptive therapy between a group of international opinion-makers on early treatment and a group of orthodontists and to compare their treatment indications with the current evidence-based knowledge.Material and methodAn electronic survey containing photographs of mild, moderate and severe Class II malocclusions in children was sent to two panels of experts. Panel 1 (n=28 was composed of international orthodontists who had authored world-class publications on early orthodontic treatment, and Panel 2 (n=261 was composed of clinical orthodontists. Based on a 5-point Likert-type scale, the orthodontists selected their therapy option for each of the 9 Class II malocclusion cases.ResultThe Class II malocclusion treatment recommendations of Panel 2 were significantly different from those offered by Panel 1 with a skew of at least 1 scale point toward earlier treatment. The Class II malocclusion treatment recommendations of the members of Panel 1 members were in accordance with contemporary evidence-based knowledge.ConclusionClass II malocclusion overtreatment appears to be the tendency among clinical orthodontists but not among orthodontists who are academically involved with early treatment. There is a gap between the scientific knowledge and the practices of orthodontists.

  20. Endothelial PI 3-kinase activity regulates lymphocyte diapedesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaei-Nejad, Maryam; Hussain, Amer M; Zhang, Qiu-Xia; Murray, Allan G

    2007-12-01

    Lymphocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation involves a bidirectional series of cues between the endothelial cell (EC) and the leukocyte that culminate in lymphocyte migration into the tissue. Remodeling of the EC F-actin cytoskeleton has been observed after leukocyte adhesion, but the signals to the EC remain poorly defined. We studied the dependence of peripheral blood lymphocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) through an EC monolayer in vitro on EC phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity. Lymphocytes were perfused over cytokine-activated EC using a parallel-plate laminar flow chamber. Inhibition of EC PI 3-kinase activity using LY-294002 or wortmannin decreased lymphocyte TEM (48 +/- 6 or 34 +/- 7%, respectively, vs. control; mean +/- SE; P structure" after intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ligation, whereas this was inhibited by jasplakinolide treatment. A similar fraction of lymphocytes migrated on control or LY-294002-treated EC and localized to interendothelial junctions. However, lymphocytes failed to extend processes below the level of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin on LY-294002-treated EC. Together these observations indicate that EC PI 3-kinase activity and F-actin remodeling are required during lymphocyte diapedesis and identify a PI 3-kinase-dependent step following initial separation of the VE-cadherin barrier.

  1. Management of severe Class II malocclusion with sequential modified twin block and fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Chowdhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional appliance is an effective way of treating skeletal Class II malocclusion in children and adolescents. A 12 months stepwise mandibular advancement protocol with Herbst appliance has been proved to enhance condylar growth and improve mandibular prognathism. The present case report documents a 12-year-old boy presenting with Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion associated with excessive overjet (11 mm, 100% deep bite, and retrognathic mandible. He was treated by a phase I growth modification therapy using twin block appliance with lip pads in a stepwise mandibular advancement protocol followed by a phase II preadjusted Edgewise appliance therapy.

  2. Comparison Between the Sonic-Sys System and Inlay in II Class

    OpenAIRE

    Feder, T.; Mierzwinska-Nastalska, E; Adamczyk-Sosinska, E.; Gladkowski, J.; Siedlecki, M.

    2002-01-01

    In everyday dental practice we often face the problem of class II restorations. Large caries create serious problems with regard to obtaining correct contact points, marginal fit (expecially in the gingival area) and good resin polymerisation. In such cases usage of the Sonic-Sys system and inlays seems to be the best solution. The aim of this poster is to present a manual of the Sonic-Sys system, as well as comparison of the Empress II and Sonic-Sys system inlays in class II restorations....

  3. Cellular misfolded proteins rescued from degradation by MHC class II molecules are possible targets for autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arase, Noriko; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-11-01

    The major function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is the presentation of peptide antigens to helper T cells. However, when misfolded proteins are associated with MHC class II molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, they are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without processing to peptides. Of note, misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules are specifically recognized by autoantibodies produced in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and antiphospholipid syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules is associated with the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases conferred by each MHC class II allele. Therefore, misfolded proteins rescued from degradation by MHC class II molecules may be recognized as 'neo-self' antigens by the immune system and be involved in the pathogenicity of autoimmune diseases.

  4. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable.

  5. Mechanisms of Class II correction induced by the crown Herbst appliance as a single-phase Class II therapy: 1 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsone, Gundega; Latkauskiene, Dalia; McNamara, James A

    2013-09-11

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of the crown Herbst appliance used alone for a single phase of therapy followed by a 1-year observation period. Forty patients (mean age 13.6±1.3 years) with a stable Class I occlusion 1 year following the treatment with the crown Herbst appliance were selected from a prospective sample of 180 consecutively treated Class II patients. No other appliances were used during treatment or during the follow-up period. The dentoskeletal changes were compared with a matched sample of untreated Class II subjects (mean age 13.9±1.6 years). Lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment, after Herbst treatment (1 year), and after 1-year follow-up. Overcorrection was avoided intentionally. Treatment produced an increase in mandibular length, a decrease in ANB angle, and a restriction in the vertical growth of posterior maxilla. The maxillary molars moved backward and tipped distally. The lower incisors proclined markedly, and the upper incisors became retroclined. During the follow-up period, the changes primarily were dentoalveolar in nature, with marked rebound of the upper molars and lower incisors, resulting in some increases in overbite and overjet. The occlusal correction of Class II malocclusion observed 1 year after the crown Herbst appliance as a single-phase therapy was achieved primary due to the dentoalveolar changes and only limited skeletal change occurred.

  6. Immunogenicity of HLA Class I and II Double Restricted Influenza A-Derived Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Ram; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Buus, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify influenza A-derived peptides which bind to both HLA class I and -II molecules and by immunization lead to both HLA class I and class II restricted immune responses. Eight influenza A-derived 9-11mer peptides with simultaneous binding to both HLA-A*02......:01 and HLA-DRB1*01:01 molecules were identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. Immunization of transgenic HLA-A*02:01/HLA-DRB1*01:01 mice with four of these double binding peptides gave rise to both HLA class I and class II restricted responses by CD8 and CD4 T cells, respectively, whereas...... with this, peptide vaccination did not decrease virus titres in the lungs of intranasally influenza challenged mice. Our data show that HLA class I and class II double binding peptides can be identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. By immunization, double binding peptides can give rise...

  7. A randomized controlled 27 years follow up of three resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the durability of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations during 27 years. Methods: Thirty participants, 25 female and 5 male (mean age 38.2 years, range 25–63), received at least three (one set) as similar as possible Class II restorations of moderate...... size. The three cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a chemical-cured (Clearfil Posterior) and two visible light-cured resin composites (Adaptic II, Occlusin). A chemical-cured enamel bonding agent (Clearfil New Bond) was applied after Ca(OH)2 covering of dentin and enamel etch. Marginal......: Class II restorations of the three conventional resin composites showed an acceptable success rate during the 27 year evaluation....

  8. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  9. HLA-G and MHC Class II Protein Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Bojo, Marcin; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Jabłońska, Joanna; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kordek, Radzisław; Młynarski, Wojciech; Robak, Tadeusz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lech-Maranda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and HLA class II protein was studied by immunohistochemical staining of lymph nodes from 148 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related to the clinical course of the disease. Negative HLA-G expression was associated with a lower probability of achieving a complete remission (p = 0.04). Patients with negative HLA-G expression tended towards a lower 3-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with positive expression of HLA-G (p = 0.08). When restricting the analysis to patients receiving chemotherapy with rituximab, the estimated 3-year OS rate of patients with positive HLA-G expression was 73.3 % compared with 47.5 % (p = 0.03) in those with negative expression. Patients with negative HLA class II expression presented a lower 3-year OS rate compared to subjects with positive expression (p = 0.04). The loss of HLA class II expression (p = 0.05) and belonging to the intermediate high/high IPI risk group (p = 0.001) independently increased the risk of death. HLA class II expression also retained its prognostic value in patients receiving rituximab; the 3-year OS rate was 65.3 % in patients with positive HLA class II expression versus 29.6 % (p = 0.04) in subjects that had loss of HLA class II expression. To our knowledge, for the first time, the expression of HLA-G protein in DLBCL and its association with the clinical course of the disease was demonstrated. Moreover, the link between losing HLA class II protein expression and poor survival of patients treated with immunochemotherapy was confirmed.

  10. Stability of molar relationship after non-extraction Class II malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Vaz de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of molar relationship after non-extraction treatment of Class II malocclusion. METHODS: The sample comprised 39 subjects (16 females, 23 males with initial Class II malocclusion treated with no extractions, using fixed appliances. Mean age at the beginning of treatment was 12.94 years, at the end of treatment was 15.14 years and at post-retention stage was 21.18 years. Mean treatment time was 2.19 years and mean time of post-treatment evaluation was 6.12 years. To verify the influence of the severity of initial Class II molar relationship in stability of molar relationship, the sample was divided into two groups, one presenting a ½-cusp or ¾-cusp Class II molar relationship, and the other with full-cusp Class II molar relationship. In dental casts from initial, final and postretention stages, molar, first and second premolars and canine relationships were measured. Data obtained were analyzed by dependent ANOVA, Tukey and Pearson's correlation tests, as well as independent t test between the two groups divided by severity of initial molar relationship. RESULTS: There was a non-statistically significant 0.12 mm relapse of molar relationship. The initial severity of Class II molar relationship was not correlated to relapse in the post-retention period. When compared, the two groups showed no difference in relapse of molar relationship. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that correction of Class II molar relationship is stable and initial severity does not influence relapse of molar relationship.

  11. Linkage relationships in the bovine MHC region. High recombination frequency between class II subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Lundén, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Davies, C J; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    Class II genes of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been investigated by Southern blot analysis using human DNA probes. Previous studies revealed the presence of bovine DO beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms for each of these genes were documented. In the present study, the presence of three additional class II genes, designated DZ alpha, DY alpha, and DY beta, are reported. DZ alpha was assumed to correspond to the human DZ alpha gene while the other two were designated DY because their relationship to human class II genes could not be firmly established. The linkage relationships among bovine class II genes and two additional loci, TCP1B and C4, were investigated by family segregation analysis and analysis of linkage disequilibrium. The results clearly indicated that all these loci belong to the same linkage group. This linkage group is divided into two subregions separated by a fairly high recombination frequency. One region includes the C4, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta loci and the other one is composed of the DO beta, DY alpha, DY beta, and TCP1B loci. No recombinant was observed within any of these subregions and there was a strong or fairly strong linkage disequilibrium between loci within groups. In contrast, as many as five recombinants among three different families were detected in the interval between these subregions giving a recombination frequency estimate of 0.17 +/- 0.07. The fairly high recombination frequency observed between class II genes in cattle is strikingly different from the corresponding recombination estimates in man and mouse. The finding implies either a much larger molecular distance between some of the bovine class II genes or alternatively the presence of a recombinational "hot spot" in the bovine class II region.

  12. Assessment of upper airways measurements in patients with mandibular skeletal Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanna Nadja e Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mandibular Class II malocclusions seem to interfere in upper airways measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the upper airways measurements of patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion in order to investigate the association between these measurements and the position and length of the mandible as well as mandibular growth trend, comparing the Class II group with a Class I one.Methods:A total of 80 lateral cephalograms from 80 individuals aged between 10 and 17 years old were assessed. Forty radiographs of Class I malocclusion individuals were matched by age with forty radiographs of individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion. McNamara Jr., Ricketts, Downs and Jarabak's measurements were used for cephalometric evaluation. Data were submitted to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis by means of SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Student's t-test, Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient were used. A 95% confidence interval and 5% significance level were adopted to interpret the results.Results:There were differences between groups. Oropharynx and nasopharynx sizes as well as mandibular position and length were found to be reduced in Class II individuals. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the size of the oropharynx and Xi-Pm, Co-Gn and SNB measurements. In addition, the size of the nasopharynx was found to be correlated with Xi-Pm, Co-Gn, facial depth, SNB, facial axis and FMA.Conclusion: Individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion were shown to have upper airways measurements diminished. There was a correlation between mandibular length and position and the size of oropharynx and nasopharynx.

  13. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  14. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica; Ohno, Carolyn; Ott, Felix; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Wenkel, Stephan; Heisler, Marcus G

    2016-10-18

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial-abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets.

  15. A Class I and Class II Methanol Maser Survey of Extended Green Objects (EGOs) from the GLIMPSE Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cyganowski, C J; Hunter, T R; Churchwell, E

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a high angular resolution Very Large Array (VLA) Class I 44 GHz and Class II 6.7 GHz methanol maser survey of a sample of ~20 massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates selected on the basis of extended 4.5 micron emission in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) images. These 4.5 micron-selected candidates are referred to as extended green objects (EGOs), for the common coding of this band as green in three-color IRAC images. The detection rate of 6.7 GHz Class II methanol masers, which are associated exclusively with massive YSOs, towards EGOs is greater than ~64%--nearly double the detection rate of surveys using other MYSO selection criteria. The detection rate of Class I 44 GHz methanol masers, which trace molecular outflows, is ~89% towards EGOs associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers. The two types of methanol masers exhibit different spatial distributions: 6.7 GHz masers are centrally concentrated and usually coincide with 24 m...

  16. PowerScope a Class II corrector – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joby Paulose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing mild to moderate Class II malocclusion is a one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated by myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. This case report illustrates the efficiency of PowerScope in correction of skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency in a patient aged 13 years who has reported to the department with a chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth. This case with functional jaw retrusion was treated initially with MBT 0.022” prescription followed by PowerScope. Pre-, mid- and post-treatment cephalograms were obtained, and cephalometric analysis was performed. Stable and successful results were obtained with a substantial improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship, and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. A significant forward displacement of the mandible was the principal element for successful correction of Class II malocclusion. PowerScope provides the best results for Class II management, thus enables us to treat such cases by a nonextraction approach rather than contemplating extractions.

  17. Developmental and cytokine-mediated regulation of MHC class II gene promoter occupancy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, C J; Glimcher, L H

    1993-06-01

    The class II genes of the major histocompatibility complex are a family of genes whose expression is regulated developmentally in cells of the B lineage and by IFN-gamma in many other cell types. Using the approach of in vivo footprinting, which allows for the examination of protein-promoter interactions within intact cells, we demonstrated a transition from unoccupied to occupied to once again unoccupied class II promoters in cell lines representing the developmental pathway of B cells. IFN-gamma treatment of HeLa cells led to increased promoter occupancy of the DR alpha and DR beta promoters at the same sites that are constitutively bound in mature B cells. No IFN-gamma-specific binding site was induced. Additionally, an octamer element in the DR alpha gene displayed preferential binding in B cells. These results demonstrate that changes in the transcription of the class II genes are associated with changes in factor binding at the promoter in vivo. Moreover, given the ubiquity of class II promoter binding proteins, these results suggest that throughout B cell development and upon IFN-gamma stimulation, the accessibility of class II promoter DNA is subject to regulation.

  18. Identification of MHC class II restricted T-cell-mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila T; Stryhn, Anette; Justesen, Sune; Larsen, Mette V; Dziegiel, Morten H; Lewinsohn, David M; Buus, Søren; Lund, Ole; Claesson, Mogens H

    2011-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide-based vaccines. In the present work, bioinformatics technology was employed to predict binding motifs of 9mer peptides derived from M. tuberculosis for the 12 HLA-I supertypes. Subsequently, the predicted peptides were synthesized and assayed for binding to HLA-I molecules in a biochemically based system. The antigenicity of a total of 157 peptides with measured affinity for HLA-I molecules of K(D) ≤ 500 nM were evaluated using peripheral blood T cells from strongly purified protein derivative reactive healthy donors. Of the 157 peptides, eight peptides (5%) were found to induce T-cell responses. As judged from blocking with HLA class I and II subtype antibodies in the ELISPOT assay culture, none of the eight antigenic peptides induced HLA class I restricted CD8(+) T-cell responses. Instead all responses were blocked by pan-HLA class II and anti-HLA-DR antibodies. In addition, CD4(+) T-cell depletion before the 10 days of expansion, resulted in total loss of reactivity in the ELISPOT culture for most peptide specificities. FACS analyses with intracellular interferon-γ staining of T cells expanded in the presence of M. tuberculosis peptides confirmed that the responsive cells were indeed CD4(+). In conclusion, T-cell immunity against HLA-I binding 9mer M. tuberculosis-derived peptides might in many cases turn out to be mediated by CD4(+) T cells and restricted by HLA-II molecules. The use of 9mer peptides recognized by both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells might be of importance for the development of future M. tuberculosis peptide-based vaccines.

  19. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.7 What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class...

  20. The Role of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    1851-1863. 12. Cao, P., Maira, S.M., Garcia- Echeverria , C., and Hedley, D.W. (2009). Activity of a novel, dual PI3-kinase/mTor inhibitor NVP-BEZ235...rapamycin inhibitor with potent in vivo antitumor activity. Mol Cancer Ther 7, 1851-1863. 33. Cao, P., Maira, S.M., Garcia- Echeverria , C., and Hedley

  1. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  2. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM. CONCLUSION: FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  3. Fixed lingual mandibular growth modificator: a new appliance for class II correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Osama Hasan

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5°) on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30° and ML-NL angle of 22.5°. Overjet was increased (7 mm) and associated with a deep bite. Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM). FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  4. Therapeutic approach to Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with maxillary functional orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bittencourt, Aristeu Corrêa; Saga, Armando Yukio; Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Tanaka, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Interceptive treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is a challenge orthodontists commonly face due to the different growth patterns they come across and the different treatment strategies they have available. OBJECTIVE: To report five cases of interceptive orthodontics performed with the aid of Klammt's elastic open activator (KEOA) to treat Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: Treatment comprehends one or two phases; and the use of functional orthopedic appliances, whenever properly recommended, is able to minimize dentoskeletal discrepancies with consequent improvement in facial esthetics during the first stage of mixed dentition. The triad of diagnosis, correct appliance manufacture and patient's compliance is imperative to allow KEOA to contribute to Class II malocclusion treatment. RESULTS: Cases reported herein showed significant improvement in skeletal, dental and profile aspects, as evinced by cephalometric analysis and clinical photographs taken before, during and after interceptive orthodontics. PMID:26352852

  5. Characterization of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes in miiuy croaker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Xu

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC has a central role in the adaptive immune system by presenting foreign peptide to the T-cell receptor. In order to study the molecular function and genomic characteristic of class II genes in teleost, the full lengths of MHC class IIA and IIB cDNA and genomic sequence were cloned from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy. As in other teleost, four exons and three introns were identified in miiuy croaker class IIA gene; but the difference is that six exons and five introns were identified in the miiuy croaker class IIB gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of class IIA and class IIB had 26.3-85.7% and 11.0-88.8% identity with those of mammal and teleost, respectively. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the MHC class IIA and IIB were ubiquitously expressed in ten normal tissues; expression levels of MHC genes were found first upregulated and then downregulated, and finally by a recovery to normal level throughout the pathogenic bacteria infection process. In addition, we report on the underlying mechanism that maintains sequences diversity among many fish species. A series of site-model tests implemented in the CODEML program revealed that positive Darwinian selection is likely the cause of the molecular evolution in the fish MHC class II genes.

  6. Functional Interaction between Class II Histone Deacetylases and ICP0 of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Patrick; Thomas, Joëlle; Texier, Pascale; Caron, Cécile; Khochbin, Saadi; Epstein, Alberto L.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the physical and functional interactions between ICP0 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4, 5, and 7. Class II HDACs are mainly known for their participation in the control of cell differentiation through the regulation of the activity of the transcription factor MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), implicated in muscle development and neuronal survival. Immunofluorescence experiments performed on transfected cells showed that ICP0 colocalizes with and reorganizes the nuclear distribution of ectopically expressed class I and II HDACs. In addition, endogenous HDAC4 and at least one of its binding partners, the corepressor protein SMRT (for silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptor), undergo changes in their nuclear distribution in ICP0-transfected cells. As a result, during infection endogenous HDAC4 colocalizes with ICP0. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays confirmed that class II but not class I HDACs specifically interacted with ICP0 through their amino-terminal regions. This region, which is not conserved in class I HDACs but homologous to the MITR (MEF2-interacting transcription repressor) protein, is responsible for the repression, in a deacetylase-independent manner, of MEF2 by sequestering it under an inactive form in the nucleus. Consequently, we show that ICP0 is able to overcome the HDAC5 amino-terminal- and MITR-induced MEF2A repression in gene reporter assays. This is the first report of a viral protein interacting with and controlling the repressor activity of class II HDACs. We discuss the putative consequences of such an interaction for the biology of the virus both during lytic infection and reactivation from latency. PMID:15194749

  7. Exposing the specific roles of the invariant chain isoforms in shaping the MHC class II peptidome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Simon eFortin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The peptide repertoire (peptidome associated with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs is influenced by the polymorphic nature of the peptide binding groove but also by cell-intrinsic factors. The invariant chain (Ii chaperones MHCIIs, affecting their folding and trafficking. Recent discoveries relating to Ii functions have provided insights as to how it edits the MHCII peptidome. In humans, the Ii gene encodes four different isoforms for which structure-function analyses have highlighted common properties but also some non-redundant roles. Another layer of complexity arises from the fact that Ii heterotrimerizes, a characteristic that has the potential to affect the maturation of associated MHCIIs in many different ways, depending on the isoform combinations. Here, we emphasize the peptide editing properties of Ii and discuss the impact of the various isoforms on the MHCII peptidome.

  8. Exposing the Specific Roles of the Invariant Chain Isoforms in Shaping the MHC Class II Peptidome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Simon; Cloutier, Maryse; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2013-12-13

    The peptide repertoire (peptidome) associated with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs) is influenced by the polymorphic nature of the peptide binding groove but also by cell-intrinsic factors. The invariant chain (Ii) chaperones MHCIIs, affecting their folding and trafficking. Recent discoveries relating to Ii functions have provided insights as to how it edits the MHCII peptidome. In humans, the Ii gene encodes four different isoforms for which structure-function analyses have highlighted common properties but also some non-redundant roles. Another layer of complexity arises from the fact that Ii heterotrimerizes, a characteristic that has the potential to affect the maturation of associated MHCIIs in many different ways, depending on the isoform combinations. Here, we emphasize the peptide editing properties of Ii and discuss the impact of the various isoforms on the MHCII peptidome.

  9. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T

    2010-07-27

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity.

  10. Comparison of Maxilla Mandibular Transverse Ratios With Class II Anteroposterior Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-20

    transverse dentofacial structure of 6-to 15-year-old children: a posteroanterior cephalometric study. American Journal of Orthodontics and...in postero-anterior cephalograms. Journal of Orthodontics , 26(4), 273-284. 3. Ball, R. L., Miner, R. M., Will, L. A., & Arai, K. (2010). Comparison...of dental and apical base arch forms in Class II Division 1 and Class I malocclusions. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics

  11. EFFECTS CLASS OBESE I, II, III HOUSEWIFES ON THE SYSTEM CARDIO-RESPIRATORY CAPACITY

    OpenAIRE

    Zerf Mohammed; Mokkedes Moulay Idriss; Attouti Nouredine; Bengoua Ali,

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study are to find ways to determine the risks cardiovascular and respiratory capacity in class obese I, II, III housewife based on them adaptation to effort. Since obesity has reached epidemic as levels in cholesterol fractions, and triglyceride as risk factors of metabolic health track into adulthood which confirmed that the body physical fitness has a significant modifying effect on other risk factors as cardiovascular disease. Our role is to expose the impact of the class...

  12. Targeting the MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Lapointe, Réjean

    2012-09-01

    The success of immunotherapy relies on the participation of all arms of the immune system and the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in preventing tumor growth is now well established. Understanding how tumors evade immune responses holds the key to the development of cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss how MHC Class II expression varies in cancer cells and how this influences antitumor immune responses. We also discuss the means that are currently available for harnessing the MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway for the development of efficient vaccines to activate the immune system against cancer.

  13. HLA class II haplotypes distinctly associated with vaso-occlusion in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Najat; Al-Ola, Khadija; Al-Subaie, Abeer M; Ali, Muhallab E; Al-Irhayim, Zaid; Al-Irhayim, A Qader; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the association of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes with sickle cell anemia vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). DRB1*100101 was positively associated, while DRB1*140101, DRB1*150101, and DQB1*060101 were negatively associated, with VOC. Both susceptible (DRB1*100101-DQB1*050101) and protective (DRB1*110101-DQB1*030101 and DRB1*150101-DQB1*060101) haplotypes were identified, indicating that HLA class II haplotypes influence VOC risk.

  14. Is traditional treatment a good option for an adult with a Class II deepbite malocclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo Quintão, Catia Cardoso; Miguel, Jose Augusto Mendes; Brunharo, Ione Portela; Zanardi, Gustavo; Feu, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The Tweed-Merrifield directional force technique is a useful treatment approach for a patient with a Class II malocclusion with dentoalveolar protrusion. The purpose of this case report was to present the diagnosis and treatment descriptions of a patient with an Angle Class II malocclusion complicated by tooth losses, severe dentoalveolar protrusion, and skeletal discrepancy. Treatment involved extraction of the maxillary first premolars, high-pull headgear to enhance anchorage, and high-pull J-hook headgear to retract and intrude the maxillary anterior segments. A successful outcome was achieved with traditional orthodontic treatment in this borderline surgical case.

  15. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º) on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm) and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual ...

  16. Vaccination against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in MHC class II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2011-01-01

    response could be elicited in MHC class II-deficient mice by vaccination with adenovirus encoding lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein tethered to MHC class II-associated invariant chain. Moreover, the response induced conferred significant cytolytic CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection...... against challenge with a high dose of the invasive clone 13 strain of LCMV. In contrast, vaccination with adenovirus encoding unlinked LCMV glycoprotein induced weak virus control in the absence of CD4(+) T cells, and mice may die of increased immunopathology associated with incomplete protection. Acute...

  17. Treatment of Class II Malocclusion by Nonextraction Therapy using Microimplants and Pendex Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar S Alle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Class II cases is always challenging. Treatment modalities involve growth modulation, expansion of the maxillary arch or extraction of premolars and retraction. The patient compliance is key factor in success of the treatment. In the present article a male patient with Class II malocclusion was treated using a Pendex appliance to simultaneously expand the upper arch and distalize the molars. The maxillary anteriors were retracted using microimplants. The results were satisfactory. This approach can be used in patients with mild skeletal discrepancy and with slight increase in the gingival display.

  18. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K

    1984-01-01

    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen beta and alpha chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both beta and alpha) gene products, respectively, all of which being approximately 90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to beta2-microglobulin (beta2M). The membrane-embedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II alpha chains than to class II beta chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a beta2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  19. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  20. A Review of Class I and Class II Pet Food Recalls Involving Chemical Contaminants from 1996 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Commercial pet food in USA is generally safe, but adulteration does occur. Adulterated food has to be recalled to protect pets and public health. All stakeholders, including food firms, distributors, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) participate in food recall. The objective of this review is to describe the pet food recall procedure from start to finish, and to review class I and II pet food recalls from 1996 to 2008, with a specific focus on those due to...

  1. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  2. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): a screening study to measure class II skeletal pattern, TMJ PDS and use of systemic corticosteroids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mandall, Nicky A

    2010-03-01

    To screen patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to determine (i) the severity of their class II skeletal pattern; (ii) temporomandibular joint signs and symptoms and (iii) use of systemic corticosteroids.

  3. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Harton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail mediates these “non-traditional” class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease.

  4. 78 FR 5800 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... administrative order assessing a civil penalty against any person who has violated applicable emergency planning... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity... resolve violations of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know...

  5. 78 FR 14015 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Powered Patient Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... chairs (which are different from wheelchairs) continue to require submission of 510(k)s. FDA is... known as stairway chair lifts. These devices are used to assist in the transfer of a person with a... stairway chair lifts, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for...

  6. Machine Learning Reveals a Non-Canonical Mode of Peptide Binding to MHC class II Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell; Kaever, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    MHC class II molecules play a fundamental role in the cellular immune system: they load short peptide fragments derived from extracellular proteins and present them on the cell surface. It is currently thought that the peptide binds lying more or less flat in the MHC groove, with a fixed distance...

  7. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Friis, J; Fugger, L;

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DPB in 54 patients with pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (PJRA) and in healthy Danes. The frequencies of DNA fragments a...

  8. A Cephalometric Comparison of Twin Block and Bionator Appliances in Treatment of Class II Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Babaki, Fatemeh; Araghbidi-Kashani, S. Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background Class II malocclusion is one of the most common orthodontic problems. In cases of class II malocclusion with mandibular deficiency, functional appliances often are used with the intent of stimulating mandibular growth. Bionator and twin block are two of the more popular functional appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of these two appliances using cephalometric radiographs. Material and Methods Cephalometric radiographs of 33 patients who had class II division I malocclusion, before and after treatment were digitalized. The mean changes in twin block and bionator groups were compared using independent t test. Results Twin block and bionator showed no statistically significant differences in cephalometric parameters except for ANB, NA-Pog, Basal and Ar-Go-Me angles. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in dentoalveolar and mandibular position between twin block and bionator (p>0.1). Twin block was more efficient in inhibition of forward movement of maxilla (p<0.1). Key words:Functional, Class II malocclusion, Cephalometrics, Twin block, Bionator, Treatment. PMID:28149473

  9. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limited to household, industrial, automotive and pesticide uses; (2) Except— (i) Medical devices listed in...; (iii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids used for aircraft maintenance, which contain class II... books, books with coated, dense or paper and tightly bound documents; (vii) Portable fire...

  10. Guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous surgical techniques have been evaluated toattempt the regeneration of furcation defects. Objective and literature review: Among the regenerative techniques, guided tissue regeneration(GTR has been largely used in the treatment of class II furcation defects, the main indication for GTR. Several clinical studies have compared the GTR technique with surgical debridement alone for the treatment of class II furcation defects in mandibular molars. A number of membrane materials have been tested in those studies.Varying results have been observed using non-absorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE membranes. In some studies, the difference between the treatments was not clinically significant. When second generation absorbable membranes were used, the clinicalresults were also variable. However, some clinical studies foundfavorable results using the GTR technique, especially when a polylactic acid membrane was used. Similar modest results were observed when absorbable and non-absorbable membranes were compared clinically in the treatment of class II furcation defects in mandibular molars.Significant differences were not found between the membranes for most of the clinical parameters evaluated.Conclusion: Considering the literature, it can be concluded that the use of GTR for the treatment of mandibular molars with class II furcation defects yielded highly variable and unpredictable results.

  11. Influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II composite resin restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A manikin model (KaVo Dental) was used with an artificial first molar in which a standardized MO preparation was

  12. 77 FR 58473 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... supported the NPRM's removal of language asserting that ``TGRAs also regulate Class II gaming,'' but... primary regulators of tribal gaming. Response: The Commission declines to insert the requested language... are eliminated from operation through attrition and/or market forces. One commenter noted...

  13. Extraction of maxillary first permanent molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, M.J.; Booij, J.W.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to assess treatment outcomes in Class II Division 1 patients who were treated orthodontically with extraction of the maxillary first permanent molars and to describe the changes in their facial profiles. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal, 1-group outcome

  14. A treatment method for Class II Division 1 patients with extraction of permanent maxillary first molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The goal of this paper is to present a treatment approach that involves the extraction of the maxillary first molars followed by use of fixed appliances with low-friction br

  15. Very few indications justify early treatment for severe Class II malocclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2004-01-01

    DESIGN: This was a single-centre two-phased, parallel, randomised clinical trial (RCT) conducted over a period of more than 10 years. INTERVENTION: Children were enrolled who had severe (=7 mm overjet) Class II malocclusions and who were developmentally at least a year before their peak pubertal gro

  16. Current Teaching of Proximal Retention Grooves for Class II Amalgam Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey gathered information on methods of class II amalgam preparation taught in 59 dental schools. Focus was on the teaching and testing of proximal retention groove use, stated rationale for placing retention grooves, and the relationship of the instruction to board criteria for cavity preparation. (MSE)

  17. 37 GHz methanol masers : Horsemen of the Apocalypse for the class II methanol maser phase?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Sobolev, A M; Voronkov, M A; Caswell, J L; Lo, N

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3 and 38.5 GHz towards a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched towards regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesised to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  18. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martinez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were investigate

  19. Oral HPV infection and MHC class II deficiency (A study of two cases with atypical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirat-Dhouib Naouel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency, also referred to as bare lymphocyte syndrome is a rare primary Immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a profondly deficient human leukocyte antigen class II expression and a lack of cellular and humoral immune responses to foreign antigens. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. The infections begin in the first year of life and involve usually the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract. Severe malabsorption with failure to thrive ensues, often leading to death in early childhood. Bone marrow transplantation is the curative treatment. Case reports Here we report two cases with a late outcome MHC class II deficiency. They had a long term history of recurrent bronchopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections. Bone marrow transplantation could not be performed because no compatible donor had been identified. At the age of 12 years, they developed oral papillomatous lesions related to HPV (human papillomavirus. The diagnosis of HPV infection was done by histological examination. HPV typing performed on the tissue obtained at biopsy showed HPV type 6. The lesions were partially removed after two months of laser treatment. Conclusions Viral infections are common in patients with MHC class II and remain the main cause of death. Besides warts caused by HPV infection do not exhibit a propensity for malignant transformation; they can cause great psychosocial morbidity.

  20. Building Students' Reasoning Skills by Promoting Student-Led Discussions in an Algebra II Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana

    2013-01-01

    Current research and professional organizations call for greater emphasis on reasoning and sense making in algebra (Chazan, 2000; Cuoco, Goldenberg, & Mark, 1996; Harel & Sowder, 2005; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2009, 2010). This paper illustrates how students in an Algebra II class had opportunities to develop…

  1. Extraction of maxillary first permanent molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, M.J.; Booij, J.W.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to assess treatment outcomes in Class II Division 1 patients who were treated orthodontically with extraction of the maxillary first permanent molars and to describe the changes in their facial profiles. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal, 1-group outcome

  2. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Spalj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH and Twin Block (TB on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n=25 or TB (n=25 appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p<0.001. Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p<0.05. Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes.

  3. The effect of anterior inclined plane treatment on the dentoskeletal of Class II division 1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emami Meibodi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with anterior inclined plane appliance in growing patients with moderate Class II Division 1 having deep overbite. In this study, 25 patients, including 15 girls and 10 boys, with a mean age of 9 ±1.2 years were selected; all of them presented with moderate Class II deep bite with increased overjet and normal or horizontal growth pattern. Pre- and post-treatment X-rays and photos for an average of 8 months were taken. The statistical assessment of the data suggested that there were no significant changes in the vertical skeletal parameters. The mandibular incisors were protruded, whereas the maxillary incisors were retruded. Overbite and overjet were also reduced. There was significant increase in the mandibular length. The results revealed that in mixed dentition patients, the inclined plane corrected Class II discrepancies mostly through dentoskeletal changes.

  4. 40 CFR 147.250 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State of California, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the California... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.250 Section 147.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  5. [Features of the hormonal status in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction and class II malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus, L A; Arsenina, O I; Komolov, I S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on androgen levels in female patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction of varying degree and class II malocclusion. The study revealed significant correlation between degenerative and inflammatory TMJ changes and androgens level in patients with stigmas of connective tissue dysplasia (p<0.05), probably due to indirect proinflammatory action of androgens as they stimulate inflammatory mediators expression.

  6. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n = 25) or TB (n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p < 0.001). Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p < 0.05). Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes. PMID:28203569

  7. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with class I and class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khumsarn, Nattida [Dental Division of Lamphun Hospital, Lamphun (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2016-06-15

    This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns.

  8. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Results Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. Conclusion In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. PMID:27358819

  9. Rationale for referring class II patients for early orthodontic treatment As razões para indicação de tratamento precoce em pacientes de classe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Mendes Miguel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of indicating early treatment (before growth spurt when dealing with Angle Class II cases has been noticed, although there is no definite scientific evidence to justify such decision. The aim of this study was to identify the advantages and disadvantages to this approach and which appliances are used for this purpose. For that purpose, a questionnaire containing full records of a Class II patient was sent to two professors of each Orthodontic graduate program in Brazil (n=96, total 192, from which 107 were properly answered. Results demonstrated that the most used appliances were the headgear (80.4%, maxillary splint (50% and Bionator (44.4%. The benefits most often quoted were increase of patient self-esteem (78.5% and reduction in the incidence of incisors trauma (63.6%, while the main disadvantage was saturation of patient compliance (73.8%. Considering early Class II treatment, there is still no unanimity as to treating in one or two stages or in selection of appliances. However, the orthodontists should consider the physical situation of the patient, severity of cases and susceptibility of trauma to the maxillary incisors. It is crucial that updated information is given to parents, in order to justify this approach.A tendência de indicação de tratamento precoce (antes de surto de crescimento para casos de Classe II de Angle tem sido observada, embora não haja evidência científica para embasar tal decisão. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as vantagens e desvantagens da indicação e quais aparelhos são usados no tratamento. Foram enviados questionários (n=192 com a documentação completa de um paciente Classe II para dois professores de cada curso de especialização em Ortodontia no Brasil, os quais 107 foram respondidos. Os resultados demonstraram que os aparelhos mais usados foram: Extra-oral (80,4%, Thurow (50,0% e Bionator (44,4%. Foram citados como maiores vantagens: aumento de auto-estima do paciente (78

  10. Class-II neurons display a higher degree of stochastic synchronization than class-I neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Sashi; Ermentrout, G Bard

    2008-04-01

    We describe the relationship between the shape of the phase-resetting curve (PRC) and the degree of stochastic synchronization observed between a pair of uncoupled general oscillators receiving partially correlated Poisson inputs in addition to inputs from independent sources. We use perturbation methods to derive an expression relating the shape of the PRC to the probability density function (PDF) of the phase difference between the oscillators. We compute various measures of the degree of synchrony and cross correlation from the PDF's and use the same to compare and contrast differently shaped PRCs, with respect to their ability to undergo stochastic synchronization. Since the shape of the PRC depends on underlying dynamical details of the oscillator system, we utilize the results obtained from the analysis of general oscillator systems to study specific models of neuronal oscillators. It is shown that the degree of stochastic synchronization is controlled both by the firing rate of the neuron and the membership of the PRC (type I or type II). It is also shown that the circular variance for the integrate and fire neuron and the generalized order parameter for a hippocampal interneuron model have a nonlinear relationship to the input correlation.

  11. 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Bittencourt Pazinatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations. Filtek P60 was compared with Filtek Z250, which are both indicated for posterior restorations but differ in terms of handling characteristics. The null hypothesis tested was that there is no difference in the clinical performance of the two resin composites in posterior teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were treated by the same operator, who prepared 48 Class I and 42 Class II cavities, which were restored with Single Bond/Filtek Z250 or Single Bond/Filtek P60 restorative systems. Restorations were evaluated by two independent examiners at baseline and after 56 months, using the modified USPHS criteria. Data were analyzed statistically using Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests (a=0.05. RESULTS: After 56 months, 25 patients (31 Class I and 36 Class II were analyzed. A 3% failure rate occurred due to secondary caries and excessive loss of anatomic form for P60. For both restorative systems, there were no significant differences in secondary caries and postoperative sensitivity. However, significant changes were observed with respect to anatomic form, marginal discoloration, and marginal adaptation. Significant decreases in surface texture were observed exclusively for the Z250 restorations. CONCLUSIONS: Both restorative systems can be used for posterior restorations and can be expected to perform well in the oral environment.

  12. Management of severe Class II division 1 malocclusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicita, A Sumathi; Chandrasekar, Shyamala; Sundari, K K Shantha

    2011-11-01

    To describe the two-phase treatment of a preadolescent boy with a severe skeletal Class II division 1 malocclusion with vertical maxillary excess and spaced upper incisors. Treatment involved an orthopaedic phase using high-pull headgear and a maxillary intrusion splint followed by non-extraction orthodontic treatment with a pre-adjusted edgewise appliance. The case was assessed at the start of treatment (T1), at the end of orthopaedic treatment (T2), at the end of orthodontic treatment (T3) and 2 years after debanding (T4). At T2 the Class II molar occlusion was corrected to a Class I molar relationship and the overjet and overbite were considerably reduced. A lower lip trap was relieved and a normal mentolabial sulcus obtained. The cephalometric changes at T2 revealed a 4 degree reduction in the ANB angle but no change in the SNA angle. At T3, the inclination of the upper central incisors, the overjet and overbite were normal and the spaces between the upper anterior teeth were closed. At T4, the Class I molar and canine relationships, reduced overjet, reduced overbite and intercuspation were maintained. The curve of Spee deepened slightly. A severe skeletal Class II division 1 malocclusion with vertical maxillary excess may be successfully treated in two phases with an initial orthopaedic appliance in the form of high-pull head gear and a maxillary intrusion splint followed by fixed appliances.

  13. A review of class I and class II pet food recalls involving chemical contaminants from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbeiha, Wilson; Morrison, Jamie

    2011-03-01

    Commercial pet food in USA is generally safe, but adulteration does occur. Adulterated food has to be recalled to protect pets and public health. All stakeholders, including food firms, distributors, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) participate in food recall. The objective of this review is to describe the pet food recall procedure from start to finish, and to review class I and II pet food recalls from 1996 to 2008, with a specific focus on those due to chemical contaminants/adulterants. Information was requested from the FDA by Freedom of Information Act. Only those recalls backed by the FDA scientific review were considered. The legal framework for food recalls in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Chapter 1, Part 7 and in the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007, Title X was reviewed. From 1996 to 2008, there were a total of 22 class I and II pet food recalls. Of these, only six (27%) were due to chemical adulterants. The adulterants were aflatoxins, cholecalciferol, methionine, and melamine, and cyanuric acid. The causes of adulteration included inadequate testing of raw materials for toxins, use of wrong or faulty mixing equipment, and misformulation of raw materials. Overall, pet food manufactured in the USA is safe. Even with shortcomings in the recall process, the incidence of illness associated with pet food adulteration is low. Added changes can only make the system better in the future to safeguard pet and public safety. © American College of Medical Toxicology 2010

  14. Predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptides binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II molecules are crucial for initiation and regulation of immune responses. Predicting peptides that bind to a specific MHC molecule plays an important role in determining potential candidates for vaccines. The binding groove in class II MHC is open at both ends, allowing peptides longer than 9-mer to bind. Finding the consensus motif facilitating the binding of peptides to a MHC class II molecule is difficult because of different lengths of binding peptides and varying location of 9-mer binding core. The level of difficulty increases when the molecule is promiscuous and binds to a large number of low affinity peptides. In this paper, we propose two approaches using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA for predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. One uses the information from both binders and non-binders for self-discovery of motifs. The other, in addition, uses information from experimentally determined motifs for guided-discovery of motifs. Results The proposed methods are intended for finding peptides binding to MHC class II I-Ag7 molecule – a promiscuous binder to a large number of low affinity peptides. Cross-validation results across experiments on two motifs derived for I-Ag7 datasets demonstrate better generalization abilities and accuracies of the present method over earlier approaches. Further, the proposed method was validated and compared on two publicly available benchmark datasets: (1 an ensemble of qualitative HLA-DRB1*0401 peptide data obtained from five different sources, and (2 quantitative peptide data obtained for sixteen different alleles comprising of three mouse alleles and thirteen HLA alleles. The proposed method outperformed earlier methods on most datasets, indicating that it is well suited for finding peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. Conclusion We present two MOEA-based algorithms for finding motifs

  15. Treatment of Class II open bite in the mixed dentition with a removable functional appliance and headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, P; Wilson, S; Florman, M; Wei, S H

    1992-05-01

    Early diagnosis of patients exhibiting open bites that are complicated by skeletal Class II and vertical growth problems can facilitate subsequent treatment. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite were treated with the high-pull activator appliance and compared to reasonably matched controls to determine the effects of the appliance. The high-pull activator was found to reduce forward growth of the maxilla and increase mandibular alveolar height, transforming the Class II molar relationship into a Class I molar relationship. The overjet and open bite were decreased, and, in addition, the appliance reduced the amount of forward and downward movement of the maxillary molars, providing vertical control of the maxilla during Class II orthopedic correction. These results demonstrated that open bite complicated by a Class II vertical growth pattern can be treated during the mixed dentition with favorable results by a combination of a removable functional appliance and high-pull headgear.

  16. Insulin/IGF-1 signaling, including class II/III PI3Ks, β-arrestin and SGK-1, is required in C. elegans to maintain pharyngeal muscle performance during starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donard S Dwyer

    Full Text Available In C. elegans, pharyngeal pumping is regulated by the presence of bacteria. In response to food deprivation, the pumping rate rapidly declines by about 50-60%, but then recovers gradually to baseline levels on food after 24 hr. We used this system to study the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS in the recovery of pharyngeal pumping during starvation. Mutant strains with reduced function in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, DAF-2, various insulins (INS-1 and INS-18, and molecules that regulate insulin release (UNC-64 and NCA-1; NCA-2 failed to recover normal pumping rates after food deprivation. Similarly, reduction or loss of function in downstream signaling molecules (e.g., ARR-1, AKT-1, and SGK-1 and effectors (e.g., CCA-1 and UNC-68 impaired pumping recovery. Pharmacological studies with kinase and metabolic inhibitors implicated class II/III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks and glucose metabolism in the recovery response. Interestingly, both over- and under-activity in IIS was associated with poorer recovery kinetics. Taken together, the data suggest that optimum levels of IIS are required to maintain high levels of pharyngeal pumping during starvation. This work may ultimately provide insights into the connections between IIS, nutritional status and sarcopenia, a hallmark feature of aging in muscle.

  17. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  18. Má oclusão Classe II, 2ª Divisão de Angle, com sobremordida acentuada Angle Class II, Division 2, malocclusion with deep overbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Carvalho Ribeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este relato de caso descreve o tratamento ortodôntico de uma paciente adulta, portadora de uma má oclusão Classe II, 2ª Divisão de Angle, com sobremordida e curva de Spee acentuadas e que apresentava vestibuloversão do dente 12 e algumas recessões gengivais. A paciente foi tratada com exodontia dos primeiros pré-molares superiores e máximo controle de ancoragem. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 6, ou seja, uma má oclusão com sobremordida acentuada, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, who presented a Angle Class II, Division 2, malocclusion, with overbite, severe curve of Spee, right maxillary lateral incisor proclined and gengival recessions. The patient was treated with extraction of the first premolars and maximum anchorage control. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO representing the category 6, deep overbite malocclusion, as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of Diplomate by BBO.

  19. Preliminary rapport on head posture and muscle activity in subjects with class I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, I C; Bérzin, F; Biasotto-Gonzalez, D

    2005-11-01

    Forward head posture may cause alterations in the stomatognathic system, including changes in the muscle activity of the masticatory muscles and dental occlusion alterations. Considering the need for further understanding of the relationship between the stomatognathic system and the cervical region, the purpose of this study was to analyse the head posture and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the anterior portion of temporal and masseter muscles bilaterally among bruxist's subjects with different dental occlusion classifications using the Angle method. The study consisted of 20 female volunteers, between the ages of 17 and 27 years. They were separated into two groups (class I and class II occlusions) according to a dentist-performed evaluation. An assessment of forward head posture was conducted using a photographic technique (angular calculus) combined with a clinical analysis. In the EMG analyses, active differential surface electrodes (Ag) were utilized and were placed bilaterally on the belly of masseter and temporal muscles, perpendicular to the muscles fibres. The EMG signal recorded during bilateral isotonic mastication, was presented using the Root Mean Square and was processed by Matlab software. The results indicated that the EMG responses of temporal and masseter muscles tend to be modified by occlusion alteration class II. Subjects with class II occlusion tended to present more occurrence of forward head posture with alterations in the muscle activity pattern between masseter and temporal muscles.

  20. MHC class II molecules deliver costimulatory signals in human T cells through a functional linkage with IL-2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Kanner, S B; Ledbetter, J A;

    1993-01-01

    tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates including PLC-gamma 1. Combined stimulation of IL-2R and class II molecules had an additive effect on tyrosine phosphorylation. Pretreatment of T cells with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited IL-2 and class II-induced proliferation...

  1. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  2. Class II treatment by extraction of maxillary first molars or Herbst appliance: dentoskeletal and soft tissue effects in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Goeke, J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.; Ruf, S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare dentoskeletal and soft tissue treatment effects of two alternative Class II division 1 treatment modalities (maxillary first permanent molar extraction versus Herbst appliance). METHODS: One-hundred-fifty-four Class II division 1 patients that had either been treated with extractions

  3. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  4. 40 CFR 147.504 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.504 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1954 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Pennsylvania § 147.1954 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and...

  6. 40 CFR 147.2154 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Tennessee § 147.2154 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1354 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1354 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be in compliance with the requirements of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery...

  8. 40 CFR 147.904 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Kentucky § 147.904 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2103 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator determines that the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2103 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and...

  10. 40 CFR 147.304 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.304 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery...

  11. 40 CFR 147.104 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Alaska § 147.104 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1454 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Nevada § 147.1454 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... determines that the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1654 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS New York § 147.1654 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage well may not be in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II enhanced recovery...

  14. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? 547.10 Section 547.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... GAMES § 547.10 What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? This section...

  15. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.6 What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and...

  16. Class II treatment by extraction of maxillary first molars or Herbst appliance: dentoskeletal and soft tissue effects in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Goeke, J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.; Ruf, S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare dentoskeletal and soft tissue treatment effects of two alternative Class II division 1 treatment modalities (maxillary first permanent molar extraction versus Herbst appliance). METHODS: One-hundred-fifty-four Class II division 1 patients that had either been treated with extractions

  17. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... wound therapy into class II (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Non-Powered Suction Apparatus Device Intended for...

  18. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... into class II (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use;...

  19. Survival of self-etch adhesive Class II composite restorations using ART and conventional cavity preparations in primary molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, E.; Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the null-hypothesis that there was no difference in the survival percentages of Class II composite restorations in primary teeth produced through either ART or conventional approaches after 2 years. METHODS: 157 children with 325 Class II cavitated dentin lesions were included in a

  20. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  1. Orthodontic treatment of nongrowing patient with class II division 2 malocclusion by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inheritance is most casual etiological factor of Class II division 2 malocclusion. This kind of malocclusion is very difficult for treatment specially in older patients. Case report. In the female patient, 20 years old, at the beginning of the treatment at the School of Dentistry in Belgrade, lateral cephalogram showed skeletal and dentoalveolar Class II division 2 malocclusion. She was in the Herbst treatment for 8 months and 12 months more with a fixed multibracket appliance. The measurements were performed on lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment: ii, is, mi, ms, Pg and ss. The distance from these points to occlusal perpendicular line (Olp were measured and compared from cephalogram before to cephalogram after the treatment. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ tomograms were compared from before and after the treatment by superimposition. Correction was found in molar and incisor relation, overjet and overbite. There were found sagital skeletal changes and soft tissue profile improvement. Conclusion. Herbst appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients. Dental and skeletal changes as a result of Herbst treatment could be good choice instead of camouflage orthodontics or surgical decision.

  2. The Microfloral Analysis of Secondary Caries Biofilm around Class I and Class II Composite and Amalgam Fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Si-su

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary caries is responsible for 60 percent of all replacement restorations in the typical dental practice. The diversity of the bacterial sources and the different types of filling materials could play a role in secondary caries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the microbial spectrum of secondary caries biofilms around amalgam and composite resin restorations. Methods Clinical samples were collected from freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with clinical secondary caries. Samples were categorized into four groups according to the types of restoration materials and the classification of the cavity. Biofilms were harvested from the tooth-restoration interface using a dental explorer and after dilution were incubated on special agars. The bacteria were identified using the biochemical appraisal system. Statistical calculations were carried out using SPSS11.5 software to analyze the prevalence of the bacteria involved in secondary caries. Results Samples from a total of four groups were collected: two groups were collected from amalgam restorations, each had 21 samples from both Class I and Class II caries; and the other two groups were from composite resin restorations, each had 13 samples from both class I and class II caries. Our results showed: (1 Anaerobic species were dominant in both restoration materials. (2 In terms of the types of individual bacteria, no significant differences were found among the four groups according to the geometric mean of the detected bacteria (P > 0.05. However, there were significant differences among the detected bacteria within each group (P 0.05, but showed significant differences among the detected bacteria in each group (P 0.05, however, the detection rate of each bacterium within each group was statistically different among the detected bacteria (P Conclusions The proportion of obligatory anaerobic species was much greater than the facultative anaerobic species in the

  3. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouseI-Aq in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336 PMID:26779996

  4. Functional recombinant MHC class II molecules and high-throughput peptide-binding assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Sune; Harndahl, Mikkel; Lamberth, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    of peptide-binding assay were developed including a homogeneous, non-radioactive, high-throughput (HTS) binding assay. Binding isotherms were generated allowing the affinities of interaction to be determined. The affinities of the best binders were found to be in the low nanomolar range. Recombinant MHC...... in the generation of MHC-II molecules as reagents to study and manipulate specific T helper cell responses. Methods to generate functional MHC-II molecules recombinantly, and measure their interaction with peptides, would be highly desirable; however, no consensus methodology has yet emerged. RESULTS: We generated....... CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed versatile MHC-II resources, which may assist in the generation of MHC class II -wide reagents, data, and tools....

  5. A Class of Asymmetric Gapped Hamiltonians on Quantum Spin Chains and its Characterization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2016-12-01

    We give a characterization of the class of gapped Hamiltonians introduced in Part I (Ogata, A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015). The Hamiltonians in this class are given as MPS (Matrix product state) Hamiltonians. In Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), we list up properties of ground state structures of Hamiltonians in this class. In this Part II, we show the converse. Namely, if a (not necessarily MPS) Hamiltonian H satisfies five of the listed properties, there is a Hamiltonian H' from the class by Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), satisfying the following: The ground state spaces of the two Hamiltonians on the infinite interval coincide. The spectral projections onto the ground state space of H on each finite intervals are approximated by that of H' exponentially well, with respect to the interval size. The latter property has an application to the classification problem with open boundary conditions.

  6. A Class of Asymmetric Gapped Hamiltonians on Quantum Spin Chains and its Characterization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2016-06-01

    We give a characterization of the class of gapped Hamiltonians introduced in Part I (Ogata, A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015). The Hamiltonians in this class are given as MPS (Matrix product state) Hamiltonians. In Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), we list up properties of ground state structures of Hamiltonians in this class. In this Part II, we show the converse. Namely, if a (not necessarily MPS) Hamiltonian H satisfies five of the listed properties, there is a Hamiltonian H' from the class by Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), satisfying the following: The ground state spaces of the two Hamiltonians on the infinite interval coincide. The spectral projections onto the ground state space of H on each finite intervals are approximated by that of H' exponentially well, with respect to the interval size. The latter property has an application to the classification problem with open boundary conditions.

  7. Reviews of class IA phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase' effects on tumorigenesis as well as the inhibitors' molecular mechanism%IA型磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶与肿瘤的关系及其抑制剂分子机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玥; 毛伟峰; 张玉彬

    2014-01-01

    磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase,PI3K)是细胞内重要的信号分子,它具有调节细胞增殖、分化、代谢、凋亡等功能.PI3K的基因易发生突变和扩增,从而导致PI3K被激活,与肿瘤的形成和发展密切相关.IA型的PI3K及其下游的信号分子组成的通路参与调节肿瘤细胞的增殖、存活、黏附、迁移等活动.综述了IA型PI3K-PI3Kα、PI3Kβ和PI3Kδ与肿瘤发生、发展的关系,列举了20个具有代表性的IA型PI3K抑制剂,并讨论了它们的分子抑制机制.

  8. Sculpting MHC class II-restricted self and non-self peptidome by the class I Ag-processing machinery and its impact on Th-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles T; Dragovic, Srdjan M; Conant, Stephanie B; Gray, Jennifer J; Zheng, Mu; Samir, Parimal; Niu, Xinnan; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Van Kaer, Luc; Sette, Alessandro; Link, Andrew J; Joyce, Sebastian

    2013-05-01

    It is generally assumed that the MHC class I antigen (Ag)-processing (CAP) machinery - which supplies peptides for presentation by class I molecules - plays no role in class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. In striking contrast to this assumption, we previously reported that proteasome inhibition, TAP deficiency or ERAAP deficiency led to dramatically altered T helper (Th)-cell responses to allograft (HY) and microbial (Listeria monocytogenes) Ags. Herein, we tested whether altered Ag processing and presentation, altered CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, or both underlay the above finding. We found that TAP deficiency and ERAAP deficiency dramatically altered the quality of class II-associated self peptides suggesting that the CAP machinery impacts class II-restricted Ag processing and presentation. Consistent with altered self peptidomes, the CD4(+) T-cell receptor repertoire of mice deficient in the CAP machinery substantially differed from that of WT animals resulting in altered CD4(+) T-cell Ag recognition patterns. These data suggest that TAP and ERAAP sculpt the class II-restricted peptidome, impacting the CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, and ultimately altering Th-cell responses. Together with our previous findings, these data suggest multiple CAP machinery components sequester or degrade MHC class II-restricted epitopes that would otherwise be capable of eliciting functional Th-cell responses.

  9. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  10. Correction of a Overjet and Overbite In Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Using Twin Block Appliance Therapy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Dipti; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gulshan K; Singh, Alka; Sharma, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Class II division 1 malocclusion is the most common malocclusion. It shows specific clinical characteristics such as large overiet and deep overbite resulting in a soft tissue profile imbalance. Majority of the patients with class II division 1 malocclusions have an underlying skeletal discrepancy between the maxilla and mandible. The treatment of skeletal class II division 1 malocclusion is done taking into consideration the age, growth potential, severity of malocclusion, and compliance of patient with treatment. Myofunctional appliances can be successfully used to treat growing patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. This article presents a discussion on successful treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion with growth modification approach using twin block appliances.

  11. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human...... and two anti-beta 2-microglobulin mAb had variable, weak effects. The aggregation response was an active, temperature-sensitive process which was almost totally abrogated by azide and by cytochalasins B and E, but unaffected by colchicine, EDTA, aphidicolin, actinomycin D and protein tyrosine kinase...

  12. CCD surface photometry of radio galaxies: Pt. 1. FR class I and II sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, F.N.; Laing, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    CCD surface photometry of 47 radio galaxies in the R-band is reported. The goal of the programme is to study the relationship of the properties of the parent galaxies to the radio structure and, in particular, to look for differences between Fanaroff and Riley (FR) class I and II sources. In order to clarify some ambiguous cases in the FR classification, we define Classical Double, Twin Jet and Fat Double sources. We describe our definitions of these three classes and their relation to the FR classification. (author).

  13. Characterization and expression pattern ofpouII1,a novel class Ⅱ POU gene in zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    POU domain transcription factors that share a conserved DNA-binding domain, POU domain, are important regulators for the development of embryos in various animal species. A novel zebrafish POU domain gene, pouII1has been cloned. The pouII1 cDNA is 2080 kb in length and encodes a putative polypeptide of 596 amino acids. It is placed into class Ⅱ POU family since it shares a high degree of homology with the known members of this family.Northern hybridization identifies a major transcript of approximately 2.1 kb that was present in embryos at the single-cell stage throughout 24 h postfertilizafion. The whole mountin situ hybridization shows thatpouII1 transcripts are present in the single-cell embryos, strongly suggesting that these transcripts are of maternal origin. During early development of the embryos, pouII1 mRNA was ubiquitously distributed in all cells and tissues. The transcripts are gradually limited to brains and become completely undetectable by day 3. To our knowledge, pouII1 is the first class Ⅱ POU gene identified in zebrafish.``

  14. Inactivation of class II PI3K-C2α induces leptin resistance, age-dependent insulin resistance and obesity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliouachene, Samira; Bilanges, Benoit; Chaussade, Claire; Pearce, Wayne; Foukas, Lazaros C; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Moniz, Larissa S; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2016-07-01

    While the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are well-documented positive regulators of metabolism, the involvement of class II PI3K isoforms (PI3K-C2α, -C2β and -C2γ) in metabolic regulation is just emerging. Organismal inactivation of PI3K-C2β increases insulin signalling and sensitivity, whereas PI3K-C2γ inactivation has a negative metabolic impact. In contrast, the role of PI3K-C2α in organismal metabolism remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated whether kinase inactivation of PI3K-C2α affects glucose metabolism in mice. We have generated and characterised a mouse line with a constitutive inactivating knock-in (KI) mutation in the kinase domain of the gene encoding PI3K-C2α (Pik3c2a). While homozygosity for kinase-dead PI3K-C2α was embryonic lethal, heterozygous PI3K-C2α KI mice were viable and fertile, with no significant histopathological findings. However, male heterozygous mice showed early onset leptin resistance, with a defect in leptin signalling in the hypothalamus, correlating with a mild, age-dependent obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Insulin signalling was unaffected in insulin target tissues of PI3K-C2α KI mice, in contrast to previous reports in which downregulation of PI3K-C2α in cell lines was shown to dampen insulin signalling. Interestingly, no metabolic phenotypes were detected in female PI3K-C2α KI mice at any age. Our data uncover a sex-dependent role for PI3K-C2α in the modulation of hypothalamic leptin action and systemic glucose homeostasis. All reagents are available upon request.

  15. Computed tomography assessment of temporomandibular joint position and dimensions in patients with class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciger, Semra

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate and compare the positions and dimensions of the temporomandibular joint and its components, respectively, in patients with Class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusions. Material and Methods Computed tomography images of 14 patients with Class II division 1 and 14 patients with Class II division 2 malocclusion were included with a mean age of 11.4 ± 1.2 years. The following temporomandibular joint measurements were made with OsiriX medical imaging software program. From the sagittal images, the anterior, superior, and posterior joint spaces and the mandibular fossa depths were measured. From the axial images, the greatest anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the mandibular condyles, angles between the long axis of the mandibular condyle and midsagittal plane, and vertical distances from the geometric centers of the condyles to midsagittal plane were measured. The independent samples t-test was used for comparing the measurements between the two sides and between the Class II division 1 and 2 groups. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the right and left temporomandibular joints; therefore, the data were pooled. There were statistically significant differences between the Class II division 1 and 2 groups with regard to mandibular fossa depth and anterior joint space measurements. Conclusions In Class II patients, the right and left temporomandibular joints were symmetrical. In the Class II division 1 group, the anterior joint space was wider than that in Class II division 2 group, and the mandibular fossa was deeper and wider in the Class II division 1 group. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, Class II malocclusion, Cone beam computed tomography. PMID:28298985

  16. Characterization of EBV gB indicates properties of both class I and class II viral fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backovic, Marija; Leser, George P; Lamb, Robert A; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2007-11-10

    To gain insight into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB), recombinant, secreted variants were generated. The role of putative transmembrane regions, the proteolytic processing and the oligomerization state of the gB variants were investigated. Constructs containing 2 of 3 C-terminal hydrophobic regions were secreted, indicating that these do not act as transmembrane anchors. The efficiency of cleavage of the gB furin site was found to depend on the nature of C-terminus. All of the gB constructs formed rosette structures reminiscent of the postfusion aggregates formed by other viral fusion proteins. However, substitution of putative fusion loop residues, WY(112-113) and WLIY(193-196), with less hydrophobic amino acids from HSV-1 gB, produced trimeric protein and abrogated the ability of the EBV gB ectodomains to form rosettes. These data demonstrate biochemical features of EBV gB that are characteristic of other class I and class II viral fusion proteins, but not of HSV-1 gB.

  17. Ligation of MHC class I and class II molecules can lead to heterologous desensitization of signal transduction pathways that regulate homotypic adhesion in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N; Engel, P; Vega, M; Tedder, T F

    1994-06-01

    Engagement of lymphocyte MHC class I and class II Ags activates an array of intracellular signal transduction pathways that up-regulates the activity of cell-surface adhesion receptors, resulting in homotypic cell-cell aggregation. In this study, engagement of MHC class I and class II molecules with specific mAbs was shown to also inhibit lymphocyte homotypic adhesion. Two mAbs reactive with class II Ag, homotypic adhesion blocking mAb (HAB)-2, and HAB-3, and one mAb reactive with class I Ag, HAB-4, were generated that inhibited homotypic adhesion of activated lymphocytes and B and T cell lines at concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram/ml. Binding of these mAbs resulted in heterologous desensitization of other surface signal transduction molecules as homotypic adhesion induced through class I, class II, CD19, CD20, CD39, CD40, Leu-13, and PMA was also inhibited. The spontaneous adhesion exhibited by some cell lines was also abrogated by binding of these mAbs. Abs that either induced, blocked, or had no effect on adhesion bound to distinct epitopes on class I, whereas the anti-class II mAbs recognized either distinct or overlapping epitopes. Thus, engagement of distinct epitopes on MHC molecules can result in homologous or heterologous desensitization of cell-surface signaling molecules. The induction or inhibition of homotypic adhesion through class I molecules did not require the presence of the cytoplasmic domain, as deletion of this portion of the class I molecule had no effect. In contrast, the transmembrane region was essential for signal transduction as the mAbs binding to a chimeric molecule in which the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of class I were exchanged with those of the HB15 molecule did not induce or inhibit homotypic adhesion. Although this report is the first demonstration that homotypic adhesion can be influenced in a negative manner through MHC molecules, these findings demonstrate a considerable level of cross-talk between MHC molecules

  18. Target recognition, resistance, immunity and genome mining of class II bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Morten; Borrero, Juan; Opsata, Mona; Birri, Dagim J; Holo, Helge; Cintas, Luis M; Snipen, Lars; Hernández, Pablo E; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2011-12-01

    Due to their very potent antimicrobial activity against diverse food-spoiling bacteria and pathogens and their favourable biochemical properties, peptide bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria have long been considered promising for applications in food preservation or medical treatment. To take advantage of bacteriocins in different applications, it is crucial to have detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which these peptides recognize and kill target cells, how producer cells protect themselves from their own bacteriocin (self-immunity) and how target cells may develop resistance. In this review we discuss some important recent progress in these areas for the non-lantibiotic (class II) bacteriocins. We also discuss some examples of how the current wealth of genome sequences provides an invaluable source in the search for novel class II bacteriocins.

  19. In vitro evaluation of the marginal microleakage of class II amalgam restoration associated with dentin adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Fabiana Sodré de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The marginal microleakage of class II amalgam restorations (Dispersalloy associated with copal varnish (Copalite and with two dentin bonding agents (Scotchbond Multi-uso Plus and Multi Bond Alpha was evaluated in vitro and compared by two methods: scores and linear measurements. Forty-five sound premolars were used, on which two separated class II cavities were prepared on the M and D surfaces. After the restoration, the specimens were thermocycled and stored in a solution of 0.5% basic fuchsin during 24 hours. The analysis allowed to conclude that none of the three restorative systems were able to eliminate the marginal microleakage. Nevertheless, the leakage was significantly smaller on the restorations associated with dentin bonding agents when compared to copal varnish. The linear measurement method was more sensitive than the score criteria.

  20. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors.

  1. Correction of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion using Functional-Fixed Appliance Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Surana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase treatment started during late mixed dentition using functional followed by fixed appliance therapy has proven to be the most effective approach to achieve correction of Class II malocclusion. This case report demonstrates the use of this treatment approach in an 11-year-old girl with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion, large overjet, deep overbite, increased incisor exposure and a gummy smile. She was given a functional appliance for 1 year which was immediately followed by fixed mechanotherapy for final finishing and detailing of the occlusion. The magnitude of skeletal and dental correction achieved, along with the dramatic improvement in facial appearance of the patient, provides a strong case for establishing the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  2. The roles of MHC class II genes and post-translational modification in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Ludvig M

    2017-08-01

    Our increasing understanding of the etiology of celiac disease, previously considered a simple food hypersensitivity disorder caused by an immune response to cereal gluten proteins, challenges established concepts of autoimmunity. HLA is a chief genetic determinant, and certain HLA-DQ allotypes predispose to the disease by presenting posttranslationally modified (deamidated) gluten peptides to CD4(+) T cells. The deamidation of gluten peptides is mediated by transglutaminase 2. Strikingly, celiac disease patients generate highly disease-specific autoantibodies to the transglutaminase 2 enzyme. The dual role of transglutaminase 2 in celiac disease is hardly coincidental. This paper reviews the genetic mapping and involvement of MHC class II genes in disease pathogenesis, and discusses the evidence that MHC class II genes, via the involvement of transglutaminase 2, influence the generation of celiac disease-specific autoantibodies.

  3. Simvastatin inhibits interferon-γ-induced MHC class II up-regulation in cultured astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazenburg Lisa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on their potent anti-inflammatory properties and a preliminary clinical trial, statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are being studied as possible candidates for multiple sclerosis (MS therapy. The pathogenesis of MS is unclear. One theory suggests that the development of autoimmune lesions in the central nervous system may be due to a failure of endogenous inhibitory control of MHC class II expression on astrocytes, allowing these cells to adapt an interferon (IFN-γ-induced antigen presenting phenotype. By using immunocytochemistry in cultured astrocytes derived from newborn Wistar rats we found that simvastatin at nanomolar concentrations inhibited, in a dose-response fashion, up to 70% of IFN-γ-induced MHC class II expression. This effect was reversed by the HMG-CoA reductase product mevalonate. Suppression of the antigen presenting function of astrocytes might contribute to the beneficial effects of statins in MS.

  4. Efficacy of MTA and CEM Cement with Collagen Membranes for Treatment of Class II Furcation Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ollah Ghanbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the efficacy of MTA and CEM cement in Class II furcation defects in human mandibular molars.Forty furcation defects were treated in 16 patients with chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters of probing depth (PD, vertical and horizontal clinical attachment levels (VCAL and HCAL, open vertical and horizontal furcation depths (OVFD and OHFD, and gingival margin level (GML were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month (re-entry surgery postoperatively. Data were analyzed at a significance level of P<0.05.Use of MTA and CEM caused significant decreases in PD, VCAL, HCAL, OVFD and OHFD at re-entry, with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment options in soft and hard tissue parameters.Both treatment modalities caused significant gains in attachment levels and bone fills, proving efficacy for treatment of Class II furcation involvements.

  5. A Unique Cause of Proteinuria in Pregnancy: Class II Lupus Nephritis with Concomitant Minimal Change Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjal, Ryan; Adam-Eldien, Rabie; Makary, Raafat; Jo-Hoy, Francois; Heilig, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Renal biopsy revealed a surprising finding of minimal change disease (MCD) concomitant with class II lupus nephritis (LN). She was managed with pulses and then tapering doses of steroid therapy with dramatic resolution of the nephrotic syndrome. This case demonstrates not only the rare de novo occurrence of SLE in pregnancy, but the unique finding of MCD coexisting with class II LN. We propose that altered T cell activity may be the link between these seemingly distinct entities.

  6. Evaluation of the position of lower incisors in the mandibular symphysis of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Roque Woitchunas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the position of mandibular incisors in the mandibular symphysis of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profiles. METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 Caucasian patients (20 male and 20 female with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profile from 10 to 18 years of age (mean age of 12.84 years who were selected from the records of the School of Dentistry of Universidade de Passo Fundo, Brazil. The linear cephalometric measurements used in this study were Ricketts' 1- AP, Interlandi's line I and Vigorito's 1-VT; and the angular measurement studied was the mandibular plane angle (IMPA. RESULTS: Mandibular incisors of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profile tended to be buccally inclined and protruded.

  7. Class II transactivator (CIITA enhances cytoplasmic processing of HIV-1 Pr55Gag.

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    Kristen A Porter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pr55(gag (Gag polyprotein of HIV serves as a scaffold for virion assembly and is thus essential for progeny virion budding and maturation. Gag localizes to the plasma membrane (PM and membranes of late endosomes, allowing for release of infectious virus directly from the cell membrane and/or upon exocytosis. The host factors involved in Gag trafficking to these sites are largely unknown. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells, the primary target of HIV infection, express the class II transcriptional activator (CIITA and therefore the MHC class II isotype, HLA-DR. Similar to Gag, HLA-DR localizes to the PM and at the membranes of endosomes and specialized vesicular MHC class II compartments (MIICs. In HIV producer cells, transient HLA-DR expression induces intracellular Gag accumulation and impairs virus release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that both stable and transient expression of CIITA in HIV producer cells does not induce HLA-DR-associated intracellular retention of Gag, but does increase the infectivity of virions. However, neither of these phenomena is due to recapitulation of the class II antigen presentation pathway or CIITA-mediated transcriptional activation of virus genes. Interestingly, we demonstrate that CIITA, apart from its transcriptional effects, acts cytoplasmically to enhance Pr160(gag-pol (Gag-Pol levels and thereby the viral protease and Gag processing, accounting for the increased infectivity of virions from CIITA-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that CIITA enhances HIV Gag processing, and provides the first evidence of a novel, post-transcriptional, cytoplasmic function for a well-known transactivator.

  8. Low major histocompatibility complex class II diversity in European and North American moose.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode cell surface proteins whose function is to bind and present intracellularly processed peptides to T lymphocytes of the immune system. Extensive MHC diversity has been documented in many species and is maintained by some form of balancing selection. We report here that both European and North American populations of moose (Alces alces) exhibit very low levels of genetic diversity at an expressed MHC class II DRB locus. The observed polymorphi...

  9. Prediction of the binding affinities of peptides to class II MHC using a regularized thermodynamic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelmann Hans D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The binding of peptide fragments of extracellular peptides to class II MHC is a crucial event in the adaptive immune response. Each MHC allotype generally binds a distinct subset of peptides and the enormous number of possible peptide epitopes prevents their complete experimental characterization. Computational methods can utilize the limited experimental data to predict the binding affinities of peptides to class II MHC. Results We have developed the Regularized Thermodynamic Average, or RTA, method for predicting the affinities of peptides binding to class II MHC. RTA accounts for all possible peptide binding conformations using a thermodynamic average and includes a parameter constraint for regularization to improve accuracy on novel data. RTA was shown to achieve higher accuracy, as measured by AUC, than SMM-align on the same data for all 17 MHC allotypes examined. RTA also gave the highest accuracy on all but three allotypes when compared with results from 9 different prediction methods applied to the same data. In addition, the method correctly predicted the peptide binding register of 17 out of 18 peptide-MHC complexes. Finally, we found that suboptimal peptide binding registers, which are often ignored in other prediction methods, made significant contributions of at least 50% of the total binding energy for approximately 20% of the peptides. Conclusions The RTA method accurately predicts peptide binding affinities to class II MHC and accounts for multiple peptide binding registers while reducing overfitting through regularization. The method has potential applications in vaccine design and in understanding autoimmune disorders. A web server implementing the RTA prediction method is available at http://bordnerlab.org/RTA/.

  10. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    J. W. Booij; Christos Livas

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination.

  11. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Booij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination.

  12. Anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal class II patients treated with modified Thurow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Sampaio, Gêisa Aiane de Morais; de Meneses, Izaura Helena Chaves; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-treatment anteroposterior and vertical alterations in skeletal Class II malocclusion with different maxillary patterns in patients treated with modified Thurow appliance. Forty-five patients (22 girls and 23 boys) with skeletal Class II and angle SN.GoGn ≤ 35 and different maxillary patterns (n = 15), as follows: retrusive (SNA84°) maxilla; mean age 9 years at pre-treatment (T1) and 9 years and 10 months at post-treatment (T2), were treated with modified Thurow cervical traction appliance, with expander screw and extraoral face bow with 10° to 20° fold in relation to the intraoral arch. Force of 500 gf was applied and use for 12 to 14 h/day, with fortnightly adjustments. Analysis of variance ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney were used (α = 5%). In changes obtained from stage T1 to T2, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups Protrusive, normal and retrusive maxilla for the variables SNB, SN.GoGn, 1.NA, overjet, overbite and Class II discrepancy (right and left) (p>0.05). Angular measurements SNA and ANB in the protrusive maxilla group were significantly greater than in the normal and retrusive maxilla groups (p0.05). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the modified Thurow cervical traction appliance was efficient for the correction of skeletal Class II irrespective of the maxillary pattern. The mandible had no significant rotation during treatment.

  13. Preventing postoperative tooth sensitivity in class I, II and V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2002-02-01

    Postoperative tooth sensitivity in Class I, II and V resin-based composite restorations continues to be an unpredictable problem in dentistry. In spite of meticulous use of dentin bonding agents, dentists and patients are faced with the sensitivity problem and the frustrating need to remove restorations and occasionally accomplish endodontic therapy on teeth that were not sensitive before the restorations were placed. Practitioners have developed numerous preventive methods to overcome the sensitivity challenge, which I have described in this article.

  14. Class II, Division 1 Angle malocclusion with severe proclination of maxillary incisors

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    Kátia Montanha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Protrusion of maxillary incisors is a common complaint among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. This report addresses the correction of Class II Angle malocclusion with excessively bucally proclined maxillary incisors, in an adolescent female patient, through the use of extraoral and fixed appliances. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO.

  15. Treatment of a Class II division 1 anterior open bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, H B

    2001-06-01

    A case report of an 11-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a Class II div I anterior open bite malocclusion. Overjet is 6 mm and the anterior open bite 2 mm. There was a history of digit sucking till she was eight years old. She was successfully treated by non-extraction with pre-adjusted Edgewise appliances and high-pull headgear for a period of 27 months.

  16. Dentofacial and upper airway characteristics of mild and severe class II division 1 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhalder, Julia; Hänggi, Michael P; Schätzle, Marc; Markic, Goran; Roos, Malgorzata; Peltomäki, Timo A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to assess whether mild and severe Class II division 1 subjects have craniofacial and upper airway characteristics, which relate to the severity of Class II as judged by overjet or ANB angle. The sample consisted of pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and dental casts of 131 males and 115 females (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6). Inclusion criteria were: healthy Caucasian subjects, at least ¾ Class II first molar relationship on both sides and overjet ≥ 4 mm. The cephalograms were traced and digitized. Distances and angular values were computed. Mild and severe Class II was defined by overjet (overjet groups, significant differences were mainly found for incisor inclination while the two ANB groups differed significantly in SNA, WITS, Go-Pg, SpaSpp/MGo, SN/MGo, and Ar-Gn. The shortest airway distance between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall was significantly correlated to the NS/Ar angle. Statistical analysis revealed several significant correlations. Patients with a large overjet or ANB angle differed significantly from patients with a small overjet or ANB angle mainly in their incisor inclination. In the present sample, the overjet and to some extent also the ANB angle is determined by soft tissue or individual tooth position rather than by skeletal background. In retrognathic patients, a tendency towards smaller airway dimensions was found. However, statistical analysis did not reveal a strong connection between upper airway and dentoskeletal parameters, but a large interindividual variation.

  17. Case Reports of Angle Class II Maxillary Protrusion With Upper Premolar Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    水本, 恭史; 小川, 康; 岡藤, 範正; 栗原, 三郎

    2000-01-01

    We report two cases of Angle Class II maxillary protrusion with upper premolar extraction, considering differences of skeletal pattern, denture pattern, diagnosis, treat planning and treatment result between these cases. One case demonstrated favorable mandibular growth during the treatment, helping correction of maxillary and mandibular discrepancy, but the other showed only minimal mandibular growth because of her age, necessitating anterior incisal changes to reduce her large overjet. Post...

  18. Detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells using major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuszynski Charles; Gangaplara Arunakumar; Upadhyaya Bijaya; Massilamany Chandirasegaran; Reddy Jay

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tetramers are useful tools to enumerate the frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. However, unlike CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells - especially self-reactive cells - are challenging to detect with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers because of low frequencies and low affinities of their T cell receptors to MHC-peptide complexes. Here, we report the use of fluorescent multimers, designated MHC dextramers that contain a large number of peptide-MHC complexes ...

  19. Tumor phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling and development of metastatic disease in locally advanced rectal cancer.

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    Anne Hansen Ree

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recognizing EGFR as key orchestrator of the metastatic process in colorectal cancer, but also the substantial heterogeneity of responses to anti-EGFR therapy, we examined the pattern of composite tumor kinase activities governed by EGFR-mediated signaling that might be implicated in development of metastatic disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Point mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA and ERBB2 amplification were determined in primary tumors from 63 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer scheduled for radical treatment. Using peptide arrays with tyrosine kinase substrates, ex vivo phosphopeptide profiles were generated from the same baseline tumor samples and correlated to metastasis-free survival. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering analysis of the resulting phosphorylation of 102 array substrates defined two tumor classes, both consisting of cases with and without KRAS/BRAF mutations. The smaller cluster group of patients, with tumors generating high ex vivo phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related substrates, had a particularly aggressive disease course, with almost a half of patients developing metastatic disease within one year of follow-up. CONCLUSION: High phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated signaling activity of the primary tumor, rather than KRAS/BRAF mutation status, was identified as a hallmark of poor metastasis-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing radical treatment of the pelvic cavity.

  20. Small molecule inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) delta and gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameriks, Michael K; Venable, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, pharmaceutical companies have increasingly focused on phosphoinositide 3-kinases delta (PI3Kdelta) and gamma (PI3Kgamma) as therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. All class 1 PI3-kinases (alpha/beta/gamma/delta) generate phospholipid second messengers that help govern cellular processes such as migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. PI3K delta/ gamma lipid kinases are mainly restricted to the hematopoetic system whereas PI3K alpha/beta are ubiquitously expressed, thus raising potential toxicity concerns for chronic indications such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the challenge in developing a small molecule inhibitor of PI3K is to define and attain the appropriate isoform selectivity profile. Significant advances in the design of such compounds have been achieved by utilizing x-ray crystal structures of various inhibitors bound to PI3Kgamma in conjunction with pharmacophore modeling and high-throughput screening. Herein, we review the history and challenges involved with the discovery of small molecule isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors. Recent progress in the design of selective PI3Kdelta, PI3Kgamma, and PI3Kdelta/gamma dual inhibitors will be presented.

  1. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Gupta, K K; Chaturvedi, T P

    2013-09-01

    Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR), root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  2. HLA class II allele and haplotype frequencies in Ethiopian Amhara and Oromo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M; de Stefano, G F; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Giraldo-Alvarez, P; Dugoujon, J M; Ohayon, E; Scano, G; Abbal, M

    1998-04-01

    HLA class II alleles were identified in 181 healthy unrelated Ethiopian children of both sexes and in 350 European controls from the South of France. The Ethiopian individuals belonged to the two major ethnic groups of the country: Oromo (N=83) and Amhara (N=98). In both panels, genetic polymorphism of HLA class II alleles was analysed for the first time by molecular typing of DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 loci. Allelic and phenotypic frequencies were compared with those of European controls and other African populations. Construction of HLA class II three-locus haplotypes was also performed. The study revealed some differences between the two groups. Characteristic features of Central and North African populations appeared on the Ethiopian HLA genotypes. Surprisingly, DRB1*11 presented one of the lowest gene frequencies in both Ethiopian ethnic groups in contrast to Europeans and West Africans. Furthermore, this decrease was more marked than those observed using serological techniques in other geographically close East African countries. Oromo and Amhara only showed minor differences in spite of their different origins and histories. One significant difference consisted of a lower DRB1*01 gene frequency in Oromo as reported in most West African people. Some new or rare haplotypes were also observed in the Oromo group. Our results underline the distinctive features of the Ethiopian populations among the few HLA genotyping data available for East African groups and emphasise the major interest of such investigations in this region of Africa.

  3. Variation in Class II malocclusion: comparison of Mexican mestizos and American whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Tom; Buschang, Peter H; Behrents, Rolf G; Wintergerst, Ana M; Ceen, Richard F; Hernandez, Angeles

    2004-04-01

    This study compared the skeletal and dental characteristics of Class II Division 1 white Americans and Mexicans. It was designed specifically to the evaluate ethnic, age, and sex differences of 101 whites and 107 Mexican mestizos, with approximately equal numbers in each subgroup. Three-way analyses of variance were used to simultaneously evaluate the effects of age, sex, ethnicity, and their interactions. Although Mexicans and whites in the United States had similar maxillomandibular relationships, Mexicans showed greater protrusion of the jaws and teeth. Mexican subjects with Class II malocclusions also showed less divergence of the cranial base (SN-FH angle) and greater vertical tendencies (MPA, Y-axis, and palatal plane angle) than their white counterparts. In comparison with children (mean age 9.0 years), young adults (mean age 20.1 years) had significantly larger craniofacial dimensions, jaws that were positioned more forward, and teeth that were more protruded. Sex differences pertained only to size (men were larger) and maxillary incisor angulation (men were more protrusive). The findings pertaining to the ethnic differences have important clinical implications regarding treatment decisions for Mexican and white patients. In addition, this study provides a foundation for future studies pertaining to Class II malocclusion in Mexicans.

  4. Metal-ion dependent catalytic properties of Sulfolobus solfataricus class II α-mannosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Willum; Poulsen, Nina Rødtness; Johnsson, Anna Margit Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    The active site for the family GH38 class II α-mannosidase is constituted in part by a divalent metal ion, mostly Zn(2+), as revealed in the crystal structures of enzymes from both animal and bacterial sources. The metal ion coordinates to the bound substrate and side chains of conserved amino acid...... residues. Recently, evidence has accumulated that class II α-mannosidase is active in complex with a range of divalent metal ions. In the present work, with employment of the class II α-mannosidase, ManA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we explored the influence of the divalent...... metal ion on the associated steady-state kinetic parameters, K(M) and k(cat), for various substrates. With p-nitrophenyl-α-d-mannoside as a substrate, the enzyme showed activity in the presence of Co(2+), Cd(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+), whereas Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) were inhibitory and nonactivating. Co(2...

  5. Contact sensitizers specifically increase MHC class II expression on murine immature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herouet, C; Cottin, M; LeClaire, J; Enk, A; Rousset, F

    2000-01-01

    Contact sensitivity is a T-cell-mediated immune disease that can occur when low-molecular-weight chemicals penetrate the skin. In vivo topical application of chemical sensitizers results in morphological modification of Langerhans cells (LC). Moreover, within 18 h, LC increase their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens expression and migrate to lymph nodes where they present the sensitizer to T lymphocytes. We wanted to determine if such an effect could also be observed in vitro. However, because of the high genetic diversity encountered in humans, assays were performed with dendritic cells (DC) obtained from a Balb/c mouse strain. The capacity of a strong sensitizer, DNBS (2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid), to modulate the phenotype of bone marrow-derived DC in vitro, was investigated. A specific and marked increase of MHC class II molecules expression was observed within 18 h. To eliminate the use of animals in sensitization studies, the XS52 DC line was tested at an immature stage. A 30-min contact with the strong sensitizers DNBS and oxazolone, or the moderate mercaptobenzothiazole, resulted in upregulation of MHC class II molecules expression, analyzed after 18-h incubation. This effect was not observed with irritants (dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium lauryl sulfate) nor with a neutral molecule (sodium chloride). These data suggested the possibility of developing an in vitro model for the identification of the sensitizing potential of chemicals, using a constant and non animal-consuming material.

  6. MHC Class II Auto-antigen Processing and Presentation is Unconventional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheherazade eSadegh-Nasseri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antigen presentation is highly critical in adoptive immunity. Only by interacting with antigens presented by MHC Class II molecules, can helper T cells be stimulated to fight infections or diseases. The degradation of a full protein into small peptide fragments bound to class II molecules is a dynamic, lengthy process consisting of many steps and chaperons. Deregulation in any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. Indeed Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA Class II genes are the predominant contributors to susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Conventional antigen processing calls for internalization of extracellular antigens followed by processing and epitope selection within antigen processing subcellular compartments, enriched with all necessary accessory molecules, processing enzymes, and proper pH and denaturing conditions. However, recent data examining the temporal relationship between antigen uptakes, processing and epitope selection revealed unexpected characteristics for autoantigenic epitopes, which was not shared with antigenic epitopes from pathogens. This review provides a discussion of the relevance of these findings to the mechanisms of autoimmunity.

  7. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  8. Cephalometric changes in Class II division 1 patients treated with two maxillary premolars extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisana Piano Seben

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric alterations in patients with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, orthodontically treated with extraction of two maxillary premolars. METHODS: The sample comprised 68 initial and final lateral cephalograms of 34 patients of both gender (mean initial age of 14.03 years and mean final age of 17.25 years, treated with full fixed appliances and extraction of the first maxillary premolars. In order to evaluate the alterations due the treatment between initial and final phases, the dependent t test was applied to the studied cephalometric variables. RESULTS: The dentoskeletal alterations due to extraction of two maxillary premolars in the Class II division 1 malocclusion were: maxillary retrusion, improvement of the maxillomandibular relation, increase of lower anterior face height, retrusion of the maxillary incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion and extrusion of the mandibular incisors, besides the reduction of overjet and overbite. The tissue alterations showed decrease of the facial convexity and retrusion of the upper lip. CONCLUSIONS: The extraction of two maxillary premolars in Class II division 1 malocclusion promotes dentoskeletal and tissue alterations that contribute to an improvement of the relation between the bone bases and the soft tissue profile.

  9. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  10. Class II malocclusion treatment using high-pull headgear with a splint: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder B. Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the scientific evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of high-pull headgear in growing Class II subjects. METHODS: A literature survey was performed by electronic database search. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2008 and used Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Articles were initially selected based on their titles and abstracts; the full articles were then retrieved. The inclusion criteria included growing subjects between 8 to 15 years of age, Class II malocclusion treatment with high-pull headgear, and a control group with Class II malocclusion. References from selected articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Selected studies were evaluated methodologically. RESULTS: Four articles were selected; none were randomized controlled trials. All of the articles clearly formulated their objectives and used appropriate measures. The studies showed that high-pull headgear treatment improves skeletal and dental relationship, distal displacement of the maxilla, vertical eruption control and upper molars distalization. One of the studies showed a slight clockwise rotation of the palatal plane; the others showed no significant treatment effect. The mandible was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION: While there is still a lack of strong evidence demonstrating the effects of high-pull headgear with a splint, other studies indicate that the AP relations improve due to distalization of the maxilla and upper molars, with little or no treatment effects in the mandible. Greater attention to the design should be given to improve the quality of such trials.

  11. Effect of cyclic loading on the bond strength of class II restorations with different composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega; Mitsui, Fabio Hiroyuki Ogata; Silva, Flávia; Peris, Alessandra Rezende; Bedran-Russo, Ana; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cyclic loading on the bond strength of Class II restorations using different composite materials. Class II preparations with gingival margins located in dentin were performed on the mesial surface of 80 bovine incisors. The teeth were randomly allocated to eight groups (n=10) according to resin composite (Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, Tetric Ceram HB and Esthet-X) and use of cyclic loading. The restorations were bonded with the Single Bond adhesive system. Simulated aging groups were cyclic loaded for 200,000 cycles with 80N load (2Hz). The specimens were vertically sectioned (two slabs per restoration) and further trimmed into an hour-glass shape at the adhesive interface to obtain a final bonded area 1 mm2. Samples were placed in an apparatus and tested under tension using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test with a 95% confidence level. Aged groups presented significantly lower means when compared to the groups that were not aged (p=0.03). However, significant differences among composite materials were not observed (p=0.17). Regardless of the restorative composite material used, it could be concluded that the bond strength of Class II restorations at the gingival wall was affected by simulated cyclic loading.

  12. Effect of Incisor Angulation on Overjet and Overbite in Class II Camouflage Treatment. A typodont study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangcharearn, Yasinee; Ho, Christopher

    2007-11-01

    To determine the amount of variation in overjet and overbite that may result from changes in upper and lower incisor angulations following upper first premolar extraction treatment in Class II malocclusions. Typodonts were set up to simulate a skeletal Class II occlusion treated with upper first premolar extractions. The upper incisor angulation was altered through a range from 100 degrees to 120 degrees to the palatal plane by 2 degrees increments. The overjet and overbite were measured with every 2 degrees of upper incisor angulation change. A regression analysis was performed on the experimental data, and the regression coefficients, slope, and intercept were estimated. Excessive proclination of the lower incisors will result in an abnormal overjet and overbite relationship for any magnitude of upper incisor angulation. A normal lower incisor angulation facilitates the attainment of an optimal occlusion. Excessive palatal root torque of the upper incisors will result in an increase in overjet and a consequent decrease in overbite. If the upper incisors are excessively retroclined, an edge-to-edge incisor relationship will result. Class II camouflage treatment with upper first premolar extractions requires correctly angulated incisors to achieve optimal buccal segment interdigitation and incisor relationship. Labial root torque and interproximal reduction of the lower anterior teeth should be considered when the lower incisors are excessively proclined.

  13. Class II malocclusion treatment using Jasper Jumper appliance associated to intermaxillary elastics: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyle Simões Herrera-Sanches

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Skeletal, dental and profile discrepancies can be amended by using functional orthodontic appliances. OBJECTIVE: This study is a report of the treatment of a patient, 11 years and 4 months old, with Class II, division 1, malocclusion, convex profile, protrusion of upper incisors, pronounced overjet and overbite, and mild crowding. METHODS: The patient was treated with a Jasper Jumper associated to fixed appliances for 6 months and Class II intermaxillary elastics (3/16in during the last 4 months. After debonding, a Hawley retainer was used during daytime and a modified Bionator for night use during one year. In the lower dental arch a bonded lingual retainer was used. This treatment combination improved the profile, as well as the overjet, overbite and molar relation. RESULTS: There was clockwise mandibular rotation and increase of lower anterior facial height. The lower incisors were protruded and extruded and the lower molars were extruded. The centric occlusal relation was checked and it was coincident to the maximum usual intercuspation. CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that the Jasper Jumper is an efficient alternative to Class II malocclusion treatment, providing improvement in the facial profile, although the changes are more dentoalveolar than skeletal.

  14. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  15. PtdIns 3-Kinase Orchestrates Autophagosome Formation in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Obara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells can massively transport their own cytoplasmic contents into a lytic compartment, the vacuole/lysosome, for recycling through a conserved system called autophagy. The key process in autophagy is the sequestration of cytoplasmic contents within a double-membrane structure, the autophagosome. Autophagosome formation requires the elaborate cooperation of Atg (autophagy-related proteins and lipid molecules. Phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns by a PtdIns 3-kinase, Vps34, is a key step in coordinating Atg proteins and lipid molecules. Vps34 forms two distinct protein complexes, only one of which is involved in generating autophagic membranes. Upon induction of autophagy, PtdIns(3P, the enzymatic product of PtdIns 3-kinase, is massively transported into the lumen of the vacuole via autophagy. PtdIns(3P is enriched on the inner membrane of the autophagosome. PtdIns(3P recruits the Atg18−Atg2 complex and presumably other Atg proteins to autophagic membranes, thereby coordinating lipid molecules and Atg proteins.

  16. A extração de segundos molares superiores para o tratamento da Classe II Extraction of upper second molars for treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Barbieri Mezomo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar uma abordagem alternativa para o tratamento ortodôntico das más oclusões de Classe II. Através de uma revisão da literatura, verificou-se que a extração de segundos molares superiores demonstrou ser uma alternativa viável para o tratamento desse tipo de má oclusão. Essa opção terapêutica possibilita maior rapidez na distalização dos primeiros molares com menor necessidade de cooperação por parte do paciente. Porém, a análise do grau de formação, posição intraóssea e morfologia do terceiro molar deve ser cuidadosamente realizada para proporcionar o correto posicionamento do mesmo no lugar do segundo molar extraído. Dois casos clínicos apresentarão a sequência do diagnóstico e tratamento com essa mecânica, exibindo resultados adequados dos pontos de vista funcional e estético.The purpose of this article is to present an alternative approach to the orthodontic treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion. According to a literature review it was observed that the extraction of upper second molars has proven to be a viable alternative for the treatment of this type of malocclusion. This therapeutic option enables faster first molar retraction and requires less patient compliance. However, the level of development, intraosseous position and morphology of the third molar should be carefully evaluated to ensure its correct positioning in place of the extracted second molar. Two clinical case reports will demonstrate that the sequence of diagnosis and treatment used with this mechanics yields satisfactory functional and aesthetic results.

  17. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal.

  18. Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Zhou, Shuyun; Duan, Wenhui

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a new "type-II" Weyl fermion, which exhibits exotic phenomena, such as an angle-dependent chiral anomaly, was discovered in a new phase of matter where electron and hole pockets contact at isolated Weyl points [Nature (London) 527, 495 (2015), 10.1038/nature15768]. This raises an interesting question about whether its counterpart, i.e., a type-II Dirac fermion, exists in real materials. Here, we predict the existence of symmetry-protected type-II Dirac fermions in a class of transition metal dichalcogenide materials. Our first-principles calculations on PtSe2 reveal its bulk type-II Dirac fermions which are characterized by strongly tilted Dirac cones, novel surface states, and exotic doping-driven Lifshitz transition. Our results show that the existence of type-II Dirac fermions in PtSe2-type materials is closely related to its structural P 3 ¯m 1 symmetry, which provides useful guidance for the experimental realization of type-II Dirac fermions and intriguing physical properties distinct from those of the standard Dirac fermions known before.

  19. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. Search Methods: An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. Selection Criteria: To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. Data Collection and Analysis: The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. Results: The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). Conclusions: The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies

  20. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies is rather low, good dentoskeletal stability without clinically relevant changes was found for most

  1. pRB is required for interferon-gamma-induction of the MHC class II abeta gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Pattenden, S; Bremner, R

    1999-09-02

    pRB is required for IFN-gamma-induction of MHC class II in human tumor cell lines, providing a potential link between tumor suppressors and the immune system. However, other genes, such as cyclin D1, show pRB-dependency only in tumor cells, so by analogy, pRB may not be necessary for cII-regulation in normal cells. Here, we demonstrate that induction of the mouse MHC class II I-A heterodimer is normal in RB+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but deficient in RB-/- MEFs. Inducibility is restored in RB-/- MEFs stably transfected with wild type RB cDNA or infected with an adenovirus expressing pRB. Thus, involvement of pRB in MHC class II expression is conserved in the mouse and is not an aberrant feature of tumorigenic, aneuploid, human tumor cells. Although cII genes are generally induced in a coordinate fashion, suggesting a common mechanism, we found that pRB was specifically required for induction of the Abeta, but not Aalpha or other MHC cII genes including Ebeta, Ii and H2-Malpha. Finally, IFN-gamma-induction of class II transactivator (CIITA), was pRB-independent, suggesting that pRB works downstream of this master-regulator of MHC class II expression.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9, a probiotic starter producing class II bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Pinglan

    2016-03-20

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9 is a probiotic starter isolated from fermented sausage and it is a great producer of class II bacteriocins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequenced genome of L. paraplantarum deposited in GenBank database. The size of the complete genome of L. paraplantarum L-ZS9 is 3,139,729 bp. The genomic sequence revealed that this strain includes 19 genes involved in class II bacteriocins production and regulation. The information fill the gaps of the L. paraplantarum genome information and contribute to the improvement of class II bacteriocins research.

  3. Malocclusion Class II division 1 skeletal and dental relationships measured by cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiling; Oh, Heesoo; Lagravère, Manuel O

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to locate traditionally-used landmarks in two-dimensional (2D) images and newly-suggested ones in three-dimensional (3D) images (cone-beam computer tomographies [CBCTs]) and determine possible relationships between them to categorize patients with Class II-1 malocclusion. CBCTs from 30 patients diagnosed with Class II-1 malocclusion were obtained from the University of Alberta Graduate Orthodontic Program database. The reconstructed images were downloaded and visualized using the software platform AVIZO(®). Forty-two landmarks were chosen and the coordinates were then obtained and analyzed using linear and angular measurements. Ten images were analyzed three times to determine the reliability and measurement error of each landmark using Intra-Class Correlation coefficient (ICC). Descriptive statistics were done using the SPSS statistical package to determine any relationships. ICC values were excellent for all landmarks in all axes, with the highest measurement error of 2mm in the y-axis for the Gonion Left landmark. Linear and angular measurements were calculated using the coordinates of each landmark. Descriptive statistics showed that the linear and angular measurements used in the 2D images did not correlate well with the 3D images. The lowest standard deviation obtained was 0.6709 for S-GoR/N-Me, with a mean of 0.8016. The highest standard deviation was 20.20704 for ANS-InfraL, with a mean of 41.006. The traditional landmarks used for 2D malocclusion analysis show good reliability when transferred to 3D images. However, they did not reveal specific skeletal or dental patterns when trying to analyze 3D images for malocclusion. Thus, another technique should be considered when classifying 3D CBCT images for Class II-1malocclusion. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Variations in cyclic mandibular movements during treatment of Class II malocclusions with removable functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Kirsten M; Nägerl, Hans; Hahn, Wolfram; Ihlow, Dankmar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether juveniles with a Class II malocclusion change the neuromuscular control of mandibular movements during the course of orthodontic treatment with removable functional appliances (RFAs). Neuromuscular control can be indirectly evaluated by recording cyclic planar mandibular movements which were freely carried out by the patients (28 girls, 14 boys, aged 11.1 ± 1.1 years at the start of treatment) and measured with an ultrasonic device before, during, and after Class II functional appliance therapy, with either an activator or a bite jumping plate. The cyclic movements represented simultaneous rotations of the mandible around a maxillary and mandibular fixed axis (MFHA) and could be characterized by μ(α)-diagrams (μ = swing angle of MFHA, α = mouth opening angle) and path length (L) of the MFHA. The μ(α)-diagrams clearly divided into four parts: movement representing protrusion, mouth opening, and two parts of backward closing as known from Posselt diagrams. Parameters from the Posselt and μ(α)-diagrams were checked by one-factor analysis of variance on a 5 per cent significance level for group dependency. For one-third of the patients investigated, no significant changes were seen in any parameter pre- or post-therapy. However, patients showing an initially large mouth opening capacity or a very short condylar path changed their neuromuscular control to that of Class I subjects. Analysis of μ(α)-diagrams provides the possibility of assessing changes in the neuromuscular control of the mandible during Class II treatment.

  5. Treatment of Class II, Division 2 in the late growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, H; Hirschfelder, U

    1998-01-01

    The "Deckbiss" with skeletal Class II jaw relationship sometimes presents a considerable therapeutic problem, particularly in the late growth period (DP3U), as regards the coordination of dental and skeletal treatment objectives. An effective treatment approach was demonstrated: a modified Herbst appliance used simultaneously with fixed appliances in the maxilla. The sample comprised 12 male (14.0 +/- 0.9 years old) and 10 female (12.3 +/- 0.4 years old) patients. Correction of the distal occlusion was achieved in all patients by means of the Herbst appliance, which was removed after an average time period of 6.4 +/- 0.2 months. In the mandible the multibracket appliances were then immediately inserted, and Class II elastics were used for retention. Maximum anchorage was required in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. Complete diagnostic records were made at the beginning of the treatment as well as 6 and 12 months later, in order to document skeletal and dental changes. A dental and skeletal Class I relationship was achieved in all cases. A significant improvement was recorded in the vertical jaw base relationship; this was still stable after a period of 12 months. In the dental area in particular, a so-called high-pull headgear effect (intrusion and distalization 16, 26) and intrusion of teeth 34, 44 were registered. Only a minor protrusion of the mandibular incisors was observed. Reinforcement of the bands reduced the failure rate significantly. The Herbst appliance does not represent a standard treatment for Class II. Its indication range is limited.

  6. MHC class II polymorphism is associated with a canine SLE-related disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbe, Maria; Jokinen, Päivi; Hermanrud, Christina; Kennedy, Lorna J; Strandberg, Erling; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Lohi, Hannes; Andersson, Göran

    2009-08-01

    Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers are predisposed to a SLE-related disease complex including immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD) and steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA). IMRD involves symptoms that resemble those seen in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE, or SLE-related diseases, in humans. This disease complex involves persistent lameness, stiffness, mainly after resting, and palpable pain from several joints of extremities. The majority of affected dogs display antinuclear autoantibody (ANA)-reactivity. SRMA is manifested in young dogs with high fever and neck stiffness and can be treated with corticosteroids. We have investigated the possible role of MHC class II as a genetic risk factor in IMRD and SRMA etiology. We performed sequence-based typing of the DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci in a total of 176 dogs including 51 IMRD (33 ANA-positive), 49 SRMA cases, and 78 healthy controls (two dogs were both IMRD- and SRMA-affected). Homozygosity for the risk haplotype DRB1*00601/DQA1*005011/DQB1*02001 increased the risk for IMRD (OR = 4.9; ANA-positive IMRD: OR = 7.2) compared with all other genotypes. There was a general heterozygote advantage, homozygotes had OR = 4.4 (ANA-positive IMRD: OR = 8.9) compared with all heterozygotes. The risk haplotype contains the five amino acid epitope RARAA, known as the shared epitope for rheumatoid arthritis. No association was observed for SRMA. We conclude that DLA class II is a highly significant genetic risk factor for ANA-positive IMRD. The results indicate narrow diversity of DLA II haplotypes and identify an IMRD-related risk haplotype, which becomes highly significant in homozygous dogs.

  7. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain ( B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David;

    2003-01-01

    for the cloning and sequencing of the cDNA. We found only one class II alpha chain transcript, which bears the major features of a classical class II alpha sequence, including the critical peptide-binding residues. The chicken sequence is more similar to human DR than to the DQ, DP, DO or DM isotypes, most......In mammals, there are MHC class II molecules with distinctive sequence features, such as the classical isotypes DR, DQ and DP. These particular isotypes have not been reported in non-mammalian vertebrates. We have isolated the class II (B-L) alpha chain from outbred chickens as the basis...... significantly in the peptide-binding alpha(1) domain. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences from chickens of diverse origins show few alleles, which differ in only four nucleotides and one amino acid. In contrast, significant restriction fragment length polymorphism is detected by Southern blot analysis of genomic...

  8. Semi-longitudinal Study of the Mcnamara Cephalometric Triangle in Class II and Class III Subjects Grouped by Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Fitzcarrald, Fernando D; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the McNamara cephalometric triangle values in untreated normodivergent Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects of Latin American origin grouped by cervical vertebrae maturation stage to an untreated Class I malocclusion normodivergent control group. The study was conducted on a sample of 610 pretreatment lateral cephalograms (250 male, 360 female), examined and grouped according to their anteroposterior skeletal relationship (Class I, II or III), cervical vertebrae maturation stage (Pre Pubertal Peak P1 = CS1 and CS2, Pubertal Peak P2= CS3 and CS4, and Post Pubertal Peak P3 = CS5 and CS6) and sex. Co-A, Co-Gn and ENA-Me were measured in each lateral cephalogram. ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were performed to determine differences between the groups. The results showed that in males, the greatest maxillary and mandibular dimensional increases occurred during the P3 stage (CS5 to CS6), while in females, they occurred in the P2 stage (CS3 to CS4). The Co-A and Co-Gn showed significant differences between the malocclusion classes (pClass II subjects and the mandibular lengths in Class III subjects were already higher at the beginning of the period evaluated (P1). A worsening trend for the Class II and III malocclusions was identified during the period evaluated. Finally, changes in the McNamara cephalometric triangle values were markedly different in the three normodivergent skeletal malocclusion classes. In these Latin American subjects the pubertal growth spurt occurred at different times with respect to the Caucasian and Asian norms.

  9. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  10. The Dimanganese(II) Site of Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (MIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) use a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor, Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet}, in their homodimeric NrdF ({beta}2) subunit to initiate reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The structure of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} form of NrdF is an important component in understanding O{sub 2}-mediated formation of the active metallocofactor, a subject of much interest because a unique flavodoxin, NrdI, is required for cofactor assembly. Biochemical studies and sequence alignments suggest that NrdF and NrdI proteins diverge into three phylogenetically distinct groups. The only crystal structure to date of a NrdF with a fully ordered and occupied dimanganese site is that of Escherichia coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, prototypical of the enzymes from actinobacteria and proteobacteria. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, representative of the enzymes from a second group, from Bacillus and Staphylococcus. The structures of the metal clusters in the {beta}2 dimer are distinct from those observed in E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF. These differences illustrate the key role that solvent molecules and protein residues in the second coordination sphere of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} cluster play in determining conformations of carboxylate residues at the metal sites and demonstrate that diverse coordination geometries are capable of serving as starting points for Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly in class Ib RNRs.

  11. Structural determinants for ligand capture by a class II preQ1 riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mijeong; Eichhorn, Catherine D; Feigon, Juli

    2014-02-11

    Prequeuosine (preQ1) riboswitches are RNA regulatory elements located in the 5' UTR of genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of preQ1, a precursor of the modified base queuosine universally found in four tRNAs. The preQ1 class II (preQ1-II) riboswitch regulates preQ1 biosynthesis at the translational level. We present the solution NMR structure and conformational dynamics of the 59 nucleotide Streptococcus pneumoniae preQ1-II riboswitch bound to preQ1. Unlike in the preQ1 class I (preQ1-I) riboswitch, divalent cations are required for high-affinity binding. The solution structure is an unusual H-type pseudoknot featuring a P4 hairpin embedded in loop 3, which forms a three-way junction with the other two stems. (13)C relaxation and residual dipolar coupling experiments revealed interhelical flexibility of P4. We found that the P4 helix and flanking adenine residues play crucial and unexpected roles in controlling pseudoknot formation and, in turn, sequestering the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Aided by divalent cations, P4 is poised to act as a "screw cap" on preQ1 recognition to block ligand exit and stabilize the binding pocket. Comparison of preQ1-I and preQ1-II riboswitch structures reveals that whereas both form H-type pseudoknots and recognize preQ1 using one A, C, or U nucleotide from each of three loops, these nucleotides interact with preQ1 differently, with preQ1 inserting into different grooves. Our studies show that the preQ1-II riboswitch uses an unusual mechanism to harness exquisite control over queuosine metabolism.

  12. Susi, a negative regulator of Drosophila PI3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Franz; Jaquenoud, Malika; Brogiolo, Walter; Zarske, Marcel; Wüstemann, Philipp; Fernandez, Rafael; Stocker, Hugo; Wymann, Matthias P; Hafen, Ernst

    2005-06-01

    The Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/PKB) signaling pathway controls growth, metabolism, and lifespan in animals, and deregulation of its activity is associated with diabetes and cancer in humans. Here, we describe Susi, a coiled-coil domain protein that acts as a negative regulator of insulin signaling in Drosophila. Whereas loss of Susi function increases body size, overexpression of Susi reduces growth. We provide genetic evidence that Susi negatively regulates dPI3K activity. Susi directly binds to dP60, the regulatory subunit of dPI3K. Since Susi has no overt similarity to known inhibitors of PI3K/PKB signaling, it defines a novel mechanism by which this signaling cascade is kept in check. The fact that Susi is expressed in a circadian rhythm, with highest levels during the night, suggests that Susi attenuates insulin signaling during the fasting period.

  13. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 binds to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, P.; Diez, A.; Mourad, W.; Parsonnet, J.; Geha, R.S.; Chatila, T. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is a 22-kDa exotoxin produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus and implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In common with other staphylococcal exotoxins, TSST-1 has diverse immunological effects. These include the induction of interleukin 2 receptor expression, interleukin 2 synthesis, proliferation of human T lymphocytes, and stimulation of interleukin 1 synthesis by human monocytes. In the present study, the authors demonstrate that TSST-1 binds with saturation kinetics and with a dissociation constant of 17-43 nM to a single class of binding sites on human mononuclear cells. There was a strong correlation between the number of TSST-1 binding sites and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Affinity chromatography of {sup 125}I-labeled cell membranes over TSST-1-agarose resulted in the recovery of two bands of 35 kDa and 31 kDa that comigrated, respectively, with the {alpha} and {beta} chains of HLA-DR and that could be immunoprecipitated with anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Binding of TSST-1 was demonstrated to HLA-DR and HLA-DQ L-cell transfectants. These results indicate that major histocompatibility complex class II molecules represent the major binding site for TSST-1 on human cells.

  14. Energy-optimised pharmacophore approach to identify potential hotspots during inhibition of Class II HDAC isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad; Shanmugam, Karthi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are conjugated enzymes that modulate chromatin architecture by deacetylating lysine residues on the histone tails leading to transcriptional repression. Pharmacological interventions of these enzymes with small molecule inhibitors called Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown enhanced acetylation of the genome and are hence emerging as potential targets at the clinic. Type-specific inhibition of Class II HDACs has shown enhanced therapeutic benefits against developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the structural identity of class-specific isoforms limits the potential of their inhibitors in precise targeting of their enzymes. Diverse strategies have been implemented to recognise the features in HDAC enzymes which may help in identifying isoform specificity factors. This work attempts a computational approach that combines in silico docking and energy-optimised pharmacophore (E-pharmacophore) mapping of 18 known HDAC inhibitors and has identified structural variations that regulate their interactions against the six Class II HDAC enzymes considered for the study. This combined approach establishes that inhibitors possessing higher number of aromatic rings in different structural regions might function as potent inhibitors, while inhibitors with scarce ring structures might point to compromised potency. This would aid the rationale for chemical optimisation and design of isoform selective HDAC inhibitors with enhanced affinity and therapeutic efficiency.

  15. HLA class I and class II alleles and haplotypes in Mexican mestizos established from serological typing of 50 families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, C; Castelan, N; Lopez, M; Gonzalez, N; Weckmann, A L; Melin-Aldana, H; Vargas-Alarcon, G; Bordes, J; Alarcon-Segovia, D; Granados, J; Ramirez, E; Lisker, R

    1997-12-01

    We describe new information on the frequency and association of class II antigens (HLA-DR and HLA-DQ) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Mexicans. The study includes HLA-B typing and its association with the HLA-DR antigens determined in 50 families, which included 100 individuals. This family study allowed the establishment of the precise composition of the 200 HLA haplotypes, which cannot be obtained from unrelated individuals. The predominant antigens in decreasing order of frequency were B35, B39, and B61 at the B locus; DR4, DR5, and DR8 at the DR locus; and DQ3 at the DQ locus. The most common HLA-B,HLA-DR haplotype (considering broad specificities) was B16,DR4, with a frequency of 8.0%. Five HLA-B,HLA-DR haplotypes showed significant delta values (observed vs. expected frequencies) after correcting for the number of comparisons. On the other hand, the most common HLA-DR,HLA-DQ haplotypes were DR4,DQ3 and DR5,DQ3 with a frequency higher than 10%. Ten of the 17 HLA-DR,HLA-DQ haplotypes had significant postcorrection delta values.

  16. MARCH1 down-regulation in IL-10-activated B cells increases MHC class II expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbas, Tristan; Steimle, Viktor; Lapointe, Réjean; Ishido, Satoshi; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    IL-10 is vastly studied for its anti-inflammatory properties on most immune cells. However, it has been reported that IL-10 activates B cells, up-regulates their MHC class II molecules and prevents apoptosis. As MARCH1 was shown to be responsible for the intracellular sequestration of MHC class II molecules in dendritic cells and monocytes in response to IL-10, we set out to clarify the role of this ubiquitin ligase in B cells. Here, we demonstrate in mice that splenic follicular B cells represent the major cell population that up-regulate MHC II molecules in the presence of IL-10. Activation of these cells through TLR4, CD40 or the IL-10 receptor caused the down-regulation of MARCH1 mRNA. Accordingly, B cells from MARCH1-deficient mice do not up-regulate I-A(b) in response to IL-10. In all, our results demonstrate that IL-10 can have opposite effects on MARCH1 regulation in different cell types.

  17. The relationship between vertical facial morphology and overjet in untreated Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltaji, Humam; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Major, Paul W; Youssef, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the association between vertical facial morphology and overjet in untreated Class II subjects. The lateral cephalograms of 140 untreated Class II subjects (68 males and 72 females) between 8 and 11 years of age were divided into three groups based on their overjet value as measured on study casts: Group I normal overjet (less than 3 mm), Group II increased overjet (more than 3 mm but less than or equal to 6 mm), and Group III extreme overjet (more than 6 mm). Mean values and standard deviations of 28 variables measured on lateral cephalograms were calculated. Differences between the three groups were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Bonferroni tests. Additionally, cephalometric differences between groups and available normal values for the Syrian population were evaluated using an independent t-test. Subjects with normal overjet showed a horizontal facial pattern and posterior inclination of the maxilla, whereas increased overjet subjects exhibited a neutral facial pattern. In contrast, subjects with extreme overjet had a vertical facial pattern and anterior inclination of the maxilla. The mandible was retrognathic and the maxilla was normally positioned in the three groups. A positive association was found between the overjet and the tendency toward a hyperdivergent pattern.

  18. Má oclusão Classe II, 2ª Divisão de Angle, com sobremordida acentuada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulo Renato Carvalho Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    ... do título de Diplomado pelo BBO. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, who presented a Angle Class II, Division 2, malocclusion, with overbite, severe curve of Spee, right maxillary lateral...

  19. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly 2007D-0309) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph Electrodes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  20. 75 FR 54637 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document for Certain Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Catheters; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  1. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    through presentation of extracellularly derived peptides to helper T cells. Identification of which peptides will bind a given MHC molecule is thus of great importance for the understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and large efforts have been placed in developing algorithms capable of predicting...... this binding event. RESULTS: Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data...... class II alleles, and is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC class II prediction methods. CONCLUSION: The NN-align method is competitive with the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction algorithms. The method is publicly available at http...

  2. Cephalometric effects of the use of 10-hour Force Theory for Class II treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise de Castro Cabrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric effects promoted by the orthodontic treatment of Class II malocclusion patients with the use of the 10-Hour Force Theory, that consists in the use of fixed appliances with 8 hours a day using a cervical headgear appliance and 16 hours a day using Class II elastics, 8 hours on the first mandibular molar and 8 hours in the second mandibular molar. METHODS: Sample comprised 31 patients with mean initial age of 14.90 years, final mean age of 17.25 years and mean treatment time of 2.35 years. The lateral cephalograms in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages were evaluated. Evaluation of cephalometric changes between initial and final treatment phases was performed by paired t test. RESULTS: The cases treated with the 10-Hour Force Theory presented a slight restriction of anterior displacement of the maxilla, increase in the effective length of the mandible, significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, significant increase in anterior lower face height, distal tipping of the maxillary premolar crowns, extrusion and distal tipping of the roots of maxillary molars, significant proclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors, significant extrusion and mesialization of mandibular molars, besides a significant correction of the molar relationship, overjet and overbite. CONCLUSION: The use of the 10-Hour Force Theory in treatment of Class II malocclusion provided satisfactory results.OBJETIVO: esse estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cefalométricos promovidos pelo tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II com o uso da Teoria de Força das 10 Horas, que consiste no uso de aparelho ortodôntico fixo, 8 horas diárias de uso de aparelho extrabucal cervical e 16 horas de uso de elásticos de Classe II, sendo 8 horas com apoio no primeiro molar inferior e 8 horas com apoio no segundo molar inferior. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 31 pacientes, com idade m

  3. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...

  4. Skeletal Class II correction and neuromuscular adaptation with twin-block: A cephalometric and electromyography study in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar; Tulika Tripathi; Maninder Singh Sidhu; Puneet Yadav; Ashish Dabas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is believed that significant changes in electromyography (EMG) activity are observed at the end of the treatment, which are concomitant with a clinical improvement seen in sagittal jaw relationship during skeletal Class II correction by functional appliances. It is thought that similar interaction occurs between bone shape and muscle activity in the maxillofacial complex this study aims at evaluating the effects of twin-block on correction of skeletal Class II by lateral ceph...

  5. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion by means of unusual extractions and anchorage mini-implant

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Moon Chae

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with dental Class II bialveolar protrusion are generally treated by extracting the four first premolars or two first and two second premolars, and retracting the anterior teeth. This case report describes the treatment of an adult patient with bialveolar protrusion, a Class II canine and molar relationship, and lip protrusion. METHODS: In this patient, the maxillary right second molar (1.7) had to be extracted due to extensive caries. To create sufficient space to retra...

  6. A single residue change leads to a hydroxylated product from the class II diterpene cyclization catalyzed by abietadiene synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Jared; Potter, Kevin; Shephard, Freya; Beale, Michael H.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Class II diterpene cyclases catalyze bicyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate. While this reaction typically is terminated via methyl deprotonation to yield copalyl diphosphate, in rare cases hydroxylated bicycles are produced instead. Abietadiene synthase is a bifunctional diterpene cyclase that usually produces a copalyl diphosphate intermediate. Here it is shown that substitution of aspartate for a conserved histidine in the class II active site of abietadiene synthase leads to selective production of 8α-hydroxy-CPP instead, demonstrating striking plasticity. PMID:23167845

  7. Purification and characterization of a class II α-Mannosidase from Moringa oleifera seed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejavath, Kiran Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar

    2014-10-01

    α-Mannosidase (EC. 3.2.1.114) belonging to class II glycosyl hydrolase family 38 was purified from Moringa oleifera seeds to apparent homogeneity by conventional protein purification methods followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein with 9.3 % carbohydrate and exhibited a native molecular mass of 240 kDa, comprising two heterogeneous subunits with molecular masses of 66 kDa (α-larger subunit) and 55 kDa (β-smaller subunit). Among both the subunits only larger subunit stained for carbohydrate with periodic acid Schiff's staining. The optimum temperature and pH for purified enzyme was 50 °C and pH 5.0, respectively. The enzyme was stable within the pH range of 3.0-7.0. The enzyme was inhibited by EDTA, Hg(2+), Ag(2+), and Cu(2+). The activity lost by EDTA was completely regained by addition of Zn(2+). The purified enzyme was characterized in terms of the kinetic parameters K m (1.6 mM) and V max (2.2 U/mg) using para-nitrophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside as substrate. The enzyme was very strongly inhibited by swainsonine (SW) at 1 μM concentration a class II α-Mannosidase inhibitor, but not by deoxymannojirimycin (DMNJ). Chemical modification studies revealed involvement of tryptophan at active site. The inhibition by SW and requirement of the Zn(2+) as a metal ion suggested that the enzyme belongs to class II α-Mannosidase.

  8. Early prevention and intervention of Class II division 1 in growing patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, V. Naga; Kanya, S. Dhivya; Babu, K. Pradeep; Mathew, Anoop; Kumar, A. Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Early screening and diagnosis help in preventing and intercepting the severity of the malocclusion which helps in addressing the esthetic and functional concerns. Growth modulation such as mandibular advancement has been an effective procedure in orthodontics. Mandibular growth advancer (MGA) and PowerScope are gaining popularity recently as these are effective in achieving the mandibular advancement and ease of fabrication, placement, and wear. MGA was fabricated by making the upper and lower splints separately and are placed in the oral cavity by joining the two splints in the new construction bite using cold cure, MGA when worn during growth phase helps in condylar remodeling in the temporomandibular joint thus helps in advancement of the mandible. The proclination of the upper anteriors in Class II division 1 can be moved lingually by activating the labial bow in the splint. Dr. Andy Hayes worked in conjunction with American orthodontics developed PowerScope. PowerScope delivers Class II correction with a combination of patient comfort and ease of use that was unmatched among other appliances. This ready to use chairside solution required no laboratory setup, making for a much quicker, and easier installation process and appointment. PowerScopes high quality, fixed one-piece design requires no patient compliance. These superior qualities of PowerScope help in correction of Class II skeletal growing patient in conjunction with fixed orthodontic therapy. MGA and PowerScope were chosen as a functional appliance for this study, which shows decreased ANB angle and effective mandible length was increased. PMID:27195234

  9. A tensor analysis to evaluate the effect of high-pull headgear on Class II malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, P; Scheick, J; Florman, M

    1993-03-01

    The inaccuracies inherent in cephalometric analysis of treatment effects are well known. The objective of this article is to present a more reliable research tool in the analysis of cephalometric data. Bookstein introduced a dilation function by means of a homogeneous deformation tensor as a method of describing changes in cephalometric data. His article gave an analytic description of the deformation tensor that permits the rapid and highly accurate calculation of it on a desktop computer. The first part of this article describes the underlying ideas and mathematics. The second part uses the tensor analysis to analyze the cephalometric results of a group of patients treated with high-pull activator (HPA) to demonstrate the application of this research tool. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite malocclusions in the mixed dentition were treated with HPA. A control sample consisting of eight untreated children with Class II who were obtained from The Ohio State University Growth Study was used as a comparison group. Lateral cephalograms taken before and at the completion of treatment were traced, digitized, and analyzed with the conventional method and tensor analysis. The results showed that HPA had little or no effect on maxillary skeletal structures. However, reduction in growth rate was found with the skeletal triangle S-N-A, indicating a posterior tipping and torquing of the maxillary incisors. The treatment also induced additional deformation on the mandible in a downward and slightly forward direction. Together with the results from the conventional cephalometric analysis, HPA seemed to provide the vertical and rotational control of the maxilla during orthopedic Class II treatment by inhibiting the downward and forward eruptive path of the upper posterior teeth. The newly designed computer software permits rapid analysis of cephalometric data with the tensor analysis on a desktop computer. This tool may be useful in analyzing growth changes for

  10. The effectiveness of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Yafen; Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Gao, Meiya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective: To systematically investigate review in literature the effects of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion patients. Method: We performed a comprehensive literature survey on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CENTRAL, SIGLE, and ClinicalTrial.gov up to December 2014. The selection criteria: randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials; using any kind of Herbst appliances to correct Class II division 1 malocclusions; skeletal and/or dental changes evaluated through lateral cephalograms. And the exclusion criteria: syndromic patients; individual case reports and series of cases; surgical interventions. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently by two well-trained orthodontic doctors. Consensus was made via group discussion of all authors when there is inconsistent information from the two. After that, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the robustness of the meta-analysis. Results: Twelve clinical controlled trials meet the above-mentioned criteria, and were included in this analysis. All included studies have eleven measures taken during both active treatment effect and long term effect periods, including four angular ones (i.e., SNA, SNB, ANB, mandibular plane angle) and seven linear ones (i.e. Co-Go, Co-Gn, overjet, overbite, molar relationship, A point-OLp, Pg-OLp) during active treatment effect period were statistically pooled. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that all these measures showed consistent results except for SNA, ANB, and overbite. Subgroup analysis showed significant changes in SNA, overbite, and Pg-OLp. Publication bias was detected in SNB, mandibular plane angle, and A point-OLp. Conclusion: The Herbst appliance is effective for patients with Class II malocclusion in active treatment period. Especially, there are obvious changes on dental

  11. Association of an MHC class II haplotype with increased risk of polymyositis in Hungarian Vizsla dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Massey

    Full Text Available A breed-specific polymyositis is frequently observed in the Hungarian Vizsla. Beneficial clinical response to immunosuppressive therapies has been demonstrated which points to an immune-mediated aetiology. Canine inflammatory myopathies share clinical and histological similarities with the human immune-mediated myopathies. As MHC class II associations have been reported in the human conditions we investigated whether an MHC class II association was present in the canine myopathy seen in this breed. 212 Hungarian Vizsla pedigree dogs were stratified both on disease status and degree of relatedness to an affected dog. This generated a group of 29 cases and 183 "graded" controls: 93 unaffected dogs with a first degree affected relative, 44 unaffected dogs with a second degree affected relative, and 46 unaffected dogs with no known affected relatives. Eleven DLA class II haplotypes were identified, of which, DLA-DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, was at significantly raised frequency in cases compared to controls (OR = 1.92, p = 0.032. When only control dogs with no family history of the disease were compared to cases, the association was further strengthened (OR = 4.08, p = 0.00011. Additionally, a single copy of the risk haplotype was sufficient to increase disease risk, with the risk substantially increasing for homozygotes. There was a trend of increasing frequency of this haplotype with degree of relatedness, indicating low disease penetrance. These findings support the hypothesis of an immune-mediated aetiology for this canine myopathy and give credibility to potentially using the Hungarian Vizsla as a genetic model for comparative studies with human myositis.

  12. Class II histone deacetylases are associated with VHL-independent regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David Z; Kachhap, Sushant K; Collis, Spencer J; Verheul, Henk M W; Carducci, Michael A; Atadja, Peter; Pili, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) plays a critical role in transcriptional gene activation involved in tumor angiogenesis. A novel class of agents, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and HIF-1 alpha protein expression. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the molecular link between HIF-1 alpha inhibition and HDAC inhibition. Treatment of the VHL-deficient human renal cell carcinoma cell line UMRC2 with the hydroxamic HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIF-1 alpha protein via a VHL-independent mechanism and reduction of HIF-1 alpha transcriptional activity. HIF-1 alpha inhibition by LAQ824 was associated with HIF-1 alpha acetylation and polyubiquitination. HIF-1 alpha immunoprecipitates contained HDAC activity. Then, we tested different classes of HDAC inhibitors with diverse inhibitory activity of class I versus class II HDACs and assessed their capability of targeting HIF-1 alpha. Hydroxamic acid derivatives with known activity against both class I and class II HDACs were effective in inhibiting HIF-1 alpha at low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, valproic acid and trapoxin were able to inhibit HIF-1 alpha only at concentrations that are effective against class II HDACs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that class II HDAC4 and HDAC6 were associated with HIF-1 alpha protein. Inhibition by small interfering RNA of HDAC4 and HDAC6 reduced HIF-1 alpha protein expression and transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that class II HDACs are associated with HIF-1 alpha stability and provide a rationale for targeting HIF-1 alpha with HDAC inhibitors against class II isozymes.

  13. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Dalhoff, K; Fugger, L;

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, -DPB, the serologically defined HLA-A, B, C, DR antigens, and the primed lymphocyte typing defined HLA-DP antigens in 23 Danish patients with primary......) associated DRB Bgl II 9.1 kilobase (kb) fragment (RR = 2.9; P less than 0.05, 'corrected' P greater than 0.05), the DQA1*0501 associated DQA Taq I 4.8 kb fragment (RR = 3.1; P less than 0.05, 'corrected' P greater than 0.05), the DQB1*0201 (DQw2) associated DQB Hin dIII 11.5 kb fragment (RR = 3.1; P less...

  14. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rupp, Bernd; Günther, Sebastian; Makhmoor, Talat;

    2011-01-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHC II) play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC...... known MHC molecules. This shift causes a narrowing of the two helices flanking the binding site and results in a closure, which is further stabilized by the formation of a critical hydrogen bond between residues aQ9 and ßN82. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that replacement of either one of the two......-receptiveness. Manipulation of peptide loading efficiency for improved peptide vaccination strategies could be one of the applications profiting from the structural knowledge provided by this study....

  15. Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion

  16. The immune function of MHC class II molecules mutated in the putative superdimer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayball, John D; Lake, Richard A

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structure of human class II (HLA-DR1) molecules suggests that the alphabeta heterodimer may be further ordered as a dimer of heterodimers (superdimer), leading to the hypothesis that T cell receptor dimerisation is a mechanism for initiating signaling events preceding T cell activation. The interface between pairs of molecules is stabilised by both salt bridges, polar and hydrophobic interactions. The residues that form the superdimer interface occur in three areas distinct from the antigen-binding groove. They can be defined as follows: region 1, beta-beta contacts in the helix of the beta1 domain; region 2, alpha-alpha contacts near the alpha 1/alpha2 domain junction and region 3; alpha-beta contacts in the alpha2/beta2 domains adjacent to the plasma membrane. To determine whether salt bridges and polar interactions formed within these regions are involved in the immune function of the murine MHC class II molecule, I-A(b), appropriate residues in both the alpha and beta chain were identified and mutated to uncharged alanine. Cell lines transfected with different combinations of mutated alpha and beta chains were generated and tested for MHC class II expression, peptide binding capabilities, and ability to present antigenic peptide to an OVA-specific T cell hybridoma. With the exception of two residues in region 2, the substitutions tested did not modulate MHC class II expression, or peptide binding function. When tested for ability to present peptide to an antigen-specific T cell hybridoma, with the exception of mutations in region 2, the substitutions did not appear to abrogate the ability of I-A(b) to stimulate the T cells. These results suggest that mutation of residues in region 2 of the putative superdimer interface have a gross effect on the ability of I-A(b) to be expressed on the cell surface. However, abrogation of salt bridges in region 1 and 3 do not influence I-A(b) cell surface expression, peptide binding or ability to

  17. World War II Mobilization in Men's Work Lives: Continuity or Disruption for the Middle Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechter, Aimée R; Elder, Glen H

    2004-11-01

    The labor needs of World War II fueled a growing demand for both military and war industry personnel. This longitudinal study investigates mobilization into these competing activities and their work life effects among men from the middle class. Hazard estimates show significant differences in wartime activities across occupations, apart from other deferment criteria. By war's end, critical employment, in contrast to military service, is positively associated with supervisory responsibility for younger men and with occupation change. This empoloyment does not predict postwar career advancement up to the 1970s. By comparison, men who were officers had a "pipeline" to advancement after the war, whereas other service men fared worse than nonveterans.

  18. Set Theory Applied to the Mathematical Characterization of HLA Class II Binding Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez Velásquez, MD, esp.1

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Antigen presentation contains the molecularbasis for antigenic identification and immuneresponses. The set theory and experimental datawere used in order to develop an union core regionmathematic characterization through the definitionof 8 laws associated to HLA class II binding.The laws were applied to 4 promiscuous peptides,25 natural peptides sequences of core region: 13binding peptides and 12 no binding peptides; and19 synthetic peptides looking to differentiate peptides.Only one peptide was not rightly characterized.This methodology may be used to choose keypeptides in the development of vaccine.

  19. Angle Class II, subdivision, with agenesis of mandibular second molars and extrusion of maxillary second molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rodrigues Tavares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case reports the treatment of an Angle Class II malocclusion in a young woman with a balanced face affected by agenesis of second and third mandibular molars and subsequent extrusion of second maxillary molars. The atypical and peculiar occlusal anomaly led to individualized treatment proposed in order to normalize dental malpositions, with subsequent rehabilitation of edentulous areas by means of a multidisciplinary approach. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO.

  20. Role of PU.1 in MHC Class II Expression via CIITA Transcription in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ryosuke; Kasakura, Kazumi; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Hara, Mutsuko; Maeda, Keiko; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Yashiro, Takuya; Nishiyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    The cofactor CIITA is a master regulator of MHC class II expression and several transcription factors regulating the cell type-specific expression of CIITA have been identified. Although the MHC class II expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is also mediated by CIITA, the transcription factors involved in the CIITA expression in pDCs are largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the role of a hematopoietic lineage-specific transcription factor, PU.1, in CIITA transcription in pDCs. The introduction of PU.1 siRNA into mouse pDCs and a human pDC cell line, CAL-1, reduced the mRNA levels of MHC class II and CIITA. When the binding of PU.1 to the 3rd promoter of CIITA (pIII) in CAL-1 and mouse pDCs was analyzed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, a significant amount of PU.1 binding to the pIII was detected, which was definitely decreased in PU.1 siRNA-transfected cells. Reporter assays showed that PU.1 knockdown reduced the pIII promoter activity and that three Ets-motifs in the human pIII promoter were candidates of cis-enhancing elements. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, it was confirmed that two Ets-motifs, GGAA (-181/-178) and AGAA (-114/-111), among three candidates, were directly bound with PU.1. When mouse pDCs and CAL-1 cells were stimulated by GM-CSF, mRNA levels of PU.1, pIII-driven CIITA, total CIITA, MHC class II, and the amount of PU.1 binding to pIII were significantly increased. The GM-CSF-mediated up-regulation of these mRNAs was canceled in PU.1 siRNA-introduced cells. Taking these results together, we conclude that PU.1 transactivates the pIII through direct binding to Ets-motifs in the promoter in pDCs.

  1. Effects of pulp capping materials on fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cavity design and the type of pulp capping materials on the fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted, sound molar teeth were selected for the study. A dovetail cavity on the mesio-occlusal and a slot cavity on disto-occlusal surfaces of each tooth were prepared, and the teeth were divided 4 groups which one of them as a control group. The pulp capping materials (Ther...

  2. Post-transplant anti-HLA class II antibodies as risk factor for late kidney allograft failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, E F; Tedesco-Silva, H; Machado, P G; Franco, M; Medina-Pestana, J O; Gerbase-DeLima, M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively analyze the relationship between the post-transplant anti-HLA class I and/or class II panel reactive antibodies and graft failure due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). We studied 512 first kidney recipients transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 3 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient for antibody evaluation. The median posttransplant time after blood collection was 4.4 years and did not differ between patients with (n = 91) or without anti-HLA antibodies (n = 421). Female gender, pregnancies and blood transfusions were associated with the presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies. Graft function deterioration was associated with anti-HLA class II antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed independent association for creatinine levels (RR = 7.5), acute rejection (RR = 2.6), recipient male gender (RR = 3.6) and anti-HLA class II antibodies (RR = 2.9) and CAN-associated graft loss. In conclusion, the presence of anti-HLA class II antibodies conferred a risk for graft loss before a decline in renal function and increased the risk of graft failure in patients who already had a decline in graft function. Thus, anti-HLA class II antibody monitoring is a useful tool for the management of long-term kidney recipients.

  3. ACTN3 R577X Genotypes Associate with Class II and Deep Bite Malocclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrick, Brian; Teeramongkolgul, Teesit; Nicot, Romain; Horton, Michael J.; Raoul, Gwenael; Ferri, Joel; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Sciote, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction α-actinins are myofibril anchor proteins which influence contractile properties of skeletal muscle. ACTN2 is expressed in slow type I and fast type II fibers whereas ACTN3 is expressed only in fast fibers. ACTN3 homozygosity for the 577X stop codon (i.e. changing 577RR to 577XX - the R577X polymorphism) results in the absence of α-actinin-3 in about 18% of Europeans, diminished fast contractile ability, enhanced endurance performance and reduced bone mass or bone mineral density. We have examined ACTN3 expression and genetic variation in masseter muscle of orthognathic surgery patients to determine genotype associations with malocclusion. Methods Clinical information, masseter muscle biopsies and saliva samples were obtained from 60 subjects. Genotyping for ACTN3 SNPs, RT-PCR quantitation of muscle gene message and muscle morphometric fiber type properties were compared to determine statistical differences between genotype and phenotype. Results Muscle mRNA expression level was significantly different for ACTN3 SNP genotypes (p<0.01). The frequency of ACTN3 genotypes was significantly different for sagittal and vertical classifications of malocclusion with the clearest association being elevated 577XX genotype in skeletal class II malocclusion (p = 0.003). This genotype also resulted in significantly smaller diameter of fast type II fibers in masseter muscle (p = 0.002). Conclusion ACTN3 577XX is overrepresented in skeletal class II malocclusion, suggesting a biologic influence during bone growth. ACTN3 577XX is underrepresented in deep bite malocclusion, suggesting muscle differences contribute to variations in vertical facial dimensions. PMID:25439211

  4. Direct Activation of Human Dendritic Cells by Particle-Bound but Not Soluble MHC Class II Ligand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Baleeiro (Renato); K.H. Wiesmüller (Karl Heinz); L. Dähne (Lars); J. Lademann (Jürgen); J.A. Barbuto (José); P. Walden (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDendritic cells (DCs) are key activators of cellular immune responses through their capacity to induce naïve T cells and sustained effector T cell responses. This capacity is a function of their superior efficiency of antigen presentation via MHC class I and class II molecules, and the e

  5. HLA class I and II expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in relation to tumor HPV status and clinical outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Näsman

    Full Text Available HPV-DNA positive (HPVDNA+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has better clinical outcome than HPV-DNA negative (HPVDNA- OSCC. Current treatment may be unnecessarily extensive for most HPV+ OSCC, but before de-escalation, additional markers are needed together with HPV status to better predict treatment response. Here the influence of HLA class I/HLA class II expression was explored. Pre-treatment biopsies, from 439/484 OSCC patients diagnosed 2000-2009 and treated curatively, were analyzed for HLA I and II expression, p16(INK4a and HPV DNA. Absent/weak as compared to high HLA class I intensity correlated to a very favorable disease-free survival (DFS, disease-specific survival (DSS and overall survival (OS in HPVDNA+ OSCC, both in univariate and multivariate analysis, while HLA class II had no impact. Notably, HPVDNA+ OSCC with absent/weak HLA class I responded equally well when treated with induction-chemo-radiotherapy (CRT or radiotherapy (RT alone. In patients with HPVDNA- OSCC, high HLA class I/class II expression correlated in general to a better clinical outcome. p16(INK4a overexpression correlated to a better clinical outcome in HPVDNA+ OSCC. Absence of HLA class I intensity in HPVDNA+ OSCC suggests a very high survival independent of treatment and could possibly be used clinically to select patients for randomized trials de-escalating therapy.

  6. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class...

  7. The role of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and PTEN in cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudit, Gavin Y; Sun, Hui; Kerfant, Benoit-Gilles; Crackower, Michael A; Penninger, Josef M; Backx, Peter H

    2004-08-01

    Phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of evolutionary conserved lipid kinases that mediate many cellular responses in both physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Class I PI3K can be activated by either receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/cytokine receptor activation (class I(A)) or G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) (class I(B)). Once activated PI3Ks generate phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns) (3,4,5)P(3) leading to the recruitment and activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), PDK1 and monomeric G-proteins (e.g. Rac-GTPases), which then activate a range of downstream targets including glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70S6 kinase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and several anti-apoptotic effectors. Class I(A) (PI3Kalpha, beta and delta) and class I(B) (PI3Kgamma) PI3Ks mediate distinct phenotypes in the heart and under negative control by the 3'-lipid phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) which dephosphorylate PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) into PtdIns(4,5)P(2). PI3Kalpha, gamma and PTEN are expressed in cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells where they modulate cell survival/apoptosis, hypertrophy, contractility, metabolism and mechanotransduction. Several transgenic and knockout models support a fundamental role of PI3K/PTEN signaling in the regulation of myocardial contractility and hypertrophy. Consequently the PI3K/PTEN signaling pathways are involved in a wide variety of diseases including cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, preconditioning and hypertension. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry and molecular biology of PI3K (class I isoforms) and PTEN and their critical role in cardiovascular physiology and diseases.

  8. MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschow, S.I.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Aalberts, M.; Heck, A.J.R. van; Wauben, M.; Stoorvogel, W.

    2010-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of th

  9. 77 FR 16123 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... March 19, 2012 Part II Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  10. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a Drosophila phosphatidylinositol-specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linassier, C; MacDougall, L K; Domin, J; Waterfield, M D

    1997-02-01

    Molecular, biochemical and genetic characterization of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have identified distinct classes of enzymes involved in processes mediated by activation of cell-surface receptors and in constitutive intracellular protein trafficking events. The latter process appears to involve a PtdIns-specific PI3K first described in yeast as a mutant, vps34, defective in the sorting of newly synthesized proteins from the Golgi to the vacuole. We have identified a representative member of each class of PI3Ks in Drosophila using a PCR-based approach. In the present paper we describe the molecular cloning of a PI3K from Drosophila, P13K_59F, that shows sequence similarity to Vps34. PI3K_59F encodes a protein of 108 kDa co-linear with Vps34 homologues, and with three regions of sequence similarity to other PI3Ks. Biochemical characterization of the enzyme, by expression of the complete coding sequence as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Sf9 cells, demonstrates that PI3K_59F is a PtdIns-specific PI3K that can utilize either Mg2+ or Mn2+. This activity is sensitive to inhibition both by non-ionic detergent (Nonidet P40) and by wortmannin (IC50 10 nM). PI3K_59F, therefore, conserves both the structural and biochemical properties of the Vps34 class of enzymes.

  11. Mycosis fungoides: HLA class II associations among Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jewish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, E; Lapidoth, M; Kohn, K; David, D; Brautbar, B; Kfir, K; Narinski, N; Safirman, S; Maron, M; Klein, K

    2001-12-01

    An immunogenetic mechanism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides (MF). While results of studies on HLA class I associations haveproved inconsistent, two previous studies showed that certain HLA class II alleles were significantly increased among North American caucasian patients with MF: HLA-DRB1*11 and DQB1*03. To investigate the possible HLA class I and class II associations with MF among Jewish patients. The patient group comprised 68 Jewish patients with MF: 38 Ashkenazi and 30 non-Ashkenazi. The control group comprised 252 healthy Jewish volunteers: 132 Ashkenazi and 120 non-Ashkenazi. Tissue typing for HLA class I (A and B) was performed using the National Institutes of Health microlymphocytotoxicity technique. DNA-based low-medium resolution analysis for DRB1* and DQB1* alleles was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with sequence-specific primers. For those alleles found to have significantly increased frequency, high-resolution analysis was done by means of PCR sequence-specific oligotyping. The allele frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found to be significantly increased but only among Ashkenazi patients with MF (30% vs. 19% in the controls; P = 0.034). High-resolution analysis for DRB1*11, not previously performed, suggested that its greater frequency is due to the increased number of Ashkenazi MF patients with the DRB1*1104 allele (P corrected = 0.036). Analysed together, DQB1*03 alleles (DQB1*0301-0304) had a significantly greater frequency in MF as a group as compared with controls (47% vs. 33%, P = 0.003). DQB1*0301 was demonstrated to be the specific allele associated with MF in Jewish patients (allele frequency of 36% vs. 23% in controls; P corrected = 0.0068), which was not the case for North American caucasian patients with MF. No greater frequencies of any of the HLA class I A or B antigens were found. Our findings further demonstrate the 'universality' of MF HLA class II susceptibility

  12. Antigen-specific tumor vaccine efficacy in vivo against prostate cancer with low class I MHC requires competent class II MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Yilin C; McDonagh, Kevin T; Overwijk, Willem W; Restifo, Nicholas P; Sanda, Martin G

    2002-11-01

    Cancers can escape immune recognition by means of evading class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) -mediated recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, immunization strategies targeting defined tumor-associated antigens have not been extensively characterized in murine prostate cancer models. Therefore, we evaluated antigen-specific, antitumor immunity after antigen-encoding vaccinia immunization against mouse prostate cancer cells expressing a model tumor-associated antigen (beta-galactosidase) and exhibiting partially deficient class I MHC. Low class I MHC expression in beta-galactosidase-expressing D7RM-1 prostate cancer cells was shown by fluorescence activated cell sorting, and deficient class I MHC-mediated antigen presentation was shown in resistance of D7RM-1 to cytolysis by beta-galactosidase-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Despite partially deficient class I MHC presenting function, immunization with vaccinia encoding beta-galactosidase conferred antigen-specific protection against D7RM-1 cancer. Antigen-specific immunity was recapitulated in beta(2)m knockout mice (with deficient class I MHC and CTL function), confirming that class I MHC antigen presentation was not required for immunity against tumor partially deficient in class I MHC. Conversely, antigen-specific antitumor immunity was abrogated in A(b)beta knockout mice (with deficient class II MHC and helper T cell function), demonstrating a requirement for functional class II MHC. Resistant tumors from the otherwise effectively immunized beta(2)m knockout mice (among which tumor progression had been reduced or delayed) showed reduced target antigen expression, corroborating antigen-specificity (and showing an alternative immune escape mechanism), whereas antigen expression (like tumor growth) was unaffected among A(b)beta knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that class I MHC-restricted antigen presentation and CTL activity is neither necessary nor sufficient for antigen

  13. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  14. Antioxidant activity and ACE-inhibitory of Class II hydrophobin from wild strain Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Jahanbani, Raheleh; Riveros-Galan, David; Sheikh-Hassani, Vahid; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Sahihi, Mehdi; Winterburn, James; Derdelinckx, Guy; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-10-01

    There are several possible uses of the Class II hydrophobin HFBII in clinical applications. To fully understand and exploit this potential however, the antioxidant activity and ACE-inhibitory potential of this protein need to be better understood and have not been previously reported. In this study, the Class II hydrophobin HFBII was produced by the cultivation of wild type Trichoderma reesei. The crude hydrophobin extract obtained from the fermentation process was purified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and the identity of the purified HFBII verified by MALDI-TOF (molecular weight: 7.2kDa). Subsequently the antioxidant activities of different concentrations of HFBII (0.01-0.40mg/mL) were determined. The results show that for HFBII concentrations of 0.04mg/mL and upwards the protein significantly reduced the presence of ABTS(+) radicals in the medium, the IC50 value found to be 0.13mg/mL. Computational modeling highlighted the role of the amino acid residues located in the conserved and exposed hydrophobic patch on the surface of the HFBII molecule and the interactions with the aromatic rings of ABTS. The ACE-inhibitory effect of HFBII was found to occur from 0.5mg/mL and upwards, making the combination of HFBII with strong ACE-inhibitors attractive for use in the healthcare industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological changes of the facial skeleton in Class II/1 patients treated with orthodontic functional appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Festila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate, using lateral cephalometry, the skeletal changes in maxillary bones induced through functional jaw orthopedic therapy. 30 patients with class II division 1 malocclusion and average age of 10.4 years were included in the study. Material and Methods: Cephalometric data were analyzed with the following methods: Burstone, McNamara, Rickets, Tweed and Wits and treatment changes were evaluated overlapping the lateral cephalograms on cranial base with sella registered. Results: The results showed reduced over-jet in average with 2.46 mm, mandibular advancement with a mean value of 2.72 mm and increasing of the total mandibular length with a mean value of 4.17 mm. Although we found an inhibiting in the anterior development of the maxilla with an average of 1.57 degree, the decrease of the anterior-posterior discrepancy was due especially to the mandible. Conclusions: It can be concluded that functional appliances were effective in correcting class II malocclusion. Changes of the position and mandible′s length determined improved facial profile but did not correct it completely because of the chin that moved not only anterior but also downward, as a result of vertical ramus growth.

  16. Genomic analysis identifies class II mismatches in serologically DR-compatible human renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, A; Wood, K J; Morris, P J

    1988-11-01

    Many studies, including those from our own center, have shown that matching the donor and recipient for HLA-DR antigens has a beneficial effect on the outcome of cadaveric renal transplantation. However, cases of irreversible graft rejection are sometimes seen in patients who have received an HLA-DR-compatible kidney, suggesting that serologic compatibility for HLA-DR may not always ensure reduced alloreactivity toward the graft. We have examined a number of recipients and their serologically DR-compatible cadaveric donors by Southern blotting and hybridization with locus specific HLA class II probes in order to determine whether in these patients there were class II mismatches that had been undetected by serology. The results show that the analysis of DR beta restriction fragment patterns does little more than complement and confirm the serologic identification of HLA-DR. Hybridization with DQ alpha and DQ beta probes, however, significantly extends the number of DQ specificities that can be detected and suggests that DQ mismatches in DR-compatible donor-recipient pairs may be more common than previously supposed, although it is not possible to draw any conclusions on the influence of DQ incompatibilities in the presence of DR compatibility on graft outcome.

  17. Correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite in Class II Division 1 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric pattern of Class II Division 1 individuals with deep bite, and to determine possible correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite. Comparisons were also made between genders and cases that were to be treated both with and without premolar extraction. A total of 70 lateral cephalograms were used, from both male (n = 35 and female (n = 35 individuals with an average age of 11.6 years, who simultaneously presented with ANB > 5º and overbite > 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved parametric (t-test and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, as well as the Spearman correlation test (p < 0.05. The values of Go-Me, Ar-Pog, PM-1 and PM-CMI were higher in males (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were found among the averages of the cephalometric measurements when the sample was divided by treatment with and without extraction. Deep bite was positively correlated to the PM-1 and SNA measurements, and negatively correlated to the Go-Me, Ar-Pog, SNB and SNGoMe measurements. The main factors associated with the determination of deep bite in Angle's Class II Division 1 cases were: greater lower anterior dentoalveolar growth and/or lower incisor extrusion, horizontal growth pattern, maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion.

  18. Effects of unilateral premolar extraction treatment on the dental arch forms of Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Ginu; Masoud, Ahmed I; Viana, Grace; Obrez, Ales; Kusnoto, Budi; Evans, Carla A

    2017-08-01

    A retrospective study evaluating posttreatment symmetry in dental arch form and midlines was carried out in Class II subdivision patients treated with unilateral and bilateral maxillary premolar extractions. Using Geomagic (version 14; Geomagic, Research Triangle Park, NC) and MATLAB (version 8.4; MathWorks, Natick, Mass) software, best-fit curves expressed as quartic polynomials were generated for 13 Class II subdivisions treated with unilateral extractions and 20 treated with bilateral maxillary premolar extractions. Transverse and sagittal measurements were recorded to assess symmetry. Dental models were superimposed on constructed reference planes to generate average posttreatment arches. Statistical comparisons were performed with the significance level set at P ≤0.05. The unilateral extraction group showed significant differences in transverse arch forms between the right and left sides in the anterior, anterior-middle, and middle segments of the arch, and all regions other than the posterior segment in the sagittal dimension. Significant differences were found between groups in the anterior and anterior-middle segments of the arch transversely, the middle and middle-posterior segments sagittally, and the midline deviation relative to the midsagittal plane. Superimposed average arches showed similar results. Unilateral maxillary extraction treatment generally results in a narrower and more posteriorly displaced arch form on the extraction side, with a deviated maxillary midline toward the extraction side of the arch. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sarcoidosis HLA class II genotyping distinguishes differences of clinical phenotype across ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroe; Woodhead, Felix A.; Ahmad, Tariq; Grutters, Jan C.; Spagnolo, Paolo; van den Bosch, Jules M.M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Newman, Lee S.; Nagai, Sonoko; Izumi, Takateru; Wells, Athol U.; du Bois, Roland M.; Welsh, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    The HLA class II (DRB1 and DQB1) associations with sarcoidosis have been studied by several groups but often without consistent results. In this paper, we consider the hypothesis that observed inconsistencies relate to distinct, genetically encoded disease phenotypes which differ in prevalence between centres. We therefore typed HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 in 340 UK, 139 Dutch and 163 Japanese sarcoidosis patients and, respectively, 354, 218 and 168 healthy controls from these populations. We applied consistent phenotyping and genotyping and investigated associations between HLA class II alleles and distinct disease phenotypes within and between ethnic groups. DRB1*01 and DQB1*0501 are protective against all manifestations of sarcoidosis. Lung-predominant sarcoidosis is associated with DRB1*12 and *14. Löfgren's syndrome is a common sarcoidosis phenotype in the Dutch and is strongly associated with the DRB1*0301 allele. This phenotype is not seen among the Japanese in whom DRB1*0301 is absent. The same allele is protective for UK uveitis. Sarcoid uveitis is common in Japan. The DRB1*04–DQB1*0301 haplotype is a risk factor for this disease manifestation in Japanese and UK subjects but protective for sarcoidosis overall. We show that distinct sarcoidosis phenotypes have similar genetic associations across ethnic groups. The disease case mix differs between centres and may be explained by different ethnic allelic frequencies. PMID:20685690

  20. Marginal Adaptation Evaluation of Biodentine and MTA Plus in "Open Sandwich" Class II Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Yadav, Suman; Yadav, Harish; Ragini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of two different commercially available calcium silicate materials (Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] Plus) used as dentin substitute. Sixty Class II cavities were prepared in extracted mandibular third molars, with margins extending 1 mm below the cementum-enamel junction. The samples were divided into three groups on the basis of dentin substitute used: resin modified glass ionomer cement, Biodentine, and MTA Plus. Cavities were restored with composite resins in an "open sandwich" technique. The samples were subjected to alternate aging in phosphate buffered saline and cyclic loading. Marginal adaptation was evaluated in terms of "continuous margin" at the gingival margin, using a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. Statistical analysis was done with two-way analysis of variance with Holm-Sidak's correction for multiple comparisons. The glass ionomer group and Biodentine group presented an overall 83% and 91% of continuous margins, with no difference between them. MTA Plus showed least values of continuous margins. Granular deposits were seen over the surface of Biodentine and MTA Plus. Biodentine and resin-modified glass ionomer cement, when used as a dentin substitute under composite restorations in open sandwich technique, gave satisfactory marginal adaptation values. Contemporary calcium silicate materials can be used as dentin substitute materials in "open sandwich" Class II restorations. This study evaluates the marginal adaptation of Biodentine, MTA Plus, and resin modified glass ionomer cement used as dentin substitutes and reports better adaptation obtained with Biodentine and glass ionomer cement. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Signalling via MHC class II molecules modifies the composition of GEMs in APC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterblad, N; Becart, S; Charron, D; Mooney, N

    2001-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are responsible for peptide presentation to helper T lymphocytes and as such play an essential role in the immune response. These molecules transmit intracellular signals leading to diverse consequences in B lymphocytes including proliferation and apoptosis. Recent studies have revealed that glycolipid enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs) behave as signalling platforms for a variety of lymphocyte receptors. We have quantified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules localized in GEMs in human B lymphocytes. Use of a model imitating the interaction of HLA-DR with a T-cell receptor (TCR) modified the constituents of the HLA-DR-enriched GEMs. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a recruitment of HLA-DR and the ganglioside GM1 at the site of HLA-DR interaction with the stimulating ligand. Moreover, cholesterol depletion efficiently impaired this recruitment. Co-localizing proteins detected in HLA-DR-enriched GEMs include protein kinase C (PKC)-delta and actin. These data reveal that MHC class II antigens are localized in GEMs in mature human B lymphocytes and indicates that the formation of the immunological synapse regulates the composition of HLA-DR enriched GEMs in the antigen presenting cell (APC).

  2. Transverse craniofacial dimensions in Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion according to breathing mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Rísia David Pinto Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the relation between the transverse craniofacial dimensions of subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and the breathing mode presented by them. Forty Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion subjects of both genders participated in the study, 23 of which were predominantly nose breathers and 17 were predominantly mouth breathers. The mean age ranged from 10 years and 9 months to 14 years - Age range 1; and from 13 years and 4 months to 16 years and 6 months - Age range 2. Measurements of six transverse craniofacial dimensions were performed in P-A teleradiographs: Total Sphenoid, Total Zygomatic, Total Nasal Cavity, Total Maxilla, Total Mastoid and Total Antegonion. The transversal craniofacial dimensions were measured and compared in both groups at age ranges 1 and 2. The longitudinal assessment of age ranges 1 and 2 showed that there was no statistically significant influence of the breathing mode on the craniofacial dimensions evaluated, or on the alteration of these dimensions. Breathing mode had no influence on craniofacial development in the sample studied.

  3. Search for class II methanol masers at 23.1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Cragg, D M; Caswell, J L; Ellingsen, S P; Godfrey, P D

    2004-01-01

    In the early days of methanol maser discoveries the 9(2)-10(1) A+ transition at 23.1 GHz was found to exhibit maser characteristics in the northern star-forming region W3(OH), and probable maser emission in two other sources. Attention subsequently turned to the 6.6-GHz 5(1)-6(0) A+ methanol maser transition, which has proved a valuable tracer of early high-mass star formation. We have undertaken a new search for 23.1-GHz methanol masers in 50 southern star formation regions using the Parkes radiotelescope. The target sources all exhibit class II methanol maser emission at 6.6 GHz, with 20 sources also displaying maser features in the 107.0-GHz 3(1)-4(0) A+ methanol line. Strong emission at 23.1 GHz in NGC 6334F was confirmed, but no emission was detected in the remaining sources. Thus the 23.1-GHz methanol masers are rare. A maser model in which methanol molecules are pumped to the second torsionally excited state by radiation from warm dust can account for class II maser activity in all the transitions in w...

  4. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect.

  5. Major histocompatibility complex class II alleles and haplotypes associated with non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, R E; Kennedy, L J; Nolan, C M; Mooney, C T; Callanan, J J

    2014-09-01

    Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis is a breed-restricted canine neuroinflammatory disorder affecting young greyhounds in Ireland. A genetic risk factor is suspected because of the development of disease in multiple siblings and an inability to identify a causative infectious agent. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotype and the presence of the disease. DLA three locus haplotypes were determined in 31 dogs with non-suppurative meningoencephalitis and in 115 healthy control dogs using sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. All dogs were unrelated at the parental level. Two haplotypes (DRB1*01802/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 and DRB1*01501/DQA1*00601/DQB1*02201) were significantly (P = 0.0099 and 0.037) associated with the presence of meningoencephalitis, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 5.531 (1.168-26.19) and 3.736 (1.446-9.652), respectively. These results confirm that there is an association between DLA class II haplotype and greyhound meningoencephalitis, suggesting an immunogenetic risk factor for the development of the disease. Greyhound meningoencephalitis may be a suitable model for human neuroinflammatory diseases with an immunogenetic component. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH HLA ANTIBODIES CLASS I AND II, AND MICA ANTIBODIES IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

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    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HLA and MICA antibodies in patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation and their influence on the course of post-transplant period. Determination of HLA antibodies class I and II, and MICA antibodies was performed on a platform of Luminex (xMAP-tech- nology using sets LABScreen ONE LAMBDA (U.S.. A total of 156 patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Revealed the presence of HLA and MICA antibodies in the serum of 31.4% of patients. Regraf- ted patients increased the content of antibodies to the antigens of HLA system was noted in 88.2% of cases, 47% met the combination of antibodies to the I, II classes and MICA. In patients awaiting first kidney transplantation, HLA and MICA antibodies were determined in 23.7% of cases. The presence of pretransplant HLA and MICA antibodies had a significant influence on the course of post-transplant period. Patients with the presence of HLA and MICA in 50% of cases delayed graft function. Sessions of plasmapheresis can reduce the concentration of HLA and MICA antibodies on average by 61.1%. 

  7. Comparison of 2 modifications of the twin-block appliance in matched Class II samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, N A; McKeown, H F; Sandler, P J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the skeletal and dental changes contributing to Class II correction with 2 modifications of the Twin-block appliance: Twin-block appliances that use a labial bow (TB1) and Twin-block appliances that incorporate high-pull headgear and torquing spurs on the maxillary central incisors (TB2). After pretreatment equivalence was established, a total of 36 consecutively treated patients with the TB1 modification were compared with 27 patients treated with the TB2 modification. Both samples were treated in the same hospital department and the same technician made all the appliances. The cephalostat, digitizing package, and statistical methods were common to both groups. The results demonstrated that the addition of headgear to the appliance resulted in effective vertical and sagittal control of the maxillary complex and thus maximized the Class II skeletal correction in the TB2 sample. Use of the torquing springs resulted in less retroclination of the maxillary incisors in the TB2 sample when compared with the TB1 sample; however, this difference did not reach the level of statistical significance.

  8. Clinical Evaluation of Restorative Materials in Primary Teeth Class II Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, F; Gurbuz, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical success of primary teeth class II lesions restored with different restorative materials [Hybrid Composite Resin (HCR), Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC), compomer, and Giomer Composite Resin (GCR)] followed up for 24 months. This study was carried out on 146 primary molars of 41 children in the age range of 5-7 years. The class II lesions in primary molars of a patient were restored using different restorative materials. Restorations were evaluated according to FDI-criteria and their survival rates were determined. Data were analysed with Pearson chi-square, Kaplan-Meier and Wilcoxon (Breslow) tests (α = 0.05). The failure rates of restorative materials were as follows: compomer 33.3%, RMGIC 28.1%, HCR 22.5% and GCR 21.1%. While the functional failure was the most important factor in restorative material failure, RMGIC was the most successful material in terms of biological evaluation criterion and GCR had the longest survival rate.

  9. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. Methods The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Results Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Conclusions Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height. PMID:25162565

  10. Posttreatment stability in Class II nonextraction and maxillary premolar extraction protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Camardella, Leonardo Tavares

    2012-01-01

    To cephalometrically compare the overjet, overbite, and molar and canine relationship stability of Class II malocclusion treatment with and without maxillary premolar extractions. Two groups of 30 patients each with pre- and posttreatment matching characteristics and satisfactory finishing were used. Group 1 consisted of 30 patients treated with nonextraction at a mean pretreatment age of 12.14 years, while group 2 consisted of 30 patients treated with maxillary first premolar extractions at a mean pretreatment age of 12.87 years. Lateral cephalograms obtained before and after treatment and at a mean of 8.2 years after the end of treatment were compared. Student t tests were used to compare the initial and final dental relationships of the groups and the amount of treatment and long-term posttreatment changes. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to investigate correlations between treatment and long-term posttreatment dental relationship changes. In groups with matching canine relationship treatment changes, long-term stability of the overjet, overbite, and molar and canine relationships were similar in the groups. There were significant but weak correlations between treatment changes in overjet, overbite, and canine relationships with their long-term posttreatment changes. Nonextraction and maxillary premolar extraction treatment of complete Class II malocclusion have similar long-term posttreatment stability in terms of overjet, overbite, and canine and molar relationships.

  11. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  12. Prevalence of Sarcopenic Obesity in Adults with Class II/III Obesity Using Different Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene A. Johnson Stoklossa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective. Sarcopenic obesity (SO is a hidden condition of reduced lean soft tissue (LST in context of excess adiposity. SO is most commonly reported in older adults and both its risk and prevalence increase with age. A variety of body composition indices and cut points have been used to define this condition, leading to conflicting prevalence and risk prediction. Here, we investigate variability in the prevalence of SO in an adult sample of individuals with class II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using different diagnostic criteria. Methods. SO definitions were identified from a literature review of studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA to assess LST. Demographics, anthropometrics, and body composition (by DXA were measured in n=120, 86% female (46.9 ± 11.1 years. Results. LST was extremely variable in individuals, even with similar body sizes, and observed across the age spectrum. The prevalence of SO ranged from 0 to 84.5% in females and 0 to 100% in males, depending upon the definition applied, with higher prevalence among definitions accounting for measures of body size or fat mass. Conclusion. SO is present, yet variable, in adults with class II/III obesity. Accounting for body mass or fat mass may identify a higher number of individuals with SO, although risk prediction remains to be studied.

  13. Islamic Educational Transformation through Inmate Social Interaction at Palu Correctional Facility Class II A, Central Sulawesi

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    Yusra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation system adopted by correctional facility is based on Pancasila. All incarcerated men are rehabilitated there with the goal to make them repent, be law-abiding citizens, and uphold moral values. Correctional facility comes as a rehabilitation place to improve social interaction so that inmates can be received by their social environment once they are released from prison. At this point, the researcher focuses on Islamic educational transformation through inmate social interaction training program at Palu correctional facility class II A. This research uses descriptive quantitative design with social legal approach to observe patterns of inmate social interaction. The result of research points out that Islamic educational transformation which is packed into rehabilitation programs and correctional educational activities is remarkably emphasized in inmate social interaction. In this case, Islamic educational transformation applied in Palu correctional facility class II A is defined as ultimum remidium, correctional activities emphasizing on process-based approach. Rehabilitation process given to inmates is able to improve insight and awareness of ethical and moral values in their social interaction. Therefore, when returning to society they can be accepted by social environtment as good responsible people.

  14. Treatment effects of a fixed intermaxillary device to correct class II malocclusions in growing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Dean A; Shammaa, Imad; Martin, Chris; Razmus, Thomas; Gunel, Erdogan; Ngan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of Forsus™ Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) in growing patients with Class II non-extraction malocclusions. A retrospective sample of 24 class II patients treated consecutively with the FRD followed by comprehensive orthodontic treatment was compared to a sample of untreated control subjects from the Bolton Brush Study who was matched in age, sex, and craniofacial morphology. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken before treatment (T1) and after removal of fixed appliances (T2). Growth changes were subtracted from the treatment changes to obtain the treatment effects of the appliance. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and a match paired t test. Significant differences were found between the treated and control groups for 12 of the 29 measured variables (Co-Gn minus Co-Apt, Wits, Is-OLp, Ii-OLp, overjet, Mi-OLp, molar relationship, overbite, Mic-ML, SNA, ANB, and Ii-ML). With 27.8 months of treatment, all patients were corrected to a class I dental arch relationship. Overjet and molar relationships were improved by an average of 4.7 and 3.1 mm, respectively. This was contributed by a 1.2 mm of restraint in forward maxillary growth, 0.7 mm of forward movement of the mandible, 1.5 mm of backward movement of the maxillary incisors, 1.3 mm forward movement of the mandibular incisors, 0.5 mm backward movement of the maxillary molars, and 1.3 mm of forward movement of the mandibular molars. The overbite was decreased by 2 mm with no significant change in the occlusal, palatal, or mandibular plane. Individual variations in response to the FRD treatment were large for most of the parameters tested. Significant differences in treatment changes between male and female subjects were found only in a few parameters measured. These results demonstrate that significant overjet and overbite corrections can be obtained with the Forsus FRD in conjunction with comprehensive orthodontic

  15. Engagement of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules up-regulates intercellular adhesion of human B cells via a CD11/CD18-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcover, A; Juillard, V; Acuto, O

    1992-02-01

    We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency patient, lacking surface CD11/CD18, also aggregated in response to anti-MHC class I or class II monoclonal antibodies. Together these data indicate that engagement of MHC molecules may transduce signals to B cells resulting in up-regulation of intercellular adhesion, via an LFA-1-independent mechanism. This may play a role in the stabilization of T cell/antigen-presenting cell conjugates at the moment of antigen recognition.

  16. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ole

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule plays a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response to infections. MHC class I molecules present peptides derived from intracellular proteins to cytotoxic T cells, whereas MHC class II molecules stimulate cellular and humoral immunity through presentation of extracellularly derived peptides to helper T cells. Identification of which peptides will bind a given MHC molecule is thus of great importance for the understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and large efforts have been placed in developing algorithms capable of predicting this binding event. Results Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data due to redundant binding core representation. Incorporation of information about the residues flanking the peptide-binding core is shown to significantly improve the prediction accuracy. The method is evaluated on a large-scale benchmark consisting of six independent data sets covering 14 human MHC class II alleles, and is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC class II prediction methods. Conclusion The NN-align method is competitive with the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction algorithms. The method is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.0.

  17. Treatment of Class II high angle malocclusions with the Herbst appliance: a cephalometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavoni, R; Grenga, V; Macri, V

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of treatment of Class II malocclusions by using two different designs of the Herbst appliance. Cephalometric records from lateral headplates of 19 consecutively treated Class II cases were evaluated. The headplates were taken before and after the treatment stage in which the Herbst appliance was used. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group, normohypodivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to bands; the second group, hyperdivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in which a high-pull headgear was also used. The results were compared between these groups and with a control group age-matched from Bolton standards to match the changes in the Herbst samples against what might be expected in case of normal growth during similar periods of time. The results of the investigation revealed the following: (1) 9 months of treatment resulted in Class I dental arch relationships in all 19 cases; (2) the Herbst appliance attached to bands did not significantly modify the vertical growth pattern of the normohypodivergent patients; and (3) in hyperdivergent patients, the use of a Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in conjunction with the use of a high-pull headgear allowed a better control of the vertical dimension, as assessed by the cephalometric parameters (FA, FMA, Go-Gn-SN). The clinician should be aware of the different dentofacial changes induced in the vertical plane by different designs of the Herbst appliance to better program treatment strategy.

  18. Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of New Selective Inhibitors of Microbial Class II (Zinc Dependent) Fructose Bis-phosphate Aldolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Daher; M Coincon; M Fonvielle; P Gest; M Guerin; M Jackson; J Sygusch; M Therisod

    2011-12-31

    We report the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of several selective inhibitors of class II (zinc dependent) fructose bis-phosphate aldolases (Fba). The products were designed as transition-state analogues of the catalyzed reaction, structurally related to the substrate fructose bis-phosphate (or sedoheptulose bis-phosphate) and based on an N-substituted hydroxamic acid, as a chelator of the zinc ion present in active site. The compounds synthesized were tested on class II Fbas from various pathogenic microorganisms and, by comparison, on a mammalian class I Fba. The best inhibitor shows Ki against class II Fbas from various pathogens in the nM range, with very high selectivity (up to 105). Structural analyses of inhibitors in complex with aldolases rationalize and corroborate the enzymatic kinetics results. These inhibitors represent lead compounds for the preparation of new synthetic antibiotics, notably for tuberculosis prophylaxis.

  19. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors induce DNA damage through nucleoside depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvekar, Ashish; Hu, Hai; Yadegarynia, Sina; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Ullas, Soumya; Lien, Evan C; Bellinger, Gary; Son, Jaekyoung; Hok, Rosanna C; Seth, Pankaj; Daly, Michele B; Kim, Baek; Scully, Ralph; Asara, John M; Cantley, Lewis C; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2016-07-26

    We previously reported that combining a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with a poly-ADP Rib polymerase (PARP)-inhibitor enhanced DNA damage and cell death in breast cancers that have genetic aberrations in BRCA1 and TP53. Here, we show that enhanced DNA damage induced by PI3K inhibitors in this mutational background is a consequence of impaired production of nucleotides needed for DNA synthesis and DNA repair. Inhibition of PI3K causes a reduction in all four nucleotide triphosphates, whereas inhibition of the protein kinase AKT is less effective than inhibition of PI3K in suppressing nucleotide synthesis and inducing DNA damage. Carbon flux studies reveal that PI3K inhibition disproportionately affects the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway that delivers Rib-5-phosphate required for base ribosylation. In vivo in a mouse model of BRCA1-linked triple-negative breast cancer (K14-Cre BRCA1(f/f)p53(f/f)), the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 led to a precipitous drop in DNA synthesis within 8 h of drug treatment, whereas DNA synthesis in normal tissues was less affected. In this mouse model, combined PI3K and PARP inhibition was superior to either agent alone to induce durable remissions of established tumors.

  20. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Wendy C; Smith, Janet L; Affleck, Karen; Amour, Augustin

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation in the lung has long been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma. Central to this airway inflammation is a T-cell response to allergens, with Th2 cytokines driving the differentiation, survival and function of the major inflammatory cells involved in the allergic cascade. PI3Kδ (phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ) is a lipid kinase, expressed predominantly in leucocytes, where it plays a critical role in immune receptor signalling. A selective PI3Kδ inhibitor is predicted to block T-cell activation in the lung, reducing the production of pro-inflammatory Th2 cytokines. PI3Kδ is also involved in B-cell and mast cell activation. Therefore the inhibition of PI3Kδ should dampen down the inflammatory cascade involved in the asthmatic response through a wide breadth of pharmacology. Current anti-inflammatory therapies, which are based on corticosteroids, are effective in controlling inflammation in mild asthmatics, but moderate/severe asthmatic patients remain poorly controlled, experiencing recurrent exacerbations. Corticosteroids have no effect on mast cell degranulation and do not act directly on B-cells, so, overall, a PI3Kδ inhibitor has the potential to deliver improvements in onset of action, efficacy and reduced exacerbations in moderate/severe asthmatics. Additionally, PI3Kδ inhibition is expected to block effects of Th17 cells, which are increasingly implicated in steroid-insensitive asthma.

  1. PI3 kinase enzymology on fluid lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Luo, Wei; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-10-21

    We report the use of fluid lipid bilayer membrane as a model platform to study the influence of the bilayer microenvironment and composition on the enzymology in membrane. As a model system we determined the enzyme kinetics on membranes for the transformation of bilayers containing phosphoinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to phosphoinositol(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) by the enzyme phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) using radiolabeled ATP. The activity of the enzyme was monitored as a function of the radioactivity incorporated within the bilayer. The transformation of PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3 was determined using a mass strip assay. The fluidity of the bilayer was confirmed by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Kinetic simulations were performed based on Langmuir adsorption and Michaelis-Menton kinetics equations to generate the rate constants for the enzymatic reaction. The effect of cholesterol on the enzyme kinetics was studied by doping the bilayer with 1% cholesterol. This leads to significant reduction in reaction rate due to change in membrane microenvironment. This strategy provides a method to study the enzymology of various kinases and phosphatases occurring at the membrane and also how these reactions are affected by the membrane composition and surface microenvironment.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Antiestrogen Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd W.; Balko, Justin M.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    Although antiestrogen therapies targeting estrogen receptor (ER) α signaling prevent disease recurrence in the majority of patients with hormone-dependent breast cancer, a significant fraction of patients exhibit de novo or acquired resistance. Currently, the only accepted mechanism linked with endocrine resistance is amplification or overexpression of the ERBB2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]) proto-oncogene. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, the most frequently mutated pathway in breast cancer, promotes antiestrogen resistance. PI3K is a major signaling hub downstream of HER2 and other receptor tyrosine kinases. PI3K activates several molecules involved in cell-cycle progression and survival, and in ER-positive breast cancer cells, it promotes estrogen-dependent and -independent ER transcriptional activity. Preclinical tumor models of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer often remain sensitive to estrogens and PI3K inhibition, suggesting that simultaneous targeting of the PI3K and ER pathways may be most effective. Herein, we review alterations in the PI3K pathway associated with resistance to endocrine therapy, the state of clinical development of PI3K inhibitors, and strategies for the clinical investigation of such drugs in hormone receptor–positive breast cancer. PMID:22010023

  3. MAXILLARY INCISOR TRAUMA IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS II DIVISION 1 DENTAL MALOCCLUSION: ASSOCIATED FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Yaman DOSDOĞRU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the presence of maxillary incisor trauma (MIT with age, gender, dentition type, the degree of overjet (OJ, lip form, respiratory type and dental arch form in patients with Class II division 1 dental malocclusion. Subjects and Methods: 256 patients (mean age: 15.80 ± 2.2 were included in this study. The patients’ gender, dentition type, superior lip form, dental arch form and respiratory type were recorded. Participants were divided into four groups according to the severity of OJ: 3.5 mm II ≤ 6 mm with incompetent lip, 6 mmClass II division 1 malocclusion.

  4. Composition of MHC class II-enriched lipid microdomains is modified during maturation of primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterblad, Niclas; Roucard, Corinne; Bocaccio, Claire; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Charron, Dominique; Mooney, Nuala

    2003-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression changes with maturation; immature DCs concentrate MHC class II molecules intracellularly, whereas maturation increases surface expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules to optimize antigen presentation. Signal transduction via MHC class II molecules localized in lipid microdomains has been described in B lymphocytes and in the THP-1 monocyte cell line. We have characterized MHC class II molecules throughout human DC maturation with particular attention to their localization in lipid-rich microdomains. Only immature DCs expressed empty MHC class II molecules, and maturation increased the level of peptide-bound heterodimers. Ligand binding to surface human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR induced rapid internalization in immature DCs. The proportion of cell-surface detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain-clustered HLA-DR was higher in immature DCs despite the higher surface expression of HLA-DR in mature DCs. Constituents of HLA-DR containing microdomains included the src kinase Lyn and the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in immature DCs. Maturation modified the composition of the HLA-DR-containing microdomains to include protein kinase C (PKC)-delta, Lyn, and the cytoskeletal protein actin, accompanied by the loss of tubulin. Signaling via HLA-DR redistributed HLA-DR and -DM and PKC-delta as well as enriching the actin content of mature DC microdomains. The increased expression of HLA-DR as a result of DC maturation was therefore accompanied by modification of the spatial organization of HLA-DR. Such regulation could contribute to the distinct responses induced by ligand binding to MHC class II molecules in immature versus mature DCs.

  5. Selection and trans-species polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the order Crocodylia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachai Jaratlerdsiri

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II α and β evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II β diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II α is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II α sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II α sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II β sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85-90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia.

  6. Selection and trans-species polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the order Crocodylia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R; Higgins, Damien P; Miles, Lee G; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II α and β evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II β diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II α is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II α sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II α sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II β sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85-90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia.

  7. A third broad lineage of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in teleost fish; MHC class II linkage and processed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Johannes Martinus; Katagiri, Takayuki; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Ototake, Mitsuru; Aoki, Takashi; Hashimoto, Keiichiro; Shiina, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    Most of the previously studied teleost MHC class I molecules can be classified into two broad lineages: "U" and "Z/ZE." However, database reports on genes in cyprinid and salmonid fishes show that there is a third major lineage, which lacks detailed analysis so far. We designated this lineage "L" because of an intriguing linkage characteristic. Namely, one zebrafish L locus is closely linked with MHC class II loci, despite the extensively documented nonlinkage of teleost class I with class II. The L lineage consists of highly variable, nonclassical MHC class I genes, and has no apparent orthologues outside teleost fishes. Characteristics that distinguish the L lineage from most other MHC class I are (1) absence of two otherwise highly conserved tryptophan residues W51 and W60 in the alpha1 domain, (2) a low GC content of the alpha1 and alpha2 exons, and (3) an HINLTL motif including a possible glycosylation site in the alpha3 domain. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) we analyzed several intact L genes in detail, including their genomic organization and transcription pattern. The gene Onmy-LAA is quite different from the genes Onmy-LBA, Onmy-LCA, Onmy-LDA, and Onmy-LEA, while the latter four are similar and categorized as "Onmy-LBA-like." Whereas the Onmy-LAA gene is organized like a canonical MHC class I gene, the Onmy-LBA-like genes are processed and lack all introns except intron 1. Onmy-LAA is predominantly expressed in the intestine, while the Onmy-LBA-like transcripts display a rather homogeneous tissue distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an MHC class I lineage with multiple copies of processed genes, which are intact and transcribed. The present study significantly improves the knowledge of MHC class I variation in teleosts.

  8. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules.

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    Bernd Rupp

    Full Text Available MHC class II molecules (MHC II play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC molecule. Non-receptiveness hinders the efficient loading of new antigens onto the empty MHC II. However, the mechanisms driving the formation of the peptide inaccessible state are not well understood. Here, a combined approach of experimental site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling is used to reveal structural features underlying "non-receptiveness." Molecular dynamics simulations of the human MHC II HLA-DR1 suggest a straightening of the α-helix of the β1 domain during the transition from the open to the non-receptive state. The movement is mostly confined to a hinge region conserved in all known MHC molecules. This shift causes a narrowing of the two helices flanking the binding site and results in a closure, which is further stabilized by the formation of a critical hydrogen bond between residues αQ9 and βN82. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that replacement of either one of the two residues by alanine renders the protein highly susceptible. Notably, loading enhancement was also observed when the mutated MHC II molecules were expressed on the surface of fibroblast cells. Altogether, structural features underlying the non-receptive state of empty HLA-DR1 identified by theoretical means and experiments revealed highly conserved residues critically involved in the receptiveness of MHC II. The atomic details of rearrangements of the peptide-binding groove upon peptide loss provide insight into structure and dynamics of empty MHC II molecules and may foster rational approaches to interfere with non-receptiveness. Manipulation of peptide loading efficiency for improved peptide vaccination strategies could be one of the applications profiting

  9. Articulación de fones en individuos clase esqueletal I,II y III Speech patterns in skeletal class I, II and III subjects

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    Pía Villanueva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar los patrones de articulación de fones consonánticos en sujetos de habla española chilena clases I, II y III esqueletal; comparar las diferencias fonéticas que existan entre clases esqueletales. MÉTODOS: se seleccionaron 54 individuos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión determinados mediante un examen clínico intraoral y a través del análisis de Ricketts, y se conformaron los grupos de estudio de pacientes clases esqueletales I, II y III. Se les realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio estandarizado para determinar los fones modificados y el patrón articulatorio compensatorio realizado. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos en las tres clases esqueletales, con diferencias significativas en los grupos de fones anteriores y medios entre pacientes clases I y II, sólo en el grupo de los fones anteriores entre pacientes I y III. Entre pacientes clases II y III no se observaron diferencias significativas. Se reportan modificaciones y compensaciones cualitativamente distintas entre las clases esqueletales. CONCLUSIONES: en relación a pacientes clase I, los pacientes clase II o III, presentan distinto grado de modificación en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos. Las diferencias observadas se relacionan con los patrones esqueletales propios de cada clase.PURPOSE: to determine the consonant phonemes articulation patterns in Chilean skeletal class I, II and III Spanish speakers and compare their phonetic differences. METHODS: fifty-four skeletal class I, II and III subjects were selected, based on intraoral clinical examination and Ricketts cephalometric analysis, constituting the study groups. A standardized phonoarticulatory test was applied to each patient to determine the modified phonemes and their compensatory patterns. RESULTS: the findings indicate changes in articulation in all three groups. Significant differences were found in anterior and medium

  10. MHC class I and class II phenotype, gene, and haplotype frequencies in Greeks using molecular typing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassavas, E C; Spyropoulou-Vlachou, M; Papassavas, A C; Schipper, R F; Doxiadis, I N; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, DNA typing for HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 was performed for 246 healthy, unrelated Greek volunteers of 20-59 years of age. Phenotype, genotype frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium fit, and 3-locus haplotype frequencies for HLA-A, C, B, HLA-A, B, DRB1, HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and HLA-DRB1, DQB1, DPB1 were calculated. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium, deltas, relative deltas and p-values for significance of the deltas were defined. The population studied is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and many MHC haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium. The most frequent specificities were HLA-A*02 (phenotype frequency = 44.3%) followed by HLA-A*24 (27.2%), HLA-B*51 (28.5%), HLA-B*18 (26.8%) and HLA-B*35 (26.4%) and HLA-Cw*04 (30.1%) and HLA-Cw*12 (26.8%). The most frequent MHC class II alleles were HLA-DRB1*1104 (34.1%), HLA-DQB1*0301 (54.5%) and HLA-DPB1*0401 with a phenotype frequency of 59.8%. The most prominent HLA-A, C, B haplotypes were HLA-A*24, Cw*04, B*35, and HLA-A*02, Cw*04, B*35, each of them observed in 21/246 individuals. The most frequent HLA-A, B, DRB1 haplotype was HLA-A*02, B*18, DRB1*1104 seen in 20/246 individuals, while the haplotype HLA-DRB1*1104, DQB1*0301, DPB1*0401 was found in 49/246 individuals. Finally, the haplotype DRB1*1104, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0301 was observed in 83/246 individuals. These results can be used for the estimation of the probability of finding a suitable haplotypically identical related or unrelated stem cell donor for patients of Greek ancestry. In addition, they can be used for HLA and disease association studies, genetic distance studies in the Balkan and Mediterranean area, paternity cases, and matching probability calculations for the optimal allocation of kidneys in Greece.

  11. Long-term Outcome of Lupus Nephritis Class II in Argentine Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Victoria; Dorado, Enrique; Rausch, Silvia; Gomez, Graciela; Khoury, Marina; Zazzetti, Federico; Gargiulo, María; Suarez, Lorena; Chaparro, Rafael; Paira, Sergio; Galvan, Laura; Juarez, Vicente; Pisoni, Cecilia; Garcia, Mercedes; Martinez, Liliana; Alvarez, Analia; Alvarez, Clarisa; Barreira, Juan; Sarano, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background There is controversy in medical literature over the outcome of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) class II. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of histological transformation (HT) and possible factors related to negative response to treatment in patients with mesangial LN class II. Methods A retrospective and multicenter study was carried out that includes patients who had received a diagnosis of LN class II on their first renal biopsy. Creatinine, urine sediment, and proteinuria were recorded at the time of the first biopsy, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 5 years after the first biopsy. Response to treatment, HT, and long-term outcome were evaluated. Results Forty-one patients were included. The manifestation at first biopsy was proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/d in 28 patients (68.29%; 8 [28.57%] of 28 patients had nephrotic syndrome), hematuria in 18 patients (43.90%), and deterioration of renal function in 3 patients (7.31%). During the follow-up (median, 8 years; range, 1–35 years), a new biopsy was performed in 18 patients (43.90%), and in 17 patients (17/18 [94.44%]), there was HT. Median time at rebiopsy was 32 months (range, 11–305 months). Of the 18 patients who had a second biopsy, 10 (55.55%) were on hydroxychloroquine versus 100% (19/19) of patients who did not undergo the procedure (P = 0.001). A year after the first renal biopsy, there are data available from 34 patients; of them, 24 patients (70.58%) had achieved response, and 10 patients (29.41%) had no response (NR) (missing data in 7). A higher 24-hour urinary protein at 6 months was predictor of worse outcome at 1 year, with statistical significance difference for the nonresponder group (median proteinuria, 2.3 g/d [range, 0–4.7 g/d]) compared with responders (median proteinuria, 0.28 g/d [range, 0–1.7 g/d]) (P = 0.0133). In the long-term follow-up (5 years), HT was the main cause of unfavorable outcome and was measured in 78.57% of patients (11/14 patients). Conclusions This

  12. JC polyomavirus infection is strongly controlled by human leucocyte antigen class II variants.

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    Emilie Sundqvist

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available JC polyomavirus (JCV carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50-60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA, instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15 and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5. In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006, and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10(-5. The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10(-4 and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes. HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and

  13. Probing the Evolution of Massive Young Stellar Objects using Weak Class II 6.7GHz Methanol Maser Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Bethany Ann; Cunningham, Nichol

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an investigation of class II 6.7GHz methanol masers towards four Massive Young Stellar Objects (MYSOs). The sources, selected from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey (Lumsden et al. 2013), were previously understood to be non-detections for class II methanol maser emission in the methanol multi-beam (MMB) Survey (Caswell et al. 2010.) Class II methanol masers are a well-known sign post of massive star forming regions and may be utilized to probe their relatively poorly understood formation. It is possible that these non-detections are simply weak masers that are potentially associated with a younger evolutionary phase of MYSOs as hypothesized by Olmi et al. (2014). The sources were chosen to sample various stages of evolution, having similar 21 to 8 micron flux ratios and bolometric luminosities as other MYSOs with previous class II methanol maser detections. We observed all 4 MYSOs with ATCA (~2" resolution) at 10 times deeper sensitivity than previously obtained with the MMB survey and have a spectral resolution of 0.087kms^-1 . The raw data is reduced using the program Miriad (Sault, R. J., et al., 1995) and deconvolutioned using the program CASA (McMullin, J. P., et al. 2007.) We determine one of the four observed MYSOs is harboring a weak class II methanol maser. We discuss the possibility of sensitivity limitations on the remaining sources as well as environmental and evolutionary differences between the sources.

  14. Má oclusão Classe II de Angle tratada sem extrações e com controle de crescimento Angle Class II malocclusion treated without extractions and with growth control

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    Flávia Artese

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão Classe II de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária anteroposterior, que geralmente está acompanhada por alterações esqueléticas. O tratamento ortodôntico precoce permite a correção da discrepância esquelética por controle de crescimento (primeira fase, o que favorece a correção do posicionamento dentário, mais tardiamente (segunda fase. Este relato descreve o tratamento de um caso de má oclusão Classe II, divisão 2, de Angle, em duas fases, e foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO. O caso foi avaliado como representante da Categoria 1, ou seja, má oclusão Classe II de Angle tratada sem extrações dentárias e com controle de crescimento.Angle Class II malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy which is generally accompanied by skeletal disharmonies. Early orthodontic treatment allows the correction of skeletal discrepancies using growth control (first phase which favors later correction of tooth positioning (second phase. This case report describes an Angle Class II, division 2, malocclusion treated in two phases and was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for BBO certification. It was evaluated as a Category 1 case, i.e., Class II malocclusion treated without extractions, with growth control.

  15. HLA-class II genes in Mexican Amerindian Mayas: relatedness with Guatemalan Mayans and other populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Areces, Cristina; Gómez-Prieto, Pablo; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the HLA class II allele frequencies in 50 healthy unrelated Mayan individuals. The relationship with other worldwide populations was studied by using HLA data from 71 different populations. The most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*01, HLA-DQB1*0302 and HLA-DQB1*0501. When comparisons with other Mexican Amerindian groups were made, some differences were observed. Mayans showed an increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 when compared to Nahuas, Mayos, Teenek and Mazatecans (p Mayas showing that languages do not correlate with genes, particularly in Amerindians. The data corroborate the restricted polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and the high frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*0302 in Mayans from Mexico.

  16. Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding in the Daqing Oilfield Class II Reservoirs Using Associating Polymer

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    Ru-Sen Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobically modified associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM has good compatibility with the Daqing heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant. The HAPAM alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP system can generate ultralow interfacial tension in a wide range of alkali/surfactant concentrations and maintain stable viscosity and interfacial tension for 120 days. The HAPAM ASP system has good injectivity for the Daqing class II reservoirs (100–300 × 10−3 μm2 and can improve oil recovery by more than 25% on top of water flooding. In the presence of both the alkali and the surfactant, the surfactant interacts with the associating groups of the polymer to form more micelles, which can significantly enhance the viscosity of the ASP system. Compared with using HPAM (Mw = 2.5 MDa, using HAPAM can reduce the polymer use by more than 40%.

  17. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

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    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  18. Toward a network model of MHC class II-restricted antigen processing

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    Laurence C Eisenlohr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard model of Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII-restricted antigen processing depicts a straightforward, linear pathway: Internalized antigens are converted into peptides that load in a chaperone dependent manner onto nascent MHCII in the late endosome, the complexes subsequently trafficking to the cell surface for recognition by CD4+ T cells (TCD4+. Several variations on this theme, both moderate and radical, have come to light but these alternatives have remained peripheral, the conventional pathway generally presumed to be the primary driver of TCD4+ responses. Here we continue to press for the conceptual repositioning of these alternatives toward the center while proposing that MHCII processing be thought of less in terms of discrete pathways and more in terms of a network whose major and minor conduits are variable depending upon many factors, including the epitope, the nature of the antigen, the source of the antigen, and the identity of the antigen-presenting cell.

  19. Genetic variation in V gene of class II Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Liu, Peng; Ren, Shanhui; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Yang, Zengqi

    2016-01-01

    The genetic variation and molecular evolution of the V gene of the class II Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates with genotypes I-XVIII were determined using bioinformatics. Results indicated that low homology existed in different genotype viruses, whereas high homology often for the same genotypes, exception may be existed within genotypes I, V, VI, and XII. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic variation of V protein was consistent with virus genotype, and specific signatures on the V protein for nine genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the phylogenetic trees were highly consistent between the V and F genes, with slight discrepancies in the sub-genotypes. Evolutionary rate analyses based on V and F genes revealed the evolution rates varied in genotypes. These data indicate that the genetic variation of V protein is genotype-related and will help in elucidating the molecular evolution of NDV.

  20. A modified orthodontic protocol for advanced periodontal disease in Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Murillo-Goizueta, Oscar Edwin Francisco

    2011-04-01

    An interdisciplinary approach is often the best option for achieving a predictable outcome for an adult patient with complex clinical problems. This case report demonstrates the combined periodontal/orthodontic treatment for a 49-year-old woman presenting with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, a 9-mm overjet, and moderate to severe bone loss as the main characteristics of the periodontal disease. The orthodontic treatment included 2 maxillary first premolar extractions through forced extrusion. Active orthodontic treatment was completed in 30 months. The treatment outcomes, including the periodontal condition, were stable 17 months after active orthodontic treatment. The advantages of this interdisciplinary approach are discussed. Periodontally compromised orthodontic patients can be satisfactorily treated, achieving most of the conventional orthodontic goals, if a combined orthodontic/periodontic approach is used.

  1. Tratamento da classe II divisão 1 na dentição mista

    OpenAIRE

    Angelino, André de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Os indivíduos portadores da má oclusão de Classe II Divisão 1 possuem diversas etiologias e podem ser encontrados em todas as etnias. As suas características clínicas e radiográficas se agravam com o crescimento e uma vez não tratada, continuam com esta má oclusão por toda sua vida. Para o tratamento ortodôntico na dentição mista recorre-se a dispositivos como aparelhos extra-orais, aparelhos funcionais fixos e removíveis. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão...

  2. Orthodontic Protocol Using Mini-Implant for Class II Treatment in Patient with Special Needs

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    Fernando Pedrin Carvalho Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving facial and dental appearance and social interaction are the main factors for special needs (SN patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The cooperation of SN patients and their parents is crucial for treatment success. Objective. To show through a case report the satisfactory results, both functional and esthetic, in patients with intellectual disability, congenital nystagmus, and severe scoliosis. Materials Used. Pendulum device with mini-implants as anchorage unit. Results. Improvement of facial and dental esthetics, correction of Class II malocclusion, and no root resorption shown in the radiographic follow-up. Conclusion. Knowing the limitations of SN patients, having a trained team, motivating and counting on the cooperation of parents and patients, and employing quick and low-cost orthodontic therapy have been shown to be the essential factors for treatment success.

  3. Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor in an Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patient

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    Guilherme Thiesen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with agenesis of maxillary left lateral incisor and Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The patient also presented with maxillary midline deviation and inclination of the occlusal plane in the anterior region. Treatment objectives were: correction of sagittal relationship between the maxilla and the mandible; correction of midline deviation, so as to cause maxillary and mandibular midlines to coincide; correction of overbite and leveling of the occlusal plane, so as to create ideal conditions for esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  4. Angiotensinogen and HLA class II predict bevacizumab response in recurrent glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Olsen, Lars Rønn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bevacizumab combination therapy is among the most frequently used treatments in recurrent glioblastoma and patients who achieve response to bevacizumab have improved survival as well as quality of life. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify predictive biomarkers...... for bevacizumab response in recurrent glioblastoma patients. Methods: The study included a total of 82 recurrent glioblastoma patients treated with bevacizumab combination therapy whom were both response and biomarker evaluable. Gene expression of tumor tissue was analyzed by using a customized Nano.......0009) and high expression of a HLA class II gene (2-fold increase in HLA-DQA1; OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01-1.47; P = 0.04). These two genes were included in a model that is able predict response to bevacizumab combination therapy in clinical practice. When stratified for a validated prognostic index, the predictive...

  5. Efficient vaccine against pandemic influenza: combining DNA vaccination and targeted delivery to MHC class II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grødeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne

    2015-06-01

    There are two major limitations to vaccine preparedness in the event of devastating influenza pandemics: the time needed to generate a vaccine and rapid generation of sufficient amounts. DNA vaccination could represent a solution to these problems, but efficacy needs to be enhanced. In a separate line of research, it has been established that targeting of vaccine molecules to antigen-presenting cells enhances immune responses. We have combined the two principles by constructing DNA vaccines that encode bivalent fusion proteins; these target hemagglutinin to MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Such DNA vaccines rapidly induce hemagglutinin-specific antibodies and T cell responses in immunized mice. Responses are long-lasting and protect mice against challenge with influenza virus. In a pandemic situation, targeted DNA vaccines could be produced and tested within a month. The novel DNA vaccines could represent a solution to pandemic preparedness in the advent of novel influenza pandemics.

  6. HLA class II alleles specify phenotypes of ketosis-prone diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, Ramaswami; Gaur, Lakshmi K; Maldonado, Mario; Hampe, Christiane S; Rodriguez, Lucille; Garza, Gilberto; Lernmark, Ake; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2008-06-01

    Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) comprises four subgroups based on the presence or absence of beta-cell autoantibodies (A+ or A-) and beta-cell functional reserve (beta+ or beta-). Genetic factors could contribute to their distinctive phenotypes. Our aim was to specify the role of HLA class II alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to autoimmune type 1 diabetes in determining KPD phenotypes. A total of 185 adults presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis were followed longitudinally for a mean of 5.5 years, with measurements of autoantibodies, beta-cell functional reserve, insulin sensitivity, and insulin requirement. Frequencies of susceptibility and resistance alleles at HLA DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 loci were correlated with clinical and phenotypic features of KPD subgroups and compared with those of ethnic-specific population control subjects. Susceptibility alleles were more frequent (P reserve.

  7. Prediction of HLA class II alleles using SNPs in an African population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasil Tekola Ayele

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA gene locus in research and clinical practice, direct HLA typing is laborious and expensive. Furthermore, the analysis requires specialized software and expertise which are unavailable in most developing country settings. Recently, in silico methods have been developed for predicting HLA alleles using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, the utility of these methods in African populations has not been systematically evaluated.In the present study, we investigate prediction of HLA class II (HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles using SNPs in the Wolaita population, southern Ethiopia. The subjects comprised 297 Ethiopians with genome-wide SNP data, of whom 188 had also been HLA typed and were used for training and testing the model. The 109 subjects with SNP data alone were used for empirical prediction using the multi-allelic gene prediction method. We evaluated accuracy of the prediction, agreement between predicted and HLA typed alleles, and discriminative ability of the prediction probability supplied by the model. We found that the model predicted intermediate (two-digit resolution for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles at accuracy levels of 96% and 87%, respectively. All measures of performance showed high accuracy and reliability for prediction. The distribution of the majority of HLA alleles in the study was similar to that previously reported for the Oromo and Amhara ethnic groups from Ethiopia.We demonstrate that HLA class II alleles can be predicted from SNP genotype data with a high level of accuracy at intermediate (two-digit resolution in an African population. This finding offers new opportunities for HLA studies of disease epidemiology and population genetics in developing countries.

  8. As implicações da classe II de angle e da desproporção esquelética tipo classe II no aspecto miofuncional The implications of class II angle and class II type skeletal disproportion on the myofunctional aspect

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    Carolina Lisbôa Mezzomo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: esse trabalho foi baseado na temática de que existe uma associação entre as más oclusões devido a alterações do crescimento craniofacial, e, por conseguinte, a existência de alterações miofuncionais. OBJETIVOS: estudar a associação entre as más oclusões tipo classe II desencadeadas por alterações do crescimento craniofacial e as disfunções do sistema estomatognático (alterações miofuncionais: fala, mastigação, deglutição e fonação. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que alterações estruturais da face podem ter influência na funcionalidade das mesmas, portanto, enfatiza-se a importância do trabalho multidisciplinar entre os profissionais envolvidos em cada uma dessas aéreas para que o prognóstico desses casos seja pertinente de relevantes melhoras.BACKGROUND: this work has been based on the theme that there is an association between malocclusion due to change in craniofacial growth, and therefore, the existence of malfunctioning abnormalities. PURPOSE: to study the strong association among the malocclusion class II triggered by changes in craniofacial growth and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system (myofunctional disorders - speech, chewing, swallowing and phonation. CONCLUSION: it may be concluded that structural changes of the face may affect its, and therefore, the importance of multidisciplinary work among professionals involved in each of those areas, is emphasized, so that the prognosis of these cases may have relevant and important improvements.

  9. Influence of different restorative techniques on marginal seal of class II composite restorations

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    Sinval Adalberto Rodrigues Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gingival marginal seal in class II composite restorations using different restorative techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Class II box cavities were prepared in both proximal faces of 32 sound human third molars with gingival margins located in either enamel or dentin/cementum. Restorations were performed as follows: G1 (control: composite, conventional light curing technique; G2: composite, soft-start technique; G3: amalgam/composite association (amalcomp; and G4: resin-modified glass ionomer cement/composite, open sandwich technique. The restored specimens were thermocycled. Epoxy resin replicas were made and coated for scanning electron microscopy examination. For microleakage evaluation, teeth were coated with nail polish and immersed in dye solution. Teeth were cut in 3 slices and dye penetration was recorded (mm, digitized and analyzed with Image Tool software. Microleakage data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Leakage in enamel was lower than in dentin (p<0.001. G2 exhibited the lowest leakage values (p<0.05 in enamel margins, with no differences between the other groups. In dentin margins, groups G1 and G2 had similar behavior and both showed less leakage (p<0.05 than groups G3 and G4. SEM micrographs revealed different marginal adaptation patterns for the different techniques and for the different substrates. CONCLUSION: The soft-start technique showed no leakage in enamel margins and produced similar values to those of the conventional (control technique for dentin margins.

  10. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances

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    Manoela Favaro FRANCISCONI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. Material and Methods: The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions, treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1, final (T2 and long-term posttreatment (T3. A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. Results: The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Conclusions: Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  11. Microleakage of Class II Combined Amalgam-Composite Restorations Using Different Composites and Bonding Agents

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    F. Sharafeddin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the microleakage of composite restorations with and without a cervical amalgam base and to compare the results of dif-ferent composites and bonding agents.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty mesio-occlusal (MO and disto-occlusal (DO Class II cavities were prepared on sixty extracted permanent premolar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 30 and restored as follows:In group A, the mesio-occlusal cavity (MO, Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 and in the disto-occlusal (DO cavity, Prompt-L-Pop + Z250 were applied. As for group B, in the MO and DO cavities, Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX, and varnish + amalgam (In box + Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX were used respectivelywhile in group C; the teeth were restored with amalgam and varnish mesio-occlusally and with amalgam only disto-occlusally. As for group D, varnish + amalgam (in box + Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 were applied mesio-occlusally and Varnish + Amalgam (in box + Prompt–L–Pop + Z250 disto-occlusally.Marginal leakage was assessed by the degree of dye penetration into various sections of the restored teeth. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis.Results: Microleakage in gingival margin was more than that in occlusal margin (P<0.05 and microleakage of combined amalgam-composite restorations was significantly lower than that of conventional composite and amalgam restorations.Conclusion: Marginal microleakage decreased by using amalgam at the base of the box in Class II composite restorations.

  12. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Type II Class 5 Standard, Data Set 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This document describes the results of the first reference sample material—RDX Type II Class 5—examined in the proficiency study for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of explosive materials for the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program. The IDCA program is conducting proficiency testing on homemade explosives (HMEs). The reference sample materials are being studied to establish the accuracy of traditional explosives safety testing for each performing laboratory. These results will be used for comparison to results from testing HMEs. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The results of the study will add SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature, potentially suggest new guidelines and methods for HME testing, and possibly establish what are the needed accuracies in SSST testing to develop safe handling practices. Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a reference sample of RDX Type II Class 5. The results from each participating testing laboratory are compared using identical test material and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These results are then compared to historical data from various sources. The performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Air Force Research Laboratory/ RXQL (AFRL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD-NSWC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when test protocols are not identical.

  13. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Paim Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. METHODS: The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1, post-distalization (T2 and final phases of treatment (T3. For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. RESULTS: Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  14. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizontal layering technique, immediately after adhesive placement (IP) or after a 24h delay (DP). A filled three-component adhesive (OptiBond FL: OB) and a single-bottle, unfilled one (Prime & Bond 2.1: PB) were tested. Marginal adaptation was assessed before and after each phase of mechanical loading (250000 cycles at 50 N, 250000 cycles at 75 N and 500000 cycles at 100 N); internal adaptation was evaluated after test completion. Gold-plated resin replicas were observed in the SEM and restoration quality evaluated in percentages of continuity (C) at the margins and within the internal interface, after sample section. Adaptation to beveled enamel proved satisfactory in all groups. After loading, adaptation to gingival dentin degraded more in PB-IP (C=55.1%) than PB-DP (C=86.9%) or OB-DP (C=89%). More internal defects were observed in PB samples (IP: C=79.2% and DP: C=86.3%) compared to OB samples (IP: C=97.4% and DP: C=98.3%). The filled adhesive (OB) produced a better adaptation than the 'one-bottle' brand (PB), hypothetically by forming a stress-absorbing layer, limiting the development of adhesive failures. Postponing occlusal loading (such as the indirect approach) improved also restoration adaptation.

  15. New susceptibility variants to narcolepsy identified in HLA class II region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Taku; Toyoda, Hiromi; Hirataka, Akane; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Imanishi, Aya; Sagawa, Yohei; Kotorii, Nozomu; Kotorii, Tatayu; Hashizume, Yuji; Ogi, Kimihiro; Hiejima, Hiroshi; Kamei, Yuichi; Hida, Akiko; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Imai, Makoto; Fujimura, Yota; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Ikegami, Azusa; Wada, Yamato; Moriya, Shunpei; Furuya, Hirokazu; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Omata, Naoto; Kojima, Hiroto; Kashiwase, Koichi; Saji, Hiroh; Khor, Seik-Soon; Yamasaki, Maria; Wada, Yuji; Ishigooka, Jun; Kuroda, Kenji; Kume, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Shigeru; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako; Hirata, Koichi; Uchimura, Naohisa; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Inoue, Yuichi; Honda, Yutaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Honda, Makoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2015-02-01

    Narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities, is tightly associated with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQB1*06:02. DQB1*06:02 is common in the general population (10-30%); therefore, additional genetic factors are needed for the development of narcolepsy. In the present study, HLA-DQB1 in 664 Japanese narcoleptic subjects and 3131 Japanese control subjects was examined to determine whether HLA-DQB1 alleles located in trans of DQB1*06:02 are associated with narcolepsy. The strongest association was with DQB1*06:01 (P = 1.4 × 10(-10), odds ratio, OR = 0.39), as reported in previous studies. Additional predisposing effects of DQB1*03:02 were also found (P = 2.5 × 10(-9), OR = 1.97). A comparison between DQB1*06:02 heterozygous cases and controls revealed dominant protective effects of DQB1*06:01 and DQB1*05:01. In addition, a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based conditional analysis controlling for the effect of HLA-DQB1 was performed to determine whether there were other independent HLA associations outside of HLA-DQB1. This analysis revealed associations at HLA-DPB1 in the HLA class II region (rs3117242, P = 4.1 × 10(-5), OR = 2.45; DPB1*05:01, P = 8.1 × 10(-3), OR = 1.39). These results indicate that complex HLA class II associations contribute to the genetic predisposition to narcolepsy.

  16. Study of the number of occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation before orthodontic treatment in subjects with Angle Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Watanabe-Kanno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Define and compare numbers and types of occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation. METHODS: The study consisted of clinical and photographic analysis of occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation. Twenty-six Caucasian Brazilian subjects were selected before orthodontic treatment, 20 males and 6 females, with ages ranging between 12 and 18 years. The subjects were diagnosed and grouped as follows: 13 with Angle Class I malocclusion and 13 with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion. After analysis, the occlusal contacts were classified according to the established criteria as: tripodism, bipodism, monopodism (respectively, three, two or one contact point with the slope of the fossa; cuspid to a marginal ridge; cuspid to two marginal ridges; cuspid tip to opposite inclined plane; surface to surface; and edge to edge. RESULTS: The mean number of occlusal contacts per subject in Class I malocclusion was 43.38 and for Class II Division 1 malocclusion it was 44.38, this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There is a variety of factors that influence the number of occlusal contacts between a Class I and a Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. There is no standardization of occlusal contact type according to the studied malocclusions. A proper selection of occlusal contact types such as cuspid to fossa or cuspid to marginal ridge and its location in the teeth should be individually defined according to the demands of each case. The existence of an adequate occlusal contact leads to a correct distribution of forces, promoting periodontal health.

  17. Association of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles with severe Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeer, Ali H; Balkhy, Hanan; Johani, Sameera; Yousef, Mohammed Z; Arabi, Yaseen

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a disease of the lower respiratory tract and is characterized by high mortality. It is caused by a beta coronavirus (CoV) referred to as MERS-CoV. Majority of MERS-CoV cases have been reported from Saudi Arabia. We investigated the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class II alleles in patients with severe MERS who were admitted in our Intensive Care Unit. A total of 23 Saudi patients with severe MERS-CoV infection were typed for HLA class II, results were compared with those of 161 healthy controls. Two HLA class II alleles were associated with the disease; HLA-DRB1*11:01 and DQB1*02:02, but not with the disease outcome. Our results suggest that the HLA-DRB1*11:01 and DQB1*02:02 may be associated with susceptibility to MERS.

  18. A Randomized 10-year Prospective Follow-up of Class II Nanohybrid and Conventional Hybrid Resin Composite Restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year durability of a nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations in a randomized controlled intraindividual comparison with its conventional hybrid resin composite predecessor. Materials and Methods: Each of 52 participants received at least two Class II...... restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a nanohybrid resin composite (Excite/Tetric EvoCeram (TEC); n = 61) and a conventional hybrid (Excite/Tetric Ceram (TC); n = 61). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria...... investigated resin composites. Conclusion: The nanohybrid and the conventional hybrid resin composite showed good clinical effectiveness in extensive Class II restorations during the 10-year study....

  19. Miniscrew-assisted customized lingual appliances for predictable treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe deep overbite and overjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Dong; Lei, Fei-Fei; Liu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Jie-Ni; Liu, Wei-Tao; Song, Yang; Zhou, Yan-Heng

    2017-07-01

    This report describes the use of miniscrew-assisted customized lingual fixed appliances in a patient with severe skeletal Class II malocclusion. The patient was a 12-year-old Chinese girl with the chief complaint of protrusive lips and anterior teeth. Her diagnosis included a skeletal Class II relationship with maxillary protrusion, a backward-rotated mandible, a full Angle Class II molar relationship, and severe deep overjet and overbite. Four premolars were extracted, and miniscrew anchorage was placed in the maxillary posterior lingual segment to provide maximum anchorage and to achieve vertical control of the intruding molars. The customized lingual fixed appliance and temporary anchorage devices created a smooth and invisible treatment progress, resulting ultimately in a well-aligned dentition with ideal intercuspation and a dramatically improved profile. The 3-year follow-up examination indicated that the excellent treatment outcome was stable. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Correction of Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a mandibular protraction appliances and multiloop edgewise archwire technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Benedito; Freitas, Heloiza; Dos Santos, Pedro César F; Janson, Guilherme

    2014-09-01

    A Brazilian girl aged 14 years and 9 months presented with a chief complaint of protrusive teeth. She had a convex facial profile, extreme overjet, deep bite, lack of passive lip seal, acute nasolabial angle, and retrognathic mandible. Intraorally, she showed maxillary diastemas, slight mandibular incisor crowding, a small maxillary arch, 13-mm overjet, and 4-mm overbite. After the diagnosis of severe Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, a mandibular protraction appliance was placed to correct the Class II relationships and multiloop edgewise archwires were used for finishing. Follow-up examinations revealed an improved facial profile, normal overjet and overbite, and good intercuspation. The patient was satisfied with her occlusion, smile, and facial appearance. The excellent results suggest that orthodontic camouflage by using a mandibular protraction appliance in combination with the multiloop edgewise archwire technique is an effective option for correcting Class II malocclusions in patients who refuse orthognathic surgery.

  1. Correction of severe class II skeletal discrepancy with fixed twin block and high pull headgear--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dolly; Parekh, Harshik; Gupta, Bhaskar; Purl, Taruna

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the management of a girl with a severe Class II skeletal discrepancy, Class II molar and canine relationship, a large overjet, an impinging overbite and a steep mandibular plane angle. Seemingly a surgical case, but as the patient was in CVMI stage 4, the treatment was initiated with a fixed twin block extending up to the maxillary second molars along with high pull headgear for the vertical control. This promoted the growth of the mandible, restrained maxilla in anteroposterior and vertical directions, combined with the fixed appliances for the aligning and levelling of the dentition improved the soft tissue profile. Thus severe skeletal Class II discrepancy with noncompensatory dental occlusion was successfully managed non-surgically with the combination of dentofacial orthopaedics along with comprehensive orthodontic mechanism without any extraction resulting in acceptable soft tissue changes.

  2. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L

    1992-01-01

    activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however......, superantigen-induced signaling was stronger than class II ligation alone. Antibody-mediated ligation of HLA-DR with CD3 resulted in augmented PLC gamma 1 activation and increased calcium mobilization, consistent with a mechanism of superantigen activity through a combination of class II and CD3/Ti signals...... to the PLC gamma 1 signal transduction pathway, and that coligation of HLA-DR with CD3 augments T cell signaling comparable to that induced by enterotoxin superantigen. Thus, we suggest that superantigen-induced early signaling responses in activated T cells may be due in part to class II transmembrane...

  3. N-containing Ag(I) and Hg(II) complexes: a new class of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabounchei, Seyyed Javad; Shahriary, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Several classes of antimicrobial compounds are presently available; microorganism's resistance to these drugs constantly emerges. In order to prevent this serious medical problem, the elaboration of new types of antibacterial agents or the expansion of bioactivity of the naturally known biosensitive compounds is a very interesting research problem. The synthesis and characterization of metal complexes with organic bioactive ligands is one of the promising fields for the search. The biological activities of the metal complexes differ from those of either the ligand or the metal ion. The results obtained thus far have led to the conclusion that structural factors, which govern antimicrobial activities, are strongly dependent on the central metal ion. A review of papers dealing with the Ag(I) and Hg(II) complexes of N donor ligands is presented. These metal complexes of N-chelating ligands have attracted considerable attention because of their interesting physicochemical properties and pronounced biological activities. This review will mainly focus on the preparation procedures and antibacterial properties of free organic ligands and the corresponding complexes. Finally, a research about antimicrobial properties of new Hg(II) complexes with 5-methyl-5-(4-pyridyl)-2,4-imidazolidenedione (L) and various halogen ions, HgL2X2 (X = Cl¯ (49), Br¯ (50), and I¯ (51)), is reported. Noteworthy antimicrobial activities, evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration, for these complexes were observed.

  4. Klammt open elastic activator and twin blocks in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maikel Curbeira Hernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klammt open elastic activator and twin blocks have been two of the most worldwide studied functional appliances; however, there are different opinions about their effect on the cranium-facial complex. Objective: To determine the efficacy of these appliances in the functional treatment in Class II division I syndrome in early mixed teething. Methods: Prospective, cuasi experimental, “before-after” study without control group, including all children between 6 and 9 years of Area II in Cienfuegos municipality. After applying inclusion criteria, 20 patients were selected through simple randomized sampling and distributed in two groups, one for each technique. Lateral cranium teleradiographies were taken at the beginning and after a year of treatment, and lineal and/or angular measurements of Steiner, Ricketts, McNamara and Legan Burstone cephalograms were applied. Results: Favourable changes in cranium lateral radiographies measurements were obtained mainly from therapy with twin blocks. There was a decrease in the angle formed by the joint planes nasion-point A and nasion-point B and facial convexity, increase in mandible length and inferior facial height. Nasolabial angle and labial protuberance didn´t increase significantly. Conclusions: treated patients positively modified their bio-typology, and growth trend showed positive variations during functional therapy.

  5. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  6. Long Maximal Incremental Tests Accurately Assess Aerobic Fitness in Class II and III Obese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake V˙O2peak and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in V˙O2peak (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between V˙O2peak (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. V˙O2peak and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity. PMID:25875746

  7. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  8. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lanzi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min (STest and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min (LTest] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2 without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2 completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1 and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1 and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001 and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001 during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  9. A simple colorimetric assay for measuring fructosamine 3 kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikomola, Justin C; Kishabongo, Antoine S; Vandepoele, Karl; Mulder, Marieke De; Katchunga, Philippe B; Laukens, Bram; Schie, Loes Van; Grootaert, Hendrik; Callewaert, Nico; Speeckaert, Marijn M; Delanghe, Joris R

    2017-01-01

    Fructosamine 3 kinase (FN3K) is a deglycating enzyme, which may play a key role in reducing diabetes-induced organ damage by removing bound glucose from glycated proteins. We wanted to develop a simple colorimetric method for assaying FN3K activity in human body fluids. Glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) was obtained by glycation with a 10% glucose solution at 37 °C. After 72 h, glycated BSA was dialyzed against phosphate buffered saline (0.1 mol/L, pH 7.4). The dialyzed solution (containing ±1000 µmol/L fructosamine) was used as an FN3K substrate. In the assay, 300 µL of substrate was incubated with 50 µL of serum and 100 µL of MgCl2 (0.7 mmol/L)/ATP (3.2 mmol/L). The fructosamine concentration was determined at the start and after incubation (120 min, 25 °C). The decrease in fructosamine concentration over time is a measure for the FN3K activity (1 U corresponding to 1 µmol/min). Concomitantly, the FN3K SNP rs1056534 and the ferroportin SNP rs1156350 were genotyped. Within-assay CV was 6.0%. Reference values for FN3K activity in serum were 14.2±1.6 U/L (n=143). Reference values for FN3K were neither age- nor sex-dependent. The various FN3K SNP rs1056534 genotypes showed no significant differences in serum FN3K activity. In diabetics (n=191), values (14.0±2.2 U/L) were comparable to those of the controls. FN3K activity in erythrocytes was significantly higher (170.3±7.6 U/L). The intra-erythrocytic FN3K activity makes the results prone to hemolysis. FN3K activity depended on the ferroportin Q248H genotypes, with the highest value for the wild type genotype. Neither transferrin saturation nor ferritin were confounders for the FN3K activity. FN3K activity was significantly (p<0.0001) correlated with HbA1c values, although the correlation between FN3K and HbA1c was weak. The simple colorimetric method allows determining FN3K activity in human serum. The assay may be useful for studying the impact of deglycation processes in diabetes mellitus.

  10. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated.

  11. Subcellular localization of class II HDAs in Arabidopsis thaliana: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDA15 is driven by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinsug, Malona V; Chen, Fang Fang; Luo, Ming; Tai, Ready; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    Class II histone deacetylases in humans and other model organisms undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This unique functional regulatory mechanism has been well elucidated in eukaryotic organisms except in plant systems. In this study, we have paved the baseline evidence for the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of Class II HDAs as well as their mRNA expression patterns. RT-PCR analysis on the different vegetative parts and developmental stages reveal that Class II HDAs are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues with minimal developmental specificity. Moreover, stable and transient expression assays using HDA-YFP/GFP fusion constructs indicate cytoplasmic localization of HDA5, HDA8, and HDA14 further suggesting their potential for nuclear transport and deacetylating organellar and cytoplasmic proteins. Organelle markers and stains confirm HDA14 to abound in the mitochondria and chloroplasts while HDA5 localizes in the ER. HDA15, on the other hand, shuttles in and out of the nucleus upon light exposure. In the absence of light, it is exported out of the nucleus where further re-exposition to light treatments signals its nuclear import. Unlike HDA5 which binds with 14-3-3 proteins, HDA15 fails to interact with these chaperones. Instead, HDA15 relies on its own nuclear localization and export signals to navigate its subcellular compartmentalization classifying it as a Class IIb HDA. Our study indicates that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is indeed a hallmark for all eukaryotic Class II histone deacetylases.

  12. Distalization of maxillary arch and correction of Class II with mini-implants: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the successful use of mini-screws in the maxilla to treat two patients of age 21-year and 17-year-old girls. Both the patients had a skeletal Class II malocclusion with protrusive maxillary teeth and angels Class II mal-occlusion. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs in the posterior dental region between maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar teeth on both sides were used as anchorage for the retraction and intrusion of her maxillary anterior teeth. Those appliances, combined with a compensatory curved maxillary archwire, eliminated spacing, deep bite, forwardly placed and proclined upper front teeth and the protrusive profile, corrected the molar relationship from Class II to Class I. With no extra TADs in the anterior region for intrusion, the treatment was workable and simple. The patient received a satisfactory occlusion and an attractive smile. This technique requires minimal compliance and is particularly useful for correcting Class II patients with protrusive maxillary front teeth and dental deep bite.

  13. Subcellular localization of class II HDAs in Arabidopsis thaliana: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDA15 is driven by light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malona V Alinsug

    Full Text Available Class II histone deacetylases in humans and other model organisms undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This unique functional regulatory mechanism has been well elucidated in eukaryotic organisms except in plant systems. In this study, we have paved the baseline evidence for the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of Class II HDAs as well as their mRNA expression patterns. RT-PCR analysis on the different vegetative parts and developmental stages reveal that Class II HDAs are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues with minimal developmental specificity. Moreover, stable and transient expression assays using HDA-YFP/GFP fusion constructs indicate cytoplasmic localization of HDA5, HDA8, and HDA14 further suggesting their potential for nuclear transport and deacetylating organellar and cytoplasmic proteins. Organelle markers and stains confirm HDA14 to abound in the mitochondria and chloroplasts while HDA5 localizes in the ER. HDA15, on the other hand, shuttles in and out of the nucleus upon light exposure. In the absence of light, it is exported out of the nucleus where further re-exposition to light treatments signals its nuclear import. Unlike HDA5 which binds with 14-3-3 proteins, HDA15 fails to interact with these chaperones. Instead, HDA15 relies on its own nuclear localization and export signals to navigate its subcellular compartmentalization classifying it as a Class IIb HDA. Our study indicates that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is indeed a hallmark for all eukaryotic Class II histone deacetylases.

  14. Microleakage comparison of Class II restorations with flowable composite as a liner: condensable composites versus universal composite

    OpenAIRE

    CILLI, Renato; Prakki, Anuradha; ARAÚJO,Maria Auxiliadora Junho de

    2010-01-01

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a microinfiltração margina de restaurações classe II de duas resinas compostas condensáveis comparando-as com as de uma resina composta universal, utilizando-se uma resina tipo flow como forramento. Quinze molares humanos hígidos e congelados após extração foram selecionados para este estudo. Confeccionaram-se cavidades classe II MOD, sendo um dos términos proximais em esmalte e o outro e...

  15. IFN-γ-induced increase in the mobility of MHC class II compartments in astrocytes depends on intermediate filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardjan Nina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system, astrocytes exposed to interferon-γ (IFN-γ can express major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules and antigens on their surface. MHC class II molecules are thought to be delivered to the cell surface by membrane-bound vesicles. However, the characteristics and dynamics of this vesicular traffic are unclear, particularly in reactive astrocytes, which overexpress intermediate filament (IF proteins that may affect trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility of MHC class II vesicles in wild-type (WT astrocytes and in astrocytes devoid of IFs. Methods The identity of MHC class II compartments in WT and IF-deficient astrocytes 48 h after IFN-γ activation was determined immunocytochemically by using confocal microscopy. Time-lapse confocal imaging and Alexa Fluor546-dextran labeling of late endosomes/lysosomes in IFN-γ treated cells was used to characterize the motion of MHC class II vesicles. The mobility of vesicles was analyzed using ParticleTR software. Results Confocal imaging of primary cultures of WT and IF-deficient astrocytes revealed IFN-γ induced MHC class II expression in late endosomes/lysosomes, which were specifically labeled with Alexa Fluor546-conjugated dextran. Live imaging revealed faster movement of dextran-positive vesicles in IFN-γ-treated than in untreated astrocytes. Vesicle mobility was lower in IFN-γ-treated IF-deficient astrocytes than in WT astrocytes. Thus, the IFN-γ-induced increase in the mobility of MHC class II compartments is IF-dependent. Conclusions Since reactivity of astrocytes is a hallmark of many CNS pathologies, it is likely that the up-regulation of IFs under such conditions allows a faster and therefore a more efficient delivery of MHC class II molecules to the cell surface. In vivo, such regulatory mechanisms may enable antigen-presenting reactive astrocytes to respond rapidly and in a

  16. T cell responses affected by aminopeptidase N (CD13)-mediated trimming of major histocompatibility complex class II-bound peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S L; Pedersen, L O; Buus, S;

    1996-01-01

    the exopeptidase Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13) as one of the enzymes involved in the observed cell-surface antigen processing. The NH2-terminal end of the longer peptide could, even while bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, be digested by APN with dramatic consequences for T cell...... antigen recognition. This could be demonstrated both in cell-free systems using purified reagents and in cellular systems. Thus, MHC class II and APN may act in concert to generate the final T cell epitopes....

  17. Treatment of class II and class III maloccolusion by using churro jumper: an efficient, inexpensive and uncomplicated fixed flexible functional technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Shubhangi Amit; Mote, Nilesh; Pawar, Kunal Dilip; Mishra, Prashantkumar; Mishra, Richa Anil; Rai, Rajlaxmi Rajaram

    2016-01-01

    Functional orthopedic treatment seeks to improve skeletal and dental relationship of the jaws. The challenging task is to correctly position jaws antero-posteriorly and vertically with correct overbite, overjet and Centric relation. The Churro Jumper is an efficient, inexpensive and uncomplicated fixed flexible functional appliance. It is used to evaluate the efficacy of the Churro Jumper appliance in treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion with retrognathic mandible. Churro Jumper contri...

  18. HLA class I and class II of the Nivkhi, an indigenous population carrying HTLV-I in Sakhalin, Far Eastern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, H; Li, H C; Kuwayama, M; Yashiki, S; Fujiyoshi, T; Suehara, M; Osame, M; Yamashita, M; Hayami, M; Gurtsevich, V; Ballas, M; Imanishi, T; Sonoda, S

    1998-11-01

    The Nivkhi are a native people isolated in the Nogliki region of Sakhalin, Far East Russia, where our group recently recognized human T-cell lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) infection. In order to trace the Nivkhi's ethnic background and the HTLV-I carriers, we investigated HLA class I and II allele types of 53 Nivkhi (including four HTLV-I carriers). Major HLA class I alleles of the Nivkhi were A*24, A*02, B*40, B*48, B*27, B*35 with allele frequencies similar to the Orochon, a native people isolated in Northeast China. Major Nivkhi class II alleles were DRB1*0901, DRB1*1401, DRB1*1201, DRB1*1106 with allele frequencies similar to the Ainu in Hokkaido, Japan, but dissimilar to other Asian Mongoloids, including the general Japanese population. The same HLA class I and II allele frequencies are found in both Nivkhi HTLV-I carriers and the background population. A dendrogram of HLA class I alleles showed that the Nivkhi were closely related to the Orochon and Yakut, and remotely related to the Japanese, Ainu and other Asian Mongoloids. Interestingly, the Nivkhi were intermediately related to the Amerindians (Inuit, Tlingit and Andeans), a relationship closer than to the Japanese and Asian Mongoloids. These results suggested the Nivkhi might be related to some genetic group of Northeast Asian Mongoloids like the Orochon and Yakut, being infected with HTLV-I in the distant past before diverging into the current major Mongoloid ethnic groups.

  19. The role of CD4+ T cells in cell-mediated immunity to LCMV: studies in MHC class I and class II deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1994-01-01

    Parameters of the virus-specific T-cell response were analysed in order to dissect the contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to cell-mediated immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. In MHC class II deficient mice, initial T-cell responsiveness was not impaired, but virus clearance...... was delayed, and virus-specific Td activity declined more rapidly. Furthermore, class I restricted Tc memory appeared to be impaired in these mice. To directly evaluate the role of CD4+ cells in virus clearance and T-cell mediated inflammation, MHC class I deficient mice were also studied. No virus......-specific CD8+ T-cell response, but our findings strongly suggest that CD4+ T cells are critical for maintaining full antiviral immunity. Furthermore, CD4+ T cells per se have a low potential for mediating virus-specific inflammation that is associated with a low degree of virus control....

  20. Association of high CD4-positive T cell infiltration with mutations in HLA class II-regulatory genes in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmann, Eva-Maria; Voigt, Anita Y; Michel, Sara; Bauer, Kathrin; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Ferrone, Soldano; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Kloor, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Besides being expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells, HLA class II antigens are expressed on various tumors of non-lymphoid origin, including a subset of colorectal cancers (CRC). Information about the regulation of HLA class II antigen expression is important for a better understanding of their role in the interactions between tumor and immune cells. Whether lack of HLA class II antigen expression in tumors reflects the selective immune destruction of HLA class II antigen-expressing tumor cells is unknown. To address this question, we tested whether lack of HLA class II antigen expression in CRC was associated with immune cell infiltration. We selected microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) CRC, because they show pronounced tumor antigen-specific immune responses and, in a subset of tumors, lack of HLA class II antigen expression due to mutations inactivating HLA class II-regulatory genes. We examined HLA class II antigen expression, mutations in regulatory genes, and CD4-positive T cell infiltration in 69 MSI-H CRC lesions. Mutations in RFX5, CIITA, and RFXAP were found in 13 (28.9%), 3 (6.7%), and 1 (2.2%) out of 45 HLA class II antigen-negative tumors. CD4-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in HLA class II antigen-negative tumors harboring mutations in HLA class II-regulatory genes (107.4 T cells per 0.25 mm(2)) compared to tumors without mutations (55.5 T cells per 0.25 mm(2), p = 0.008). Our results suggest that the outgrowth of tumor cells lacking HLA class II antigen expression due to mutations of regulatory genes is favored in an environment of dense CD4-positive T cell infiltration.

  1. HLA class I and class II conserved extended haplotypes and their fragments or blocks in Mexicans: implications for the study of genetic diversity in admixed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Zúñiga

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are highly polymorphic and informative in disease association, transplantation, and population genetics studies with particular importance in the understanding of human population diversity and evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the HLA diversity in Mexican admixed individuals. We studied the polymorphism of MHC class I (HLA-A, -B, -C, and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1 genes using high-resolution sequence based typing (SBT method and we structured the blocks and conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs in 234 non-related admixed Mexican individuals (468 haplotypes by a maximum likelihood method. We found that HLA blocks and CEHs are primarily from Amerindian and Caucasian origin, with smaller participation of African and recent Asian ancestry, demonstrating a great diversity of HLA blocks and CEHs in Mexicans from the central area of Mexico. We also analyzed the degree of admixture in this group using short tandem repeats (STRs and HLA-B that correlated with the frequency of most probable ancestral HLA-C/-B and -DRB1/-DQB1 blocks and CEHs. Our results contribute to the analysis of the diversity and ancestral contribution of HLA class I and HLA class II alleles and haplotypes of Mexican admixed individuals from Mexico City. This work will help as a reference to improve future studies in Mexicans regarding allotransplantation, immune responses and disease associations.

  2. Uso do aparelho de Thurow no tratamento da má oclusão esquelética de Classe II The use of Thurow's appliance in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Massuia de Souza

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão de literatura em relação ao tratamento da má oclusão esquelética de Classe II com a utilização do splint maxilar removível associado à tração alta, realçando sua influência no crescimento ósseo e seus benefícios. Através do relato do caso clínico será mostrada a confecção e os efeitos do aparelho de Thurow quando utilizado no período da dentadura mista, para a correção da Classe II esqueléticaThe aim of this study was to review the literature concerning the treatment of Class II malocclusion with removable maxillary splint associated to the high traction, enhancing its influence in the bony growth and its benefits. This clinical case will show the fabrication and the effects of Thurow's appliance, when it's used in the mixed dentition for the correction skeletal class II malocclusion.

  3. An Approach for a Synthetic CTL Vaccine Design against Zika Flavivirus Using Class I and Class II Epitopes Identified by Computer Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edecio Cunha-Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The threat posed by severe congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus (ZKV infection during pregnancy has turned development of a ZKV vaccine into an emergency. Recent work suggests that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response to infection is an important defense mechanism in response to ZKV. Here, we develop the rationale and strategy for a new approach to developing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL vaccines for ZKV flavivirus infection. The proposed approach is based on recent studies using a protein structure computer model for HIV epitope selection designed to select epitopes for CTL attack optimized for viruses that exhibit antigenic drift. Because naturally processed and presented human ZKV T cell epitopes have not yet been described, we identified predicted class I peptide sequences on ZKV matching previously identified DNV (Dengue class I epitopes and by using a Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC binding prediction tool. A subset of those met the criteria for optimal CD8+ attack based on physical chemistry parameters determined by analysis of the ZKV protein structure encoded in open source Protein Data File (PDB format files. We also identified candidate ZKV epitopes predicted to bind promiscuously to multiple HLA class II molecules that could provide help to the CTL responses. This work suggests that a CTL vaccine for ZKV may be possible even if ZKV exhibits significant antigenic drift. We have previously described a microsphere-based CTL vaccine platform capable of eliciting an immune response for class I epitopes in mice and are currently working toward in vivo testing of class I and class II epitope delivery directed against ZKV epitopes using the same microsphere-based vaccine.

  4. Marginal sealing ability of silorane and methacrylate resin composites in class II cavities: A scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kashi Nanjundasetty

    2013-01-01

    Intergroup comparison of subgroup A did not show statistically significant difference, whereas subgroup B showed statistically significant difference for microleakage between group I and group II (P = 0.003, group III and group II (P = 0.002. Conclusion: Silorane resin composite and methacrylate resin with liner showed significantly less microleakage in class II cavities along the gingival margin placed below CEJ compared to methacrylate resin without liner. All the study groups showed less microleakage and microgap formation along the gingival margin placed above CEJ.

  5. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I, and class II DRB loci of captive and wild Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Drashti R; Mitra, Siuli; Bhadouriya, Snehalata; Rao, Tirupathi; Kunteepuram, Vaishnavi; Gaur, Ajay

    2017-08-22

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in vertebrate animals, is a multi-genic protein complex that encodes various receptors. During a disease, MHC interacts with the antigen and triggers a cascade of adaptive immune responses to overcome a disease outbreak. The MHC is very important region from immunological point of view, but it is poorly characterized among Indian leopards. During this investigation, we examined genetic diversity for MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II-DRB (MHC-II) among wild and captive Indian leopards. This study estimated a pool of 9 and 17 alleles for MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. The wild group of individuals showed higher nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphism compared to the captive group. A phylogenetic comparison with other felids revealed a clustering in MHC-I and interspersed presence in MHC-II sequences. A test for selection also revealed a deviation from neutrality at MHC-II DRB loci and higher non-synonymous substitution rate (dN) among the individuals from wild group. Further, the wild individuals showed higher dN for both MHC I and II genes compared to the group that was bred under captive conditions. These findings suggest the role of micro-evolutionary forces, such as pathogen-mediated selection, to cause MHC variations among the two groups of Indian leopards, because the two groups have been bred in two different environments for a substantial period of time. Since, MHC diversity is often linked with the quality of immunological health; the results obtained from this study fill the gap of knowledge on disease predisposition among wild and captive Indian leopards.

  6. Development of a simultaneous high resolution typing method for three SLA class II genes, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 and the analysis of SLA class II haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, MinhThong; Choi, Hojun; Choi, Min-Kyeung; Cho, Hyesun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Cha, Se-Yeon; Seo, Kunho; Dadi, Hailu; Park, Chankyu

    2015-06-15

    The characterization of the genetic variations of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is essential to understand the relationship between the genetic diversity of MHC molecules and disease resistance and susceptibility in adaptive immunity. We previously reported the development of high-resolution individual locus typing methods for three of the most polymorphic swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) class II loci, namely, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1. In this study, we extensively modified our previous protocols and developed a method for the simultaneous amplification of the three SLA class II genes and subsequent analysis of individual loci using direct sequencing. The unbiased and simultaneous amplification of alleles from the all three hyper-polymorphic and pseudogene containing genes such as MHC genes is extremely challenging. However, using this method, we demonstrated the successful typing of SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 for 31 selected individuals comprising 26 different SLA class II haplotypes which were identified from 700 animals using the single locus typing methods. The results were identical to the known genotypes from the individual locus typing. The new method has significant benefits over the individual locus typing, including lower typing cost, use of less biomaterial, less effort and fewer errors in handling large samples for multiple loci. We also extensively characterized the haplotypes of SLA class II genes and reported three new haplotypes. Our results should serve as a basis to investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of MHC class II and differences in immune responses to exogenous antigens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Class II human leucocyte antigens in Italian and Spanish systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Lorenzo; Rueda, Blanca; Marchini, Maurizio; Santaniello, Alessandro; Simeón, Carmen P; Fonollosa, Vicente; Caronni, Monica; Rios-Fernandez, Raquel; Carreira, Patricia; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Moreno, Antonia; López-Nevot, Miguel A; Escalera, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria F; Martin, Javier; Scorza, Raffaella

    2012-01-01

    To determine the role of Class II HLAs in SSc patients from Italy and Spain and in SSc patients of Caucasian ancestry. Nine hundred and forty-four SSc patients (Italy 392 patients; Spain 452 patients) and 1320 ethnically matched healthy controls (Italy 398 patients; Spain 922 patients) were genotyped up to the fourth digit by PCR with sequence-specific oligonucleotides for HLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 loci. Patients included 390 ACA-positive and 254 anti-topo I-positive subjects. Associations between SSc or SSc-specific antibodies and HLA alleles or HLA haplotypes were sought via the chi-square test after 10 000-fold permutation testing. A meta-analysis including this study cohort and other Caucasoids samples was also conducted. In both the cohorts, the strongest association was observed between the HLA-DRB1*1104 allele and SSc or anti-topo I antibodies. The HLA-DRB1*1104 -DQA1*0501 -DQB1*0301 haplotype was overrepresented in Italian [odds ratio (OR) = 2.069, 95% asymptotic CIs (CI(95)) 1.486, 2.881; P < 0.001] and in Spanish patients (OR = 6.707, CI(95) 3.974, 11.319; P < 0.001) as well as in anti-topo-positive patients: Italy (OR = 2.642, CI(95) 1.78, 3.924; P < 0.001) and Spain (OR = 20.625, CI(95) 11.536, 36.876; P < 0.001). In both the populations we also identified an additional risk allele (HLA-DQB1*03) and a protective allele (HLA-DQB1*0501) in anti-topo-positive patients. The meta-analysis showed different statistically significant associations, the most interesting being the differential association between HLA-DRB1*01 alleles and ACAs (OR = 1.724, CI(95) 1.482, 2.005; P < 0.001) or topo I antibodies (OR = 0.5, CI(95) 0.384, 0.651; P < 0.001). We describe multiple robust associations between SSc and HLA Class II antigens in Caucasoids that may help to understand the genetic architecture of SSc.

  8. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith T Ballingall

    Full Text Available Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries. We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201 differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901, which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T

  9. Marginal Integrity of Bulk Versus Incremental Fill Class II Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, F; Kaisarly, D; Bader, D; El Gezawi, M

    2016-01-01

    Bulk-fill composites have been introduced to facilitate the placement of deep direct resin composite restorations. This study aimed at analyzing the cervical marginal integrity of bulk-fill vs incremental and open-sandwich class II resin composite restorations after thermomechanical cycling using replica scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ranking according to the World Dental Federation (FDI) criteria. Box-only class II cavities were prepared in 91 maxillary premolars with the gingival margin placed 1 mm above and below the cemento-enamel junction. Eighty-four premolars were divided into self-etch and total-etch groups, then subdivided into six restorative subgroups (n=7): 1-Tetric Ceram HB (TC) was used incrementally and in the open-sandwich technique with 2-Tetric EvoFlow (EF) and 3-Smart Dentin Replacement (SD). Bulk-fill restoratives were 4-SonicFill (SF), 5-Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TN), and 6-Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TE). In subgroups 1-5, Tetric N-Bond self-etch and Tetric N-Bond total-etch adhesives were used, whereas in subgroup 6, AdheSE self-etch and ExciTE F total etch were used. One more group (n=7) was restored with Filtek P90 Low Shrink Posterior Restorative (P9) only in combination with its self-etch P90 System Adhesive. Materials were manipulated and light cured (20 seconds, 1600 mW/cm(2)), and restorations were artificially aged by thermo-occlusal load cycling. Polyvinyl-siloxane impressions were taken and poured with epoxy resin. Resin replicas were examined by SEM (200×) for marginal sealing, and percentages of perfect margins were analyzed. Moreover, samples were examined using loupes (3.5×) and explorers and categorized according to the FDI criteria. Results were statistically analyzed (SEM by Kruskal-Wallis test and FDI by chi-square test) without significant differences in either the replica SEM groups (p=0.848) or the FDI criteria groups (p>0.05). The best SEM results at the enamel margin were in TC+EF/total-etch and SF

  10. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

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    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  11. MHC class II up-regulation and co-localization with Fas in experimental models of immune-mediated bone marrow failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie, Andrew J.; Samsel, Leigh; Takaku, Tomoiku; Desierto, Marie J.; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; McCoy, J. Philip; Young, Neal S.; Chen, Jichun

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) promotes MHC class II expression on bone marrow (BM) cell targets that facilitates T cell-mediated BM destruction in immune-mediated BM failure. Materials and Methods Allogeneic lymph node (LN) cells were infused into MHC or minor histocompatibility antigen (minor-H) mismatched hosts to induce BM failure. MHC class II and Fas expression and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. MHC class II-Fas co-localization was detected by ImageStream Imaging Flow Cytometry and other cell-cell associations were visualized by confocal microscopy. T cell-mediated BM cell apoptosis and effects of IFN-γ on MHC class II-Fas co-localization on normal BM cells were studied using cell culture in vitro followed by conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Results BM failure animals had significantly up-regulated MHC class II expression on CD4−CD8−CD11b−CD45R− residual BM cells and significantly increased MHC class II-Fas co-localization on BM CD150+ and CD34+ hematopoietic cells. MHC class II+Fas+ BM cells were closely associated with CD4+ T cells in the BM of affected animals, and they were significantly more responsive to T-cell mediated cell apoptosis relative to MHC class II−Fas− BM cells. Infusion of IFN-γ-deficient LN cells into minor-H mismatched recipients resulted in no MHC class II-Fas up-regulation and no clinically overt BM failure. Treatment with recombinant IFN-γ significantly increased both MHC class II-Fas co-expression and co-localization on normal BM cells. Conclusion Elevation of the inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ stimulated MHC class II expression and MHC class II-Fas co-localization, which may facilitate T-cell mediated cell destruction. PMID:21635935

  12. Major histocompatibility (MH) class II ß gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Jurecka, P.M.; Walker, P.D.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2009-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes, Cyca

  13. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaming system accounting functions? 547.9 Section 547.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... systems. (a) Required accounting data.The following minimum accounting data, however named, shall be...) Accounting data storage. If the Class II gaming system electronically maintains accounting data:...

  14. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djidjik Réda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26. Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  15. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djidjik, Réda; Messaoudani, Nesrine; Tahiat, Azzedine; Meddour, Yanis; Chaib, Samia; Atek, Aziz; Khiari, Mohammed Elmokhtar; Benhalla, Nafissa Keltoum; Smati, Leila; Bensenouci, Abdelatif; Baghriche, Mourad; Ghaffor, Mohammed

    2012-08-03

    Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26). Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  16. MHC CLASS-II-RESTRICTED T-CELL HYBRIDOMAS RECOGNIZING THE NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN OF AVIAN CORONAVIUS IBV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOOTS, AMH; VANLIEROP, MJ; KUSTERS, JG; VANKOOTEN, PJS; VANDERZELIST, BAM; HENSEN, EJ; Boots, Annemieke

    1991-01-01

    Mice were immunized with purified infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), strain M41. Spleen cells, expanded in vitro by stimulation with M41, were immortalized by fusion to obtain T-cell hybridomas, and two major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II (I-E)-restricted T-cell hybridomas were selected

  17. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  18. 40 CFR 147.503 - Existing Class II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) wells authorized by rule. 147.503 Section 147.503 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. To meet...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...