WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3-dimensional tracking device

  1. The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events

    CERN Document Server

    Alme, J; Appelshäuser, H; Bablok, S; Bialas, N; Bolgen, R; Bonnes, U; Bramm, R; Braun-Munzinger, P; Campagnolo, R; Christiansen, P; Dobrin, A; Engster, C; Fehlker, D; Foka, P; Frankenfeld, U; Gaardhøje, J J; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Gonzalez Gutierrez, C; Gros, P; Gustafsson, H A; Helstrup, H; Hoch, M; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Junique, A; Kalweit, A; Keidel, R; Kniege, S; Kowalski, M; Larsen, D T; Lesenechal, Y; Lenoir, P; Lindegaard, N; Lippmann, C; Mager, M; Mast, M; Matyja, A; Munkejord, M; Musa, L; Nielsen, B S; Nikolic, V; Oeschler, H; Olsen, E K; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Pikna, M; Rehman, A; Renault, G; Renfordt, R; Rossegger, S; Röhrich, D; Røed, K; Richter, M; Rueshmann, G; Rybicki, A; Sann, H; Schmidt, H R; Siska, M; Sitár, B; Soegaard, C; Soltveit, H K; Soyk, D; Stachel, J; Stelzer, H; Stenlund, E; Stock, R; Strmen, P; Szarka, I; Ullaland, K; Vranic, D; Veenhof, R; Westergaard, J; Wiechula, J; Windelband, B

    2010-01-01

    The design, construction, and commissioning of the ALICE Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described. It is the main device for pattern recognition, tracking, and identification of charged particles in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The TPC is cylindrical in shape with a volume close to 90 m^3 and is operated in a 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field parallel to its axis. In this paper we describe in detail the design considerations for this detector for operation in the extreme multiplicity environment of central Pb--Pb collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (field cage, read-out chambers, electronics), infrastructure (gas and cooling system, laser-calibration system), and software led to many technical innovations which are described along with a presentation of all the major components of the detector, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved after completion of the first round of stand-alone calibration runs and demonstrate result...

  2. Unobservable Problem of Target Tracking with Bearing-only Measurements in 3-dimensional Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-gang; SHENG An-dong

    2008-01-01

    The bearings-only tracking (BOT) system is said to be observability if and only if the target motion parameters can be uniquely determined by noise-free bearing measurements. By utilizing the method of orthogonal vectors and characteristic of linear matrix equation, the problem of observability for BOT in noise-free bearings measurements from single observer is discussed based on the target and observer traveling in the 3-dimensional space. A proposition that BOT for target and observer traveling in the 3-dimensional space with constant acceleration remains unsolvable is presented and proved. By proving the proposition, it is also shown that some motion parameter ratios of target can be estimated under certain condition satisfied by measurements and time samples. The proposition is extended to arbitrary rank of manoeuvre for the observer and the target, which BOT remains unobservable property while the rank of target manoeuvre is higher than that of the observer manoeuvre. The theoretical analysis of this paper provides the guidelines for how the observer trajectory should be formulated to avoid unobservable state for BOT in practice application.

  3. Tracking Error analysis of Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Total 3-Dimensional Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2011-12-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) operating simulator for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module using triple-junction solar cell was developed. By connecting 3D equivalent circuit simulation for triple-junction solar cell and ray-trace simulation for optics model, the operating characteristics of CPV module were calculated. A typical flat Fresnel lens and homogenizer were adapted to the optics model. The influence of tracking error on the performance of CPV module was calculated. There was the correlation between the optical efficiency and Isc. However, Pm was not correlated with these values, and was strongly dependent on FF. We can use this total simulator for the evaluation and optimization from the light incidence to operating characteristic of CPV modules.

  4. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-02-20

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  5. GPS Navigation and Tracking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Salameh Khraisat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of GPS Navigation systems in the marketplace, consumers and businesses have been coming up with innovative ways to use the technology in their everyday life. GPS Navigation and Tracking systems keep us from getting lost when we are in strange locations, they monitor children when they are away from home, keep track of business vehicles and can even let us know where a philandering partner is at all times. Because of this we attend to build a GPS tracking device to solve the mentioned problems. Our work consists of the GPS module that collects data from satellites and calculates the position information before transmitting them to the user’s PC (of Navigation system or observers (of Tracking System using wireless technology (GSM.

  6. Error analysis of a direct current electromagnetic tracking system in digitizing 3-dimensional surface geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, A D; Lee, J M

    1999-01-01

    The direct current electromagnetic tracking device has seen increasing use in biomechanics studies of joint kinematics and anatomical surface geometry. In these applications, a stylus is attached to a sensor to measure the spatial location of three-dimensional landmarks. Stylus calibration is performed by rotating the stylus about a fixed point in space and using regression analysis to determine the tip offset vector. Measurement errors can be induced via several pathways, including; intrinsic system errors in sensor position or angle and tip offset calibration errors. A detailed study was performed to determine the errors introduced in digitizing small surfaces with different stylus lengths (35, 55, and 65 mm) and approach angles (30 and 45 degrees) using a plastic calibration board and hemispherical models. Two-point discrimination errors increased to an average of 1.93 mm for a 254 mm step size. Rotation about a single point produced mean errors of 0.44 to 1.18 mm. Statistically significant differences in error were observed with increasing approach angles (p < 0.001). Errors of less than 6% were observed in determining the curvature of a 19 mm hemisphere. This study demonstrates that the "Flock of Birds" can be used as a digitizing tool with accuracy better than 0.76% over 254 mm step sizes. PMID:11143353

  7. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  8. Implementing Bluetooth LE in a Tracking Device

    OpenAIRE

    Oinas, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    The final year project described in this thesis dealt with integrating Bluetooth low energy (LE) technology to a tracking device system. The project was part of a larger research project of Navigil Ltd, where the possibilities of utilizing Bluetooth LE in a tracking device system were studied. The ML7105 system-on-chip, which offers possibility for LE technology, had already been chosen in the project and it was also used in this final year project. The final year project included studying th...

  9. Multiparametric electronic devices based on nuclear tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: FINK@HMI.DE; Saad, A. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Science, Al Balqa University, Salt (Jordan); Dhamodaran, S. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Chandra, A. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Fahrner, W.R. [Chair of Electronic Devices, Institute of Electrotechnique, Fernuniversitaet, Hagen (Germany); Hoppe, K. [South Westfalia University of Applied Sciences, Hagen (Germany); Chadderton, L.T. [Institute of Advanced Studies, ANU Canberra, GPO Box 4, ACT (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    An overview is given on a family of novel electronic devices consisting of an insulating layer containing conducting or semiconducting nuclear tracks, deposited on a semiconducting substrate, and connected by at least one back and two surface contacts. Conducting and semiconducting latent tracks may emerge directly from swift heavy ion irradiation. Etched tracks in insulators can be filled with adequate materials to make them conducting or semiconducting. For this purpose metallic or semiconducting nanoclusters were deposited. We have denoted termed these devices made with latent tracks as 'tunable electronic anisotropic material on semiconductor' (TEAMS), if based on latent ion tracks, and as 'tunable electronic material in pores in oxide on semiconductor' (TEMPOS), if based on etched tracks. Depending on the band-to-band transition between tracks and substrate and on the ratio of surface to track conductivity, the current/voltage characteristics of TEAMS and TEMPOS structures can be modified in many different ways leading to tunable resistors, capacitors and diodes. Both devices show negative differential resistances. This should enable tunable tunneldiodes. TEAMS or TEMPOS structures can be controlled by various external physical and/or chemical parameters leading to sensors. It is even possible to combine different input currents and/or external parameters according to AND/OR logics. The currents through a clustered layer on a TEMPOS structure can be described by the Barbasi-Albert model of network theory enabling to calculate a 'radius of influence'r{sub ROI} around each surface contact, beyond which neighboring contacts do not influence each other. The radius of influence can be well below 1{mu}m leading to nanometric TEMPOS structures.

  10. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2016-01-28

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  11. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels). PMID:26818091

  12. Image Quality of the 3 Dimensional Phase-Contrast Technique in an Intracranial Magnetic Resonance Angiography with Artifacts Caused by Orthodontic Devices: A Comparison with 3 Dimensional Time-of-Flight Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the degree of image distortion caused by orthodontic devices during a intracranial magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and to determine the effectiveness of the 3 dimensional phase-contrast (3D PC). Subjects were divided into group A (n = 20) wearing a home-made orthodontic device, and group B (n = 10) with an actual orthodontic device. A 3.0T MR scanner was used, applying 3D time-of-flight (TOF) and 3D PC. Two board-certified radiologists evaluated images independently based on a four point scale classifying segments of the circle of Willis. Magnetic susceptibility variations and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on maximum intensity projection images were measured. In group A, scores of the 3D TOF and 3D PC were 2.84 ± 0.1 vs. 2.88 ± 0.1 (before) and 1.8 ± 0.4 vs 2.83 ± 0.1 (after wearing device), respectively. In group B, the scores of 3D TOF and 3D PC were 1.86 ± 0.43 and 2.81 ± 0.15 (p = 0.005), respectively. Magnetic susceptibility variations showed meaningful results after wearing the device (p = 0.0001). CNRs of the 3D PC before and after wearing device were 142.9 ± 6.6 vs. 140.8 ± 7.2 (p = 0.7507), respectively. In the 3D TOF, CNRs were 324.8 ± 25.4 vs. 466.3 ± 41.7 (p = 0.0001). The 3D PC may be a solution method for distorted images by magnetic susceptibility in the intracranial MRA compared with 3D TOF.

  13. A Study on the System and Method for Drawing 3-Dimensional Cable Object with the cable tracking Navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhang, Keugjin; Jung, Sunchul [Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Junhee [Chungnam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    3D cable tracking system with navigation makes it possible to easily search the objects which users want to retrieve and to measure the visual, spatial and structural distance by connecting the existing cable management system with 3D cable tracking system with navigation. With this consideration, we hope to create a more advanced cable management system in the future. I would like to describes the management system and method of the cable installed in the nuclear power plant, and how to build the database of the system. More specifically, it will be operated to the maintenance and management function, and the life management system of the cable, describing the creation method of three-dimensional cable object formed by the information of trace route through navigation and how to build the system database automatically.

  14. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lessard, Guillaume A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phipps, Marry E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lidke, Diane S [UNM; Wilson, Bridget S [UNM

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  15. Assessment value of 3-dimensional speckle tracking imaging for changes of early left ventricular longitudinal systolic function in patients with primary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yu; Yun-Jian Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the assessment value of 3-dimensional speckle tracking imaging for changes of early left ventricular longitudinal systolic function in patients with primary hypertension.Methods:Patients with primary hypertension who were treated in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected, and 40 patients with left ventricular normal (LVN) primary hypertension and 40 patients with left ventricular remodeling (LVR) primary hypertension were screened according to Ganau typing and enrolled in the LVN group and LVR group of the study respectively; 40 cases of healthy volunteers who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Ultrasonic testing was conducted to determine conventional ultrasonic indicators and 3D-STI parameters, and serum was collected to determine AngII, ALD, TGF-β1 and Ang1-7 levels.Results:LVEDd, LVPWT and LVEF of LVN group were not significantly different from those of control group, LVEF of LVR group was not significantly different from those of LVN group and control group, and LVEDd and LVPWT of LVR group were significantly higher than those of LVN group and control group; absolute values of GLS, GCS, GRS and GAS as well as serum Ang1-7 level of LVN group was significantly lower than those of control group, serum AngII, ALD and TGF-β1 levels were higher than those of control group, absolute values of GLS, GCS, GRS and GAS as well as serum Ang1-7 level of LVR group was significantly lower than those of LVN group and control group, and serum AngII, ALD and TGF-β1 levels were higher than those of LVN group and control group; absolute values of GLS, GCS, GRS and GAS were negatively correlated with serum AngII, ALD and TGF-β1 levels, and positively correlated with serum Ang1-7 level.Conclusion:3-dimensional speckle tracking imaging can be used for early evaluation of left ventricular longitudinal systolic function in patients with primary hypertension, and it also has high

  16. EnTracked: Energy-Efficient Robust Position Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Jensen, Jakob Langdal; Godsk, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    An important feature of a modern mobile device is that it can position itself. Not only for use on the device but also for remote applications that require tracking of the device. To be useful, such position tracking has to be energy-efficient to avoid having a major impact on the battery life...... of the mobile device. Furthermore, tracking has to robustly deliver position updates when faced with changing conditions such as delays due to positioning and communication, and changing positioning accuracy. This work proposes EnTracked --- a system that, based on the estimation and prediction of system...... works as predicted by the emulation....

  17. ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTING MARKER BASED TRACKING ON MASS MOBILE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravtsov A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracking is a vast field of research associated with navigation, robotics, and virtual environments (virtual reality. Tracking for augmented reality requires higher level of precision, increased range of action, as well as work with a wider variety of input data. It is important that augmented reality technology requires tracking in real time, which also complicates the task. Correct visualization of objects in three-dimensional space requires six degrees of freedom tracking: three position values (x, y, z and three angles (rotation around the respective axes to determine the orientation. To solve this problem, different approaches and sensor types are being used. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of tracking technology and analyze the current approaches to implement the process of tracking on mass mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. We also describe some issues in implementing optical marker based tracking for visualization of large scale models

  18. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the

  19. Self-tracking devices and sustainable employability : 22 oktober 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Hilbrand; Polstra, Louis; Velthuijsen, Hugo; Groot, Martijn de

    2015-01-01

    Employees’ level of sustainable employability is influenced by their health. In our study we tested whether self-tracking devicesdevices that provide the user with reliable and continuous feedback on one or more health domains – can be useful tools in order to increase employees’ health and, as a

  20. Object tracking on mobile devices using binary descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savakis, Andreas; Quraishi, Mohammad Faiz; Minnehan, Breton

    2015-03-01

    With the growing ubiquity of mobile devices, advanced applications are relying on computer vision techniques to provide novel experiences for users. Currently, few tracking approaches take into consideration the resource constraints on mobile devices. Designing efficient tracking algorithms and optimizing performance for mobile devices can result in better and more efficient tracking for applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper, we use binary descriptors, including Fast Retina Keypoint (FREAK), Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB), Binary Robust Independent Features (BRIEF), and Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK) to obtain real time tracking performance on mobile devices. We consider both Google's Android and Apple's iOS operating systems to implement our tracking approach. The Android implementation is done using Android's Native Development Kit (NDK), which gives the performance benefits of using native code as well as access to legacy libraries. The iOS implementation was created using both the native Objective-C and the C++ programing languages. We also introduce simplified versions of the BRIEF and BRISK descriptors that improve processing speed without compromising tracking accuracy.

  1. Tracking of Mobile Devices Through Bluetooth Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Ristanovic, Nikodin; TRAN, DANG KHOA; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We investigate if it is possible to reconstruct a mobile phone’s mobility using its Bluetooth contacts with other mobile devices, some of which are equipped with GPS receivers. Our data mining analysis, based on two different data sets, shows that in certain environments coarse grained mobility of a significant portion of mobile phones can be obtained using this technique. For this reason, anyone capable of collecting Bluetooth and, if available, GPS logs for a large population of mobile phon...

  2. Device-free object tracking using passive tags

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jinsong; Zhao, Kun; Jiang, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief examines the use of cheap commercial passive RFID tags to achieve accurate device-free object-tracking. It presents a sensitive detector, named Twins, which uses a pair of adjacent passive tags to detect uncooperative targets (such as intruders). Twins leverages a newly observed phenomenon called critical state that is caused by interference among passive tags.The author expands on the previous object tracking methods, which are mostly device-based, and reveals a new interference model and their extensive experiments for validation. A prototype implementation of the Twins-ba

  3. Enhancement of sun-tracking with optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiunn-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Sun-tracking is one of the most challenging tasks in implementing CPV. In order to justify the additional complexity of sun-tracking, careful assessment of performance of CPV by monitoring the performance of sun-tracking is vital. Measurement of accuracy of sun-tracking is one of the important tasks in an outdoor test. This study examines techniques with three optoelectronic devices (i.e. position sensitive device (PSD), CCD and webcam). Outdoor measurements indicated that during sunny days (global horizontal insolation (GHI) > 700 W/m2), three devices recorded comparable tracking accuracy of 0.16˜0.3°. The method using a PSD has fastest sampling rate and is able to detect the sun's position without additional image processing. Yet, it cannot identify the sunlight effectively during low insolation. The techniques with a CCD and a webcam enhance the accuracy of centroid of sunlight via the optical lens and image processing. The image quality acquired using a webcam and a CCD is comparable but the webcam is more affordable than that of CCD because it can be assembled with consumer-graded products.

  4. Basic simulation models of phase tracking devices using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William

    2010-01-01

    The Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), and many of the devices used for frequency and phase tracking, carrier and symbol synchronization, demodulation, and frequency synthesis, are fundamental building blocks in today's complex communications systems. It is therefore essential for both students and practicing communications engineers interested in the design and implementation of modern communication systems to understand and have insight into the behavior of these important and ubiquitous devices. Since the PLL behaves as a nonlinear device (at least during acquisition), computer simulation can be used

  5. Research and application of devices for synchronously tracking the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ming; Sun, Youhong; Wang, Qinghua; Wu, Xiaohan [Jilin Univ. Changchun (China). College of Construction Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces a concept of apparent motion orbit of the sun, and put forward the theory of synchronous (linear) tracking the sun. Using solarium mechanism to trail the running path of solar hour angel, and using modified sine function framework to trace solar apparent declination path, and then connect these two mechanisms with linear transmission chain. More than 45%{proportional_to}122% electricity can be output by the synchronous tracking photovoltaic (PV) devices compare with those fixed PV ones with the same area between the spring equinox to the summer solstice. The 17m{sup 2} heat collector of synchronous tracking, its static wind-driven power consumption is less than 3.5W (0.2W/m{sup 2}), and the gale consumption is less than 7W(0.34W/m{sup 2}). The apparatus can be utilized widely in solar power, heating, lighting systems and other solar energy utilization. (orig.)

  6. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nathan P.; Lessard, Guillaume A.; Phipps, Mary E.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Lidke, Diane S.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Werner, James H.

    2009-02-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells represents a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in three dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot labeled IgE antibodies bound to FcɛRI membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of two dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative to the "hills and valleys" of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. This approach is uniquely capable of following single molecule dynamics on live cells with three dimensional spatial resolution.

  7. A new CR-39 nuclear track passive thoron measuring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamosca, M., E-mail: calamosc@enea.i [ENEA-ION-IRP, Montecuccolino, V. dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Penzo, S. [ENEA-ION-IRP, Montecuccolino, V. dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    {sup 220}Rn monitoring in dwellings and in workplaces is seldom performed, both because usually the associated risk is considered negligible and for the difficulties of properly measuring it. As a consequence the state of art of thoron measurements by using solid-state nuclear track detectors shows a significant lag compared with radon. However the demand of determining the thoron contribution to natural dose assessment is worldwide increasing, and in the presence of some building materials as tuff, should be mandatory. To tackle this problem, the ENEA Radon Measuring Service has developed a dose evaluation procedure based on the measurement of the {sup 220}Rn concentration at a standard distance from the wall, by using a new (patent pending) CR-39 alpha track detector thoron passive device (ATD-TnPD), coupled to our own radon passive device (ATD-RnPD). The two devices are geometrically similar and their responses were extensively evaluated to optimise the uncertainty of the thoron measurement. This paper depicts the prime features of the new device, and the introduced changes aimed at reducing the device's equilibrium time constant from 20.8 min to 3.1 min. Since no reliable thoron calibration facility has resulted available up to now, we had to state the ATD-TnPD's sensitivity parameter by performing the calibration step by our own. A closed circuit thoron exposure facility was set up to provide thoron exposures at 3 different levels. The exposed detectors were chemically etched at 7 increasing etching times to study the relationship between sensitivity and etching conditions, so to optimise the detector response and the measurement uncertainty.

  8. On Improving the Energy Efficiency and Robustness of Position Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2010-01-01

    An important feature of a modern mobile device is that it can position itself and support remote position tracking. To be useful, such position tracking has to be energy-efficient to avoid having a major impact on the battery life of the mobile device. Furthermore, tracking has to robustly delive...

  9. 3 - Dimensional Body Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xu-dong; LI Yan-mei

    2002-01-01

    3 - dimensional body measurement technology, the basis of developing high technology in industry, accelerates digital development of aplparel industry. This paper briefly introduces the history of 3 - dimensional body measurement technology, and recounts the principle and primary structure of some types of 3 - dimensional automatic body measurement system. With this understanding, it discusses prospect of 3- dimensional CAD and virtual technology used in apparel industry.

  10. Using DNA devices to track anticancer drug activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanda, Dimithree; Chakrabarti, Gaurab; Mcwilliams, Marc A; Boothman, David A; Slinker, Jason D

    2016-06-15

    It is beneficial to develop systems that reproduce complex reactions of biological systems while maintaining control over specific factors involved in such processes. We demonstrated a DNA device for following the repair of DNA damage produced by a redox-cycling anticancer drug, beta-lapachone (β-lap). These chips supported ß-lap-induced biological redox cycle and tracked subsequent DNA damage repair activity with redox-modified DNA monolayers on gold. We observed drug-specific changes in square wave voltammetry from these chips at therapeutic ß-lap concentrations of high statistical significance over drug-free control. We also demonstrated a high correlation of this change with the specific ß-lap-induced redox cycle using rational controls. The concentration dependence of ß-lap revealed significant signal changes at levels of high clinical significance as well as sensitivity to sub-lethal levels of ß-lap. Catalase, an enzyme decomposing peroxide, was found to suppress DNA damage at a NQO1/catalase ratio found in healthy cells, but was clearly overcome at a higher NQO1/catalase ratio consistent with cancer cells. We found that it was necessary to reproduce key features of the cellular environment to observe this activity. Thus, this chip-based platform enabled tracking of ß-lap-induced DNA damage repair when biological criteria were met, providing a unique synthetic platform for uncovering activity normally confined to inside cells. PMID:26901461

  11. Verification of MLC based real-time tumor tracking using an electronic portal imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Oh, Sarah; Yi, Byong Yong; Lerma, Fritz; Berman, Barry L.; Gui, Minzhi; Yu, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors have developed a novel technique using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify the geometrical accuracy of delivery of dose-rate-regulated tracking (DRRT). This technique, called verification of real-time tracking with EPID (VORTE), can potentially be used for both on-line and off-line quality assurance (QA) of MLC-based dynamic tumor tracking.

  12. ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTING MARKER BASED TRACKING ON MASS MOBILE DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Kravtsov A. A.; Loyko V. I.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking is a vast field of research associated with navigation, robotics, and virtual environments (virtual reality). Tracking for augmented reality requires higher level of precision, increased range of action, as well as work with a wider variety of input data. It is important that augmented reality technology requires tracking in real time, which also complicates the task. Correct visualization of objects in three-dimensional space requires six degrees of freedom tracking: three position ...

  13. Forensic devices for activism: Metadata tracking and public proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke van der Velden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The central topic of this paper is a mobile phone application, ‘InformaCam’, which turns metadata from a surveillance risk into a method for the production of public proof. InformaCam allows one to manage and delete metadata from images and videos in order to diminish surveillance risks related to online tracking. Furthermore, it structures and stores the metadata in such a way that the documentary material becomes better accommodated to evidentiary settings, if needed. In this paper I propose InformaCam should be interpreted as a ‘forensic device’. By using the conceptualization of forensics and work on socio-technical devices the paper discusses how InformaCam, through a range of interventions, rearranges metadata into a technology of evidence. InformaCam explicitly recognizes mobile phones as context aware, uses their sensors, and structures metadata in order to facilitate data analysis after images are captured. Through these modifications it invents a form of ‘sensory data forensics'. By treating data in this particular way, surveillance resistance does more than seeking awareness. It becomes engaged with investigatory practices. Considering the extent by which states conduct metadata surveillance, the project can be seen as a timely response to the unequal distribution of power over data.

  14. GPU-based quasi-real-time Track Recognition in Imaging Devices: from raw Data to Particle Tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, Cristiano; De Sio, Chiara; Stellacci, Simona Maria

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear emulsions as tracking devices have been used by recent experiments thanks to fast automatic microscopes for emulsion readout. Automatic systems are evolving towards GPU-based solutions. Real-time imaging is needed to drive the motion of the microscope axes and 3D track recognition occurs quasi-online in local GPU clusters. The algorithms implemented in the Quick Scanning System are sketched. Most of them are very general and might turn out useful for other detector

  15. On Improving the Energy Efficiency and Robustness of Position Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    into sensor management strategies and position update protocols and combine the sensor management strategy of EnTracked with position update protocols, which enables the system to further reduce the power consumption with up to 268 mW extending the battery life with up to 36\\%. As our evaluation identify......An important feature of a modern mobile device is that it can position itself and support remote position tracking. To be useful, such position tracking has to be energy-efficient to avoid having a major impact on the battery life of the mobile device. Furthermore, tracking has to robustly deliver...... position updates when faced with changing conditions such as delays and changing positioning conditions. Previous work has established dynamic tracking systems, such as our EnTracked system, as a solution to address these issues. In this paper we propose a responsibility division for position tracking...

  16. Energy-efficient Trajectory Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Blunck, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    to accuracy requirements and provides a unified framework for both position and trajectory tracking. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by emulation experiments on real world data sets collected from different modes of transportation (walking, running, biking and commuting by car) as well...

  17. 3-dimensional profiler based on digital micromirror device%基于数字微镜器件的三维轮廓测量及其性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琦欣; 侯文玫; 盛世杰; 张运波; 沈丽艳

    2011-01-01

    A novel 3-dimensional profiler for micro-nano structure based on Digital Micromirror Device( DMD) is presented in this paper. Combining DMD and confocal microscopy, the profiler utilizes a DMD and its controller to replace the illumination pinhole and lateral scan system in conventional confocal microscopy. This approach has the advantages of DMD, such as high lateral resolution, quick response, digitalization and easy to be controlled by a computer, so that the scan efficiency is remarkably improved. A series of experiments demonstrate that the DMD can perfectly function as illumination pinhole to perform efficient and precise dimensional measurement for large sample surface.%研究提出了一种基于数字微镜器件(digital micromirror device,DMD)的并行三维微-纳米轮廓测量方法.该方法将数字微镜器件与共焦测量方法相结合,用数字微镜器件及其控制器替代了传统共焦测量中的照明针孔和横向扫描机构,充分发挥DMD横向分辨率高,响应速度快,数字化以及便于计算机控制的优点,对传统共焦测量方法进行了结构上的改进,大大提高其扫描速度.一系列实验结果表明,数字微镜器件可以完全替代照明针孔,从而实现对样品表面快速,精确,大范围的三维测量.

  18. High Resolution Tracking Devices Based on Capillaries Filled with Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonekamper, D; Vassiltchenko, V; Wolff, T

    2002-01-01

    %RD46 %title\\\\ \\\\The aim of the project is to develop high resolution tracking devices based on thin glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator. This technique provides high hit densities and a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m. Further, their radiation hardness makes them superior to other types of tracking devices with comparable performance. Therefore, the technique is attractive for inner tracking in collider experiments, microvertex devices, or active targets for short-lived particle detection. High integration levels in the read-out based on the use of multi-pixel photon detectors and the possibility of optical multiplexing allow to reduce considerably the number of output channels, and, thus, the cost for the detector.\\\\ \\\\New optoelectronic devices have been developed and tested: the megapixel Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD), a high resolution image-detector having an outstanding capability of single photo-electron detection; the Vacuum Image Pipeline (VIP), a high-speed gateable pi...

  19. Self-tracking devices and sustainable labour participation of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Hilbrand; Groot, Martijn de; Polstra, Louis; Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable labour participation: • Vitality • Employability • Workability Self-tracking devices can be used to alter behaviors and increase self efficiency/empowerment Result: –more self efficacy concerning employability –behavioral change in important (health) domains –more empowerment of ol

  20. Validation of a new box trainer-related tracking device: the TrEndo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Empel; L.B. van Rijssen; J.P. Commandeur; M.G.E. Verdam; J.A. Huirne; F. Scheele; H.J. Bonjer; W.J. Meijerink

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing demand for structured objective ex vivo training and assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills prior to implementation of these skills in practice. The aim of this study was to establish the internal validity of the TrEndo, a motion-tracking device, for impleme

  1. Polyimide microfluidic devices with integrated nanoporous filtration areas manufactured by micromachining and ion track technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, S.; Trautmann, C.; Bertsch, A.; Renaud, Ph

    2004-03-01

    This paper reports on polyimide microfluidic devices fabricated by photolithography and a layer transfer lamination technology. The microchannels are sealed by laminating an uncured polyimide film on a partially cured layer and subsequent imidization. Selected areas of the microchannels were irradiated with heavy ions of several hundred MeV and the generated ion tracks are chemically etched to submicron pores of high aspect ratio. The ion beam parameters and the track etching conditions define density, length, diameter and shape of the pores. Membrane permeability and separation performance is demonstrated in cross-flow filtration experiments. The devices can be used for selective delivery or probing of fluids to biological tissue, e.g. drug delivery or microdialysis. For chip-based devices the filters can be used as a sample pre-treatment unit for filtration or concentration of particles or molecules.

  2. Clinical trials of the new 3-dimensional reticular intrauterine device for reproductive women%新型立体式网状宫内节育器初步临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱毅; 王磊光; 于玲

    2014-01-01

    为了观察新型立体式网状宫内节育器(3-DR-IUD)的避孕效果及副反应,将152例志愿受试者随机分为两组,即接受3-DR-IUD组和放置元宫药铜宫内节育器(2-D-IUD)组,每组各76例,常规放置3-DR-IUD和2-D-IUD。分别于术后1个月、3个月、6个月和12个月进行随访,了解放置宫内节育器(IUD)后副反应(如腹痛、腰痛、阴道出血持续时间及出血量、白带等)的发生率、带器妊娠率、IUD脱落率、因症取出率、续用率及避孕效果,并利用B超、X光腹部平片检查3-DR-IUD位置等。两组各76例均成功放置了IUD,术中均无明显疼痛。3-DR-IUD组术后出现白带增多、月经期延长、不规则出血、月经量增多及腰腹部疼痛等副反应6例(7.9%),而2-D-IUD组出现31例(40.8%),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.0001)。3-DR-IUD组无脱落,无带器妊娠者,3个月时因对硅橡胶过敏取出1例,12个月时终止率为1.3%,续用率为98.7%(75/76);2-D-IUD组终止率为13.2%,续用率为86.8%(66/76),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P=0.009)。实验结果表明,3-DR-IUD具有很好的避孕效果,术后副反应轻微,可为育龄妇女提供新的、安全、高效的IUD。%This study aimed at exploring a new 3-dimensional reticular intrauterine device (3-DR-IUD) composed of nitinol and silicone rubber and observing the contraceptive efficacy and side effects of the device in reproductive women. The frame of the 3-DR-IUD was con-structed with silicone rubber and nitinol wire. The 3-DR-IUD was placed into uterus in an outpa-tient procedure. One hundred and fifty-two women were divided equally into the 3-DR-IUD group (n=76) and the 2-dimensional intrauterine device (2-D-IUD) group (n=76,control group). Patient follow-ups were performed in 1~12 months post-operation. The side effects of intrauterine device (IUD),such as abnormal leucorrhea,menstrual flow changes in uterine

  3. A new electromagnetic positioning method for tracking invaded medical devices using MARG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Chen, Xiao-dong; Du, Cheng-yang; Wang, Yi; Yu, Dao-yin

    2013-08-01

    In clinical medicine, electromagnetic tracking (EMT) system, with its safely penetrating property for human tissue, has been an effective tracking and guiding method for invaded medical devices which are invisible inside a human body. However, traditional EMT system only implements magnetic methods to solve the complex 6-DOF equations and demands an ideal magnetic-field distribution model exited by electromagnetic coils or permanent magnet, resulting in poor anti-interference performance. This paper proposed a new method, combining EMT with the attitude convergence algorithm using MARG sensors. This fusion method reduces the information reliability on the external field, simplifies the complexity of magnetic analysis, and improves the robustness. Except for the accuracy testify experiment, we impose artificial interference to the DC voltage which excites external electromagnetic coils, and the tracking system could still maintain a high positioning stability.

  4. Evaluating input device usability as a function of task difficulty in a tracking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael A; Oppold, Paul; McConnell, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Game controllers are emerging as a preferred choice for the manual control of unmanned vehicles, but an understanding of their usability characteristics has yet to emerge. We compared the usability of an Xbox 360 game controller in a dual task situation using MATB II to the traditional joystick and keyboard interface in two experiments. In the first experiment, performance with the game controller was associated with fewer tracking errors. In a second experiment, we trained users on the devices, and found that even after training the game controller was still associated with fewer tracking errors as well as higher usability and lower workload ratings. These results are consistent with the idea that game controllers are highly usable input devices and do not require high mental workload to operate, thus making them suitable for complex control tasks.

  5. Classification of team sport activities using a single wearable tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundersitz, Daniel W T; Josman, Casey; Gupta, Ritu; Netto, Kevin J; Gastin, Paul B; Robertson, Sam

    2015-11-26

    Wearable tracking devices incorporating accelerometers and gyroscopes are increasingly being used for activity analysis in sports. However, minimal research exists relating to their ability to classify common activities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether data obtained from a single wearable tracking device can be used to classify team sport-related activities. Seventy-six non-elite sporting participants were tested during a simulated team sport circuit (involving stationary, walking, jogging, running, changing direction, counter-movement jumping, jumping for distance and tackling activities) in a laboratory setting. A MinimaxX S4 wearable tracking device was worn below the neck, in-line and dorsal to the first to fifth thoracic vertebrae of the spine, with tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope data collected at 100Hz. Multiple time domain, frequency domain and custom features were extracted from each sensor using 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5s movement capture durations. Features were further screened using a combination of ANOVA and Lasso methods. Relevant features were used to classify the eight activities performed using the Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Model Tree (LMT) algorithms. The LMT (79-92% classification accuracy) outperformed RF (32-43%) and SVM algorithms (27-40%), obtaining strongest performance using the full model (accelerometer and gyroscope inputs). Processing time can be reduced through feature selection methods (range 1.5-30.2%), however a trade-off exists between classification accuracy and processing time. Movement capture duration also had little impact on classification accuracy or processing time. In sporting scenarios where wearable tracking devices are employed, it is both possible and feasible to accurately classify team sport-related activities.

  6. 3-D Audio in Mobile Communication Devices: Methods for Mobile Head-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Pörschmann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Future generations of mobile communication devices will serve more and more as multimedia platforms capable of reproducing high quality audio. In order to achieve a 3-D sound perception the reproduction quality of audio via headphones can be significantly increased by applying binaural technology. To be independent of individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs and to guarantee a good performance for all listeners, an adaptation of the synthesized sound field to the listener′s head movements is required.In this article several methods of head-tracking for mobile communication devices are presented and compared. A system for testing the identified methods is set up and experiments are performed to evaluate the prosand cons of each method. The implementation of such a device in a 3-D audio system is described and applications making use of such a system are identified and discussed.

  7. 3-dimensional polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed techniques in conformal radiotherapy demand special properties of radiation dosimeters. Polymer gel dosimeter evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is promising tool which can be used for measuring rather complicated 3-dimensional dose distributions with required precision of ± 5 %. This system is based on radiation-induced polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers which are uniformly dispersed in aqueous gel. The formation of cross-linked polymers in the irradiated regions of the gel increases the NMR relaxation rates of neighbouring water protons. BANG-2 type polymer gel was prepared. The composition of gel dosimeter was as follows: 3 % N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide, 3 % acrylic acid, 1 % sodium hydroxide, 5 % gelatine, and 88 % water, where all percentages are by weight. The dosimeters in glass vessels were homogeneously irradiated by 60Co gamma photons in a Gammacell 220 unit and by 4 MV, 6 MV and 18 MV X ray photons on Varian Clinac 600C and 2100 C linear accelerators by doses in the range of 0-50 Gy. Evaluation of dosimeters was performed on Siemens EXPERT 1 T and Siemens VISION 1,5 T scanners. Multi-echo CPMG sequence with 16 echoes was used for the evaluation of T2-relaxation times in irradiated gel dosimeters. The dependence of 1/T2 response of dosimeters was studied on following factors: absorbed dose, energy of applied radiation, temperature during NMR evaluation, time since irradiation to NMR evaluation and strength of the magnetic field. An exponential dependence of 1/T2 response on absorbed dose in the range of 0-50 Gy was observed, in the range 0-10 Gy the data could be fitted by a linear function. There was observed no dependence of 1/T2 response on: energy (for three different photon energies used in this study), strength of magnetic field of NMR scanner, time from irradiation of the dosimeters to NMR evaluation. Increase of gel dosimeter 1/T2 response with the decrease of the temperature during NMR evaluation

  8. Ultrahigh Resolution 3-Dimensional Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop innovative instrumentation for the rapid, 3-dimensional imaging of biological tissues with cellular resolution. Our approach...

  9. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Ying Chi; Brugge, Maarten; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Dekinga, Anne; Porter, Ron; Klaassen, Raymond; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters and GPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and global tracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliable methods to attach these tracking devices to small migratory birds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2) tags are retain

  10. Combining Charge Couple Devices and Rate Sensors for the Feedforward Control System of a Charge Coupled Device Tracking Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Tian, Jing; Zhong, Daijun; Fu, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    A rate feed forward control-based sensor fusion is proposed to improve the closed-loop performance for a charge couple device (CCD) tracking loop. The target trajectory is recovered by combining line of sight (LOS) errors from the CCD and the angular rate from a fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG). A Kalman filter based on the Singer acceleration model utilizes the reconstructive target trajectory to estimate the target velocity. Different from classical feed forward control, additive feedback loops are inevitably added to the original control loops due to the fact some closed-loop information is used. The transfer function of the Kalman filter in the frequency domain is built for analyzing the closed loop stability. The bandwidth of the Kalman filter is the major factor affecting the control stability and close-loop performance. Both simulations and experiments are provided to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27347970

  11. 3-dimensional Griess algebras and Miyamoto involutions

    OpenAIRE

    lam, Ching Hung; Yamauchi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We consider a series of VOAs generated by 3-dimensional Griess algebras. We will show that these VOAs can be characterized by their 3-dimensional Griess algebras and their structures are uniquely determined. As an application, we will determine the groups generated by the Miyamoto involutions associated to Virasoro vectors of our VOAs.

  12. Design of a new tracking device for on-line dose monitor in ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Traini, Giacomo; Bollella, Angela; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Frallicciardi, Paola Maria; Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Miraglia, Federico; Muraro, Silvia; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Charged Particle Therapy is a technique for cancer treatment that exploits hadron beams, mostly protons and carbons. A critical issue is the monitoring of the dose released by the beam to the tumor and to the surrounding tissues. We present the design of a new tracking device for monitoring on-line the dose in ion therapy through the detection of secondary charged particles produced by the beam interactions in the patient tissues. In fact, the charged particle emission shape can be correlated with the spatial dose release and the Bragg peak position. The detector uses the information provided by 12 layers of scintillating fibers followed by a plastic scintillator and a small calorimeter made of a pixelated Lutetium Fine Silicate crystal. Simulations have been performed to evaluate the achievable spatial resolution and a possible application of the device for the monitoring of the dose pro?le in a real treatment is presented.

  13. Inter-eye: Interactive error compensation for eye-tracking devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Mariolino; Zanetti, Matteo; Fornaser, Alberto; Leuci, Malvina; Conci, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new method for systematic errors compensation in modern eye-tracking devices. Systematic errors, together with repeatability errors, reduce the possible use of eye trackers for several applications such as moving into an indoor environment and enabling the user to indicate precisely the target only with the support of his/her eyes. The new method relies on an interactive procedure that enables the system to accurately estimate the systematic effect in few seconds and thus compensate it in a fast and accurate way. Results show that the uncertainty can be dramatically decreased for a low-cost device on a 17 inches screen from 100 pixels to approximately 15 pixels.

  14. MIKE's PET: A participant-based experiment tracking tool for HCI practitioners using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamedally, Dean; Edlich, Stefan; Klaus, Enrico; Zaphiris, Panayiotis

    2006-02-01

    Knowledge Elicitation (KE) methods are an integral part of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) practices. They are a key aspect to the synthesis of psychology empirical methods with requirements engineering, User Centred Design (UCD) and user evaluations. Examples of these methods include prototyping, focus groups, interviews, surveys and direct video observation. The MIKE project (Mobile Interactive Knowledge Elicitation) at the Centre for HCI Design, City University London, UK provides mobile cyberscience capabilities for HCI practitioners conducting such research while at stakeholder locations. This paper reports on the design and development of a new MIKE based tool, named PET, a Participant-based Experiment Tracking tool for HCI practitioners using Java-based (J2ME) mobile devices. PET integrates its user tracking techniques with the development of the second generation implementation of the CONKER (COllaborative Non-linear Knowledge Elicitation Repository) Web Service. We thus report further on CONKER v2.0's new capabilities developed to enable tighter collaboration and empirical data management between HCI practitioners, considering their UCD needs. The visualisation, tracking and recording of HCI participant-based datasets via PET is explored with close connectivity with the CONKER v2.0 Web Service, in order to provide mobile-web cyberscience for remote and local HCI practitioners.

  15. Design of a computer game using an eye-tracking device for eye's activity rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Huan, Chia-Chin; Chan, Chao-Ning; Yeh, Mau-Shiun; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2004-07-01

    An eye mouse interface that can be used to operate a computer using the movement of the eyes is described. We developed this eye-tracking system for eye motion disability rehabilitation. When the user watches the screen of a computer, a charge-coupled device will catch images of the user's eye and transmit it to the computer. A program, based on a new cross-line tracking and stabilizing algorithm, will locate the center point of the pupil in the images. The calibration factors and energy factors are designed for coordinate mapping and blink functions. After the system transfers the coordinates of pupil center in the images to the display coordinate, it will determine the point at which the user gazed on the display, then transfer that location to the game subroutine program. We used this eye-tracking system as a joystick to play a game with an application program in a multimedia environment. The experimental results verify the feasibility and validity of this eye-game system and the rehabilitation effects for the user's visual movement.

  16. Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (TranSPORT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Supej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1 how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2 how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car’s roof-rack: a  smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements.

  17. The effects of control order, feedback, practice, and input device on tracking performance and perceived workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. A.; Robinson, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The present experiment examined the influence of several task-related factors on tracking performance and concomitant workload. The manipulated factors included tracking order, the presence or absence of knowledge of performance, and the control device. Summed root mean square error (rmse) and perceived workload were measured at the termination of each trial. Perceived workload was measured using the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and the Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT). Results indicated a large and expected effect for track order on both performance and the perception of load. In general, trackball input was more accurate and judged for lower load than input using a mouse. The presence or absence of knowledge of performance had little effect on either performance or workload. There were a number of interactions between factors shown in performance that were mirrored by perceived workload scores. Results from each workload scale were equivalent in terms of sensitivity to task manipulations. The pattern of results affirm the utility of these workload measures in assessing the imposed load of multiple task-related variables.

  18. Error analysis and algorithm implementation for an improved optical-electric tracking device based on MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Wu, Qian-zhong

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve the precision of optical-electric tracking device, proposing a kind of improved optical-electric tracking device based on MEMS, in allusion to the tracking error of gyroscope senor and the random drift, According to the principles of time series analysis of random sequence, establish AR model of gyro random error based on Kalman filter algorithm, then the output signals of gyro are multiple filtered with Kalman filter. And use ARM as micro controller servo motor is controlled by fuzzy PID full closed loop control algorithm, and add advanced correction and feed-forward links to improve response lag of angle input, Free-forward can make output perfectly follow input. The function of lead compensation link is to shorten the response of input signals, so as to reduce errors. Use the wireless video monitor module and remote monitoring software (Visual Basic 6.0) to monitor servo motor state in real time, the video monitor module gathers video signals, and the wireless video module will sent these signals to upper computer, so that show the motor running state in the window of Visual Basic 6.0. At the same time, take a detailed analysis to the main error source. Through the quantitative analysis of the errors from bandwidth and gyro sensor, it makes the proportion of each error in the whole error more intuitive, consequently, decrease the error of the system. Through the simulation and experiment results shows the system has good following characteristic, and it is very valuable for engineering application.

  19. HyperCube: A Small Lensless Position Sensing Device for the Tracking of Flickering Infrared LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Raharijaona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An innovative insect-based visual sensor is designed to perform active marker tracking. Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by the pixel pitch. With a size of only 1 cm3 and a mass of only 0.33 g, the lensless sensor, called HyperCube, is dedicated to 3D motion tracking and fits perfectly with the drastic constraints imposed by micro-aerial vehicles. Only three photosensors are placed on each side of the cubic configuration of the sensing device, making this sensor very inexpensive and light. HyperCube provides the azimuth and elevation of infrared LEDs flickering at a high frequency (>1 kHz with a precision of 0.5°. The minimalistic design in terms of small size, low mass and low power consumption of this visual sensor makes it suitable for many applications in the field of the cooperative flight of unmanned aerial vehicles and, more generally, robotic applications requiring active beacons. Experimental results show that HyperCube provides useful angular measurements that can be used to estimate the relative position between the sensor and the flickering infrared markers.

  20. Evaluation of Guiding Device for Downstream Fish Migration with in-Field Particle Tracking Velocimetry and CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Lundstrom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a fish guiding device located just upstream a hydropower plant is scrutinized. The device is designed to redirect surface orientated down-stream migrating fish (smolts away from the turbines towards a spillway that act as a relatively safe fishway. Particles are added up-stream the device and the fraction particles going to the spillway is measured. A two-frame Particle Tracking Velocimetry algorithm is used to derive the velocity field of the water. The experimental results are compared to simulations with CFD. If the smolts move passively as the particles used in the study the guiding device works very well and some modifications may optimize its performance. In-field Particle Tracking Velocimetry is a suitable technique for the current case and the results compare well with numerical simulations.

  1. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Y.-C; Brugge, M.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Dekinga, A.; Porter, R.; Klaassen, R.H.G.; Piersma, T.

    2016-01-01

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters andGPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and globaltracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliablemethods to attach these tracking devices to small migratorybirds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2)tags are retained du

  2. Homological aperiodic tilings of 3-dimensional geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Piotr W

    2012-01-01

    We construct the first aperiodic tiles for two amenable 3-dimensional Lie groups: Sol and the Heisenberg group. Our construction relies on the use of higher-dimensional uniformly finite homology. In particular, we settle completely the existence of aperiodic tiles for all of the non-compact geometries of 3-manifolds appearing in the geometrization conjecture.

  3. A WiFi Tracking Device Printed Directly on Textile for Wearable Electronics Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Krykpayev, Bauyrzhan

    2015-12-01

    reported which utilize an interface layer [1{13]. No sophisticated circuit or a system level design involving integration of components on textile has been demonstrated in this medium before. This work, for the first time, demonstrates a complete system printed on a polyester/cotton T-shirt, that helps in tracking the person who is wearing that T-shirt through a smart phone or any Internet enabled device. A low cost dielectric material (Creative Materials 116-20 Dielectric ink) is used to print the interface layer through manual screen printing method. The circuit layout and antenna have been ink-jet printed with silver nano-particles based conductive ink. Utilizing WiFi technology, this wearable tracking system can locate the position of lost children, senior citizens, patients or people in uniforms, lab coats, hospital gowns, etc. The device is small enough (55 mm x 45 mm) and light weight (10.5g w/o battery) for people to comfortably wear it and can be easily concealed in case discretion is required. Field tests have revealed that a person can be localized with up to 8 meters accuracy and the device can wirelessly communicate with a hand-held receiver placed 55 meters away. Future development of the method with techniques such as automated screen printing, pick and place components, and digital ink-jet printing can pave the way for mass production.

  4. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. (Southern Electric International, Birmingham, AL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  5. A New Approach to 3-Dimensional Fields

    OpenAIRE

    agashe, sadanand

    2016-01-01

    A new approach, using the operator "x d/dx + y d/dy + z d/dz", is introduced for studying 3-dimensional scalar and vector fields. The approach uses a property of the operator which is similar to that of the Laplacian operator, but the operator does not seem to have been used before. Also, the operator requires only once-differentiability of the fields. Using it, a number of new formulas are derived and new proofs given for many classical results such as the Helmholtz theorem, the Poisson form...

  6. 3-dimensional defect TQFTs and their tricategories

    CERN Document Server

    Carqueville, Nils; Schaumann, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    We initiate a systematic study of 3-dimensional `defect' topological quantum field theories, that we introduce as symmetric monoidal functors on stratified and decorated bordisms. For every such functor we construct a tricategory with duals, which is the natural categorification of a pivotal bicategory. This captures the algebraic essence of defect TQFTs, and it gives precise meaning to the fusion of line and surface defects as well as their duality operations. As examples, we discuss how Reshetikhin-Turaev and Turaev-Viro theories embed into our framework, and how they can be extended to defect TQFTs.

  7. Development and testing of a new magnetic-tracking device for image guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mark; Stevens, Charles

    2007-03-01

    Optical tracking systems pioneered the use of position sensors in surgical navigation. The requirement to maintain a clear line-of-sight between the emitters and detectors, however, renders them unsuitable for tracking flexible invasive instruments. On the other hand, advances in electromagnetic tracking systems permit a key-enabling role in imageguided procedures. First-generation magnetic systems present a significant challenge for tracker designers to improve both performance and acceptance. Troublesome magnetic problems include inaccuracies due to the presence of metallic distorters in the tracking volume and to dynamic motion of the tracked object. A new magnetic tracker (3D Guidance TM), recently developed at Ascension Technology, seeks to address these problems. Employing third-generation pulsed-DC magnetic tracking technology and new signal processing techniques, the new tracker overcomes the distorting effects of non-magnetic conductive metals (300-series stainless steel, titanium and aluminum) and composite tables experienced by AC trackers. Ascension has developed a break-through flat transmitter that negates ferrous metal distortion emanating from procedural tables. The tracker development has also significantly advanced the state of the art in sensor miniaturization. The 3D Guidance TM features the world's smallest electromagnetic tracking sensors, opening the door to new applications for minimally invasive procedures. Finally, dynamic accuracy has been significantly improved with the implementation of Kalman based algorithms. Test results are reported.

  8. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds. PMID:27114828

  9. A dilogarithmic 3-dimensional Ising tetrahedron

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J

    1999-01-01

    In 3 dimensions, the Ising model is in the same universality class as unknown analytical nature. In contrast, all single-scale 4-dimensional tetrahedra were reduced, in hep-th/9803091, to special values of exponentially convergent polylogarithms. Combining dispersion relations with the integer-relation finder PSLQ, we find that $C^{Tet}/2^{5/2} = Cl_2(4\\alpha) - Cl_2(2\\alpha)$, with $Cl_2(\\theta):=\\sum_{n>0}\\sin(n\\theta)/n^2$ and 1,000-digit precision and readily yields 50,000 digits of $C^{Tet}$, after transformation to an exponentially convergent sum, akin to those studied in math.CA/9803067. It appears that this 3-dimensional result entails a polylogarithmic ladder beginning with the classical formula for $\\pi/\\sqrt2$, in the manner that 4-dimensional results build on that for $\\pi/\\sqrt3$.

  10. Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) : A new inner tracking device at STAR

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchet, Jonathan; Collaboration, for the STAR

    2009-01-01

    The HFT, a new inner tracking detector for STAR, aims to measure the charmed hadron nuclear modification factor as well as their elliptic flow to the low $p_\\mathrm{T}$ region ($\\sim$0.5 GeV/c) by measuring the displaced vertices of charmed particles.

  11. Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) : A new inner tracking device at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The HFT, a new inner tracking detector for STAR, aims to measure the charmed meson nuclear modification factor as well as their elliptic flow in low $p_\\mathrm{T}$ region (0.5 - 2 GeV/c) by measuring the displaced vertices of charmed particles.

  12. Test of scintillating bars coupled to Silicon Photomultipliers for a charged particle tracking device

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Esposti, L Degli; Lax, I; Mandrioli, G; Mauri, N; Pasqualini, L; Patrizii, L; Pozzato, M; Sirri, G; Tenti, M

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained in laboratory tests, using scintillator bars read by silicon photomultipliers are reported. The present approach is the first step for designing a precision tracking system to be placed inside a free magnetized volume for the charge identification of low energy crossing particles. The devised system is demonstrated able to provide a spatial resolution better than 2 mm.

  13. Development of reprogrammable high frame-rate detector devices for laser communication pointing, acquisition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Terita; Conner, Kenneth; Covington, Richard; Ngo, Hung; Rink, Christine

    2008-02-01

    A Two Terminal Laser Communication Test Bed has been developed at The Aerospace Corporation. This paper presents the design and preliminary results of a reprogrammable detector within the Test Bed for use in pointing, acquisition, and tracking between a Satellite-to-Satellite Laser Communication link. The detector may be commanded by an emulated spacecraft Command & Data Handling subsystem to switch between full-array scanning and "small sized" N x M pixel Field of View (FOV) for high-rate laser tracking. The approach follows a parallel path to implement the signal processing algorithm on two different hardware resources: a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The focus of this effort is to present a methodology for testing and evaluating various techniques for advanced focal plane array (FPA) hardware, as well as sensor FPA control, image processing and laser beam X & Y position algorithms.

  14. Sensor Data Processing for Tracking Underwater Threats Using Terascale Optical Core Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barhen, Jacob [ORNL; Imam, Neena [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A critical aspect of littoral surveillance (including port protection) involves the localization and tracking of underwater threats such as manned or unmanned autonomous underwater vehicles. In this article, we present a methodology for locating underwater threat sources from uncertain sensor network data, and illustrate the threat tracking aspects using active sonars in a matched filter framework. The novelty of the latter paradigm lies in its implementation on a tera-scale optical core processor, EnLight , recently introduced by Lenslet Laboratories. This processor is optimized for array operations, which it performs in a fixed point arithmetic architecture at tera-scale throughput. Using the EnLight 64 prototype processor, our results (i) illustrate the ability to reach a robust tracking accuracy, and (ii) demonstrate that a considerable speed-up (a factor of over 13,000) can be achieved when compared to an Intel XeonTM processor in the computation of sets of 80K-sample complex Fourier transforms that are associated with our matched filter techniques.

  15. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  16. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality. PMID:27149367

  17. Studies of the possibility to use Gas Pixel Detector as a fast trigger tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinev, N.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Korotkova, N.; Romaniouk, A.; Tikhomirov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) technology offers new possibilities, which make them very attractive for application in existing and future accelerator experiments and beyond. GPDs combine advantages of silicon and gaseous detectors. They can be produced radiation hard and with low power consumption using relatively cheap technology. Low capacitance of the individual pixel channel allows us to obtain a large signal to noise ratio. Using a time projection method for GPD readout one obtains 3D track image with precise coordinate (31 µm) and angular information (0.40°). This feature would allow us to achieve performance of one GPD layer equal to a few layers of silicon detectors. Implementation of a fast readout and data processing at the front-end level allows one to reconstruct a track segment in less than 1 μs, and to use this information for the first level trigger generation. The relevant algorithms of data acquisition and analysis are described and the results of simulations are presented in this paper.

  18. Analysis on Supporting Stability for Track Subgrade Dynamic Response In-situ Test Device Based on NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response test to the subgrade plays a very important role in railway construction and a new in-situ test system is proposed. This paper presents the application of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II to analyze the stability of the supporting equipment for track subgrade dynamic response in-situ test device. Its stability is related with the extension length of the hydraulic cylinders and the backward condition of the supporting equipment - the hydraulic excavator. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the objective of maximizing  the supporting force for the test device. An 85 tons excavator is picked as the case to study. The first optimal results show the excavator may not support the test system successfully. After redesigning the boom and adding its weight and length as new parameters, the second optimize results indicate the test device can work normally.

  19. Projection printing of 3-dimensional tissue scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Shaochen

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to create precise, predesigned, spatially patterned biochemical and physical microenvironments inside polymer scaffolds could provide a powerful tool in studying progenitor cell behavior and differentiation under biomimetic, three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. The development of freeform fabrication technology has become a promising tool for the manufacturing of biological scaffolds for tissue regeneration and stem cell engineering. Freeform fabrication is a very promising technology due to the efficient and simple process for creating bona fide 3D microstructures, such as closed channels and cavities. It is also capable of encapsulating biomolecules and even living cells. This chapter describes direct projection printing of 3D tissue engineering scaffolds by using a digital micromirror-array device (DMD) in a layer-by-layer process. This simple and fast microstereolithography system consists of an ultraviolet (UV) light source, a digital micromirror masking device, imaging optics, and controlling devices. Images of UV light are projected onto the photocurable resin by creating the "dynamic photomask" design with graphic software. Multilayered scaffolds are microfabricated through a photopolymerization process. PMID:22692617

  20. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  1. Introduction of FDA’s Medical Device Tracking Requirements%美国FDA医疗器械追踪要求介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方玉; 邵玉波; 苑富强; 李一捷

    2014-01-01

    An integrated medical devices tracking system in effective operation is needed to sufifciently perform the recal of a medical devices. Seeing the fact that we do not have an act speciifcal y enacted for medical devices tracking system, this article introduced the basic contents of Medical Device Tracking Requirements of FDA. Although China’s political and legal system greatly differ from that of the US, the essential train of thought showed in Medical Device Tracking Requirements remains considerable reference value.%医疗器械召回的有效实施,需要有完整并有效运行的医疗器械追踪体系与之相配合。针对我国目前尚无专门的医疗器械追踪法规的现状,本文介绍了美国FDA《医疗器械追踪要求》的基本内容。虽然中美双方在国体、政体以及法律架构方面存在较大差异,但FDA对医疗器械追踪要求的法则设计思路仍具有重要的参考价值。

  2. About ageing and fading of Cr-39 PADC track detectors used as air radon concentration measurement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caresana, M. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ferrarini, M., E-mail: michele.ferrarini@polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Garlati, L. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Parravicini, A. [Mi.Am srl, via De Amicis 5, 29029 Rivergaro (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    PADC detectors are widely used as air radon concentration measurement devices and the typical procedure that a Radon Service Laboratory uses to manage the detectors provides a calibration phase followed by the field measurement. The calibration is performed in a reference radon concentration atmosphere, using high radon concentration values in order to achieve typical exposure values of few MBq h m{sup -3} with an exposure time of few days. On the other hand the field measurement is characterized by long term exposures lasting up to six months and by radon concentrations that are quite lower than the ones used in the calibration. The aim of this study is to check whether the calibration procedure is actually representative of a field measurement, or, in other words, whether and how much ageing or fading can affect the calibration factor. We found that the ageing and fading effect can produce a decrease in the detector sensitivity leading to an underestimation of the radon concentration up to 40% for exposure lasting few months. An important issue is that both ageing and fading can be ascribed to a decrease in the track etching velocity V{sub t}. In the paper we also provide an algorithm to compensate for the sensitivity variation due to fading/ageing effect.

  3. A novel solar cell fabricated with spiral photo-electrode for capturing sunlight 3-dimensionally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; SHEN Hui; DENG Youjun

    2006-01-01

    A novel solar cell fabricated with spiral photo-electrode for capturing sunlight 3-dimensionally (3D-cell) is proposed in this paper. We studied its performance both in solar simulator and in nature sunlight. Spiral photo-electrode of 3D-cell can receive sunlight from all directions and therefore can track the sun passively. And it is much insensitive to solar azimuth angle and shade. In addition, it increases the area to obtain scattered sunlight and reflected light. Compared with the dye-sensitized solar cells using sandwich structure, it would be more advantageous in the sealing technique.

  4. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying-Chi; Brugge, Martin; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Dekinga, Anne; Porter, Ron; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters and GPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and global tracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliable methods to attach these tracking devices to small migratory birds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2) tags are retained during periods of substantial mass change associated with long-distance migration. We developed a full-body harness to attach tags to Red Knots (Calidris canutus), a medium-sized shorebird (average mass 124 g) that undertakes long-distance migrations. First, we deployed dummy tags on captive birds and monitored them over a complete migratory fattening cycle (February–July 2013) during which time they gained and lost 31–110 g and underwent a pre-alternate moult of body feathers. Using each individual’s previous year fattening and moult data in captivity as controls, we compared individual mass and moult differences between years between the tagged and reference groups, and concluded that the attachment did not impact mass and moult cycles. However, some birds shed feathers under the tags and under the polyester harness line commonly used in avian harnesses. Feather shedding was alleviated by switching to smoothed-bottom tags and monofilament harness lines. To field-trial this design, we deployed 5-g satellite transmitters on ten Red Knots released on 3 October 2013 in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Bird movements and tag performance appeared normal. However, nine tags stopped transmitting 11–170 days post-release which was earlier than expected. We attribute this to bird mortality rather than failure of the attachments or transmitters and suggest that the extra weight and drag caused by the tag and its feather-blocking shield increased the chance of depredation by the locally common Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). Our results demonstrate that species- and place-specific contexts can strongly determine tagging success. While captive trials are an important first

  5. 3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hyun Ung; Moon, Woong Jae [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease.

  6. Popularity of Tracking Device as an Anti-theft Measure and Impact of its sales on Sales of Auto Insurance Policies: Evidence from Karachi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Karamat Ullah Hussainy; Salman Bashir; Syed Luqman Hakim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper attempt has been made to examine the popularity of tracking devices and its impact on the sales of automobiles insurance policies. Literature review revealed that people insure their vehicles to protect them from theft as well as from other perils such as fire, SRCC, accidental losses and third party liability. The coverage is mainly obtained to prevent theft, which has the major significance. Insurance companies have been trying since a long time to curtail the cost of theft, w...

  7. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  8. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliabilities of 3-dimensional orthodontic digital setups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N.J. Fabels; P.G. Nijkamp

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of digital orthodontic setups has grown quickly. The purpose of this study was to test the interexaminer and intraexaminer reliabilities of 3-dimensional orthodontic digital setups in OrthoCAD (Align Technology, San Jose, Calif). Methods Six clinicians made digital orthodontic s

  9. 2 and 3-dimensional Hamiltonians with Shape Invariance Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Panahi-Talemi, H.; Faizi, E.

    2000-01-01

    Via a special dimensional reduction, that is, Fourier transforming over one of the coordinates of Casimir operator of su(2) Lie algebra and 4-oscillator Hamiltonian, we have obtained 2 and 3 dimensional Hamiltonian with shape invariance symmetry. Using this symmetry we have obtained their eigenspectrum. In the mean time we show equivalence of shape invariance symmetry and Lie algebraic symmetry of these Hamiltonians.

  10. Magnetic Field Requirements for a Detector at the Linear Collider Using a TPC as Main Tracking Device

    CERN Document Server

    Klempt, W

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the requirements to the magnetic field which occur in an ILD like detector at ILC or CLIC. In particular we describe requirements introduced by choosing a TPC as main tracking detector.

  11. 3-Dimensional reconstruction of fluorescent structures in tardigrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BRÜMMER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are microscopic animals, thus brightfield microscopy is a well established method for tardigrade observation. Modern techniques in functional genetics like fluorescence in situ hybridisation or fluorescently labelled expression markers demand high resolution fluorescence microscopy. Nevertheless tardigrades are still considered to be difficult objects for fluorescence techniques as they are covered by an opaque and diffracting cuticle. We show a modern technique of structured light illumination that enables us to acquire thin optical sections and consequently to reconstruct 3-dimensional structures in tardigrades with a high spatial resolution in all 3 dimensions. This technique is evaluated on taxonomically valuable internal as well as external structures of eutardigrades: the bucco-pharyngeal apparatus and the claws. The 3-dimensional reconstructions allow the measurement of distances in all 3 dimensions.

  12. Catalytic carbon deposition on 3-dimensional carbon fibre supports

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Matthew James

    2005-01-01

    Catalytic carbon deposition reactions, using methane, ethane or synthetic natural gas (1.8 vol. % propane, 6.7 vol. % ethane and balance methane) as the carbon-containing gas feedstock with or without the addition of hydrogen, have been investigated over nickel, cobalt and iron catalysts supported on 3-dimensional carbon fibre supports, using both a horizontal tube furnace and an isothermal, isobaric induction furnace. The transition metal catalysts were prepared by impregnating 3-dimens...

  13. GLOBAL STABILITY IN TIME-DELAYED 3-DIMENSIONAL RICHARDS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We obtain the global attractivity and global asymptotical stability of positive equilibria to a 3-dimensional Richards model with delays. Our results do not depend on the size-asymmetry parameter which measures the degree of the curvature of size-growth among individuals over the entire growth curve, and the shape parameter which affects the shape of model curve. Lastly, we gave a numerical simulation to verify the feasibility of our main results.

  14. Decay vertex reconstruction and 3-dimensional lifetime determination at BESⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; HE Kang-Lin; ZHANG Zi-Ping; WANG Yi-Fang; BIAN Jian-Ming; CAO Guo-Fu; CAO Xue-Xiang; CHEN Shen-Jian; DENG Zi-Yan; FU Cheng-Dong; GAO Yuan-Ning; HAN Lei; NAN Shao-Qing; HE Miao; HU Ji-Feng; HU Xiao-Wei; HUANG Bin; HUANG Xing-Tao; JIA Lu-Kui; JI Xiao-Sin; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIANG Yu-Wie; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; LIU Ying; LIU Yong; LUO Tao; L(U) Qi-Wen; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MAO Ze-Pu; MO Xiao-Hu; NING Fei-Peng; PING Rong-Gang; QIU Jin-Fa; SONG Wen-Bo; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Xiao-Dong; SUN Yong-Zhao; TIAN Hao-Lai; WANG Ji-Ke; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; WU Zhi; XIE Yu-Guang; YAN Jie; YAN Liang; YAO Jian; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Lei; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Yang-Heng; ZHU Yong-Sheng; ZOU Jia-Heng

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the vertex reconstruction of resonance particles with a relatively long lifetime such as KSO, A, as well as on lifetime measurements using a 3-dimensional fit. The kinematic constraints between the production and decay vertices and the decay vertex fitting algorithm based on the least squares method are both presented. Reconstruction efficiencies including experimental resolutions are discussed. The results and systematic errors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Anti-de Sitter 3-dimensional Gravity with Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojevic, M; Vasilic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using the canonical formalism, we study the asymptotic symmetries of the topological 3-dimensional gravity with torsion. In the anti-de Sitter sector, the symmetries are realized by two independent Virasoro algebras with classical central charges. In the simple case of the teleparallel vacuum geometry, the central charges are equal to each other and have the same value as in general relativity, while in the general Riemann-Cartan geometry, they become different.

  16. Building An Intelligent Wearable Movement Tracking Device to address Psychological Barriers to Mobility in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitayo A. Olugbade

    2015-10-01

    We are, furthermore, exploring the possibility of a wearable recognition system. To enable this, we investigate the minimization of the number of anatomical segments that need to be tracked to recognize the psychological states. In the case of pain level recognition, we found that collectively for the three movement types considered, the movement of the head, torso, left arm,

  17. Are Currently Available Wearable Devices for Activity Tracking and Heart Rate Monitoring Accurate, Precise, and Medically Beneficial?

    OpenAIRE

    El-Amrawy, Fatema; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The new wave of wireless technologies, fitness trackers, and body sensor devices can have great impact on healthcare systems and the quality of life. However, there have not been enough studies to prove the accuracy and precision of these trackers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and overall performance of seventeen wearable devices currently available compared with direct observation of step counts and heart rate monitoring. Methods Each partic...

  18. Development of a 3-dimensional seismic isolation floor for computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigated the applicability of a seismic isolation floor as a method for protecting computer systems from strong earthquakes, such as computer systems in nuclear power plants. Assuming that the computer system is guaranteed for 250 cm/s2 of input acceleration in the horizontal and vertical directions as the seismic performance, the basic design specification of the seismic isolation floor is considered as follows. Against S1 level earthquakes, the maximum acceleration response of the seismic isolation floor in the horizontal and vertical directions is kept less than 250 cm/s2 to maintain continuous computer operation. Against S2 level earthquakes, the isolation floor allows large horizontal movement and large displacement of the isolation devices to reduce the acceleration response, although it is not guaranteed to be less than 250 cm/s2. By reducing the acceleration response, however, serious damage to the computer systems is reduced, so that they can be restarted after an earthquake. Usually, seismic isolation floor systems permit 2-dimensional (horizontal) isolation. However, in the case of just-under-seated earthquakes, which have large vertical components, the vertical acceleration response of this system is amplified by the lateral vibration of the frame of the isolation floor. Therefore, in this study a 3-dimensional seismic isolation floor, including vertical isolation, was developed. This paper describes 1) the experimental results of the response characteristics of the 3-dimensional seismic isolation floor built as a trial using a 3-dimensional shaking table, and 2) comparison of a 2-dimensional analytical model, for motion in one horizontal direction and the vertical direction, to experimental results. (J.P.N.)

  19. Formation and microstructural analysis of 3-dimensional titanium oxide structures via large surface electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, in photo electronic devices industry, titanium oxide which was known to have good optical and electrical characteristic's been studied in the microstructural aspect to increase the conversion efficiency, such as making variable architecture, coating the titanium oxide nano-tube with the quantum dots which have higher band gap materials than this, etc. However, the process of making 3-dimensional titanium oxide structure with general deposition system such as hydrothermal growth, CVO, PVD and ALD had more variables and longer time consumption to make nano structures than electron beam irradiation case. Herein, we proceed with making new titanium oxide nano-screen-testing electron beam irradiation. The metal alkoxide composed of the 1 mol of titanium iso-propoxide and the 1 mol of acetylation reacted with water in propylene glycol methyl ether acetate and isopropyl alcohol solvent. After this process which made the bonding among Ti, O and other organics, the polymer solution was deposited on various types of substrate, such as anodized aluminum oxide mail. Kist. ac., Ag nano dots on SiO2 thin film, Au nano dots on SiO2 thin film, etc. The electron beam irradiation was progressed with the vertical accelerator facility of EB tech which was the company in Dijon, Korea The shape, microstructure and chemical composition of the irradiated polymers were characterized using TEM, XRD, Sem and EDS. The three types of Ti-Ox 3-dimensional structure were made; nano dot cluster, spike-like structure and dendrite structure. Each type of these structures was composed of different mircrostructures. Especially, the formation the 3-dimensional structures via electron beam irradiation was not only effected by the electron beam irradiation conditions but also effected by solution concentrate, conductivity and surface energy of substrate

  20. DESIGN OF TWO-DIMENSION SOLAR TRACKING DEVICE WITH HORIZONTAL STAGGERED CROSS AXIS%水平十字交错轴二维太阳跟踪装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志龙; 王成志; 刘菊东; 黄种明; 李超; 张耀明

    2013-01-01

    基于地球绕太阳运行轨迹进行理论分析和研究,设计了一种水平十字交错轴二维太阳跟踪装置,讨论其机械结构和控制方案,并运用于光伏光热一体机中试电站.该装置可带动多个聚光单元同步跟踪太阳,降低了太阳跟踪装置的成本,特别适合于屋面太阳跟踪装置的应用.%A kind of two-dimension solar tracking device with horizontal staggered cross axis was designed based on the theoretical analysis and research of the theory on the trajectory of the earth' s movement round the sun.Its mechanical structure and control system were introduced.The device was successfully applied to the pilot plant of Photoelectric and Photothermic integration devices.The solar tracking device with horizontal staggered cross axis can drive several condenser units synchronously,and reduce the costs of solar tracking devices.This device is adequate for solar tracking device on roof.

  1. 3-dimensional self-calibrating coastal oil spill trajectory tracking and contaminant transport using HF radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the dynamic behaviour of the turbulent mixing process in coastal environments for both advection and dispersion transport. The spatial variability of the coefficients that characterize the process was also examined. Every transport model should be calibrated to include specific information regarding geomorphology and climatic conditions. HF-radar equipment eliminates the need for model-recalibration and validation for transport models of coefficients which have spatial-temporal variations. The HF-radar has a grid resolution of 1000 m, providing real-time velocity coefficients by measuring surface currents. Dispersion coefficients can be derived from velocity time-series using the principle of Autocorrelation Functions (ACF) for time series. This concept was applied to two Gulf of Mexico bays in Texas, Corpus Christi and Matagorda. It was determined that the within-bay spatial variability of dispersion coefficients were many orders of magnitude higher than between-bay variability. The proposed model effectively reduced model complexity. The results of a 3-D dimensional contaminant transport model was presented. It was successfully used in the simulation of a contaminant spill scenario in the two bays using spatially distributed time-dependent transport coefficients. 5 refs., 8 figs

  2. Materials applications of an advanced 3-dimensional atom probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo, A. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Gibuoin, D. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Kim, S. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Sijbrandij, S.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Venker, F.M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials]|[Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics; Warren, P.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Wilde, J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Smith, G.D.W. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    1996-09-01

    An advanced 3-dimensional atom probe system has been constructed, based on an optical position-sensitive atom probe (OPoSAP) detector with energy compensation using a reflectron lens. The multi-hit detection capability of the OPoSAP leads to significant improvements in the efficiency of the instrument over the earlier serial position-sensing system. Further gains in efficiency are obtained by using a biassed grid in front of the detector to collect secondary electrons generated when ions strike the interchannel area. The improvement in detection efficiency gives enhanced performance in the studies of ordered materials and the determination of site occupation. Energy compensation leads to a much improved mass resolution (m/{Delta}m=500 full width at half maximum) making it possible to map out the 3-dimensional spatial distributions of all the elements in complex engineering alloys, even when elements lie close together in the mass spectrum. For example, in the analysis of a maraging steel, this allows separation between the {sup 61}Ni{sup 2+} and {sup 92}Mo{sup 3+} peaks, which are only 1/6 of a mass unit apart. (orig.).

  3. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.

    2016-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  4. A Kind of Dual-axis Automatic Tracking Solar Energy Device%一种基于双轴的太阳能自动跟踪装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新亮

    2015-01-01

    为了提高太阳能电池的转换效率,设计了一种以M sp430F149单片机为核心,基于双轴的太阳能自动跟踪装置。该装置能精确跟踪太阳运动轨迹,使太阳能电池组件在晴天时始终垂直接收太阳光;在阴天时自动切换至时钟式跟踪,其转换效率高、成本低。实验结果表明,对比固定安装的太阳能电池板,在相同条件下,采用太阳能自动跟踪装置的太阳能电池板的接收率提高了约40%。%A novel automatic dual-axis tracking solar energy device with the core of Msp430F149 is designed to improve conversion efficiency of the solar panel .The solar energy device can make solar panel always vertical to the sunlight at sunny day .Otherwise , the clock model will be used .The device is of high conversion efficiency and low cost .The experiment indicates that compared with the device that the solar panel is fixed ,the new device can improve the efficiency by 40% in a day under the same condition .

  5. Hexad Preons and Emergent Gravity in 3-dimensional Complex Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shun-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    We suggest that at high energy each space dimension has their own time dimension, forming a 3-dimensional complex spacetime. Based on this hypothesis, we propose that the primordial universe is made of six fundamental fermions and their complex conjugate states. These fermions are called Hexad Preons which carry hypercolor degree of freedom transforming under $U(3,3)$ gauge group. The Hermitian metric emerges upon the breakdown of the gauge group from $U(3,3)$ to its maximal compact subgroup $U(3)\\otimes U(3)$. Leptons, quarks, as well as other matter states may be formed from the subsequent condensate of Hexad Preons. Strong and electroweak forces are manifestations of the hypercolor interaction in the corresponding cases. Our framework sheds light on many problems in cosmology and particle physics.

  6. Protalign: a 3-dimensional protein alignment assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, D; Hansen, M D; Pang, A

    1999-01-01

    Protein fold recognition (sometimes called threading) is the prediction of a protein's 3-dimensional shape based on its similarity to a protein of known structure. Fold predictions are low resolution; that is, no effort is made to rotate the protein's component amino acid side chains into their correct spatial orientations. The goal is simply to recognize the protein family member that most closely resembles the target sequence of unknown structure and to create a sensible alignment of the target to the known structure (i.e., a structure-sequence alignment). To facilitate this type of structure prediction, we have designed a low resolution molecular graphics tool. ProtAlign introduces the ability to interact with and edit alignments directly in the 3-dimensional structure as well as in the usual 2-dimensional layout. It also contains several functions and features to help the user assess areas within the alignment. ProtAlign implements an open pipe architecture to allow other programs to access its molecular graphics capabilities. In addition, it is capable of "driving" other programs. Because amino acid side chain orientation is not relevant in fold recognition, we represent amino acid residues as abstract shapes or glyphs much like Lego (tm) blocks and we borrow techniques from comparative flow visualization using streamlines to provide clean depictions of the entire protein model. By creating a low resolution representation of protein structure, we are able to at least double the amount of information on the screen. At the same time, we create a view that is not as busy as the corresponding representations using traditional high resolution visualization methods which show detailed atomic structure. This eliminates distracting and possibly misleading visual clutter resulting from the mapping of protein alignment information onto a high resolution display of the known structure. This molecular graphics program is implemented in Open GL to facilitate porting to

  7. A feasibility study to track cosmic muons using a detector with SiPM devices based on amplitude discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Stanca, D; Brancus, I; Mitrica, B; Balaceanu, A; Cautisanu, B; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Haungs, A; Mathes, H -J; Rebel, H; Saftoiu, A; Sima, O; Mosu, T

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to build a SiPM-readout muon detector (SiRO), using plastic scintillators with optical fibers as sensitive volume and readout by SiPM photo-diodes, is investigated. SiRO shall be used for tracking cosmic muons based on amplitude discrimination. The detector concept foresees a stack of 6 active layers, grouped in 3 sandwiches for determining the muon trajectories through 3 planes. After investigating the characteristics of the photodiodes, tests have been performed using two detection modules, each being composed from a plastic scintillator sheet, $100 \\times 25 \\times 1\\,$cm$^{3}$, with 12 parallel, equidistant ditches; each ditch filled with an optical fiber of $1.5\\,$mm thickness and always two fibers connected to form a channel. The attenuation of the light response along the optical fiber and across the channels have been tested. The measurements of the incident muons based on the input amplitude discrimination indicate that this procedure is not efficient and therefore not sufficient, as ...

  8. PWR core safety analysis with 3-dimensional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An overview of AREVA’s safety analysis codes their coupling is provided. • The validation base and licensing applications of these codes are summarized. • Coupled codes and methods provide improved margins and non-conservative results. • Examples for REA and inadvertent opening of the pressurizer safety valve are given. - Abstract: The main focus of safety analysis is to demonstrate the required safety level of the reactor core. Because of the demanding requirements, the quality of the safety analysis strongly affects the confidence in the operational safety of a reactor. To ensure the highest quality, it is essential that the methodology consists of appropriate analysis tools, an extensive validation base, and last but not least highly educated engineers applying the methodology. The sophisticated 3-dimensional core models applied by AREVA ensure that all physical effects relevant for safety are treated and the results are reliable and conservative. Presently AREVA employs SCIENCE, CASMO/NEMO and CASCADE-3D for pressurized water reactors. These codes are currently being consolidated into the next generation 3D code system ARCADIA®. AREVA continuously extends the validation base, including measurement campaigns in test facilities and comparisons of the predictions of steady state and transient measured data gathered from plants during many years of operation. Thus, the core models provide reliable and comprehensive results for a wide range of applications. For the application of these powerful tools, AREVA is taking benefit of its interdisciplinary know-how and international teamwork. Experienced engineers of different technical backgrounds are working together to ensure an appropriate interpretation of the calculation results, uncertainty analysis, along with continuously maintaining and enhancing the quality of the analysis methodologies. In this paper, an overview of AREVA’s broad application experience as well as the broad validation

  9. Multiple assets position determination in a 3-dimensional environment using the APRS protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Foutzitzis, Evangelos K.

    2007-01-01

    Increased situational awareness in the battlefield is one of the main objectives in today?s operations and applies to all levels of commands. Several attempts have been made to use tracking devices for detecting and continuously updating the positional data of friendly assets on a map. Current applications like Falcon View fulfill their objective in presenting the location of targets of interest on a digital mapping environment. Falcon View is a geographic information system (GIS) used extens...

  10. "Exposure Track"-The Impact of Mobile-Device-Based Mobility Patterns on Quantifying Population Exposure to Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Marguerite; Grauwin, Sebastian; Britter, Rex; Misstear, Bruce; McNabola, Aonghus; Laden, Francine; Barrett, Steven R H; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution is now recognized as the world's single largest environmental and human health threat. Indeed, a large number of environmental epidemiological studies have quantified the health impacts of population exposure to pollution. In previous studies, exposure estimates at the population level have not considered spatially- and temporally varying populations present in study regions. Therefore, in the first study of it is kind, we use measured population activity patterns representing several million people to evaluate population-weighted exposure to air pollution on a city-wide scale. Mobile and wireless devices yield information about where and when people are present, thus collective activity patterns were determined using counts of connections to the cellular network. Population-weighted exposure to PM2.5 in New York City (NYC), herein termed "Active Population Exposure" was evaluated using population activity patterns and spatiotemporal PM2.5 concentration levels, and compared to "Home Population Exposure", which assumed a static population distribution as per Census data. Areas of relatively higher population-weighted exposures were concentrated in different districts within NYC in both scenarios. These were more centralized for the "Active Population Exposure" scenario. Population-weighted exposure computed in each district of NYC for the "Active" scenario were found to be statistically significantly (p pollution using spatiotemporal population mobility patterns warrants consideration in future environmental epidemiological studies linking air quality and human health.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AUTOMATIC TRACKING MECHANISM OF LARGE LIGHT FOCUSING DEVICES OF PHOTOVOLTAJC GENERATION%大型光伏发电聚光器跟踪机构的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志龙

    2009-01-01

    The light focusing efficiency is largely influenced by the sun tracking accuracy of light focusing devices of pho-tovoltaic generation. The potential error of one planar tracking mechanism with friction wheel and lead screw combined was analyzed. In the test, practicality indicated which can be used in real-time tracking of the elevation angle and azi-muth angle of the sun for various kinds of large light focusing devices of photovoltaic generation.%介绍了一种摩擦轮驱动和丝杆驱动组合的二维跟踪机构,在此基础上对跟踪可能产生的误差进行分析,并通过实践验证,得出此种驱动方案适用于各种大型光伏发电聚光器实时跟踪太阳的方位角和高度角.

  12. Design of Tracking Position Device Based on GSM & GPS%基于GSM和GPS的跟踪定位装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文晨; 王长坤

    2014-01-01

    本文提出了一种基于GSM技术和GPS技术的跟踪定位装置的设计方案。该系统由主控模块、GSM模块、GPS模块、LCD显示模块、电源模块等组成。系统采用STC12C5A60S2单片机作为控制核心,实时读取GPS模块采集的数据并处理,最后显示在LCD显示屏上。同时利用GSM模块,将处理后的信息通过短信的方式发送给用户手机,满足用户远程跟踪、控制移动目标的需求。%This paper puts forward a design of tracking position device based on the technology of GSM and GPS. This system is consist of many modules, including the master control module, the GSM and GPS module, the LED display module and the power module, etc. By using the STC12C5A60S2 microcontroller as the control core, this system can load and process the data collected by the GPS module, and displays those on the LED screen. And by applying the GSM, the processed information will be sent to the users through messages to meet user's needs of remote tracking and moving target controlling.

  13. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  14. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  15. The Complexities of Self-Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöklint, Mimmi; Constantiou, Ioanna; Trier, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    -tracking devices, which track moving and sleeping activities on a daily basis. 42 interviews were conducted with users of self-tracking devices. The findings suggest that self-tracking activity through wearable technology does not necessarily lead to behavioural change, but predominately works as a re...

  16. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    OpenAIRE

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition mo...

  17. Tracking objects, Tracking agents

    OpenAIRE

    Bullot, Nicolas J.; Rysiew, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Animals and humans have to keep track of individuals in their environment, both in perception (sensorimotor tracking) and in cognition (e.g., spatio-temporal localization and linguistic reference via memory, communication and reasoning). Items that are typical targets for tracking are things such as stationary physical objects (e.g., rocks, plants, trees, buildings, or attached artifacts), moving physical objects (e.g., animals, certain artifacts) and human beings. All such items are located ...

  18. Auto-measuring System of 3- Dimensional Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 尚保平; 付小莉; 尚会超

    2001-01-01

    To realize the automation of fashion industry measuring,designing and manufacturing, the auto-measurement of 3D size of human body is of great importance. The auto measurement system of 3D human body based on Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) and infrared sensors is presented in this paper. The system can measure the bare size of human body that excludes the effect of clothing quickly and accurately.

  19. A Novel Methodology for Thermal Analysis & 3-Dimensional Memory Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cherian, Annmol; Augustine, Ajay; Jose, Jemy; Pangracious, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is reaching a fascinating confluence in several evolutionary trends that will likely lead to a number of revolutionary changes in the design, implementation, scaling, and the use of computer systems. However, recently Moore's law has come to a stand-still since device scaling beyond 65 nm is not practical. 2D integration has problems like memory latency, power dissipation, and large foot-print. 3D technology comes as a solution to the problems posed by 2D integratio...

  20. Printed Tag Real-time Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bilal, Rana M.

    2014-09-18

    Disclosed are various embodiments for monitoring tracking devices capable of seamless indoor and outdoor tracking transitions. A tracking device may comprise, for example, printable circuitry and antennas combined with one or more receivers/transceivers on a substrate. The tracking device may be configured, for example, to localize the tracking device via GPS or an alternative localization strategy based on a determination of whether GPS communication is available. A modified RSSI fingerprinting methodology may be used to accurately determine a location of the tracking device using Wi-Fi access points. A device monitoring service may communicate with internal and/or external mapping API\\'s to render a device monitoring user interface comprising a visual representation of the location of the tracking device.

  1. A method for generating information of a 3-dimensional molecular structure of a molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohil, J.A.; Wolf, M.G.; De Leeuw, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for generating information of a 3 -dimensional molecular structure of a molecule, said method being executable by a computer under the control of a program stored in the computer, said method comprising the steps of : (a) receiving a 3 -dimensional represent

  2. A NOVEL ARCHITECTURE OF MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING FOR ULTRA-LOW-POWER BASED HYBRID ENERGY HARVESTER IN UBIQUITOUS DEVICES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lim Sern Mi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work presents a novel architecture of an Ultra-Low-Power (ULP based Hybrid Energy Harvester (HEH consisting of multiple input sources such as kinetic, thermal and solar energy, harvested from passive human power. Having multiple ambient sources mitigates limitations caused by single sources especially for bodily-worn applications; however, this results in impedance mismatch among the different integrated sources. To overcome this limitation, the proposed ULP-HEH will use one power management unit with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT algorithm and impedance matching considerations to efficiently manage and combine power harvested from all three sources to achieve ULP consumptions. Among other crucial sub-modules of the ULP-HEH are its Asynchronous Finite State Machine (AFSM cum resource sharing arbiter to prioritize and share energy sources for overall power reduction, an efficient rectification scheme for the piezoelectric input, an adaptive feedback for ULP conditioning, Zero-Current Switching (ZCS for semi-lossless switching, a self-start circuit for low ambient startup, a Boost converter, a Buck regulator, a fuzzy-based micro-battery charger and a de-multiplexer to switch between harvesting or charging capabilities. All of which are implemented for maximum output extraction and minimal losses. This ULP-HEH will be developed in PSPICE software, Verilog coding under Mentor Graphics environment and later to be verified using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA board before the final layout implementation in CMOS 0.13-µm process technology. This battery-less ULP-HEH is expected to deliver 3.0-5.0V of regulated voltage output from low ambient sources of 35 mV at startup. An efficiency of 90% with an output power of 650 µm is expected when all sources are summed. Also, this ULP-HEH is aimed at reducing power consumption to at least twice (<70 µW of conventional approaches. The proposed ULP-HEH can be used for ULP bodily

  3. The Usefulness of 3-Dimensional Virtual Simulation Using Haptics in Training Orotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Airway control is the most critical treatment. The most common and basic method of endotracheal intubation is orotracheal intubation. To perform accurate and rapid tracheal intubation, appropriate education and training are required. We developed the virtual simulation program utilizing the 3-dimensional display and haptic device to exercise orotracheal intubation, and the educational effect of this program was compared with that of the mannequin method. Method. The control group used airway mannequin and virtual intubation group was trained with new program. We videotaped both groups during objective structured clinical examination (OSCE with airway mannequin. The video was reviewed and scored, and the rate of success and time were calculated. Result. The success rate was 78.6% in virtual intubation group and 93.3% in control group (P=0.273. There was no difference in overall score of OSCE (21.14 ± 4.28 in virtual intubation group and 23.33 ± 4.45 in control group, P=0.188, the time spent in successful intubation (P=0.432, and the number of trials (P>0.101. Conclusion. The virtual simulation with haptics had a similar effect compared with mannequin, but it could be more cost effective and convenient than mannequin training in time and space.

  4. A new concept in biometric identification 3-dimensional hand geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of biometric identifier which utilizes hand outline measurements made in three dimensions is described. This device uses solid state imaging with no moving parts. The important characteristics of accuracy, speed, user tolerability, small template size, low power, portability and reliability are discussed. A complete stand-alone biometric access control station with sufficient memory for 10,000 users and weighing less than 10 pounds has been built and tested. A test was conducted involving daily use by 112 users over a seven week period during which over 6300 access attempts were made. The single try equal error rate was found to be 0.4%. There were no false rejects when three tries were allowed before access was denied. Defeat with an artifact is difficult because the hand must be copied in all three dimensions

  5. Coherence in monoidal track categories

    CERN Document Server

    Guiraud, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We introduce homotopical methods based on rewriting on higher-dimensional categories to prove coherence results in categories with an algebraic structure. We express the coherence problem for (symmetric) monoidal categories as an asphericity problem for a track category and use rewriting methods on polygraphs to solve it. The setting is generalized to more general coherence problems, seen as 3-dimensional word problems in a track category. We prove general results that, in the case of braided monoidal categories, yield the coherence theorem for braided monoidal categories.

  6. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  7. Implementation of new echocardiographic modalities in routine practice in a general hospital – Pocket-size cardiac ultrasound and 3 dimensional echocardiography. Studies on feasibility and diagnostic accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based upon the implementation of pocket-size cardiac ultrasound (PCU) among medical students and residents in internal medicine and 3 dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in routine care at a general hospital. The introduction of widely available and handy ultrasound devices has represented a challenge to the medical community as implementation in clinical practice can be made by non-specialists. In view of favorable results from the non-expert use of the larger laptop-sized d...

  8. Topological Entropy and Renormalization group flow in 3-dimensional spherical spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, M; Cavero-Peláez, I; D'Ascanio, D; Santangelo, E M

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the renormalization group flow of the temperature independent term of the entropy in the high temperature limit \\beta/a S^IR_top between the topological entropies of the conformal field theories connected by such flow. From a 3-dimensional viewpoint the same term arises in the 3-dimensional Euclidean effective action and has the same monotone behavior under the RG group flow. We conjecture that such monotonic behavior is generic, which would give rise to a 3-dimensional generalization of the c-theorem, along the lines of the 2-dimensional c-theorem and the 4-dimensional a-theorem.

  9. SOME PROBLEMS ON JUMP CONDITIONS OF SHOCK WAVES IN 3-DIMENSIONAL SOLIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-chi; YAO Lei; HU Xiu-zhang; CAO Jie-dong; DONG Jie

    2006-01-01

    Based on the general conservation laws in continuum mechanics, the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of the jump conditions of shock waves in 3-dimensional solids were presented respectively. The implication of the jump conditions and their relations between each other, particularly the relation between the mass conservation and the displacement continuity, were discussed. Meanwhile the shock wave response curves in 3-dimensional solids, i.e. the Hugoniot curves were analysed, which provide the foundation for studying the coupling effects of shock waves in 3-dimensional solids.

  10. On an asymptotic distribution of dependent random variables on a 3-dimensional lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Danielle J; Weng, Qian; Beckett, Laurel A

    2010-06-15

    We define conditions under which sums of dependent spatial data will be approximately normally distributed. A theorem on the asymptotic distribution of a sum of dependent random variables defined on a 3-dimensional lattice is presented. Examples are also presented.

  11. Initial magnetic field configurations for 3-dimensional simulations of astrophysical jets

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, M.; R. Ouyed; Christensen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We solve, and provide analytical expressions, for current-free magnetic configurations in the context of initial setups of 3-dimensional simulations of astrophysical jets involving an accretion disk corona in hydrostatic balance around a central object. These configurations which thread through the accretion disk and its corona preserve the initial hydrostatic state. This work sets stage for future 3-dimensional jet simulations (including disk rotation and mass-load) where launching, accelera...

  12. Device of Solar Automatic Tracking Based on MC9S12DG128%基于MC9S12DG128的太阳能自动追踪装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 肖广朋; 康留旺

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a device of solar automatic tracking based on MCU's controlling, including solar panels, DC motor, driver and controller, which connecting with photosensitive semiconductor, photoelectric detection and tracking module and tracking trajectory module. The device benefits from both advantages of two modules, using photoelectric detection and tracking module as sunny, judging the sun's position with A/D conversion circuit of photosensitive diode and controlling solar panels with the stepper motor to track the sunshine; using tracking trajectory module as cloudy, calculating the angle of the position and height of the sun at that time through software to track. It can control precisely the rotational speed and direction of DC motor to achieve operation of start, rotating clockwise or counter clockwise of motor%本文描述了一种基于单片机控制的太阳能自动追踪装置,包括太阳能电池板、直流电动机、驱动器、控制单元、光敏半导体、光电检测追踪模块和视日运动轨迹追踪模块。该装置吸收了光电检测追踪模式和视曰运动轨迹追踪模式这两者的长处,晴天时采用光电检测追踪模式,利用光敏二极管的A/D转换电路来判断太阳位置,配合步进电机控制太阳能电池板对阳光进行即时追踪;阴雨天时进入视日运动轨迹追踪模式,通过软件计算当时太阳的方位角和高度角来进行追踪。可以对直流电机转速和转动方向进行精确的控制,实现电机的启动、正转、反转等操作。

  13. 75 FR 69447 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices; Device Tracking AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... device information is collected to facilitate identifying the current location of medical devices and... solicits comments on information collection requirements for the tracking of medical devices. DATES:...

  14. Research and Implementation of mobile device positioning tracking system%移动终端的定位跟踪系统研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涛; 范辉

    2013-01-01

      Location tracking technology refers to a specific location technology to get the mobile phone or the user's terminal location information (longitude, latitude coordinates, etc.), and marker the position of the terminal on the electronic map for tracking technologies or services. The system is integrated with a GPS positioning technology, WEBGIS, GSM communications network, GPRS packet radio technology, middleware, and other technology to achieve tracking the mobile terminal location functions, and achieve real-time tracking for the terminal staff and dynamic management of location information. Mobile location tracking technology can be applied to the following places: tracking services, information services, security services and pay services.%  定位跟踪技术是指通过特定的定位技术来获取移动手机或终端用户的位置信息(经度、纬度坐标等),并且在电子地图上对跟踪终端的位置进行标注的技术或服务。该系统综合使用了GPS定位技术、WEBGIS、GSM通信网络、GPRS无线分组技术、中间件等技术实现了对移动的终端进行定位跟踪的功能,实现对终端人员的实时跟踪和位置信息的动态管理。移动定位跟踪技术的主要应用场所有以下4种:追踪服务、信息服务、安全服务和付帐服务。

  15. Design of collaborative target tracking system using digital micro-mirror device%基于数字微镜阵列的协同目标跟踪系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涵; 张滋黎; 唐亚军; 郭喜庆; 周维虎

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the situation that the multi-lens target tracking systems have poor collabo-ration and the single-lens systems have narrow tracking view field w hich cannot realize wide field tracking ,a coordination tracking system which can track target in wide field and observe local target simultaneously was designed .The system ,based on the performance of high re-flectivity and field segmentation of digital micro-mirror device (DMD) ,has good practicability , great real-time performance and simple structure etc .In validation experiments ,the width field segmentation system realizes 50ms synergistic imaging cycle ,and the less than 2% absolute position error of narrow filed image center adjustment system can make contributions to the so-lution of overlap problem between local targets beam center and narrow filed imaging system's axis .%针对多镜头目标跟踪系统协同性差及单镜头系统目标跟踪观测过程中视场小、无法实现宽视场跟踪的现状,设计了能同时实现宽视场跟踪窄视场局部目标检测的协同跟踪系统。该系统基于数字微镜阵列高反射率、高性能视场分割的特点。验证实验中,宽窄视场分割系统实现了50 m s的协同成像周期;窄视场像中心调整系统不超过2%的绝对位置误差,为局部目标光束中心难以与窄视场成像系统视轴重合问题的解决提供了实验依据。

  16. The 3-Dimensional q-Deformed Harmonic Oscillator and Magic Numbers of Alkali Metal Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Raychev, P P; Roussev, R P; Terziev, P A; Bonatsos, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Magic numbers predicted by a 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator with Uq(3) > SOq(3) symmetry are compared to experimental data for alkali metal clusters, as well as to theoretical predictions of jellium models, Woods--Saxon and wine bottle potentials, and to the classification scheme using the 3n+l pseudo quantum number. The 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator correctly predicts all experimentally observed magic numbers up to 1500 (which is the expected limit of validity for theories based on the filling of electronic shells), thus indicating that Uq(3), which is a nonlinear extension of the U(3) symmetry of the spherical (3-dimensional isotropic) harmonic oscillator, is a good candidate for being the symmetry of systems of alkali metal clusters.

  17. The Design of the Smart Car Track Recognition Devices Based on XS128 MCU%基于XS128单片机的智能车赛道识别装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江华

    2011-01-01

    设计采用飞思卡尔新型16位单片机MC9S12XS128为控制器、红外光电传感器作为赛道信息探测传感器,采集的信息经单片机进行PID调节、查表等软件处理,控制智能车的速度和舵机的转向,从而使智能车高速平稳的沿赛道行驶.文章详细介绍了赛道识别装置的硬件组成及软件控制流程.%This design uses Freescale new 16-bit microcontroller MC9S12xS128 as the controller, infrared sensors as detection sensor of track information, the information collected through the microcontroller PID adjustment, look-up table and other software processing, controls the speed and steering servo of the smart car, so that the smart car can driving at a high-speed along the track. The paper introduces the track recognition device control hardware and software processes.

  18. Regenerative material for aneurysm embolization A 3-dimensional culture system of fibroblasts and calcium alginate gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingdong Zhang; Kan Xu; Jinlu Yu; Jun Wang; Qi Luo

    2011-01-01

    Calcium alginate gel (CAG) has been shown to successfully model aneurysm embolization within a short period of time. However, gradually degrading CAG potentially results in aneurysm recanalization.In the present study, a regenerative embolic material was designed by seeding rat fibroblasts in a CAG. The study investigated the feasibility of constructing a 3-dimensional culture system. The fibroblasts grew well and firmly attached to the CAG. CAG was conducive for fibroblast growth, and resulted in a 3-dimensional culture system. Results show that CAG can be used theoretically as a vascular, regenerative, embolic material.

  19. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  20. Dynamics of large scale 3-dimensional circulation of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swapna, P.

    -diagnostic calculation (ii) To simulate the climatic 3-dimensional circulation of Indian Ocean using the state of art sigma co-ordinate model. (iii) To study the sensitivity of Indian Ocean circulation to different wind fields (iv) To compare the model results...

  1. Study of new chaotic flows on a family of 3-dimensional systems with quadratic nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a wider systematic search on a family of 3-dimensional systems with quadratic nonlinearities, three new simple chaotic systems were found. One of them has the unusual feature of having a stable equilibrium point, and it is the simplest one of other chaotic flows with this property. The others have some interesting special properties

  2. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, L.I.F.; Guldemond, N.A.; De Bie, R.A.; Walenkamp, G.H.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM) in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measu

  3. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although…

  4. Is nonangiogenesis a novel pathway for cancer progression? A study using 3-dimensional tumour reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Adighibe, O; Micklem, K; Campo, L; Ferguson, M.; Harris, A; Pozos, R; Gatter, K; Pezzella, F.

    2006-01-01

    The nonangiogenic lung tumour is characterized by neoplastic cells co-opting the pre-existent vasculature and filling the alveoli space. 3-Dimensional reconstruction of the tumour reveals that this particular tumour progresses without neovascularization and there is no major destruction of the lung's architectural integrity.

  5. 3-Dimensional Cahn-Hilliard Equation with Concentration Dependent Mobility and Gradient Dependent Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui HUANG; Yang CAO

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the initial boundary value problem of Cahn-Hilliard equation with concentration dependent mobility and gradient dependent potential. By the energy method and the theory of Campanato spaces, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of classical solutions in 3-dimensional space.

  6. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances : A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W. Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. METHODS: The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (

  7. An application of the 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator to the nuclear shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Raychev, P P; Lo-Iudice, N; Terziev, P A

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the construction of a q-deformed version of the 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which is based on the application of q-deformed algebras, is presented. The results together with their applicability to the shell model are compared with the predictions of the modified harmonic oscillator.

  8. On an asymptotic distribution of dependent random variables on a 3-dimensional lattice✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Danielle J.; Weng, Qian; Beckett, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    We define conditions under which sums of dependent spatial data will be approximately normally distributed. A theorem on the asymptotic distribution of a sum of dependent random variables defined on a 3-dimensional lattice is presented. Examples are also presented. PMID:20436940

  9. Estimating 3-Dimensional Structure of Tropical Forests from Radar Interferometry / Estimativa da Estrutura 3-Dimensional das Florestas Tropicais Através de Interferometria de Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Treuhaft

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the retrieval of 3-dimensional vegetation density profiles from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR using physical models. InSAR’s sensitivity to vertical structure is generally regarded as less direct and more difficult to understand than that of lidar. But InSAR’s coverage is superior to that of lidar, suggesting InSAR is more promising as an important component of a global 3-dimensional forest monitoring technique. The goal of this paper is to introduce, simplify and demystify the use of simple physical models to understand InSAR. A general equation expressing the InSAR observation in terms of density is described heuristically, along with the approximations in its development. The information content of the equation leads to the estimation of density parameters. Preliminary results are shown from a multibaseline C-band (wavelength=0.056 m vertical-polarization interferometer, realized with AirSAR flown at multiple altitudes over primary, secondary, and selectively logged tropical forests, as well as abandoned pastures at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica.

  10. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Self-patterned aluminium interconnects and ring electrodes for arrays of microcavity plasma devices encapsulated in Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic formation of Al interconnects and ring electrodes, fully encapsulated by alumina, in planar arrays of Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 microcavity plasma devices has been accomplished by electrochemical processing of Al foil. Following the fabrication of cylindrical microcavities (50-350 µm in diameter) in 127 µm thick Al foil, virtually complete anodization of the foil yields azimuthally symmetric Al electrodes surrounding each cavity and interconnects between adjacent microcavities that are produced and simultaneously buried within a transparent Al2O3 film without the need for conventional patterning techniques. The diameter and pitch of the microcavities prior to anodization, as well as the anodization process parameters, determine which of the microcavity plasma devices in a one- or two-dimensional array are connected electrically. Data presented for 200 µm diameter cavities with a pitch of 150-225 µm illustrate the patterning of the interconnects and electrode connectivity after 4-10 h of anodization in oxalic acid. Self-patterned, linear arrays comprising 25 dielectric barrier devices have been excited by a sinusoidal or bipolar pulse voltage waveform and operated in 400-700 Torr of rare gas. Owing to the electrochemical conversion of most of the Al foil into Al2O3, the self-formed arrays exhibit an areal capacitance ~82% lower than that characteristic of previous Al/Al2O3 device arrays (Park et al 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 99 026107).

  11. 跟踪图像生成技术应用于光电设备模拟训练%Technology of tracking image generating applied in simulation training of photoelectric device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 李丹

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of lacking cooperation targets in the army’s dairy training of the pho-toelectric device,a generating algorithm of the dummy tracking image is presented based on the com-puter’s processing.This algorithm can generate the tracking image of the dummy target according to the theoretical trajectory,the prototype,the characteristic parameters and the three view of target, and also integrating the information of rotation position for the photoelectric device.The results show that the algorithm can effectively solve the army’s training problem,which can make the operator ma-nipulate the device on the basis of the dummy tracking image to complete the dairy training.At the same time,the algorithm has been optimized to improve the computer efficiency,which the working time is about 5~6 ms to generate the dummy tracking image for a standard PAL type analog image with 25 Hz cycle.By analyzing of the result,the precision of tracking image is about 1″and measure up for the army’s dairy training.%针对光电设备在部队日常训练中缺乏合作目标的问题,提出了一种基于计算机处理的虚拟跟踪图像生成算法,该算法根据目标的理论弹道、目标类型、目标特征参数及目标的三视图,结合光电设备转台位置信息生成虚拟目标跟踪图像。该算法有效解决了在部队的日常训练中无合作目标的问题,在生成虚拟图像后,可让操作人员根据虚拟跟踪图像对设备进行操作,完成日常训练。同时,在算法的研究过程中充分考虑处理耗时,在经过算法优化后,虚拟跟踪图像生成算法的耗时在5~6 ms 左右,针对标准 PAL 制式的模拟图像25 Hz 的周期,可完成对虚拟跟踪图像的生成。对虚拟图像进行判读,计算虚拟图像的目标位置精度为1″左右,满足部队日常训练使用要求。

  12. The Application of Device Transformation of TRIZ Theory in the Dumper Track Alignment%TRIZ理论在翻车机轨道对准装置改造方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲

    2015-01-01

    为了提高翻车机系统的安全性,保证翻车机系统的安全、经济运行,必须要保证翻车机轨道错位能被准确地检测出来。对翻车机轨道对准装置目前存在的问题及原因进行分析,并提出改进方案。%In order to improve the safety of car dumper system, guarantee of car dumper system security, economic operation, we must to ensure that the car dumper rail misalignment can be detected accurately. Analyze the problems and reasons of the dumper track alignment device at present, and put forward the improvement plan.

  13. Development of Plasma Cutting Tracking Device for Spiral Welded Pipe%伺服控制跟踪在螺旋焊管生产线上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌龙; 陈靖芯; 秦永法; 竺志大

    2013-01-01

    薄壁螺旋焊管定长切割多数采用机械刀轮跟踪,往往存在切口不齐的问题。设计了一套用于螺旋焊管机的等离子切割跟踪装置,该系统由两路测速传感器、直流伺服电机、齿轮减速器、双丝杠螺母驱动的带有等离子切割喷枪的小车组成,通过调节伺服控制脉冲频率与所需送板速度之间的比例关系、送板速度与小车前进速度之间的比例关系,使切割小车与钢管伸长同步。测试结果表明,伺服跟踪误差小于1 cm ,远小于机械刀轮跟踪1 cm~3 cm的误差。%A knife flywheel is generally used in steel pipe cutting ,an uprightness incision is not available .A set of plasma cutting tracking device for spiral pipe is developed .This system is composed of two speed sensors ,DC servo motor ,gear retarder ,a vehicle with plasma gun drove by double screw and nut .Using this system regulates the velocity ratio of vehicle to plate (vvehicle/vplate ) ,to make the vehicle moving at the same speed of pipe extension .Experiment results show the error of servo tracking is less than the mechanical tracking ,the former is below 1 cm and the latter is 1 cm~3 cm .

  14. 3-dimensional slope stability analyses using non-associative stress-strain relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZuYu; SUN Ping; WANG YuJie; ZHANG HongTao

    2009-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper refers to a new slope stability analysis method used for landslide risk evaluations. It is an extension of the 3-dimensional upper-bound slope stability analysis method proposed by Chen et sl. in 2001, which employs the Mohr-Coulomb's associative flow rule. It has been found that in a 3-dimensional area, a prism may not be able to move at friction angles to all its surrounding interfaces, as required by this associative rule, and convergence problems may occa-sionally arise. The new method establishes two velocity fields: (i) The plastic one that represents a non-associative and the best representative dilation behavior, and (ii) the virtual one that permits the solution for factor of safety in the work and energy balance equation. The new method can then allow any input value of dilation angle and thus solve the convergence problem. A practical application to a concrete dam foundation is illustrated.

  15. An Improved Point-track Optimal Assignment Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhonglei Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Li Zhou

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of data association of the Optimal Assignment (OA) algorithm based on dynamic information, an improved Point-Track Optimal Assignment (IPTOA) algorithm based on multi-source information is proposed. The improved algorithm gets valid 3-tuple of measurement set by solving 3-Dimensional (3-D) assignment problem which is based on dynamic information. Then fuses multi-source information by combination rule of D-S evidence theory and constructs the point-track corre...

  16. BPS operators from the Wilson loop in the 3-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi

    2009-01-01

    We consider the small deformation of the pointlike Wilson loop in the 3-dimensional N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory. By Taylor expansion of the pointlike Wilson loop in powers of the loop variables, we obtain the BPS operators that correspond to the excited string states of the dual IIA string theory on the pp wave background. The BPS conditions of the Wilson loop constrain both the loop variables and the forms of the operators obtained in the Taylor expansion.

  17. Perfect fluid space-times admitting a 3-dimensional conformal group acting on null orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Sintes, A M

    1997-01-01

    Space-times admitting a 3-dimensional Lie group of conformal motions $C_3$ acting on null orbits are studied. Coordinate expressions for the metric and the conformal Killing vectors (CKV) are then provided (irrespectively of the matter content) and all possible perfect fluid solutions are found, although none of them verifies the weak and dominant energy conditions over the whole space-time manifold.

  18. DYNAMICAL CONSISTENCE IN 3-DIMENSIONAL TYPE-K COMPETITIVE LOTKA-VOLTERRA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A 3-dimensional type-K competitive Lotka-Volterra system is considered in this paper. Two discretization schemes are applied to the system with an positive interior fixed point, and two corresponding discrete systems are obtained. By analyzing the local dynamics of the corresponding discrete system near the interior fixed point, it is showed that this system is not dynamically consistent with the continuous counterpart system.

  19. The Preoperative Evaluation of Infective Endocarditis via 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Matthew S; Saxena, Pankaj; Killu, Ammar M; Coffey, Sean; Burkhart, Harold M; Wan, Siu-Hin; Malouf, Joseph F

    2015-08-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography with 3D rendition revealed a large abscess involving the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa, together with a mycotic aneurysm that had ruptured into the left atrium, resulting in a left ventricle-to-left atrium fistula. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography enabled superior preoperative anatomic delineation and surgical planning. We conclude that 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can be a useful adjunct to traditional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  20. Strength and stiffness analysis of articulated steering and pitching device on the all-terrain articulated tracked carrier%铰接履带式运输车转向俯仰装置强度刚度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成凯; 魏小强; 李贵助

    2013-01-01

    As articulated steering and pitching device is the middle part which connects the front and rear truck of all-terrain articulated tracked carrier, which plays an important part in realizing the movements on the horizontal, vertical and torsional plane, also the structure of articulated steering and pitching device is very complex, and the theoretical formula calculation can not meet the requirements of overall structure analysis, so based on finite element theory, ANSYS software was used to make finite element analysis of the strength, stiffness and the capability of resistance to deformation and fracture in all parts of the articulated steering and pitching device to verify whether the design of the device is reasonable. Fifteen kinds of working conditions were selected as typical and dangerous ones used for analysis, and for each working condition different constraints and loads were chosen, also some special processing methods for model were taken, so as to simulate the real load working state. The results show that the design of the device is reasonable on the whole, but not perfect, and for some problems the device is redesigned with some improvement; the sample of all-terrain articulated tracked carrier is manufactured after being improved, and its running through the test ground shows that the analysis method is correct and proposed improvement for the device is reasonable. 1 tab, 13 figs, 9 refs.%由于转向俯仰装置是某铰接履带式运输车前车和后车的中间连接部分,对实现车架水平、垂直及扭转平面内的运动有重要作用,且该装置结构复杂,利用理论公式计算法不能满足对其整体结构进行分析的要求,故基于有限元理论,利用ANSYS软件对它的强度刚度进行有限元计算,分析该装置各部分在载重工作时抵抗断裂破坏和变形的能力,从而对该装置的设计合理性进行验证.选取该车载重工作时比较典型和危险的15种工况,对每种工况选择不

  1. Self-regulating solar tracking device and its control method%自主调节跟踪的太阳能装置及控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊昊; 何中杰

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of low photovoltaic power generation efficiency for that the angle of sun and solar panels is difficult to maintain the vertical, an automatic tracking which could maintain the vertical of the sun and solar panels to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic was designed. The control strategy and adjustment algorithm of the system were presented. The control system has single-chip microcomputer AT89C51 as the core, and can judge independently whether meet the boot operation conditions according to environmental conditions. If the conditions are satisfied, according to the duration of sunshine and the control periods, the solar elevation angle and azimuth angle are regulated by two groups of stepping motors and driving mechanism respectively, thus making the implementation of the time-division automatic tracking regulation control all day, which makes the panels and sunlight keeping the vertical angle, to obtain the best efficiency. If the weather conditions do not meet the requirements, for example, mechanism will shut down automatically when it rains or the illuminance is insufficient, and automatical change of the attitude could avoid unnecessary outside force damage when the wind may cause damage. The experimental results show that the system has the advantages of convenient installation, low initial investment and operating costs, and good reliability. Compared to the fixed installation of photovoltaic system, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the system is significantly improved.%针对太阳能装置工作日阳光和电池板成角难保持垂直,光伏发电效率低的问题,推出了一种可以保持阳光和电池板垂直以提高光伏发电效率的自动跟踪控制系统,给出了相关控制策略及调节算法.该控制系统以AT89C51单片机为核心,依据环境条件自主判断是否满足开机运行要求,如条件满足,则根据当日的日照时问,控制时段,分别由两组步进电机及驱动

  2. Comparison of 3-dimensional dose reconstruction system between fluence-based system and dose measurement-guided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Yuji; Ono, Takeshi; Onitsuka, Ryota; Maruyama, Masato; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Kai, Yudai

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) are commercial quasi-3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry arrays. Cross-validation to compare them under the same conditions, such as a treatment plan, allows for clear evaluation of such measurement devices. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of reconstructed dose distributions from the COMPASS system and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software using Monte Carlo simulation (MC) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC) test patterns and clinical VMAT plans. In a phantom study, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed clear differences from COMPASS, measurement and MC due to the detector resolution and the dose reconstruction method. Especially, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed 7% difference from MC for the heterogeneous phantom. ArcCHECK 3DVH only corrects the 3D dose distribution of treatment planning system (TPS) using ArcCHECK measurement, and therefore the accuracy of ArcCHECK 3DVH depends on TPS. In contrast, COMPASS showed good agreement with MC for all cases. However, the COMPASS system requires many complicated installation procedures such as beam modeling, and appropriate commissioning is needed. In terms of clinical cases, there were no large differences for each QA device. The accuracy of the compass and ArcCHECK 3DVH systems for phantoms and clinical cases was compared. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages for clinical use, and consideration of the operating environment is important. The QA system selection is depending on the purpose and workflow in each hospital. PMID:27179708

  3. Autofluorescence imaging device for real-time detection and tracking of pathogenic bacteria in a mouse skin wound model: preclinical feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yichao Charlie; Kulbatski, Iris; Medeiros, Philip J.; Maeda, Azusa; Bu, Jiachuan; Xu, Lizhen; Chen, Yonghong; DaCosta, Ralph S.

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection significantly impedes wound healing. Clinical diagnosis of wound infections is subjective and suboptimal, in part because bacteria are invisible to the naked eye during clinical examination. Moreover, bacterial infection can be present in asymptomatic patients, leading to missed opportunities for diagnosis and treatment. We developed a prototype handheld autofluorescence (AF) imaging device (Portable Real-time Optical Detection, Identification and Guidance for Intervention-PRODIGI) to noninvasively visualize and measure bacterial load in wounds in real time. We conducted preclinical pilot studies in an established nude mouse skin wound model inoculated with bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. We tested the feasibility of longitudinal AF imaging for in vivo visualization of bacterial load in skin wounds, validated by bioluminescence imaging. We showed that bacteria (S. aureus), occult to standard examination, can be visualized in wounds using PRODIGI. We also detected quantitative changes in wound bacterial load over time based on the antibiotic treatment and the correlation of bacterial AF intensity with bacterial load. AF imaging of wounds offers a safe, noninvasive method for visualizing the presence, location, and extent of bacteria as well as measuring relative changes in bacterial load in wounds in real time.

  4. Study on evaluation of a linear cross section model in 3-dimensional core analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Goo; Yang, Chae Yong; Jang, Chang Sun; Jung, Hoon Young; Kim, Hho Jung

    2005-02-15

    The previous studies provided that the ejection rod worth and enthalpy rise have a significant error due to a linear approximation of the cross sections in the analysis of rod ejection accident using a 3-dimensional core kinetics method. This study undertakes the validations of a linear approximation model for the cross sections used in the 3-dimensional core kinetics method. The linear approximation model for the cross sections consists of several parameters related with boron concentration, fuel temperature, coolant temperature and density, etc., but this study examines for the parameter related with boron concentration. At first, a reference boron concentration set are selected, and the corresponding linear parameter are calculated by CASMO-3 code. Another two sets are selected, and their parameters are also calculated. The relative errors are calculated form the cross sections for these 3 cases. For their study, 3 types of fuel are chosen, which are representative of fresh fuel, medium burnup and high burnup. Also, 9 cross sections of 2 energy groups are evaluated. The results shows that the relative error of the cross sections for high burnup fuel are more than low burnup, and the error are large in absorption cross section and fission cross section, the maximum of which is more than 3%. It is concluded that in the analysis of accident using 3-dimensional core kinetics model the cross section model has a significant influence on their result, and the results are largely dependent on how to select parameters in a cross section model. Hence, regulatory reviewer needs to evaluate the validation of cross section model proposed by designer.

  5. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: helene.rahn@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  6. BPS operators from the Wilson loop in the 3-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi

    2009-01-01

    We consider the small deformation of the point-like Wilson loop in the 3-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=6$ superconformal Chern-Simons theory. By Taylor expansion of the point-like Wilson loop in powers of the loop variables, we obtain the BPS operators that correspond to the excited string states of the dual IIA string theory on the pp wave background. The BPS conditions of the Wilson loop constrain both the loop variables and the forms of the operators obtained in the Taylor expansion.

  7. Towards a mathematical definition of Coulomb branches of $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ gauge theories, II

    CERN Document Server

    Braverman, Alexander; Nakajima, Hiraku

    2016-01-01

    Consider the $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ supersymmetric gauge theory associated with a compact Lie group $G_c$ and its quaternionic representation $\\mathbf M$. Physicists study its Coulomb branch, which is a noncompact hyper-K\\"ahler manifold with an $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$-action, possibly with singularities. We give a mathematical definition of the Coulomb branch as an affine algebraic variety with $\\mathbb C^\\times$-action when $\\mathbf M$ is of a form $\\mathbf N\\oplus\\mathbf N^*$, as the second step of the proposal given in arXiv:1503.03676.

  8. Patterned 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes as alternative electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan; Jennings, James R; Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Qing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2011-11-21

    We describe the application of 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes (3D-MGEs) as electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a replacement for fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Requirements, structure, advantages, and limitations of the metal grid electrodes are discussed. Solar conversion efficiencies of 6.2% have been achieved in 3D-MGE based solar cells, comparable to that fabricated on FTO (7.1%). The charge transport properties and collection efficiencies in these novel solar cells have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  9. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27222318

  10. Hamiltonian Analysis of 3-Dimensional Connection Dynamics in Bondi-like Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The Hamiltonian analysis for a 3-dimensional $SO(1,1)\\times T_+$-connection dynamics is conducted in a Bondi-like coordinate system.A null coframe with 5 independent variables and 9 connection coefficients are treated as basic configuration variables.All constraints and their consistency conditions, as well as the equations of motion,for the system are presented.There is no physical degree of freedom in the system as expected.The Ba\\~nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli spacetime as an example is used to check the analysis.

  11. Development of a 3-Dimensional Dosimetry System for Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, Jungwon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, Byungchul; Lee, Sangwook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion TM (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S;Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measure...

  12. Development of water packing mitigation scheme for MARS 3- dimensional thermal-hydraulic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water packing mitigation scheme was developed to enhance the numerical stability and calculational efficiency of MARS 3-dimensional thermal-hydraulic module. The water packing phenomena is unphysical pressure spike which occurs in a two-phase system thermal-hydraulic code using Eulerian finite difference method. Great velocities developed from large pressure spike slow down the calculation efficiency due to the stability limit. Also, large pressure spike and subsequent low pressure can make errors in thermodynamic state table search. The developed water packing mitigation scheme was implemented in MARS3D module. It is shown from the results of some benchmark problema that numerical stability and calculational efficiency were improved

  13. Quantum Computing - A new Implementation of Simon Algorithm for 3-Dimensional Registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Bărîlă

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum computing is a new field of science aiming to use quantum phenomena in order to perform operations on data. The Simon algorithm is one of the quantum algorithms which solves a certain problem exponentially faster than any classical algorithm solving the same problem. Simulating of quantum algorithms is very important since quantum hardware is not available outside of the research labs. QCL (Quantum Computation Language is the most advanced implemented quantum computer simulator and was conceived by Bernhard Ömer. The paper presents an implementation in QCL of the Simon algorithm in the case of 3-dimensional registers.

  14. The study of 3-dimensional structures of IgG with atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yi-gang; XU Ru-xiang; JIANG Xiao-dan; KE Yi-quan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To detect 3-dimensional images of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor Nr1 (NMDAr1) polycolonal IgG affixed on mica in physiological environment. Methods: The images and data were obtained from a contact mode and commercial Si3N4 probed tip by using atomic force microscope (AFM). Conclusions: Using AFM to investigate biomacromolecule can make us deeply understand the structure of IgG, which will instruct us to detect the membrane receptor protein as a labelling agent.

  15. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking.......To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  16. Communications and tracking technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on communications and tracking technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. The objective is to develop devices, components, and analytical methods to enhance and enable technology to meet space station evolutionary requirements for multiple access (proximity) communications, space-to-ground communications, and tracking as it pertains to rendezvous and docking as well as potential orbital debris warning systems. Topics covered include: optical communications and tracking; monolithic microwave integrated circuit systems; traveling wave tube technology; advanced modulation and coding; and advanced automation.

  17. 3-dimensional slope stability analyses using non-associative stress-strain relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper refers to a new slope stability analysis method used for landslide risk evaluations. It is an extension of the 3-dimensional upper-bound slope stability analysis method proposed by Chen et al. in 2001,which employs the Mohr-Coulomb’s associative flow rule. It has been found that in a 3-dimensional area,a prism may not be able to move at friction angles to all its surrounding interfaces,as required by this associative rule,and convergence problems may occasionally arise. The new method establishes two velocity fields:(i) The plastic one that represents a non-associative and the best representative dilation behavior,and (ii) the virtual one that permits the solution for factor of safety in the work and energy balance equation. The new method can then allow any input value of dilation angle and thus solve the convergence problem. A practical application to a concrete dam foundation is illustrated.

  18. Contactless 2-dimensional laser sensor for 3-dimensional wire position and tension measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Prall, Matthias; Joehren, R; Ortjohann, H W; Reinhardt, M; Weinheimer, Ch

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a contact-free 2-dimensional laser sensor with which the position of wires can be measured in 3 dimensions with an accuracy of better than 10 micrometer and with which the tension of the wires can be determined with an accuracy of 0.04 N. These measurements can be made from a distance of 15 cm. The sensor consists of commercially available laser pointers, lenses, color filters and photodiodes. In our application we have used this laser sensor together with an automated 3 dimensional coordinate table. For a single position measurement, the laser sensor is moved by the 3-dimensional coordinate table in a plane and determines the coordinates at which the wires intersect with this plane. The position of the plane itself (the third coordinate) is given by the third axis of the measurement table which is perpendicular to this plane. The control and readout of the table and the readout of the laser sensor were realized with LabVIEW. The precision of the position measurement in the plane was determi...

  19. MR imaging of the knee joint with 3-dimensional gradient echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimagaki, Hajime; Matsubara, T.; Narisawa, Hiroko; Yamazaki, Yukio [Tsubame Rosai Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Authors considered and discussed whether various lesions of the knee joint can be diagnosed under the MR imaging condition with a pulse sequence of 3-dimensional fourier transformed gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state and what advantages the method has. The apparatus was 1.5T Signa (General Electric) equipped with surface coil for the knee. The consecutive 124 sagittal images of 0.8 mm thickness taken primarily for 3-dimensional reconstruction were processed to give any cross sections of coronary, horizontal, sagittal or further additional ones. Subjects were 243 knees (138 internal derangement and 105 osteoarthritis) whose lesions were confirmed by arthroscope or by arthrostomy after the MR imaging. Comparison of the MR imaging and surgical finding revealed that accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the present MR imaging method were all >90% for diagnosis of internal derangement of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus. For osteoarthritis, the method was thought useful for evaluation of the depth of cartilage deficit. (K.H.)

  20. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  1. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  2. SECOND-ORDER OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS FOR OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS GOVERNED BY 3-DIMENSIONAL NEVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article is concerned with second-order necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The periodic state constraint is considered.

  3. Biomechanical 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Obturator Protheses Retained with Zygomatic and Dental Implants in Maxillary Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Akay, Canan; Yaluğ, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in the bone around zygomatic and dental implants for 3 different implant-retained obturator prostheses designs in a Aramany class IV maxillary defect using 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Material\\Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of an Aramany class IV defect was created. Three different implant-retained obturator prostheses were modeled: model 1 with 1 zygomatic implant and 1 dental imp...

  4. Development of radiation hard microstrip detectors for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, Sudeep [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Radiation damage in Silicon microstrip detectors is of the one main concerns for the development of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) in the planned Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The STS will consist of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) having pitch around 60 {mu}m, width 20 {mu}m, stereo angle of {+-}7.5{sup 0} on n and p sides with double metallization on either side making it challenging to fabricate.We are using 3-dimensional TCAD simulation tools from SYNOPSYS to carry out process (using Sentaurus Process) and device (using Sentaurus Device) simulations.We have simulated the impact of radiation damage in DSSDs by changing the effective carrier concentration (N{sub eff}) with fluence using the Hamburg model. The change in minority carrier life time has been taken into account using the Kraners model and the Perugia trap model has been used to simulate the traps. We have also extracted macroscopic parameters like Coupling Capacitance, Interstrip Capacitance (both DC and AC), Interstrip Resistance of DSSDs using Mixed Mode simulation (using SPICE with Sentaurus Device) and studied the variation of these parameters with fluence. The simulation results have been compared to the experimental results. We also simulated transients by passing a Heavy Ion through a DSSD and studied the charge collection performance.

  5. Impact of the difference in power frequency on diamond-like carbon thin film coating over 3-dimensional objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a type of capacitatively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, where two specially designed electrodes face to each other, the inner surface of hollow 3-dimensional objects such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles can be coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. DLC-coated PET bottles obtained with this technique have an enhanced gas barrier property, and therefore are applicable to industrial use such as for the extension of the shelf-life of contents sensitive to gas permeation. In this paper, the impact of power frequency ranging from 2.5 to 13.56 MHz was studied in order to research the behavior of plasma inside PET bottles and resultant properties. Different power frequency turned out to be influential on gas barrier property, the overall and distribution of tint, and adhesion between DLC and PET substrate. In addition, positron annihilation turned out to be powerful tool for the comparison of different coating conditions because it clarifies the homogeneity of DLC thin films through providing information on overall structure and thickness of them. These findings can be used for the optimization not only in the beverage PET bottle application, but also in other capacitatively coupled PECVD devices. - Highlights: • We demonstrated an effective methodology for the homogeneity of thin films. • We described the influence of power frequency on plasma and resultant thin film. • Diamond-like carbon coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles was used. • Different frequency provided homogenous thin films based on the above methodology. • For the industrial performance of the bottles, optimization was found at 6 MHz

  6. Impact of the difference in power frequency on diamond-like carbon thin film coating over 3-dimensional objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, Masaki, E-mail: m-nakaya@kirin.co.jp [Packaging Technology Development Center, Technology Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8682 (Japan); Shimizu, Mari [Packaging Technology Development Center, Technology Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8682 (Japan); Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    With a type of capacitatively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, where two specially designed electrodes face to each other, the inner surface of hollow 3-dimensional objects such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles can be coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. DLC-coated PET bottles obtained with this technique have an enhanced gas barrier property, and therefore are applicable to industrial use such as for the extension of the shelf-life of contents sensitive to gas permeation. In this paper, the impact of power frequency ranging from 2.5 to 13.56 MHz was studied in order to research the behavior of plasma inside PET bottles and resultant properties. Different power frequency turned out to be influential on gas barrier property, the overall and distribution of tint, and adhesion between DLC and PET substrate. In addition, positron annihilation turned out to be powerful tool for the comparison of different coating conditions because it clarifies the homogeneity of DLC thin films through providing information on overall structure and thickness of them. These findings can be used for the optimization not only in the beverage PET bottle application, but also in other capacitatively coupled PECVD devices. - Highlights: • We demonstrated an effective methodology for the homogeneity of thin films. • We described the influence of power frequency on plasma and resultant thin film. • Diamond-like carbon coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles was used. • Different frequency provided homogenous thin films based on the above methodology. • For the industrial performance of the bottles, optimization was found at 6 MHz.

  7. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  8. Large-eddy-simulation of 3-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability in incompressible fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 3-dimensional incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability is numerically studied through the large-eddy-simulation (LES) approach based on the passive scalar transport model. Both the instantaneous velocity and the passive scalar fields excited by sinusoidal perturbation and random perturbation are simulated. A full treatment of the whole evolution process of the instability is addressed. To verify the reliability of the LES code, the averaged turbulent energy as well as the flux of passive scalar are calculated at both the resolved scale and the subgrid scale. Our results show good agreement with the experimental and other numerical work. The LES method has proved to be an effective approach to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  9. Reference Trajectory Generation for 3-Dimensional Walking of a Humanoid Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Humanoid walking planning is a complicated task because of the high number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) and the variable mechanical structure during walking. In this paper, a planning method for 3-dimensional (3-D) walking movements was developed based on a model of a typical humanoid robot with 12 DOFs on the lower body. The planning process includes trajectory generation for the hip, ankle, and knee joints in the Cartesian space. The balance of the robot was ensured by adjusting the hip motion. The angles for each DOF were obtained from 3-D kinematics calculation. The calculation gave reference trajectories of all the DOFs on the humanoid robot which were used to control the real robot. The simulation results show that the method is effective.

  10. 3-dimensional numerical modelling of rolling of superconducting Ag/BSCCO tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Seifi, Behrouz;

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the deformation process during flat rolling of multifilament HTS tapes has been investigated using a commercial FEM program, ELFEN. The numerical models were built up in 2D and 3D using a Drucker-Prager/Cap model for the powder. Three different roll diameters (Ø24 mm, Ø85 mm...... and Ø126 mm) have been investigated. It is found that it is possible to perform numerical simulation with 3D models of flat rolling of multifilament wire. Two 3D models have been used; 3D pressing with rolls and 3D rolling. 3D pressing with rolls have the advance that the simulation time is lower than...... in the 3D rolling. The 3D models have the advantage compared to 2D pressing that they can predict the 3 dimensional flow in the flat rolling, which has been showed to be very imported for the super conduction properties...

  11. Application and Program Composition of the Virtual Laminated 3 Dimensional Degenerated Element in the Bridge Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xing-fei; He Shuan-hai; SUN limin

    2003-01-01

    The text include two aspects, one is the general finite element method (FEM), the other is bridge special FEM. And two viewpoints are used in it, one is the theory of FEM, the other is the practical program-making. The virtual laminated 3 dimensional degenerated element with vivid character is introduced in this paper and a large-scale computer program of FEM is manufactured. 1In addition, some current advantaged computer technology is used to make simple pre- and post processing program in order to exemplify and calculate easily in the process of researching. By using a factual example, the text also prove the method simply and resultful for analyze of bridge.

  12. Towards a mathematical definition of Coulomb branches of $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ gauge theories, I

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiraku

    2015-01-01

    Consider the $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ supersymmetric gauge theory associated with a compact Lie group $G$ and its quaternionic representation $\\mathbf M$. Physicists study its Coulomb branch, which is a noncompact hyper-K\\"ahler manifold, such as instanton moduli spaces on $\\mathbb R^4$, $SU(2)$-monopole moduli spaces on $\\mathbb R^3$, etc. In this paper and its sequel, we propose a mathematical definition of the coordinate ring of the Coulomb branch, using the vanishing cycle cohomology group of a certain moduli space for a gauged $\\sigma$-model on the $2$-sphere associated with $(G,\\mathbf M)$. In this first part, we check that the cohomology group has the correct graded dimensions expected from the monopole formula proposed by Cremonesi, Hanany and Zaffaroni arXiv:1309.2657. A ring structure (on the cohomology of a modified moduli space) will be introduced in the sequel of this paper.

  13. Generation and Active Absorption of 2- and 3-Dimensional Linear Water Waves in Physical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    in the wave channel in front of the wave generator. The results of physical model tests performed with an absorbing wave maker based on this principle show that the problem of rereflection is reduced significantly when active absorption is performed. Finally, an absorbing directional wave generator for 3-D......Methods for mechanical generation of 2-dimensional (2-D) and 3-dimensional (3-D) linear water waves in physical models are presented. The results of a series of laboratory 3-D wave generation tests are presented and discussed. The tests preformed involve reproduction of wave fields characterised...... by different directional wave spectra. The wave generator displacement signals applied in the tests are generated by means of linear digital filtering of Gaussian white noise in the time domain. An absorbing wave generator for 2-D wave facilities (wave channels) is developed. The absorbing wave generator...

  14. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery. PMID:25197746

  15. Epigenetic and 3-dimensional regulation of V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner-Leisso, Stephanie C; Feeney, Ann J

    2010-12-01

    V(D)J recombination is a crucial component of the adaptive immune response, allowing for the production of a diverse antigen receptor repertoire (Ig and TCR). This review will focus on how epigenetic regulation and 3-dimensional (3D) interactions may control V(D)J recombination at Ig loci. The interplay between transcription factors and post-translational modifications at the Igh, Igκ, and Igλ loci will be highlighted. Furthermore, we propose that the spatial organization and epigenetic boundaries of each Ig loci before and during V(D)J recombination may be influenced in part by the CTCF/cohesin complex. Taken together, the many epigenetic and 3D layers of control ensure that Ig loci are only rearranged at appropriate stages of B cell development.

  16. NOVEL 6-SPS PARALLEL 3-DIMENSIONAL PLATFORM MANIPULATOR AND ITS FORCE/MOTION TRANSMISSION ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The unique design for a novel 6-SPS parallel 3-dimensional platform manipulator with an orthogonal configu-ration is investigated. The layout feature of the parallel manipulator is described. Its force/motion transmission capabilityevaluation criteria are presented. At the orthogonal configuration, the criteria and the relationships between the criteriaand the link lengths are analyzed, which is important since it can provide designer a piece of valuable information abouthow to choose the linear actuators. From the analysis of the results it is shown that the force/motion transmission capabil-ities of the parallel manipulator are characterized by isotropy at the orthogonal configuration. The manipulator is particu-larly suitable for certain applications in 6-DOF micromanipulators and 6-axis force/moment transducers.

  17. Tracks Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a contemporary adaptation of the "Footprint Puzzle," whigh was first developed in the 1960s for the Earth Science Curriculum Project. Students sequentially look at three frames of track drawings. For each frame, students first list observations and then make inferences about the observations. (PR)

  18. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  19. Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to develop a laboratory prototype of a solar tracking system, which is able to enhance the performance of the photovoltaic modules in a solar energy system. The operating principle of the device is to keep the photovoltaic modules constantly aligned with the sunbeams, which maximises the exposure of solar panel to the Sun’s radiation. As a result, more output power can be produced by the solar panel. The work of the project included hardware design and implemen...

  20. Eye Gaze Tracking for Human Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Drewes, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    With a growing number of computer devices around us, and the increasing time we spend for interacting with such devices, we are strongly interested in finding new interaction methods which ease the use of computers or increase interaction efficiency. Eye tracking seems to be a promising technology to achieve this goal. This thesis researches interaction methods based on eye-tracking technology. After a discussion of the limitations of the eyes regarding accuracy and speed, including a gene...

  1. Eye tracking in user experience design

    CERN Document Server

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  2. Real Time Vehicle Tracking System using GSM and GPS Technology- An Anti-theft Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Maurya; Mandeep Singh; Neelu Jain

    2012-01-01

    A vehicle tracking system is an electronic device installed in a vehicle to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location. This paper proposed to design a vehicle tracking system that works using GPS and GSM technology, which would be the cheapest source of vehicle tracking and it would work as anti-theft system. It is an embedded system which is used for tracking and positioning of any vehicle by using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global system for mobile communica...

  3. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF files.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Barnes

    Full Text Available With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2.

  4. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico F. Galati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D. Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs.

  5. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures. PMID:27137437

  6. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  7. 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for cervical and upper-thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) and prognostic factors for cervical and upper-thoracic esophageal cancer. Methods: Between July 1998 and July 2001, 33 patients with cervical and upper-thoracic esophageal cancer were treated with 3D CRT(2 Gy per day, 5 sessions a week to a total dose of 66-68 Gy over 6-7 weeks). Acute toxicities and survival rates were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The 1-, 2-, 3-year local control rates were 87.9%, 75.8%, 45.5% respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 72.7%, 60.6%, 30.3% and 78.8%, 66.8%, 44.2% respectively. GradeI- II acute esophagitis and bronchitis were the most common radiation side effects. Multivariate analysis revealed that the depth of primary tumor invasion, regional lymph node metastasis and tumor length were independent prognostic factors (P<0.05). Conclusions: 3D CRT can be considered as an effective and feasible approach to cervical and upper-thoracic esophageal cancer treatment. The depth of primary tumor invasion, regional lymph node status and tumor length are important prognostic indicators for cervical and upper-thoracic esophageal cancer. (authors)

  8. Research on the method of cavitations resistance in a piezoelectric pump with 3-dimensional mesh structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-hui; XIA Qi-xiao; Bai Heng-jun; NING Hong-gang; ONUKI Akiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The volume valve piezoelectric pump has received increasing attention from many areas because of its different characteristics such as the absence of chemical pollution and electromagnetic pollution.However,when the pump is working,it produces cavitations and the air bubbles that originate from these will flow out of the pump.Cavitations occurring in the pump will bring out noise and shorten the life of the pump.Furthermore,air bubbles flowing out of the pump will hinder its application in areas such as medical treatment and health care where blood transfusion and infusion are concerned.As a solution to this disadvantage,the CR3DMS (cavitations resistance with 3-dimensional mesh structure) method is developed,which is tested and verified to be effective on not only reducing the occurrence of cavitations and eliminating cavitations' flowing out,but also restraining the emission of noise.In conclusion,the pump with CR3DMS,on the relationship between flow and driving frequency and the relationship between flow and the number of Resistant-Layers in both theory and test,are analyzed.

  9. Optimal iodine dose for 3-dimensional multidetector-row CT angiography of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To clarify the optimal iodine dose of contrast material for 3-dimensional multidetector-row CT angiography (3D-MDCTA) of the venous vasculature of the liver using volume rendering technique. Materials and methods: This study included 103 patients who were randomly assigned to 5 contrast-enhanced MDCT protocol groups with different body-weight-tailored doses of contrast material: 500, 600, 630, 650, and 700 mgI/kg body weight. The arterial, portal, and hepatic parenchymal phases were obtained to evaluate enhancement values of the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic vein. Visualization of the portal and hepatic veins on the volume-rendering images of 3D-MDCTA was evaluated using a 5-point grade. Dunnett's test was used to compare the mean enhancement value and mean grades of image quality (700 mgI/kg dose group was control). Results: The mean enhancement values of portal and hepatic vein in the group with 500 and 600 mgI/kg were significantly lower than those of the control group. During visual assessment, a significantly lower mean grades were observed in 500 mgI/kg groups for the portal vein, and 500 and 600 mgI/kg groups for hepatic vein. There were no significant intergroup differences in mean enhancement values and visual assessment among the groups using 630 mgI/kg or more. Conclusion: Iodine doses of 630 mgI/kg was recommended for 3D-MDCTA

  10. SBNCT plan: A 3-dimensional treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for accurate and comprehensive 3-dimensional treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been debated for the past several years. Although many argue against the need for elaborate and expensive treatment planning programs which mimic conventional radiotherapy planning systems, it is clear that in order to realize significant gains over conventional fractionated radiation therapy, patients must be treated to the edge of normal tissue tolerance. Just how close to this edge is dictated by the uncertainties in dosimetry. Hence the focus of BNCT planning is the determination of dose distribution throughout normal tissue volumes. Although precise geometric manipulation of the epithermal neutron beam is not achievable, the following variables play an important role in BNCT optimization: patient orientation, dose fractionation, number of fields, megawatt-minutes per fraction, use of surface bolus, and use of collimation. Other variables which are not as easily adjustable and would not, therefore, be part of treatment planning optimization, include external patient contour, internal patient heterogeneities, boron compound distributions, and RBE's. The boron neutron capture therapy planning system developed at SUNY Stony Brook (SBNCT-Plan) was designed as an interactive graphic tool to assist the radiation oncologist in generating the optimum plan for a neutron capture treatment

  11. PAMELA positron and electron spectra are reproduced by 3-dimensional cosmic-ray modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gaggero, Daniele; Maccione, Luca; Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Evoli, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    The PAMELA collaboration recently released the $e^+$ absolute spectrum between 1 and 300 GeV in addition to the positron fraction and $e^-$ spectrum previously measured in the same time period. We use the newly developed 3-dimensional upgrade of the DRAGON code and the charge dependent solar modulation HelioProp code to consistently describe those data. We obtain very good fits of all data sets if a $e^+$ + $e^-$ hard extra-component peaked at 1 TeV is added to a softer $e^-$ background and the secondary $e^\\pm$ produced by the spallation of cosmic ray proton and helium nuclei. All sources are assumed to follow a realistic spiral arm spatial distribution. Remarkably, PAMELA data do not display any need of charge asymmetric extra-component. Finally, plain diffusion, or low re-acceleration, propagation models which are tuned against nuclear data, nicely describe PAMELA lepton data with no need to introduce a low energy break in the proton and Helium spectra.

  12. 3-DIMENSIONAL Numerical Modeling on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel in Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; An, Hui; Amin, Maghbouli; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    A 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling is conducted on a direct injection diesel engine fueled by biodiesel using multi-dimensional software KIVA4 coupled with CHEMKIN. To accurately predict the oxidation of saturated and unsaturated agents of the biodiesel fuel, a multicomponent advanced combustion model consisting of 69 species and 204 reactions combined with detailed oxidation pathways of methyl decenoate (C11H22O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H20O2) and n-heptane (C7H16) is employed in this work. In order to better represent the real fuel properties, the detailed chemical and thermo-physical properties of biodiesel such as vapor pressure, latent heat of vaporization, liquid viscosity and surface tension were calculated and compiled into the KIVA4 fuel library. The nitrogen monoxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) formation mechanisms were also embedded. After validating the numerical simulation model by comparing the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate curves with experimental results, further studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of combustion chamber design on flow field, subsequently on the combustion process and performance of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. Research has also been done to investigate the impact of fuel injector location on the performance and emissions formation of diesel engine.

  13. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  14. A 60GHz-Band 3-Dimensional System-in-Package Transmitter Module with Integrated Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    A low cost, ultra small Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver module with integrated antenna is one of the key technologies for short range millimeter-wave wireless communication. This paper describes a 60GHz-band transmitter module with integrated dipole antenna. The module consists of three pieces of low-cost organic resin substrate. These substrates are vertically stacked by employing Cu ball bonding 3-dimensional (3-D) system-in-package (SiP) technology and the MMIC's are mounted on each organic substrates by using Au-stud bump bonding (SBB) technique. The planer dipole antenna is fabricated on the top of the stacked organic substrate to avoid the influence of the grounding metal on the base substrate. At 63GHz, maximum actual gain of 6.0dBi is obtained for fabricated planar dipole antenna. The measured radiation patterns are agreed with the electro-magnetic (EM) simulated result, therefore the other RF portion of the 3-D front-end module, such as flip chip mounted IC's on the top surface of the module, does not affect the antenna characteristics. The results show the feasibility of millimeter-wave low cost, ultra small antenna integrated module using stacked organic substrates.

  15. Development of a 3-Dimensional Dosimetry System for Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion TM (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S;Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate the lack of backscatter, we located a 1 cm thick PMMA plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD with 1200x1200 pixels by a 5.2 um pitch. Using this system, three hundred images by a 0.2 mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4 mm, 8 mm, and 16 mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by EBT3 films in the same conditions. All ...

  16. Automatic fabrication of 3-dimensional tissues using cell sheet manipulator technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Wada, Masanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-03-01

    Automated manufacturing is a key for tissue-engineered therapeutic products to become common-place and economical. Here, we developed an automatic cell sheet stacking apparatus to fabricate 3-dimensional tissue-engineered constructs exploiting our cell sheet manipulator technique, where cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes are stacked into a multilayered cell sheet. By optimizing the stacking conditions and cell seeding conditions, the apparatus was eventually capable of reproducibly making five-layer human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) sheets with a thickness of approximately 70-80 μm within 100 min. Histological sections and confocal topographies of the five-layer HSMM sheets revealed a stratified structure with no delamination. In cell counts using trypsinization, the live cell numbers in one-, three- and five-layer HSMM sheets were equivalent to the seeded cell numbers at 1 h after the stacking processes; however, after subsequent 5-day static cultures, the live cell numbers of the five-layered HSMM sheets decreased slightly, while one- and three-layer HSMM sheets maintained their live cell numbers. This suggests that there are thickness limitations in maintaining tissues in a static culture. We concluded that by combining our cell sheet manipulator technique and industrial robot technology we can create a secure, cost-effective manufacturing system able to produce tissue-engineered products from cell sheets. PMID:24370007

  17. A 3-dimensional rigid cluster thorax model for kinematic measurements during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2014-04-11

    The trunk has been shown to work as an active segment rather than a passenger unit during gait and it is felt that trunk kinematics should be given more consideration during gait assessment. While 3-dimensional assessment of the thorax with respect to the pelvis and laboratory can provide a comprehensive description of trunk movement, the majority of existing 3-D thorax models demonstrate shortcomings such as the need for multiple skin marker configurations, difficult landmark identification and practical issues for assessment on female subjects. A small number of studies have used rigid cluster models to quantify thorax movement, however the models and points of attachment are not well described and validation rarely considered. The aim of this study was to propose an alternative rigid cluster 3-D thorax model to quantify movement during gait and provide validation of this model. A rigid mount utilising active markers was developed and applied over the 3rd thoracic vertebra, previously reported as an area of least skin movement artefact on the trunk. The model was compared to two reference thorax models through simultaneous recording during gait on 15 healthy subjects. Excellent waveform similarity was demonstrated between the proposed model and the two reference models (CMC range 0.962-0.997). Agreement of discrete parameters was very-good to excellent. In addition, ensemble average graphs demonstrated almost identical curve displacement between models. The results suggest that the proposed model can be confidently used as an alternative to other thorax models in the clinical setting.

  18. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  19. 21 CFR 821.4 - Imported devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported devices. 821.4 Section 821.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 821.4 Imported devices. For purposes of...

  20. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Document Server

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2006 was to complete all of the CMS Tracker sub-detectors and to start the integration of the sub-detectors into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. In November 2006 all of the sub-detectors had been delivered to the Tracker Integration facility (TIF) at CERN and the tests and QA procedures to be carried out on each sub-detector before integration had been established. In December 2006, TIB/TID+ was integrated into TOB+, TIB/TID- was being prepared for integration, and TEC+ was undergoing tests at the final tracker operating temperature (-100 C) in the Lyon cold room. In February 2007, TIB/TID- has been integrated into TOB-, and the installation of the pixel support tube and the services for TI...

  1. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. METHODS: We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. RESULTS: The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. CONCLUSIONS: A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  2. TAF4 inactivation reveals the 3 dimensional growth promoting activities of collagen 6A3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Martianov

    Full Text Available Collagen 6A3 (Col6a3, a component of extracellular matrix, is often up-regulated in tumours and is believed to play a pro-oncogenic role. However the mechanisms of its tumorigenic activity are poorly understood. We show here that Col6a3 is highly expressed in densely growing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. In MEFs where the TAF4 subunit of general transcription factor IID (TFIID has been inactivated, elevated Col6a3 expression prevents contact inhibition promoting their 3 dimensional growth as foci and fibrospheres. Analyses of gene expression in densely growing Taf4(-/- MEFs revealed repression of the Hippo pathway and activation of Wnt signalling. The Hippo activator Kibra/Wwc1 is repressed under dense conditions in Taf4(-/- MEFs, leading to nuclear accumulation of the proliferation factor YAP1 in the cells forming 3D foci. At the same time, Wnt9a is activated and the Sfrp2 antagonist of Wnt signalling is repressed. Surprisingly, treatment of Taf4(-/- MEFs with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA restores contact inhibition suppressing 3D growth. ATRA represses Col6a3 expression independently of TAF4 expression and Col6a3 silencing is sufficient to restore contact inhibition in Taf4(-/- MEFs and to suppress 3D growth by reactivating Kibra expression to induce Hippo signalling and by inducing Sfrp2 expression to antagonize Wnt signalling. All together, these results reveal a critical role for Col6a3 in regulating both Hippo and Wnt signalling to promote 3D growth, and show that the TFIID subunit TAF4 is essential to restrain the growth promoting properties of Col6a3. Our data provide new insight into the role of extra cellular matrix components in regulating cell growth.

  3. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  4. Evaluation of xerostomia following 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to evaluate the xerostomia following 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) in nasopharynx cancer patients using the xerostomia questionnaire score (XQS). Questionnaire study was done on 51 patients with nasopharynx cancer who received 3D CRT from Dec. 2000 to Aug. 2005. 3D CRT technique is based on 'serial shrinking field' concept by 3 times of computed tomography (CT) simulation. Total target dose to the primary tumor was 72 Gy with 1.8 Gy daily fractions. Xerostomia was assessed with 4-questions XQS, and the associations between XQS and time elapsed after RT, age, sex, stage, concurrent chemotherapy, an parotid dose were analyzed. Concurrent chemotherapy was given to 40 patients and RT alone was given to 11 patients. The median time elapsed after 3D CRT was 20 (1 ∼ 58) months and the mean XQS of all 51 patients was 8.4 ± 1.9 (6 ∼ 14). XQS continuously and significantly decreased over time after 3D CRT (χ 2 -0.484, ρ < 0.05). There was no significant difference in XQS according to sex, age, and stag. However, XQS of concurrent chemotherapy patients was significantly higher than RT alone patients (ρ = 0.001). XQS of patients receiving total mean parotid dose ≥ 35 Gy was significantly higher than < 35 Gy (ρ = 0.05). Decreasing tendency of XQS over time after 3D CRT was observed. Concurrent chemotherapy and total mean parotid dose ≥ 35 Gy were suggested to adversely affect radiation-induced xerostomia

  5. Development of a 3-dimensional dosimetry system for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, JungWon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate for the lack of backscatter, we located a 1-cm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent to scintillation light to reach the CCD with 1200 × 1200 pixels and a 5.2 µm pitch. With this system, 300 images with a 0.2-mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4-mm, 8-mm, and 16-mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by the CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by the EBT3 films under the same conditions. All 2D distributions were normalized to the maximum values derived by fitting peaks for each collimator setup. The differences in the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 2D profiles between CCD images and film doses were measured to be less than 0.3-mm. The scanning task for all peak regions took less than three minutes with the new instrument. So it can be utilized as a QA tool for the Gamma knife radiosurgery system instead of film dosimetry, the use of which requires much more time and many more resources.

  6. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  7. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penning Ludo I F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measurement of anteflexion, abduction and related rotations in the impaired shoulder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with either subacromial impingement (27 or osteoarthritis of the shoulder (31 participated. Active anteflexion, abduction and related rotations were measured with a tri axial gyroscope according to a test retest protocol. Severity of shoulder impairment and patient perceived pain were assessed by the Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. VAS scores were recorded before and after testing. Results In two out of three hospitals patients with osteoarthritis (n = 31 were measured, in the third hospital patients with subacromial impingement (n = 27. There were significant differences among hospitals for the VAS and DASH scores measured before and after testing. The mean differences between the test and retest means for anteflexion were −6 degrees (affected side, 9 (contralateral side and for abduction 15 degrees (affected side and 10 degrees (contralateral side. Bland & Altman plots showed that the confidence intervals for the mean differences fall within −6 up to 15 degrees, individual test - retest differences could exceed these limits. A simulation according to ‘Generalizability Theory’ produces very good coefficients for anteflexion and related rotation as a comprehensive measure of reproducibility. Optimal reproducibility is achieved with 2 repetitions for anteflexion. Conclusions Measurements were influenced by patient perceived pain. Differences in VAS and DASH might be explained by different underlying pathology. These differences in shoulder pathology however did not alter

  8. Oxidation behavior of ammonium in a 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjing; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Chen, Youpeng; Lei, Lijing; Yang, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Excess nitrogenous compounds are detrimental to natural water systems and to human health. To completely realize autohydrogenotrophic nitrogen removal, a novel 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor was designed. Titanium was electroplated with ruthenium and used as the anode. Activated carbon fiber felt was used as the cathode. The reactor was separated into two chambers by a permeable membrane. The cathode chamber was filled with granular graphite and glass beads. The cathode and cathode chamber were inhabited with domesticated biofilm. In the absence of organic substances, a nitrogen removal efficiency of up to 91% was achieved at DO levels of 3.42 +/- 0.37 mg/L when the applied current density was only 0.02 mA/cm2. The oxidation of ammonium in biofilm-electrode reactors was also investigated. It was found that ammonium could be oxidized not only on the anode but also on particle electrodes in the cathode chamber of the biofilm-electrode reactor. Oxidation rates of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be affected by the electric current loading on the biofilm-electrode reactor. The kinetic model of ammonium at different electric currents was analyzed by a first-order reaction kinetics equation. The regression analysis implied that when the current density was less than 0.02 mA/cm2, ammonium removal was positively correlated to the current density. However, when the current density was more than 0.02 mA/cm2, the electric current became a limiting factor for the oxidation rate of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:24649670

  9. Albedo and heat transport in 3-dimensional model simulations of the early Archean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kienert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the Archean eon (ca. 3.8 billion yr ago, the Earth's climate state was significantly different from today due to the lower solar luminosity, smaller continental fraction, higher rotation rate and, presumably, significantly larger greenhouse gas concentrations. All these aspects play a role in solutions to the "faint young Sun problem" which must explain why the ocean surface was not fully frozen at that time. Here, we present 3-dimensional model simulations of climate states that are consistent with early Archean boundary conditions and have different CO2 concentrations, aiming at an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of the early Archean climate system. We focus on three states: one of them is ice-free, one has the same mean surface air temperature of 288 K as today's Earth and the third one is the coldest stable state in which there is still an area with liquid surface water (i.e. the critical state at the transition to a "snowball Earth". We find a reduction in meridional heat transport compared to today which leads to a steeper latitudinal temperature profile and has atmospheric as well as oceanic contributions. Ocean surface velocities are largely zonal, and the strength of the atmospheric meridional circulation is significantly reduced in all three states. These aspects contribute to the observed relation between global mean temperature and albedo, which we suggest as a parameterisation of the ice-albedo feedback for 1-dimensional model simulations of the early Archean and thus the faint young Sun problem.

  10. Realization of masticatory movement by 3-dimensional simulation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Masticatory muscles are closely involved in mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing, and it is therefore important to study the specific functions and dynamics of the mandibular and masticatory muscles. However, the shortness of muscle fibers and the diversity of movement directions make it difficult to study and simplify the dynamics of mastication. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3D) simulation to observe the functions and movements of each of the masticatory muscles and the mandible while chewing. To simulate the masticatory movement, computed tomographic images were taken from a single Korean volunteer (30-year-old man), and skull image data were reconstructed in 3D (Mimics; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The 3D-reconstructed masticatory muscles were then attached to the 3D skull model. The masticatory movements were animated using Maya (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA) based on the mandibular motion path. During unilateral chewing, the mandible was found to move laterally toward the functional side by contracting the contralateral lateral pterygoid and ipsilateral temporalis muscles. During the initial mouth opening, only hinge movement was observed at the temporomandibular joint. During this period, the entire mandible rotated approximately 13 degrees toward the bicondylar horizontal plane. Continued movement of the mandible to full mouth opening occurred simultaneously with sliding and hinge movements, and the mandible rotated approximately 17 degrees toward the center of the mandibular ramus. The described approach can yield data for use in face animation and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.

  11. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology.

  12. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, Iori, E-mail: sumida@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  13. Characterization of the 3-dimensional microstructure of a graphite negative electrode from a Li-ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shearing, P.R.; Howard, L.E.; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley;

    2010-01-01

    The 3-dimensional microstructure of a porous electrode from a lithium-ion battery has been characterized for the first time. We use X-ray tomography to reconstruct a 43 × 348 × 478 μm sample volume with voxel dimensions of 480 nm, subsequent division of the reconstructed volumes into sub-volumes ...

  14. Reliability and the smallest detectable difference of measurements on 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damstra, Janalt; Fourie, Zacharias; Huddleston Slater, James J R; Ren, Yijin

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and the measurement error (by means of the smallest detectable error) of 17 commonly used cephalometric measurements made on 3-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography images. METHODS: Twenty-five cone-beam computed tomograph

  15. A quasi-3-dimensional simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jizhi; Chen Xingbi

    2009-01-01

    A new quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) numeric simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure is proposed. The performances of the 3D structure are analyzed by combining some 2D device structures; the 2D devices are in two planes perpendicular to each other and to the surface of the semiconductor. In comparison with Davinci, the full 3D device simulation tool, the quasi-3D simulation method can give results for the potential and current distribution of the 3D high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure with appropriate accuracy and the total CPU time for simulation is significantly reduced. The quasi-3D simulation technique can be used in many cases with advantages such as saving computing time, making no demands on the high-end computer terminals, and being easy to operate.

  16. DNA damage intensity in fibroblasts in a 3-dimensional collagen matrix correlates with the Bragg curve energy distribution of a high LET particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Andres I.; Hight, Suzie K.; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.; Rusek, Adam; Story, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The DNA double-strand break (DSB) damage response induced by high energy charged particles on lung fibroblast cells embedded in a 3-dimensional (3-D) collagen tissue equivalents was investigated using antibodies to the DNA damage response proteins gamma-histone 2AX (γ-H2AX) and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (p-DNA-PKcs). Materials and methods 3-D tissue equivalents were irradiated in positions across the linear distribution of the Bragg curve profiles of 307.7 MeV/nucleon, 556.9 MeV/nucleon, or 967.0 MeV/nucleon 56Fe ions at a dose of 0.30 Gy. Results Patterns of discrete DNA damage streaks across nuclei or saturated nuclear damage were observed, with saturated nuclear damage being more predominant as samples were positioned closer to the physical Bragg peak. Quantification of the DNA damage signal intensities at each distance for each of the examined energies revealed a biological Bragg curve profile with a pattern of DNA damage intensity similar to the physical Bragg curve for the particular energy. Deconvolution microscopy of nuclei with streaked or saturated nuclear damage pattern revealed more details of the damage, with evidence of double-strand breaks radially distributed from the main particle track as well as multiple discrete tracks within saturated damage nuclei. Conclusions These 3-D culture systems can be used as a biological substrate to better understand the interaction of heavy charged particles of different energies with tissue and could serve as a basis to model space-radiation-induced cancer initiation and progression. PMID:20201648

  17. Tracking Porters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Nielsen, Margit Saltofte

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations......’ that differs from the standardized procedures of normal science. To establish our points we use an example of problem-based project work conducted by a group of Techno-Anthropology students at Aalborg University, we focus on key aspects of this craft and how the students began to learn it: For two weeks...... the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital....

  18. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from crossing the rail track. For obtaining this output the sensing devices are placed in proximity areas of the rail track using a novel passive node mobility mechanism. These devices act as an input to the ac...

  19. Real-Time Head Pose Tracking with Online Face Template Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songnan; Ngan, King Ngi; Paramesran, Raveendran; Sheng, Lu

    2016-09-01

    We propose a real-time method to accurately track the human head pose in the 3-dimensional (3D) world. Using a RGB-Depth camera, a face template is reconstructed by fitting a 3D morphable face model, and the head pose is determined by registering this user-specific face template to the input depth video. PMID:26584487

  20. An Improved Point-track Optimal Assignment Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of data association of the Optimal Assignment (OA algorithm based on dynamic information, an improved Point-Track Optimal Assignment (IPTOA algorithm based on multi-source information is proposed. The improved algorithm gets valid 3-tuple of measurement set by solving 3-Dimensional (3-D assignment problem which is based on dynamic information. Then fuses multi-source information by combination rule of D-S evidence theory and constructs the point-track correlation matrix between valid 3-tuple of measurement and target track. Compared with the optimal assignment algorithm based on dynamic information, the new algorithm effectively fuses multi-source information to correlate measurement data, which improves the performance of multi-target tracking in different degrees. Simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  1. A track ion counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to measure the frequency of production of ions in a gas is described. The characteristics of a device, which is named a track ion counter, are presented. The counter consists of two cylindrical volumes separated by a diaphragm with 500μm dia. orifice. The device is connected to an oil diffusion pump with high pumping speed. The gas flow through the orifice determines the pressure in the upper and the lower volumes of the device. The positive ions produced in a cylindrical volume above an orifice by charged particles traversing that volume move in a constant electric field. Some of these ions passing through the orifice are accelerated and detected by an electron multiplier. The absolute efficiency of ions detection from the domain above the orifice have been determined. The measurements were carried out for single charged ions of N2, H2, CH4, CO2. The preliminary measurements of the frequency of ions created within cylindrical gas domain equivalent to 0.15nm dia. and 7.6nm height tissue cylinder are reported

  2. Track Construction Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  3. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  4. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Sang Gyu, E-mail: sg.ju@samsung.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  6. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN on 18 July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker will be ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC will be installed in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services, and will be completed in October. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS at the end of October, after the completion of the installation of the EB/HB services. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on YB0 and commissioned with CMS in December. The FPix and BPix continue to make ...

  7. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN in July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker was ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC have been installed, together with the Tracker cable channels, in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services. All of the Tracker Safety, Power, DCS and the VME Readout Systems have been installed at P5 and are being tested and commissioned with CMS. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS before Christmas. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on Y...

  8. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Romain G; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stephane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoum, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-01-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups. The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by g...

  9. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use.

  10. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use. PMID:26743416

  11. Intelligent Layout Method of the Powerhouse for Tank & Armored Vehicles Based on 3-Dimensional Rectangular Packing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-long; MAO Ming; LU Yi-ping; BIE Jie-min

    2005-01-01

    Probes into a new and effective method in arranging the powerhouses of tank & armored vehicles. Theory and method of 3-dimensional rectangular packing are adapted to arrange effectively almost all the systems and components in the powerhouse of the vehicle, thus the study can be regarded as an attempt for the theory's engineering applications in the field of tank & armored vehicle design. It is proved that most parts of the solutions attained are reasonable, and some of the solutions are innovative.

  12. Study on the stability and 3-dimensional character for natural convection in a rectangular cavity heated from below

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Natural convection of air is numerically simulated in a 3-dimensional rectangular cavity heated from below using SIMPLE algorithm with a QUICK scheme.The results suggest that when all lateral walls are adiabatic,the fluid rolls occur along the long axis.When the Rayleigh number is smaller,the flow is of 2-dimensional character,and the rolls shapes are similar.The average Nusselt numbers in the central part of the cavity are similar.The average Nusselt numbers in the part near by the cavity are different.According to the comparison of 3-dimensional results with 2-dimensional results,the flow patterns and heat transfer in the central part of the cavity can be assumed as a 2-dimensional flow,While those in the part near by the cavity can not.With increasing Rayleigh number,the flow is 3-dimensional characteristic.The 3-dimensional result accords with the experimental result.When all lateral walls are adiabatic,the ten rolls occur along the long axis.But when lateral walls are heated or cooled,the rolls disappear along the long axis and two rolls occur along the short axis.The rotation direction of the rolls is reversed.When Rayleigh number is over some critical value,flow and heat transfer will be asymmetry,indicating unsteady oscillation occurs.By nonlinear analyses,it is shown that with increasing Rayleigh number,flow and heat transfer will change from steady state to unsteady state through HOPF bifurcation,and transition to chaos will occur through multi-periodical oscillation.

  13. Targeting FAK Radiosensitizes 3-Dimensional Grown Human HNSCC Cells Through Reduced Akt1 and MEK1/2 Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlgans, Stephanie [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Eke, Iris [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Cordes, Nils, E-mail: Nils.Cordes@OncoRay.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital and Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a main regulator of integrin signaling and cell migration, is frequently overexpressed and hyperphosphorylated in human head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We have previously shown that pharmacologic FAK inhibition leads to radiosensitization of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cell lines. To further evaluate the role of FAK in radioresistance and as a potential cancer target, we examined FAK and FAK downstream signaling in HNSCC cell lines grown in more physiologic extracellular matrix-based 3-dimensional cell cultures. Methods and Materials: Seven HNSCC cell lines were grown in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix and the clonogenic radiation survival, expression, and phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin, Akt1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and MEK1/2 were analyzed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of FAK, Akt1, MEK1, FAK+Akt1, or FAK+MEK1 compared with controls or stable overexpression of FAK. The role of MEK1/2 for clonogenic survival and signaling was investigated using the MEK inhibitor U0126 with or without irradiation. Results: FAK knockdown moderately or significantly enhanced the cellular radiosensitivity of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cells. The FAK downstream targets paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 were substantially dephosphorylated under FAK depletion. FAK overexpression, in contrast, increased radiation survival and paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The degree of radiosensitization upon Akt1, ERK1/2, or MEK1 depletion or U0126 was superimposable to FAK knockdown. Combination knockdown conditions (ie, Akt1/FAK, MEK1/FAK, or U0126/FAK) failed to provide additional radiosensitization. Conclusions: Our data provide further evidence for FAK as important determinant of radiation survival, which acts in the same signaling axis as Akt1 and ERK1/2. These data strongly support our hypothesis that FAK is a relevant molecular target for HNSCC radiotherapy.

  14. Accuracy of 3-Dimensional Transoesophageal Echocardiography in Assessment of Prosthetic Mitral Valve Dehiscence with Comparison to Anatomical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Brown

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of echocardiography from 2-Dimensional Transthoracic Echo through to real time 3-Dimensional Transoesophageal Echo has enabled more accurate visualisation and quantification of valvular disorders especially prosthetic mitral valve paravalvular regurgitation. However, validation of accuracy is rarely confirmed by surgical or post-mortem specimens. We present a case directly comparing different echocardiographic modality images to post mortem specimens in a patient with prosthetic mitral valve paravalvular regurgitation.

  15. Unified description of magic numbers of metal clusters in terms of the 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Lenis, D; Raychev, P P; Roussev, R P; Terziev, P A

    2000-01-01

    Magic numbers predicted by a 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator with Uq(3)>SOq(3) symmetry are compared to experimental data for atomic clusters of alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs), noble metals (Cu, Ag, Au), divalent metals (Zn, Cd), and trivalent metals (Al, In), as well as to theoretical predictions of jellium models, Woods-Saxon and wine bottle potentials, and to the classification scheme using the 3n+l pseudo quantum number. In alkali metal clusters and noble metal clusters the 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator correctly predicts all experimentally observed magic numbers up to 1500 (which is the expected limit of validity for theories based on the filling of electronic shells), while in addition it gives satisfactory results for the magic numbers of clusters of divalent metals and trivalent metals, thus indicating that Uq(3), which is a nonlinear extension of the U(3) symmetry of the spherical (3-dimensional isotropic) harmonic oscillator, is a good candidate for being the symmetry ...

  16. Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The 3-dimensional imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using high-resolution 1322 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. We found it possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprises UV-barrier, barrier...

  17. The new ATLAS track reconstruction (NEWT)

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelissen, T; Gavrilenko, I; Liebig, W; Moyse, E; Salzburger, A

    2008-01-01

    The track reconstruction of modern high energy physics experiments is a very complex task that puts stringent requirements onto the software realisation. The ATLAS track reconstruction software has been in the past dominated by a collection of individual packages, each of which incorporating a different intrinsic event data model, different data flow sequences and calibration data. Recently, the ATLAS track reconstruction has undergone a major design revolution to ensure maintainability during the long lifetime of the ATLAS experiment and the flexibility needed for the startup phase. The entire software chain has been re-organised in modular components and a common event data model has been deployed. A complete new track reconstruction that concentrates on common tools aimed to be used by both ATLAS tracking devices, the Inner Detector and the Muon System, has been established. It has been already used during many large scale tests with data from Monte Carlo simulation and from detector commissioning projects...

  18. Solar tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  19. Bald Eagle Tracking Project Report Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to learn, by use of tracking devices, the locations of bald eagle high use areas for foraging and roosting. Tracking will provide...

  20. Polymer lattices as mechanically tunable 3-dimensional photonic crystals operating in the infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernow, V. F., E-mail: vchernow@caltech.edu [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Alaeian, H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Dionne, J. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Greer, J. R. [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); The Kavli Nanoscience Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    Broadly tunable photonic crystals in the near- to mid-infrared region could find use in spectroscopy, non-invasive medical diagnosis, chemical and biological sensing, and military applications, but so far have not been widely realized. We report the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals composed of polymer nanolattices with an octahedron unit-cell geometry. These photonic crystals exhibit a strong peak in reflection in the mid-infrared that shifts substantially and reversibly with application of compressive uniaxial strain. A strain of ∼40% results in a 2.2 μm wavelength shift in the pseudo-stop band, from 7.3 μm for the as-fabricated nanolattice to 5.1 μm when strained. We found a linear relationship between the overall compressive strain in the photonic crystal and the resulting stopband shift, with a ∼50 nm blueshift in the reflection peak position per percent increase in strain. These results suggest that architected nanolattices can serve as efficient three-dimensional mechanically tunable photonic crystals, providing a foundation for new opto-mechanical components and devices across infrared and possibly visible frequencies.

  1. A 3-dimensional interdigitated electrode geometry for the enhancement of charge collection efficiency in diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Forneris, J; Olivero, P; Picollo, F; Re, A; Marinelli, M; Pompili, F; Verona, C; Rinati, G Verona; Benetti, M; Cannata, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a single crystal CVD diamond film with a novel three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated electrode geometry has been fabricated with the Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) technique in order to increase the charge collection efficiency (CCE) with respect to that obtained by standard superficial electrodes. The geometrical arrangement of the electric field lines due to the 3D patterning of the electrodes results in a shorter travel path for the excess charge carriers, thus contributing to a more efficient charge collection mech-anism. The CCE of the device was mapped by means of the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) technique. A 1 MeV proton micro-beam was raster scanned over the active area of the diamond detector under different bias voltage conditions, enabling to probe the charge transport properties of the detector up to a depth of 8 {\\mu}m below the sample surface. The experimental results, supported by the numerical simulations, show a significant improvement in the 3D-detector performance (i.e. CCE, ene...

  2. Boundary conditions for the solution of the 3-dimensional Poisson equation in open metallic enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Debabrata; Kumar, Raghwendra

    2015-01-01

    Numerical solution of the Poisson equation in metallic enclosures, open at one or more ends, is important in many practical situations such as High Power Microwave (HPM) or photo-cathode devices. It requires imposition of a suitable boundary condition at the open end. In this paper, methods for solving the Poisson equation are investigated for various charge densities and aspect ratios of the open ends. It is found that a mixture of second order and third order local asymptotic boundary condition (ABC) is best suited for large aspect ratios while a proposed non-local matching method, based on the solution of the Laplace equation, scores well when the aspect ratio is near unity for all charge density variations, including ones where the centre of charge is close to an open end or the charge density is non-localized. The two methods complement each other and can be used in electrostatic calculations where the computational domain needs to be terminated at the open boundaries of the metallic enclosure.

  3. Polymer lattices as mechanically tunable 3-dimensional photonic crystals operating in the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadly tunable photonic crystals in the near- to mid-infrared region could find use in spectroscopy, non-invasive medical diagnosis, chemical and biological sensing, and military applications, but so far have not been widely realized. We report the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals composed of polymer nanolattices with an octahedron unit-cell geometry. These photonic crystals exhibit a strong peak in reflection in the mid-infrared that shifts substantially and reversibly with application of compressive uniaxial strain. A strain of ∼40% results in a 2.2 μm wavelength shift in the pseudo-stop band, from 7.3 μm for the as-fabricated nanolattice to 5.1 μm when strained. We found a linear relationship between the overall compressive strain in the photonic crystal and the resulting stopband shift, with a ∼50 nm blueshift in the reflection peak position per percent increase in strain. These results suggest that architected nanolattices can serve as efficient three-dimensional mechanically tunable photonic crystals, providing a foundation for new opto-mechanical components and devices across infrared and possibly visible frequencies

  4. [3-dimensional biomechanical study of a new flexible lumbar intervertebral disk implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, J; Heine, J; Eysel, P

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the significance of a new artificial nucleus implant for lumbar discs (polymethyl siloxane polymer, DR-PMSO) with special regard to the biomechanical properties of the spinal motion segment. The lumbar segments L1/L2 and L4/L5 were harvested from six calf cadavers. The segments were fixed on a special device mounted on a three-dimensional testing machine. Physiological load with a maximum of 7 Nm was applied in flexion/extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left torsion. The movement of the measuring point (center of L1 and L4) was registered along three axes (sagittal, frontal, and vertical). Three cycles of measurements were performed on all specimens: (1) intact segment, (2) segment after nucleotomy, and (3) segment with PMSO. There was a statistically significant (p = 0.0313) increase in segmental mobility in all directions after nucleotomy with an increased mobility of the segment up to 30% for rotation and 50% for translation. After introduction of the PMSO implant, segmental mobility for all movement directions was restored with no statistically significant difference from the intact situation before nucleotomy. The disc material was found to be noncytotoxic according to current ISO 10993 standards. PMID:11417241

  5. 3-dimensional local field polarization vector mapping of a focused radially polarized beam using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J S; Kihm, H W; Kihm, J E; Kim, D S; Lee, K G

    2009-02-16

    We have measured local electric field polarization vectors in 3-dimensional space on the nanoscale. A radial polarized light is generated by using a radial polarization converter and focused by an objective lens. Gold nanoparticle functionalized tips are used to scatter the focused field into the far-field region. Two different methods, rotational analyzer ellipsometry and Stokes parameters, are used in determining the polarization state of the scattered light. Two methods give consistent results with each other. Three dimensional local polarization vectors could be reconstructed by applying back transformation of the fully characterized polarizability tensor of the tip. PMID:19219131

  6. Numerical study of certain 3-dimensional effects in a sectioned MHD generator channel with successive inclusion of electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In a 3-dimensional statement, a study is made of the effect of finite sectioning, shapes of electrodes and heterogeneity of the plasma parameters on the characteristics of the diagonal MHD generator. It is indicated that increase in specific electrical conductance of the plasma at the insulator wall results in a monotonic decrease in the voltage idling. There is an optimal specific electrical conductance of plasma at the electrode wall in which the voltage idling is the maximum. The expediency is shown of making channels with external commutation. There is an optimal ratio between the lengths of the electrode and the insulator.

  7. A low error reconstruction method for confocal holography to determine 3-dimensional properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, P.B., E-mail: pbjacque@nps.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, EOW 548,800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC (Canada); Herring, R.A. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, EOW 548,800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    A confocal holography microscope developed at the University of Victoria uniquely combines holography with a scanning confocal microscope to non-intrusively measure fluid temperatures in three-dimensions (Herring, 1997), (Abe and Iwasaki, 1999), (Jacquemin et al., 2005). The Confocal Scanning Laser Holography (CSLH) microscope was built and tested to verify the concept of 3D temperature reconstruction from scanned holograms. The CSLH microscope used a focused laser to non-intrusively probe a heated fluid specimen. The focused beam probed the specimen instead of a collimated beam in order to obtain different phase-shift data for each scan position. A collimated beam produced the same information for scanning along the optical propagation z-axis. No rotational scanning mechanisms were used in the CSLH microscope which restricted the scan angle to the cone angle of the probe beam. Limited viewing angle scanning from a single view point window produced a challenge for tomographic 3D reconstruction. The reconstruction matrices were either singular or ill-conditioned making reconstruction with significant error or impossible. Establishing boundary conditions with a particular scanning geometry resulted in a method of reconstruction with low error referred to as 'wily'. The wily reconstruction method can be applied to microscopy situations requiring 3D imaging where there is a single viewpoint window, a probe beam with high numerical aperture, and specified boundary conditions for the specimen. The issues and progress of the wily algorithm for the CSLH microscope are reported herein. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of an optical confocal holography device to measure 3D temperature of a heated fluid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processing of multiple holograms containing the cumulative refractive index through the fluid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstruction issues due to restricting angular scanning to the numerical aperture of the

  8. Large-eddy-simulation of 3-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability in incompressible fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Lili

    2002-01-01

    [1]Sharp, D. H., An overview of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, Physica D, 1984, 12: 3-18.[2]Baker, G. R., Meiron, D. I., Orszag, S. A., Vortex simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, Phys. Fluids, 1980, 23: 1485-1490.[3]Tryggvason, G., Numerical simulations of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, J. Comput. Phys., 1988, 75: 253-282.[4]Mulder, W., Osher, S., Sethian, J., Computing interface motion in compressible gas dynamics, J. Comput. Phys., 1992, 100: 209-228.[5]Osher, S., Sethian, J., Fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed: algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations, J. Compput. Phys., 1988, 79(1): 12-49.[6]Li, X. L., Study of three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible fluids through level set method and parallel computation, Phys. Fluids, 1993, A(5): 1904-1913.[7]Holmes, R. L, Grove, J. W., Sharp, D. H., Numerical investigation of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using front tracking, J. Fluid Mech., 1995, 301: 51-64.[8]Gardner, C., Glimm, J., McBryan, O. et al., The dynamics of bubble growth for Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interfaces, Phys. Fluids, 1988, 31: 447-465.[9]He Xiaoyi, Chen Shiyi, Zhang Raoyang, A lattice Boltzmann scheme for incompressible multiphase flow and its application in simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, J. Comput Phys., 1999, 152: 642-663.[10]Li, X. L., Jin, B. X., Glimm, J., Numerical study for the three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability through the TVD/AC scheme and parallel computation, J. Comput. Phys., 1996, 126: 343-355.[11]Taylor, G. I., The stability of liquid surface when accelerated in a direction perpendicular to their planes, I, Proc. Roy. Soc., London, 1950, A201: 192-196.[12]Abarzhi, S. I., Stable steady flow in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, Phs. Rev. Lett., 1998, 81: 337-340.[13]Zhang, Q., The motion of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interfaces, IMPACT Comput. Sci. Eng., 1991, 3: 277-389.[14]Deardorff. J. W

  9. Large Scale Wi-Fi tracking using a Botnet of Wireless Routers

    OpenAIRE

    Rouveyrol, Pierre; Raveneau, Patrice; Cunche, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    International audience Wi-Fi tracking is a method relying on signals emitted by portable devices to track individuals for commercial, security or surveillance purposes. Wi-Fi tracking has the potential to passively track a large fraction of the population [12] and is therefore an ideal population surveillance technology and a serious privacy threat. We argue that Wi-Fi routers make an ideal building block to create a large scale Wi-Fi tracking system. This paper first presents the interest...

  10. Particle Tracking in Circular Accelerators Using the Exact Hamiltonian in SixTrack

    CERN Document Server

    Fjellstrom, Mattias; Hansson, Johan

    2013-12-13

    Particle motion in accelerators is in general complex. Tracking codes are developed to simulate beam dynamics in accelerators. SixTrack is a long lived particle tracking code maintained at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. A particle accelerator consists of a large number of magnets and other electromagnetic devices that guide the particle through the accelerator. Each device defines its own equation of motion, which often cannot be solved exactly. For this purpose, a number of approximations are introduced in order to facilitate the solution and to speed up the computation. In a high-energy accelerator, the particle has small transverse momentum components. This is exploited in the small-angle approximation. In this approximation the equations of motion are expanded to a low order in the transverse momentum components. In low-energy particle accelerators, or in tracking with large momentum deviations, this approximation is invalid. The equations of motion of a particle passing through a f...

  11. Cleft posterior mitral valve leaflet in an adult with Turner syndrome diagnosed with the use of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, Stefania Luminita; Alexandrescu, Clara; Sabatier, Michel; Dreyfus, Gilles D

    2012-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a monosomy (45,X karyotype) in which the prevalence of cardiovascular anomalies is high. However, this aspect of Turner syndrome has received little attention outside of the pediatric medical literature, and the entire spectrum of cardiovascular conditions in adults remains unknown. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who had Turner syndrome. When she was a teenager, her native bicuspid aortic valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthesis. Fifteen years later, during preoperative examination for prosthesis-patient mismatch, severe mitral regurgitation was detected, and a congenital cleft in the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve was diagnosed with use of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. The patient underwent concurrent mitral valve repair and aortic valve replacement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cleft in the posterior mitral valve leaflet as a cardiovascular defect observed in Turner syndrome, and the first such instance to have been diagnosed with the use of 3-dimensional echocardiography.

  12. Influence of slice thickness of computed tomography and type of rapid protyping on the accuracy of 3-dimensional medical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to evaluate the influence of slice thickness of computed tomography (CT) and rapid protyping (RP) type on the accuracy of 3-dimensional medical model. Transaxial CT data of human dry skull were taken from multi-detector spiral CT. Slice thickness were 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm respectively. Three-dimensional image model reconstruction using 3-D visualization medical software (V-works 3.0) and RP model fabrication were followed. 2-RP models were 3D printing (Z402, Z Corp., Burlington, USA) and Stereolithographic Apparatus model. Linear measurements of anatomical landmarks on dry skull, 3-D image model, and 2-RP models were done and compared according to slice thickness and RP model type. There were relative error percentage in absolute value of 0.97, 1.98, 3.83 between linear measurements of dry skull and image models of 1, 2, 3 mm slice thickness respectively. There was relative error percentage in absolute value of 0.79 between linear measurements of dry skull and SLA model. There was relative error difference in absolute value of 2.52 between linear measurements of dry skull and 3D printing model. These results indicated that 3-dimensional image model of thin slice thickness and stereolithographic RP model showed relative high accuracy.

  13. 49 CFR 236.54 - Minimum length of track circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and... than maximum inner wheelbase of any locomotive or car operated over such track circuit is used...

  14. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Klaus Mönig

    2007-11-01

    Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  15. APPLICATION FOR AIRCRAFT TRACKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroumov, Ivan; Kuz’menko, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In the article the important problems of software development for aircraft tracking have beendiscussed. Position reports of ACARS have been used for aircraft tracking around the world.An algorithm of aircraft coordinates decoding and visualization of aircraft position on the map has beenrepresented.Keywords: ACARS, aircraft, internet, position, software, tracking.

  16. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas;

    2005-01-01

    server-side updates. This is achieved by designing, prototyping, and testing novel tracking techniques that exploit knowledge of the road network and past movement. These resulting tracking techniques are to support mobile services that rely on the existence of a central server that continuously tracks...

  17. Track and Field Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Discusses planning and design tips that help ensure track and field facilities are successful and well-suited to both school and community use. Examines approaches to determining the best track surface and ways to maximize track and field flexibility with limited space. (GR)

  18. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI

  19. Tracking of Head Movements for Motion Control

    OpenAIRE

    Salai, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The capture of gestures in order to use them as input for intuitive control has been investigated exhaustively in recent years. However, for the most part this has resulted in relatively expensive devices. The contribution of this report is the investigation on the feasibility of the development of a low-cost vision based input device for the tracking of head movements, concerning the use of them for motion control. The input device relies on the infrared camera, along with the built-in image...

  20. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  1. Smart Vehicle Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Kamble

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to know how simple ideas can give a whole new dimension to the tracking and navigation industry and smart vehicle tracking system is used for tracking the vehicles. You can optimize driver routes, save petrol or gas and time, reduce theft and control the vehicle functions. Many a times it is not required to track your vehicle or target globally. In majority of cases tracking is more restricted to local purposes only, such as tracking movement of vehicle within city, tracking the raw materials within industrial estate or to know the present position of your daughter or son within city. But unfortunately in the pursuit of making things complex this simple idea is forgotten. This simple yet powerful idea forms the basis of this revolutionary project. All this coupled with a very low cost, a robust design and tremendous market potential makes this model even more attractive.

  2. Tracking by Neural Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jofrehei, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Current track reconstruction methods start with two points and then for each layer loop through all possible hits to find proper hits to add to that track. Another idea would be to use this large number of already reconstructed events and/or simulated data and train a machine on this data to find tracks given hit pixels. Training time could be long but real time tracking is really fast. Simulation might not be as realistic as real data but tracking efficiency is 100 percent for that while by using real data we would probably be limited to current efficiency. The fact that this approach can be a lot faster and even more efficient than current methods by using simulation data can make it a great alternative for current track reconstruction methods used in both triggering and tracking.

  3. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  4. Open reduction and internal fixation aided by intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging improved the articular reduction in 72 displaced acetabular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Henrik; Lind, Dennis; Toendevold, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose - During acetabular fracture surgery, the acetabular roof is difficult to visualize with 2-dimensional fluoroscopic views. We assessed whether intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) imaging can aid the surgeon to achieve better articular reduction and improve implant fixation....... Patients and methods - We operated on 72 acetabular fractures using intraoperative 3D imaging and compared the operative results, duration of surgery, and complications with those for 42 consecutive acetabular fracture operations conducted using conventional fluoroscopic imaging. Postoperative reduction...... was evaluated on reconstructed coronal and sagittal images of the acetabulum. Results - The fracture severity and patient characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. In the 3D group, 46 of 72 patients (0.6) had a perfect result after open reduction and internal fixation, and in the control group, 17 of 42 (0...

  5. Preoperative evaluation of vertebral and posterior communicating arteries using 3-dimensional CT angiography before cervical posterior instrumentation surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We preoperatively examined 45 patients to investigate the frequency of an anomalous vertebral artery (VA) and the presence of a posterior communicating artery (PCOM) using 3-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA). Asymmetry of the VAs was detected in eight patients (18%). Anomalous VAs in the intra- or extraosseous region, including a high-riding VA, persistent 1st intersegmental artery, and ponticulus posticus, were found in a total of 8 patients (18%). Nineteen patients (42%) did not have a PCOM on either side. When a VA, especially the VA on the dominant side, is injured during cervical instrumentation, catastrophic vascular complications occur in approximately 7% of patients who have asymmetrical VAs without collateral circulation. Preoperative 3D-CTA provides information on anomalous VAs and collateral circulation that is crucial to preventing vascular complications. (author)

  6. Numerical simulation of recalescence of 3-dimensional isothermal solidification for binary alloy using phase-field approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chang-sheng; XIAO Rong-zhen; WANG Zhi-ping; FENG Li

    2009-01-01

    A accelerated arithmetic algorithm of the dynamic computing regions was designed, and 3-dimensional numerical simulation of isothermal solidification for a binary alloy was implemented. The dendritic growth and the recalescence of Ni-Cu binary alloy during the solidification at different cooling rates were investigated. The effects of cooling rate on dendritic patterns and microsegregation patterns were studied. The computed results indicate that, with the increment of the cooling rate, the dendritic growth velocity increases, both the main branch and side-branches become slender, the secondary dendrite arm spacing becomes smaller, the inadequate solute diffusion in solid aggravates, and the severity of microsegregation ahead of interface aggravates. At a higher cooling rate, the binary alloy presents recalescence; while the cooling rate is small, no recalescence occurs.

  7. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observation with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations were obtained in central Oklahoma during June 1998, using New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). The results have been compared with observations of the discharges from space obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were obtained between the two sets of observations. All discharges seen by LIS were mapped by the LMA. Most of the detected optical events were associated with lightning channels that extended into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended to be detected by LIS at the time of late-stage return strokes. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud discharges and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  8. 3-dimensional organic Dirac-line material due to non-symmorphic symmetry: a data mining approach

    CERN Document Server

    Geilhufe, R Matthias; Borysov, Stanislav S; Balatsky, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    A data mining study of electronic Kohn-Sham band structures was performed to identify Dirac materials within the Organic Materials Database (OMDB). Out of that, the 3-dimensional organic crystal 5,6-Bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-methoxy-1H-1,3-diazepine was found to host different Dirac line-nodes within the band structure. From a group theoretical analysis, it is possible to distinguish between Dirac line-nodes occurring due to 2-fold degenerate energy levels protected by the monoclinic crystalline symmetry and 2-fold degenerate accidental crossings protected by the topology of the electronic band structure. The obtained results can be generalized to all materials having the space group $P2_1/c$ ($\\#14$, $C^5_{2h}$) by introducing three distinct topological classes.

  9. Tracks: Nurses and the Tracking Network

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-06

    This podcast highlights the utility of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for nurses in a variety of work settings. It features commentary from the American Nurses Association and includes stories from a public health nurse in Massachusetts.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects (DEHHE)/Environmental Health Tracking Branch (EHTB).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  10. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  11. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  12. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  13. GPS-Aided Video Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Feuerhake

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking moving objects is both challenging and important for a large variety of applications. Different technologies based on the global positioning system (GPS and video or radio data are used to obtain the trajectories of the observed objects. However, in some use cases, they fail to provide sufficiently accurate, complete and correct data at the same time. In this work we present an approach for fusing GPS- and video-based tracking in order to exploit their individual advantages. In this way we aim to combine the reliability of GPS tracking with the high geometric accuracy of camera detection. For the fusion of the movement data provided by the different devices we use a hidden Markov model (HMM formulation and the Viterbi algorithm to extract the most probable trajectories. In three experiments, we show that our approach is able to deal with challenging situations like occlusions or objects which are temporarily outside the monitored area. The results show the desired increase in terms of accuracy, completeness and correctness.

  14. "Thumball" Auxiliary Data-Input Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas; Busquets, Anthony M.; Hogge, Thomas W.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1988-01-01

    Track-ball-type device mounted on joystick and operated by thumb. Thumball designed to enable precise input of data about two different axes to autopilot, avionics computer, or other electronic device without need for operator to remove hands from joystick or other vehicle control levers.

  15. The Kinect as an interventional tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang L.; Stolka, Philipp J.; Boctor, Emad; Hager, Gregory; Choti, Michael

    2012-02-01

    This work explores the suitability of low-cost sensors for "serious" medical applications, such as tracking of interventional tools in the OR, for simulation, and for education. Although such tracking - i.e. the acquisition of pose data e.g. for ultrasound probes, tissue manipulation tools, needles, but also tissue, bone etc. - is well established, it relies mostly on external devices such as optical or electromagnetic trackers, both of which mandate the use of special markers or sensors attached to each single entity whose pose is to be recorded, and also require their calibration to the tracked entity, i.e. the determination of the geometric relationship between the marker's and the object's intrinsic coordinate frames. The Microsoft Kinect sensor is a recently introduced device for full-body tracking in the gaming market, but it was quickly hacked - due to its wide range of tightly integrated sensors (RGB camera, IR depth and greyscale camera, microphones, accelerometers, and basic actuation) - and used beyond this area. As its field of view and its accuracy are within reasonable usability limits, we describe a medical needle-tracking system for interventional applications based on the Kinect sensor, standard biopsy needles, and no necessary attachments, thus saving both cost and time. Its twin cameras are used as a stereo pair to detect needle-shaped objects, reconstruct their pose in four degrees of freedom, and provide information about the most likely candidate.

  16. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  17. Thermal evaluation of a sun tracking solar cooker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif; Al-Mofleh, Anwar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa' Applied University, P.O. Box 15008, Amman (Jordan); Badran, Omar. O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Appllied University, P.O. Box 15008, Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    Solar energy is one of many important types of renewable energy. Jordan is of great needs for renewable energy systems applications since it depends totally in generation of its required energy on imported oil. This study is an experimental work of tracking system developed for enhancing the solar heating using solar cooker. An electronic sun tracking device was used for rotating the solar heater with the movement of the sun. A comparison between fixed and sun tracked cooker showed that the use of sun tracking increased the heating temperature by 36% due to the increase in radiation concentration and using internal mirror reflectors. The programming method used for tracking control works efficiently in all weather conditions regardless of the presence of clouds. It can be used as backup control circuit in which relays are the essential control devices.

  18. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  19. Magnetic resonance propulsion, control and tracking at 24 Hz of an untethered device in the carotid artery of a living animal: an important step in the development of medical micro- and nanorobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Our recent demonstration of a ferromagnetic bead being navigated automatically inside the carotid artery of a living animal at an average speed of 10 cm/s using a clinical MRI system may be considered as a significant step in the field of medical micro- and nanorobotics. This is particularly true when we consider that an appropriate tracking method was embedded in the closed-loop control process allowing the blood vessels to be considered as navigational routes, providing maximum access for conducting operations inside the human body. But more importantly, this demonstration not only validates preliminary theoretical models but provides us with initial insights about the strategies and approaches that are likely to be used to navigate under computer control, micro- and nanodevices including nanorobots from the largest to the smallest diameter blood vessels that could be used to reach targets inside the human body. Here, based on these initial experimental data obtained in vivo, such strategies and methods are briefly described with some initial design concepts of medical interventional micro- and nanorobots.

  20. 49 CFR 236.51 - Track circuit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions..., appliance or other protective device, which provides a bypath for the electric current, or (2) As result of..., locomotive, or car occupies any part of a track circuit, including fouling section of turnout except...

  1. Probabilistic Analysis on Fault Tolerance of 3-Dimensional Mesh Networks%3-维Mesh网络容错性的概率分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高才; 陈建二; 王国军; 陈松乔

    2003-01-01

    Mesh network is very popualr and important topological structure in parallel computing. In this paper,we focus on the fault tolerance of 3-dimensional mesh. We use the probability model to analyze the fault tolerance of mesh. To simplify our analysis, we assume the failure probability of each node is independent. We partition a 3-dimensional mesh into smaller submeshes and compute the probability with which each submesh satisfies the condition we define. If each submesh satisfies the condition, then the whole mesh is connected. We then compute the probability that a 3-dimensional mesh is connected assuming each node has a failure probability p. We use mathematical methods to derive a relationship between network node failure probability and network connectivity probability. Our simulations show that 3-dimensional mesh networks can remain connected with very high probability in practice. For example, the paper formally proves that when the network node failure probability is bounded by 0.05%, 3-dimensional mesh network of more than two hundred thousand nodes remain connected with probability larger than 99%. Theoretical and experimental results show that our method is powderful technique to calculate the lower bound of the connectivity probability of mesh network.

  2. Wearable Tracking Tags Test Privacy Boundaries at the U. of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotinga, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Tags such as the radio-frequency identifications or RFIDs are devices that make it possible for individuals to be tracked and their location reported back to a database. The devices--chips with radio antennas--emit signals, and tracking them reveals the movement of people or things. Many stores use the technology to catch shoplifters at exits. To…

  3. Online Supervised Subspace Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yao; Song, Ruiyang; Dai, Hanjun; Li, Qingbin; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    We present a framework for supervised subspace tracking, when there are two time series $x_t$ and $y_t$, one being the high-dimensional predictors and the other being the response variables and the subspace tracking needs to take into consideration of both sequences. It extends the classic online subspace tracking work which can be viewed as tracking of $x_t$ only. Our online sufficient dimensionality reduction (OSDR) is a meta-algorithm that can be applied to various cases including linear r...

  4. Color image processing and object tracking workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Paulick, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A system is described for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape which was developed to meet the needs of the microgravity combustion and fluid science experiments at NASA Lewis. The system consists of individual hardware parts working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware parts include 16 mm film projector, a lens system, a video camera, an S-VHS tapedeck, a frame grabber, and some storage and output devices. Both the projector and tapedeck have a computer interface enabling remote control. Tracking software was developed to control the overall operation. In the automatic mode, the main tracking program controls the projector or the tapedeck frame incrementation, grabs a frame, processes it, locates the edge of the objects being tracked, and stores the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Three representative applications are described. These applications represent typical uses and include tracking the propagation of a flame front, tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility, and characterizing a diffusion flame according to color and shape.

  5. The new ATLAS track reconstruction (NEWT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, T.; Elsing, M.; Gavrilenko, I.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.

    2008-07-01

    The track reconstruction of modern high energy physics experiments is a very complex task that puts stringent requirements onto the software realisation. The ATLAS track reconstruction software has been in the past dominated by a collection of individual packages, each of which incorporating a different intrinsic event data model, different data flow sequences and calibration data. Recently, the ATLAS track reconstruction has undergone a major design revolution to ensure maintainability during the long lifetime of the ATLAS experiment and the flexibility needed for the startup phase. The entire software chain has been re-organised in modular components and a common event data model has been deployed. A complete new track reconstruction that concentrates on common tools aimed to be used by both ATLAS tracking devices, the Inner Detector and the Muon System, has been established. It has been already used during many large scale tests with data from Monte Carlo simulation and from detector commissioning projects such as the combined test beam 2004 and cosmic ray events. This document concentrates on the technical and conceptual details of the newly developed track reconstruction.

  6. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  7. CWI at TREC 2012, KBA track and Session Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, S.; Boscarino, C.; Gebremeskel, G.G.; He, J.; Vries, A.P. de; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    We participated in two tracks: Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Track and Session Track. In the KBA track, we focused on experi- menting with different approaches as it is the first time the track is launched. We experimented with supervised and unsupervised re- trieval models. Our supervised appro

  8. Evaluation of the Zone of Influence and Entrainment Impacts for an Intake Using a 3-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwet Prakash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water systems in large LNG carriers are essential for proper operations and stability. Water withdrawn from the surrounding environment to supply to the ballast can pose entrainment and impingement risk to the resident fish population. Quantification of these risks and the net effect on population is usually quite challenging and complex. Various methods over the last several decades have been developed and are available in the literature for quantification of entrainment of mobile and immobile lifestages of resident fish. In this study, a detailed 3-dimensional model was developed to estimate the entrainment of ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae and fish from an estuarine environment during the repeated short-term operation of a ballast water intake for an LNG carrier. It was also used to develop a zone of influence to determine the ability of mobile life stages to avoid impingement. The ichthyoplankton model is an Equivalent Adult Model (EAM and assesses the number of breeding adults lost to the population. The EAM incorporates four different methods developed between 1978 and 2005. The study also considers the uncertainty in estimates for the lifestage data and, as such, performs sensitivity analyses to evaluate the confidence level achievable in such quantitative estimates for entrainment.

  9. The Use of Biofiltration Technology and 3-dimensional Cubical Bamboo Shelter for Nursery Phase Productivity Improvement of Giant Freshwater Prawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Suantika

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to know the effect of nitrifying bacteria and Chlorellasp. addition and different number of 3-dimensional cubical bamboo shelter in enhancing growth performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man during nursery phase in indoor system. During28 days of culture, treatment II (4 shelters addition~40% culture volume occupation resulted in better prawn growth and culture performance compared to control (no shelter addition (p<0,05. At the end of experiment, treatment II shown the highest biomass, SGR, mean body weight and length of the prawn with (1.96+0.05 g.cage-1, 8.24%BW.day-1, (2.18 +0,89 g and (6.50 +0.91 cm, respectively. However, the results were not significantly different compared to treatment I (2 shelters addition~20%culture volume occupation. Survival rate the two treatments (treatment I="90"%, and treatment II="92"% was significantly higher compared to control (78%. During the experiments, increase of ammonium concentration and nitrate can be controlled and maintained by addition of nitrifying bacteria and microalgae which can keep the microbial loop between ammonium reduction by bacteria and nitrate uptake by microalgae in balance. Addition of nitrifying bacteria and microalgae and also availability of 40% bamboo shelter occupation in the culture can enhance prawn culture productivity.

  10. Cognitive functions and stereopsis in patients with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease using 3-dimensional television: a case controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Nyoung Lee

    Full Text Available Stereopsis or depth perception is an awareness of the distances of objects from the observer, and binocular disparity is a necessary component of recognizing objects through stereopsis. In the past studies, patients with neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer dementia, AD; Parkinson's disease IPD have problems of stereopsis but they did not have actual stimulation of stereopsis. Therefore in this study, we used a 3-dimensional (3D movie on 3D television (TV for actual stereopsis stimulation. We propose research through analyzing differences between the three groups (AD, IPD, and Controls, and identified relations between the results from the Titmus Stereo Fly Test, and the 3D TV test. The study also looked into factors that affect the 3D TV test. Before allowing the patients to watch TV, we examined Titmus stereo Fly Test and cognitive test. We used the 3D version of a movie, of 17 minutes 1 second duration, and carried out a questionnaire about stereopsis. The scores of the stereopsis questionnaire were decreased in AD patients, compared with in IPD and controls, although they did not have any difference of Titmus Stereo Fly Test scores. In IPD patients, cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA scores were correlated with the scores of the stereopsis questionnaire. We could conclude that Titmus fly test could not distinguish between the three groups and cognitive dysfunction contributes to actual stereopsis perception in IPD patients. Therefore the 3D TV test of AD and IPD patients was more effective than Titmus fly test.

  11. Morphological analysis and preoperative simulation of a double-chambered right ventricle using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Yoshitatsu, Masao

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a double-chambered right ventricle in adulthood, in which we tried a detailed morphological assessment and preoperative simulation using 3-dimensional (3D) heart models for improved surgical planning. Polygonal object data for the heart were constructed from computed tomography images of this patient, and transferred to a desktop 3D printer to print out models in actual size. Medical staff completed all of the work processes. Because the 3D heart models were examined by hand, observed from various viewpoints and measured by callipers with ease, we were able to create an image of the complete form of the heart. The anatomical structure of an anomalous bundle was clearly observed, and surgical approaches to the lesion were simulated accurately. During surgery, we used an incision on the pulmonary infundibulum and resected three muscular components of the stenosis. The similarity between the models and the actual heart was excellent. As a result, the operation for this rare defect was performed safely and successfully. We concluded that the custom-made model was useful for morphological analysis and preoperative simulation. PMID:26860990

  12. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  13. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  14. A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelting, Lisa; Scheinhardt, Benjamin; Bondarenko, Olesja; Schildknecht, Stefan; Kapitza, Marion; Tanavde, Vivek; Tan, Betty; Lee, Qian Yi; Mecking, Stefan; Leist, Marcel; Kadereit, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6(+) precursor cells were generated from hESCs and differentiated further within 3-D structures. The 3-D model was characterized for neural marker expression revealing robust differentiation toward neuronal precursor cells, and gene expression profiling suggested a predominantly forebrain-like development. Altered neural gene expression due to exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of the known developmental neurotoxicant, methylmercury, indicated that the 3-D model could detect DNT. To test for specific toxicity of NPs, chemically inert polyethylene NPs (PE-NPs) were chosen. They penetrated deep into the 3-D structures and impacted gene expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. NOTCH pathway genes such as HES5 and NOTCH1 were reduced in expression, as well as downstream neuronal precursor genes such as NEUROD1 and ASCL1. FOXG1, a patterning marker, was also reduced. As loss of function of these genes results in severe nervous system impairments in mice, our data suggest that the 3-D hESC-derived model could be used to test for Nano-DNT.

  15. The Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Localization Diagnosed on Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy Compared to 3-Dimensional Transperineal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Krughoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is often understaged following 12-core transrectal ultrasound- (TRUS- guided biopsies. Our goal is to understand where cancers are typically missed by this method. Methods. Transperineal 3-dimensional mapping biopsy (3DMB provides a more accurate depiction of disease status than transrectal ultrasound- (TRUS- guided biopsy. We compared 3DMB findings in men with prior TRUS-guided biopsies to determine grade and location of missed cancer. Results were evaluated for 161 men with low-risk organ confined prostate cancer. Results. The number of cancer-positive biopsy zones per patient with TRUS was 1.38 ± 1.21 compared to 3.33 ± 4.06 with 3DMB, with most newly discovered cancers originating from the middle lobe and apex. Approximately half of all newly discovered cancerous zones resulted from anterior 3DMB sampling. Gleason upgrade was recognized in 56 patients using 3DMB. When both biopsy methods found positive cores in a given zone, Gleason upgrades occurred most frequently in the middle left and right zones. TRUS cancer-positive zones not confirmed by 3DMB were most often the basal zones. Conclusion. Most cancer upgrades and cancers missed from TRUS biopsy originated in the middle left zone of the prostate, specifically in anterior regions. Anterior sampling may lead to more accurate diagnosis and appropriate followup.

  16. Quantitative analysis of 3-dimensional rootarchitecture based on image reconstruction and itsapplication to research on phosphorus uptake in soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Tonglin; FANG Suqin; LI Zhiyuan; LIU Yutao; LIAO Hong; YAN Xiaolong

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of 3-dimensional (3-D) plant root architecture is one of the most important approaches to investigating plant root growth and its function in nutrient acquisition and utilization. However, no effective methods have been reported hitherto to quantify 3-D root architecture parameters, making it difficult to further study the 3-D characteristics of the root system and its function. In the present study, we created a rapid algorithm to reconstruct 3-D root system images based on the basic structural features of such linear objects as roots, using 2-D root images taken by digital CCD cameras at multi- viewing angles. This method is very effective in the reconstruction of plant root system images, thus enabling us to obtain the digital model of 3-D root architecture and its 3-D skeleton, based on which some major root architecture parameters can be calculated. Using this method, we were able to acquire 3-D parameters of soybean root architecture whose root diameter was more than 0.3 mm, including tap root length, total root length, average basal root angle, ratio of root width to root depth, percentage distribution of root length in different layers and root distribution in different 3-D regions of the growth medium. We also quantitatively analyzed the relationship between different root architecture parame-ters and such plant nutrition parameters as soybean biomass and phosphorus (P) uptake. Our study may provide a new tool in studying the growth and nutritional functions of plant root systems.

  17. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  18. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  19. On the Wrong Track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    By any measure--student achievement, social development, or democratic values--ability grouping and tracking practices are indefensible and unsupported by research. Tracking allows schools to practice in-school segregation and perpetuate unequal opportunities and unequal socialization within classrooms. Jonathan Kozol's investigation shows how…

  20. Why we are tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this short essay, concerning why we are tracking, I will try to frame tracking as an evolutionary developed skill that humans need to survive. From an evolutionary point zero life must reflect upon itself in regard to its surrounding world as a kind of societal self-synchronization in this...

  1. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  2. On the Wrong Track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems with student tracking. Although supporters consider tracking the best way for teachers to handle classroom diversity, many minorities say that it condemns their children to an inferior education. Studies show that heterogeneous classes benefit all students if the teachers adopt flexible instructional methods to handle the…

  3. Sparse Hashing Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihe; Lu, Huchuan; Du, Dandan; Liu, Luning

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel tracking framework based on a sparse and discriminative hashing method. Different from the previous work, we treat object tracking as an approximate nearest neighbor searching process in a binary space. Using the hash functions, the target templates and the candidates can be projected into the Hamming space, facilitating the distance calculation and tracking efficiency. First, we integrate both the inter-class and intra-class information to train multiple hash functions for better classification, while most classifiers in previous tracking methods usually neglect the inter-class correlation, which may cause the inaccuracy. Then, we introduce sparsity into the hash coefficient vectors for dynamic feature selection, which is crucial to select the discriminative and stable features to adapt to visual variations during the tracking process. Extensive experiments on various challenging sequences show that the proposed algorithm performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Núria, E-mail: nrodriguez@parcdesalutmar.cat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Dengra, Josefa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Foro, Palmira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Membrive, Ismael; Reig, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Quera, Jaume [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Óscar; Lio, Jackson; Lozano, Joan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Algara, Manuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P<.01). Late skin toxicity was no worse than grade 2 in either group, without significant differences between the 2 groups. In the ipsilateral breast, the areas that received the highest doses (ie, the boost or quadrant) showed the greatest loss of elasticity. WBI resulted in a greater loss of elasticity in the high-dose area compared with APBI (P<.05). Physician assessment showed that >75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with

  5. Digital characterization of particle tracks for microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work is in progress to develop a digital approach to microdosimetry and to construct a prototype instrument to obtain digital information about charged-particle tracks. The objective of such a device is to measure the numbers of electrons produced in various subvolumes of a chamber gas along a particle's path. This paper describes results of Monte Carlo calculations of charged-particle tracks in a cubical time-projection ionization chamber containing methane. Results are presented to show the effects of electron diffusion during charge collection. The calculations indicate that the optimum ratio of field strength and pressure is about 0.6 volts cm-1 torr-1. Examples of proton, carbon-ion, and electron tracks are shown. 2 refs., 6 figs

  6. Robust Solar Position Sensor for Tracking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a new solar position sensor used in tracking system control. The main advantages of the new solution are the robustness and the economical aspect. Positioning accuracy of the tracking system that uses the new sensor is better than 1°. The new sensor uses the ancient principle...... of the solar clock. The sensitive elements are eight ordinary photo-resistors. It is important to note that all the sensors are not selected simultaneously. It is not necessary for sensor operating characteristics to be quasi-identical because the sensor principle is based on extreme operating duty measurement...... (bright or dark). In addition, the proposed solar sensor significantly simplifies the operation of the tracking control device....

  7. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  8. Electromagnetic tracking and steering for catheter navigation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the use of electromagnetics for both steering and tracking of medical instruments in minimally invasive surgeries. The end application is virtual navigation of the lung for biopsy of early stage cancer nodules. Navigation to the peripheral regions of the lung is difficult due to physical dimensions of the bronchi and current methods have low successes rates for accurate diagnosis. Firstly, the potential use of DC magnetic fields for the actuation of catheter devices with ...

  9. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  10. Absence of toxicity with hypofractionated 3-dimensional radiation therapy for inoperable, early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypofractionated radiotherapy may overcome repopulation in rapidly proliferating tumors such as lung cancer. It is more convenient for the patients and reduces health care costs. This study reports our results on patients with medically inoperable, early stage, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with hypofractionation. Stage T1-2N0 NSCLC patients were treated with hypofractionation alone, 52.5 Gy/15 fractions, in 3 weeks, with 3-dimensional conformal planning. T1-2N1 patients with the hilar lymphnode close to the primary tumor were also eligible for this treatment. We did not use any approach to reduce respiratory motion, but it was monitored in all patients. Elective nodal radiotherapy was not performed. Routine follow up included assessment for acute and late toxicity and radiological tumor response. Median follow up time was 29 months for the surviving patients. Thirty-two patients with a median age of 76 years, T1 = 15 and T2 = 17, were treated. Median planning target volume (PTV) volume was 150cc and median V16 of both lungs was 13%. The most important finding of this study is that toxicity was minimal. Two patients had grade ≤ 2 acute pneumonitis and 3 had mild (grade 1) acute esophagitis. There was no late toxicity. Actuarial 1 and 2-year overall survival rates are 78% and 56%, cancer specific survival rates (CSS) are 90% and 74%, and local relapse free survival rates are 93% and 76% respectively. 3-D planning, involved field hypofractionation at a dose of 52.5 Gy in 15 daily fractions is safe, well tolerated and easy radiation treatment for medically inoperable lung cancer patients. It shortens by half the traditional treatment. Results compare favorably with previously published studies. Further studies are needed to compare similar technique with other treatments such as surgery and stereotactic radiotherapy

  11. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  12. Effects of Non-Uniform Wall Heating on Thermal and Momentum Fields in a 3-Dimensional Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, N.; Kleissl, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization progresses, microclimate modifications are also aggravated and the increasing environmental concerns call for more sophisticated methods of urban microclimate analysis. Comprehensive numerical simulations for a clear summer day in southern California are performed in a compact low-rise urban environment. The effect of realistic unsteady, non-uniform thermal forcing, that is caused by solar insolation and inter-building shadowing on thermal and flow conditions are analyzed based on Algebraic Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The urban thermal field is influenced by urban density, material properties and local weather conditions, as well as urban canyon flow. Urban canyon conditions are translated into vertical and horizontal bulk Richardson numbers indicating atmospheric instability and solar tilt with respect to the momentum forcing of the canyon vortex, respectively. The effect of roof heating is found to be critical on the vortex formation between buildings when the vertical bulk Richardson number is low. Variations of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients (CHTCs) along building walls are studied and the street canyon ventilation performance is characterized by the mean of air exchange rate (ACH). It is found that volumetric air exchange from street canyons, as well as the distribution of heat transfer along the wall depends strongly on the three-dimensional orientation of the heated wall in relation to wind direction. For example, air removal increases by surface heating and is larger when the leeward wall is heated. In summary, we demonstrate the importance of considering complex realistic conditions on 3-dimensional thermal and momentum fields in Urban Environments.

  13. Chondroregulatory action of prolactin on proliferation and differentiation of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells in 3-dimensional micromass cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Krishnamra, Nateetip [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol, E-mail: naratt@narattsys.com [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor mRNAs and proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PRL concentration (10 ng/mL) increased chondrocyte viability and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher PRL concentrations ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL) decreased viability and increased apoptosis. -- Abstract: A recent investigation in lactating rats has provided evidence that the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) increases endochondral bone growth and bone elongation, presumably by accelerating apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate and/or subsequent chondrogenic matrix mineralization. Herein, we demonstrated the direct chondroregulatory action of PRL on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in 3-dimensional micromass culture of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line. The results showed that ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor (PRLR) transcripts, and responded typically to PRL by downregulating PRLR expression. Exposure to a low PRL concentration of 10 ng/mL, comparable to the normal levels in male and non-pregnant female rats, increased chondrocyte viability, differentiation, proteoglycan accumulation, and mRNA expression of several chondrogenic differentiation markers, such as Sox9, ALP and Hspg2. In contrast, high PRL concentrations of Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL, comparable to the levels in pregnancy or lactation, decreased chondrocyte viability by inducing apoptosis, with no effect on chondrogenic marker expression. It could be concluded that chondrocytes directly but differentially responded to non-pregnant and pregnant/lactating levels of PRL, thus suggesting the stimulatory effect of PRL on chondrogenesis in young growing individuals, and supporting the hypothesis of hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate of lactating rats.

  14. Automorphosis of higher plants in space is simulated by using a 3-dimensional clinostat or by application of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K.; Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    In STS-95 space experiments, etiolated pea seedlings grown under microgravity conditions in space have shown to be automorphosis. Epicotyls were almost straight but the most oriented toward the direction far from their cotyledons with ca. 45 degrees from the vertical line as compared with that on earth. In order to know the mechanism of microgravity conditions in space to induce automorphosis, we introduced simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat, resulting in the successful induction of automorphosis-like growth and development. Kinetic studies revealed that epicotyls bent at their basal region or near cotyledonary node toward the direction far from the cotyledons with about 45 degrees in both seedlings grown on 1 g and under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat within 48 hrs after watering. Thereafter epicotyls grew keeping this orientation under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat, whereas those grown on 1 g changed the growth direction to vertical direction by negative gravitropic response. Automorphosis-like growth and development was induced by the application of auxin polar transport inhibitors (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, N-(1-naphtyl)phthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid), but not an anti-auxin, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid. Automorphosis-like epicotyl bending was also phenocopied by the application of inhibitors of stretch-activated channel, LaCl3 and GdCl3, and by the application of an inhibitor of protein kinase, cantharidin. These results suggest that automorphosis-like growth in epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings is due to suppression of negative gravitropic responses on 1 g, and the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings under 1 g conditions requires for normal activities of auxin polar transport and the gravisensing system relating to calcium channels. Possible mechanisms of perception and transduction of gravity signals to induce automorphosis are discussed.

  15. Accuracy Evaluation of a 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging System for Guidance in Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Betgen, Anja; Honnef, Joeri; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter, E-mail: p.remeijer@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for image guidance in deep-inspiration breath-hold radiation therapy (DIBH-RT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer. For this purpose, setup data based on captured 3D surfaces was compared with setup data based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with DIBH-RT after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Before the start of treatment, each patient underwent a breath-hold CT scan for planning purposes. During treatment, dose delivery was preceded by setup verification using CBCT of the left breast. 3D surfaces were captured by a surface imaging system concurrently with the CBCT scan. Retrospectively, surface registrations were performed for CBCT to CT and for a captured 3D surface to CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis. For the differences between setup errors, group mean, systematic error, random error, and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Results: Good correlation between setup errors was found: R{sup 2}=0.70, 0.90, 0.82 in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Systematic errors were {<=}0.17 cm in all directions. Random errors were {<=}0.15 cm. The limits of agreement were -0.34-0.48, -0.42-0.39, and -0.52-0.23 cm in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. ROC analysis showed that a threshold between 0.4 and 0.8 cm corresponds to promising true positive rates (0.78-0.95) and false positive rates (0.12-0.28). Conclusions: The results support the application of 3D surface imaging for image guidance in DIBH-RT after BCS.

  16. Nanostructural evolution of Cr-rich precipitates in a Cu-Cr-Zr alloy during heat treatment studied by 3 dimensional atom probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatakeyama, Masahiko; Toyama, Takeshi; Nagai, Yasuyoshi;

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructural evolution of Cr (Cr-rich) precipitates in a Cu-0.78%Cr-0.13%Zr alloy has been studied after aging and overaging (reaging) by laser assisted local electrode 3 dimensional atom probe (Laser-LEAP). This material is a candidate for the first wall and divertor components of future fusion...

  17. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed

  18. Initial results of 3-dimensional 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the localization of prostate cancer at 3 Tesla: should we use an endorectal coil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakar, D.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Huisman, H.J.; Barentsz, J.O.; Futterer, J.J.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of 3 Tesla, 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the localization of prostate cancer (PCa) with and without the use of an endorectal coil (ERC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our prospective study

  19. TrackPunch

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    TrackPunch is a music streaming service that turns music discovery into a social experience. Our platform provides users with an elegant way to find new music based on their friends' listening habits. We aggregate music data from top music sources to index who influences each user individually. Our users can search, listen to, and share high quality content from GrooveShark, and SoundCloud, and YouTube for free. On TrackPunch, your next favorite song awaits. TrackPunch is a music streaming...

  20. Fabrication and electrical characteristics of graphene-based charge-trap memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se J. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung M.; Song, Emil B.; Wang, Kang L. [University of California Los Angeles, CA (United States); Seo, David H. [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sun A. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Graphene-based non-volatile charge-trap memory devices were fabricated and characterized to investigate the implementation effect of both 2-dimensional graphene and the 3-dimensional memory structure. The single-layer-graphene (SLG) channel devices exhibit larger memory windows compared to the multi-layer-graphene (MLG) channel devices. This originates from the gate-coupling strength being larger in SLG devices than in MLG devices. Namely, the electrostatic charge screening effect becomes enhanced upon increasing the number of graphene layers; therefore, the gate tunability is reduced in MLG compared to SLG. The results suggest that SLG is more desirable for memory applications than MLG.

  1. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Amish P., E-mail: Amish.Shah@orlandohealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Mañon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still

  2. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  3. Financial Disclosure Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must...

  4. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  5. LHCb on track

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 7 and 8 June 2006, the last large component of the LHCb experiment was lowered into the cavern. This 10-tonne, 18-metre long metal structure known as 'the bridge' will support the LHCb tracking system.

  6. Human Capital Tracking Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  7. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  8. Track Loading Vehicle - TLV

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TLV is designed to apply forces close to the strength limits of the rails and other track structure components, such as ties, rail fasteners, and ballast, while...

  9. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  10. LHCb VELO Tracking Resolutions

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The excellent tracking performance of the Vertex Locator (VELO) at LHCb is presented. The resolutions it achieves on single hits, impact parameters, and primary vertex positions are shown, with particular attention paid to measurement of impact parameters.

  11. Case Analysis Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — CATS tracks Public and Federal Agency Reference Requests for OPF (Official Personnel Folder) , EMF (Employee Medical Folder), and eOPF (electronic Official...

  12. Neonate turtle tracking data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project are to use novel satellite tracking methods to provide improved estimation of threats at foraging areas and along migration routes...

  13. Provenance Tracking in UNICORE

    OpenAIRE

    Giesler, André; Hagemeier, Björn; Czekala, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    The automated tracking and storage of provenance information allows users of scientific workflow systems to validate and reproduce results of their experiments. Until now, UNICORE has not been providing comprehensive provenance features. For this reason, we plan to equip UNICORE with a flexible provenance tracking mechanism. Our goal is to ensure a suitable traceability of job and workflow processes into a description format supporting query capabilities and interoperability. In a first step,...

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Novel 3-D Hollow Waveguide for Widely Tunable Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru; Miura; Fumio; Koyama; Akihiro; Matsutani

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel 3-dimensional hollow waveguide with a variable air core for widely tunable devices.We observed a wavelength shift of 1.8 nm in a hollow waveguide resonator with a displacement of 6μm in an air core.

  15. The quantified self a sociology of self-tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Lupton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of digital devices and software, self-tracking practices have gained new adherents and have spread into a wide array of social domains. The Quantified Self movement has emerged to promote 'self knowledge through numbers'. In this ground-breaking book, Deborah Lupton critically analyses the social, cultural and political dimensions of contemporary self-tracking and identifies the concepts of selfhood, human embodiment and the value of data that underpin them.

  16. Fourteen x fourteen CCD array for optical intersatellite link tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutemy, J. C.; Boucharlat, G.; Dautriche, P.

    1988-06-01

    Optical intersatellite links and the SILEX program are generalized. The main constraints of the acquisition and tracking system are described. The specifications of a charge coupled device array devoted to the tracking, with the capability of high images rates (up to 20,000 im/s) are reviewed. It is shown that a low resolution and high image rate array allow the performances of the intersatellite laser acquisition system to be improved.

  17. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  18. Use of 3-Dimensional Volumetric Modeling of Adrenal Gland Size in Patients with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysostomou, P P; Lodish, M B; Turkbey, E B; Papadakis, G Z; Stratakis, C A

    2016-04-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare type of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia leading to hypercortisolemia. Adrenal nodularity is often appreciable with computed tomography (CT); however, accurate radiologic characterization of adrenal size in PPNAD has not been studied well. We used 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric analysis to characterize and compare adrenal size in PPNAD patients, with and without Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients diagnosed with PPNAD and their family members with known mutations in PRKAR1A were screened. CT scans were used to create 3D models of each adrenal. Criteria for biochemical diagnosis of CS included loss of diurnal variation and/or elevated midnight cortisol levels, and paradoxical increase in urinary free cortisol and/or urinary 17-hydroxysteroids after dexamethasone administration. Forty-five patients with PPNAD (24 females, 27.8±17.6 years) and 8 controls (19±3 years) were evaluated. 3D volumetric modeling of adrenal glands was performed in all. Thirty-eight patients out of 45 (84.4%) had CS. Their mean adrenal volume was 8.1 cc±4.1, 7.2 cc±4.5 (p=0.643) for non-CS, and 8.0cc±1.6 for controls. Mean values were corrected for body surface area; 4.7 cc/kg/m(2)±2.2 for CS, and 3.9 cc/kg/m(2)±1.3 for non-CS (p=0.189). Adrenal volume and midnight cortisol in both groups was positively correlated, r=0.35, p=0.03. We conclude that adrenal volume measured by 3D CT in patients with PPNAD and CS was similar to those without CS, confirming empirical CT imaging-based observations. However, the association between adrenal volume and midnight cortisol levels may be used as a marker of who among patients with PPNAD may develop CS, something that routine CT cannot do. PMID:27065461

  19. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    Full Text Available Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN, preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR. The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased

  20. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Ehman, Kenneth D.; Edwards, Brian D.; Tinsley, John C.; Hildenbrand, Thomas; Hillhouse, John W.; Hanson, Randall T.; McDougall, Kristen; Powell, Charles L.; Wan, Elmira; Land, Michael; Mahan, Shannon; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computer model of the Quaternary sequence stratigraphy in the Dominguez gap region of Long Beach, California has been developed to provide a robust chronostratigraphic framework for hydrologic and tectonic studies. The model consists of 13 layers within a 16.5 by 16.1 km (10.25 by 10 mile) square area and extends downward to an altitude of -900 meters (-2952.76 feet). Ten sequences of late Pliocene to Holocene age are identified and correlated within the model. Primary data to build the model comes from five reference core holes, extensive high-resolution seismic data obtained in San Pedro Bay, and logs from several hundred water and oil wells drilled in the region. The model is best constrained in the vicinity of the Dominguez gap seawater intrusion barrier where a dense network of subsurface data exist. The resultant stratigraphic framework and geologic structure differs significantly from what has been proposed in earlier studies. An important new discovery from this approach is the recognition of ongoing tectonic deformation throughout nearly all of Quaternary time that has impacted the geometry and character of the sequences. Anticlinal folding along a NW-SE trend, probably associated with Quaternary reactivation of the Wilmington anticline, has uplifted and thinned deposits along the fold crest, which intersects the Dominguez gap seawater barrier near Pacific Coast Highway. A W-NW trending fault system that approximately parallels the fold crest has also been identified. This fault progressively displaces all but the youngest sequences down to the north and serves as the southern termination of the classic Silverado aquifer. Uplift and erosion of fining-upward paralic sequences along the crest of the young fold has removed or thinned many of the fine-grained beds that serve to protect the underlying Silverado aquifer from seawater contaminated shallow groundwater. As a result of this process, the potential exists for vertical migration of

  1. Science and technology with nuclear tracks in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Buford-Price, P

    2005-01-01

    Fission track dating has greatly expanded its usefulness to geology over the last 40 years. It is central to thermochronology—the use of shortened fission tracks to decipher the thermal history, movement, and provenance of rocks. When combined with other indicators, such as zircon color and (U–Th)/He, a range of temperatures from C to C can be studied. Combining fission track analysis with cosmogenic nuclide decay rates, one can study landscape development and denudation of passive margins. Technological applications have expanded from biological filters, radon mapping, and dosimetry to the use of ion track microtechnology in microlithography, micromachining by ion track etching, microscopic field emission tips, magnetic nanowires as magnetoresistive sensors, microfluidic devices, physiology of ion channels in single cells, and so on. In nuclear and particle physics, relatively insensitive glass detectors have been almost single-handedly responsible for our knowledge of cluster radioactivity, and plastic ...

  2. Concepts, Design and Implementation of the ATLAS New Tracking (NEWT)

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelissen, T; Fleischmann, S; Liebig, W; Moyse, E; Salzburger, A

    2007-01-01

    The track reconstruction of modern high energy physics experiments is a very complex task that puts stringent requirements onto the software realisation. The ATLAS track reconstruction software has been in the past dominated by a collection of individual packages, each of which incorporating a different intrinsic event data model, different data flow sequences and calibration data. Invoked by the Final Report of the Reconstruction Task Force, the ATLAS track reconstruction has undergone a major design revolution to ensure maintainability during the long lifetime of the ATLAS experiment and the flexibility needed for the startup phase. The entire software chain has been re-organised in modular components and a common Event Data Model has been deployed during the last three years. A complete new track reconstruction that concentrates on common tools aimed to be used by both ATLAS tracking devices, the Inner Detector and the Muon System, has been established. It has been already used during many large scale test...

  3. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  4. An Improved Variable-Frequency Drive Based on Current Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei He

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Variable frequency devices are widely used in many power systems. A current tracking based VFD is proposed in this paper. The output current is firstly fed back and compared with a standard sine wave, the difference of them is then used for a PI regulator to control the PWM signal, so as to change the output current accordingly to make it approach the standard sine wave. Simulation and experiments results show that the current tracking VFD not only has a fast dynamic response, high current tracking precision, current limiting ability, but also has small distortion of the output sine wave current and low loss of the motor.    

  5. Modeling of Transistor's Tracking Behavior in Compact Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method to model the tracking behavior of semiconductor transistors undergoing across-chip variations in a compact Monte Carlo model for SPICE simulations and show an enablement of simultaneous (−1/2 tracking relations among transistors on a chip at any poly density, any gate pitch, and any physical location for the first time. At smaller separations, our modeled tracking relation versus physical location reduces to Pelgrom's characterization on device's distance-dependent mismatch. Our method is very compact, since we do not use a matrix or a set of eigen solutions to represent correlations among transistors.

  6. 3-Dimensional numerical study of cooling performance of a heat sink with air-water flow through mini-channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sambit; Majumder, Abhik; Bhaumik, Swapan

    2016-07-01

    The present microelectronics market demands devices with high power dissipation capabilities having enhanced cooling per unit area. The drive for miniaturizing the devices to even micro level dimensions is shooting up the applied heat flux on such devices, resulting in complexity in heat transfer and cooling management. In this paper, a method of CPU processor cooling is introduced where active and passive cooling techniques are incorporated simultaneously. A heat sink consisting of fins is designed, where water flows internally through the mini-channel fins and air flows externally. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed for large set of Reynolds number in laminar region using finite volume method for both developing flows. The dimensions of mini-channel fins are varied for several aspect ratios such as 1, 1.33, 2 and 4. Constant temperature (T) boundary condition is applied at heat sink base. Channel fluid temperature, pressure drop are analyzed to obtain best cooling option in the present study. It has been observed that as the aspect ratio of the channel decreases Nusselt number decreases while pressure drop increases. However, Nusselt number increases with increase in Reynolds number.

  7. Developing The Solar Tracking System for Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Bich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the trough solar concentrator strongly depends on the position of its absorber surface with the sun.  Controlling the solar radiation concentrated collectors automatically tracking with the sun plays as the key factor to enhance the energy absorption. An automatic controlling device that can rotating the parabolic trough solar concentrator to the sun is calculated, designed, manufactured, and testing successfully. The experimental results show that the device tracks the sun during the day very well. The sensor has adjusted position of collector good when the intensity of solar radiation changes due to weather.

  8. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  9. Luge Track Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Mont

    2012-01-01

    Simple geometric models of ice surface shape and equations of motion of objects on these surfaces can be used to explain ejection of sliders from ice tracks. Simulations using these can be used to explain why certain design features can be viewed as proximate causes of ejection from the track and hence design flaws. This paper studies the interaction of a particle model for the luge sled (or its right runner) with the ice fillet commonly connecting inside vertical walls and the flat track bottom. A numerical example analyzes the 2010 luge accident at the Vancouver Olympics. It shows that this runner-fillet interaction, and specifically the fillet's positive curvature up the inside wall, can cause a vertical velocity more than sufficient to clear the outside exit wall. In addition its negative curvature along the track, together with large vertical velocity, explains loss of fillet or wall contact and slider ejection. This exposes the fillet along inside walls as a track design flaw. A more transparent design ...

  10. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  11. Track finding efficiency in BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BABAR detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using τ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the τ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of KS0 particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs. BABAR running periods

  12. Separating device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A sorting device (1) suitable for sorting wire from a waste stream, comprising a body (2) that moves when in use, and provided with spikes or similar projections. The body is embodied as a rotatable roll (2), which oscillates axially during its rotation. The roll is coupled to an oscillation engine

  13. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure cha

  14. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  15. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet...

  16. Proof of confinement of static quarks in 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory for all values of the coupling constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the 3-dimensional pure U(1) lattice gauge theory with Villain action which is related to the 3-dimensional Z-ferro-magnet by an exact duality transformation (and also to a Coulomb system). We show that its string tension α is nonzero for all values of the coupling constant g2, and obeys and bound α >= const x msub(D)β-1 for small ag2, with β = 4π2/g2 and m2sub(D) = (2β/a3)esup(-βupsiloncb(0)/2) (a = lattice spacing). A continuum limit a → 0, msub(D) fixed, exists and represents a scalar free field theory of mass msub(D). The string tension αmsub(D)-2 in physical units tends to infinite in this limit. Characteristic differences in the behavior of the model for large and small coupling constant ag2 are found. Renormalization group aspects are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for non-destructive testing of roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the first application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to visualize the internal structure of complete multilayered polymer solar cell modules (Thrane et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 97, 181-185 (2012)). The 3......D imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using a high-resolution 1322nm OCT system having a 4.5 microns axial resolution and a 12 microns lateral resolution. It was possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprise...... UV-barrier, barrier material, adhesive, substrate and active solar cell multilayer structure. In addition, it was found that the OCT technique could be readily employed to identify coating defects in the functional layers, making it a potential technique to enable process control by real...

  18. The STAR Tracking Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC studies the new state of matter produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions and the spin structure of the nucleon in collisions of polarized protons. In order to improve the capabilities for heavy flavor measurements and the reconstruction of charged vector bosons an upgrade of the tracking system both in the central and the forward region is pursued. The challenging environments of high track multiplicity in heavy ion collisions and of high luminosity in polarized proton collisions require the use of new technologies. The proposed inner tracking system, optimized for heavy flavor identification, is using active pixel sensors close to the collision point and silicon strip technology further outward. Charge sign determination for electrons and positrons from the decay of W bosons will be provide by 6 large-area triple GEM disks currently under development. A prototype of the active pixel detectors has been tested in the STAR experiment, and an e...

  19. AIRSHIP ATTITUDE TRACKING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-liang; SHAN Xue-xiong

    2006-01-01

    The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds of the uncertainties. Using the input/output feedback linearization approach and Liapunov method, a control law was designed, which guarantees that the system output exponentially tracks the given desired output. The controller is easy to compute and complement. Simulation results show that, in the closed-loop system, precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainties and external disturbances in the system.

  20. Tracks to therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  1. A New Approach of In Vivo Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering Using the Epigastric Artery as Central Core Vessel of a 3-Dimensional Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Dunda, Sebastian E.; Schriever, T.; Rosen, C; C. Opländer; Tolba, R.H.; Diamantouros, S.; Jockenhoevel, S.; Pallua, N

    2012-01-01

    The creation of musculoskeletal tissue represents an alternative for the replacement of soft tissue in reconstructive surgery. However, most of the approaches of creating artificial tissue have their limitations in the size as the maximally obtainable dimension of bioartificial tissue (BAT) is limited due to the lack of supporting vessels within the 3-dimensional construct. The seeded myoblasts require high amounts of perfusion, oxygen, and nutrients to survive. To achieve this, we developed ...

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of 3-Dimensional vs 2-Dimensional and High-Definition vs Standard-Definition Neuroendoscopy: A Preclinical Randomized Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P.; Di Marco, Aimee; Pratt, Philip; Nandi, Dipankar; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the potential benefits of 3-dimensional (3-D) vs 2-dimensional (2-D) and high-definition (HD) vs standard-definition (SD) endoscopic visualization have long been recognized in other surgical fields, such endoscopes are generally considered too large and bulky for use within the brain. The recent development of 3-D and HD neuroendoscopes may therefore herald improved depth perception, better appreciation of anatomic details, and improved overall surgical performance. OBJEC...

  3. Transcriptional profiling of radiation damage and preventive treatments in a 3-dimensional (3D) human cell culture model of oral mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    Lambros, Maria P.; DeSalvo, Michael K.; Jonathan Moreno; Hari Chandana Mulamalla; Lavanya Kondapalli

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients who receive radiation are often afflicted by oral mucositis, a debilitating disease, characterized by mouth sores and difficulty in swallowing. Oftentimes, cancer patients afflicted with mucositis must stop life-saving therapies. Thus it is very important to prevent mucositis before it develops. Using a validated organotypic model of human oral mucosa, a 3-dimensional cell culture model of human oral keratinocytes, it has been shown that a mixture (NAC–QYD) of N-acetyl cystein...

  4. Programmed device for coordinate measuring mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programmed device providing the automatic measurement of the coordinate of a continuously travelling carriage with stepwise control of the pitch and measurement range in wide limits is described. The matching of measured points at the direct and return travels of the carriage is within 50 mcm. The device was developed to automize the measurement of charged particles tracks by means of floating-wire method. It may be also used in different recorders

  5. Tracking of deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  6. Large Scale Wi-Fi tracking using a Botnet of Wireless Routers

    OpenAIRE

    Rouveyrol, Pierre; Raveneau, Patrice; Cunche, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Wi-Fi tracking is a method relying on signals emitted by portable devices to track individuals for commercial, security or surveillance purposes. Wi-Fi tracking has the potential to passively track a large fraction of the population [12] and is therefore an ideal population surveillance technology and a serious privacy threat. We argue that Wi-Fi routers make an ideal building block to create a large scale Wi-Fi tracking system. This paper first presents the interesting features of Wi-Fi rout...

  7. Tracking Your Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hennum, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This book provides you with the means to set development goals and to track your progress on achieving them. It can help you efficiently gather and make sense of information about your progress and avoid common pitfalls that can block your development. Tracking your development can be captures in a few steps: articulating your goal, creating an action plan, gathering information about your behavior, indentifying barriers and support, and revising your action plan. Taking these steps will greatly increase the likelihood of achieving your goals.

  8. Simple front tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

    1999-04-01

    A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

  9. Computationally efficient Bayesian tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughenbaugh, Jason; La Cour, Brian

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the progress we have achieved in developing a computationally efficient, grid-based Bayesian fusion tracking system. In our approach, the probability surface is represented by a collection of multidimensional polynomials, each computed adaptively on a grid of cells representing state space. Time evolution is performed using a hybrid particle/grid approach and knowledge of the grid structure, while sensor updates use a measurement-based sampling method with a Delaunay triangulation. We present an application of this system to the problem of tracking a submarine target using a field of active and passive sonar buoys.

  10. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  11. A New Approach of In Vivo Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering Using the Epigastric Artery as Central Core Vessel of a 3-Dimensional Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian E. Dunda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of musculoskeletal tissue represents an alternative for the replacement of soft tissue in reconstructive surgery. However, most of the approaches of creating artificial tissue have their limitations in the size as the maximally obtainable dimension of bioartificial tissue (BAT is limited due to the lack of supporting vessels within the 3-dimensional construct. The seeded myoblasts require high amounts of perfusion, oxygen, and nutrients to survive. To achieve this, we developed a 3-dimensional scaffold which features the epigastric artery as macroscopic core vessel inside the BAT in a rat model (perfused group, =4 and a control group (=3 without the epigastric vessels and, therefore, without perfusion. The in vivo monitoring of the transplanted myoblasts was assessed by bioluminescence imaging and showed both the viability of the epigastric artery within the 3-dimensional construct and again that cell survival in vivo is highly depending on the blood supply with the beginning of capillarization within the BAT seven days after transplantation in the perfused group. However, further studies focussing on the matrix improvement will be necessary to create a transplantable BAT with the epigastric artery as anastomosable vessel.

  12. Stress changes of lateral collateral ligament at different knee flexion with or without displaced movements: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yan-lin; WANG You; WANG Hai-peng; RONG Ke; XIE Le

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To create a 3-dimensional finite element model of knee ligaments and to analyse the stress changes of lateral collateral ligament (LCL) with or without displaced movements at different knee flexion conditions.Methods: A four-major-ligament contained knee specimen from an adult died of skull injury was prepared for CT scanning with the detectable ligament insertion footprints,locations and orientations precisely marked in advance. The CT scanning images were converted to a 3-dimensional model of the knee with the 3-dimensional reconstruction technique and transformed into finite element model by the software of ANSYS. The model was validated using experimental and numerical results obtained by other scientists.The natural stress changes of LCL at five different knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°) and under various motions of anterior-posterior tibial translation, tibial varus rotation and internal-external tibial rotation were measured.Results: The maximum stress reached to 87%-113%versus natural stress in varus motion at early 30° of knee flexions. The stress values were smaller than the peak value of natural stress at 0° (knee full extension) when knee bending was over 60° of flexion in anterior-posterior tibial translation and internal-external rotation.Conclusion: LCL is vulnerable to varus motion in almost all knee bending positions and susceptible to anterlor-posterior tibial translation or internal-external rotation at early 30° of knee flexions.

  13. Seam Tracking Technology for Hyperbaric Underwater Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Xiangdong; YANG Yongyong; ZHOU Canfeng

    2009-01-01

    Automatic weld seam tracking technology to be used in hyperbaric underwater damaged pipeline repair welding is much more important, because of poor bevel preparation and severe working condition. A weld seam tracking system based on digital signal processing(DSP) passive light weld image processing technology has been established. A convenient charge coupled device(CCD) camera system was used in the high pressure environment with the help of an aperture and focus altering mechanism to guarantee overall image visibility in the scope of pressure below 0.7 MPa. The system can be used in the hyperbaric environment to pick up the real welding image of both the welding arc and the welding pool. The newly developed DSP technology was adopted to achieve the goal of system real time characteristics. An effective weld groove edge recognition technique including narrow interesting window opening, middle value wave filtering, Sobel operator weld edge detecting and edge searching in a defined narrow area was proposed to remove the guide error and system accuracy was ensured. The results of tracking simulation and real tracking application with arc striking have proved the validity and the accuracy of the mentioned system and the image processing method.

  14. A low walk double threshold discriminator for gas tracking devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Corradi, G.; Fabbri, F.L.; Giannotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Pompili, F.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.; Tomassini, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2001-01-01

    A 9U VME like double threshold discriminator has been designed and constructed at Frascati INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics) laboratories. Its aim is to process the signals arising from gas drift chambers, introducing a very small time walk ({approx} 650 ps.). Each discriminator board houses 32 channels. Each channel is located on an independent printed circuit mounted on socket. This solution is very convenient for replacing faulty channels without loosing operation of the full board.

  15. Configurable Input Devices for 3D Interaction using Optical Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, A.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional interaction with virtual objects is one of the aspects that needs to be addressed in order to increase the usability and usefulness of virtual reality. Human beings have difficulties understanding 3D spatial relationships and manipulating 3D user interfaces, which require the contr

  16. Hidden Markov models for vehicle tracking with Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Lees-Miller, John; Wilson, R. Eddie; Box, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Bluetooth is a short range communication protocol. Bluetooth-enabled devices can be detected using road-side equipment, and each detected device reports a unique identifier. These unique identifiers can be used to track vehicles through road networks over time. The focus of this paper is on reconstructing the paths of vehicles through a road network using Bluetooth detection data. A method is proposed that uses Hidden Markov Models, which are a well-known tool for statistical pattern recognit...

  17. Space charge tracking code for a synchrotron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottinger, M.B.; Tajima, T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Hiramoto, K. [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1997-06-01

    An algorithm has been developed to compute particle tracking, including self-consistent space charge effects for synchrotron accelerators. In low-energy synchrotrons space charge plays a central role in enhancing emittance of the beam. The space charge effects are modeled by mutually interacting (through the Coulombic force) N cylindrical particles (2-{1/2}-dimensional dynamics) whose axis is in the direction of the equilibrium particle flow. On the other hand, their interaction with synchrotron lattice magnets is treated with the thin-lens approximation and in a fully 3-dimensional way. Since the existing method to treat space charge fully self-consistently involved 3-D space charge effect computation, the present method allows far more realistic physical parameters and runs in far shorter time (about 1/20). Some examples on space charge induced instabilities are presented.

  18. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  19. Optical tracking of nanoscale particles in microscale environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, P. P.; Liddle, J. A.; Stavis, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The trajectories of nanoscale particles through microscale environments record useful information about both the particles and the environments. Optical microscopes provide efficient access to this information through measurements of light in the far field from nanoparticles. Such measurements necessarily involve trade-offs in tracking capabilities. This article presents a measurement framework, based on information theory, that facilitates a more systematic understanding of such trade-offs to rationally design tracking systems for diverse applications. This framework includes the degrees of freedom of optical microscopes, which determine the limitations of tracking measurements in theory. In the laboratory, tracking systems are assemblies of sources and sensors, optics and stages, and nanoparticle emitters. The combined characteristics of such systems determine the limitations of tracking measurements in practice. This article reviews this tracking hardware with a focus on the essential functions of nanoparticles as optical emitters and microenvironmental probes. Within these theoretical and practical limitations, experimentalists have implemented a variety of tracking systems with different capabilities. This article reviews a selection of apparatuses and techniques for tracking multiple and single particles by tuning illumination and detection, and by using feedback and confinement to improve the measurements. Prior information is also useful in many tracking systems and measurements, which apply across a broad spectrum of science and technology. In the context of the framework and review of apparatuses and techniques, this article reviews a selection of applications, with particle diffusion serving as a prelude to tracking measurements in biological, fluid, and material systems, fabrication and assembly processes, and engineered devices. In so doing, this review identifies trends and gaps in particle tracking that might influence future research.

  20. Optical tracking of nanoscale particles in microscale environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, P. P.; Liddle, J. A.; Stavis, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The trajectories of nanoscale particles through microscale environments record useful information about both the particles and the environments. Optical microscopes provide efficient access to this information through measurements of light in the far field from nanoparticles. Such measurements necessarily involve trade-offs in tracking capabilities. This article presents a measurement framework, based on information theory, that facilitates a more systematic understanding of such trade-offs to rationally design tracking systems for diverse applications. This framework includes the degrees of freedom of optical microscopes, which determine the limitations of tracking measurements in theory. In the laboratory, tracking systems are assemblies of sources and sensors, optics and stages, and nanoparticle emitters. The combined characteristics of such systems determine the limitations of tracking measurements in practice. This article reviews this tracking hardware with a focus on the essential functions of nanoparticles as optical emitters and microenvironmental probes. Within these theoretical and practical limitations, experimentalists have implemented a variety of tracking systems with different capabilities. This article reviews a selection of apparatuses and techniques for tracking multiple and single particles by tuning illumination and detection, and by using feedback and confinement to improve the measurements. Prior information is also useful in many tracking systems and measurements, which apply across a broad spectrum of science and technology. In the context of the framework and review of apparatuses and techniques, this article reviews a selection of applications, with particle diffusion serving as a prelude to tracking measurements in biological, fluid, and material systems, fabrication and assembly processes, and engineered devices. In so doing, this review identifies trends and gaps in particle tracking that might influence future research. PMID:27213022

  1. Fast frequency tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopenko I. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method of periodical signal frequency tracking by the frequency-locked loops is proposed. Increasing of frequency adjustment accuracy is achieved by using of a new fast frequency discriminator, based on estimates of an instantaneous frequency. Reasonability of an input signal pre-filtering in case of nonlinear distortions, harmonics interferences and strong noise is proved.

  2. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  3. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  4. Tracking Self into Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to figure out what it means to educate "ecologically," I decided to track down some of the stories that I was living, telling and making as an educator. I ended up lost in the house of environmental education, stuck within the rooms of ecological science and political advocacy. Outside on the lawn sat the story of place based…

  5. Apple Shuns Tracking Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Apple Inc. is advising software de- velopers to stop using a feature in software for its iPhones and iPads .that has been linked to privacyconcerns, a move that would also take away a widely used tool for tracking users and their behavior. Developers who write programs for Apple's lOS operating system have been using a unique.

  6. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  7. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Onur; Vilariño, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR) technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools. PMID:27034653

  8. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools.

  9. Real Time Vehicle Tracking System using GSM and GPS Technology- An Anti-theft Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Maurya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle tracking system is an electronic device installed in a vehicle to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location. This paper proposed to design a vehicle tracking system that works using GPS and GSM technology, which would be the cheapest source of vehicle tracking and it would work as anti-theft system. It is an embedded system which is used for tracking and positioning of any vehicle by using Global Positioning System (GPS and Global system for mobile communication (GSM. This design will continuously monitor a moving Vehicle and report the status of the Vehicle on demand. For doing so an AT89C51 microcontroller is interfaced serially to a GSM Modem and GPS Receiver. A GSM modem is used to send the position (Latitude and Longitude of the vehicle from a remote place. The GPS modem will continuously give the data i.e. the latitude and longitude indicating the position of the vehicle. The same data is sent to the mobile at the other end from where the position of the vehicle is demanded. When the request by user is sent to the number at the GSM modem, the system automatically sends a return reply to that mobile indicating the position of the vehicle in terms of latitude and longitude in real time.

  10. The Stability Study on Support Equipment for Field Test of Track Subgrade Dynamic Response Test Device%轨道路基动力响应测试装置现场试验支撑设备稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑飞龙; 曾良才; 开岗生

    2013-01-01

    Take the support equipment for track subgrade dynamic response field test as the research object,the maximum support reaction forces which are determined by excavator hydraulic cylinders and backward condition are studied and the related mechanical models are established with analytic geometry and theoretical mechanics.A type of excavator is used as an example to get the optimization calculation of extended length of the hydraulic cylinders with multi-objective optimal genetic algorithm and a set of Pareto solutions is obtained for the maximum support reaction force and then its stability are analyzed.The results show that the support reaction force provided by the excavator can meet the requirements of the test device that it can work stably.%以轨道路基动力响应现场试验支撑装置为研究对象,运用解析几何与理论力学的方法,对挖掘机各液压缸闭锁力及后倾条件所决定的最大支撑反力进行了研究,建立了相关力学模型.以某型号挖掘机为例,采用多目标最优遗传算法对各液压缸伸出长度进行了优化计算,得出了一组使支撑反力最大时的Pareto解,并进行了稳定性分析.分析结果表明,挖掘机所提供的支撑反力能满足试验装置要求,能够稳定工作.

  11. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  12. Markerless 3D Head Tracking for Motion Correction in High Resolution PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter

    This thesis concerns application specific 3D head tracking. The purpose is to improve motion correction in position emission tomography (PET) brain imaging through development of markerless tracking. Currently, motion correction strategies are based on either the PET data itself or tracking devices...... images. Incorrect motion correction can in the worst cases result in wrong diagnosis or treatment. The evolution of a markerless custom-made structured light 3D surface tracking system is presented. The system is targeted at state-of-the-art high resolution dedicated brain PET scanners with a resolution...... of a few millimeters. Stateof- the-art hardware and software solutions are integrated into an operational device. This novel system is tested against a commercial tracking system popular in PET brain imaging. Testing and demonstrations are carried out in clinical settings. A compact markerless tracking...

  13. Better features to track by estimating the tracking convergence region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Zoran; Heijden, van der Ferdinand; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; Stappen, van der F.

    2002-01-01

    Reliably tracking key points and textured patches from frame to frame is the basic requirement for many bottomup computer vision algorithms. The problem of selecting the features that can be tracked well is addressed here. The Lucas-Kanade tracking procedure is commonly used. We propose a method to

  14. Better features to track by estimating the tracking convergence region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Zoran; Heijden, van der Ferdinand; Kasturi, R.; Laurendeau, D.; Suen, C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliably tracking key points and textured patches from frame to frame is the basic requirement for many bottom-up computer vision algorithms. The problem of selecting the features that can be tracked well is addressed. The Lucas-Kanade tracking procedure is commonly used. We propose a method to esti

  15. Electrooptical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    This report covers work carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1979 through 31 March 1980. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. CW operation at temperatures up to 55 C has been achieved for GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting at 1.5 micrometers, which were grown without a GaInAsP buffer layer. These devices are of interest for use as sources in fiber-optics communications systems, since the lowest transmission loss reported for fused-silica optical fibers occurs at 1.55 micrometers. Surface passivation techniques developed for InP and GaInAsP avalanche photodiodes have resulted in reductions of dark current as large as four orders of magnitude, to values as low as .0000016 A/sq cm at 0.9 V(b) where V(b) is the breakdown voltage. Devices consisting entirely of InP have been passivated with plasma-deposited Si3N4, and those with a GaInAsP layer but with the p-n junction in InP have been passivated with polyimide. Neither of these techniques successfully reduces dark currents in devices with the p-n junction in the GaInAsP, but a film of photoresist sprayed with SF6 as the propellant has given excellent results. The electrical characteristics in InP ion implanted with Sn, Ge, Si, and C have been investigated. All of these column IV elements yielded n-type conductivity and Sn, Ge, and Si showed high electrical activation; however, implanted C was found to have a net electrical activation of only about 5 percent.

  16. Moscow State University CW race-track microtron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous wave (CW) race-track microtron (RTM) with the maximum output energy of 175 MeV and beam current 100 mcA is under construction at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University. This paper presents the specifications for the device, status of its construction, and information on the testing of the injector

  17. Design of the Track Correlator for the DTBX Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, Roberto; Zotto, Pierluigi

    1999-01-01

    The fully reviewed design of the Track Correlator ( TRACO) developed for the muon barrel drift tubes first level trigger is presented. Details of the project and a study of the expected performance of the device, based on a full GEANT simulation using the CMS113 version of the detector, are given.

  18. Tracking performance of the ATLAS inner detector and observation of known hadrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kayl

    2010-01-01

    The inner detector is the central tracking device of the ATLAS detector. In these proceedings the tracking performance of the inner detector is presented on collision data recorded at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The identification of resonances like $\\Xi$ and $\\Omega$ baryons in cascade decays v

  19. A flexible GPS tracking system for studying bird behaviour at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, W.; Baaij, E.W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking devices and bio-loggers provide crucial information on the ecology and behaviour of birds in their natural environment. An optimal tracking system should be lightweight, measure three-dimensional locations, enable flexible measurement schemes, transmit data remotely and measure environmenta

  20. Simple Online and Realtime Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Bewley, Alex; Ge, ZongYuan; Ott, Lionel; Ramos, Fabio; Upcroft, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores a pragmatic approach to multiple object tracking where the main focus is to associate objects efficiently for online and realtime applications. To this end, detection quality is identified as a key factor influencing tracking performance, where changing the detector can improve tracking by up to 18.9%. Despite only using a rudimentary combination of familiar techniques such as the Kalman Filter and Hungarian algorithm for the tracking components, this approach achieves an ...

  1. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    OpenAIRE

    Rikke Gade; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather chall...

  2. On train track splitting sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Masur, Howard; Schleimer, Saul

    2010-01-01

    We show that the subsurface projection of a train track splitting sequence is an unparameterized quasi-geodesic in the curve complex of the subsurface. For the proof we introduce induced tracks, efficient position, and wide curves. This result is an important step in the proof that the disk complex is Gromov hyperbolic. As another application we show that train track sliding and splitting sequences give quasi-geodesics in the train track graph, generalizing a result of Hamenstaedt [Invent. Math.].

  3. Track Initiation for Electro-Optical Tracking of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. W.; Wang, X.

    2016-03-01

    Aimed at the track initiation for the electro-optical tracking of space objects, and based on modified Hough transformation, a track initiation algorithm without prior information is proposed to realize the fully robotic identification and tracking of moving objects. The method is valid for the tracking of multi-target as well as with a non-continuous sequence. Simulation shows that the method is effective and applicable for operational usage, and is especially good for the search and discovery of new objects.

  4. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline...

  5. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  6. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To absorb fabrication errors in radial toroidal coils and a spacer and completely fill the gap between them by the provision of an expansion device between the coils and the supporting spacer by injecting fillers of a predetermined composition. Constitution: An expansion device comprising an expansion plate, packings inserted into grooves formed in the outer circumference of the expansion plate and a recessed pressure receiving plate is inserted between the wall surface of radial toroidal coils and a spacer for maintaining the gap between the toroidal coils. Then, filler comprising polyester resin and glass beads incorporated therein is injected from an injection aperture of the recessed pressure receiving plate having an exhaust aperture at the upper part. The filler is solidified and enables the fabrication error in the coils and the spacer to be absorbed. Since the gap between the coils and the spacer is completely filled, the tumbling force of the coils can surely be transmitted by way of the spacer to upper and lower racks. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. The track nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  8. The track nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, A. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Forsyth, D., E-mail: dforsyth@bite.ac.u [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Watts, A. [Department of Physics, UCL, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H OAH (United Kingdom); Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Mitchell, G.R. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Farmer, M. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Harris, P.J.F. [Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  9. Structural Sparse Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-06-01

    Sparse representation has been applied to visual tracking by finding the best target candidate with minimal reconstruction error by use of target templates. However, most sparse representation based trackers only consider holistic or local representations and do not make full use of the intrinsic structure among and inside target candidates, thereby making the representation less effective when similar objects appear or under occlusion. In this paper, we propose a novel Structural Sparse Tracking (SST) algorithm, which not only exploits the intrinsic relationship among target candidates and their local patches to learn their sparse representations jointly, but also preserves the spatial layout structure among the local patches inside each target candidate. We show that our SST algorithm accommodates most existing sparse trackers with the respective merits. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging benchmark image sequences demonstrate that the proposed SST algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Progressive Fleet tracking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Smětal, Matěj

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the importance of vehicle tracking as a part of Fleet management for company's success. The theoretical part contains analysis of positioning systems GPS and GLONASS, describes the structure and principles of its functioning. The practical part contains implementation of Fleet management system into Russian company"Cech č. 1", Ltd. Practical part consists of information gained from internal sources of the company.

  11. Track the talent : methodiekbeschrijving

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Antoinette; Abdallah, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Track the Talent is een beschrijving van een methodiek van Stichting Stedelijk Jongerenwerk Amsterdam en Stichting Hart voor Amsterdam. De beschrijving is uitgevoerd door Youth Spot, een samenwerkingsverband tussen SJA en de Hogeschool van Amsterdam. In het kader van dit project werden twee groepen rechtstreeks met elkaar verbonden: een groep kansarme jongeren die net niet of net wel klaar waren met school en een groep bedrijven die op zoek waren naar nieuwe werknemers. De jongeren gingen op ...

  12. BESⅢ track fitting algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-Ke; MAO Ze-Pu; BIAN Jian-Ming; CAO Guo-Fu; CAO Xue-Xiang; CHEN Shen-Jian; DENG Zi-Yan; FU Cheng-Dong; GAO Yuan-Ning; HE Kang-Lin; HE Miao; HUA Chun-Fei; HUANG Bin; HUANG Xing-Tao; JI Xiao-Sin; LI Fei; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIANG Yu-Tie; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; LIU Suo; LIU Ying-Jie; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MO Xiao-Hu; PAN Ming-Hua; PANG Cai-Ying; PING Rong-Gang; QIN Ya-Hong; QIU Jin-Fa; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; XU Min; YAN Liang; YOU Zheng-Yun; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZHANG Bing-Yun; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Yang-Heng; ZHU Ke-Jun; ZHU Yong-Sheng; ZHU Zhi-Li; ZOU Jia-Heng

    2009-01-01

    A track fitting algorithm based on the Kalman filter method has been developed for BESⅢ of BEPCⅡ.The effects of multiple scattering and energy loss when the charged particles go through the detector,non-uniformity of magnetic field (NUMF) and wire sag, etc., have been carefully handled.This algorithm works well and the performance satisfies the physical requirements tested by the simulation data.

  13. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  14. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  15. A 3-DIMENSIONAL MATRIX ASSAY THAT MAY HELP PREDICT TREATMENT RESPONSE TO TEMOZOLOMIDE IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBASTOMA: SUBGROUP ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING MGMT TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyesi, Joseph F.; Costello, Penny; McDonald, Warren; Macdonald, David; Easaw, Jay

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: (blind field). METHODS: Records for patients treated for newly diagnosed or recurrent glioblastoma were analyzed. All patients had undergone surgical resection and tumor specimens at time of surgery were available for culture in a 3-dimensional matrix assay and observed for growth and invasion. Drug effects on mean invasion and growth were expressed as a ratio relative to control conditions. Length of survival was compared between temozolomide treated patients whose screening results had predicted a positive or negative response to temozolomide. The MGMT status of a subgroup of these patients was analyzed and correlated with the response of tumor tissue in the assay to temozolomide. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with glioblastoma were assessed. Each patient's tumor displayed a unique invasion and response profile. We looked in particular at the correlation between the outcome of a patient with glioblastoma treated with temozolomide and the response of that patient's tumor tissue to temozolomide in the 3-dimensional assay. Mean survival time for patients whose tumors were not significantly sensitive to temozolomide in the assay was 181.7 +/- 43 days. Mean survival time for patients whose tumors were significantly sensitive to temozolomide in the assay was 290.0 +/- 33 days. Twelve patients underwent MGMT testing. In 10 of the 12 patients there was a correlation between tumor response in the assay and MGMT status. CONCLUSIONS: The 3-dimensional assay may help predict glioblastoma patients who will show a treatment response to temozolomide. There appears to be a positive correlation between the response profiles in the assay to the MGMT status of the patient's tumor. SECONDARY CATEGORY: n/a.

  16. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  17. Systems and methods of eye tracking calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and systems to facilitate eye tracking control calibration are provided. One or more objects are displayed on a display of a device, where the one or more objects are associated with a function unrelated to a calculation of one or more calibration parameters. The one or more calibration...... parameters relate to a calibration of a calculation of gaze information of a user of the device, where the gaze information indicates where the user is looking. While the one or more objects are displayed, eye movement information associated with the user is determined, which indicates eye movement of one...... or more eye features associated with at least one eye of the user. The eye movement information is associated with a first object location of the one or more objects. The one or more calibration parameters are calculated based on the first object location being associated with the eye movement information....

  18. Differences in sensitivity to mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy of neurons, glial cells and MCF7 cells in a 3-dimensional cell culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, K E; MacRobert, A J; Phillips, J. B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the cells of the nervous system is an important consideration in the treatment of tumours that are located within or adjacent to the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Previous studies have reported the sparing of nerves during PDT using meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC, Foscan®) in patients and in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mTHPC on key nervous system cells using a 3-dimensional cell culture s...

  19. Integration of 3-dimensional surgical and orthodontic technologies with orthognathic "surgery-first" approach in the management of unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Feinberg, Mark; Vishwanath, Meenakshi; Nalaka Jayaratne, Yasas Shri; Steinbacher, Derek M; Nanda, Ravindra; Uribe, Flavio

    2015-12-01

    Recent innovations in technology and techniques in both surgical and orthodontic fields can be integrated, especially when treating subjects with facial asymmetry. In this article, we present a treatment method consisting of 3-dimensional computer-aided surgical and orthodontic planning, which was implemented with the orthognathic surgery-first approach. Virtual surgical planning, fabrication of surgical splints using the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technique, and prediction of final orthodontic occlusion using virtual planning with robotically assisted customized archwires were integrated for this patient. Excellent esthetic and occlusal outcomes were obtained in a short period of 5.5 months. PMID:26672712

  20. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  1. Electrical devices and remote monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New technologies are being applied in all spheres of life such as phones and computers. Since 2001 this technologies are incorporated, to implantable devices, such as Holter monitoring, pacemaker defibrillators and resynchronizers. Furthermore, the use of this technology, requires significant adaptation and change in traditional methods, is simple to use, versatile, and has shown a lot of benefits to patient care and medical activity. Increasingly tracking units pacemakers or defibrillators are using these monitoring systems and are being applied to a larger volume of patients

  2. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2013-03-26

    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration gradients within the cell, leading to high internal resistances that ultimately limit cell lifetime, charging rates, and energy density. Herein, we report on the synthesis and electrochemical features of electrolytes based on nanoparticle salts designed to provide high tLi+. The salts are created by cofunctionalization of metal oxide nanoparticles with neutral organic ligands and tethered lithium salts. When dispersed in a conducting fluid such as tetraglyme, they spontaneously form a charged, nanoporous network of particles at moderate nanoparticle loadings. Modification of the tethered anion chemistry from -SO3 - to -SO3BF3 - is shown to enhance ionic conductivity of the electrolytes by facilitating ion pair dissociation. At a particle volume fraction of 0.15, the electrolyte exists as a self-supported, nanoporous gel with an optimum ionic conductivity of 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature. Galvanostatic polarization measurements on symmetric lithium metal cells containing the electrolyte show that the cell short circuit time, tSC, is inversely proportional to the square of the applied current density tSC ∼ J-2, consistent with previously predicted results for traditional polymer-in-salt electrolytes with low tLi+. Our findings suggest that electrolytes with tLi+ ≈ 1 and good ion-pair dissociation delay lithium dendrite nucleation and may lead to improved lithium plating in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Gade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  4. Influence of tracks densities in solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) is employed to measure nuclear tracks produced mainly by fission fragments and alpha particles, it is considered that the tracks observation work is performed under an efficiency, ε0, which is independent of the track density (number of tracks/area unit). There are not published results or experimental data supporting such an assumption. In this work the dependence of ε0 with track density is studied basing on experimental data. To perform this, pieces of CR-39 cut from a sole 'mother sheet' were coupled to thin uranium films for different exposition times and the resulting ratios between track density and exposition time were compared. Our results indicate that ε0 is constant for track densities between 103 and 105 cm-2. At our etching conditions track overlapping makes impossible the counting for densities around 1.7 x 105 cm-2. For track densities less than 103 cm-2, ε0 , was not observed to be constant. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  5. Detection and tracking of facial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Aizawa, Kiyoharu; Hatori, Mitsutoshi

    1995-04-01

    Detection and tracking of facial features without using any head mounted devices may become required in various future visual communication applications, such as teleconferencing, virtual reality etc. In this paper we propose an automatic method of face feature detection using a method called edge pixel counting. Instead of utilizing color or gray scale information of the facial image, the proposed edge pixel counting method utilized the edge information to estimate the face feature positions such as eyes, nose and mouth in the first frame of a moving facial image sequence, using a variable size face feature template. For the remaining frames, feature tracking is carried out alternatively using a method called deformable template matching and edge pixel counting. One main advantage of using edge pixel counting in feature tracking is that it does not require the condition of a high inter frame correlation around the feature areas as is required in template matching. Some experimental results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Tracking of electrochemical impedance of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, H.; Granjon, P.; Guillet, N.; Cattin, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary battery impedance estimation method, which can be easily embedded in vehicles or nomad devices. The proposed method not only allows an accurate frequency impedance estimation, but also a tracking of its temporal evolution contrary to classical electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Taking into account constraints of cost and complexity, we propose to use the existing electronics of current control to perform a frequency evolutionary estimation of the electrochemical impedance. The developed method uses a simple wideband input signal, and relies on a recursive local average of Fourier transforms. The averaging is controlled by a single parameter, managing a trade-off between tracking and estimation performance. This normalized parameter allows to correctly adapt the behavior of the proposed estimator to the variations of the impedance. The advantage of the proposed method is twofold: the method is easy to embed into a simple electronic circuit, and the battery impedance estimator is evolutionary. The ability of the method to monitor the impedance over time is demonstrated on a simulator, and on a real Lithium ion battery, on which a repeatability study is carried out. The experiments reveal good tracking results, and estimation performance as accurate as the usual laboratory approaches.

  7. Gaze Tracking Through Smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Hansen, John Paulin; Møllenbach, Emilie

    Mobile gaze trackers embedded in smartphones or tablets provide a powerful personal link to game devices, head-mounted micro-displays, pc´s, and TV’s. This link may offer a main road to the mass market for gaze interaction, we suggest.......Mobile gaze trackers embedded in smartphones or tablets provide a powerful personal link to game devices, head-mounted micro-displays, pc´s, and TV’s. This link may offer a main road to the mass market for gaze interaction, we suggest....

  8. Solar pannels tracking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, P.; Maire, J.; Chollet, C.; Rohee, S.; Vialettes, J.M.

    1984-11-23

    This patent is concerned with a steering device for solar photo-pannels laid in row in order to minimize the cast shadow of each pannel on the others, while maintaining a required land use (the pannels are disposed according to a centered hexagonal lattice). The device is designed to set a whole row of pannels according to the azimuthal orientation of the sun. It is composed of a set of (at least) two side rod drives situated at each side of the row and coupled to the pannel. The pannels are moved by the action of two (or more) traction ropes.

  9. Methodology for Using 3-Dimensional Sonography to Measure Fetal Adrenal Gland Volumes in Pregnant Women With and Without Early Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deborah; Epperson, C Neill; Ewing, Grace; Appleby, Dina; Sammel, Mary D; Wang, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Fetal adrenal gland volumes on 3-dimensional sonography have been studied as potential predictors of preterm birth. However, no consistent methodology has been published. This article describes the methodology used in a study that is evaluating the effects of maternal early life stress on fetal adrenal growth to allow other researchers to compare methodologies across studies. Fetal volumetric data were obtained in 36 women at 20 to 22 and 28 to 30 weeks' gestation. Two independent examiners measured multiple images of a single fetal adrenal gland from each sonogram. Intra- and inter-rater consistency was examined. In addition, fetal adrenal volumes between male and female fetuses were reported. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was satisfactory when the mean of 3 measurements from each rater was used. At 20 weeks' gestation, male fetuses had larger average adjusted adrenal volumes than female fetuses (mean, 0.897 versus 0.638; P = .004). At 28 weeks' gestation, the fetal weight was more influential in determining values for adjusted fetal adrenal volume (0.672 for male fetuses versus 0.526 for female fetuses; P = .034). This article presents a methodology for assessing fetal adrenal volume using 3-dimensional sonography that can be used by other researchers to provide more consistency across studies.

  10. 脑出血后出血病灶的CT三维重建模型%Creation of hemorrhagre model of human skull and 3-dimensional reconstruction based on computed tomography images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟德华; 郭守刚; 唐洲平; 湛彦强; 陈娣; 张苏明; 何锐波; 许理; 赵英俊

    2009-01-01

    Objective For the invention of computer-aided stereotaxic device,the model of human skull was designed,with that the 3-dimensional(3D)virtual model could be reconstructed by datum from computed tomography(CT)and the process of clinical minimally invasive neurosurgery of intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH)could be simulated.Method Melted paraffin was poured in a skull exemplar in which supposititious focus had been installed previously.After scanning of CT,the corresponding serials of DICOM datum was collected,3D reconstruction and preoperative planning was made on software platform.Finally,puncture to this model was simulated by compute-aided stereotaxic device.Resuits Pour-in-waxed hemorrhage model of human skull Was sueeessful.The marker,skull,paraffin and supposititious focus could be displayed apparently and distinctively in CT images and following 3D reconstruction.Conclusions The model is simple,cheap,reproducible,and also ideal to evaluate system performance of prototype of computer-aided stereotaxic device.%目的 为计算机辅助立体定向设备的研发设计的,可以依据CT扫描数据进行三维重建并模拟临床脑出血操作过程的颅骨模型.方法 以融解的石蜡灌铸内置有假想病灶的颅骨标本制为颅骨模型,采集CT扫描后的序列DICOM数据,通过自编软件平台进行3D重建、手术规划,由计算机辅助立体定向设备对该模型进行模拟微创穿刺.结果 完成蜡灌铸的脑出血颅骨模型,且该模型在CT扫描和之后的3D重建中可清晰显示和区别标记物、骨骼、石蜡、假想病灶.结论 蜡铸脑出血颅骨模型方法简单、可反复建模,能较理想地评估计算机辅助立体定向设备原型机的系统性能.

  11. Bearings only naval tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, M.J.

    1984-11-01

    Two commonly used Extended Kalman Filter tracking algorithms utilize the Relative Cartesian and Modified Polar coordinate systems. This report compares the two algorithms by exercising a destroyer-Submarine (DD/SS) computer simulation. A simple engagement geometry is employed which encompasses the major DD/SS options available. Error statistics are developed by Monte Carlo methods. Results are presented which show that the circular error depends upon the diagonal values of the error covariance matrix. The results also support (but do not establish) that the optimum DD manuevuer is that which minimizes the range while maximizing the bearing rate. 4 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  13. Intruder detection and tracking using UWB technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Guy A.; Wahid, Parveen; Palaniappan, Ravishankar; Tracy, Judd; Vandoorn, Eric; Micikevicius, Paulis; Hughes, Charles

    2004-08-01

    UWB communication is essentially the transmission and receiving of ultra short electromagnetic energy pulses. Short pulses mean wide bandwidths, often greatly exceeding 25% of the nominal center frequency. Modern UWB radio is characterized by very low power transmission (in the range of tens of microwatts) and wide bandwidths (greater than a gigahertz). One of the major applications of Ultra-wide band technology has been for detection and tracking of intruders in different environments. Based on some of our previous work [1,2] we developed a hybrid Ray-tracing/FDTD technique to study the indoor and outdoor propagation of UWB signals. The basic goal of this paper is to describe the experimental and simulation studies that were conducted to locate and track an intruder inside a UWB sensor web system. The sensor was developed using the Time Domain P-200 device and the software was developed using MATLAB. Return scans from UWB devices are analyzed to determine the noise floor and the signal strength. Using the noise floor level a threshold level is set above which the alarm will be triggered to determine the presence of an intruder. The probability of false alarm (PFA) is also determined using the Signal-to-Noise ratio and the threshold. We vary the PFA to lower the false alarm to a minimum level. We also determine the noise statistics of the system using Non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. Using this basic UWB sensor web system we will try to determine the physical dimensions of the intruder and also track multiple intruders on the system.

  14. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  15. Power harvesting for railroad track safety enhancement using vertical track displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Carl A.; Platt, Stephen R.; Hansen, Sean E.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    A significant portion of railroad infrastructure exists in areas that are relatively remote. Railroad crossings in these areas are typically only marked with reflective signage and do not have warning light systems or crossbars due to the cost of electrical infrastructure. Distributed sensor networks used for railroad track health monitoring applications would be useful in these areas, but the same limitation regarding electrical infrastructure exists. This motivates the search for a long-term, low-maintenance power supply solution for remote railroad deployment. This paper describes the development of a mechanical device for harvesting mechanical power from passing railcar traffic that can be used to supply electrical power to warning light systems at crossings and to remote networks of sensors via rechargeable batteries. The device is mounted to and spans two rail ties such that it directly harnesses the vertical displacement of the rail and attached ties and translates the linear motion into rotational motion. The rotational motion is amplified and mechanically rectified to rotate a PMDC generator that charges a system of batteries. A prototype was built and tested in a laboratory setting for verifying functionality of the design. Results indicate power production capabilities on the order of 10 W per device in its current form. This is sufficient for illuminating high-efficiency LED lights at a railroad crossing or for powering track-health sensor networks.

  16. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  17. Hexapod Design For All-Sky Sidereal Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András; Jaskó, Attila; Mező, György; Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Oláh, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a hexapod-based telescope mount system intended to provide sidereal tracking for the Fly's Eye Camera project -- an upcoming moderate, 21"/pixel resolution all-sky survey. By exploiting such a kind of meter-sized telescope mount, we get a device which is both capable of compensating for the apparent rotation of the celestial sphere and the same design can be used independently from the actual geographical location. Our construction is the sole currently operating hexapod telescope mount performing dedicated optical imaging survey with a sub-arcsecond tracking precision.

  18. Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (IDATA) Study Data | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (IDATA) Study is a methodologic study of device-based, internet-based, and conventional self-report instruments for assessing physical activity and diet in epidemiologic research. | Device-based and intensive self-report physical activity and diet data with biomarkers

  19. BLE-BASED ACCURATE INDOOR LOCATION TRACKING FOR HOME AND OFFICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonghong Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the use of smart mobile devices and the accompanying needs for emerging services relying on indoor location-based services (LBS for mobile devices are rapidly increasing. For more accurate location tracking using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE, this paper proposes a novel trilateration-based algorithm and presents experimental results that demonstrate its effectiveness.

  20. BLE-BASED ACCURATE INDOOR LOCATION TRACKING FOR HOME AND OFFICE

    OpenAIRE

    Joonghong Park; Jaehoon Kim; Sungwon Kang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the use of smart mobile devices and the accompanying needs for emerging services relying on indoor location-based services (LBS) for mobile devices are rapidly increasing. For more accurate location tracking using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), this paper proposes a novel trilateration-based algorithm and presents experimental results that demonstrate its effectiveness.

  1. Making hurricane track data accessible

    OpenAIRE

    Slingsby, A.; Strachan, J.; Vidale, P.; Dykes, J.; Wood, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our interactive tool allows the exploration, validation and presentation of hundreds of years of dynamically simulated storm tracks. The tracks were generated as part of a research project to improve the risk assessment of tropical storm damage by the insurance industry. The main impact of the tool is that exploratory interactive visualisation is now being used by the storm track modellers to (a) validate and improve model outputs, (b) discuss outputs with their peers (c) obtain a better unde...

  2. Tracking by Machine Learning Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jofrehei, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Current track reconstructing methods start with two points and then for each layer loop through all possible hits to find proper hits to add to that track. Another idea would be to use this large number of already reconstructed events and/or simulated data and train a machine on this data to find tracks given hit pixels. Training time could be long but real time tracking is really fast Simulation might not be as realistic as real data but tacking has been done for that with 100 percent efficiency while by using real data we would probably be limited to current efficiency.

  3. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC)...

  4. Simultaneous Electromagnetic Tracking and Calibration for Dynamic Field Distortion Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems are highly susceptible to field distortion. The interference can cause measurement errors up to a few centimeters in clinical environments, which limits the reliability of these systems. Unless corrected for, this measurement error imperils the success of clinical procedures. It is therefore fundamental to dynamically calibrate EM tracking systems and compensate for measurement error caused by field distorting objects commonly present in clinical environments. We propose to combine a motion model with observations of redundant EM sensors and compensate for field distortions in real time. We employ a simultaneous localization and mapping technique to accurately estimate the pose of the tracked instrument while creating the field distortion map. We conducted experiments with six degrees-of-freedom motions in the presence of field distorting objects in research and clinical environments. We applied our approach to improve the EM tracking accuracy and compared our results to a conventional sensor fusion technique. Using our approach, the maximum tracking error was reduced by 67% for position measurements and by 64% for orientation measurements. Currently, clinical applications of EM trackers are hampered by the adverse distortion effects. Our approach introduces a novel method for dynamic field distortion compensation, independent from preoperative calibrations or external tracking devices, and enables reliable EM navigation for potential applications. PMID:26595908

  5. Forensic Tracking and Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kuwari, Saif

    2011-01-01

    Digital forensics is an emerging field that has uniquely brought together academics, practitioners and law enforcement. Research in this area was inspired by the numerous challenges posed by the increased sophistication of criminal tools. Traditionally, digital forensics has been confined to the extraction of digital evidence from electronic devices. This direct extraction of digital evidence, however, no longer suffices. Indeed, extracting completely raw data without further processing and/o...

  6. Urbanism on Track: Application of tracking technologies in urbanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Van Schaick, J.; Van der Spek, S.C.; Smit, M.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Tracking technologies such as GPS, mobile phone tracking, video and RFID monitoring are rapidly becoming part of daily life. Technological progress offers huge possibilities for studying human activity patterns in time and space in new ways. Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) held an intern

  7. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements......Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... in when and where the bird compensated for the displacement. The last paper investigates effects of habitat shading on the performance of light-level based geolocation and compares experimental data with data from real tracking studies. This illustrates some of the potential problems and limitations...

  8. Geo Issue Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via http://github.com/TUW-GEO/geoits_dev A running instance can be tried at https://geoits.herokuapp.com/

  9. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observations with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma: Comparison of LMS and LIS Lightning Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations obtained during the MEaPRS program in central Oklahoma during June, 1998 have been compared with observations of the discharges from space, obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the TRMM satellite. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were observed between the two sets of observations. Most of the detected optical events were associated with intracloud discharges that developed into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended not to be detected by LIS. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud flashes and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  10. Mixed Interaction Space - Expanding the Interaction Space with Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...... or a person’s face as a fixed-point to determine the location of the device. We use these features as a 4 dimensional input vector to a set of different applications.......In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...

  11. Complications after liver transplantation: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a single session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate a comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol as noninvasive diagnostic modality for simultaneous detection of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications after liver transplantation. Fifty-two liver transplant recipients suspected to have parenchymal, biliary, and (or) vascular complications underwent our MRI protocol at 1.5T unit using a phased array coil. After preliminary acquisition of axial T1w and T2w sequences, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed through a breath-hold, thin- and thick-slab, single-shot T2w sequence in the coronal plane. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) was obtained using a 3-dimensional coronal spoiled gradient-echo sequence, which enabled acquisition of 32 partitions 2.0 mm thick. A fixed dose of 20 ml gadobenate dimeglumine was administered at 2 mL/s. A post-contrast T1w sequence was also performed. Two observers in conference reviewed source images and 3-dimensional reconstructions to determine the presence of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications. MRI findings were correlated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), biopsy, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and imaging follow-up. MRI revealed abnormal findings in 32 out of 52 patients (61%), including biliary complications (anastomotic and nonanastomotic strictures, and lithiasis) in 31, vascular disease (hepatic artery stenosis and thrombosis) in 9, and evidence of hepatic abscess and hematoma in 2. ERC confirmed findings of MRC in 30 cases, but suggested disease underestimation in 2. DSA confirmed 7 magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) findings, but suggested disease overestimation in 2. MRI combined with MRC and CEMRA can provide a comprehensive assessment of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications in most recipients of liver transplantation. (author)

  12. Complications after liver transplantation: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a single session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boraschi, P.; Donati, F.; Gigoni, R. [Pisa Univ. Hospital, Second Dept. of Radiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: p.boraschi@do.med.unipi.it; Salemi, S. [Univ. of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Urbani, L.; Filipponi, F. [Univ. of Pisa, Liver Transplant Unit of the Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Falaschi, F. [Pisa Univ. Hospital, Second Dept. of Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Bartolozzi, C. [Univ. of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate a comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol as noninvasive diagnostic modality for simultaneous detection of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications after liver transplantation. Fifty-two liver transplant recipients suspected to have parenchymal, biliary, and (or) vascular complications underwent our MRI protocol at 1.5T unit using a phased array coil. After preliminary acquisition of axial T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w sequences, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed through a breath-hold, thin- and thick-slab, single-shot T{sub 2}w sequence in the coronal plane. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) was obtained using a 3-dimensional coronal spoiled gradient-echo sequence, which enabled acquisition of 32 partitions 2.0 mm thick. A fixed dose of 20 ml gadobenate dimeglumine was administered at 2 mL/s. A post-contrast T{sub 1}w sequence was also performed. Two observers in conference reviewed source images and 3-dimensional reconstructions to determine the presence of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications. MRI findings were correlated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), biopsy, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and imaging follow-up. MRI revealed abnormal findings in 32 out of 52 patients (61%), including biliary complications (anastomotic and nonanastomotic strictures, and lithiasis) in 31, vascular disease (hepatic artery stenosis and thrombosis) in 9, and evidence of hepatic abscess and hematoma in 2. ERC confirmed findings of MRC in 30 cases, but suggested disease underestimation in 2. DSA confirmed 7 magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) findings, but suggested disease overestimation in 2. MRI combined with MRC and CEMRA can provide a comprehensive assessment of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications in most recipients of liver transplantation. (author)

  13. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity

  14. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland-Girodet, Sigolène; Pashtan, Itai; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity.

  15. Digital characterization of recoil charged-particle tracks for neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a new optical ionization detector for imaging the track of a charged neutron-recoil particle in a gas. Electrons produced in the path of the recoil particle are excited by an external, high-voltage, rf, electric field of short duration. Their oscillatory motion causes ionization and excitation of nearby gas molecules, which then emit light in subsequent de-excitation. Two digital cameras image the optical radiation across two perpendicular planes and analyze it for the numbers of electrons in various volume elements along the track. These numbers constitute the digital characterization of the track. This information can then be used to infer the energy deposited in the track and the track LET in the gas. We have now observed alpha-particle tracks in a chamber utilizing these principles. The application of such a device for neutron dosimetry and neuron spectrometry will be described. (orig.)

  16. 新型颈椎三维电子关节角度仪的效度及重复测试信度%Test-retest Reliability and Validity of 3-dimensional Digital Goniometer for Cervical Range of Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠寒青; 张玲莉; 喻大力; 王荣; 余竹生

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the test-retest reliability and validity of the 3-dimensional Digital Goniometer for Cervical (3DDGC) in measurement of cervical range of motion. Methods 39 healthy participants were measured of cervical range of motion 2 times in 1 hour with 3DDGC by one observer, and with cervical range of motion (CROM) device once. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of test-retest and the Pearson correlation coefficient between devices were caculated. The measurement errors were evaluated with standard er-ror of mean (SEM). Results The ICC was 0.89 of 3DDGC as the cervical rotation to the left, and it was 0.90-0.98 of the other directions, with the SEM of 2.07-3.85° . The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.73-0.92, with the SEM of 1.66-3.17° . Conclusion 3DDGC is valid and reliable in test-retest in measuring cervical range of motion, which need more research clinically.%目的:评估新型颈椎三维电子关节角度仪测试结果的重复测试信度和效度。方法由同一测试者使用新型颈椎三维电子关节角度仪对39名健康受试者进行颈椎活动度测试,1 h内测试2次。采用美国颈椎活动测试仪(CROM)进行颈椎活动度测试。计算重复测试组内相关系数(ICC);两种方法之间行Pearson相关分析。测试差异使用测试标准误(SEM)进行描述。结果重复测试旋左运动ICC=0.89,其他各个方向ICC=0.90~0.98;各个方向上重复测试SEM=2.07~3.85°。两种方法测试结果的相关系数R2=0.73~0.92,SEM=1.66~3.17°。结论新型颈椎三维电子关节角度仪有良好的重复测试信度,效度良好。仪器操作简便直观,可以进一步应用于临床研究。

  17. Manchester transition tracking loop (MTTL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, A.; Ma, L. N.; Huey, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    In new tracking loop, separate phase detection algorithm is incorporated for acquisition; programmed acquisition-to-track sequence includes automatic bandwidth switching. Additionally, system has very effective phase detection signal-to-noise ratio and can operate at any rate by changing master clock frequency. All system parameters remain constant.

  18. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  19. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  20. Particle tracking with scintillating fibres

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Leutz, H; Puertolas, D

    1996-01-01

    This article presents our R&D-work on particle tracking with scintillating fibres. We have developed new fibre dyes, more efficient fibre cladding, coherent fibre bundles with improved packing fraction and a new fibre readout technique (ISPA-tube). Altogether, these new developments increased the hit density of fine grain (60 µm) fibres by about 7 times. This results in mini-tracks per 2.5 mm fibre layer rather than in single hits only and enhances the track reconstruction efficiency to nearly 100 %. Compared with competing tracking methods (silicon strips, MSGCs), our scintillating fibres are superior in hit numbers per radiation length and in the 2-track resolution. They require much less readout channels and consequently no cooling provisions to remove their electronic heat.

  1. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  2. Fine tracking system for balloon-borne telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, M; Lorenzetti, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study along with a first prototype of a high precision system (? 1 arcsec) for pointing and tracking light (near-infrared) telescopes on board stratospheric balloons. Such a system is essentially composed by a star sensor and by a star tracker, able to recognize the field and to adequately track the telescope, respectively. We present the software aimed at processing the star sensor image and the predictive algorithm that allows the fine tracking of the source at a sub-pixel level. The laboratory tests of the system are described and its performance is analyzed. We demonstrate how such a device, when used at the focal plane of enough large telescopes (2-4m, F/10), is capable to provide (sub-)arcsec diffraction limited images in the near infrared bands.

  3. Mobile Tracking Application for Locating Friends using LBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K.Nadesh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days Location based services are becoming more important to mobile users. LBS are the mobile service which uses the user location information which consists of X and Y coordinates generated by GPS which is a mostly used positioning technique. This paper presents a mobile location tracking application in a cellular mobile networkbased on Location based service that describes tracking system called mobile tracker using GPS as a location provider through the geographic positions of a mobile network. This implements a client server system that helps the users to locate their friends and receive alerts whenever they are nearby. It enables the user, basing on the radius around the mobile device defined by the administrator. MYSQL database is used to update the location information and track the location. Further enhancement can be done by increasing the radius capacity to communicate more deliberately.

  4. Efficient sample tracking with OpenLabFramework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Markus; Schmidt, Steffen; Trojnar, Jakub; Thomas, Jochen; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2014-03-04

    The advance of new technologies in biomedical research has led to a dramatic growth in experimental throughput. Projects therefore steadily grow in size and involve a larger number of researchers. Spreadsheets traditionally used are thus no longer suitable for keeping track of the vast amounts of samples created and need to be replaced with state-of-the-art laboratory information management systems. Such systems have been developed in large numbers, but they are often limited to specific research domains and types of data. One domain so far neglected is the management of libraries of vector clones and genetically engineered cell lines. OpenLabFramework is a newly developed web-application for sample tracking, particularly laid out to fill this gap, but with an open architecture allowing it to be extended for other biological materials and functional data. Its sample tracking mechanism is fully customizable and aids productivity further through support for mobile devices and barcoded labels.

  5. A novel open-loop tracking strategy for photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Cătălin

    2013-01-01

    This paper approaches a dual-axis equatorial tracking system that is used to increase the photovoltaic efficiency by maximizing the degree of use of the solar radiation. The innovative aspect in the solar tracker design consists in considering the tracking mechanism as a perturbation for the DC motors. The goal is to control the DC motors, which are perturbed with the motor torques whose computation is based on the dynamic model of the mechanical structure on which external forces act. The daily and elevation angles of the PV module represent the input parameters in the mechanical device, while the outputs transmitted to the controller are the motor torques. The controller tuning is approached by a parametric optimization process, using design of experiments and response surface methodology techniques, in a multiple regression. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the operational performance of the tracking system.

  6. 牙槽嵴增量术个体化三维钛网固定钉的精度研究%Accuracy of Fixing Screws for Individual 3-Dimensional Titanium Mesh during Alveolar Ridge Augmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 廉云敏; 张英怀; 高岚; 王璞; 怀海丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of fixing screws for individual titanium mesh fabricated with computer-aided design-computer-assisted manufacturing ( CAD-CAM ) technique. Methods Jaw samples were taken from 9 human cadavers, and the 3-dimensional image data was obtained with cone-beam CT ( CBCT) , and the digital dental arch models were rebuilt using blue-light raster of triplex scanner. Individual 3-dimensional titanium mesh, loca-ting device for titanium mesh and surgical template for fixing screws were designed and fabricated using the CAD software and rapid prototyping technique. The mesh was fixed in the cadaver using surgical template guidance of fixed screws. The Guidemia software was used to match images of the planned and placed fixing screws, and the deviation of the 3-dimen-sional accuracy between planned and placed position was evaluated. Results A total of 15 individual meshes were fabri-cated, and 64 fixing screws were implanted. The deviations between planned and placed position in upper and lower man-dibles were not statistically significant (P>0. 05), and the mean linear deviation was (0. 89 ± 0. 28)mm at the fixing screw neck and (1. 41 ± 0. 21) mm at the fixing screw apex compared with those of the planned fixing screws, and the mean angular deviation was (1. 92 ± 0. 31)°. Conclusion The individual 3-dimensional titanium mesh with locating de-vice and surgical template for fixing screws is equally accurate in implantation, compared with oral cavity implanting soft-ware.%目的:探讨用于引导骨组织再生技术( GBR)的计算机辅助设计和制作的个体化三维钛网固定钉的植入精度。方法选择9个尸体颌骨标本,采用锥形束CT( CBCT)获取颌骨三维影像数据,蓝光光栅三维扫描仪重建数字牙弓模型。运用计算机技术和快速成型技术设计并制作个体化三维钛网、钛网的定位装置、钛网固定钉的植入导板。将钛网定位于尸体颌骨,采用导板引导固定

  7. An Embedded System for Tracking Human Motion and Humanoid Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-June Tsai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is using embedded CPU to develop a human motion tracking system and construct a motion replication interface for a humanoid robot. In the motion tracking system, we use a CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device which is built in a central control unit (CCU to generate synchronous signals for all the periphery devices and control the data flow from CCD boards to a PC via a USB chip. An embedded DSP on the CCD board is adopted to control the CCD exposure and conduct image processing. The peak position of exposure was computed by the on-board DSP within sub-pixel accuracy. In the construction of a motion replication interface, the same CCU is used to generate the PWM signals to drive the motors of the humanoid robot. All of the respective firmware coding methods are discussed in this article.

  8. Infrared criminalistic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Savkov, E. V.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.

  9. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007635.htm Intrauterine devices (IUD) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device used ...

  10. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  11. Patrol car and agent tracking/suspect tagging and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of law enforcement are providing today's law enforcement personnel with the advantage of an innovative and faster means of providing safety and service to the public. The use of open such technology, the Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL) tracking device, is fast becoming a commonplace and cost-effective solution for agencies to efficiently command and control their 'officer' assets. Through the use of AVL's global positioning satellite-based system, the response time of law enforcement is greatly enhanced by permitting a dispatcher to visually identify and assign the officer closest to the location of an accident or incident. The system is effective in reducing delays due to highway blockages, improving the level of protection to the motoring public, and promoting the flow of traffic on busy freeways. Likewise, an officer or agent in distress can be assured that a dispatcher will be constantly aware of his or her location in the field. In the 1990's the demands on law enforcement agencies have grown tremendously. this is due primarily to population increases, limited funding or resources, and increases in drug, property and violent crimes. Frequently, the automobile is used for escape after the commission of these crimes. This often results in high speed pursuits involving law enforcement agencies. In California, by statute, the California Highway Patrol is the central repository for data regarding all pursuits involving state and local law enforcement agencies. Statistics show that more than 10 percent of pursuits result in injuries to the violator and/or innocent bystanders. Most pursuits last less than 10 minutes, and the AVL system provides a tremendous advantage to law enforcement's ability to immediately deploy and direct units into pursuits for rapid closure of the incident. AVL systems not only reduce the risk of personal injury by minimizing public exposure to the unsafe incident, but also enhance officer safety during the

  12. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  13. The Motif Tracking Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe; 10.1007/s11633.008.0032.0

    2010-01-01

    The search for patterns or motifs in data represents a problem area of key interest to finance and economic researchers. In this paper we introduce the Motif Tracking Algorithm, a novel immune inspired pattern identification tool that is able to identify unknown motifs of a non specified length which repeat within time series data. The power of the algorithm comes from the fact that it uses a small number of parameters with minimal assumptions regarding the data being examined or the underlying motifs. Our interest lies in applying the algorithm to financial time series data to identify unknown patterns that exist. The algorithm is tested using three separate data sets. Particular suitability to financial data is shown by applying it to oil price data. In all cases the algorithm identifies the presence of a motif population in a fast and efficient manner due to the utilisation of an intuitive symbolic representation. The resulting population of motifs is shown to have considerable potential value for other ap...

  14. The Motif Tracking Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The search for patterns or motifs in data represents a problem area of key interest to finance and economic researchers. In this paper, we introduce the motif tracking algorithm (MTA), a novel immune inspired (IS) pattern identification tool that is able to identify unknown motifs of a non specified length which repeat within time series data. The power of the algorithm comes from the fact that it uses a small number of parameters with minimal assumptions regarding the data being examined or the underlying motifs. Our interest lies in applying the algorithm to financial time series data to identify unknown patterns that exist. The algorithm is tested using three separate data sets. Particular suitability to financial data is shown by applying it to oil price data. In all cases, the algorithm identifies the presence of a motif population in a fast and efficient manner due to the utilization of an intuitive symbolic representation.The resulting population of motifs is shown to have considerable potential value for other applications such as forecasting and algorithm seeding.

  15. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  16. A survey on Human Computer Interaction Mechanism Using Finger Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is a field in which developer makes a user friendly system. User can interact with a computer system without using any conventional peripheral devices. Marker is used to recognize hand movement accurately & successfully. Researchers establish the mechanism to interact with computer system using computer vision. The interaction is better than normal static keyboard and mouse. This paper represents most of innovative mechanisms of the finger tracking used to int...

  17. Modeling magnetostrictive material for high-speed tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottauscio, Oriano; Roccato, Paolo E.; Zucca, Mauro

    2011-04-01

    This work proposes a simplified model applicable to devices based on magnetostrictive materials conceived to be implemented in the control of a micropositioner. The 1D magnetomechanical dynamic model of the active material is based on the Preisach hysteresis model and includes classical eddy currents. The model has been used in a digital signal processing procedure for the determination of the supply current tracking position. Comparisons with experiments, obtained by controlling the actual micropositioner in an open loop chain, are satisfactory.

  18. Laser-pointer Tracking for Multi-user Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pischinas, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the implementation of a system for multi-user interaction using laser pointers. The system looks for multi-user interaction in Virtual Reality environments and approaches the problem by taking into account the scalability of the system (large screens, multiple users). The text describes the tracking algorithm and how the extracted information from it can be used as interaction input on the 2D and 3D space. Moreover describes the implementation of a device that can be used...

  19. Ultraefficient Themoelectric Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermoelectric (TE) devices already found a wide range of commercial, military and aerospace applications. However, at present commercially available TE devices...

  20. Leading research report for fiscal 1998. Research and study of 3-dimensional cell structure module engineering; 1998 nendo sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho. Sanjigen saibo soshiki module kogaku chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the formation of cellular tissues to replace bionic tissues, researches were conducted about technologies of forming bionic tissue modules by culturing various kinds of cells. As for the materials and methods for constructing cellular tissues, researches were conducted about the trends of research and development of 3-dimensional tissue culturing matrices and materials for micromanipulation. As for the development of technologies for the functionalization of 3-dimensionally structured cells, research and study were conducted about the technology of 3-dimensional cell structure organization through application of physical stimulation, the biochemical technology of differentiation inducing, and the differentiation inducing technology for hetero tissue culturing. As for the development of technologies for evaluation using 3-dimensionally structured cells, light CT (computer tomography), analysis and evaluation using spectroscopy and the like, feasibility of the biochemical analysis of the cell state using biosensors, technologies for measuring the secretion of carcinogenic and toxic substances, etc., were studied. In addition, the development of organic models to replace test animals, industrial evolution of 3-dimensional tissue module engineering, etc., were investigated. (NEDO)