Sample records for 3-dimensional hydrogel system

  1. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    Full Text Available Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN, preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR. The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased

  2. Hydrogel based occlusion systems


    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V


    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a target occlusion location. The hydrogel is configured to permanently occlude the target occlusion location in the swollen state. The hydrogel may be an electro-activated hydrogel (EAH) which could be ...

  3. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.


    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a tar

  4. 3-Dimensional cell-laden nano-hydroxyapatite/protein hydrogels for bone regeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat-Shojai, Mehdi, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad-Taghi [Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamshidi, Ahmad [Department of Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The ability to encapsulate cells in three-dimensional (3D) protein-based hydrogels is potentially of benefit for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, as a result of their poor mechanical strength, protein-based hydrogels have traditionally been considered for soft tissue engineering only. Hence, in this study we tried to render these hydrogels suitable for hard tissue regeneration, simply by incorporation of bioactive nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) into a photocrosslinkable gelatin hydrogel. Different cell types were also encapsulated in three dimensions in the resulting composites to prepare cell-laden constructs. According to the results, HAp significantly improves the stiffness of gelatin hydrogels, while it maintains their structural integrity and swelling ratio. It was also found that while the bare hydrogel (control) was completely inert in terms of bioactivity, a homogeneous 3D mineralization occurs throughout the nanocomposites after incubation in simulated body fluid. Moreover, encapsulated cells readily elongated, proliferated, and formed a 3D interconnected network with neighboring cells in the nanocomposite, showing the suitability of the nano-HAp/protein hydrogels for cellular growth in 3D. Therefore, the hydrogel nanocomposites developed in this study may be promising candidates for preparing cell-laden tissue-like structures with enhanced stiffness and increased osteoconductivity to induce bone formation in vivo. - Highlights: • We tried to render protein-based hydrogels suitable for hard tissue regeneration. • We developed a three-component system comprising hydrogel, nano-HAp, and cells. • Nano-HAp significantly improved the mechanical strength of hydrogel. • Encapsulated cells readily elongated and proliferated in 3D cell-laden nanocomposite. • 3D deposition of bone crystals occurred in the hydrogel nanocomposites.

  5. Cultivation of human neural progenitor cells in a 3-dimensional self-assembling peptide hydrogel. (United States)

    Liedmann, Andrea; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J


    The influence of 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds on growth, proliferation and finally neuronal differentiation is of great interest in order to find new methods for cell-based and standardised therapies in neurological disorders or neurodegenerative diseases. 3D structures are expected to provide an environment much closer to the in vivo situation than 2D cultures. In the context of regenerative medicine, the combination of biomaterial scaffolds with neural stem and progenitor cells holds great promise as a therapeutic tool. Culture systems emulating a three dimensional environment have been shown to influence proliferation and differentiation in different types of stem and progenitor cells. Herein, the formation and functionalisation of the 3D-microenviroment is important to determine the survival and fate of the embedded cells. Here we used PuraMatrix (RADA16, PM), a peptide based hydrogel scaffold, which is well described and used to study the influence of a 3D-environment on different cell types. PuraMatrix can be customised easily and the synthetic fabrication of the nano-fibers provides a 3D-culture system of high reliability, which is in addition xeno-free. Recently we have studied the influence of the PM-concentration on the formation of the scaffold. In this study the used concentrations of PM had a direct impact on the formation of the 3D-structure, which was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. A subsequent analysis of the survival and differentiation of the hNPCs revealed an influence of the used concentrations of PM on the fate of the embedded cells. However, the analysis of survival or neuronal differentiation by means of immunofluorescence techniques posses some hurdles. To gain reliable data, one has to determine the total number of cells within a matrix to obtain the relative number of e.g. neuronal cells marked by βIII-tubulin. This prerequisites a technique to analyse the scaffolds in all 3-dimensions by a confocal microscope or a comparable

  6. The 3-dimensional architecture of the Upsilon Andromedae planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Deitrick, Russell; McArthur, Barbara; Quinn, Thomas R; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne; Benedict, G Fritz


    The Upsilon Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclination of two planets' orbital planes directly measured, and therefore offers our first window into the 3-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present, for the first time, full 3-dimensional, dynamically stable configurations for the 3 planets of the system consistent with all observational constraints. While the outer 2 planets, c and d, are inclined by about 30 degrees, the inner planet's orbital plane has not been detected. We use N-body simulations to search for stable 3-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. We find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or about 8 billion orbits of planet b. Planet b's orbit must lie near the invariable plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict b's mass is in the range 2 - 9 $M_{Jup}$ and has an inclination angle from the...

  7. Auto-measuring System of 3- Dimensional Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 尚保平; 付小莉; 尚会超


    To realize the automation of fashion industry measuring,designing and manufacturing, the auto-measurement of 3D size of human body is of great importance. The auto measurement system of 3D human body based on Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) and infrared sensors is presented in this paper. The system can measure the bare size of human body that excludes the effect of clothing quickly and accurately.

  8. Regenerative material for aneurysm embolization A 3-dimensional culture system of fibroblasts and calcium alginate gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingdong Zhang; Kan Xu; Jinlu Yu; Jun Wang; Qi Luo


    Calcium alginate gel (CAG) has been shown to successfully model aneurysm embolization within a short period of time. However, gradually degrading CAG potentially results in aneurysm recanalization.In the present study, a regenerative embolic material was designed by seeding rat fibroblasts in a CAG. The study investigated the feasibility of constructing a 3-dimensional culture system. The fibroblasts grew well and firmly attached to the CAG. CAG was conducive for fibroblast growth, and resulted in a 3-dimensional culture system. Results show that CAG can be used theoretically as a vascular, regenerative, embolic material.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A 3-dimensional type-K competitive Lotka-Volterra system is considered in this paper. Two discretization schemes are applied to the system with an positive interior fixed point, and two corresponding discrete systems are obtained. By analyzing the local dynamics of the corresponding discrete system near the interior fixed point, it is showed that this system is not dynamically consistent with the continuous counterpart system.

  10. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.


    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.T.Joseph; Manas R. Sahoo


    The 3-dimensional zero-pressure gas dynamics system appears in the modeling for the large scale structure formation in the universe.The aim of this paper is to construct spherically symmetric solutions to the system.The radial component of the velocity and density satisfy a simpler one dimensional problem.First we construct explicit solutions of this one dimensional case with initial and boundary conditions.Then we get special radial solutions with different behaviours at the origin.

  12. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  13. 3-dimensional resin casting and imaging of mouse portal vein or intrahepatic bile duct system. (United States)

    Walter, Teagan J; Sparks, Erin E; Huppert, Stacey S


    In organs, the correct architecture of vascular and ductal structures is indispensable for proper physiological function, and the formation and maintenance of these structures is a highly regulated process. The analysis of these complex, 3-dimensional structures has greatly depended on either 2-dimensional examination in section or on dye injection studies. These techniques, however, are not able to provide a complete and quantifiable representation of the ductal or vascular structures they are intended to elucidate. Alternatively, the nature of 3-dimensional plastic resin casts generates a permanent snapshot of the system and is a novel and widely useful technique for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional structures and networks. A crucial advantage of the resin casting system is the ability to determine the intact and connected, or communicating, structure of a blood vessel or duct. The structure of vascular and ductal networks are crucial for organ function, and this technique has the potential to aid study of vascular and ductal networks in several ways. Resin casting may be used to analyze normal morphology and functional architecture of a luminal structure, identify developmental morphogenetic changes, and uncover morphological differences in tissue architecture between normal and disease states. Previous work has utilized resin casting to study, for example, architectural and functional defects within the mouse intrahepatic bile duct system that were not reflected in 2-dimensional analysis of the structure(1,2), alterations in brain vasculature of a Alzheimer's disease mouse model(3), portal vein abnormalities in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic mice(4), developmental steps in rat lymphatic maturation between immature and adult lungs(5), immediate microvascular changes in the rat liver, pancreas, and kidney in response in to chemical injury(6). Here we present a method of generating a 3-dimensional resin cast of a mouse vascular or ductal network

  14. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi


    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  15. Supramolecular hydrogels as drug delivery systems. (United States)

    Saboktakin, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaei, Roya Mahdavi


    Drug delivery from a hydrogel carrier implanted under the kidney capsule is an innovative way to induce kidney tissue regeneration and/or prevent kidney inflammation or fibrosis. We report here on the development of supramolecular hydrogels for this application. Chain-extended hydrogelators containing hydrogen bonding units in the main chain, and bifunctional hydrogelators end-functionalized with hydrogen bonding moieties, were made. The influence of these hydrogels on the renal cortex when implanted under the kidney capsule was studied. The overall tissue response to these hydrogels was found to be mild, and minimal damage to the cortex was observed, using the infiltration of macrophages, formation of myofibroblasts, and the deposition of collagen III as relevant read-out parameters. Differences in tissue response to these hydrogels could be related to the different physico-chemical properties of the three hydrogels.

  16. Difference between Chitosan Hydrogels via Alkaline and Acidic Solvent Systems (United States)

    Nie, Jingyi; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling


    Chitosan (CS) has generated considerable interest for its desirable properties and wide applications. Hydrogel has been proven to be a major and vital form in the applications of CS materials. Among various types of CS hydrogels, physical cross-linked CS hydrogels are popular, because they avoided the potential toxicity and sacrifice of intrinsic properties caused by cross-linking or reinforcements. Alkaline solvent system and acidic solvent system are two important solvent systems for the preparation of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, and also lay the foundations of CS hydrogel-based materials in many aspects. As members of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, gel material via alkaline solvent system showed significant differences from that via acidic solvent system, but the reasons behind are still unexplored. In the present work, we studied the difference between CS hydrogel via alkaline system and acidic system, in terms of gelation process, hydrogel structure and mechanical property. In-situ/pseudo in-situ studies were carried out, including fluorescent imaging of gelation process, which provided dynamic visualization. Finally, the reasons behind the differences were explained, accompanied by the discussion about design strategy based on gelation behavior of the two systems.

  17. 3 - Dimensional Body Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xu-dong; LI Yan-mei


    3 - dimensional body measurement technology, the basis of developing high technology in industry, accelerates digital development of aplparel industry. This paper briefly introduces the history of 3 - dimensional body measurement technology, and recounts the principle and primary structure of some types of 3 - dimensional automatic body measurement system. With this understanding, it discusses prospect of 3- dimensional CAD and virtual technology used in apparel industry.

  18. Development of a 3-Dimensional Dosimetry System for Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo


    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion TM (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S;Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate the lack of backscatter, we located a 1 cm thick PMMA plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD with 1200x1200 pixels by a 5.2 um pitch. Using this system, three hundred images by a 0.2 mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4 mm, 8 mm, and 16 mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by EBT3 films in the same conditions. All ...

  19. One-pot synthesis of 3-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-based hydrogel as support for microbe immobilization and BOD biosensor preparation. (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Gao, Ying; Wang, Yue; Han, Yanchao; Dong, Shaojun


    We report a hydrothermal method to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based hydrogel (Gel(rGONR)), using neutral red (NR) to mediate the assembly of rGO sheets and tune the pore size of Gel(rGONR). A series of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and BET were employed to characterize the physico-chemical properties of Gel(rGONR). A large pore size of up to 20 µm and interconnected porous structure of Gel(rGONR) were obtained. Gel(rGONR) was used as a support for immobilizing microbe (denoted as Gel(rGONR-M)), which showed ~3.3 times more load mass of microbe than commonly used supports (i.e., activated carbon and carbon fiber felt) and 2.5 times higher biodegradation efficiency (BE) than carbon fiber felt. Further use of Gel(rGONR-M) as a biocatalyst for establishing a BOD biosensor exhibits a linear range of 2-64 mg O L(-1) and a detection limit 0.4 mg O L(-1) for glucose-glutamic acid (GGA). Moreover, our proposed BOD detection strategy shows a long-term viability over one year and stability up to 2 months with a relative standard deviation of 2.1%. Our results demonstrated the great potential of employing Gel(rGONR) as a microbe-immobilization support for biosensor development.

  20. Methylcellulose Based Thermally Reversible Hydrogel System for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram V. Devireddy


    Full Text Available The thermoresponsive behavior of a Methylcellulose (MC polymer was systematically investigated to determine its usability in constructing MC based hydrogel systems in cell sheet engineering applications. Solution-gel analyses were made to study the effects of polymer concentration, molecular weight and dissolved salts on the gelation of three commercially available MCs using differential scanning calorimeter and rheology. For investigation of the hydrogel stability and fluid uptake capacity, swelling and degradation experiments were performed with the hydrogel system exposed to cell culture solutions at incubation temperature for several days. From these experiments, the optimal composition of MC-water-salt that was able to produce stable hydrogels at or above 32 °C, was found to be 12% to 16% of MC (Mol. wt. of 15,000 in water with 0.5× PBS (~150mOsm. This stable hydrogel system was then evaluated for a week for its efficacy to support the adhesion and growth of specific cells in culture; in our case the stromal/stem cells derived from human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs. The results indicated that the addition (evenly spread of ~200 µL of 2 mg/mL bovine collagen type -I (pH adjusted to 7.5 over the MC hydrogel surface at 37 °C is required to improve the ASC adhesion and proliferation. Upon confluence, a continuous monolayer ASC sheet was formed on the surface of the hydrogel system and an intact cell sheet with preserved cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix was spontaneously and gradually detached when the grown cell sheet was removed from the incubator and exposed to room temperature (~30 °C within minutes.

  1. Application of hydrogel system for neutron attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S C; Gupta, B P


    Hydrogel sheets based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) have been prepared by the technique of acetalization of PVA using formaldehyde and grafting of acrylic acid onto PVAc by gamma irradiation. PVA hydrogel (PVAB) sheets have been prepared in geometrically stable shapes by compression moulding process and characterised for their thermal properties, geometrical stability on water absorption, and neutron shielding efficiency. The effective protection from fast neutrons can be increased by a factor of 18% by swelling the PVAB sheets to 210% in water. The water intake and subsequent retention of water by the sheet can be tailored as per shielding requirements.

  2. New stereoacuity test using a 3-dimensional display system in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Beom Han

    Full Text Available The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional or behind (proposed the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The controlled release system of MIP-Asp hydrogel was prepared by using self-assembly molecular imprinted technique (MIP). 1H NMR was used to detect the changes of active hydrogen atoms. Moreover, the effect of crosslinking degree of hydrogel on the release of medicine was investigated and the temperature/pH sensitivity was also considered. The results demonstrated that: the MIPs-Asp was a procedure involving the participation of active hydrogen; the lower crosslinking degree corresponded to the higher medicine release ratio; high temperature is better for the release; weak acidity is better for the release of Asp.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaohang; CHENG Guoxiang; LI Guohua


    The controUed release system of MIP-Asp hydrogel was prepared by using self-assembly molecular imprinted technique (MIP).1H NMR was used to detect the changes of active hydrogen atoms.Moreover, the effect of crosslinkin8 degree of hydrogel on the release of medicine was investigated and the temperature/pH sensitivity was also considered.The results demonstrated that: the MIPs-Asp was a procedure involving the participation of active hydrogen; the lower crosslinking degree corresponded to the higher medicine release ratio; high temperature is better for the release; weak acidity is better for the release of Asp.

  5. Stimulus-responsive "smart" hydrogels as novel drug delivery systems. (United States)

    Soppimath, K S; Aminabhavi, T M; Dave, A M; Kumbar, S G; Rudzinski, W E


    Recently, there has been a great deal of research activity in the development of stimulus-responsive polymeric hydrogels. These hydrogels are responsive to external or internal stimuli and the response can be observed through abrupt changes in the physical nature of the network. This property can be favorable in many drug delivery applications. The external stimuli can be temperature, pH, ionic strength, ultrasonic sound, electric current, etc. A majority of the literature related to the development of stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems deals with temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAAm) and its various derivatives. However, acrylic-based pH-sensitive systems with weakly acidic/basic functional groups have also been widely studied. Quite recently, glucose-sensitive hydrogels that are responsive to glucose concentration have been developed to monitor the release of insulin. The present article provides a brief introduction and recent developments in the area of stimulus-responsive hydrogels, particularly those that respond to temperature and pH, and their applications in drug delivery.

  6. The development of human factors experimental evaluation technology - 3-dimensional measurement system for motion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Soo; Pan, Young Hwan; Lee, Ahn Jae; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lim, Chi Hwan; Chang, Pil Sik; Lee, Seok Woo; Han, Sung Wook; Park, Chul Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Measurement of human motion is important in the application of ergonomics. We developed a system which can measure body movement, especially= hand movement using advanced direct video measurement technology. This system has as dynamic accuracy with 1% error and the sampling rate to 6 - 10 Hz, and can analyse the trajectory and speed of the marker. The use of passive marker obviates the need for a marker telemetry system and minimize motion disruption. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs. (author)

  7. A 3-dimensional digital atlas of the ascending sensory and the descending motor systems in the pigeon brain. (United States)

    Güntürkün, Onur; Verhoye, Marleen; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie


    Pigeons are classic animal models for learning, memory, and cognition. The majority of the current understanding about avian neurobiology outside of the domain of the song system has been established using pigeons. Since MRI represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the pigeon brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols, we delineated diverse ascending sensory and descending motor systems as well as the hippocampal formation. This pigeon brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. In addition, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. This pigeon brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.

  8. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode (United States)

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun


    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm-1), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems.

  9. Numerical simulation of 3-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard system by particle method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    As one of representative non-equilibrium thermal fluid system, there is a fluid system maintained at lower and higher temperatures at upper and lower faces, respectively, and Rayleigh-Benard (RB) system. On temperature difference between both faces smaller than a critical value, flow into the system is not developed to realize a thermal conductive state, while on that larger than a critical value, macroscopic convection vortex forms to realize a conventional thermal conductive state. A transition process from thermal conduction to convection is well-known for RB unstability and also the convection state is done for RB convection. In this paper, a transition process from thermal conduction to convection was simulated systematically by changing temperature difference at both faces using DSMC method known for one of statistical methods, to investigate the critical Rayleigh number in response to temperature difference at beginning point of the convection, variations and correlative function at proximity of the critical Rayleigh number, pattern formation of the convection and so forth. (G.K.)

  10. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode. (United States)

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun


    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm(-1)), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems.

  11. A new optical system for 3-dimensional mapping of the cornea (United States)

    Franco, Sandra; Almeida, José B.


    In this work the authors present an optical corneal tomographer that uses two Scheimpflug cameras attached to an innovative illumination system that allows a rotary scanning of the entire cornea. The measurements are made from corneal optical sections obtained by illumination with a collimated beam expanded in a fan by a small cylindrical lens. This lens is provided with motor driven rotation in order to perform automated rotary scan of the whole cornea. The authors expect to achieve a scanning speed that will allow producing complete tomography maps without consideration of eye movements. Two Scheimpflug cameras are used to capture the images of the optical sections. With this system it is possible to obtain 3-D representation of the corneal thickness as well as corneal topography. Maps of the corneal thickness and elevation maps are shown. As Scheimpflug cameras are used, it is expected to obtained data from the lens too.

  12. Bulk density estimation using a 3-dimensional image acquisition and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyduk Adam


    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of dynamic bulk density estimation of a particulate matter stream using a 3-d image analysis system and a conveyor belt scale. A method of image acquisition should be adjusted to the type of scale. The paper presents some laboratory results of static bulk density measurements using the MS Kinect time-of-flight camera and OpenCV/Matlab software. Measurements were made for several different size classes.

  13. Composites of Polymer Hydrogels and Nanoparticulate Systems for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhao


    Full Text Available Due to their unique structures and properties, three-dimensional hydrogels and nanostructured particles have been widely studied and shown a very high potential for medical, therapeutic and diagnostic applications. However, hydrogels and nanoparticulate systems have respective disadvantages that limit their widespread applications. Recently, the incorporation of nanostructured fillers into hydrogels has been developed as an innovative means for the creation of novel materials with diverse functionality in order to meet new challenges. In this review, the fundamentals of hydrogels and nanoparticles (NPs were briefly discussed, and then we comprehensively summarized recent advances in the design, synthesis, functionalization and application of nanocomposite hydrogels with enhanced mechanical, biological and physicochemical properties. Moreover, the current challenges and future opportunities for the use of these promising materials in the biomedical sector, especially the nanocomposite hydrogels produced from hydrogels and polymeric NPs, are discussed.

  14. A Modular Computer Code for Simulating Reactive Multi-Species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TP Clement


    RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in

  15. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi


    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  16. Accuracy Evaluation of a 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging System for Guidance in Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Betgen, Anja; Honnef, Joeri; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for image guidance in deep-inspiration breath-hold radiation therapy (DIBH-RT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer. For this purpose, setup data based on captured 3D surfaces was compared with setup data based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with DIBH-RT after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Before the start of treatment, each patient underwent a breath-hold CT scan for planning purposes. During treatment, dose delivery was preceded by setup verification using CBCT of the left breast. 3D surfaces were captured by a surface imaging system concurrently with the CBCT scan. Retrospectively, surface registrations were performed for CBCT to CT and for a captured 3D surface to CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis. For the differences between setup errors, group mean, systematic error, random error, and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Results: Good correlation between setup errors was found: R{sup 2}=0.70, 0.90, 0.82 in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Systematic errors were {<=}0.17 cm in all directions. Random errors were {<=}0.15 cm. The limits of agreement were -0.34-0.48, -0.42-0.39, and -0.52-0.23 cm in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. ROC analysis showed that a threshold between 0.4 and 0.8 cm corresponds to promising true positive rates (0.78-0.95) and false positive rates (0.12-0.28). Conclusions: The results support the application of 3D surface imaging for image guidance in DIBH-RT after BCS.

  17. 'Living' controlled in situ gelling systems: thiol-disulfide exchange method toward tailor-made biodegradable hydrogels. (United States)

    Wu, De-Cheng; Loh, Xian Jun; Wu, Yun-Long; Lay, Chee Leng; Liu, Ye


    A 'living' controlled hydrogel formation method was first reported to create loose and compact in situ biodegradable hydrogels. The method executed under mild reaction conditions can conveniently tailor the hydrogel properties, and it has the potential to develop into a powerful tool for the design, synthesis, and self-assembly of novel tailor-made biomaterials and drug delivery systems.

  18. Development of sustained antimicrobial-release systems using poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate hydrogels. (United States)

    Kitagawa, Haruaki; Takeda, Kahoru; Kitagawa, Ranna; Izutani, Naomi; Miki, Saeki; Hirose, Nanako; Hayashi, Mikako; Imazato, Satoshi


    Reconstructive materials with sustained antimicrobial effects could be useful for preventing infectious diseases in an environment containing indigenous bacteria or fungi such as the oral cavity. With the objective of applying a non-biodegradable hydrogel to resin-based materials as a reservoir for water-soluble antimicrobials, novel hydrogels consisting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPT) were fabricated. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) was loaded into five hydrogels comprising different ratios of HEMA/TMPT, and their ability to release as well as to be recharged with CPC was examined in vitro. A polyHEMA/TMPT hydrogel comprising 50% HEMA/50% TMPT could be effectively loaded and recharged with CPC by immersion into a CPC solution, demonstrating the longest release of CPC, above the concentration required to inhibit bacteria and fungi. The binding of CPC to the hydrogels was mainly through hydrophobic interaction. Loading of CPC into a hydrogel by mixing CPC powder with the HEMA/TMPT monomer before polymerization resulted in marked extension of the initial CPC-release period. The CPC-pre-mixed hydrogel was confirmed to exhibit antibacterial activity by agar diffusion tests. It is possible to achieve a sustained release system for antimicrobials by pre-mix loading and recharging CPC into a 50% HEMA/50% TMPT hydrogel.

  19. Core-shell silk hydrogels with spatially tuned conformations as drug-delivery system. (United States)

    Yan, Le-Ping; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Oliveira, Ana L; Reis, Rui L


    Hydrogels of spatially controlled physicochemical properties are appealing platforms for tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, core-shell silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels of spatially controlled conformation were developed. The core-shell structure in the hydrogels was formed by means of soaking the preformed (enzymatically crosslinked) random coil SF hydrogels in methanol. When increasing the methanol treatment time from 1 to 10 min, the thickness of the shell layer can be tuned from about 200 to about 850 μm as measured in wet status. After lyophilization of the rehydrated core-shell hydrogels, the shell layer displayed compact morphology and the core layer presented porous structure, when observed by scanning electron microscopy. The conformation of the hydrogels was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in wet status. The results revealed that the shell layer possessed dominant β-sheet conformation and the core layer maintained mainly random coil conformation. Enzymatic degradation data showed that the shell layers presented superior stability to the core layer. The mechanical analysis displayed that the compressive modulus of the core-shell hydrogels ranged from about 25 kPa to about 1.1 MPa by increasing the immersion time in methanol. When incorporated with albumin, the core-shell SF hydrogels demonstrated slower and more controllable release profiles compared with the non-treated hydrogel. These core-shell SF hydrogels of highly tuned properties are useful systems as drug-delivery system and may be applied as cartilage substitute. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Hydrogel microspheres from biodegradable polymers as drug delivery systems (United States)

    A series of hydrogel microspheres were prepared from pectin, a hydrophilic biopolymer, and zein, a hydrophobic biopolymer, at varying weight ratios. The hydrogel formulation was conducted in the presence of calcium or other divalent metal ions at room temperature under mild conditions. Studies of ...

  1. Smart hydrogel-functionalized textile system with moisture management property for skin application (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Yang, Zongyue; He, Liang; Kong, Yeeyee; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H.


    In this study, a functional textile-based material for topical skin application was fabricated by coating a thermoresponsive hydrogel onto one side of absorbent nonwoven fabric. The thermoresponsive hydrogel was synthesized easily through coupling of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) as a chemical linker. The chemical structure of the as-prepared triblock copolymer hydrogel was unraveled by FTIR and 1H NMR analysis. The hydrogel showed a temperature-triggered sol-gel transition behavior and high potential for use as drug controlled release. When the surrounding temperature was close to the skin temperature of around 34 °C, it became a moisture management system where the liquids including sweat, blood, and other body fluids can be transported unidirectionally from one fabric side with the hydrophobic hydrogel coating to the untreated opposite side. This thereby showed that the thermoresponsive hydrogel-coated textile materials had a function to keep topical skin area clean, breathable, and comfortable, thus suggesting a great potential and significance for long-term skin treatment application. The structure and surface morphology of the thermoresponsive hydrogel, in vitro drug release behavior, and the mechanism of unidirectional water transport were investigated in detail. Our success in preparation of the functional textile composites will pave the way for development of various polymer- or textile-based functional materials that are applicable in the real world.

  2. 3-Dimensional Response of Composites (United States)


    AFWAL-TR-88-4242 3-DIMENSIONAL RESPONSE OF COMPOSITES S.R. Soni S. Chandrashekara G.P. Tandon U. Santhosh Ten-Lu Hsiao CADTECH SYSTEMS RESEARCH INC...Composites 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) S. R. Soni, S. Chandrashekara, G. P. Tandon, U. Santhosh , T. Isiao 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPRT...Chandrashekara, G.P. Tandon; Mr. U. Santhosh and Mr. Ten-Lu Hsiao. Accesion For NTIS CRAWI DTIC TAB 13 Unaonou,)ced 0 JustfCdtf)In ...._ By .... Di~t ibut;01 I

  3. Controlled Release of Drugs FromHydrogel Based Matrices Systems: Experiments and Modeling


    LAMBERTI, G.; Cascone, S.; Titomanlio, G.; Barba, A.A.


    Hydrogels are materials largely used in the formulation of pharmaceuticals since, in principle, they could produce a release system of zero-order kinetics, which is of great therapeutic interest. In this paper, a model was proposed for the description of the main transport phenomena involved in the drug release process from hydrogel matrices (water diffusion, polymer swelling, drug diffusion and polymer dissolution); the model predictions are successfully compared with a large set of exper...

  4. Charge Couple Device-Based System for 3-dimensional Real Time Positioning on the Assessment of Segmental Range of Motion of Lumbar Spine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping; CHEN Li-jun; GUAN Jing; PAN Li; DING Hui; DING Hai-shu


    Objective: To observe the tested results of the segmental range of motion (ROM) of lumbar spine by charge couple device (CCD)-based system for 3-dimensional real-time positioning (CCD system),and to analyze its clinical significance. Methods: Seven patients with lumbar joint dysfunction and 8 healthy subjects were tested twice by the CCD-based system with an interval of 10 min. Results: The ROM of the patients was obviously lesser than that of the healthy subjects. The measuring data of segmental ROM of lumbar spine by CCD system is correlated significantly to the same data checked later on the same subjects in every direction of the movements. The differences between two checks are usually less than 1 degree. Conclusion:Specially designed CCD based system for 3-dimensional real-time positioning could objectively reflect the segmental ROM of lumbar spine. The system would be of great clinical significance in the assessment of the biomechanical dysfunction of lumbar spine and the effect of the treatment applied.

  5. Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticle--aminated guar gum hydrogel system for sustained release of doxorubicin hydrochloride. (United States)

    Murali, Ragothaman; Vidhya, Ponraj; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy


    Hydrogel based sustained drug delivery system has evolved as an immense treatment method for solid tumors over the past few decades with long term theranostic ability. Here, we synthesized an injectable hydrogel system comprising biocompatible aminated guar gum, Fe3O4-ZnS core-shell nanoparticles and doxorubicin hydrochloride. We show that amination of guar gum resulted in attraction of water molecules thereby forming the hydrogel without using toxic crosslinking agents. Hydrogel formation was observed at 37°C and is stable up to 95°C. The prepared hydrogel is also stable over a wide pH range. The in vitro studies show that the maximum de-gelation and drug release up to 90% can be achieved after 20 days of incubation. Studies reveal that the drug and the core-shell nanoparticles can be released slowly from the hydrogel to provide the healing and diagnosis of the solid tumor thereby avoiding several drug administrations and total excision of organs.

  6. Novel vaginal drug delivery system: deformable propylene glycol liposomes-in-hydrogel. (United States)

    Vanić, Željka; Hurler, Julia; Ferderber, Kristina; Golja Gašparović, Petra; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Filipović-Grčić, Jelena


    Deformable propylene glycol-containing liposomes (DPGLs) incorporating metronidazole or clotrimazole were prepared and evaluated as an efficient drug delivery system to improve the treatment of vaginal microbial infections. The liposome formulations were optimized based on sufficient trapping efficiencies for both drugs and membrane elasticity as a prerequisite for successful permeability and therapy. An appropriate viscosity for vaginal administration was achieved by incorporating the liposomes into Carbopol hydrogel. DPGLs were able to penetrate through the hydrogel network more rapidly than conventional liposomes. In vitro studies of drug release from the liposomal hydrogel under conditions simulating human treatment confirmed sustained and diffusion-based drug release. Characterization of the rheological and textural properties of the DPGL-containing liposomal hydrogels demonstrated that the incorporation of DPGLs alone had no significant influence on mechanical properties of hydrogels compared to controls. These results support the great potential of DPGL-in-hydrogel as an efficient delivery system for the controlled and sustained release of antimicrobial drugs in the vagina.

  7. Halloysite Nanotube Composited Thermo-responsive Hydrogel System for Controlled-release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茜; 巨晓洁; 谢锐; 江明月; 魏竭; 褚良银


    Halloysite nanotube-composited thermo-responsive hydrogel system has been successfully developed for controlled drug release by copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with silane-modified halloysite nanotubes (HNT) through thermally initiated free-radical polymerization. With methylene blue as a model drug, thermo-responsive drug release results demonstrate that the drug release from the nanotubes in the composited hy-drogel can be well controlled by manipulating the environmental temperature. When the hydrogel network is swol-len at temperature below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), drug releases steadily from lumens of the embedded nanotubes, whereas the drug release stops when hydrogel shrinks at temperature above the LCST. The release of model drug from the HNT-composited hydrogel matches well with its thermo-responsive volume phase transition, and shows characteristics of well controlled release. The design strategy and release results of the pro-posed novel HNT-composited thermo-responsive hydrogel system provide valuable guidance for designing respon-sive nanocomposites for controlled-release of active agents.

  8. Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels: A novel ophthalmic drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vinod


    Full Text Available Background: Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids on stimulation, such as pH, temperature and ionic change. Aim: To develop hydrogels that are sensitive to stimuli, i.e. pH, in the cul-de-sac of the eye for providing a prolonged effect and increased bioavailability with reduction in frequency of administration. Materials and Methods: Hydrogels were formulated by using timolol maleate as the model drug, polyacrylic acid as the gelling agents, hydroxyl ethyl cellulose as the viscolizer and sodium chloride as the isotonic agent. Stirring of ingredients in pH 4 phosphate buffer at high speed was carried out. The dynamic dialysis technique was used for drug release studies. In vivo study for reduction in intraocular pressure was carried out by using albino rabbits. Statistical Analysis: Drug release studies data were used for statistical analysis in first-order plots, Higuchi plots and Peppas exponential plots. Student t-test was performed for in vivo study. Results: Viscosity of the hydrogel increases from 3.84 cps to 9.54 cps due to change in pH 4 to pH 7.4. The slope value of the Peppas equation was found to be 0.3081, 0.3743 and 0.2964. Up to 80% of drug was released in an 8 h drug release study. Sterile hydrogels with no ocular irritation were obtained. Conclusions: Hydrogels show increase in viscosity due to change in pH. Hydrogels were therapeutically effacious, stable, non-irritant and showed Fickian diffusion. In vivo results clearly show a prolonged reduction in intraocular pressure, which was helpful for reduction in the frequency of administration.

  9. Facile synthesis of chitosan/ZnO bio-nanocomposite hydrogel beads as drug delivery systems. (United States)

    Yadollahi, Mehdi; Farhoudian, Sana; Barkhordari, Soroush; Gholamali, Iman; Farhadnejad, Hassan; Motasadizadeh, Hamidreza


    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in situ during the formation of physically cross-linked chitosan hydrogel beads using sodium tripolyphosphate as the cross-linker. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these nanocomposite beads have the potential to be used in drug delivery applications. The formation of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) in the hydrogels was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. SEM micrographs revealed the formation of ZnONPs with size range of 10-25 nm within the hydrogel matrix. Furthermore, the swelling and drug release properties of the beads were studied. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogels showed a pH sensitive swelling behavior. The ZnO nanocomposite hydrogels have rather higher swelling ratio in different aqueous solutions in comparison with neat hydrogel. In vitro drug release test was carried out to prove the effectiveness of this novel type of nanocomposite beads as a controlled drug delivery system. A prolonged and more controlled drug releases were observed for ZnONPs containing chitosan beads, which increased by the increase in ZnONPs content.

  10. Hydrogels as scaffolds and delivery systems to enhance axonal regeneration after injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Carballo-Molina


    Full Text Available Damage caused to neural tissue by disease or injury frequently produces a discontinuity in the nervous system. Such damage generates diverse alterations that are commonly permanent, due to the limited regeneration capacity of the adult nervous system, particularly the Central Nervous System (CNS. The cellular reaction to noxious stimulus leads to several events such as the formation of glial and fibrous scars, which inhibit axonal regeneration in both the CNS and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS. Although in the PNS there is some degree of nerve regeneration, it is common that the growing axons reinnervate incorrect areas, causing mismatches. Providing a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration in combination with delivery systems for the release of molecules, which enhances axonal growth, could increase regeneration and the recovery of functions in the CNS or the PNS. Currently, there are no effective vehicles to supply growth factors or cells to the damaged/diseased nervous system. Hydrogels are polymers that are biodegradable, biocompatible and have the capacity to deliver a large range of molecules in situ. The inclusion of cultured neural cells into hydrogels forming three-dimensional structures allows the formation of synapses and neuronal survival. There is also evidence showing that hydrogels constitute an amenable substrate for axonal growth of endogenous or grafted cells, overcoming the presence of axonal regeneration inhibitory molecules, in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent experiments suggest that hydrogels can carry and deliver several proteins relevant for improving neuronal survival and axonal growth. Although the use of hydrogels is appealing, its effectiveness is still a matter of discussion, and more results are needed to achieve consistent recovery using different parameters. This review also discusses areas of opportunity where hydrogels can be applied, in order to promote axonal regeneration of

  11. Physical Carboxymethylscleroglucan/Calcium Ion Hydrogels as Modified Drug Delivery Systems in Topical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Casadei


    Full Text Available A carboxymethyl derivative of scleroglucan (Scl-CM with a 65±5% carboxylic group degree of derivatization (DD was recently synthesized and characterized. Aqueous solutions of the polymer underwent to a sharp transition toward a gel like behaviour in the presence of divalent ions such as Ca+2. Physical hydrogels with different Scl-CM/Ca+2 ratios were prepared and characterized for their rheological behaviour. Their potential as drug delivery systems was also evaluated. To this end three non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were loaded into the hydrogels obtained with 2% w/v solution of Scl-CM and 0.05 and 0.1 M CaCl2. The release rate of the drugs was critically related to the salt concentration. By an appropriate combination of the hydrogels prepared using different amounts of salt, it was possible to obtain a system able to release diclofenac with zero-order kinetics. Primary skin irritation tests showed a good biocompatibility of the new polymer, as well as of its hydrogels. These results suggest a potential of the new hydrogels for the development of modified delivery systems in topical formulations.

  12. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel PLGA-PEG-PLGA as a vaccine delivery system for intramuscular immunization. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yu; Xue, Wei; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Liu, Zonghua


    In this work, we explored the potential of thermo-sensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA with sol-gel transition temperature around 32℃ as an intramuscular vaccine delivery system by using ovalbumin as a model antigen. First, in vitro release test showed that the PLGA-PEG-PLGA-deriving hydrogels could release ovalbumin in vitro in a more sustainable way. From fluorescence living imaging, 50-200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulations could release antigen in a sustainable manner in vivo, suggesting that the PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogel worked as an antigen-depot. Further, the sustainable antigen release from the PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogels increased antigen availability in the spleens of the immunized mice. The intramuscular immunization results showed that 50-200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulations promoted significantly more potent antigen-specific IgG immune response. In addition, 200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulation significantly enhanced the secretion of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. From in vitro splenocyte proliferation assay, 50-200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulations all initiated significantly higher splenocyte activation. These results indicate that the thermo-sensitive and injectable PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogels (particularly, 200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA-based hydrogel) own promising potential as an intramuscular vaccine delivery system.

  13. Low regularity and local well-posedness for the 1+3 dimensional Dirac-Klein-Gordon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achenef Tesfahun


    Full Text Available We prove that the Cauchy problem for the Dirac-Klein-Gordon system of equations in 1+3 dimensions is locally well-posed in a range of Sobolev spaces for the Dirac spinor and the meson field. The result contains and extends the earlier known results for the same problem. Our proof relies on the null structure in the system, and bilinear spacetime estimates of Klainerman-Machedon type.

  14. An introduction to the 3-dimensional virtual library sites-navigation system at Capital Normal University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo; WANG; Xiaoli; HU


    Capital Normal University Library(CNU Library)initiated the first practical application of a 3D virtual library sites-navigation system(an electronic kiosk version)among Chinese academic and research libraries in 2010.It was primarily based on the technologies of 3DsMax and Virtools.This paper concentrates on the discussion of the methods in creating the 3D model and in realizing the interaction among the data usage of the system.As a result,several important service functions of the system have been developed successfully so far for convenient public access.They include the functions of virtual-book searching,path navigation online,real-time message exchanges,and multi-media sharing,etc.

  15. Novel systems for tailored neurotrophic factor release based on hydrogel and resorbable glass hollow fibers. (United States)

    Novajra, G; Tonda-Turo, C; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Ciardelli, G; Geuna, S; Raimondo, S


    A novel system for the release of neurotrophic factor into a nerve guidance channel (NGC) based on resorbable phosphate glass hollow fibers (50P2O5-30CaO-9Na2O-3SiO2-3MgO-2.5K2O-2.5TiO2 mol%) in combination with a genipin-crosslinked agar/gelatin hydrogel (A/G_GP) is proposed. No negative effect on the growth of neonatal olfactory bulb ensheathing cell line (NOBEC) as well as on the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was measured in vitro in the presence of fiber dissolution products in the culture medium. For the release studies, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-20), taken as growth factor model molecule, was solubilized in different media and introduced into the fiber lumen exploiting the capillary action. The fibers were filled with i) FD-20/phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, ii) FD-20/hydrogel solution before gelation and iii) hydrogel before gelation, subsequently lyophilized and then filled with the FD-20/PBS solution. The different strategies used for the loading of the FD-20 into the fibers resulted in different release kinetics. A slower release was observed with the use of A/G_GP hydrogel. At last, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nerve guides containing the hollow fibers and the hydrogel have been fabricated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil S.A.


    Full Text Available Man has always been plagued with many ailments and diseases. The field of pharmaceutical science has today become more invaluable in helping to keep us healthy and prevent disease. The availability of large molecular weight protein and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances has given us a new ways to treat a number of diseases. I wish to present new and promising techniques for the production of drug and protein delivery formulations that have been developed that is Hydrogel. These are presently under investigation as a delivery system for bioactive molecules as having similar physical properties as that of living tissue, which is due to their high water content, soft and rubbery consistency and low interfacial tension with water and biological fluids. Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids. The networks are composed of homopolymers or copolymers, and are insoluble due to the presence of chemical crosslink (tie-points, junctions or physical crosslink, such as entanglements or crystallite. The latter provide the network structure and physical integrity. These hydrogels exhibit a thermodynamic compatibility with water which allows them to swell in aqueous media. The nature of the degradation product can be tailored by a rational and proper selection of building blocks. The soft and rubbery nature of hydrogels minimizes irritation to surrounding tissues. In general, hydrogels possess good biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  17. Micro- and Nanoscale Hydrogel Systems for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita A. Banerjee


    Full Text Available The pursuit for targeted drug delivery systems has led to the development of highly improved biomaterials with enhanced biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. Micro- and nanoscale components of hydrogels prepared from both natural and artificial components have been gaining significant importance due to their potential uses in cell based therapies, tissue engineering, liquid micro-lenses, cancer therapy, and drug delivery. In this review some of the recent methodologies used in the preparation of a number of synthetic hydrogels such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAm, poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, poly(ethylene oxide (PEO, polyvinyl alcohol methylacrylate co-polymers (PVA-MA and polylactic acid (PLA, as well as some of the natural hydrogels and their applications have been discussed in detail.

  18. Improved Skin Penetration Using In Situ Nanoparticulate Diclofenac Diethylamine in Hydrogel Systems: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. (United States)

    Sengupta, Soma; Banerjee, Sarita; Sinha, Biswadip; Mukherjee, Biswajit


    Delivering diclofenac diethylamine transdermally by means of a hydrogel is an approach to reduce or avoid systemic toxicity of the drug while providing local action for a prolonged period. In the present investigation, a process was developed to produce nanosize particles (about 10 nm) of diclofenac diethylamine in situ during the development of hydrogel, using simple mixing technique. Hydrogel was developed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (5.8% w/w) and carbopol 71G (1.5% w/w). The formulations were evaluated on the basis of field emission scanning electron microscopy, texture analysis, and the assessment of various physiochemical properties. Viscosity (163-165 cps for hydrogel containing microsize drug particles and 171-173 cps for hydrogel containing nanosize drug particles, respectively) and swelling index (varied between 0.62 and 0.68) data favor the hydrogels for satisfactory topical applications. The measured hardness of the different hydrogels was uniform indicating a uniform spreadability. Data of in vitro skin (cadaver) permeation for 10 h showed that the enhancement ratios of the flux of the formulation containing nanosize drug (without the permeation enhancer) were 9.72 and 1.30 compared to the formulation containing microsized drug and the marketed formulations, respectively. In vivo plasma level of the drug increased predominantly for the hydrogel containing nanosize drug-clusters. The study depicts a simple technique for preparing hydrogel containing nanosize diclofenac diethylamine particles in situ, which can be commercially viable. The study also shows the advantage of the experimental transdermal hydrogel with nanosize drug particles over the hydrogel with microsize drug particles.

  19. Hydrogel-laden paper scaffold system for origami-based tissue engineering. (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hwan; Lee, Hak Rae; Yu, Seung Jung; Han, Min-Eui; Lee, Doh Young; Kim, Soo Yeon; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Han, Mi-Jung; Lee, Tae-Ik; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kwon, Seong Keun; Im, Sung Gap; Hwang, Nathaniel S


    In this study, we present a method for assembling biofunctionalized paper into a multiform structured scaffold system for reliable tissue regeneration using an origami-based approach. The surface of a paper was conformally modified with a poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) layer via initiated chemical vapor deposition followed by the immobilization of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and deposition of Ca(2+). This procedure ensures the formation of alginate hydrogel on the paper due to Ca(2+) diffusion. Furthermore, strong adhesion of the alginate hydrogel on the paper onto the paper substrate was achieved due to an electrostatic interaction between the alginate and PLL. The developed scaffold system was versatile and allowed area-selective cell seeding. Also, the hydrogel-laden paper could be folded freely into 3D tissue-like structures using a simple origami-based method. The cylindrically constructed paper scaffold system with chondrocytes was applied into a three-ring defect trachea in rabbits. The transplanted engineered tissues replaced the native trachea without stenosis after 4 wks. As for the custom-built scaffold system, the hydrogel-laden paper system will provide a robust and facile method for the formation of tissues mimicking native tissue constructs.

  20. Injectable dopamine-modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel as bioadhesive drug delivery system. (United States)

    Gong, Chu; Lu, Caicai; Li, Bingqiang; Shan, Meng; Wu, Guolin


    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials with adhesive properties in wet environments have been considered as promising candidates for tissue adhesives. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is believed to be responsible for the water-resistant adhesive characteristics of mussel adhesive proteins. Under the inspiration of DOPA containing adhesive proteins, a dopamine-modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivative (PDAEA) was successfully synthesized by successive ring-opening reactions of polysuccinimide (PSI) with dopamine and ethanolamine, and an injectable bioadhesive hydrogel was prepared via simply mixing PDAEA and FeCl3 solutions. The formation mechanism of the hydrogel was investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic, Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic, visual colorimetric measurements and EDTA immersion methods. The study demonstrated that the PDAEA-Fe(3+) hydrogel is a dual cross-linking system composed of covalent and coordination crosslinks. The PDAEA-Fe(3+) hydrogel is suitable to serve as a bioadhesive agent according to the rheological behaviors and the observed significant shear adhesive strength. The slow and sustained release of the model drug curcumin from the hydrogel in vitro demonstrated the hydrogel could also be potentially used for drug delivery. Moreover, the cytotoxicity tests in vitro suggested the prepared polymer and hydrogel possessed excellent cytocompatibility. All the results indicated that the dopamine modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivative based hydrogel was a promising candidate for bioadhesive drug delivery system. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1000-1008, 2017.

  1. Rail-guided Multi-robot System for 3D Cellular Hydrogel Assembly with Coordinated Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang


    Full Text Available The 3D assembly of micro-/nano-building blocks with multi-nanomanipulator coordinated manipulation is one of the central elements of nanomanipulation. A novel rail-guided nanomanipulation system was proposed for the assembly of a cellular vascular-like hydrogel microchannel. The system was equipped with three nanomanipulators and was restricted on the rail in order to realize the arbitrary change of the end-effectors during the assembly. It was set up with hybrid motors to achieve both a large operating space and a 30 nm positional resolution. The 2D components such as the assembly units were fabricated through the encapsulation of cells in the hydrogel. The coordinated manipulation strategies among the multi-nanomanipulators were designed with vision feedback and were demonstrated through the bottom-up assembly of the vascular-like microtube. As a result, the multi-layered microchannel was assembled through the cooperation of the nanomanipulation system.

  2. Advanced biomaterials for repairing the nervous system: what can hydrogels do for the brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zin Z. Khaing


    Full Text Available Newly developed hydrogels are likely to play significant roles in future therapeutic strategies for the nervous system. In this review, unique features of the central nervous system (i.e., the brain and spinal cord that are important to consider in developing engineered biomaterials for therapeutic applications are discussed. This review focuses on recent findings in hydrogels as biomaterials for use as (1 drug delivery devices, specifically focusing on how the material can change the delivery rate of small molecules, (2 scaffolds that can modify the post-injury environment, including preformed and injectable scaffolds, (3 cell delivery vehicles, discussing cellular response to natural and synthetic polymers as well as structured and amorphous materials, and (4 scaffolds for tissue regeneration, describing micro- and macro-architectural constructs that have been designed for neural applications. In addition, key features in each category that are likely to contribute to the translational success of these biomaterials are highlighted.

  3. Development of 3-D Hydrogel Culture Systems With On-Demand Cell Separation


    Hamilton, Sharon K.; Bloodworth, Nathaniel C.; Massad, Christopher S.; Hammoudi, Taymour M.; Suri, Shalu; Yang, Peter J.; Lu, Hang; Temenoff, Johnna S


    Recently there has been an increased interest in the effects of paracrine signaling between groups of cells, particularly in the context of better understanding how stem cells contribute to tissue repair. Most current 3-D co-culture methods lack the ability to effectively separate 2 cell populations after the culture period, which is important for simultaneously analyzing the reciprocal effects of each cell type on the other. Here, we detail the development of a 3-D hydrogel co-culture system...

  4. A Review of Injectable Polymeric Hydrogel Systems for Application in Bone Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Kondiah, Pariksha J; Choonara, Yahya E; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Marimuthu, Thashree; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness


    Biodegradable, stimuli-responsive polymers are essential platforms in the field of drug delivery and injectable biomaterials for application of bone tissue engineering. Various thermo-responsive hydrogels display water-based homogenous properties to encapsulate, manipulate and transfer its contents to the surrounding tissue, in the least invasive manner. The success of bioengineered injectable tissue modified delivery systems depends significantly on their chemical, physical and biological properties. Irrespective of shape and defect geometry, injectable therapy has an unparalleled advantage in which intricate therapy sites can be effortlessly targeted with minimally invasive procedures. Using material testing, it was found that properties of stimuli-responsive hydrogel systems enhance cellular responses and cell distribution at any site prior to the transitional phase leading to gelation. The substantially hydrated nature allows significant simulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), due to its similar structural properties. Significant current research strategies have been identified and reported to date by various institutions, with particular attention to thermo-responsive hydrogel delivery systems, and their pertinent focus for bone tissue engineering. Research on future perspective studies which have been proposed for evaluation, have also been reported in this review, directing considerable attention to the modification of delivering natural and synthetic polymers, to improve their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

  5. Modified chitosan hydrogels as drug delivery and tissue engineering systems: present status and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Giri


    Full Text Available Chitosan, a natural cationic polysaccharide, is prepared industrially by the hydrolysis of the aminoacetyl groups of chitin, a naturally available marine polymer. Chitosan is a non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable polymer and has attracted considerable interest in a wide range of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, and tissue engineering. The primary hydroxyl and amine groups located on the backbone of chitosan are responsible for the reactivity of the polymer and also act as sites for chemical modification. However, chitosan has certain limitations for use in controlled drug delivery and tissue engineering. These limitations can be overcome by chemical modification. Thus, modified chitosan hydrogels have gained importance in current research on drug delivery and tissue engineering systems. This paper reviews the general properties of chitosan, various methods of modification, and applications of modified chitosan hydrogels.

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a hydrogel reservoir as a continuous drug delivery system for inner ear treatment. (United States)

    Hütten, Mareike; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Hessler, Roland; Stöver, Timo; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Möller, Martin; Lenarz, Thomas; Jolly, Claude; Groll, Jürgen; Scheper, Verena


    Fibrous tissue growth and loss of residual hearing after cochlear implantation can be reduced by application of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone-21-phosphate-disodium-salt (DEX). To date, sustained delivery of this agent to the cochlea using a number of pharmaceutical technologies has not been entirely successful. In this study we examine a novel way of continuous local drug application into the inner ear using a refillable hydrogel functionalized silicone reservoir. A PEG-based hydrogel made of reactive NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) prepolymers was evaluated as a drug conveying and delivery system in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulating the free form hydrogel into a silicone tube with a small opening for the drug diffusion resulted in delayed drug release but unaffected diffusion of DEX through the gel compared to the free form hydrogel. Additionally, controlled DEX release over several weeks could be demonstrated using the hydrogel filled reservoir. Using a guinea-pig cochlear trauma model the reservoir delivery of DEX significantly protected residual hearing and reduced fibrosis. As well as being used as a device in its own right or in combination with cochlear implants, the hydrogel-filled reservoir represents a new drug delivery system that feasibly could be replenished with therapeutic agents to provide sustained treatment of the inner ear.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a hydrogel reservoir as a continuous drug delivery system for inner ear treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Hütten

    Full Text Available Fibrous tissue growth and loss of residual hearing after cochlear implantation can be reduced by application of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone-21-phosphate-disodium-salt (DEX. To date, sustained delivery of this agent to the cochlea using a number of pharmaceutical technologies has not been entirely successful. In this study we examine a novel way of continuous local drug application into the inner ear using a refillable hydrogel functionalized silicone reservoir. A PEG-based hydrogel made of reactive NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO prepolymers was evaluated as a drug conveying and delivery system in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulating the free form hydrogel into a silicone tube with a small opening for the drug diffusion resulted in delayed drug release but unaffected diffusion of DEX through the gel compared to the free form hydrogel. Additionally, controlled DEX release over several weeks could be demonstrated using the hydrogel filled reservoir. Using a guinea-pig cochlear trauma model the reservoir delivery of DEX significantly protected residual hearing and reduced fibrosis. As well as being used as a device in its own right or in combination with cochlear implants, the hydrogel-filled reservoir represents a new drug delivery system that feasibly could be replenished with therapeutic agents to provide sustained treatment of the inner ear.

  8. Development of crosslinked methylcellulose hydrogels for soft tissue augmentation using an ammonium persulfate-ascorbic acid redox system. (United States)

    Gold, Gittel T; Varma, Devika M; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B


    Hydrogels composed of methylcellulose are candidate materials for soft tissue reconstruction. Although photocrosslinked methylcellulose hydrogels have shown promise for such applications, gels crosslinked using reduction-oxidation (redox) initiators may be more clinically viable. In this study, methylcellulose modified with functional methacrylate groups was polymerized using an ammonium persulfate (APS)-ascorbic acid (AA) redox initiation system to produce injectable hydrogels with tunable properties. By varying macromer concentration from 2% to 4% (w/v), the equilibrium moduli of the hydrogels ranged from 1.47 ± 0.33 to 5.31 ± 0.71 kPa, on par with human adipose tissue. Gelation time was found to conform to the ISO standard for injectable materials. Cellulase treatment resulted in complete degradation of the hydrogels within 24h, providing a reversible corrective feature. Co-culture with human dermal fibroblasts confirmed the cytocompatibility of the gels based on DNA measurements and Live/Dead imaging. Taken together, this evidence indicates that APS-AA redox-polymerized methylcellulose hydrogels possess properties beneficial for use as soft tissue fillers.

  9. Cellular behavior in micropatterned hydrogels by bioprinting system depended on the cell types and cellular interaction. (United States)

    Hong, Soyoung; Song, Seung-Joon; Lee, Jae Yeon; Jang, Hwanseok; Choi, Jaesoon; Sun, Kyung; Park, Yongdoo


    The fabrication of patterned microstructures within three-dimensional (3D) matrices is a challenging subject in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A 3D, free-moving bioprinting system was developed and hydrogels were patterned by varying the process parameters of z-axis moving velocity and ejection velocity. The patterning of hydrogel based microfibers in a 3D matrigel was achieved with dimensions of 4.5 mm length and widths from 79 to 200 μm. Hyaluronan-based hydrogels mixed with fibroblasts (L929), mouse endothelial cells (MS1), or human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were patterned using a 3D moving axis bioprinter and cell behavior was monitored in culture for up to 16 days. L929 and MS1 cells and hMSCs in patterned hydrogel revealed cell-cell interactions and a morphological dependency on cell types. HMSCs formed spheres through cell aggregation, while L929 cells increased in cellular mass without cell aggregation and MS1 dispersed into the matrix instead of aggregating. The aggregation of hMSCs was attenuated by treatment with Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor and cadherin antibody. This reflected the close relationship between cell aggregation and migration with RhoA and cell-cell adhesion molecules. Angiogenic-specific gene expression profiles showed that expression of CD105 decreased to 22% in the ROCK inhibitor group compared to control group. These results showed that cell-based patterns in a 3D matrix are highly dependent on both cell aggregation and migration over time.

  10. Self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogels for central nervous system regeneration (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Pi, Bin; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xiu-Mei


    Central nervous system (CNS) presents a complex regeneration problem due to the inability of central neurons to regenerate correct axonal and dendritic connections. However, recent advances in developmental neurobiology, cell signaling, cell-matrix interaction, and biomaterials technologies have forced a reconsideration of CNS regeneration potentials from the viewpoint of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The applications of a novel tissue regeneration-inducing biomaterial and stem cells are thought to be critical for the mission. The use of peptide nanofiber hydrogels in cell therapy and tissue engineering offers promising perspectives for CNS regeneration. Self-assembling peptide undergo a rapid transformation from liquid to gel upon addition of counterions or pH adjustment, directly integrating with the host tissue. The peptide nanofiber hydrogels have mechanical properties that closely match the native central nervous extracellular matrix, which could enhance axonal growth. Such materials can provide an optimal three dimensional microenvironment for encapsulated cells. These materials can also be tailored with bioactive motifs to modulate the wound environment and enhance regeneration. This review intends to detail the recent status of self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogels for CNS regeneration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Rani


    Full Text Available Chitosan obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin is a non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable natural polymer. Chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads have been extensively studied as micro- or nano-particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, where they have shown promise for drug delivery as a result of their controlled and sustained release properties, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. To introduce desired properties and enlarge the scope of the potential applications of chitosan, graft copolymerization with natural or synthetic polymers on it has been carried out, and also, various chitosan derivatives have been utilized to form beads. The desired kinetics, duration, and rate of drug release up to therapeutical level from polymeric beads are limited by specific conditions such as beads material and their composition, bead preparation method, amount of drug loading, drug solubility, and drug polymer interaction. The present review summarizes most of the available reports about compositional and structural effects of chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads on swelling, drug loading, and releasing properties. From the studies reviewed it is concluded that chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads are promising drug delivery systems.

  12. A thermodynamic and mechanical model for formation of the Solar System via 3-dimensional collapse of the dusty pre-solar nebula (United States)

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Criss, Robert E.


    The fundamental and shared rotational characteristics of the Solar System (nearly circular, co-planar orbits and mostly upright axial spins of the planets) record conditions of origin, yet are not explained by prevailing 2-dimensional disk models. Current planetary spin and orbital rotational energies (R.E.) each nearly equal and linearly depend on gravitational self-potential of formation (Ug), revealing mechanical energy conservation. We derive -ΔUg≅Δ.R.E. and stability criteria from thermodynamic principles, and parlay these relationships into a detailed model of simultaneous accretion of the protoSun and planets from the dust-bearing 3-d pre-solar nebula (PSN). Gravitational heating is insignificant because Ug is negative, the 2nd law of thermodynamics must be fulfilled, and ideal gas conditions pertain to the rarified PSN until the objects were nearly fully formed. Combined conservation of angular momentum and mechanical energy during 3-dimensional collapse of spheroidal dust shells in a contracting nebula provides ΔR.E.≅R.E. for the central body, whereas for formation of orbiting bodies, ΔR.E.≅R.E.f(1-If/Ii), where I is the moment of inertia. Orbital data for the inner planets follow 0.04×R.E.f≅-Ug which confirms conservation of angular momentum. Significant loss of spin, attributed to viscous dissipation during differential rotation, masks the initial spin of the un-ignited protoSun predicted by R.E.=-Ug. Heat production occurs after nearly final sizes are reached via mechanisms such as shear during differential rotation and radioactivity. We focus on the dilute stage, showing that the PSN was compositionally graded due to light molecules diffusing preferentially, providing the observed planetary chemistry, and set limits on PSN mass, density, and temperature. From measured planetary masses and orbital characteristics, accounting for dissipation of spin, we deduce mechanisms and the sequence of converting a 3-d dusty cloud to the present 2-d

  13. In vitro-ex vivo correlations between a cell-laden hydrogel and mucosal tissue for screening composite delivery systems. (United States)

    Blakney, Anna K; Little, Adam B; Jiang, Yonghou; Woodrow, Kim A


    Composite delivery systems where drugs are electrospun in different layers and vary the drug stacking-order are posited to affect bioavailability. We evaluated how the formulation characteristics of both burst- and sustained-release electrospun fibers containing three physicochemically diverse drugs: dapivirine (DPV), maraviroc (MVC) and tenofovir (TFV) affect in vitro and ex vivo release. We developed a poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel release platform for the rapid, inexpensive in vitro evaluation of burst- and sustained-release topical or dermal drug delivery systems with varying microarchitecture. We investigated properties of the hydrogel that could recapitulate ex vivo release into nonhuman primate vaginal tissue. Using a dimethyl sulfoxide extraction protocol and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we achieved >93% recovery from the hydrogels and >88% recovery from tissue explants for all three drugs. We found that DPV loading, but not stacking order (layers of fiber containing a single drug) or microarchitecture (layers with isolated drug compared to all drugs in the same layer) impacted the burst release in vitro and ex vivo. Our burst-release formulations showed a correlation for DPV accumulation between the hydrogel and tissue (R(2)=( )0.80), but the correlation was not significant for MVC or TFV. For the sustained-release formulations, the PLGA/PCL content did not affect TFV release in vitro or ex vivo. Incorporation of cells into the hydrogel matrix improved the correlation between hydrogel and tissue explant release for TFV. We expect that this hydrogel-tissue mimic may be a promising preclinical model to evaluate topical or transdermal drug delivery systems with complex microarchitectures.

  14. Development of cyclodextrin-hydrogel polymeric systems in scCO2 for drug delivery


    Romão, Joana Isabel Sobral


    Thesis for the Degree of Master of Science in Bioorganic Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia This work describes the studies on the development of new cyclodextrin-hydrogel systems in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) with potential application in drug delivery. Three β-cyclodextrin (CDs) derivatives were synthesized: 6-monoacryloyl-β-CD, 2-monoacryloyl-β-CD and 6-monoacryloly-heptakis-(2,3-di-O-benzyl)-β-CD. Their structures were assigned by nuclear magne...

  15. EGF and curcumin co-encapsulated nanoparticle/hydrogel system as potent skin regeneration agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X


    Full Text Available Xiaoling Li,1 Xianlong Ye,2 Jianying Qi,2 Rangrang Fan,1 Xiang Gao,1 Yunzhou Wu,2 Liangxue Zhou,1 Aiping Tong,1 Gang Guo1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Life Science, Northeast Agriculture University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Wound healing is a complex multifactorial process that relies on coordinated signaling molecules to succeed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a mitogenic polypeptide that stimulates wound repair; however, precise control over its application is necessary to reduce the side effects and achieve desired therapeutic benefits. Moreover, the extensive oxidative stress during the wound healing process generally inhibits repair of the injured tissues. Topical applications of antioxidants like curcumin (Cur could protect tissues from oxidative damage and significantly improve tissue remodeling. To achieve much accelerated wound healing effects, we designed a novel dual drug co-loaded in situ gel-forming nanoparticle/hydrogel system (EGF-Cur-NP/H which acted not only as a supportive matrix for the regenerative tissue, but also as a sustained drug depot for EGF and Cur. In the established excisional full-thickness wound model, EGF-Cur-NP/H treatment significantly enhanced wound closure through increasing granulation tissue formation, collagen deposition, and angiogenesis, relative to normal saline, nanoparticle/hydrogel (NP/H, Cur-NP/H, and EGF-NP/H treated groups. In conclusion, this study provides a biocompatible in situ gel-forming system for efficient topical application of EGF and Cur in the landscape of tissue repair. Keywords: epidermal growth factor, EGF, curcumin, wound healing, thermosensitive hydrogel, nanoparticles 

  16. Preparation and characterization of amidated pectin based hydrogels for drug delivery system. (United States)

    Mishra, R K; Datt, M; Pal, K; Banthia, A K


    In the current studies attempts were made to prepare hydrogels by chemical modification of pectin with ethanolamine (EA) in different proportions. Chemically modified pectin products were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde reagent for preparing hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), organic elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), swelling studies, biocompatibility and hemocompatibility studies. Mechanical properties of the prepared hydrogels were evaluated by tensile test. The hydrogels were loaded with salicylic acid (used as a model drug) and drug release studies were done in a modified Franz's diffusion cell. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of primary and secondary amide absorption bands. XRD studies indicated increase in crystallinity in the hydrogels as compared to unmodified pectin. The degree of amidation (DA) and molar and mass reaction yields (YM and YN) was calculated based on the results of organic elemental analysis. The hydrogels showed good water holding properties and were found to be compatible with B-16 melanoma cells & human blood.

  17. 3D bioprinting of neural stem cell-laden thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane hydrogel and potential in central nervous system repair. (United States)

    Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Lin, Hsin-Hua; Hsu, Shan-Hui


    The 3D bioprinting technology serves as a powerful tool for building tissue in the field of tissue engineering. Traditional 3D printing methods involve the use of heat, toxic organic solvents, or toxic photoinitiators for fabrication of synthetic scaffolds. In this study, two thermoresponsive water-based biodegradable polyurethane dispersions (PU1 and PU2) were synthesized which may form gel near 37 °C without any crosslinker. The stiffness of the hydrogel could be easily fine-tuned by the solid content of the dispersion. Neural stem cells (NSCs) were embedded into the polyurethane dispersions before gelation. The dispersions containing NSCs were subsequently printed and maintained at 37 °C. The NSCs in 25-30% PU2 hydrogels (∼680-2400 Pa) had excellent proliferation and differentiation but not in 25-30% PU1 hydrogels. Moreover, NSC-laden 25-30% PU2 hydrogels injected into the zebrafish embryo neural injury model could rescue the function of impaired nervous system. However, NSC-laden 25-30% PU1 hydrogels only showed a minor repair effect in the zebrafish model. In addition, the function of adult zebrafish with traumatic brain injury was rescued after implantation of the 3D-printed NSC-laden 25% PU2 constructs. Therefore, the newly developed 3D bioprinting technique involving NSCs embedded in the thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane ink offers new possibilities for future applications of 3D bioprinting in neural tissue engineering.

  18. One-pot synthesis of antibacterial chitosan/silver bio-nanocomposite hydrogel beads as drug delivery systems. (United States)

    Yadollahi, Mehdi; Farhoudian, Sana; Namazi, Hassan


    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in situ during the formation of physically crosslinked chitosan hydrogel beads using sodium tripolyphosphate as the crosslinker. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these nanocomposite beads have the potential to be used in drug delivery applications. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the hydrogels was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, the antibacterial and swelling properties of the beads were studied. The nanocomposite hydrogels demonstrated good antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. AgNPs caused an increase in the swelling capacity of the beads. In vitro drug release test was carried out to prove the effectiveness of this novel type of nanocomposite beads as a controlled drug delivery system. Prolonged and more controlled drug releases were observed for AgNPs containing chitosan beads, which increased by the increase in AgNPs content.

  19. In vivo remineralization of dentin using an agarose hydrogel biomimetic mineralization system (United States)

    Han, Min; Li, Quan-Li; Cao, Ying; Fang, Hui; Xia, Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Hong


    A novel agarose hydrogel biomimetic mineralization system loaded with calcium and phosphate was used to remineralize dentin and induce the oriented densely parallel packed HA layer on defective dentin surface in vivo in a rabbit model. Firstly, the enamel of the labial surface of rabbits’ incisor was removed and the dentin was exposed to oral environment. Secondly, the hydrogel biomimetic mineralization system was applied to the exposed dentin surface by using a custom tray. Finally, the teeth were extracted and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation test after a certain time of mineralization intervals. The regenerated tissue on the dentin surface was composed of highly organised HA crystals. Densely packed along the c axis, these newly precipitated HA crystals were perpendicular to the underlying dental surface with a tight bond. The demineralized dentin was remineralized and dentinal tubules were occluded by the grown HA crystals. The nanohardness and elastic modulus of the regenerated tissue were similar to natural dentin. The results indicated a potential clinical use for repairing dentin-exposed related diseases, such as erosion, wear, and dentin hypersensitivity.

  20. An automated two-phase system for hydrogel microbead production. (United States)

    Coutinho, Daniela F; Ahari, Amir F; Kachouie, Nezamoddin N; Gomes, Manuela E; Neves, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Polymeric beads have been used for protection and delivery of bioactive materials, such as drugs and cells, for different biomedical applications. Here, we present a generic two-phase system for the production of polymeric microbeads of gellan gum or alginate, based on a combination of in situ polymerization and phase separation. Polymer droplets, dispensed using a syringe pump, formed polymeric microbeads while passing through a hydrophobic phase. These were then crosslinked, and thus stabilized, in a hydrophilic phase as they crossed through the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface. The system can be adapted to different applications by replacing the bioactive material and the hydrophobic and/or the hydrophilic phases. The size of the microbeads was dependent on the system parameters, such as needle size and solution flow rate. The size and morphology of the microbeads produced by the proposed system were uniform, when parameters were kept constant. This system was successfully used for generating polymeric microbeads with encapsulated fluorescent beads, cell suspensions and cell aggregates proving its ability for generating bioactive carriers that can potentially be used for drug delivery and cell therapy.

  1. Cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels for a spatially separated co-culture system. (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyun; Bencherif, Sidi A; Li, Weiwei Aileen; Mooney, David J


    Three-dimensional macroporous scaffolds have extensively been studied for cell-based tissue engineering but their use is mostly limited to mechanical support for cell adhesion and growth on the surface of macropores. Here, a templated fabrication method is described to prepare cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels (IOHs) allowing both cell encapsulation within the hydrogel matrix and cell seeding on the surface of macropores. Ionically crosslinked alginate microbeads and photocrosslinkable biocompatible polymers are used as a sacrificial template and as a matrix, respectively. The alginate microbeads are easily removed by a chelating agent, with minimal toxicity for the encapsulated cells during template removal. The outer surface of macropores in IOHs can also provide a space for cell adherence. The cells encapsulated or attached in IOHs are able to remain viable and to proliferate over time. The elastic modulus and cell-adhesion properties of IOHs can be easily controlled and tuned. Finally, it is demonstrated that IOH can be used to co-culture two distinct cell populations in different spatial positions. This cell-friendly IOH system provides a 3D scaffold for organizing different cell types in a controllable microenvironment to investigate biological processes such as stem cell niches or tumor microenvironments.

  2. Ultrahigh Resolution 3-Dimensional Imaging Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop innovative instrumentation for the rapid, 3-dimensional imaging of biological tissues with cellular resolution. Our approach...

  3. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lessard, Guillaume A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phipps, Marry E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lidke, Diane S [UNM; Wilson, Bridget S [UNM


    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  4. Reductively Responsive Hydrogel Nanoparticles with Uniform Size, Shape, and Tunable Composition for Systemic siRNA Delivery in Vivo. (United States)

    Ma, Da; Tian, Shaomin; Baryza, Jeremy; Luft, J Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M


    To achieve the great potential of siRNA based gene therapy, safe and efficient systemic delivery in vivo is essential. Here we report reductively responsive hydrogel nanoparticles with highly uniform size and shape for systemic siRNA delivery in vivo. "Blank" hydrogel nanoparticles with high aspect ratio were prepared using continuous particle fabrication based on PRINT (particle replication in nonwetting templates). Subsequently, siRNA was conjugated to "blank" nanoparticles via a disulfide linker with a high loading ratio of up to 18 wt %, followed by surface modification to enhance transfection. This fabrication process could be easily scaled up to prepare large quantity of hydrogel nanoparticles. By controlling hydrogel composition, surface modification, and siRNA loading ratio, siRNA conjugated nanoparticles were highly tunable to achieve high transfection efficiency in vitro. FVII-siRNA conjugated nanoparticles were further stabilized with surface coating for in vivo siRNA delivery to liver hepatocytes, and successful gene silencing was demonstrated at both mRNA and protein levels.

  5. Three-dimensional hydrogel cell culture systems for modeling neural tissue (United States)

    Frampton, John

    Two-dimensional (2-D) neural cell culture systems have served as physiological models for understanding the cellular and molecular events that underlie responses to physical and chemical stimuli, control sensory and motor function, and lead to the development of neurological diseases. However, the development of three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture systems will be essential for the advancement of experimental research in a variety of fields including tissue engineering, chemical transport and delivery, cell growth, and cell-cell communication. In 3-D cell culture, cells are provided with an environment similar to tissue, in which they are surrounded on all sides by other cells, structural molecules and adhesion ligands. Cells grown in 3-D culture systems display morphologies and functions more similar to those observed in vivo, and can be cultured in such a way as to recapitulate the structural organization and biological properties of tissue. This thesis describes a hydrogel-based culture system, capable of supporting the growth and function of several neural cell types in 3-D. Alginate hydrogels were characterized in terms of their biomechanical and biochemical properties and were functionalized by covalent attachment of whole proteins and peptide epitopes. Methods were developed for rapid cross-linking of alginate hydrogels, thus permitting the incorporation of cells into 3-D scaffolds without adversely affecting cell viability or function. A variety of neural cell types were tested including astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. Cells remained viable and functional for longer than two weeks in culture and displayed process outgrowth in 3-D. Cell constructs were created that varied in cell density, type and organization, providing experimental flexibility for studying cell interactions and behavior. In one set of experiments, 3-D glial-endothelial cell co-cultures were used to model blood-brain barrier (BBB) structure and function. This co-culture system was

  6. Chitosan superporous hydrogel composite-based floating drug delivery system: A newer formulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Chavda


    Full Text Available Objective: In this study efforts have been made to design a drug delivery system based on a superporous hydrogel composite, for floating and sustained delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization studies were performed by the measurement of apparent density, porosity, swelling studies, mechanical strength studies, and scanning electron microscopy studies. The prepared formulation was evaluated for buoyant behavior, in vitro drug release, kinetics of drug release, and stability. The release profile of Ranitidine hydrochloride was investigated by changing the release retardant polymer in the formulation. To ascertain the kinetics of drug release, the drug release profiles were fitted to mathematical models that included zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull, and Hopfenberg models. Results: Scanning electron microscopy images clearly indicated the formation of interconnected pores and capillary channels, and cross-linked Chitosan molecules were observed around the peripheries of the pores. The prepared drug delivery system floated and delivered the Ranitidine hydrochloride for about 17 hours. The in vitro drug release from the proposed system was best explained by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The values of the diffusion exponent in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model ranged between 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.66 ± 0.02, which appeared to indicate a coupling of the diffusion and erosion mechanisms, anomalous non-Fickian transport. Conclusion: It was concluded that the proposed floating drug delivery system, based on the superporous hydrogel composite containing Chitosan as a composite material, is promising for stomach-specific delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride.

  7. Multi-lineage differentiation of hMSCs encapsulated in thermo-reversible hydrogel using a co-culture system with differentiated cells. (United States)

    Park, Ji Sun; Yang, Han Na; Woo, Dae Gyun; Kim, Hyemin; Na, Kun; Park, Keun-Hong


    The micro-environment is an important factor in the differentiation of cultured stem cells for the purpose of site specific transplantation. In an attempt to optimize differentiation conditions, co-culture systems composed of both stem cells and primary cells or cell lines were used in hydrogel with in vitro and in vivo systems. Stem cells encapsulated in hydrogel, under certain conditions, can undergo increased differentiation both in vitro and in vivo; therefore, reconstruction of transplanted stem cells in a hydrogel co-culture system is important for tissue regeneration. In order to construct such a co-culture system, we attempted to create a hydrogel scaffold which could induce neo-tissue growth from the recipient bed into the material. This material would enable encapsulation of stem cells in vitro after which they could be transferred to an in vivo system utilizing nude mice. In this case, the hydrogel was implanted in the subfascial space of nude mice and excised 4 weeks later. Cross-sections of the excised samples were stained with von Kossa or safranin-O and tubular formations into the gel were observed with and tested by doppler imaging. The data showed that the hydrogel markedly induced growth of osteogenic, chondrogenic, and vascular-rich tissue into the hydrogel by 4 weeks, which surpassed that after transplantation in a co-culture system. Further, a co-culture system with differentiated cells and stem cells potentially enhanced chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and vascularization. These findings suggest that a co-culture system with hydrogel as scaffold material for neo-tissue formation is a useful tools for multi-lineage stem cell differentiation.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of pectin/PVP hydrogel membranes for drug delivery system. (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Datt, Mahesh; Banthia, Ajit K


    The purpose of the present study was to develop and design pectin and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blended hydrogel membranes (PEVP), with different pectin: PVP ratios (1:0.2, 1:0.4, 1:0.6, 1:0.8 and 1:1 w/w), which were prepared by using a conventional solution casting technique. An attempt has been made to characterize the hydrogel membranes by various instrumental techniques like, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The release patterns of the drug (salicylic acid) from the hydrogel membrane were done in three different release mediums (pH 1.4, pH 7.4 and distilled water) and samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically at 294 nm wavelength on a UV Vis spectrophotometer. MTT assay was done to ensure cytocompatibility of the pectin/PVP hydrogel membranes using B16 melanoma cells. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of secondary amide (I) absorption bands. The XRD study shows decrease in crystallinity of the hydrogel membranes with increase in PVP ratio. DSC study shows an increase in T(g) of pectin after blending with PVP. It was found that tensile strength increases with increasing PVP ratios in the hydrogel membranes. The prepared hydrogel membranes were found to be biocompatible with B16 melanoma cells.

  9. 3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations (United States)

    Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.

    Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.

  10. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel system for local delivery of sodium alendronate. (United States)

    Posadowska, Urszula; Parizek, Martin; Filova, Elena; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, Malgorzata; Kamperman, Marleen; Bacakova, Lucie; Pamula, Elzbieta


    Systemic administration of bisphosphonates, e.g. sodium alendronate (Aln) is characterized by extremely low bioavailability and high toxicity. To omit aforementioned drawbacks an injectable system for the intra-bone delivery of Aln based on Aln-loaded nanoparticles (NPs-Aln) suspended in a hydrogel matrix (gellan gum, GG) was developed. Aln was encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA 85:15) by solid-oil-water emulsification. Drug release tests showed that within 25 days all the encapsulated drug was released from NPs-Aln and the release rate was highest at the beginning and decreased with time. In contrast, by suspending NPs-Aln in a GG matrix, the release rate was significantly lower and more constant in time. The GG-NPs-Aln system was engineered to be easily injectable and was able to reassemble its structure after extrusion as shown by rheological measurements. Invitro studies showed that the GG-NPs-Aln was cytocompatible with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and it inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastic differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells. The injectability, the sustained local delivery of small doses of Aln and the biological activity render the GG-NPs-Aln system promising for the local treatment of osteoporosis and other bone tissue disorders.

  11. The synthesis of hydrogels with controlled distribution of polymer brushes in hydrogel network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, YuWei; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, AoKai; Xu, LiQun; Yao, Fang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangning District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 211189 (China); Cen, Lian, E-mail: [National Tissue Engineering Center of China, No.68, East Jiang Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200241 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, No.130, Mei Long Road, Shanghai, 200237 (China); Fu, Guo-Dong, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangning District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 211189 (China)


    Highlights: • Many biological tissues are 3-dimensionally asymmetric in structure and properties, it would be desirable if hydrogels could bear such structural similarity with specialized surface and bulk properties. Moreover, gradual but continuous variation in spatial structural and property is also a common phenomenon in biological tissues, such as interfaces between bone and tendon, or between bone and cartilage. Hence, the development of a method to introduce well-defined functional polymer brushes on PEG hydrogels, especially with precisely controlled spatial structure in 3-dimensions, would impart the hydrogels with special functionalities and wider applications. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with 3-dimensionally controlled well-defined poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm)) brushes were prepared by combined copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (“Click Chemistry”) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The resulting hydrogels were presented as representatives with their detailed synthesis routes and characterization. H{sub PEG}-S-poly(NIPAAm) is a hydrogel with poly(NIPAAm) brushes mainly grafted on surface, whereas H{sub PEG}-G-poly(NIPAAm) has a gradiently decreased poly(NIPAAm) brushes in their chain length from surface to inside. On the other hand, poly(NIPAAm) brushes in H{sub PEG}-U-poly(NIPAAm) are uniformly dispersed throughout the whole hydrogel network. Successful preparation of H{sub PEG}-S-poly(NIPAAm), H{sub PEG}-G-poly(NIPAAm) and H{sub PEG}-U-poly(NIPAAm) were ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. Hence, the flexibility and controllability of the synthetic strategy in varying the distribution of polymer brushes and hydrogel surface properties was demonstrated. Hydrogels with tunable and well-defined 3-dimensional poly(NIPAAm) polymer brushes could be tailor-designed to find potential applications in smart devices or skin dressing, such as for diabetics

  12. A calculation of Eliashberg equations for superconducting phase under the ultra-high magnetic field of strong coupling cases in 2 and 3 dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H. [Dept. of Mathematics and Physical Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba Univ. (Japan); Natsume, Y. [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics


    The estimation of Tc for the superconducting phase under the ultra-high magnetic feild is discussed on the basis of numerical calculation by the use of the expression of Eliashberg equations for strong coupling theory. The essenthial effect of the retardation of the interaction by phonons on making the gap is pointed out in comparison between 2 and 3 dimensinal systems. (orig.)

  13. NIR and MR imaging supported hydrogel based delivery system for anti-TNF alpha probiotic therapy of IBD (United States)

    Janjic, Jelena M.; Berlec, Ales; Bagia, Christina; Liu, Lu S.; Jeric, Irenej; Gach, Michael; Janjic, Bratislav M.; Strukelj, Borut


    Current treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is largely symptomatic and consists of anti-inflammatory agents, immune-suppressives or antibiotics, whereby local luminal action is preferred to minimize systemic side-effects. Recently, anti-TNFα therapy has shown considerable success and is now being routinely used. Here we present a novel approach of using perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoemulsion containing hydrogels (nanoemulgels) as imaging supported delivery systems for anti-TNF alpha probiotic delivery in IBD. To further facilitate image-guided therapy a food-grade lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis capable of TNFα-binding was engineered to incorporate infrared fluorescent protein (IRFP). This modified bacteria was then incorporated into novel PFC nanoemulgels. The nanoemulgels presented here are designed to deliver locally anti-TNFα probiotic in the lower colon and rectum and provide dual imaging signature of gel delivery (MRI) across the rectum and lower colon and bacteria release (NIR). NIR imaging data in vitro demonstrates high IRFP expressing and TNFα-binding bacteria loading in the hydrogel and complete release in 3 hours. Stability tests indicate that gels remain stable for at least 14 days showing no significant change in droplet size, zeta potential and pH. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrate the NIRF expressing bacteria L. lactis binds TNFα in vitro upon release from the gels. Magnetic resonance and near-infrared imaging in vitro demonstrates homogeneity of hydrogels and the imaging capacity of the overall formulation.

  14. Effect of Foot Hyperpronation on Lumbar Lordosis and Thoracic Kyphosis in Standing Position Using 3-Dimensional Ultrasound-Based Motion Analysis System (United States)

    Farokhmanesh, Khatere; Shirzadian, Toraj; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Shahri, Mina Neyakan


    Based on clinical observations, foot hyperpronation is very common. Excessive pronation (hyperpronation) can cause malalignment of the lower extremities. This most often leads to functional and structural deficits. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foot hyperpronation on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. Thirty five healthy subjects (age range, 18030 years) were asked to stand on 4 positions including a flat surface (normal position) and on wedges angled at 10, 15, and 20 degrees. Sampling was done using simple random sampling. Measurements were made by a motion analysis system. For data analysis, the SPSS software (ver. 18) using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The eversion created by the wedges caused a significant increase in lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. The most significant change occurred between two consecutive positions of flat surface and the first wedge. The t-test for repeated measures showed a high correlation between each two consecutive positions. The results showed that with increased bilateral foot pronation, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis increased as well. In fact, each of these results is a compensation phenomenon. Further studies are required to determine long-term results of excessive foot pronation and its probable effect on damage progression. PMID:25169004

  15. Primary 3-dimensional culture of mouse hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Complex 3-dimensional structures with good functions have been obtained under the primary mixcoculture of mouse hepatocytes with mouse liver fibroblasts without serum. Albumin secretion is kept above 10 μg/106 cells and urea synthesis reaches 25 μg/106 on the 7th day of culture. Avoiding serum affection, liver fibroblasts' effects on hepatocytes' viability, functions and 3-dimensional structure forming in primary serum-free culture have been studied. Important effects of the mesenchyma, especially the direct adherence of fibroblasts to hepatocytes, are shown.

  16. A three-dimensional culture system using alginate hydrogel prolongs hatched cattle embryo development in vitro. (United States)

    Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Gao, Hui; Wu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Ming-Jie; Bai, Jia-Hua; Liu, Yan; Evans, Alexander; Zeng, Shen-Ming


    No successful method exists to maintain the three-dimensional architecture of hatched embryos in vitro. Alginate, a linear polysaccharide derived from brown algae, has characteristics that make it an ideal material as a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix for in vitro cell, tissue, or embryo culture. In this study, alginate hydrogel was used for IVC of posthatched bovine embryos to observe their development under the 3D system. In vitro-fertilized and parthenogenetically activated posthatched bovine blastocysts were cultured in an alginate encapsulation culture system (AECS), an alginate overlay culture system (AOCS), or control culture system. After 18 days of culture, the survival rate of embryos cultured in AECS was higher than that in the control group (P cultured in the normal culture system, 9.09% of them attached to the bottoms of the plastic wells and grew rapidly, with the largest area of an attached embryo being 66.00 mm(2) on Day 32. The embryos cultured in AOCS developed monovesicular or multivesicular morphologies. Total cell number of the embryos cultured in AECS on Day 19 was significantly higher than that of embryos on Day 8. Additionally, AECS and AOCS supported differentiation of the embryonic cells. Binuclear cells were visible in Day-26 adherent embryos, and the messenger RNA expression patterns of Cdx2 and Oct4 in AOCS-cultured embryos were similar to those in vivo embryos, whereas IFNT and ISG15 messenger RNA were still expressed in Day-26 and Day-32 prolong-cultured embryos. In conclusion, AECS and AOCS did support cell proliferation, elongation, and differentiation of hatched bovine embryos during prolonged IVC. The culture system will be useful to further investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling ruminant embryo elongation and implantation.

  17. Properties of 3-dimensional line location models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita


    We consider the problem of locating a line with respect to some existing facilities in 3-dimensional space, such that the sum of weighted distances between the line and the facilities is minimized. Measuring distance using the l\\_p norm is discussed, along with the special cases of Euclidean...

  18. Bioresponsive hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein V. Ulijn


    Full Text Available We highlight recent developments in hydrogel materials with biological responsiveness built in. These ‘smart’ biomaterials change properties in response to selective biological recognition events. When exposed to a biological target (nutrient, growth factor, receptor, antibody, enzyme, or whole cell, molecular recognition events trigger changes in molecular interactions that translate into macroscopic responses, such as swelling/collapse or solution-to-gel transitions. The hydrogel transitions may be used directly as optical readouts for biosensing, linked to the release of actives for drug delivery, or instigate biochemical signaling events that control or direct cellular behavior. Accordingly, bioresponsive hydrogels have gained significant interest for application in diagnostics, drug delivery, and tissue regeneration/wound healing.

  19. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz


    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  20. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions. (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam


    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne.

  1. Dual ionic interaction system based on polyelectrolyte complex and ionic, injectable, and thermosensitive hydrogel for sustained release of human growth hormone. (United States)

    Park, Mi-Ran; Seo, Bo-Bae; Song, Soo-Chang


    A dual ionic interaction system composed of a positively charged polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) containing human growth hormone (hGH) and anionic thermosensitive hydrogel has been suggested for sustained delivery of bioactive hGH. The PEC was prepared by ionic interaction between negatively charged hGH and positively charged protamine sulfate (PS) to suppress diffusion of hGH. Moreover, we loaded the positively charged PEC into an anionic, injectable, and thermosensitive poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel to enhance sustained release of hGH by dual ionic interactions. PS formed a spherical complex with hGH, and their ionic interaction grew stronger with increasing amounts of PS. From a weight ratio of 0.5, the PS/hGH complex had a size and zeta-potential that were constantly maintained around 500 nm and +8 mV, respectively, in 0.9% NaCl. The PEC-loaded hydrogels suppressed the initial burst release of hGH and extended the release period in vitro and in vivo. In a pharmacokinetic study in rats, the PEC-loaded anionic hydrogel extended half-life 13-fold with similar area under the curve (AUC) compared to hGH solution. Furthermore, single injection of PEC-loaded anionic hydrogel showed a more increased growth rate than daily injection of hGH solution for 7 days in hypophysectomized rats, demonstrating its potential as an injectable, sustained delivery system that can release bioactive hGH.

  2. Preparation and In vitro evaluation of a stomach specific drug delivery system based on superporous hydrogel composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H V Chavda


    Full Text Available This study discusses efforts made to design drug-delivery system based on superporous hydrogel composite for sustained delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride. The characterization studies involve measurement of apparent density, porosity, swelling studies, mechanical strength studies, and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic images clearly showed the formation of interconnected pores, capillary channels, and the cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose molecules around the peripheries of pores. The prepared system floated and delivered the ranitidine hydrochloride for about 17 h. The release profile of ranitidine hydrochloride was studies by changing the retardant polymer in the system. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the dissolution profiles were fitted to different mathematical models that include zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull, and Hopfenberg models. The in vitro dissolution from system was explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The diffusion exponent values in Korsmeyer-Peppas model range between 0.48±0.01 and 0.70±0.01, which appears to indicate an anomalous non-Fickian transport. It is concluded that the proposed mechanically stable floating drug-delivery system based on superporous hydrogel composite containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose as a composite material is promising for stomach specific delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride.

  3. A study of chitosan hydrogel with embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded by ibuprofen as a dual stimuli-responsive drug release system for surface coating of titanium implants. (United States)

    Zhao, Pengkun; Liu, Hongyu; Deng, Hongbing; Xiao, Ling; Qin, Caiqin; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen


    In this study, the complex pH and electro responsive system made of chitosan hydrogel with embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was evaluated as a tunable drug release system. As a model drug, ibuprofen (IB) was used; its adsorption in MSNs was evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). In order to prepare the complex drug release system, the loaded particles IB-MSNs were dispersed in chitosan solution and then the complex IB-MSNs/chitosan film of 2mm thickness was deposited as a hydrogel on the titanium electrode. The codeposition of components was performed under a negative biasing of the titanium electrode at -0.75 mA/cm2 current density during 30 min. The IB release from the IB-MSNs/chitosan hydrogel film was studied as dependent on pH of the release media and electrical conditions applied to the titanium plate. When incubating the complex hydrogel film in buffers with different pH, the IB release followed a near zero-order profile, though its kinetics varied. Compared to the spontaneous IB release from the hydrogel in 0.9% NaCl solution (at 0 V), the application of negative biases to the coated titanium plate had profound effluences on the release behavior. The release was retarded when -1.0 V was applied, but a faster kinetics was observed at -5.0 V. These results imply that a rapid, mild and facile electrical process for covering titanium implants by complex IB-MSNs/chitosan hydrogel films can be used for controlled drug delivery applications.

  4. Injectable, Biodegradable Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Tan


    Full Text Available Hydrogels have many different applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Biodegradable, injectable hydrogels could be utilized as delivery systems, cell carriers, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Injectable hydrogels are an appealing scaffold because they are structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of many tissues, can often be processed under relatively mild conditions, and may be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. This review will discuss recent advances in the field of injectable hydrogels, including both synthetic and native polymeric materials, which can be potentially used in cartilage and soft tissue engineering applications.

  5. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting


    Yong He; FeiFei Yang; HaiMing Zhao; Qing Gao; Bing Xia; JianZhong Fu


    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films ...

  6. A three-dimensional bioprinting system for use with a hydrogel-based biomaterial and printing parameter characterization. (United States)

    Song, Seung-Joon; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Yong-Doo; Lee, Jung-Joo; Hong, So Young; Sun, Kyung


    Bioprinting is an emerging technology for constructing tissue or bioartificial organs with complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. It provides high-precision spatial shape forming ability on a larger scale than conventional tissue engineering methods, and simultaneous multiple components composition ability. Bioprinting utilizes a computer-controlled 3D printer mechanism for 3D biological structure construction. To implement minimal pattern width in a hydrogel-based bioprinting system, a study on printing characteristics was performed by varying printer control parameters. The experimental results showed that printing pattern width depends on associated printer control parameters such as printing flow rate, nozzle diameter, and nozzle velocity. The system under development showed acceptable feasibility of potential use for accurate printing pattern implementation in tissue engineering applications and is another example of novel techniques for regenerative medicine based on computer-aided biofabrication system.

  7. Soy-based Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications (United States)

    Soy based hydrogels were prepared by ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil, following hydrolysis of formed polymers. The hydrogels were evaluated loading and releasing water-soluble anticancer drug doxorubin (Dox). The results suggest that this new system offers a great potential t...

  8. A dilogarithmic 3-dimensional Ising tetrahedron

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J


    In 3 dimensions, the Ising model is in the same universality class as unknown analytical nature. In contrast, all single-scale 4-dimensional tetrahedra were reduced, in hep-th/9803091, to special values of exponentially convergent polylogarithms. Combining dispersion relations with the integer-relation finder PSLQ, we find that $C^{Tet}/2^{5/2} = Cl_2(4\\alpha) - Cl_2(2\\alpha)$, with $Cl_2(\\theta):=\\sum_{n>0}\\sin(n\\theta)/n^2$ and 1,000-digit precision and readily yields 50,000 digits of $C^{Tet}$, after transformation to an exponentially convergent sum, akin to those studied in math.CA/9803067. It appears that this 3-dimensional result entails a polylogarithmic ladder beginning with the classical formula for $\\pi/\\sqrt2$, in the manner that 4-dimensional results build on that for $\\pi/\\sqrt3$.

  9. Negative cooperative effect of cytotoxicity of a di-component initiating system for a novel injectable tissue engineering hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shifeng; ZHU Wen; YU Lin; DING Jiandong


    Chemically cross-linked hydrogels constitute a novel injectable tissue engineering material. At present, one of the key problems is to find an appropriate initiator. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity in vitro of a water-soluble redox initiating system consisting of ammonium persulfate (APS) and N, N, N′, N′-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEM- ED). Gelation time of PEG diacrylate macromer in phosphate buffer saline solution was first adjusted to guarantee that the examined initiator concentrations are sufficiently high to trigger polymerization of macromers. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were employed to examine cytotoxicity via MTT measurements and optical microscopic observations. It has been found that the combined APS/TEMED system exhibits negative cooperative effect, for the underlying cytotoxicity is even lower than that of APS or TEMED at certain concentrations.

  10. Orthogonal Enzymatic Reactions to Control Supramolecular Hydrogelations%Orthogonal Enzymatic Reactions to Control Supramolecular Hydrogelations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国钦; 任春华; 王玲; 徐兵; 杨志谋


    Enzyme-responsive hydrogels have great potential in applications of controlled drug release, tissue engineering, etc. In this study, we reported on a supramolecular hydrogel that showed responses to two enzymes, phosphatase which was used to form the hydrogels and esterase which could trigger gelsol phase transitions. The gelation process and visco-elasticity property of the resulting gel, morphology of the nanostructures in hydrogel, and peptide conformation in the self-assembled nanostructure were characterized by theology, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and circular dichroism (CD), respectively. Potential application of the enzyme-responsive hydrogel in drug release was also demonstrated in this study. Though only one potential application of drug release was proved in this study, the responsive hydrogel system in this study might have potentials for the applications in fields of cell culture, controlled-drug release, etc.

  11. Control of Grasp and Manipulation by Soft Fingers with 3-Dimensional Deformation (United States)

    Nakashima, Akira; Shibata, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu

    In this paper, we consider control of grasp and manipulation of an object in a 3-dimensional space by a 3-fingered hand robot with soft finger tips. We firstly propose a 3-dimensional deformation model of a hemispherical soft finger tip and verify its relevance by experimental data. Second, we consider the contact kinematics and derive the dynamical equations of the fingers and the object where the 3-dimensional deformation is considered. For the system, we thirdly propose a method to regulate the object and the internal force with the information of the hand, the object and the deformation. A simulation result is presented to show the effectiveness of the control method.

  12. Development of pH sensitive polyacrylamide grafted pectin hydrogel for controlled drug delivery system. (United States)

    Sutar, Prashant B; Mishra, Rakesh K; Pal, Kunal; Banthia, Ajit K


    In the present study an attempt was made to graft polyacrylamide on pectin. The grafted polymer was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Rheological property of pectin solution was compared with the product solution. The grafted polymer was cross-linked with varying amount of glutaraldehyde. The swelling properties of the cross-linked product were also studied. The salicylic acid, an antipyretic drug, was incorporated in the cross-linked gel as a model drug and the drug release studies were done in a modified Franz's diffusion cell. The effect of cross-linking density on the release property of salicylic acid was studied through the cross-linked product. The product showed better film forming property and gelling property than pectin. The comparative rheological properties of pectin and grafted copolymer indicated change in the property of the product. FTIR studies indicated incorporation of amide group. Differential scanning calorimetry and XRD suggested formation of a new polymer. Swelling study indicated pH dependent swelling of the cross-linked hydrogel. Salicylic acid release indicated pH dependent release from the hydrogel.

  13. Fabrication of transparent quaternized PVA/silver nanocomposite hydrogel and its evaluation as an antimicrobial patch for wound care systems. (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sirsendu; Mohanty, Sujata; Koul, Veena


    Grafting of quaternary nitrogen atoms into the backbone of polymer is an efficient way of developing new generation antimicrobial polymeric wound dressing. In this study, an elastic, non-adhesive and antimicrobial transparent hydrogel based dressing has been designed, which might be helpful for routine observation of wound area without removing the dressing material along with maintaining a sterile environment for a longer period of time. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles have been loaded into the quaternized PVA hydrogel matrix to improve its antimicrobial property. Silver nanoparticles loaded quaternized PVA hydrogel showed enhanced mechanical and swelling properties compared to native quaternized PVA hydrogel. Release kinetics evaluated by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that the release mechanism of silver nanoparticles from the hydrogel follows Fickian diffusion. Antimicrobial efficacy of the hydrogels was evaluated by disk diffusion test on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After 96 h of release in phosphate buffer, the growth inhibition zone created by silver nanoparticless loaded quaternized PVA hydrogel is comparable to that created by ampicillin. These observations assert that the silver nanoparticles loaded quaternized PVA hydrogel acts as a reservoir of silver nanoparticles, which helps in maintaining a sterile environment for longer time duration by releasing Ag nanocrystallite in sustained manner.

  14. Performance Analysis of 3-Dimensional Turbo Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Rosnes, Eirik


    In this work, we consider the minimum distance properties and convergence thresholds of 3-dimensional turbo codes (3D-TCs), recently introduced by Berrou et al.. Here, we consider binary 3D-TCs while the original work of Berrou et al. considered double-binary codes. In the first part of the paper, the minimum distance properties are analyzed from an ensemble perspective, both in the finite-length regime and in the asymptotic case of large block lengths. In particular, we analyze the asymptotic weight distribution of 3D-TCs and show numerically that their typical minimum distance dmin may, depending on the specific parameters, asymptotically grow linearly with the block length, i.e., the 3D-TC ensemble is asymptotically good for some parameters. In the second part of the paper, we derive some useful upper bounds on the dmin when using quadratic permutation polynomial (QPP) interleavers with a quadratic inverse. Furthermore, we give examples of interleaver lengths where an upper bound appears to be tight. The b...

  15. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhi Yang


    Full Text Available The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hydrogel valve system. The study demonstrates that FSI significantly affects the gel swelling deformed shapes, fluid flow pressure and velocity patterns. FSI has to be considered in the study on fluid flow regulated by hydrogel microfluidic valve. The study provides a more accurate and adoptable model for future design of new pH-sensitive hydrogel valves, and also gives a useful guideline for further studies on hydrogel fluidic applications.

  16. Materials applications of an advanced 3-dimensional atom probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo, A. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Gibuoin, D. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Kim, S. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Sijbrandij, S.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Venker, F.M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials]|[Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics; Warren, P.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Wilde, J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Smith, G.D.W. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials


    An advanced 3-dimensional atom probe system has been constructed, based on an optical position-sensitive atom probe (OPoSAP) detector with energy compensation using a reflectron lens. The multi-hit detection capability of the OPoSAP leads to significant improvements in the efficiency of the instrument over the earlier serial position-sensing system. Further gains in efficiency are obtained by using a biassed grid in front of the detector to collect secondary electrons generated when ions strike the interchannel area. The improvement in detection efficiency gives enhanced performance in the studies of ordered materials and the determination of site occupation. Energy compensation leads to a much improved mass resolution (m/{Delta}m=500 full width at half maximum) making it possible to map out the 3-dimensional spatial distributions of all the elements in complex engineering alloys, even when elements lie close together in the mass spectrum. For example, in the analysis of a maraging steel, this allows separation between the {sup 61}Ni{sup 2+} and {sup 92}Mo{sup 3+} peaks, which are only 1/6 of a mass unit apart. (orig.).

  17. Designing hydrogels for controlled drug delivery (United States)

    Li, Jianyu; Mooney, David J.


    Hydrogel delivery systems can leverage therapeutically beneficial outcomes of drug delivery and have found clinical use. Hydrogels can provide spatial and temporal control over the release of various therapeutic agents, including small-molecule drugs, macromolecular drugs and cells. Owing to their tunable physical properties, controllable degradability and capability to protect labile drugs from degradation, hydrogels serve as a platform on which various physiochemical interactions with the encapsulated drugs occur to control drug release. In this Review, we cover multiscale mechanisms underlying the design of hydrogel drug delivery systems, focusing on physical and chemical properties of the hydrogel network and the hydrogel-drug interactions across the network, mesh and molecular (or atomistic) scales. We discuss how different mechanisms interact and can be integrated to exert fine control in time and space over drug presentation. We also collect experimental release data from the literature, review clinical translation to date of these systems and present quantitative comparisons between different systems to provide guidelines for the rational design of hydrogel delivery systems.

  18. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing. (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris


    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  19. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds (United States)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.


    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  20. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for iontohporesis (United States)

    Bera, Prasanta; Alam, Asif Ali; Arora, Neha; Tibarewala, Dewaki Nandan; Basak, Piyali


    Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. The iontophoresis deal with the systemic delivery of the bioactive agents (drug) by applying an electric current. It is basically an injection without the needle. The iontophoretic system requires a gel-based matrix to accommodate the bioactive agent. Hydrogels have been used by many investigators in controlled-release drug delivery systems because of their good tissue compatibility and easy manipulation of swelling level and, thereby, solute permeability. In this work we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We have cross linked polyvinyl alcohol chemically with Glutaraldehyde with different wt%. FTIR study reveals the chemical changes during cross linking. Swelling in water, is done to have an idea about drug loading and drug release from the membrane. After drug loading to the hydrogels, we have studied the drug release property of the hydrogels using salicylic acid as a model drug.

  1. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts. (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming


    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization.

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a hydrogel-based prototype transdermal patch system of alfuzosin hydrochloride. (United States)

    Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Gupta, Sumit; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha


    The first-line therapy for moderate to severe benign prostatic hyperplasia is the oral therapy by alfuzosin hydrochloride. Unfortunately, the oral therapy of alfuzosin is associated with several route-specific systemic side-effects. The current study was aimed to develop a prototype transdermal patch system for alfuzosin using a hydrogel polymer and optimize the drug delivery through the skin for systemic therapy. The prospective of different chemical enhancers (polyethylene glycol (PEG 400), isopropyl myristate, propylene glycol, menthol and L-methionine; 5% w/v) and iontophoresis (0.3 mA/cm(2)) in the alfuzosin delivery across the full thickness rat skin was assessed in vitro. In vivo iontophoretic studies were carried out using selected patch system (PEG 400) for a period of 6 h in Sprague-Dawley rats. Passive permeation studies indicated that the incorporation of chemical agents have moderate effect (~4- to 7-fold) on the alfuzosin skin permeability and reduced the lag time. Combined approach of iontophoresis with chemical enhancers significantly augmented the drug transport (~ 43- to 72-fold). In vivo pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that the iontophoresis (transdermal patch with PEG 400) significantly enhanced the C(max) (~ 3-fold) and AUC(0-α) (~ 4-fold), when compared to control. The current study concludes that the application of iontophoresis (0.3 mA/cm(2)) using the newly developed agaorse-based prototype patch with PEG 400 could be utilized for the successful delivery of alfuzosin by transdermal route.

  3. Baclofen novel gastroretentive extended release gellan gum superporous hydrogel hybrid system: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. (United States)

    El-Said, Ibrahim A; Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Khalil, Rawia M; ElGazayerly, Omaima N


    Baclofen is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant with a short elimination half-life, which results in frequent daily dosing and subsequent poor patient compliance. The narrow absorption window of baclofen in the upper gastrointestinal tract limits its formulation as extended release dosage forms. In this study, baclofen extended release superporous hydrogel (SPH) systems, including conventional SPH, SPH composite and SPH hybrid (SPHH), were prepared aiming to increase the residence of baclofen at its absorption window. The applicability of different polymers, namely, gellan gum, guar gum, polyvinyl alcohol and gelatin, was investigated in preparation of SPHH systems. The prepared SPH systems were evaluated regarding weight and volume swelling ratio, porosity, mechanical properties, incorporation efficiency, degree of erosion and drug release. In vivo assessment was performed in dogs to evaluate gastric residence time by X-ray studies. In addition, the oral bioavailability of baclofen relative to commercially available Lioresal® immediate release tablets was also investigated. The novel baclofen gellan SPHH cross linked with calcium chloride was characterized by optimum mechanical properties, acceptable swelling properties as well as extended drug release. It also exhibited a prolonged plasma profile when compared to twice daily administered Lioresal®.

  4. Hydrogels for therapeutic cardiovascular angiogenesis. (United States)

    Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Seliktar, Dror


    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) caused by ischemia is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction. While growth factor or cell therapy is promising, the retention of bioactive agents in the highly vascularized myocardium is limited and prevents sustained activation needed for adequate cellular responses. Various types of biomaterials with different physical and chemical properties have been developed to improve the localized delivery of growth factor and/or cells for therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic tissues. Hydrogels are particularly advantageous as carrier systems because they are structurally similar to the tissue extracellular matrix (ECM), they can be processed under relatively mild conditions and can be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. Moreover, hydrogels can be designed to degrade in a timely fashion that coincides with the angiogenic process. For these reasons, hydrogels have shown great potential as pro-angiogenic matrices. This paper reviews a few of the hydrogel systems currently being applied together with growth factor delivery and/or cell therapy to promote therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic tissues, with emphasis on myocardial applications.

  5. Optimization of 3-dimensional imaging of the breast region with 3-dimensional laser scanners. (United States)

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Yassouridis, Alexander; Zimmermann, Alexander; Brockmann, Gernot; Wöhnl, Antonia; Blaschke, Matthias; Eder, Maximilian; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Rosenberg, Robert; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Biemer, Edgar


    The anatomic conditions of the female breast require imaging the breast region 3-dimensionally in a normal standing position for quality assurance and for surgery planning or surgery simulation. The goal of this work was to optimize the imaging technology for the mammary region with a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method, and to allow optimum data reproducibility. Avoiding the influence of biotic factors, such as mobility, we tested the most favorable imaging technology on dummy models for scanner-related factors such as the scanner position in comparison with the torso and the number of scanners and single shots. The influence of different factors of the breast region, such as different breast shapes or premarking of anatomic landmarks, was also first investigated on dummies. The findings from the dummy models were then compared with investigations on test persons, and the accuracy of measurements on the virtual models was compared with a coincidence analysis of the manually measured values. The best precision and accuracy of breast region measurements were achieved when landmarks were marked before taking the shots and when shots at 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, relative to the sagittal line, were taken with 2 connected scanners mounted with a +10-degree upward angle. However, the precision of the measurements on test persons was significantly lower than those measured on dummies. Our findings show that the correct settings for 3D imaging of the breast region with a laser scanner can achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy and reproducibility.

  6. Drug activity screening based on microsomes-hydrogel system in predicting metabolism induced antitumor effect of oroxylin A. (United States)

    Yang, Huiying; Li, Jianfeng; Zheng, Yuanting; Zhou, Lu; Tong, Shanshan; Zhao, Bei; Cai, Weimin


    A novel microsomes-hydrogel added cell culture system (MHCCS) was employed in the antitumor activity screening of natural compounds, aiming to achieve drug screening with better in vivo correlation, higher initiative to explore the potential active metabolites, and investigation of the antitumor mechanism from the perspective of metabolism. MTT assay and cell apoptosis detection showed that test drug oroxylin A (OA) had enhanced cytotoxicity and wogonin (W) with reduced cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell line upon MHCCS incubation. In vivo antitumor evaluations also demonstrated that OA induced higher tumor inhibition than W at the same dosage. To explore the reasons, nine major metabolites of OA were separated and collected through UPLC-Q-TOF and semi-preparative HPLC. Metabolites M318 exhibited higher cytotoxicity than OA and other metabolites by MTT assay. (1)H NMR spectrums, HPLC and TOF MS/MS results revealed that OA was catalyzed into its active metabolite M318 via a ring-opening reaction. M318 induced significant cell apoptosis and S-phase arrest through affecting tumor survival related genes after mechanism study. In conclusion, our MHCCS could be a useful tool for drug activity screening from a perspective of metabolism.

  7. Drug-Polymer Interactions in Hydrogel-based Drug-Delivery Systems: An Experimental and Theoretical Study. (United States)

    Rossi, Filippo; Castiglione, Franca; Ferro, Monica; Marchini, Paolo; Mauri, Emanuele; Moioli, Marta; Mele, Andrea; Masi, Maurizio


    In drug-delivery systems, drug transport is a key step, but the interpretation of the transport mechanism is still controversial. Here, we investigated a promising hydrogel library loaded with the anticonvulsant drug ethosuximide (ESM). The self-diffusion coefficient of ESM was measured using two methods: a direct and advanced measurement with a pulsed field gradient spin-echo (PFGSE) method, using an NMR spectrometer equipped with high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) probe, and an indirect one based on fitting in vitro drug-delivery data. Starting from the experimental data a mathematical model without fitted parameters was developed and all the phenomena involved, that is, adsorption and diffusion, were considered. At low drug concentrations, adsorption prevails and consequently the diffusivity in the gels is lower than that in water. At high drug concentrations, where all adsorption sites are saturated, the diffusion in the gels is similar to that in a water solution. This study may pave the way for better device design.

  8. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the research and development of medical and welfare apparatus/technology High-speed and 3-dimensional X-ray CT system using cone beam X-ray (Energy use rationalization); 2000 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kosoku cone beam sanjigen X sen CT (energy shiyo gorika)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the study of a 3-dimensional data reconstruction system, the fabrication of an interface to serve between the data transmission section and the image reconstruction unit was complete, and evaluation was started of its performance and capability. In the effort to develop a 3-dimensional image processing system, specifications were deliberated for image reading systems and DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) converters for clinical research, and articles to be ordered were selected. For dealing with a multi-platform system and enabling image-aided dignoses by plural users, a browser plug-in type web-based GUI (graphical user interface) was employed as the user interface and in the image server. The system construction was complete, and performance evaluation was started. In developing the total system, designing and manufacturing were started of the data transmission section, the bed and its rotary mount, and the high-voltage generation unit for the X-ray tube and X-rays. Preparation was started of a system control software program. (NEDO)

  9. Silver nanoparticles-containing dual-function hydrogels based on a guar gum-sodium borohydride system (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Nadeau, Ben; An, Xingye; Cheng, Dong; Long, Zhu; Ni, Yonghao


    Dual-function hydrogels, possessing both stimuli-responsive and self-healing properties, have recently attracted attention of both chemists and materials scientists. Here we report a new paradigm using natural polymer (guar gum, GG) and sodium borohydride (NaBH4), for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-containing smart hydrogels in a simple, fast and economical way. NaBH4 performs as a reducing agent for AgNPs synthesis using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as the precursor. Meanwhile, sodium metaborate (NaBO2) (from NaBH4) behaves as a cross-linking agent between GG molecular chains. The AgNPs/GG hydrogels with excellent viscoelastic properties can be obtained within 3 min at room temperature without the addition of other cross-linkers. The resultant AgNPs/GG hydrogels are flowable and injectable, and they possess excellent pH/thermal responsive properties. Additionally, they exhibit rapid self-healing capacity. This work introduces a facile and scale-up way to prepare a class of hydrogels that can have great potential to biomedical and other industrial applications. PMID:27819289

  10. Polymer Micelles Laden Hydrogel Contact Lenses for Ophthalmic Drug Delivery. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohong; Tan, Huaping; Chen, Pin; Wang, Xin; Pang, Juan


    Hydrogel contact lens is an attractive drug carrier for the delivery of ophthalmic drugs. But limited drug loading capacity and burst release restricted its application in this field. Polymer micelle laden hydrogel contact lenses were designed for ophthalmic drug delivery in the work. β-CD/PAA/PEG ternary system was chosen to form polymer micelle. The micelle size could be adjusted by β-CD content and PAA/PEG concentration. The zeta potential of micelle was irrelevant to β-CD content, but influenced by PAA/PEG concentration. The absorbed drug concentration in micelle solution depended on both β-CD content and PAA/PEG concentration. Polymer micelle laden hydrogels were obtained by radical polymerization in situ. The transparency of polymer micelle laden hydrogel declined with PAA/PEG concentration increasing. The equilibrium water content and water loss showed that polymer micelle laden hydrogel with higher PAA/PEG concentration was in a higher swollen state. The dynamic viscoelastic properties howed that all polymer micelle laden hydrogels had some characteristics of crosslinked elastomers. The surface structure of freeze dried composite hydrogels was different from freeze dried pure hydrogel. The drug loading and releasing behaviors were detected to evaluate the drug loading and releasing capacity of hydrogels using orfloxacin and puerarin as model drugs. The results indicated the polymer micelle in hydrogel could hold or help to hold some ophthalmic drugs, and slow down orfloxacin release speed or keep puerarin stably stay for a time in hydrogels. In the end, it was found that the transparency of composite hydrogel became better after the hydrogel had been immersed in PBS for several weeks.

  11. Application of an acoustoelectronic technique to study ordered microstructured disperse systems with biological objects in a hydrogel (United States)

    Anisimkin, V. I.; Pokusaev, B. G.; Skladnev, D. A.; Sorokin, V. V.; Tyupa, D. V.


    Using acoustoelectronic sensors not containing sensitive coatings, we studied a series of microbiological preparations: yeast cells and bacteria, as well as virus particles, immobilized in hydrogels of different concentration. The obtained measurement data on the acoustic characteristics make it possible to (1) reveal the presence of biological objects in both fluid media and agarose-based hydrogels of various concentration; (2) establish the physical mechanism that results in acoustoelectronic detection; (3) evaluate changes in the concentration of biological objects and their electric conductivity. The data confirm the possibility of applying the acoustoelectronic technique to detect microbiological objects and observe their growth in hydrogel media. We discus the limitations and drawbacks of the acoustoelectronic technique.

  12. Improving Perceptual Skills with 3-Dimensional Animations. (United States)

    Johns, Janet Faye; Brander, Julianne Marie


    Describes three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) models for every component in a representative mechanical system; the CAD models made it easy to generate 3-D animations that are ideal for teaching perceptual skills in multimedia computer-based technical training. Fifteen illustrations are provided. (AEF)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffery Franklin; Zhi Yuan Wang


    The aqueous polymerization of acrylamide and crosslinking with N,N-methylenebisacrylamide afforded hydrogels displaying high levels of light scattering (poor optical clarity). Enhancement of the optical clarity within a polyacrylamide (PAm) hydrogel was accomplished through the implementation of"refractive index matching", Water-soluble additives were utilised to better match the refractive index inhomogeneities throughout a given hydrogel. This resulted in lower light scattering within the system and hence improved clarity. Amino acids, sugars, polymers, and other water-soluble additives such as glycerol were investigated by this methodology. Most additives investigated displayed potential for effectively reducing the light scattering within a PAm hydrogel as a function of increased additive concentration. On increasing the refractive index of the water medium, the overall refractive index of a PAm hydrogel was also observed to increase. This provided a quantitative means of determining the effectiveness of a given additive for improving the optical clarity within a hydrogel.

  14. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels in drug delivery and tissue engineering. (United States)

    Sood, Nikhil; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Mehta, Shuchi; Mehta, Abhinav


    Hydrogels are the three-dimensional network structures obtained from a class of synthetic or natural polymers which can absorb and retain a significant amount of water. Hydrogels are one of the most studied classes of polymer-based controlled drug release. These have attracted considerable attention in biochemical and biomedical fields because of their characteristics, such as swelling in aqueous medium, biocompatibility, pH and temperature sensitivity or sensitivity towards other stimuli, which can be utilized for their controlled zero-order release. The hydrogels are expected to explore new generation of self-regulated delivery system having a wide array of desirable properties. This review highlights the exciting opportunities and challenges in the area of hydrogels. Here, we review different literatures on stimuli-sensitive hydrogels, such as role of temperature, electric potential, pH and ionic strength to control the release of drug from hydrogels.

  15. 3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E


    Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

  16. Responsive Hydrogels for Label-Free Signal Transduction within Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Gawel


    Full Text Available Hydrogels have found wide application in biosensors due to their versatile nature. This family of materials is applied in biosensing either to increase the loading capacity compared to two-dimensional surfaces, or to support biospecific hydrogel swelling occurring subsequent to specific recognition of an analyte. This review focuses on various principles underpinning the design of biospecific hydrogels acting through various molecular mechanisms in transducing the recognition event of label-free analytes. Towards this end, we describe several promising hydrogel systems that when combined with the appropriate readout platform and quantitative approach could lead to future real-life applications.

  17. The 3-Dimensional q-Deformed Harmonic Oscillator and Magic Numbers of Alkali Metal Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Raychev, P P; Roussev, R P; Terziev, P A; Bonatsos, Dennis


    Magic numbers predicted by a 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator with Uq(3) > SOq(3) symmetry are compared to experimental data for alkali metal clusters, as well as to theoretical predictions of jellium models, Woods--Saxon and wine bottle potentials, and to the classification scheme using the 3n+l pseudo quantum number. The 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator correctly predicts all experimentally observed magic numbers up to 1500 (which is the expected limit of validity for theories based on the filling of electronic shells), thus indicating that Uq(3), which is a nonlinear extension of the U(3) symmetry of the spherical (3-dimensional isotropic) harmonic oscillator, is a good candidate for being the symmetry of systems of alkali metal clusters.

  18. Dual-functional transdermal drug delivery system with controllable drug loading based on thermosensitive poloxamer hydrogel for atopic dermatitis treatment (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Wat, Elaine; Hui, Patrick C. L.; Chan, Ben; Ng, Frency S. F.; Kan, Chi-Wai; Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wong, Eric C. W.; Lau, Clara B. S.; Leung, Ping-Chung


    The treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) has long been viewed as a problematic issue by the medical profession. Although a wide variety of complementary therapies have been introduced, they fail to combine the skin moisturizing and drug supply for AD patients. This study reports the development of a thermo-sensitive Poloxamer 407/Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (P407/CMCs) composite hydrogel formulation with twin functions of moisture and drug supply for AD treatment. It was found that the presence of CMCs can appreciably improve the physical properties of P407 hydrogel, which makes it more suitable for tailored drug loading. The fabricated P407/CMCs composite hydrogel was also characterized in terms of surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), rheological properties by a rheometer, release profile in vitro by dialysis method and cytotoxicity test. More importantly, the findings from transdermal drug delivery behavior revealed that P407/CMCs showed desirable percutaneous performance. Additionally, analysis of cytotoxicity test suggested that P407/CMCs composite hydrogel is a high-security therapy for clinical trials and thus exhibits a promising way to treat AD with skin moisturizing and medication.

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Tough Hydrogels for Structural Applications (United States)

    Illeperuma, Widusha Ruwangi Kaushalya

    Hydrogels are widely used in many commercial products including Jell-O, contact lenses, and superabsorbent diapers. In recent decades, hydrogels have been under intense development for biomedical applications, such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, carriers for drug delivery, and valves in microfluidic systems. But the scope is severely limited as conventional hydrogels are weak and brittle and are not very stretchable. This thesis investigates the approaches that enhance the mechanical properties of hydrogels and their structural applications. We discov¬ered a class of exceptionally stretchable and tough hydrogels made from poly-mers that form networks via ionic and covalent crosslinks. Although such a hydrogel contains ~90% water, it can be stretched beyond 20 times its initial length, and has a fracture energy of ~9000 J/m2. The combination of large stretchability, remarkable toughness, and recoverability of stiffness and toughness, along with easy synthesis makes this material much superior over existing hydrogels. Extreme stretchability and blunted crack tips of these hydrogels question the validity of traditional fracture testing methods. We re-examine a widely used pure shear test method to measure the fracture energy. With the experimental and simulation results, we conclude that the pure shear test method can be used to measure fracture energy of extremely stretchable materials. Even though polyacrylamide-alginate hydrogels have an extremely high toughness, it has a relatively low stiffness and strength. We improved the stiffness and strength by embedding fibers. Most hydrogels are brittle, allowing the fibers to cut through the hydrogel when the composite is loaded. But tough hydrogel composites do not fail by the fibers cutting the hydrogel; instead, it undergoes large deforming by fibers sliding through the matrix. Hydrogels were not considered as materials for structural applications. But with enhanced mechanical properties, they have opened up

  20. l-Arginine grafted alginate hydrogel beads: A novel pH-sensitive system for specific protein delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mohy Eldin


    Full Text Available Novel pH-sensitive hydrogels based on l-arginine grafted alginate (Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads were synthesized and utilized as a new carrier for protein delivery (BSA in specific pH media. l-arginine was grafted onto the polysaccharide backbone of virgin alginate via amine functions. Evidences of grafting of alginate were extracted from FT-IR and thermal analysis, while the morphological structure of Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads was investigated by SEM photographs. Factors affecting on the grafting process e.g. l-arginine concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, reaction pH, and crosslinking conditions, have been studied. Whereas, grafting efficiency of each factor was evaluated. Grafting of alginate has improved both thermal and morphological properties of Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads. The swelling behavior of Arg-g-Alg beads was determined as a function of pH and compared with virgin calcium alginate beads. The cumulative in vitro release profiles of BSA loaded beads were studied at different pHs for simulating the physiological environments of the gastrointestinal tract. The amount of BSA released from neat alginate beads at pH 2 was almost 15% after 5 h, while the Arg-g-Alg beads at the same conditions were clearly higher than 45%, then it increased to 90% at pH 7.2. Accordingly, grafting of alginate has improved its release profile behavior particularly in acidic media. The preliminary results clearly suggested that the Arg-g-Alg hydrogel may be a potential candidate for polymeric carrier for oral delivery of protein or drugs.

  1. New in situ crosslinking chemistries for hydrogelation (United States)

    Roberts, Meredith Colleen

    Over the last half century, hydrogels have found immense value as biomaterials in a vast number of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. One subset of hydrogels receiving increased attention is in situ forming gels. Gelling by either bioresponsive self-assembly or mixing of binary crosslinking systems, these technologies are useful in minimally invasive applications as well as drug delivery systems in which the sol-to-gel transition aids the formulation's performance. Thus far, the field of in situ crosslinking hydrogels has received limited attention in the development of new crosslinking chemistries. Moreover, not only does the chemical nature of the crosslinking moieties allow these systems to perform in situ, but they contribute dramatically to the mechanical properties of the hydrogel networks. For example, reversible crosslinks with finite lifetimes generate dynamic viscoelastic gels with time-dependent properties, whereas irreversible crosslinks form highly elastic networks. The aim of this dissertation is to explore two new covalent chemistries for their ability to crosslink hydrogels in situ under physiological conditions. First, reversible phenylboronate-salicylhydroxamate crosslinking was implemented in a binary, multivalent polymeric system. These gels formed rapidly and generated hydrogel networks with frequency-dependent dynamic rheological properties. Analysis of the composition-structure-property relationships of these hydrogels---specifically considering the effects of pH, degree of polymer functionality, charge of the polymer backbone and polymer concentration on dynamic theological properties---was performed. These gels demonstrate diverse mechanical properties, due to adjustments in the binding equilibrium of the pH-sensitive crosslinks, and thus have the potential to perform in a range of dynamic or bioresponsive applications. Second, irreversible catalyst-free "click" chemistry was employed in the hydrogelation of multivalent azide

  2. Design of Biphasic Polymeric 3-Dimensional Fiber Deposited Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroni, L.; Hendriks, J.A.A.; Schotel, R.; Wijn, de J.R.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.


    This report describes a novel system to create rapid prototyped 3-dimensional (3D) fibrous scaffolds with a shell-core fiber architecture in which the core polymer supplies the mechanical properties and the shell polymer acts as a coating providing the desired physicochemical surface properties. Pol

  3. Tumor Growth Suppression Induced by Biomimetic Silk Fibroin Hydrogels (United States)

    Yan, Le-Ping; Silva-Correia, Joana; Ribeiro, Viviana P.; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Correia, Cristina; da Silva Morais, Alain; Sousa, Rui A.; Reis, Rui M.; Oliveira, Ana L.; Oliveira, Joaquim M.; Reis, Rui L.


    Protein-based hydrogels with distinct conformations which enable encapsulation or differentiation of cells are of great interest in 3D cancer research models. Conformational changes may cause macroscopic shifts in the hydrogels, allowing for its use as biosensors and drug carriers. In depth knowledge on how 3D conformational changes in proteins may affect cell fate and tumor formation is required. Thus, this study reports an enzymatically crosslinked silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel system that can undergo intrinsic conformation changes from random coil to β-sheet conformation. In random coil status, the SF hydrogels are transparent, elastic, and present ionic strength and pH stimuli-responses. The random coil hydrogels become β-sheet conformation after 10 days in vitro incubation and 14 days in vivo subcutaneous implantation in rat. When encapsulated with ATDC-5 cells, the random coil SF hydrogel promotes cell survival up to 7 days, whereas the subsequent β-sheet transition induces cell apoptosis in vitro. HeLa cells are further incorporated in SF hydrogels and the constructs are investigated in vitro and in an in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane model for tumor formation. In vivo, Angiogenesis and tumor formation are suppressed in SF hydrogels. Therefore, these hydrogels provide new insights for cancer research and uses of biomaterials.

  4. Force-compensated hydrogel-based pH sensor (United States)

    Deng, Kangfa; Gerlach, Gerald; Guenther, Margarita


    This paper presents the design, simulation, assembly and testing of a force-compensated hydrogel-based pH sensor. In the conventional deflection method, a piezoresistive pressure sensor is used as a chemical-mechanical-electronic transducer to measure the volume change of a pH-sensitive hydrogel. In this compensation method, the pH-sensitive hydrogel keeps its volume constant during the whole measuring process, independent of applied pH value. In order to maintain a balanced state, an additional thermal actuator is integrated into the close-loop sensor system with higher precision and faster dynamic response. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) with 5 mol% monomer 3-acrylamido propionic acid (AAmPA) is used as the temperature-sensitive hydrogel, while poly (vinyl alcohol) with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) serves as the pH-sensitive hydrogel. A thermal simulation is introduced to assess the temperature distribution of the whole microsystem, especially the temperature influence on both hydrogels. Following tests are detailed to verify the working functions of a sensor based on pH-sensitive hydrogel and an actuator based on temperature-sensitive hydrogel. A miniaturized prototype is assembled and investigated in deionized water: the response time amounts to about 25 min, just half of that one of a sensor based on the conventional deflection method. The results confirm the applicability of t he compensation method to the hydrogel-based sensors.

  5. Hydrogels Constructed from Engineered Proteins. (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Kong, Na; Laver, Bryce; Liu, Junqiu


    Due to their various potential biomedical applications, hydrogels based on engineered proteins have attracted considerable interest. Benefitting from significant progress in recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering/design techniques, the field of protein hydrogels has made amazing progress. The latest progress of hydrogels constructed from engineered recombinant proteins are presented, mainly focused on biorecognition-driven physical hydrogels as well as chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The various bio-recognition based physical crosslinking strategies are discussed, as well as chemical crosslinking chemistries used to engineer protein hydrogels, and protein hydrogels' various biomedical applications. The future perspectives of this fast evolving field of biomaterials are also discussed.

  6. 5-FU-hydrogel inhibits colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis and tumor growth in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Huashan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC is a common form of systemic metastasis of intra-abdominal cancers. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a preferable option for colorectal cancer. Here we reported that a new system, 5-FU-loaded hydrogel system, can improve the therapeutic effects of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Methods A biodegradable PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE triblock copolymer was successfully synthesized. The biodegradable and temperature sensitive hydrogel was developed to load 5-FU. Methylene blue-loaded hydrogel were also developed for visible observation of the drug release. The effects and toxicity of the 5-FU-hydrogel system were evaluated in a murine CRPC model. Results The hydrogel system is an injectable flowing solution at ambient temperature and forms a non-flowing gel depot at physiological temperature. 5-FU-hydrogel was subsequently injected into abdominal cavity in mice with CT26 cancer cells peritoneal dissemination. The results showed that the hydrogel delivery system prolonged the release of methylene blue; the 5-FU-hydrogel significantly inhibited the peritoneal dissemination and growth of CT26 cells. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of the 5-FU-hydrogel was well tolerated and showed less hematologic toxicity. Conclusions Our data indicate that the 5-FU-hydrogel system can be considered as a new strategy for peritoneal carcinomatosis, and the hydrogel may provide a potential delivery system to load different chemotherapeutic drugs for peritoneal carcinomatosis of cancers.

  7. 3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hyun Ung; Moon, Woong Jae [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease.

  8. Reinforcement of hydrogels using three-dimensionally printed microfibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jetze; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Jeon, June E.; van Bussel, Erik M.; Kimpton, Laura S.; Byrne, Helen M.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Dalton, Paul D.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Malda, J


    Despite intensive research, hydrogels currently available for tissue repair in the musculoskeletal system are unable to meet the mechanical, as well as the biological, requirements for successful outcomes. Here we reinforce soft hydrogels with highly organized, high-porosity microfibre networks that

  9. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model (United States)

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang


    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate. PMID:27869192

  10. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model (United States)

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang


    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate.

  11. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel as a topical ocular drug delivery system of latanoprost for glaucoma treatment. (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Jhan, Yong-Yu; Chiu, Allen Wen-hsiang; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Liu, Catherine Jui-lin


    Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Frequent and long-term application of latanoprost often causes undesirable local side effects, which are a major cause of therapeutic failure due to loss of persistence in using this glaucoma medical therapy. In the present study, we developed a thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel as a topical eye drop formulation for the sustained release of latanoprost to control ocular hypertension. The developed formulation without preservatives may improve compliance and possibly even efficacy. The results of this study support its biocompatibility and sustained-release profile both in vitro and in vivo. After topical application of latanoprost-loaded hydrogel, triamcinolone acetonide-induced elevated intraocular pressure was significantly decreased within 7 days and remained at a normal level for the following 21 days in rabbit eyes. This newly developed chitosan-based hydrogel may provide a non-invasive alternative to traditional anti-glaucoma eye drops for glaucoma treatment.

  12. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels. (United States)

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S


    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  13. An integrated system for dissolution studies and magnetic resonance imaging of controlled release, polymer-based dosage forms-a tool for quantitative assessment of hydrogel formation processes. (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Dorozyński, Przemysław; Jachowicz, Renata; Weglarz, Władysław P


    Controlled release (CR) dosage forms are often based on polymeric matrices, e.g., sustained-release tablets and capsules. It is crucial to visualise and quantify processes of the hydrogel formation during the standard dissolution study. A method for imaging of CR, polymer-based dosage forms during dissolution study in vitro is presented. Imaging was performed in a non-invasive way by means of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to simulate in vivo conditions regarding temperature, volume, state and composition of dissolution media. Two formulations of hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS) were chosen as model CR dosage forms. HBS release active substance in stomach while floating on the surface of the gastric content. Time evolutions of the diffusion region, hydrogel formation region and "dry core" region were obtained during a dissolution study of L-dopa as a model drug in two simulated gastric fluids (i.e. in fed and fasted state). This method seems to be a very promising tool for examining properties of new formulations of CR, polymer-based dosage forms or for comparison of generic and originator dosage forms before carrying out bioequivalence studies.

  14. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliabilities of 3-dimensional orthodontic digital setups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabels, L.N.J.; Nijkamp, P.G.


    Introduction The use of digital orthodontic setups has grown quickly. The purpose of this study was to test the interexaminer and intraexaminer reliabilities of 3-dimensional orthodontic digital setups in OrthoCAD (Align Technology, San Jose, Calif). Methods Six clinicians made digital orthodontic s

  15. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank


    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  16. In situ-forming hydrogels--review of temperature-sensitive systems. (United States)

    Ruel-Gariépy, Eve; Leroux, Jean-Christophe


    In the past few years, an increasing number of in situ-forming systems have been reported in the literature for various biomedical applications, including drug delivery, cell encapsulation, and tissue repair. There are several possible mechanisms that lead to in situ gel formation: solvent exchange, UV-irradiation, ionic cross-linkage, pH change, and temperature modulation. The thermosensitive approach can be advantageous for particular applications as it does not require organic solvents, co-polymerization agents, or an externally applied trigger for gelation. In the last 2 decades, several thermosensitive formulations have been proposed. This manuscript focuses on aqueous polymeric solutions that form implants in situ in response to temperature change, generally from ambient to body temperature. It mainly reviews the characterization and use of polysaccharides, N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers, poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) (poloxamer) and its copolymers, poly(ethylene oxide)/(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers, and thermosensitive liposome-based systems.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We have performed three-dimensional NMR studies on a central component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli, denoted as HPr. The protein was uniformly enriched with N-15 and C-13 to overcome spectral overlap. Complete assignments were obtained for the ba

  18. Hydrogel Actuation by Electric Field Driven Effects (United States)

    Morales, Daniel Humphrey

    Hydrogels are networks of crosslinked, hydrophilic polymers capable of absorbing and releasing large amounts of water while maintaining their structural integrity. Polyelectrolyte hydrogels are a subset of hydrogels that contain ionizable moieties, which render the network sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the media and provide mobile counterions, which impart conductivity. These networks are part of a class of "smart" material systems that can sense and adjust their shape in response to the external environment. Hence, the ability to program and modulate hydrogel shape change has great potential for novel biomaterial and soft robotics applications. We utilized electric field driven effects to manipulate the interaction of ions within polyelectrolyte hydrogels in order to induce controlled deformation and patterning. Additionally, electric fields can be used to promote the interactions of separate gel networks, as modular components, and particle assemblies within gel networks to develop new types of soft composite systems. First, we present and analyze a walking gel actuator comprised of cationic and anionic gel legs attached by electric field-promoted polyion complexation. We characterize the electro-osmotic response of the hydrogels as a function of charge density and external salt concentration. The gel walkers achieve unidirectional motion on flat elastomer substrates and exemplify a simple way to move and manipulate soft matter devices in aqueous solutions. An 'ionoprinting' technique is presented with the capability to topographically structure and actuate hydrated gels in two and three dimensions by locally patterning ions induced by electric fields. The bound charges change the local mechanical properties of the gel to induce relief patterns and evoke localized stress, causing rapid folding in air. The ionically patterned hydrogels exhibit programmable temporal and spatial shape transitions which can be tuned by the duration and/or strength of

  19. Extracellular matrix hydrogels from decellularized tissues: Structure and function. (United States)

    Saldin, Lindsey T; Cramer, Madeline C; Velankar, Sachin S; White, Lisa J; Badylak, Stephen F


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue. The present review describes the utility, formation, and physical and biological characterization of ECM hydrogels. Two examples of clinical application are presented to demonstrate in vivo utility of ECM hydrogels in different organ systems. Finally, new research directions and clinical translation of ECM hydrogels are discussed.

  20. Engineered Polymeric Hydrogels for 3D Tissue Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Park


    Full Text Available Polymeric biomaterials are widely used in a wide range of biomedical applications due to their unique properties, such as biocompatibility, multi-tunability and easy fabrication. Specifically, polymeric hydrogel materials are extensively utilized as therapeutic implants and therapeutic vehicles for tissue regeneration and drug delivery systems. Recently, hydrogels have been developed as artificial cellular microenvironments because of the structural and physiological similarity to native extracellular matrices. With recent advances in hydrogel materials, many researchers are creating three-dimensional tissue models using engineered hydrogels and various cell sources, which is a promising platform for tissue regeneration, drug discovery, alternatives to animal models and the study of basic cell biology. In this review, we discuss how polymeric hydrogels are used to create engineered tissue constructs. Specifically, we focus on emerging technologies to generate advanced tissue models that precisely recapitulate complex native tissues in vivo.

  1. Development of sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman HJ. Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel burn wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with mixture of PVP and PVA to improve the degree of crosslink, mechanical properties, swelling ability and tackiness of the blend hydrogel (sago/PVA and sago PVP). Additives have been introduced into the system such as, polypropylene glycol or carboxymethyl cellulose to improved further the swelling ability and tackiness properties of the blend hydrogel as well as other properties. Effect of irradiation dose on the blend hydrogel has also been studied to optimize the effective dose for blend hydrogel and simultaneously for sterilization purpose. (author)

  2. Thermoresponsive hydrogels in biomedical applications: A seven-year update. (United States)

    Klouda, Leda


    Thermally responsive hydrogels modulate their gelation behavior upon temperature change. Aqueous solutions solidify into hydrogels when a critical temperature is reached. In biomedical applications, the change from ambient temperature to physiological temperature can be employed. Their potential as in situ forming biomaterials has rendered these hydrogels very attractive. Advances in drug delivery, tissue engineering and cell sheet engineering have been made in recent years with the use of thermoresponsive hydrogels. The scope of this article is to review the literature on thermosensitive hydrogels published over the past seven years. The article concentrates on natural polymers as well as synthetic polymers, including systems based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-biodegradable polyester copolymers, poly(organophosphazenes) and 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA).

  3. Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: A review. (United States)

    Ullah, Faheem; Othman, Muhammad Bisyrul Hafi; Javed, Fatima; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Md Akil, Hazizan


    This article aims to review the literature concerning the choice of selectivity for hydrogels based on classification, application and processing. Super porous hydrogels (SPHs) and superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) represent an innovative category of recent generation highlighted as an ideal mould system for the study of solution-dependent phenomena. Hydrogels, also termed as smart and/or hungry networks, are currently subject of considerable scientific research due to their potential in hi-tech applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, bioseparation, biosensor, agriculture, oil recovery and cosmetics fields. Smart hydrogels display a significant physiochemical change in response to small changes in the surroundings. However, such changes are reversible; therefore, the hydrogels are capable of returning to its initial state after a reaction as soon as the trigger is removed.

  4. 基于Kinect的移动机器人大视角3维V-SLAM%A Large Viewing Angle 3-Dimensional V-SLAM Algorithm with a Kinect-based Mobile Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛菁; 苟蛟龙; 马晓敏; 黄凯; 刘丁; 张友民


    To solve the performance degradation problem of the mobile robot 3D V-SLAM (visual simultaneous local-ization and mapping) in the presence of large viewing angle, an affine invariant features matching algorithm AORB (affine oriented FAST and rotated BRIEF) is proposed, and a mobile robot large viewing angle 3D V-SLAM system using Kinect camera is further developed. Firstly, AORB algorithm is adopted to implement the fast and efficient matching between ad-jacent frames captured by the Kinect RGB camera in the presence of large changes of viewing angle, and the corresponding relationship between adjacent frames is created. Secondly, 2D image points are converted into 3D color cloud data through using the calibrated intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of Kinect, and pixel depth values after alignment correction. Thirdly, the relative pose between adjacent frames is computed by using the least-squares algorithm after removing outliers using RANSAC (RANdom Sample Consensus). Finally, the 3D model is obtained by optimizing the resulting pose using g2o (gen-eral graph optimization). Mobile robot large viewing angle 3D V-SLAM is realized ultimately. Both the off-line (based on well-known and available benchmark data sets) and the online (with a developed mobile robot system) experimental testing show that the proposed matching algorithm and the developed 3D V-SLAM system can accurately update the local model, successfully reconstruct the environment model, and effectively estimate the motion trajectory of the mobile robot in the presence of large viewing angle.%针对大视角情况下,移动机器人3维视觉同步定位与地图构建(visual simultaneous localization and mapping,V-SLAM)性能下降的问题,提出了一种仿射不变特征匹配算法AORB(affine oriented FAST and rotated BRIEF)并在此基础上构建了基于Kinect的移动机器人大视角3D V-SLAM系统.首先对Kinect相机采集到的彩色RGB数据采用AORB算法实现具有大

  5. 3-Dimensional reconstruction of fluorescent structures in tardigrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BRÜMMER


    Full Text Available Tardigrades are microscopic animals, thus brightfield microscopy is a well established method for tardigrade observation. Modern techniques in functional genetics like fluorescence in situ hybridisation or fluorescently labelled expression markers demand high resolution fluorescence microscopy. Nevertheless tardigrades are still considered to be difficult objects for fluorescence techniques as they are covered by an opaque and diffracting cuticle. We show a modern technique of structured light illumination that enables us to acquire thin optical sections and consequently to reconstruct 3-dimensional structures in tardigrades with a high spatial resolution in all 3 dimensions. This technique is evaluated on taxonomically valuable internal as well as external structures of eutardigrades: the bucco-pharyngeal apparatus and the claws. The 3-dimensional reconstructions allow the measurement of distances in all 3 dimensions.

  6. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (United States)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy


    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  7. Circuit-Switched Gossiping in the 3-Dimensional Torus Networks


    Delmas, Olivier; Pérennes, Stéphane


    In this paper we describe, in the case of short messages, an efficient gossiping algorithm for 3-dimensional torus networks (wrap-around or toroidal meshes) that uses synchronous circuit-switched routing. The algorithm is based on a recursive decomposition of a torus. The algorithm requires an optimal number of rounds and a quasi-optimal number of intermediate switch settings to gossip in an $7^i \\times 7^i \\times 7^i$ torus.

  8. Template-synthesized opal hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; JI Lijun; RONG Jianhua; YANG Zhenzhong


    Opal hydrogels could be synthesized with polymer inverse opal template. A pH responsive opal N-iso- propylacrylamide/acrylic acid copolymerized hydrogel was prepared as an example. The ordered structure and response to pH were investigated. Through the sol-gel process of tetrabutyl titanate, opal titania was obtained with the opal hydrogel template.

  9. A three-phase in-vitro system for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion and biofilm formation upon hydrogel contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohlmann Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly associated with contact lens (CL -related eye infections, for which bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation upon hydrogel CLs is a specific risk factor. Whilst P. aeruginosa has been widely used as a model organism for initial biofilm formation on CLs, in-vitro models that closely reproduce in-vivo conditions have rarely been presented. Results In the current investigation, a novel in-vitro biofilm model for studying the adherence of P. aeruginosa to hydrogel CLs was established. Nutritional and interfacial conditions similar to those in the eye of a CL wearer were created through the involvement of a solid:liquid and a solid:air interface, shear forces and a complex artificial tear fluid. Bioburdens varied depending on the CL material and biofilm maturation occurred after 72 h incubation. Whilst a range of biofilm morphologies were visualised including dispersed and adherent bacterial cells, aggregates and colonies embedded in extracellular polymer substances (EPS, EPS fibres, mushroom-like formations, and crystalline structures, a compact and heterogeneous biofilm morphology predominated on all CL materials. Conclusions In order to better understand the process of biofilm formation on CLs and to test the efficacy of CL care solutions, representative in-vitro biofilm models are required. Here, we present a three-phase biofilm model that simulates the environment in the eye of a CL wearer and thus generates biofilms which resemble those commonly observed in-situ.

  10. Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel;


    The 3-dimensional imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using high-resolution 1322 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. We found it possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprises UV-barrier, barrier...

  11. Mechanical properties and in vitro behavior of nanofiber-hydrogel composites for tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Kai, Dan; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Stahl, Benjamin; Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    Hydrogel-based biomaterial systems have great potential for tissue reconstruction by serving as temporary scaffolds and cell delivery vehicles for tissue engineering (TE). Hydrogels have poor mechanical properties and their rapid degradation limits the development and application of hydrogels in TE. In this study, nanofiber reinforced composite hydrogels were fabricated by incorporating electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin 'blend' or 'coaxial' nanofibers into gelatin hydrogels. The morphological, mechanical, swelling and biodegradation properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were evaluated and the results indicated that the moduli and compressive strengths of the nanofiber reinforced hydrogels were remarkably higher than those of pure gelatin hydrogels. By increasing the amount of incorporated nanofibers into the hydrogel, the Young's modulus of the composite hydrogels increased from 3.29 ± 1.02 kPa to 20.30 ± 1.79 kPa, while the strain at break decreased from 66.0 ± 1.1% to 52.0 ± 3.0%. Compared to composite hydrogels with coaxial nanofibers, those with blend nanofibers showed higher compressive strength and strain at break, but with lower modulus and energy dissipation properties. Biocompatibility evaluations of the nanofiber reinforced hydrogels were carried out using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) by cell proliferation assay and immunostaining analysis. The nanocomposite hydrogel with 25 mg ml(-1) PCL/gelatin 'blend' nanofibers (PGB25) was found to enhance cell proliferation, indicating that the 'nanocomposite hydrogels' might provide the necessary mechanical support and could be promising cell delivery systems for tissue regeneration.

  12. Synthesis, Characteristics and Potential Application of Poly(β-Amino Ester Urethane)-Based Multiblock Co-Polymers as an Injectable, Biodegradable and pH/Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel System. (United States)

    Huynh, Cong Truc; Nguyen, Minh Khanh; Jeong, In Ki; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Doo Sung


    Physical polymeric hydrogels have significant potential for use as injectable depot drug/protein-delivery systems. In this study, a series of novel injectable, biodegradable and pH/temperature-sensitive multiblock co-polymer physical hydrogels composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(β-amino ester urethane) (PEU) was synthesized by the polyaddition between the isocyanate groups of 1,6-diisocyanato hexamethylene and the hydroxyl groups of PEG and a synthesized monomer BTB (or ETE) in chloroform in the presence of dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. The synthesized co-polymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography. Aqueous solutions of the co-polymers showed a sol-to-gel phase transition with increasing pH and a gel-to-sol phase transition with increasing temperature. The gel regions covered the physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.4) and could be controlled by changing the molecular weight of PEG, PEG/PEU ratio and co-polymer solution concentration. A gel formed rapidly in situ after injecting the co-polymer solution subcutaneously into SD rats and remained for more than 2 weeks in the body. The cytotoxicity tests confirmed the non-cytotoxicity of this co-polymer hydrogel. The controlled in vitro release of the model anticancer drug, doxorubicin, from this hydrogel occurred over a 7-day period. This hydrogel is a potential candidate for biomedical applications and drug/protein-delivery systems.

  13. Sequential release of salidroside and paeonol from a nanosphere-hydrogel system inhibits ultraviolet B-induced melanogenesis in guinea pig skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LH


    Full Text Available Li-Hua Peng,1 Shen-Yao Xu,1 Ying-Hui Shan,1 Wei Wei,1 Shuai Liu,1 Chen-Zhen Zhang,1 Jia-He Wu,1 Wen-Quan Liang,1 Jian-Qing Gao1,2 1Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2Novel Transdermal Research Center of Jiangsu Province, Changzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Melanin is the one of most important pigments for skin color in mammals. Excessive biosynthesis of melanin induces various pigment disorders. Much effort has been made to develop regulators to minimize skin pigmentation abnormalities. However, only a few of them are used, primarily because of safety concerns and low efficiency. In this study, we aimed to construct a novel nanosphere-gel for sequential delivery of salidroside and paeonol, to investigate the synergistic effects of these drugs in anti-melanogenesis, and to decrease their potential for toxicity in high dosage. Nanospheres were prepared and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and morphological properties. The optimized nanospheres were incorporated in carbomer hydrogel with both paeonol and salidroside entrapped to form a dual drug-releasing nanosphere-gel. With this nanosphere-gel, rapid release of salidroside from the hydrogel followed by sustained release of paeonol from the nanosphere was achieved. Using a classical model of the melanogenesis response to ultraviolet exposure, it was shown that the anti-melanogenesis effects of the dual drug-releasing system, in which the doses of the individual drugs were decreased by half, was obviously enhanced when compared with the effects of the single drug preparations. Mechanistically, the burst release of salidroside from the hydrogel may enable prompt suppression of melanocyte proliferation on exposure to ultraviolet B radiation, while the paeonol released in a sustained manner can provide continuous inhibition of tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. Combined delivery of

  14. Electrically responsive smart hydrogels in drug delivery: a review. (United States)

    Kulkarni, R V; Biswanath, Sa


    Recently, much of the research activity has been focused on the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels. Such hydrogels can show a response to the external or internal stimuli in the form of rapid changes in the physical nature of the polymeric network. This hydrogel property can be utilized for drug delivery applications. A literature search suggests that current research related to stimuli responsive drug delivery systems deals with temperature sensitive, pH sensitive, glucose sensitive and bio-molecule sensitive hydrogels. Electrically responsive hydrogels have also been recently developed in the form of gel matrices, implants and membranes for drug delivery. Control over the release of drugs such as quantity and timing, is essential to optimize drug therapy. Reports say that the electrically controlled in vitro and in vivo drug release studies have been carried out on polyelectrolyte hydrogels. A pulsatile pattern of drug release was achieved with the alternative application and removal of the electrical stimulus. This article gives an overview of the latest developments in the formulation of drug delivery systems using electrically responsive hydrogels.

  15. Engineering strategies to recapitulate epithelial morphogenesis within synthetic 3 dimensional extracellular matrix with tunable mechanical properties (United States)

    Miroshnikova, Y.A.; Jorgens, D.M.; Spirio, L.; Auer, M.; Sieminski-Sarang, A.L.; Weaver, V.M.


    The mechanical properties (e.g. stiffness) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) influence cell fate and tissue morphogenesis and contribute to disease progression. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms by which ECM rigidity modulates cell behavior and fate remains rudimentary. To address this issue, a number of two and three dimensional (3D) hydrogel systems have been used to explore the effects of mechanical properties of the ECM on cell behavior. Unfortunately, many of these systems have limited application because fiber architecture, adhesiveness and/or pore size often change in parallel when gel elasticity is varied. Here we describe the use of ECM-adsorbed, synthetic, self-assembling peptide gels (SAPs) that are able to recapitulate normal epithelial acini morphogenesis and gene expression in a 3D context. By exploiting the range of visco-elasticity attainable with these SAP gels, and their ability to recreate native-like ECM fibril topology with minimal variability in ligand density and pore size, we were able to reconstitute normal versus tumor-like phenotype and gene expression patterns in nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Accordingly, this SAP hydrogel system presents the first tunable system capable of independently assessing the interplay between ECM stiffness and multi-cellular epithelial phenotype in a 3D context. PMID:21441648

  16. Disulfide bond reduction-triggered molecular hydrogels of folic acid-Taxol conjugates. (United States)

    Yang, Chengbiao; Li, Dongxia; Fengzhao, Qianqi; Wang, Lianyong; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou


    Molecular hydrogels of therapeutic agents are a novel kind of self-delivery system that can sustain release of drugs or pro-drugs. We have previously developed a molecular hydrogelator of folic acid (FA)-Taxol conjugate triggered by phosphatase. In this paper, we report a novel molecular hydrogelator system of FA-Taxol conjugates with improved synthetic strategy. The hydrogels are formed by the reduction of disulfide bond by glutathione (GSH). These hydrogels could sustain release of Taxol through ester bond hydrolysis. Compared with intravenous (i.v.) injection of clinically used Taxol® with four times the dosage, our hydrogel could inhibit tumor growth more efficiently by a single dose of intra-tumor (i.t.) administration. These observations suggested the big potential of this novel gelation system of Taxol for cancer therapy.

  17. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts (United States)

    Torres, J. R.; Jay, G. D.; Kim, K.-S.; Bothun, G. D.


    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  18. Hamiltonian Analysis of 3-Dimensional Connection Dynamics in Bondi-like Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chao-Guang


    The Hamiltonian analysis for a 3-dimensional $SO(1,1)\\times T_+$-connection dynamics is conducted in a Bondi-like coordinate system.A null coframe with 5 independent variables and 9 connection coefficients are treated as basic configuration variables.All constraints and their consistency conditions, as well as the equations of motion,for the system are presented.There is no physical degree of freedom in the system as expected.The Ba\\~nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli spacetime as an example is used to check the analysis.

  19. Design and characterization of an injectable tendon hydrogel: a novel scaffold for guided tissue regeneration in the musculoskeletal system. (United States)

    Farnebo, Simon; Woon, Colin Y L; Schmitt, Taliah; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Kim, Maxwell; Pham, Hung; Chang, James


    A biocompatible hydrogel consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) from human tendons is described as a potential scaffold for guided tissue regeneration and tissue engineering purposes. Lyophilized decellularized tendons were milled and enzymatically digested to form an ECM solution. The ECM solution properties are assessed by proteome analysis with mass spectrometry, and the material's rheological properties are determined as a function of frequency, temperature, and time. In vivo application of the gel in a rat model is assessed for remodeling and host cell repopulation. Histology for macrophage invasion, fibroblast repopulation, and nanoscale properties of the gel is assessed. Gel interaction with multipotent adipoderived stem cells (ASCs) is also addressed in vitro to assess possible cytotoxicity and its ability to act as a delivery vehicle for cells. Proteome analysis of the ECM-solution and gel mass spectroscopy identified the most abundant 150 proteins, of which two isoforms of collagen I represented more than 55% of the sample. Rheology showed that storage (G') and loss (G″) of the ECM solution were stable at room temperature but displayed sigmoidal increases after ∼15 min at 37°C, matching macroscopic observations of its thermo responsiveness. G' and G″ of the gel at 1 rad/s were 213.1±19.9 and 27.1±2.4 Pa, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed fiber alignment and good structural porosity in the gel, as well as invasion of cells in vivo. Histology also showed early CD68(+) macrophage invasion throughout the gel, followed by increasing numbers of fibroblast cells. ASCs mixed with the gel in vitro proliferated, indicating good biocompatibility. This ECM solution can be delivered percutaneously into a zone of tendon injury. After injection, the thermoresponsive behavior of the ECM solution allows it to polymerize and form a porous gel at body temperature. A supportive nanostructure of collagen fibers is established that conforms to the three

  20. 三维标测系统指导下希氏束旁室性期前收缩的射频消融及心电图分析%Catheter ablation of para-Hisian ventricular premature guided by 3-dimensional mapping system and ECG analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 洪浪; 周元凤; 赖珩莉; 陈再华; 欧阳长生; 邱赟


    目的:探讨三维标测系统指导下经导管射频消融起源于希氏束旁室性期前收缩(室早)的疗效及安全性.方法:对7例起源于希氏束旁频发室早的患者在三维标测系统指导下行射频消融治疗,其中5例采用Carto标测系统,2例采用Ensite Array系统.采用Carto标测系统者经股静脉送入消融大头至右室,在室早发作时采点建模,建立右室解剖结构及电激动顺序三维图像;采用Ensite Array标测系统者经股静脉送人Array球囊电极至右室流出道,利用消融大头采点,建立右室三维图,并对室早激动起源及出口进行实时标测.在右室三维解剖图上标示出希氏束位置,观察最早激动点与希氏束的距离,对心律失常的最早激动部位消融.冷盐水大头消融功率为25 W,温度为43℃,0.9%氯化钠溶液流量消融时17~20 ml/min,放电间隙2 ml/min.结果:7例患者室早体表心电图呈左束支传导阻滞图形,Ⅰ、Ⅱ、aVL、aVF导联为直立的R波,Ⅲ导联为R、rs、rS、rsR,均为RⅡ>RaVF>RaⅢ,V1导联为QS型.7例患者均在希氏束旁标测到最早激动点,位于希氏束上方(11.29士2.98)mm处,在最早激动点及附近消融成功,室早消失,与术前同样条件静脉滴注异丙肾上腺素不能诱发室早.2例患者术中出现右束支传导阻滞,1例经术中推注地塞米松10 mg后转复正常,另1例术后4d心电图转复正常.随访12~28个月,无复发.结论:三维标测系统指导下经导管射频消融起源于希氏束旁室早安全有效.%Objective:To investigate the safety and efficacy of catheter ablation for para-Hisian ventricular premature (VP) guided by 3-dimensional mapping system ( Carto/Ensite Array). Method: Seven patients suffered from para-Hisian region VP were treated with radiofrequency catheter ablationg guided by 3rdimensional mapping system, in which 5 guided by Carto and 2 by Ensite Array. With the Carto Array, the large—tip electrode catheter was

  1. Optofluidic in situ maskless lithography of charge selective nanoporous hydrogel for DNA preconcentration



    An optofluidic maskless photopolymerization process was developed for in situ negatively charged nanoporous hydrogel [poly-AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)] fabrication. The optofluidic maskless lithography system, which combines a high power UV source and digital mirror device, enables fast polymerization of arbitrary shaped hydrogels in a microfluidic device. The poly-AMPS hydrogel structures were positioned near the intersections of two microchannels, and were used as a ...

  2. DOE Optimization of Nano-based Carrier of Pregabalin as Hydrogel: New Therapeutic & Chemometric Approaches for Controlled Drug Delivery Systems (United States)

    Arafa, Mona G.; Ayoub, Bassam M.


    Niosomes entrapping pregabalin (PG) were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol in different molar ratios by hydration method, the remaining PG from the hydrating solution was separated from vesicles by freeze centrifugation. Optimization of nano-based carrier of pregabalin (PG) was achieved. Quality by Design strategy was successfully employed to obtain PG-loaded niosomes with the desired properties. The optimal particle size, drug release and entrapment efficiency were attained by Minitab® program using design of experiment (DOE) that predicted the best parameters by investigating the combined effect of different factors simultaneously. Pareto chart was used in the screening step to exclude the insignificant variables while response surface methodology (RSM) was used in the optimization step to study the significant factors. Best formula was selected to prepare topical hydrogels loaded with niosomal PG using HPMC and Carbopol 934. It was verified, by means of mechanical and rheological tests, that addition of the vesicles to the gel matrix affected significantly gel network. In vitro release and ex vivo permeation experiments were carried out. Delivery of PG molecules followed a Higuchi, non Fickian diffusion. The present work will be of interest for pharmaceutical industry as a controlled transdermal alternative to the conventional oral route.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Oprea


    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of xanthan/chondroitin sulfate hydrogels (X/CS in differentmixing ratios was investigated. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation was performed by a chemiluminescent assayusing microorganisms such as Saccharomyces pombe. The cellular growth of S. pombe in presence of thexanthan/chondroitin sulfate hydrogels containing up to 20 % chondroitin sulfate was examinated comparatively withxanthan hydrogel.The in vivo evaluation was performed by toxicity test and subcutaneously implantation in rats. It has been establisheda lethal dose (LD50 bigger than 3200 mg/kg for all studied hydrogels, therefore they are nontoxic materials.The in vivo 30 days testing performed by subcutaneous implantation showed that the X/CS matrices were easilyabsorbed without side-effects, demonstrating their biocompatibility and effectiveness as potential drug delivery systems.

  4. Viscoelastic Properties and Morphology of Mumio-based Medicated Hydrogels (United States)

    Zandraa, Oyunchimeg; Jelínková, Lenka; Roy, Niladri; Sáha, Tomáš; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Nabanita


    Novel medicated hydrogels were prepared (by moist heat treatment) with PVA, agar, mumio, mare's milk (MM), seabuckthorn oil (SB oil) and salicylic acid (SA) for wound dressing/healing application. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) show highly porous structure of these hydrogels. The swelling behaviour of the hydrogels in physiological solution displays remarkable liquid absorption property. The knowledge obtained from rheological investigations of these-systems may be highly useful for the characterization of the newly developed topical formulations. In the present study, an oscillation frequency sweep test was used for the evaluation of storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), and complex viscosity (η*) of five different formulations, over an angular frequency range from 0.1 to 100 rad.s-1. The influence of healing agents and swelling effect on the rheological properties of mumio-based medicated hydrogels was investigated to judge its application on uneven surface of body.

  5. Hamiltonian Formulation of Jackiw-Pi 3-Dimensional Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dayi, O F


    A 3-dimensional non-abelian gauge theory was proposed by Jackiw and Pi to create mass for the gauge fields. However, the set of gauge invariances of the quadratic action obtained by switching off the non-abelian interactions is larger than the original one. This inconsistency in the gauge invariances causes some problems in quantization. Jackiw and Pi proposed another action by enlarging the space of states whose gauge invariances are consistent with the quadratic part. It is shown that all of these theories yield the same number of physical degrees of freedom in the hamiltonian framework. Hence, as far as the physical states are considered there is no inconsistency. Nevertheless, perturbation expansion is still problamatic.

  6. Hexad Preons and Emergent Gravity in 3-dimensional Complex Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shun-Zhi


    We suggest that at high energy each space dimension has their own time dimension, forming a 3-dimensional complex spacetime. Based on this hypothesis, we propose that the primordial universe is made of six fundamental fermions and their complex conjugate states. These fermions are called Hexad Preons which carry hypercolor degree of freedom transforming under $U(3,3)$ gauge group. The Hermitian metric emerges upon the breakdown of the gauge group from $U(3,3)$ to its maximal compact subgroup $U(3)\\otimes U(3)$. Leptons, quarks, as well as other matter states may be formed from the subsequent condensate of Hexad Preons. Strong and electroweak forces are manifestations of the hypercolor interaction in the corresponding cases. Our framework sheds light on many problems in cosmology and particle physics.

  7. Control of β-carotene bioaccessibility using starch-based filled hydrogels. (United States)

    Mun, Saehun; Kim, Yong-Ro; McClements, David Julian


    β-Carotene was incorporated into three types of delivery system: (i) "emulsions": protein-coated fat droplets dispersed in water; (ii) "hydrogels": rice starch gels; and (iii) "filled hydrogels": protein-coated fat droplets dispersed in rice starch gels. Fat droplets in filled hydrogels were stable in simulated mouth and stomach conditions, but aggregated under small intestinal conditions. Fat droplets in emulsions aggregated under oral, gastric, and intestinal conditions. β-Carotene bioaccessibility was higher when encapsulated in filled hydrogels than in emulsions or hydrogels, which was attributed to increased aggregation stability of the fat droplets leading to a larger exposed lipid surface area. β-Carotene bioaccessibility in starch hydrogels containing no fat was very low (≈1%) due to its crystalline nature and lack of mixed micelles to solubilise it. The information presented may be useful for the design of rice-starch based gel products fortified with lipophilic nutraceuticals.

  8. Fluorescent hydrogels with tunable nanostructure and viscoelasticity for formaldehyde removal. (United States)

    Song, Shasha; Song, Aixin; Feng, Lei; Wei, Guangcheng; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng


    Hydrogels with ultrahigh water content, ∼99 wt %, and highly excellent mechanical strength were prepared by 4'-para-phenylcarboxyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (PPCT) in KOH aqueous solution. The self-assembled structure, rheological properties, and the gel-sol transformation temperature (Tgel-sol) of PPCT/KOH hydrogels that depend on PPCT and KOH concentrations were studied, indicating easily controllable conditions for producing hydrogels in PPCT and KOH mixtures. An important finding was that the hydration radius (Rh) of cations (M(+) = Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+), NH4(+), (CH3)4N(+), (CH3CH2)4N(+), (CH3CH2CH2)4N(+), (CH3CH2CH2CH2)4N(+)) plays a vital role in gelation of PPCT/MOH systems. To produce hydrogels in PPCT/MOH systems, the Rh of M(+) must be in a suitable region of 3.29 to 3.58 Å, e.g., K(+), Na(+), Cs(+), and the capability of M(+) for inducing PPCT to form hydrogels is K(+) > Na(+) > Li(+), which is followed by the Hofmeister series. The hydrogels of PPCT and KOH mixtures are responsive to external stimuli including temperature and shearing force, and present gelation-induced enhanced fluorescence emission property. The states of being sensitive to the stimuli can readily recover to the original hydrogels, which are envisaged to be an attracting candidate to produce self-healing materials. A typical function of the hydrogels of PPCT and KOH mixtures is that formaldehyde (HCHO) can speedily be adsorbed via electrostatic interaction and converted into nontoxic salts (HCOOK and CH3OK), making it a promising candidate material for HCHO removal in home furnishings to reduce indoor environmental pollutants.

  9. Dual-responsive and Multi-functional Plasmonic Hydrogel Valves and Biomimetic Architectures Formed with Hydrogel and Gold Nanocolloids (United States)

    Song, Ji Eun; Cho, Eun Chul


    We present a straightforward approach with high moldability for producing dual-responsive and multi-functional plasmonic hydrogel valves and biomimetic architectures that reversibly change volumes and colors in response to temperature and ion variations. Heating of a mixture of hybrid colloids (gold nanoparticles assembled on a hydrogel colloid) and hydrogel colloids rapidly induces (within 30 min) the formation of hydrogel architectures resembling mold shapes (cylinder, fish, butterfly). The biomimetic fish and butterfly display reversible changes in volumes and colors with variations of temperature and ionic conditions in aqueous solutions. The cylindrical plasmonic valves installed in flow tubes rapidly control water flow rate in on-off manner by responding to these stimuli. They also report these changes in terms of their colors. Therefore, the approach presented here might be helpful in developing new class of biomimetic and flow control systems where liquid conditions should be visually notified (e.g., glucose or ion concentration changes). PMID:27703195

  10. Dual-responsive and Multi-functional Plasmonic Hydrogel Valves and Biomimetic Architectures Formed with Hydrogel and Gold Nanocolloids (United States)

    Song, Ji Eun; Cho, Eun Chul


    We present a straightforward approach with high moldability for producing dual-responsive and multi-functional plasmonic hydrogel valves and biomimetic architectures that reversibly change volumes and colors in response to temperature and ion variations. Heating of a mixture of hybrid colloids (gold nanoparticles assembled on a hydrogel colloid) and hydrogel colloids rapidly induces (within 30 min) the formation of hydrogel architectures resembling mold shapes (cylinder, fish, butterfly). The biomimetic fish and butterfly display reversible changes in volumes and colors with variations of temperature and ionic conditions in aqueous solutions. The cylindrical plasmonic valves installed in flow tubes rapidly control water flow rate in on-off manner by responding to these stimuli. They also report these changes in terms of their colors. Therefore, the approach presented here might be helpful in developing new class of biomimetic and flow control systems where liquid conditions should be visually notified (e.g., glucose or ion concentration changes).

  11. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals (United States)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.


    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  12. Swelling characterization of gamma-radiation induced crosslinked acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels in urea solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Erdener [Department of Chemistry, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, TR09010 Aydin (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Uzuem, Omer Baris [Department of Chemistry, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, TR09010 Aydin (Turkey); Saraydin, Dursun [Department of Chemistry, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Gueven, Olgun [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)


    Swelling behaviors of crosslinked acrylamide/maleic acid (CAMA) hydrogels synthesized by gamma-radiation crosslinking of acrylamide and maleic acid in aqueous urea solutions were investigated. CAMA hydrogels containing different amounts of maleic acid were obtained in the form of rods via a radiation technique. Swelling experiments were performed in two different urea concentrations at 25 {sup o}C, gravimetrically. The hydrogels showed enormous swelling in aqueous medium and displayed swelling characteristics that were highly dependent on the chemical composition of the hydrogels and irradiation dose. Diffusion behavior and some swelling kinetics parameters were investigated. The values of the swelling percent of CAMA hydrogels were between 935% and 5212%, while the values of the swelling percent of acrylamide hydrogels were between 669% and 923%. The difference of the concentrations of urea solutions was not affected by the swelling properties of the hydrogel systems. Urea/water diffusion into hydrogels was found to be non-Fickian in character. Equilibrium urea/water contents of the hydrogel systems were changed between 0.8699 and 0.9812.

  13. Injectable in situ forming xylitol-PEG-based hydrogels for cell encapsulation and delivery. (United States)

    Selvam, Shivaram; Pithapuram, Madhav V; Victor, Sunita P; Muthu, Jayabalan


    Injectable in situ crosslinking hydrogels offer unique advantages over conventional prefabricated hydrogel methodologies. Herein, we synthesize poly(xylitol-co-maleate-co-PEG) (pXMP) macromers and evaluate their performance as injectable cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. The designed pXMP elastomers were non-toxic and water-soluble with viscosity values permissible for subcutaneous injectable systems. pXMP-based hydrogels prepared via free radical polymerization with acrylic acid as crosslinker possessed high crosslink density and exhibited a broad range of compressive moduli that could match the natural mechanical environment of various native tissues. The hydrogels displayed controlled degradability and exhibited gradual increase in matrix porosity upon degradation. The hydrophobic hydrogel surfaces preferentially adsorbed albumin and promoted cell adhesion and growth in vitro. Actin staining on cells cultured on thin hydrogel films revealed subconfluent cell monolayers composed of strong, adherent cells. Furthermore, fabricated 3D pXMP cell-hydrogel constructs promoted cell survival and proliferation in vitro. Cumulatively, our results demonstrate that injectable xylitol-PEG-based hydrogels possess excellent physical characteristics and exhibit exceptional cytocompatibility in vitro. Consequently, they show great promise as injectable hydrogel systems for in situ tissue repair and regeneration.

  14. Design and development of hydrogel nanoparticles for mercaptopurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Senthil


    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained attention in recent years as they demonstrate the features and characters of hydrogels and nanoparticles at the same time. In the present study chitosan and carrageenan have been used, as hydrogel nanoparticles of mercaptopurine are developed using natural, biodegradable, and biocompatible polymers like chitosan and carrageenan. As these polymers are hydrophilic in nature, the particles will have a long life span in systemic circulation. Hydrogel nanoparticles with mercaptopurine is form an antileukemia drug by the counter polymer gelation method. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR studies have shown a compatibility of polymers with the drug. The diameter of hydrogel nanoparticles was about 370 - 800 nm with a positive zeta potential of 26 - 30 mV. The hydrogel nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Drug loading varied from 9 to 17%. Mercaptopurine released from the nanoparticles at the end of the twenty-fourth hour was about 69.48 - 76.52% at pH 7.4. The drug release from the formulation was following zero order kinetics, which was evident from the release kinetic studies and the mechanism of drug release was anomalous diffusion, which indicated that the drug release was controlled by more than one process.

  15. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting (United States)

    He, Yong; Yang, Feifei; Zhao, Haiming; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, Jianzhong


    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells.

  16. Self-Adjustable Adhesion of Polyampholyte Hydrogels. (United States)

    Roy, Chanchal Kumar; Guo, Hong Lei; Sun, Tao Lin; Ihsan, Abu Bin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gong, Jian Ping


    Developing nonspecific, fast, and strong adhesives that can glue hydrogels and biotissues substantially promotes the application of hydrogels as biomaterials. Inspired by the ubiquitous adhesiveness of bacteria, it is reported that neutral polyampholyte hydrogels, through their self-adjustable surface, can show rapid, strong, and reversible adhesion to charged hydrogels and biological tissues through the Coulombic interaction.

  17. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)


    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  18. Electroactive SWNT/PEGDA hybrid hydrogel coating for bio-electrode interface. (United States)

    He, Lei; Lin, Demeng; Wang, Yanping; Xiao, Yinghong; Che, Jianfei


    Electric interface between neural tissue and electrode plays a significant role in the development of implanted devices for continuous monitoring and functional stimulation of central nervous system in terms of electroactivity, biocompatibility and long-term stability. To engineer an interface that possesses these merits, a polymeric hydrogel based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were employed to fabricate a hybrid hydrogel via covalent anchoring strategy, i.e., self-assembly of cysteamine (Cys) followed by Michael addition between Cys and PEGDA. XPS characterization proves that the Cys molecules are linked to gold surface via the strong S-Au bond and that the PEGDA macromers are covalently bonded to Cys. FTIR spectra indicate the formation of hybrid hydrogel coating during photopolymerization. Electrochemical measurements using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectrum clearly show the enhancement of electric properties to the hydrogel by the SWNTs. The charge transfer of the hybrid hydrogel-based electrode is quasi-reversible and charge transfer resistance decreases to the tenth of that of the pure hydrogel due to electron hopping along the SWNTs. Additionally, this hybrid hydrogel provides a favorable biomimetic microenvironment for cell attachment and growth due to its inherent biocompatibility. Combination of these merits yields hybrid hydrogels that can be good candidates for application to biosensors and biomedical devices. More importantly, the hybrid hydrogel coatings fabricated via the current strategy have good adhesion to the electrode substrate which is highly desired for chronically implantable devices.

  19. Double network bacterial cellulose hydrogel to build a biology-device interface. (United States)

    Shi, Zhijun; Li, Ying; Chen, Xiuli; Han, Hongwei; Yang, Guang


    Establishing a biology-device interface might enable the interaction between microelectronics and biotechnology. In this study, electroactive hydrogels have been produced using bacterial cellulose (BC) and conducting polymer (CP) deposited on the BC hydrogel surface to cover the BC fibers. The structures of these composites thus have double networks, one of which is a layer of electroactive hydrogels combined with BC and CP. The electroconductivity provides the composites with capabilities for voltage and current response, and the BC hydrogel layer provides good biocompatibility, biodegradability, bioadhesion and mass transport properties. Such a system might allow selective biological functions such as molecular recognition and specific catalysis and also for probing the detailed genetic and molecular mechanisms of life. A BC-CP composite hydrogel could then lead to a biology-device interface. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used here to study the composite hydrogels' electroactive property. BC-PAni and BC-PPy respond to voltage changes. This provides a mechanism to amplify electrochemical signals for analysis or detection. BC hydrogels were found to be able to support the growth, spreading and migration of human normal skin fibroblasts without causing any cytotoxic effect on the cells in the cell culture. These double network BC-CP hydrogels are biphasic Janus hydrogels which integrate electroactivity with biocompatibility, and might provide a biology-device interface to produce implantable devices for personalized and regenerative medicine.

  20. Thermal-Responsive Behavior of a Cell Compatible Chitosan/Pectin Hydrogel. (United States)

    Birch, Nathan P; Barney, Lauren E; Pandres, Elena; Peyton, Shelly R; Schiffman, Jessica D


    Biopolymer hydrogels are important materials for wound healing and cell culture applications. While current synthetic polymer hydrogels have excellent biocompatibility and are nontoxic, they typically function as a passive matrix that does not supply any additional bioactivity. Chitosan (CS) and pectin (Pec) are natural polymers with active properties that are desirable for wound healing. Unfortunately, the synthesis of CS/Pec materials have previously been limited by harsh acidic synthesis conditions, which further restricted their use in biomedical applications. In this study, a zero-acid hydrogel has been synthesized from a mixture of chitosan and pectin at biologically compatible conditions. For the first time, we demonstrated that salt could be used to suppress long-range electrostatic interactions to generate a thermoreversible biopolymer hydrogel that has temperature-sensitive gelation. Both the hydrogel and the solution phases are highly elastic, with a power law index of close to -1. When dried hydrogels were placed into phosphate buffered saline solution, they rapidly rehydrated and swelled to incorporate 2.7× their weight. As a proof of concept, we removed the salt from our CS/Pec hydrogels, thus, creating thick and easy to cast polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels, which proved to be compatible with human marrow-derived stem cells. We suggest that our development of an acid-free CS/Pec hydrogel system that has excellent exudate uptake, holds potential for wound healing bandages.

  1. Stretchable Hydrogel Electronics and Devices. (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Zhang, Teng; Parada, German Alberto; Koo, Hyunwoo; Yu, Cunjiang; Zhao, Xuanhe


    Stretchable hydrogel electronics and devices are designed by integrating stretchable conductors, functional chips, drug-delivery channels, and reservoirs into stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel matrices. Novel applications include a smart wound dressing capable of sensing the temperatures of various locations on the skin, delivering different drugs to these locations, and subsequently maintaining sustained release of drugs.

  2. Hydrogels with micellar hydrophobic (nanodomains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav ePekař


    Full Text Available Hydrogels containing hydrophobic domains or nanodomains, especially of the micellar type, are reviewed. Examples of the reasons for introducing hydrophobic domains into hydrophilic gels are given; typology of these materials is introduced. Synthesis routes are exemplified and properties of a variety of such hydrogels in relation with their intended applications are described. Future research needs are identified briefly.

  3. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array. (United States)

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming


    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  4. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology. (United States)

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad


    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  5. An Injectable Enzymatically Crosslinked Carboxymethylated Pullulan/Chondroitin Sulfate Hydrogel for Cartilage Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Songrui; Liu, Bing; Ni, Yunzhou; Yu, Chunyang; Su, Yue; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yu, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue


    In this study, an enzymatically cross-linked injectable and biodegradable hydrogel system comprising carboxymethyl pullulan-tyramine (CMP-TA) and chondroitin sulfate-tyramine (CS-TA) conjugates was successfully developed under physiological conditions in the presence of both horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for cartilage tissue engineering (CTTE). The HRP crosslinking method makes this injectable system feasible, minimally invasive and easily translatable for regenerative medicine applications. The physicochemical properties of the mechanically stable hydrogel system can be modulated by varying the weight ratio and concentration of polymer as well as the concentrations of crosslinking reagents. Additionally, the cellular behaviour of porcine auricular chondrocytes encapsulated into CMP-TA/CS-TA hydrogels demonstrates that the hydrogel system has a good cyto-compatibility. Specifically, compared to the CMP-TA hydrogel, these CMP-TA/CS-TA composite hydrogels have enhanced cell proliferation and increased cartilaginous ECM deposition, which significantly facilitate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, histological analysis indicates that the hydrogel system exhibits acceptable tissue compatibility by using a mouse subcutaneous implantation model. Overall, the novel injectable pullulan/chondroitin sulfate composite hydrogels presented here are expected to be useful biomaterial scaffold for regenerating cartilage tissue.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-zhongYang; Jian-huaRong; DanLi


    Meso-structured(opal and inverse opal) polymeric hydrogels of varied morphology and composition were prepared by using two methods:post-modification of the template-synthesized structured polymers and templatepolymerization of functional monomers.A polyacrylic acid based inverse opal hydrogel was chosen to demonstrate its fast pH response by changing color,which is important in designing tunable photonic crystals.Template effects of the hydrogels on controlling structure of the template-synthesized inorganic materials were discussed.The catalytic effect of acid groups in the templates was emphasized for a preferential formation of TiO2 in the region containing acid groups,which allowed duplicating inorganic colloidal crystals from colloidal crystal hydrogels (or macroporous products from macroporous hydrogels) via one step duplication.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-zhong Yang; Jian-hua Rong; Dan Li


    Meso-structured (opal and inverse opal) polymeric hydrogels of varied morphology and composition were prepared by using two methods: post-modification of the template-synthesized structured polymers and templatepolymerization of functional monomers. A polyacrylic acid based inverse opal hydrogel was chosen to demonstrate its fast pH response by changing color, which is important in designing tunable photonic crystals. Template effects of the hydrogels on controlling structure of the template-synthesized inorganic materials were discussed. The catalytic effect of acid groups inthe templates was emphasized for a preferential formation of TiO2 in the region containing acid groups, which allowed duplicating inorganic colloidal crystals from colloidal crystal hydrogels (or macroporous products from macroporous hydrogels) via one step duplication.

  8. A new soy-based hydrogels: development, viscoelastic properties, and application for controlled drug release (United States)

    Hydrogels have been widely studied due to their potential application in drug delivery systems as they are capable of forming aggregates in aqueous solutions. Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. I...

  9. Controlled Delivery of Vancomycin via Charged Hydrogels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T Gustafson

    Full Text Available Surgical site infection (SSI remains a significant risk for any clean orthopedic surgical procedure. Complications resulting from an SSI often require a second surgery and lengthen patient recovery time. The efficacy of antimicrobial agents delivered to combat SSI is diminished by systemic toxicity, bacterial resistance, and patient compliance to dosing schedules. We submit that development of localized, controlled release formulations for antimicrobial compounds would improve the effectiveness of prophylactic surgical wound antibiotic treatment while decreasing systemic side effects. Our research group developed and characterized oligo(poly(ethylene glycolfumarate/sodium methacrylate (OPF/SMA charged copolymers as biocompatible hydrogel matrices. Here, we report the engineering of this copolymer for use as an antibiotic delivery vehicle in surgical applications. We demonstrate that these hydrogels can be efficiently loaded with vancomycin (over 500 μg drug per mg hydrogel and this loading mechanism is both time- and charge-dependent. Vancomycin release kinetics are shown to be dependent on copolymer negative charge. In the first 6 hours, we achieved as low as 33.7% release. In the first 24 hours, under 80% of total loaded drug was released. Further, vancomycin release from this system can be extended past four days. Finally, we show that the antimicrobial activity of released vancomycin is equivalent to stock vancomycin in inhibiting the growth of colonies of a clinically derived strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, our work demonstrates that OPF/SMA hydrogels are appropriate candidates to deliver local antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis of surgical site infection.

  10. Controlled Delivery of Vancomycin via Charged Hydrogels. (United States)

    Gustafson, Carl T; Boakye-Agyeman, Felix; Brinkman, Cassandra L; Reid, Joel M; Patel, Robin; Bajzer, Zeljko; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J


    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains a significant risk for any clean orthopedic surgical procedure. Complications resulting from an SSI often require a second surgery and lengthen patient recovery time. The efficacy of antimicrobial agents delivered to combat SSI is diminished by systemic toxicity, bacterial resistance, and patient compliance to dosing schedules. We submit that development of localized, controlled release formulations for antimicrobial compounds would improve the effectiveness of prophylactic surgical wound antibiotic treatment while decreasing systemic side effects. Our research group developed and characterized oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate)/sodium methacrylate (OPF/SMA) charged copolymers as biocompatible hydrogel matrices. Here, we report the engineering of this copolymer for use as an antibiotic delivery vehicle in surgical applications. We demonstrate that these hydrogels can be efficiently loaded with vancomycin (over 500 μg drug per mg hydrogel) and this loading mechanism is both time- and charge-dependent. Vancomycin release kinetics are shown to be dependent on copolymer negative charge. In the first 6 hours, we achieved as low as 33.7% release. In the first 24 hours, under 80% of total loaded drug was released. Further, vancomycin release from this system can be extended past four days. Finally, we show that the antimicrobial activity of released vancomycin is equivalent to stock vancomycin in inhibiting the growth of colonies of a clinically derived strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, our work demonstrates that OPF/SMA hydrogels are appropriate candidates to deliver local antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis of surgical site infection.

  11. Agarose and methylcellulose hydrogel blends for nerve regeneration applications (United States)

    Martin, Benton C.; Minner, Eric J.; Wiseman, Sherri L.; Klank, Rebecca L.; Gilbert, Ryan J.


    Trauma sustained to the central nervous system is a debilitating problem for thousands of people worldwide. Neuronal regeneration within the central nervous system is hindered by several factors, making a multi-faceted approach necessary. Two factors contributing to injury are the irregular geometry of injured sites and the absence of tissue to hold potential nerve guides and drug therapies. Biocompatible hydrogels, injectable at room temperature, that rapidly solidify at physiological temperatures (37 °C) are beneficial materials that could hold nerve guidance channels in place and be loaded with therapeutic agents to aid wound healing. Our studies have shown that thermoreversible methylcellulose can be combined with agarose to create hydrogel blends that accommodate these properties. Three separate novel hydrogel blends were created by mixing methylcellulose with one of the three different agaroses. Gelation time tests show that the blends solidify at a faster rate than base methylcellulose at 37 °C. Rheological data showed that the elastic modulus of the hydrogel blends rapidly increases at 37 °C. Culturing experiments reveal that the morphology of dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons was not altered when the hydrogels were placed onto the cells. The different blends were further assessed using dissolution tests, pore size evaluations using scanning electron microscopy and measuring the force required for injection. This research demonstrates that blends of agarose and methylcellulose solidify much more quickly than plain methylcellulose, while solidifying at physiological temperatures where agarose cannot. These hydrogel blends, which solidify at physiological temperatures naturally, do not require ultraviolet light or synthetic chemical cross linkers to facilitate solidification. Thus, these hydrogel blends have potential use in delivering therapeutics and holding scaffolding in place within the nervous system.

  12. A new preclinical 3-dimensional agarose colony formation assay. (United States)

    Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Panchabhai, Sonali; Levin, Victor A


    The evaluation of new drug treatments and combination treatments for gliomas and other cancers requires a robust means to interrogate wide dose ranges and varying times of drug exposure without stain-inactivation of the cells (colonies). To this end, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) colony formation assay that makes use of GelCount technology, a new cell colony counter for gels and soft agars. We used U251MG, SNB19, and LNZ308 glioma cell lines and MiaPaCa pancreas adenocarcinoma and SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Colonies were grown in a two-tiered agarose that had 0.7% agarose on the bottom and 0.3% agarose on top. We then studied the effects of DFMO, carboplatin, and SAHA over a 3-log dose range and over multiple days of drug exposure. Using GelCount we approximated the area under the curve (AUC) of colony volumes as the sum of colony volumes (microm2xOD) in each plate to calculate IC50 values. Adenocarcinoma colonies were recognized by GelCount scanning at 3-4 days, while it took 6-7 days to detect glioma colonies. The growth rate of MiaPaCa and SW480 cells was rapid, with 100 colonies counted in 5-6 days; glioma cells grew more slowly, with 100 colonies counted in 9-10 days. Reliable log dose versus AUC curves were observed for all drugs studied. In conclusion, the GelCount method that we describe is more quantitative than traditional colony assays and allows precise study of drug effects with respect to both dose and time of exposure using fewer culture plates.

  13. Unobservable Problem of Target Tracking with Bearing-only Measurements in 3-dimensional Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-gang; SHENG An-dong


    The bearings-only tracking (BOT) system is said to be observability if and only if the target motion parameters can be uniquely determined by noise-free bearing measurements. By utilizing the method of orthogonal vectors and characteristic of linear matrix equation, the problem of observability for BOT in noise-free bearings measurements from single observer is discussed based on the target and observer traveling in the 3-dimensional space. A proposition that BOT for target and observer traveling in the 3-dimensional space with constant acceleration remains unsolvable is presented and proved. By proving the proposition, it is also shown that some motion parameter ratios of target can be estimated under certain condition satisfied by measurements and time samples. The proposition is extended to arbitrary rank of manoeuvre for the observer and the target, which BOT remains unobservable property while the rank of target manoeuvre is higher than that of the observer manoeuvre. The theoretical analysis of this paper provides the guidelines for how the observer trajectory should be formulated to avoid unobservable state for BOT in practice application.

  14. Performance of an in situ formed bioactive hydrogel dressing from a PEG-based hyperbranched multifunctional copolymer. (United States)

    Dong, Yixiao; Hassan, Waqar U; Kennedy, Robert; Greiser, Udo; Pandit, Abhay; Garcia, Yolanda; Wang, Wenxin


    Hydrogel dressings have been widely used for wound management due to their ability to maintain a hydrated wound environment, restore the skin's physical barrier and facilitate regular dressing replacement. However, the therapeutic functions of standard hydrogel dressings are restricted. In this study, an injectable hybrid hydrogel dressing system was prepared from a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based thermoresponsive hyperbranched multiacrylate functional copolymer and thiol-modified hyaluronic acid in combination with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The cell viability, proliferation and metabolic activity of the encapsulated ADSCs were studied in vitro, and a rat dorsal full-thickness wound model was used to evaluate this bioactive hydrogel dressing in vivo. It was found that long-term cell viability could be achieved for both in vitro (21days) and in vivo (14days) studies. With ADSCs, this hydrogel system prevented wound contraction and enhanced angiogenesis, showing the potential of this system as a bioactive hydrogel dressing for wound healing.

  15. Organic hydrogels as potential sorbent materials for water purification (United States)

    Linardatos, George; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Bokias, George


    the adsorption efficiency is the charge content of the hydrogel x, as well as the pH of the aqueous solution, since acrylic acid is a weak acid. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Archimedes III. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund; research project Archimedes III: "Synthesis and characterization of novel nanostructured materials and study of their use as water purification systems".

  16. Syneresis in agar hydrogels. (United States)

    Boral, Shilpi; Saxena, Anita; Bohidar, H B


    Agar hydrogels exhibit syneresis which creates internal osmotic stress on the physical network. It was observed that such a stress gives rise to characteristic pulsating modes (breathing modes). Experiments carried over a period of 60-day revealed that the network deformations grew monotonously when the solvent released by syneresis was removed periodically from gel surface. However, when the solvent was not withdrawn, the gel exhibited very slowly relaxing breathing modes. The swelling-deswelling dynamics has been discussed in the generalized framework of a dissipative damped oscillator.

  17. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N. Narayana, E-mail: [Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Healthcare, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia@CRIB, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci 53, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ravindra, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Reddy, N. Madhava [Department of Environmental Science, Gates Institute of Technology, NH-7, Gooty, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rajinikanth, V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Raju, K. Mohana [Synthetic Polymer Laboratory, Department of Polymer Science & Technology, S.K. University, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa)


    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies. - Highlights: • We have developed temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites. • Addition of AMPS monomer to this magnetic hydrogel enhances the temperature sensitivity to 40–43 °C. • Similarly the sulfonic groups present in the AMPS units enhances the swelling ratio of magnetic hydrogels. • AMPS acts as good stabilizing agent for nanoparticles in the magnetic nanogel.

  18. Silver(I-complexes with an itaconic acid-based hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićić Maja M.


    Full Text Available Silver(I itaconic acid-based hydrogel complexes were synthesized and characterized in order to examine the potential use of these systems; FTIR, AFM, in vitro fluid-uptake, metal sorption and antibacterial activity assay measurements were used for the characterization. Metal (silver(I ion uptaken by IA-based hydrogels was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The coordination sites for metal ions were identified and the stability in in vitro condition was determined. Incorporation of silver(I ions into hydrogels and the influence of these ions on the diffusion properties of hydrogels were analyzed and discussed, too; it was found that the itaconic acid moiety in hydrogels is the determining factor which influences metal ion binding and therefore fluid uptake inside the polymeric network. Furthermore, silver(I itaconic acid-based hydrogel showed a satisfactory antibacterial activity. The most advanced feature of these materials is that the silver ions embedded throughout the networks leaches out via controlled manner with time in aqueous media. Therefore, the ions escape from the swollen networks with time and interact with the bacteria. Because of a good dispersion of silver ions in Ag(I-P(HEMA/2IA hydrogel complex, we have evaluated the antibacterial activity for this sample. As expected, the number of colonies grown surrounding the Ag(I- -P(HEMA/2IA hydrogel complex was found to be almost nil, whereas the pure P(HEMA/2IA hydrogel did not show any effect on Escherichia coli. Therefore, we conclude that the Ag(I-P(HEMA/IA hydrogel complexes are excellent antibacterial materials. Due to these facts, the silver ion IA- -based hydrogel complexes reported here might be used as smart materials in the range of biomedical applications, including drug-delivery devices, biosensors, wound healing dressings, tissue reconstruction and organ repair.

  19. Synthesis and application of magnetic hydrogel for Cr(VI) removal from contaminated water

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Samuel C N


    Many magnetic adsorbents reported in the literature, such as iron oxides, for Cr(VI) removal have been found effective only in low pH environments. Moreover, the application of polymeric hydrogels on heavy metal removal has been hindered by difficulties in separation by filtration. In this study, a magnetic cationic hydrogel was synthesized for Cr(VI) removal from contaminated water, making use of the advantages of magnetic adsorbents and polymeric hydrogels. The magnetic hydrogel was produced by imbedding 10-nm γ-Fe2O 3 nanoparticles into the polymeric matrix via radical polymerization. Characterization of the hydrogel was undertaken with Fourier transform infrared and vibrating sample magnetometer; swelling properties were tested and anionic adsorption capacity was evaluated. The magnetic hydrogel showed a superior Cr(VI) removal capacity compared to commercial products such as MIEX®. Cr(VI) removal was independent of solution pH. Results show that Cr(VI) removal kinetics was improved drastically by grinding the bulk hydrogel into powder form. At relevant concentrations, common water anions (e.g., Cl-, SO4 2-, PO4 3-) and natural organic matter did not exhibit significant inhibition of Cr(VI) adsorption onto the hydrogel. Results of vibrating sample magnetometer indicate that the magnetic hydrogel can be easily separated from treatment systems. Regeneration of the magnetic hydrogel can be easily achieved by washing the Cr(VI)-loaded hydrogel with 0.5 M NaCl solution, with a recovery rate of about 90% of Cr(VI). © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010.

  20. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  1. On Exact Controllability of Networks of Nonlinear Elastic Strings in 3-Dimensional Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Günter R. LEUGERING; E. J. P. Georg SCHMIDT


    This paper concerns a system of nonlinear wave equations describing the vibrations of a 3-dimensional network of elastic strings.The authors derive the equations and appropriate nodal conditions,determine equilibrium solutions,and,by using the methods of quasilinear hyperbolic systems,prove that for tree networks the natural initial,bound-ary value problem has classical solutions existing in neighborhoods of the "stretched" equilibrium solutions.Then the local controllability of such networks near such equilibrium configurations in a certain specified time interval is proved.Finally,it is proved that,given two different equilibrium states satisfying certain conditions,it is possible to control the network from states in a small enough neighborhood of one equilibrium to any state in a suitable neighborhood of the second equilibrium over a sufficiently large time interval.

  2. Nata de coco (NDC) hydrogel as nanoreactors for preparation iron nanoparticles (FeNps) from ferrocenium reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarini, Mellissa; Lazim, Azwan [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    This study focuses on hydrogel as nano template to produce iron nanoparticles (FeNps). Radical polymerization was used to synthesize the hydrogel from nata de coco (NDC-g-PAA). Ferrocenium (FcCL) with 1 × 10{sup −4} g/ml has successfully incorporated with NDC-g-PAA hydrogel system and reduce using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at different concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result demonstrates that the size of FeNps produced was about 5 – 20 nm. Morphological analysis of hydrogel is carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-EDEX is used to determine percentage of iron (Fe) in hydrogel. The results offer a wide range of application in various areas, especially the use of hydrogel system as a responsive template.

  3. Study of polymeric hydrogels with inorganic nanoparticles of clay; Estudo de hidrogeis polimericos com nanoparticulas inorganicas de argila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose A. de; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CQMA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente; Amato, Valdir S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Divisao de Clinica de Molestias Infecciosas e Parasitarias


    Nanoscience has been applied in research of intelligent systems for drug delivery. The use of biodegradable synthetic polymers and in diagnostics and therapy has stimulated the application of nanotechnology in polymeric systems with new structures and new materials composing among these materials are hydrogels. Hydrogel with dispersed clay is a new class of materials that combine flexible and permeability of the hydrogels with the high efficiency of the clay to adsorb different substances. We evaluated the behaviour of swelling, gel fraction and thermal stability among the hydrogels obtained by poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) with clay and poly (N-2-vinyl-pyrrolidone) (PVP) with clay. While, observed that the hydrogels showed swelling clay PVAl meaningful, the clay PVP hydrogels showed swelling more consistent after four hours of testing.

  4. Myocardial matrix-polyethylene glycol hybrid hydrogels for tissue engineering (United States)

    Grover, Gregory N.; Rao, Nikhil; Christman, Karen L.


    Similar to other protein-based hydrogels, extracellular matrix (ECM) based hydrogels, derived from decellularized tissues, have a narrow range of mechanical properties and are rapidly degraded. These hydrogels contain natural cellular adhesion sites, form nanofibrous networks similar to native ECM, and are biodegradable. In this study, we expand the properties of these types of materials by incorporating poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into the ECM network. We use decellularized myocardial matrix as an example of a tissue specific ECM derived hydrogel. Myocardial matrix-PEG hybrids were synthesized by two different methods, cross-linking the proteins with an amine-reactive PEG-star and photo-induced radical polymerization of two different multi-armed PEG-acrylates. We show that both methods allow for conjugation of PEG to the myocardial matrix by gel electrophoresis and infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the hybrid materials still contain a nanofibrous network similar to unmodified myocardial matrix and that the fiber diameter is changed by the method of PEG incorporation and PEG molecular weight. PEG conjugation also decreased the rate of enzymatic degradation in vitro, and increased material stiffness. Hybrids synthesized with amine-reactive PEG had gelation rates of 30 min, similar to the unmodified myocardial matrix, and incorporation of PEG did not prevent cell adhesion and migration through the hydrogels, thus offering the possibility to have an injectable ECM hydrogel that degrades more slowly in vivo. The photo-polymerized radical systems gelled in 4 min upon irradiation, allowing 3D encapsulation and culture of cells, unlike the soft unmodified myocardial matrix. This work demonstrates that PEG incorporation into ECM-based hydrogels can expand material properties, thereby opening up new possibilities for in vitro and in vivo applications.

  5. Bioactive polyacrylamide hydrogels with gradients in mechanical stiffness. (United States)

    Diederich, Vincent E G; Studer, Peter; Kern, Anita; Lattuada, Marco; Storti, Giuseppe; Sharma, Ram I; Snedeker, Jess G; Morbidelli, Massimo


    We propose a novel, single step method for the production of polyacrylamide hydrogels with a gradient in mechanical properties. In contrast to already existing techniques such as UV photo-polymerization with photomasks (limited penetration depth) or microfluidic gradient mixers (complex microfluidic chip), this technique is not suffering such limitations. Young's modulus of the hydrogels was varied by changing the total monomer concentration of the hydrogel precursor solution. Using programmable syringe pumps, the total monomer concentration in the solution fed to the hydrogel mold was varied from 16 wt% down to 5 wt% over the feeding time to obtain a gradient in compliance ranging from 150 kPa down to 20 kPa over a length of 10 mm down to 2.5 mm. Polymerization was achieved with the dual initiation system composed of ammonium persulfate and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, which were both fed through separate capillaries to avoid premature polymerization. Functionalized with the model ligand collagen I, the substrates were bioactive and supported the attachment of human foreskin fibroblasts (around 30% of the cells seeded attached after 1 h). A kinetic morphology study on homogeneous hydrogels of different stiffness's indicated that fibroblasts tend to spread to their final size within 2 h on stiff substrates, while the spreading time was much longer (ca. 4-5 h) on soft substrates. These trends were confirmed on hydrogels with compliance gradients, showing well spread fibroblasts on the stiff end of the hydrogel after 2 h, while the cells on the soft end still had small area and rounded morphology.

  6. Current hydrogel solutions for repairing and regeneration of complex tissues. (United States)

    Wang, Y; Cai, Li-Quan; Nugraha, B; Gao, Y; Leo, H L


    Hydrogel system, as one of the most important biomaterials, is widely studied because of its tremendous potential in regenerative medicine conferred by its wide range of malleable biochemical and physical characteristics, which include its biocompatibility with the elemental biomolecules in vital tissues, its high water retention capability and adjustable soft-tissue-like physicochemical properties. These properties are modifiable to facilitate the targeted tissue protected from external damaging disturbance and having the encapsulated cells' physiology-functional phenotypes induced or maintained in situ. Recently, hydrogels are increasingly used in the R&D of regenerative medicine to build complex tissue. Most of the insightful work focuses on how to select and fabricate the hydrogel models with desired physicochemical properties, flexibility of auto response to various bio-stimuli, and capability of efficiently forming the complex tissue-mimicking construct at different scales. The present review introduced the major types of hydrogeis, the desirable physicochemical properties, the current fabrication methodologies and special organ-based cases of applications of hydrogels, which are used in complex tissue engineering. In addition, this review also discussed the major hurdles faced by the R&D of hydrogel systems for complex tissue medicine.

  7. Improved PNIPAAm-Hydrogel Photopatterning by Process Optimisation with Respect to UV Light Sources and Oxygen Content


    Sebastian Haefner; Mathias Rohn; Philipp Frank; Georgi Paschew; Martin Elstner; Andreas Richter


    Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) hydrogels, known for their sensor and actuator capabilities, can be photolithographically structured for microsystem applications. For usage in microsystems, the preparation, and hence the characteristics, of these hydrogels (e.g., degree of swelling, size, cooperative diffusion coefficient) are key features, and have to be as reproducible as possible. A common method of hydrogel fabrication is free radical polymerisation using a thermally-initiated system...

  8. Direct-write graded index materials realized in protein hydrogels (United States)

    Kaehr, Bryan; Scrymgeour, David A.


    The ability to create optical materials with arbitrary index distributions would prove transformative for optics design and applications. However, current fabrication techniques for graded index (GRIN) materials rely on diffusion profiles and therefore are unable to realize arbitrary distribution GRIN design. Here, we demonstrate the laser direct writing of graded index structures in protein-based hydrogels using multiphoton lithography. We show index changes spanning a range of 10-2, which is comparable with laser densified glass and polymer systems. Further, we demonstrate the conversion of these written density variation structures into SiO2, opening up the possibility of transforming GRIN hydrogels to a wide range of material systems.

  9. Synthetically simple, highly resilient hydrogels. (United States)

    Cui, Jun; Lackey, Melissa A; Madkour, Ahmad E; Saffer, Erika M; Griffin, David M; Bhatia, Surita R; Crosby, Alfred J; Tew, Gregory N


    Highly resilient synthetic hydrogels were synthesized by using the efficient thiol-norbornene chemistry to cross-link hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer chains. The swelling and mechanical properties of the hydrogels were controlled by the relative amounts of PEG and PDMS. The fracture toughness (G(c)) was increased to 80 J/m(2) as the water content of the hydrogel decreased from 95% to 82%. In addition, the mechanical energy storage efficiency (resilience) was more than 97% at strains up to 300%. This is comparable with one of the most resilient materials known: natural resilin, an elastic protein found in many insects, such as in the tendons of fleas and the wings of dragonflies. The high resilience of these hydrogels can be attributed to the well-defined network structure provided by the versatile chemistry, low cross-link density, and lack of secondary structure in the polymer chains.

  10. Biodegradable DNA-enabled poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels prepared by copper-free click chemistry. (United States)

    Barker, Karolyn; Rastogi, Shiva K; Dominguez, Jose; Cantu, Travis; Brittain, William; Irvin, Jennifer; Betancourt, Tania


    Significant research has focused on investigating the potential of hydrogels in various applications and, in particular, in medicine. Specifically, hydrogels that are biodegradable lend promise to many therapeutic and biosensing applications. Endonucleases are critical for mechanisms of DNA repair. However, they are also known to be overexpressed in cancer and to be present in wounds with bacterial contamination. In this work, we set out to demonstrate the preparation of DNA-enabled hydrogels that could be degraded by nucleases. Specifically, hydrogels were prepared through the reaction of dibenzocyclooctyne-functionalized multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) with azide-functionalized single-stranded DNA in aqueous solutions via copper-free click chemistry. Through the use of this method, biodegradable hydrogels were formed at room temperature in buffered saline solutions that mimic physiological conditions, avoiding possible harmful effects associated with other polymerization techniques that can be detrimental to cells or other bioactive molecules. The degradation of these DNA-cross-linked hydrogels upon exposure to the model endonucleases Benzonase(®) and DNase I was studied. In addition, the ability of the hydrogels to act as depots for encapsulation and nuclease-controlled release of a model protein was demonstrated. This model has the potential to be tailored and expanded upon for use in a variety of applications where mild hydrogel preparation techniques and controlled material degradation are necessary including in drug delivery and wound healing systems.

  11. Self-healing polysaccharide-based hydrogels as injectable carriers for neural stem cells (United States)

    Wei, Zhao; Zhao, Jingyi; Chen, Yong Mei; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Qiqing


    Self-healing injectable hydrogels can be formulated as three-dimensional carriers for the treatment of neurological diseases with desirable advantages, such as avoiding the potential risks of cell loss during injection, protecting cells from the shearing force of injection. However, the demands for biocompatible self-healing injectable hydrogels to meet above requirements and to promote the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neurons remain a challenge. Herein, we developed a biocompatible self-healing polysaccharide-based hydrogel system as a novel injectable carrier for the delivery of NSCs. N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) and oxidized sodium alginate (OSA) are the main backbones of the hydrogel networks, denoted as CEC-l-OSA hydrogel (“l” means “linked-by”). Owing to the dynamic imine cross-links formed by a Schiff reaction between amino groups on CEC and aldehyde groups on OSA, the hydrogel possesses the ability to self-heal into a integrity after being injected from needles under physiological conditions. The CEC-l-OSA hydrogel in which the stiffness mimicking nature brain tissues (100~1000 Pa) can be finely tuned to support the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. The multi-functional, injectable, and self-healing CEC-l-OSA hydrogels hold great promises for NSC transplantation and further treatment of neurological diseases.

  12. Construction of Modular Hydrogel Sheets for Micropatterned Macro-scaled 3D Cellular Architecture. (United States)

    Son, Jaejung; Bae, Chae Yun; Park, Je-Kyun


    Hydrogels can be patterned at the micro-scale using microfluidic or micropatterning technologies to provide an in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) tissue geometry. The resulting 3D hydrogel-based cellular constructs have been introduced as an alternative to animal experiments for advanced biological studies, pharmacological assays and organ transplant applications. Although hydrogel-based particles and fibers can be easily fabricated, it is difficult to manipulate them for tissue reconstruction. In this video, we describe a fabrication method for micropatterned alginate hydrogel sheets, together with their assembly to form a macro-scale 3D cell culture system with a controlled cellular microenvironment. Using a mist form of the calcium gelling agent, thin hydrogel sheets are easily generated with a thickness in the range of 100 - 200 µm, and with precise micropatterns. Cells can then be cultured with the geometric guidance of the hydrogel sheets in freestanding conditions. Furthermore, the hydrogel sheets can be readily manipulated using a micropipette with an end-cut tip, and can be assembled into multi-layered structures by stacking them using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) frame. These modular hydrogel sheets, which can be fabricated using a facile process, have potential applications of in vitro drug assays and biological studies, including functional studies of micro- and macrostructure and tissue reconstruction.

  13. Green roofs for a drier world: effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status. (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea


    Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8 cm or 12 cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8 cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5 months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends.

  14. Synthesis and properties of waterborne polyurethane hydrogels for wound healing dressings. (United States)

    Yoo, Hye-Jin; Kim, Han-Do


    To accomplish ideal wound healing dressing, a series of waterborne polyurethane (WBPU) hydrogels based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) were synthesized by polyaddition reaction in an emulsion system. The stable WBPU hydrogels which have remaining weight of above 85% were obtained. The effect of the soft segment (PEG) content on water absorbability of WBPU hydrogels was investigated. Water absorption % and equilibrium water content (%) of the WBPU hydrogel significantly increased in proportion to PEG content and the time of water-immersion. The maximum water absorption % and equilibrium water content (%) of WBPU hydrogels containing various PEG contents were in the range of 409-810% and 85-96%, respectively. The water vapor transmission rate of the WBPU hydrogels was found to be in the range of 1490-3118 g/m(2)/day. These results suggest that the WBPU hydrogels prepared in this study may have high potential as new wound dressing materials, which provide and maintain the adequate moist environment required to prevent scab formation and dehydration of the wound bed. By the wound healing evaluation using full-thickness rat model experiment, it was found that the wound covered with a typical WBPU hydrogel (HG-78 sample) was completely filled with new epithelium without any significant adverse reactions.

  15. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications (United States)

    Reddy, N. Narayana; Ravindra, S.; Reddy, N. Madhava; Rajinikanth, V.; Raju, K. Mohana; Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu


    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies.

  16. Comparison of two hydrogel formulations for drug release in ophthalmic lenses. (United States)

    Paradiso, P; Galante, R; Santos, L; Alves de Matos, A P; Colaço, R; Serro, A P; Saramago, B


    In the present work two types of polymers were investigated as drug releasing contact lens materials: a poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based hydrogel and a silicone hydrogel. The silicone hydrogel resulted from the addition of TRIS, a hydrophobic monomer containing silicon (3-tris(trimethylsilyloxy)silylpropyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate), to pHEMA. Both hydrogels were loaded with an antibiotic (levofloxacin) and an antiseptic (chlorhexidine) by soaking in the drug solutions. The hydrogel properties were determined to be within the range demanded for lens materials. The release profiles of both drugs from the hydrogels were obtained and eventual drug/polymer interactions were assessed with the help of Raman spectra. A mathematical model, developed to mimic the eye conditions, was applied to the experimental results in order to predict the in vivo efficacy of the studied systems. The release profiles were compared with those resulting from the application of commercial eyedrops. The pHEMA based hydrogel demonstrated to be the best material to achieve a controlled release of levofloxacin. In the case of chlorhexidine, the silicone hydrogel seems to lead to better results. In both cases, our results suggest that these materials are adequate for the preparation of daily disposable therapeutic contact lenses.

  17. Hydrogel Macroporosity and the Prolongation of Transgene Expression and the Enhancement of Angiogenesis (United States)

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Virani, Farrukh R.; Goodman, Ashley G.; Gossett, Timothy D.; Shin, Seungjin; Shea, Lonnie D.


    The utility of hydrogels for regenerative medicine can be improved through localized gene delivery to enhance their bioactivity. However, current systems typically lead to low-level transgene expression located in host tissue surrounding the implant. Herein, we investigated the inclusion of macropores into hydrogels to facilitate cell ingrowth and enhance gene delivery within the macropores in vivo. Macropores were created within PEG hydrogels by gelation around gelatin microspheres, with gelatin subsequently dissolved by incubation at 37°C. The macropores were interconnected, as evidenced by homogeneous cell seeding in vitro and complete cell infiltration in vivo. Lentivirus loaded within hydrogels following gelation retained its activity relative to the unencapsulated control virus. In vivo, macroporous PEG demonstrated sustained, elevated levels of transgene expression for 6 weeks, while hydrogels without macropores had transient expression. Transduced cells were located throughout the macroporous structure, while non-macroporous PEG hydrogels had transduction only in the adjacent host tissue. Delivery of lentivirus encoding for VEGF increased vascularization relative to the control, with vessels throughout the macropores of the hydrogel. The inclusion of macropores within the hydrogel to enhance cell infiltration enhances transduction and influences tissue development, which has implications for multiple regenerative medicine applications. PMID:22800542

  18. Hydrogel-Based Nanocomposites and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Promising Synergistic Strategy for Neurodegenerative Disorders Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Albani


    Full Text Available Hydrogel-based materials are widely employed in the biomedical field. With regard to central nervous system (CNS neurodegenerative disorders, the design of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels for in situ drug or cell release represents an interesting and minimally invasive solution that might play a key role in the development of successful treatments. In particular, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels can be designed as specific injectable tools and loaded with nanoparticles (NPs, to improve and to tailor their viscoelastic properties upon injection and release profile. An intriguing application is hydrogel loading with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that are a very promising therapeutic tool for neurodegenerative or traumatic disorders of the CNS. This multidisciplinary review will focus on the basic concepts to design acellular and cell-loaded materials with specific and tunable rheological and functional properties. The use of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and mesenchymal stem cells as a synergistic strategy for nervous tissue applications will be then discussed.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(N-Vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone/Itaconic Acid) Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锦棠; 李伶; 李雄勇; 刘冰


    With N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and itaconic acid(IA), poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid)[P(NVP/IA)] hydrogel was synthesized by free radical solution polymerization. The structure of this P(NVP/IA) was characterized by IR. Effects of concentration of itaconic acid, amount of cross-link agent, N,N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide, reaction temperature, and time on properties of swelling ratio(SR) of the hydrogel were investigated.The results show that the best swelling property of the hydrogel is obtained at 50 ℃ and 1.5 h. pH sensitivity increases as the concentration of itaconic acid in the hydrogel system increases. Swelling ratio of the hydrogel decreases as the amount of cross-link agent increases.

  20. Microstructured dextran hydrogels for burst-free sustained release of PEGylated protein drugs. (United States)

    Bae, Ki Hyun; Lee, Fan; Xu, Keming; Keng, Choong Tat; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Yee Joo; Chen, Qingfeng; Kurisawa, Motoichi


    Hydrogels have gained significant attention as ideal delivery vehicles for protein drugs. However, the use of hydrogels for protein delivery has been restricted because their porous structures inevitably cause a premature leakage of encapsulated proteins. Here, we report a simple yet effective approach to regulate the protein release kinetics of hydrogels through the creation of microstructures, which serve as a reservoir, releasing their payloads in a controlled manner. Microstructured dextran hydrogels enable burst-free sustained release of PEGylated interferon over 3 months without compromising its bioactivity. These hydrogels substantially extend the circulation half-life of PEGylated interferon, allowing for less frequent dosing in a humanized mouse model of hepatitis C. The present approach opens up possibilities for the development of sustained protein delivery systems for a broad range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  1. Intelligent Layout Method of the Powerhouse for Tank & Armored Vehicles Based on 3-Dimensional Rectangular Packing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-long; MAO Ming; LU Yi-ping; BIE Jie-min


    Probes into a new and effective method in arranging the powerhouses of tank & armored vehicles. Theory and method of 3-dimensional rectangular packing are adapted to arrange effectively almost all the systems and components in the powerhouse of the vehicle, thus the study can be regarded as an attempt for the theory's engineering applications in the field of tank & armored vehicle design. It is proved that most parts of the solutions attained are reasonable, and some of the solutions are innovative.

  2. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin. (United States)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi


    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43N/mm(2) and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference.

  3. In situ Gelation of Monodisperse Alginate Hydrogel in Microfluidic Channel Based on Mass Transfer of Calcium Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, YoungShin; Lee, Chang-Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A microfluidic method for the in situ production of monodispersed alginate hydrogels using biocompatible polymer gelation by crosslinker mass transfer is described. Gelation of the hydrogel was achieved in situ by the dispersed calcium ion in the microfluidic device. The capillary number (Ca) and the flow rate of the disperse phase which are important operating parameters mainly influenced the formation of three distinctive flow regions, such as dripping, jetting, and unstable dripping. Under the formation of dripping region, monodispersed alginate hydrogels having a narrow size distribution (C.V=2.71%) were produced in the microfluidic device and the size of the hydrogels, ranging from 30 to 60 µm, could be easily controlled by varying the flow rate, viscosity, and interfacial tension. This simple microfluidic method for the production of monodisperse alginate hydrogels shows strong potential for use in delivery systems of foods, cosmetics, inks, and drugs, and spherical alginate hydrogels which have biocompatibility will be applied to cell transplantation.

  4. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity. (United States)

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian


    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage.

  5. Hydrogel films and coatings by swelling-induced gelation. (United States)

    Moreau, David; Chauvet, Caroline; Etienne, François; Rannou, François P; Corté, Laurent


    Hydrogel films used as membranes or coatings are essential components of devices interfaced with biological systems. Their design is greatly challenged by the need to find mild synthesis and processing conditions that preserve their biocompatibility and the integrity of encapsulated compounds. Here, we report an approach to produce hydrogel films spontaneously in aqueous polymer solutions. This method uses the solvent depletion created at the surface of swelling polymer substrates to induce the gelation of a thin layer of polymer solution. Using a biocompatible polymer that self-assembles at high concentration [poly(vinyl alcohol)], hydrogel films were produced within minutes to hours with thicknesses ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers. A simple model and numerical simulations of mass transport during swelling capture the experiments and predict how film growth depends on the solution composition, substrate geometry, and swelling properties. The versatility of the approach was verified with a variety of swelling substrates and hydrogel-forming solutions. We also demonstrate the potential of this technique by incorporating other solutes such as inorganic particles to fabricate ceramic-hydrogel coatings for bone anchoring and cells to fabricate cell-laden membranes for cell culture or tissue engineering.

  6. Viscoelastic Behavior and Adhesion of Ionic Alginate Hydrogels (United States)

    Webber, Rebecca; Shull, Kenneth


    Transient networks, polymer gels in which the physical crosslinks can be broken and recovered, have been of recent interest to the scientific community, especially due to their potential as soft, dissipative materials for biomedical applications. Alginates, naturally derived linear copolymers of mannuronic and guluronic acid residues, can form hydrogels in the presence of divalent ions. Alginate gels have been studied extensively and are useful model systems to elucidate the mechanisms behind the mechanical behavior of reversibly associating polymers. In this study, alginate hydrogels were formed by the addition of Ca ions to an aqueous solution of sodium alginate. The rheological and mechanical behavior of the hydrogels was studied using an axisymmetric probe tack apparatus with stress relaxation and cyclic movement capabilities. These hydrogels behave elastically at small strains and become viscoelastic at large strains, supporting transient network theories. During cyclic loading tests, it was found that the alginate hydrogels exhibit time-dependent adhesion. The effects of humidity, aging and ion exchange on the gel properties were also investigated.

  7. Tunable drug delivery using chemoselective functionalization of hydrogels. (United States)

    Mauri, Emanuele; Rossi, Filippo; Sacchetti, Alessandro


    In the last decades interests on cleavable linkers are growing due to the need to develop controlled drug delivery systems in biochemical and therapeutic applications. The synthesis of hydrogels as devices capable to maintain the drug level within a desired range for a long and sustained period of time is a leading strategy for this aim. However with respect to the good results obtained with antibodies and peptides there are a lot of problems related to the quick and uncontrolled diffusion of small molecules through hydrogel pores. In this work, we propose the functionalization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains with two different pH-sensitive linkers, ester and hydrazone, and their application as building blocks of microwave-assisted hydrogels for controlled delivery of small hydrophilic drugs. As drug mimetic we used Rhodamine B, a harmless fluorophore with steric hindrance and reactive groups similar to many small hydrophilic drugs. At physiological and low basic conditions, the cleavability of ester and hydrazone spacer evidenced the possibility to delay the release of drugs from the scaffold compared to hydrogels where drug was entrapped within the network only due to its steric hindrance. The obtained release profiles were compared, underlining the opportunity to tune the release rate using the synthesized hydrogels.

  8. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  9. Gamma ray-induced synthesis of hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications (United States)

    Zhao, Linlin; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, So Yeon


    Hyaluronic acid (HA)/chondroitin sulfate (CS)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel systems were synthesized by gamma-ray irradiation without the use of additional initiators or crosslinking agents to achieve a biocompatible hydrogel system for skin tissue engineering. HA and CS derivatives with polymerizable residues were synthesized. Then, the hydrogels composed of glycosaminoglycans, HA, CS, and a synthetic ionic polymer, PAAc, were prepared using gamma-ray irradiation through simultaneous free radical copolymerization and crosslinking. The physicochemical properties of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels having various compositions were investigated to evaluate their feasibility as artificial skin substitutes. The gel fractions of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels increased in absorbed doses up to 15 kGy, and they exhibited 91-93% gel fractions under 15 kGy radiation. All of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels exhibited relatively high water contents of over 90% and reached an equilibrium swelling state within 24 h. The enzymatic degradation kinetics of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels depended on both the concentration of the hyaluronidase solution and the ratio of HA/CS/PAAc. The in vitro drug release profiles of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels were significantly influenced by the interaction between the ionic groups in the hydrogels and the ionic drug molecules as well as the swelling of the hydrogels. From the cytotoxicity results of human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells cultured with extracts of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels, all of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogel samples tested showed relatively high cell viabilities of more than 82%, and did not induce any significant adverse effects on cell viability.

  10. Patterns in swelling hydrogels (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Bertrand, Thibault; Peixinho, Jorge; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek


    Swelling is a process in which a porous material spontaneously grows by absorbing additional pore fluid. Polymeric hydrogels are highly deformable materials that can experience very large volume changes during swelling. This allows a small amount of dry gel to absorb a large amount of fluid, making gels extremely useful in applications from moisture control to drug delivery. However, a well-known consequence of these extreme volume changes is the emergence of a striking morphological instability. We study the transient mechanics of this instability here by combining a theoretical model with a series of simple experiments, focusing on the extent to which this instability can be controlled by manipulating the rate of swelling.

  11. Surface chemistry and size influence the release of model therapeutic nanoparticles from poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Jeerage, Kavita M., E-mail: [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, Material Measurement Laboratory (United States)


    Nanoparticles have emerged as promising therapeutic and diagnostic tools, due to their unique physicochemical properties. The specific core and surface chemistries, as well as nanoparticle size, play critical roles in particle transport and interaction with biological tissue. Localized delivery of therapeutics from hydrogels is well established, but these systems generally release molecules with hydrodynamic radii less than {approx}5 nm. Here, model nanoparticles with biologically relevant surface chemistries and diameters between 10 and 35 nm are analyzed for their release from well-characterized hydrogels. Functionalized gold nanoparticles or quantum dots were encapsulated in three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with varying mesh size. Nanoparticle size, surface chemistry, and hydrogel mesh size all influenced the release of particles from the hydrogel matrix. Size influenced nanoparticle release as expected, with larger particles releasing at a slower rate. However, citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles were not released from hydrogels. Negatively charged carboxyl or positively charged amine-functionalized quantum dots were released from hydrogels at slower rates than neutrally charged PEGylated nanoparticles of similar size. Transmission electron microscopy images of gold nanoparticles embedded within hydrogel sections demonstrated uniform particle distribution and negligible aggregation, independent of surface chemistry. The nanoparticle-hydrogel interactions observed in this work will aid in the development of localized nanoparticle delivery systems.

  12. Surface chemistry and size influence the release of model therapeutic nanoparticles from poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels (United States)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Jeerage, Kavita M.


    Nanoparticles have emerged as promising therapeutic and diagnostic tools, due to their unique physicochemical properties. The specific core and surface chemistries, as well as nanoparticle size, play critical roles in particle transport and interaction with biological tissue. Localized delivery of therapeutics from hydrogels is well established, but these systems generally release molecules with hydrodynamic radii less than 5 nm. Here, model nanoparticles with biologically relevant surface chemistries and diameters between 10 and 35 nm are analyzed for their release from well-characterized hydrogels. Functionalized gold nanoparticles or quantum dots were encapsulated in three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with varying mesh size. Nanoparticle size, surface chemistry, and hydrogel mesh size all influenced the release of particles from the hydrogel matrix. Size influenced nanoparticle release as expected, with larger particles releasing at a slower rate. However, citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles were not released from hydrogels. Negatively charged carboxyl or positively charged amine-functionalized quantum dots were released from hydrogels at slower rates than neutrally charged PEGylated nanoparticles of similar size. Transmission electron microscopy images of gold nanoparticles embedded within hydrogel sections demonstrated uniform particle distribution and negligible aggregation, independent of surface chemistry. The nanoparticle-hydrogel interactions observed in this work will aid in the development of localized nanoparticle delivery systems.

  13. In Vivo Bioorthogonal Chemistry Enables Local Hydrogel and Systemic Pro-Drug To Treat Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)


    The ability to activate drugs only at desired locations avoiding systemic immunosuppression and other dose limiting toxicities is highly desirable. Here we present a new approach, named local drug activation, that uses bioorthogonal chemistry to concentrate and activate systemic small molecules at a location of choice. This method is independent of endogenous cellular or environmental markers and only depends on the presence of a preimplanted biomaterial near a desired site (e.g., tumor). We demonstrate the clear therapeutic benefit with minimal side effects of this approach in mice over systemic therapy using a doxorubicin pro-drug against xenograft tumors of a type of soft tissue sarcoma (HT1080). PMID:27504494

  14. A Smart pH-Responsive Three Components Luminescent Hydrogel (United States)

    Li, Yibao; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Linxiu; Huang, Ping; Peng, Yu; Wu, Yongquan; Li, Xun; Li, Xiaokang; Fan, Xiaolin


    In this study, we report a novel three-component luminescent hydrogel, which is composed of amino acid derivatives (N,N′-di valine-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid, NVPD), riboflavin (RF), and melamine (MM). The three-component hydrogel is attributed to multiple hydrogen bonds and the strong π-π stacking interaction between these molecules. Based on the strong hydrogen bonding of the gelator, when the reversible process between the gel and the solution take places it changes the pH of the system from 6.1 to 10.6. In addition, green fluorescence could be the emissive of the hydrogel under 498 nm and the conversion process of the aggregation state repeated reversibly by altering the value of ambient pH. This pH-responsive luminescent gel may display potential for use in nano pH sensors. PMID:27626452

  15. Synthesis of Chitosan /Alginate/ Silver Nanoparticles Hydrogel Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Roslinda Hani


    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and synthesis of natural based hydrogel scaffold with an inclusion of AgNPs, chitosan/alginate/silver nanoparticles. The synthesised hydrogel scaffolds were characterised by using Fourier Transform Infrared Resonance Spectroscopy (FTIR. The FTIR result revealed that the shifting of the three peaks of 3252.95 cm−1 (–OH and –NH2 stretching, 1591.33 cm−1 (C=O stretching and 1411.88 cm−1 (N–H stretching of chitosan/alginate/silver nanoparticles in compared to chitosan/alginate hydrogel indicating the presence of electrostatic interaction of –NH3+ in chitosan reacted with the – COO– group of alginate and binding of the silver (Ag. These results indicated that chitosan/alginate/silver nanoparticles were consolidated in the composite system.

  16. Comparison of chitosan nanoparticles and chitosan hydrogels for vaccine delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Sarah; Saupe, Anne; McBurney, Warren


    In this work the potential of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) and thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels as particulate and sustained release vaccine delivery systems was investigated. CNP and chitosan hydrogels were prepared, loaded with the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and characterised...... of the release of fluorescently-labelled OVA (FITC-OVA) from CNP and chitosan hydrogels in-vitro showed that approximately 50% of the total protein was released from CNP within a period of ten days; release of antigen from chitosan gel occurred in a more sustained manner, with ... released after 10 days. The slow release from gel formulations may be explained by the strong interactions of the protein with chitosan. While OVA-loaded CNP showed no significant immunogenicity, formulations of OVA in chitosan gel were able to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in-vivo....

  17. A Coarse-Grained Model for Simulating Chitosan Hydrogels (United States)

    Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina

    Hydrogels are biologically-derived materials composed of water-filled cross-linking polymer chains. It has widely been used as biodegradable material and has many applications in medical devices. The chitosan hydrogel is stimuli-responsive for undergoing pH-sensitive self-assembly process, allowing programmable tuning of the chitosan deposition through electric pulse. To explore the self-assembly mechanism of chitosan hydroge, we have developed an explicit-solvent coarse-grained chitosan model that has roots in the MARTINI force field, and the pH change is modeled by protonating chitosan chains using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The mechanism of hydrogel network formation will be presented. The self-assembled polymer network qualitatively reproduce many experimental observables such as the pH-dependent strain-stress curve, bulk moduli, and structure factor. Our model is also capable of simulating other similar polyelectrolyte polymer systems.

  18. Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Baniasadi


    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and the mechanical characterization of an alginate-collagen fibril composite hydrogel. Native type I collagen fibrils were used to synthesize the fibrous composite hydrogel. We characterized the mechanical properties of the fabricated fibrous hydrogel using tensile testing; rheometry and atomic force microscope (AFM-based nanoindentation experiments. The results show that addition of type I collagen fibrils improves the rheological and indentation properties of the hydrogel.

  19. Preparation and characterization of gelatin-poly(methacrylic acid interpenetrating polymeric network hydrogels as a ph-sensitive delivery system for glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta N


    Full Text Available In the present study, interpenetrating polymeric network hydrogels of glipizide were prepared using gelatin and methacrylic acid. Methacrylic acid was polymerized using potassium persulfate. Methacrylic acid was crosslinked with methylene bisacrylamide and gelatin was crosslinked using glutaraldehyde. Four formulations were prepared by varying the concentrations of methacrylic acid, methylene bisacrylamide and glutaraldehyde. The amounts of gelatin and potassium persulfate were kept constant in all the formulations. The interpenetrating polymeric network hydrogels were characterized by fourier transform infrared analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and evaluated for swelling and deswelling properties, drug loading and in vitro drug release. All the formulations showed no interaction between drug and polymer as confirmed by fourier transform infrared analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies. The interpenetrating polymeric network hydrogels swelled only in alkaline pH and swelling was minimal in acidic pH. It was found that as the concentration of cross-linking agents is increased, there is a decrease in swelling and, as the concentration of methacrylic acid is increased, there is an increase in swelling. The release data shows that, as the concentration of methacrylic acid was increased, swelling increased resulting in increased release of the drug.

  20. Elastic hydrogel substrate supports robust expansion of murine myoblasts and enhances their engraftment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ke, E-mail: [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Yang, Zhong [Department of Clinical Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Jian-zhong, E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Lin, Sen [Department of Anatomy and Histology & Embryology, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610500 (China)


    The application of satellite cell-derived myoblasts in regenerative medicine has been restricted by the rapid loss of stemness during in vitro cell expansion using traditional culture systems. However, studies published in the past decade have highlighted the influence of substrate elasticity on stem cell fate and revealed that culture on a soft hydrogel substrate can promote self-renewal and prolong the regenerative potential of muscle stem cells. Whether hydrogel substrates have similar effects after long-term robust expansion remains to be determined. Herein we prepared an elastic chitosan/beta-glycerophosphate/collagen hydrogel mimicking the soft microenvironment of muscle tissues for use as the substrate for satellite cell culture and investigated its influence on long-term cell expansion. After 20 passages in culture, satellite cell-derived myoblasts cultured on our hydrogel substrate exhibited significant improvements in proliferation capability, cell viability, colony forming frequency, and potential for myogenic differentiation compared to those cultured on a routine rigid culture surface. Immunochemical staining and western blot analysis both confirmed that myoblasts cultured on the hydrogel substrate expressed higher levels of several differentiation-related markers, including Pax7, Pax3, and SSEA-1, and a lower level of MyoD compared to myoblasts cultured on rigid culture plates (all p<0.05). After transplantation into the tibialis anterior of nude mice, myoblasts that had been cultured on the hydrogel substrate demonstrated a significantly greater engraftment efficacy than those cultured on the traditional surface. Collectively, these results indicate that the elastic hydrogel substrate supported robust expansion of murine myoblasts and enhanced their engraftment in vivo. - Highlights: • An elastic hydrogel was designed to mimic the pliable muscle tissue microenvironment. • Myoblasts retained their stemness in long-term culture on the elastic

  1. Hydrogels with covalent and noncovalent crosslinks (United States)

    Kilck, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)


    A method for targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds from hydrogels is presented. The method involves administering to a cell a hydrogel in which a therapeutic compound is noncovalently bound to heparin. The hydrogel may contain covalent and non-covalent crosslinks.

  2. Magnetically Remanent Hydrogels with Colloidal Crosslinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, S.


    Hydrogels are widely used in biomedical applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this research, the feasibility of a hydrogel with embedded magnetic nanoparticles, also called a ferrogel, for biosensor applications was tested. A pH sensitive poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel was used

  3. An inflammation-targeting hydrogel for local drug delivery in inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Zhang, Sufeng; Ermann, Joerg; Succi, Marc D; Zhou, Allen; Hamilton, Matthew J; Cao, Bonnie; Korzenik, Joshua R; Glickman, Jonathan N; Vemula, Praveen K; Glimcher, Laurie H; Traverso, Giovanni; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M


    There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic and debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Targeting drugs selectively to the inflamed intestine may improve therapeutic outcomes and minimize systemic toxicity. We report the development of an inflammation-targeting hydrogel (IT-hydrogel) that acts as a drug delivery system to the inflamed colon. Hydrogel microfibers were generated from ascorbyl palmitate, an amphiphile that is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. IT-hydrogel microfibers loaded with the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) were stable, released drug only upon enzymatic digestion, and demonstrated preferential adhesion to inflamed epithelial surfaces in vitro and in two mouse colitis models in vivo. Dex-loaded IT-hydrogel enemas, but not free Dex enemas, administered every other day to mice with colitis resulted in a significant reduction in inflammation and were associated with lower Dex peak serum concentrations and, thus, less systemic drug exposure. Ex vivo analysis of colon tissue samples from patients with ulcerative colitis demonstrated that IT-hydrogel microfibers adhered preferentially to mucosa from inflamed lesions compared with histologically normal sites. The IT-hydrogel drug delivery platform represents a promising approach for targeted enema-based therapies in patients with colonic IBD.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Huang; Zhi-ming Huang; Yong-zhong Bao; Zhi-xue Weng


    Macroporous acrylonitrile-acrylic acid (AN-AA) copolymer hydrogels were synthesized by free-radical solution polymerizations, using ammonium persulfate (APS)/N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) redox initiator system and alcohols porogens. The morphology, temperature and pH sensitive swelling behavior, and swelling kinetics of the resulting hydrogels were investigated. It was found that alcohol type and concentration had great influences on the pore structure and porosity of hydrogels. The pore size of hydrogel increases with the moderate increase of the length of alcohol alkyl chain. However, a further increase of alkyl length would result in the formation of cauliflower-like structure and the decrease of pore size. The porosity of hydrogels increases with the increase of porogen concentration in the polymerization medium. The hydrogels with macroporous structure swell or shrink much faster in response to the change of pH in comparison with the conventional hydrogel without macroporous structure. Furthermore, the response rate is closely related to the porosity of the hydrogels, which could be easily controlled by modulating the concentration of the porogen in the medium. The circular swelling behavior of hydrogels indicated the formation of a relaxing three-dimensional network.

  5. Water absorbency studies of γ-radiation crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid) hydrogels (United States)

    Karadaǧ, Erdener; Saraydin, Dursun; Güven, Olgun


    Water absorbency behavior of acrylamide (AAm)/2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid (DBA) hydrogels synthesized by γ-radiation crosslinking of AAm and DBA in an aqueous solution was investigated. Different amounts of DBA containing AAm/DBA hydrogels were obtained in the form of rods via a radiation technique. Swelling experiments were performed in water at 25 °C, gravimetrically. The influence of absorbed dose and DBA content of the hydrogels on swelling properties were examined. The hydrogels showed enormous swelling in an aqueous medium and displayed swelling characteristics which were highly dependent on the chemical composition of the hydrogels and irradiation dose. Diffusion behavior and some swelling kinetic parameters were investigated. The values of the weight swelling ratio of AAm/DBA hydrogels were between 8.34 and 15.16, while the values of the weight swelling ratio of pure AAm hydrogels were between 7.58 and 8.28. Water diffusion into hydrogels was found to be non-Fickian in character. Equilibrium water contents of the hydrogel systems were changed between 0.8681 and 0.9340.

  6. Water absorbency studies of {gamma}-radiation crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid) hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Erdener E-mail:; Saraydin, Dursun; Gueven, Olgun


    Water absorbency behavior of acrylamide (AAm)/2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid (DBA) hydrogels synthesized by {gamma}-radiation crosslinking of AAm and DBA in an aqueous solution was investigated. Different amounts of DBA containing AAm/DBA hydrogels were obtained in the form of rods via a radiation technique. Swelling experiments were performed in water at 25 deg. C, gravimetrically. The influence of absorbed dose and DBA content of the hydrogels on swelling properties were examined. The hydrogels showed enormous swelling in an aqueous medium and displayed swelling characteristics which were highly dependent on the chemical composition of the hydrogels and irradiation dose. Diffusion behavior and some swelling kinetic parameters were investigated. The values of the weight swelling ratio of AAm/DBA hydrogels were between 8.34 and 15.16, while the values of the weight swelling ratio of pure AAm hydrogels were between 7.58 and 8.28. Water diffusion into hydrogels was found to be non-Fickian in character. Equilibrium water contents of the hydrogel systems were changed between 0.8681 and 0.9340.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-chi; YAO Lei; HU Xiu-zhang; CAO Jie-dong; DONG Jie


    Based on the general conservation laws in continuum mechanics, the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of the jump conditions of shock waves in 3-dimensional solids were presented respectively. The implication of the jump conditions and their relations between each other, particularly the relation between the mass conservation and the displacement continuity, were discussed. Meanwhile the shock wave response curves in 3-dimensional solids, i.e. the Hugoniot curves were analysed, which provide the foundation for studying the coupling effects of shock waves in 3-dimensional solids.

  8. Topological Entropy and Renormalization group flow in 3-dimensional spherical spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, M; Cavero-Peláez, I; D'Ascanio, D; Santangelo, E M


    We analyze the renormalization group flow of the temperature independent term of the entropy in the high temperature limit \\beta/a S^IR_top between the topological entropies of the conformal field theories connected by such flow. From a 3-dimensional viewpoint the same term arises in the 3-dimensional Euclidean effective action and has the same monotone behavior under the RG group flow. We conjecture that such monotonic behavior is generic, which would give rise to a 3-dimensional generalization of the c-theorem, along the lines of the 2-dimensional c-theorem and the 4-dimensional a-theorem.

  9. Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on polysaccharides for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pescosolido, L.


    The main theme of this thesis is the development and the characterization of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels (IPNs) based on biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharides, in particular alginate, hyaluronic acid and dextran. The suitability of these novel systems as pharmaceutical and b

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of cationic quaternary ammonium-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel beads as a drug delivery embolisation system. (United States)

    Heaysman, Clare L; Phillips, Gary J; Lloyd, Andrew W; Lewis, Andrew L


    To extend the platform of clinically utilised chemoembolic agents based on ion-exchange systems to support the delivery of anionic drugs, a series of PVA-based beads was produced with different levels of (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (APTA) in their formulation. The beads were characterised to confirm composition and the effect of formulation variation on physical properties was assessed. Suspension polymerisation was shown to successfully produce uniformly spherical copolymer beads with APTA content up to 60 wt%. Equilibrium water content and resistance to compression both increased with increasing APTA content in the formulation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used with model drugs to demonstrate that by increasing APTA content, compounds between the molecular weight range 70-250 kDa could permeate the microsphere structures. Interaction with anionic drugs was modelled using multivalent dyes. Dyes with multi-binding sites had increased interaction with the polymer, slowing the release and also demonstrating a reduced rate of elution from beads with higher charge density. The model drug release studies demonstrate that these systems can be engineered for different potential anionic drugs for local therapeutic delivery in the clinic.

  11. Hyperthermia-Induced Drug Delivery from Thermosensitive Liposomes Encapsulated in an Injectable Hydrogel for Local Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Noriega, Adolfo; Hastings, Conn L.; Ozbakir, Burcin; O'Donnell, Kathleen E.; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Storm, Gert; Hennink, Wim E.; Duffy, Garry P.; Ruiz-Hernåndez, Eduardo


    A novel drug delivery system, enabling an in situ, thermally triggered drug release is described, consisting of an injectable thermoresponsive chitosan hydrogel containing doxorubicin-loaded thermosensitive liposomes. The design, fabrication, characterization, and an assessment of in vitro bioactivi

  12. Materials and Modulators for True 3-Dimensional Displays (United States)


    master oscillator/power oscillator ( MOPO ) system from Spectra-Physics. The 4-ns idler beam was scanned over the Yb3+ absorption region, and the...used two optical parametric oscillators in a Master Oscillator-Power Oscillator configuration ( MOPO ) pumped by the same flashlamp pumped, Q-switched

  13. Lab-on-a-chip devices with patterned hydrogels: engineered microarrays for biomolecule fractionation, organ-on-chip and desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuscu, Burcu


    Hydrogels are considered to be in the class of smart materials that find application in diagnostic, therapeutic, and fundamental science tools for miniaturized total analysis systems. The use of patterned hydrogels in closed fluidic microchips for different research fields depends crucially on the e

  14. Electrochemical characterization of hydrogels for biomimetic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peláez, L.; Romero, V.; Escalera, S.


    ) or a photoinitiator (P) to encapsulate and stabilize biomimetic membranes for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications. In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of the hydrogels used for membrane encapsulation. Specifically, we studied the crosslinked hydrogels by using...... electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and we demonstrated that chemically crosslinked hydrogels had lower values for the effective electrical resistance and higher values for the electrical capacitance compared with hydrogels with photoinitiated crosslinking. Transport numbers were obtained using......〉 and 〈Pw〉 values than PEG‐1000‐DMA‐P and PEG‐400‐DA‐P hydrogels. In conclusion, our results show that hydrogel electrochemical properties can be controlled by the choice of polymer and type of crosslinking used and that their water and salt permeability properties are congruent with the use of hydrogels...

  15. Tough photoluminescent hydrogels doped with lanthanide. (United States)

    Wang, Mei Xiang; Yang, Can Hui; Liu, Zhen Qi; Zhou, Jinxiong; Xu, Feng; Suo, Zhigang; Yang, Jian Hai; Chen, Yong Mei


    Photoluminescent hydrogels have emerged as novel soft materials with potential applications in many fields. Although many photoluminescent hydrogels have been fabricated, their scope of usage has been severely limited by their poor mechanical performance. Here, a facile strategy is reported for preparing lanthanide (Ln)-alginate/polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels with both high toughness and photoluminescence, which has been achieved by doping Ln(3+) ions (Ln = Eu, Tb, Eu/Tb) into alginate/PAAm hydrogel networks, where Ln(3+) ions serve as both photoluminescent emitters and physical cross-linkers. The resulting hydrogels exhibit versatile advantages including excellent mechanical properties (∼ MPa strength, ≈ 20 tensile strains, ≈ 10(4) kJ m(-3) energy dissipation), good photoluminescent performance, tunable emission color, excellent processability, and cytocompatibility. The developed tough photoluminescent hydrogels hold great promises for expanding the usage scope of hydrogels.

  16. Preparation of Poly(acrylic acid) Hydrogel by Radiation Crosslinking and Its Application for Mucoadhesives


    Young-Chang Nho; Jong-Seok Park; Youn-Mook Lim


    A mucoadhesive drug delivery system can improve the effectiveness of a drug by maintaining the drug concentration and allowing targeting and localization of the drug at a specific site. Acrylic-based hydrogels have been used extensively as a mucoadhesive system owing to their flexibility and excellent bioadhesion. In this experiment, poly(acrylic acid) was selected to prepare the bioadhesive hydrogel adhering to mucosal surfaces using a radiation process. Poly(acrylic acid) was dissolved in ...

  17. Interactions of chitosan/genipin hydrogels during drug delivery: a QSPR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Delgadillo-Armendariz


    Full Text Available A hydrogel comprised of chitosan crosslinked using the low-toxicity crosslinker genipin was prepared, and the absorption of glibenclamide by the hydrogel was investigated. Optimized structures and their molecular electrostatic potentials were calculated using the AM1 method, and the results were used to evaluate the molecular interactions between the three compounds. The quantitative structure-property relationship model was also used to estimate the activity of the chemicals on the basis their molecular structures. In addition, theoretical Fourier transform infrared spectra were calculated to analyze the intermolecular interactions in the proposed system. Finally, the hydrophilicity of the hydrogel and its influence on the absorption process were also estimated.

  18. 3 dimensional ionospheric electron density reconstruction based on GPS measurements (United States)

    Stolle, C.; Schlüter, S.; Jacobi, C.; Jakowski, N.

    When radio waves as sended by the naviagtion system GPS are passing through the ionosphere they are subject to delays in phase, travel time and polarisation which is an effect of the free electrons. The measured integrated value of Total Electron Content can be utilised for three-dimensional reconstruction of electron density patterns in the ionosphere. Here a tomographic approach is represented. Scince the distribution of data is very sparse and patchy we decided for an algebraic iterative algorithm. The ground based GPS data collected by IGS receivers can be combined by space based GPS of radio limb sounding, incoherent scatter radar and ionosondes data. Hereby, radio occultation data improve beside the amount of available data especially the vertical resolution of electron density distribution. Ionosonde peack electron densities are taken as stop criteria determination for iteration. Reconstructed ionospheric scenarios and validations of the system by independent measurements are presented.

  19. Various approaches to the modelling of large scale 3-dimensional circulation in the Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.

    In this paper, the three different approaches to the modelling of large scale 3-dimensional flow in the ocean such as the diagnostic, semi-diagnostic (adaptation) and the prognostic are discussed in detail. Three-dimensional solutions are obtained...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Focusing on the study of the components of mechanical rotational body,the data structure and algorithm of component model generation are discussed.Some problems in assembly process of 3-dimensional graph of components are studied in great detail.

  1. On an asymptotic distribution of dependent random variables on a 3-dimensional lattice. (United States)

    Harvey, Danielle J; Weng, Qian; Beckett, Laurel A


    We define conditions under which sums of dependent spatial data will be approximately normally distributed. A theorem on the asymptotic distribution of a sum of dependent random variables defined on a 3-dimensional lattice is presented. Examples are also presented.

  2. An electro-responsive hydrogel for intravascular applications: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation. (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Peter; Verhoeven, Jelle; Coudyzer, Walter; Verbeken, Eric; Dubruel, Peter; Mendes, Eduardo; Stam, Frank; Meuris, Bart; Herijgers, Paul


    There is a growing interest in using hydrogels for biomedical applications, because of more favourable characteristics. Some of these hydrogels can be activated by using particular stimuli, for example electrical fields. These stimuli can change the hydrogel shape in a predefined way. It could make them capable of adaptation to patient-specific anatomy even post-implantation. This is the first paper aiming to describe in vivo studies of an electro-responsive, Pluronic F127 based hydrogel, for intravascular applications. Pluronic methacrylic acid hydrogel (PF127/MANa) was in vitro tested for its haemolytic and cytotoxic effects. Minimal invasive implantation in the carotid artery of sheep was used to evaluate its medium-term biological effects, through biochemical, macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic evaluation. Indirect and direct testing of the material gave no indication of the haemolytic effects of the material. Determination of fibroblast viability after 24 h of incubation in an extract of the hydrogel showed no cytotoxic effects. Occlusion was obtained within 1 h following in vivo implantation. Evaluation at time of autopsy showed a persistent occlusion with no systemic effects, no signs of embolization and mild effects on the arterial wall. An important proof-of-concept was obtained showing biocompatibility and effectiveness of a pluronic based electro-responsive hydrogel for obtaining an arterial occlusion with limited biological impact. So the selected pluronic-methacrylic acid based hydrogel can be used as an endovascular occlusion device. More importantly it is the first step in further development of electro-active hydrogels for a broad range of intra-vascular applications (e.g. system to prevent endoleakage in aortic aneurysm treatment, intra-vascular drug delivery).

  3. Rheological and mechanical behavior of polyacrylamide hydrogels chemically crosslinked with allyl agarose for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Suriano, R; Griffini, G; Chiari, M; Levi, M; Turri, S


    Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis currently represents one of the most standard techniques for protein separation. In addition to the most commonly employed polyacrylamide crosslinked hydrogels, acrylamide-agarose copolymers have been proposed as promising systems for separation matrices in 2-D electrophoresis, because of the good resolution of both high and low molecular mass proteins made possible by careful control and optimization of the hydrogel pore structure. As a matter of fact, a thorough understanding of the nature of the hydrogel pore structure as well as of the parameters by which it is influenced is crucial for the design of hydrogel systems with optimal sieving properties. In this work, a series of acrylamide-based hydrogels covalently crosslinked with different concentrations of allyl agarose (0.2-1%) is prepared and characterized by creep-recovery measurements, dynamic rheology and tensile tests, in the attempt to gain a clearer understanding of structure-property relationships in crosslinked polyacrylamide-based hydrogels. The rheological and mechanical properties of crosslinked acrylamide-agarose hydrogels are found to be greatly affected by crosslinker concentration. Dynamic rheological tests show that hydrogels with a percentage of allyl agarose between 0.2% and 0.6% have a low density of elastically effective crosslinks, explaining the good separation of high molecular mass proteins in 2-D gel electrophoresis. Over the same range of crosslinker concentration, creep-recovery measurements reveal the presence of non-permanent crosslinks in the hydrogel network that justifies the good resolution of low molecular mass proteins as well. In tensile tests, the hydrogel crosslinked with 0.4% of allyl agarose exhibits the best results in terms of mechanical strength and toughness. Our results show how the control of the viscoelastic and the mechanical properties of these materials allow the design of mechanically stable hydrogels with improved

  4. Covalent and injectable chitosan-chondroitin sulfate hydrogels embedded with chitosan microspheres for drug delivery and tissue engineering. (United States)

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Tan, Huaping; Jia, Yang; Zou, Siyue; Guo, Shuxuan; Zhao, Meng; Huang, Hao; Ling, Zhonghua; Chen, Yong; Hu, Xiaohong


    Injectable hydrogels and microspheres derived from natural polysaccharides have been extensively investigated as drug delivery systems and cell scaffolds. In this study, we report a preparation of covalent hydrogels basing polysaccharides via the Schiff' base reaction. Water soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and oxidized chondroitin sulfate (OCS) were prepared for cross-linking of hydrogels. The mechanism of cross-linking is attributed to the Schiff' base reaction between amino and aldehyde groups of polysaccharides. Furthermore, bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded chitosan-based microspheres (CMs) with a diameter of 3.8-61.6μm were fabricated by an emulsion cross-linking method, followed by embedding into CMC-OCS hydrogels to produce a composite CMs/gel scaffold. In the current work, gelation rate, morphology, mechanical properties, swelling ratio, in vitro degradation and BSA release of the CMs/gel scaffolds were examined. The results show that mechanical and bioactive properties of gel scaffolds can be significantly improved by embedding CMs. The solid CMs can serve as a filler to toughen the soft CMC-OCS hydrogels. Compressive modulus of composite gel scaffolds containing 20mg/ml of microspheres was 13KPa, which was higher than the control hydrogel without CMs. Cumulative release of BSA during 2weeks from CMs embedded hydrogel was 30%, which was significantly lower than those of CMs and hydrogels. Moreover, the composite CMs/gel scaffolds exhibited lower swelling ratio and slower degradation rate than the control hydrogel without CMs. The potential of the composite hydrogel as an injectable scaffold was demonstrated by encapsulation of bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro. These results demonstrate the potential of CMs embedded CMC-OCS hydrogels as an injectable drug and cell delivery system in cartilage tissue engineering.

  5. Adsorption of protein-coated lipid droplets to mixed biopolymer hydrogel surfaces: role of biopolymer diffusion. (United States)

    Vargas, Maria; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, D Julian


    The adsorption of charged particles to hydrogel surfaces is important in a number of natural and industrial processes. In this study, the adsorption of cationic lipid droplets to the surfaces of anionic hydrogels was examined. An oil-in-water emulsion containing cationic beta-lactoglobulin-coated lipid droplets was prepared (d32=0.24 microm, zeta=+74 mV, pH 3.0). An anionic hydrogel containing 0.1 wt % beet pectin and 1.5 wt % agar (pH 3.0) was prepared. Emulsions containing different lipid droplet concentrations (0.3-5 wt %) were brought into contact with the hydrogel surfaces for different times (0-24 h). The adsorption of lipid droplets to the hydrogel surfaces could not be explained by a typical adsorption isotherm. We found that the electrical charge on the nonadsorbed lipid droplets became less positive or even became negative in the presence of the hydrogel and that extensive droplet aggregation occurred, which was attributed to the ability of pectin molecules to diffuse through the hydrogels and interact with the lipid droplets. These results may have important consequences for understanding certain industrial and biological processes, as well as for the design of controlled or triggered release systems.

  6. Smart nanocomposite hydrogels based on azo crosslinked graphene oxide for oral colon-specific drug delivery (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Shi, Yuyang; Jiang, Guixiang; Liu, Wei; Han, Huili; Feng, Qianhua; Ren, Junxiao; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Zhenzhong


    A safe and efficient nanocomposite hydrogel for colon cancer drug delivery was synthesized using pH-sensitive and biocompatible graphene oxide (GO) containing azoaromatic crosslinks as well as poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels). Curcumin (CUR), an anti-cancer drug, was encapsulated successfully into the hydrogel through a freezing and thawing process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were performed to confirm the formation and morphological properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel. The hydrogels exhibited good swelling properties in a pH-sensitive manner. Drug release studies under conditions mimicking stomach to colon transit have shown that the drug was protected from being released completely into the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine. In vivo imaging analysis, pharmacokinetics and a distribution of the gastrointestinal tract experiment were systematically studied and evaluated as colon-specific drug delivery systems. All the results demonstrated that GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels could protect CUR well while passing through the stomach and small intestine to the proximal colon, and enhance the colon-targeting ability and residence time in the colon site. Therefore, CUR loaded GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels might potentially provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of colon cancer with high efficiency and low toxicity.

  7. Microfabrication of proangiogenic cell-laden alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogels. (United States)

    DeVolder, Ross J; Zill, Andrew T; Jeong, Jae H; Kong, Hyunjoon


    Cells have been extensively studied for their uses in various therapies because of their capacities to produce therapeutic proteins and recreate new tissues. It has often been suggested that the efficacy of cell therapies can greatly be improved through the ability to localize and regulate cellular activities at a transplantation site; however, the technologies for this control are lacking. Therefore, this study reports a cell-Laden hydrogel patch engineered to support the proliferation and angiogenic growth factor expression of cells adhered to their surfaces, and to further promote neovascularization. Hydrogels consisting of alginate chemically linked with pyrrole units, termed alginate-g-pyrrole, were prepared through an oxidative cross-linking reaction between pyrrole units. Fibroblasts adhered to the alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogels, and exhibited increased proliferation and overall vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, compared to those on pyrrole-free hydrogels. Furthermore, the alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel surfaces were modified to present microposts, subsequently increasing the amount of pyrrole units on their surfaces. Cells adhered to the microfabricated gel surfaces exhibited increased proliferation and overall VEGF expression proportional to the density of the microposts. The resulting micropatterned alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogels exhibited increases in the size and density of mature blood vessels when implanted on chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs). The hydrogel system developed in this study will be broadly useful for improving the efficacy of a wide array of cell-based wound healing and tissue regenerative therapies.

  8. HAp granules encapsulated oxidized alginate-gelatin-biphasic calcium phosphate hydrogel for bone regeneration. (United States)

    Sarker, Avik; Amirian, Jhaleh; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong Taek


    Bone repair in the critical size defect zone using 3D hydrogel scaffold is still a challenge in tissue engineering field. A novel type of hydrogel scaffold combining ceramic and polymer materials, therefore, was fabricated to meet this challenge. In this study, oxidized alginate-gelatin-biphasic calcium phosphate (OxAlg-Gel-BCP) and spherical hydroxyapatite (HAp) granules encapsulated OxAlg-Gel-BCP hydrogel complex were fabricated using freeze-drying method. Detailed morphological and material characterizations of OxAlg-Gel-BCP hydrogel (OGB00), 25wt% and 35wt% granules encapsulated hydrogel (OGB25 and OGB35) were carried out for micro-structure, porosity, chemical constituents, and compressive stress analysis. Cell viability, cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation behavior of rat bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC) on OGB00, OGB25 and OGB35 scaffolds were confirmed by MTT assay, Live-Dead assay, and confocal imaging in vitro experiments. Finally, OGB00 and OGB25 hydrogel scaffolds were implanted in the critical size defect of rabbit femoral chondyle for 4 and 8 weeks. The micro-CT analysis and histological studies conducted by H&E and Masson's trichrome demonstrated that a significantly higher (***phydrogel than in OxAlg-Gel-BCP complex alone. All results taken together, HAp granules encapsulated OxAlg-Gel-BCP system can be a promising 3D hydrogel scaffold for the healing of a critical bone defect.

  9. Radically new cellulose nanocomposite hydrogels: Temperature and pH responsive characters. (United States)

    Hebeish, A; Farag, S; Sharaf, S; Shaheen, Th I


    Innovation produced for synthesis of radically new stimuli-responsive hydrogels were described. The innovation is based on inclusion of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW)-polyacrylamide (PAAm) copolymer in poly N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAm) semi interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel. After being prepared as per free radical polymerization of AAm onto CNW, the as prepared copolymer was incorporated in a polymerization system, which comprises NIPAm monomer, bismethylene acrylamide (BMA) crosslinker, K2S2O8 initiator and TEMED accelerator, to yield CNW-PAAm-PNIPAm nanocomposite hydrogels. The latter address pH-responsive hydrogel as well as temperature-responsive. Hydrogels exhibit the highest equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) in acidic medium (pH 4). Meanwhile they perform good swelling behavior and hydrophilicity at a temperature of 32°C. These hydrogels carry the characteristic features of CNW-PAAm copolymer as conducted from FTIR and TGA. The hydrogels are homogenous and well-proportioned network structure with highly connected irregular pores with a large size ranging from 30 to 100nm as concluded from SEM.

  10. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Longguang [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)


    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  11. On Fault Tolerance of 3-Dimensional Mesh Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-Cai Wang; Jian-Er Chen; Guo-Jun Wang


    In this paper, the concept of k-submesh and k-submesh connectivity fault tolerance model is proposed. And the fault tolerance of 3-D mesh networks is studied under a more realistic model in which each network node has an independent failure probability. It is first observed that if the node failure probability is fixed, then the connectivity probability of 3-D mesh networks can be arbitrarily small when the network size is sufficiently large. Thus, it is practically important for multicomputer system manufacturer to determine the upper bound for node failure probability when the probability of network connectivity and the network size are given.A novel technique is developed to formally derive lower bounds on the connectivity probability for 3-D mesh networks. The study shows that 3-D mesh networks of practical size can tolerate a large number of faulty nodes thus are reliable enough for multicomputer systems. A number of advantages of 3-D mesh networks over other popular network topologies are given. Compared to 2-D mesh networks, 3-D mesh networks are much stronger in tolerating faulty nodes, while for practical network size, the fault tolerance of 3-D mesh networks is comparable with that of hypercube networks but enjoys much lower node degree.

  12. Radio-synthesized polyacrylamide hydrogels for proteins release (United States)

    Ferraz, Caroline C.; Varca, Gustavo H. C.; Lopes, Patricia S.; Mathor, Monica B.; Lugão, Ademar B.


    The use of hydrogels for biomedical purposes has been extensively investigated. Pharmaceutical proteins correspond to highly active substances which may be applied for distinct purposes. This work concerns the development of radio-synthesized hydrogel for protein release, using papain and bovine serum albumin as model proteins. The polymer was solubilized (1% w/v) in water and lyophilized. The proteins were incorporated into the lyophilized polymer and the hydrogels were produced by simultaneous crosslinking and sterilization using γ-radiation under frozen conditions. The produced systems were characterized in terms of swelling degree, gel fraction, crosslinking density and evaluated according to protein release, bioactivity and cytotoxicity. The hydrogels developed presented different properties as a function of polymer concentration and the optimized results were found for the samples containing 4-5% (w/v) polyacrylamide. Protein release was controlled by the electrostatic affinity of acrylic moieties and proteins. This selection was based on the release of the proteins during the experiment period (up to 50 h), maintenance of enzyme activity and the nanostructure developed. The system was suitable for protein loading and release and according to the cytotoxic assay it was also adequate for biomedical purposes, however this method was not able to generate a matrix with controlled pore sizes.

  13. In situ characterization of structural dynamics in swelling hydrogels. (United States)

    Guzman-Sepulveda, J R; Deng, J; Fang, J Y; Dogariu, A


    Characterizing the structural morphology and the local viscoelastic properties of soft complex systems raises significant challenges. Here we introduce a dynamic light scattering method capable of in situ, continuous monitoring of structural changes in evolving systems such as swelling gels. We show that the inherently non-stationary dynamics of embedded probes can be followed using partially coherent radiation, which effectively isolates only single scattering contributions even during the dramatic changes in the scattering regime. Using a simple and robust experimental setup, we demonstrate the ability to continuously monitor the structural dynamics of chitosan hydrogels formed by the Ag(+) ion-triggered gelation during their long-term swelling process. We demonstrate that both the local viscoelastic properties of the suspending medium and an effective cage size experienced by diffusing probe particles loaded into the hydrogel can be recovered and used to describe the structural dynamics of hydrogels with different levels of cross-linking. This characterization capability is critical for defining and controlling the hydrogel performance in different biomedical applications.

  14. Flexible pH-Sensing Hydrogel Fibers for Epidermal Applications. (United States)

    Tamayol, Ali; Akbari, Mohsen; Zilberman, Yael; Comotto, Mattia; Lesha, Emal; Serex, Ludovic; Bagherifard, Sara; Chen, Yu; Fu, Guoqing; Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Ruan, Weitong; Miller, Eric L; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Sonkusale, Sameer; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Epidermal pH is an indication of the skin's physiological condition. For example, pH of wound can be correlated to angiogenesis, protease activity, bacterial infection, etc. Chronic nonhealing wounds are known to have an elevated alkaline environment, while healing process occurs more readily in an acidic environment. Thus, dermal patches capable of continuous pH measurement can be used as point-of-care systems for monitoring skin disorder and the wound healing process. Here, pH-responsive hydrogel fibers are presented that can be used for long-term monitoring of epidermal wound condition. pH-responsive dyes are loaded into mesoporous microparticles and incorporated into hydrogel fibers using a microfluidic spinning system. The fabricated pH-responsive microfibers are flexible and can create conformal contact with skin. The response of pH-sensitive fibers with different compositions and thicknesses are characterized. The suggested technique is scalable and can be used to fabricate hydrogel-based wound dressings with clinically relevant dimensions. Images of the pH-sensing fibers during real-time pH measurement can be captured with a smart phone camera for convenient readout on-site. Through image processing, a quantitative pH map of the hydrogel fibers and the underlying tissue can be extracted. The developed skin dressing can act as a point-of-care device for monitoring the wound healing process.

  15. Dissection of the host-pathogen interaction in human tuberculosis using a bioengineered 3-dimensional model (United States)

    Tezera, Liku B; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Chancellor, Andrew; Reichmann, Michaela T; Shammari, Basim Al; Brace, Patience; Batty, Alex; Tocheva, Annie; Jogai, Sanjay; Marshall, Ben G; Tebruegge, Marc; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Mansour, Salah; Elkington, Paul T


    Cell biology differs between traditional cell culture and 3-dimensional (3-D) systems, and is modulated by the extracellular matrix. Experimentation in 3-D presents challenges, especially with virulent pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills more humans than any other infection and is characterised by a spatially organised immune response and extracellular matrix remodelling. We developed a 3-D system incorporating virulent mycobacteria, primary human blood mononuclear cells and collagen–alginate matrix to dissect the host-pathogen interaction. Infection in 3-D led to greater cellular survival and permitted longitudinal analysis over 21 days. Key features of human tuberculosis develop, and extracellular matrix integrity favours the host over the pathogen. We optimised multiparameter readouts to study emerging therapeutic interventions: cytokine supplementation, host-directed therapy and immunoaugmentation. Each intervention modulates the host-pathogen interaction, but has both beneficial and harmful effects. This methodology has wide applicability to investigate infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases and develop novel drug regimes and vaccination approaches. DOI: PMID:28063256

  16. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Using an Individual 3-Dimensionally Printed Surgical Guide. (United States)

    Golab, Adam; Smektala, Tomasz; Krolikowski, Marcin; Slojewski, Marcin


    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is an endoscopic technique used for treating large stones, multiple stones, and staghorn calculi. Although minimally invasive, complication rate of PNL reaches 25%, and it is partially associated with needle puncture during nephrostomy tract preparation. Continuous improvement of armamentarium and imaging methods and the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations optimize the procedure; however, the rapid and precise establishment of the nephrostomy tract is still difficult. In the present short communication, we present the PNL procedure assisted by a personalized 3D-printed surgical guide (SG) to ensure fast and precise needle access to the renal collecting system. We also describe the workflow for SG preparation, which consists of CT image acquisition and data segmentation, planning a safe needle insertion path, SG designing, and guide manufacturing. With the growing market of low-cost 3D printers, the presented technique can shorten the PNL procedure time and decrease the complication rate associated with needle puncture in a cost-efficient manner.

  17. A Novel Methodology for Thermal Analysis & 3-Dimensional Memory Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Cherian, Annmol; Jose, Jemy; Pangracious, Vinod; 10.5121/ijait.2011.1403


    The semiconductor industry is reaching a fascinating confluence in several evolutionary trends that will likely lead to a number of revolutionary changes in the design, implementation, scaling, and the use of computer systems. However, recently Moore's law has come to a stand-still since device scaling beyond 65 nm is not practical. 2D integration has problems like memory latency, power dissipation, and large foot-print. 3D technology comes as a solution to the problems posed by 2D integration. The utilization of 3D is limited by the problem of temperature crisis. It is important to develop an accurate power profile extraction methodology to design 3D structure. In this paper, design of 3D integration of memory is considered and hence the static power dissipation of the memory cell is analysed in transistor level and is used to accurately model the inter-layer thermal effects for 3D memory stack. Subsequently, packaging of the chip is considered and modelled using an architecture level simulator. This modelli...

  18. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman, E-mail:


    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Keratin-silica hydrogel has been fabricated using sol–gel technique. • The hydrogel shows appropriate textural properties. • The hydrogel promotes fibroblast cells proliferation. • The hydrogel has potential soft tissue engineering applications like wound healing.

  19. Exploration of the nature of a unique natural polymer-based thermosensitive hydrogel. (United States)

    Lu, Shanling; Yang, Yuhong; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin


    The chitosan (CS)/β-glycerol phosphate (GP) system is a heat induced gelling system with a promising potential application, such as an injectable biomedical material. Unlike most thermosensitive gelling systems, the CS/GP system is only partially reversible. That is once the hydrogel is fully matured, it only softens but cannot go back to its initial liquid state when cooled down. Here, we perform both the small and large amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS and LAOS) tests on the fully matured CS/GP hydrogel samples at a variety of temperatures within the cooling process. The purpose of such tests is to investigate the structural change of the hydrogel network and thus to understand the possible gelation mechanism of this unique thermosensitive hydrogel. From the LAOS results and the further analysis with the Chebyshev expansion method, it shows that the CS/GP hydrogel is composed of a colloidal network dominated by hydrophobic interactions at high temperature, and gradually turns into a flexible network dominated by hydrogen bonding when the temperature goes down. Therefore, we may conclude that LOAS is a powerful tool to study the nonlinear behaviour of a polymer system that is closely related to its structure, and as a practical example, we achieve a clearer vision on the gelation mechanism of the unique CS/GP thermosensitive hydrogel on the basis of considerable previous studies and assumptions in this laboratory and other research groups.

  20. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen


    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  1. Silk fibroin/copolymer composite hydrogels for the controlled and sustained release of hydrophobic/hydrophilic drugs. (United States)

    Zhong, Tianyi; Jiang, Zhijuan; Wang, Peng; Bie, Shiyu; Zhang, Feng; Zuo, Baoqi


    In the present study, a composite system for the controlled and sustained release of hydrophobic/hydrophilic drugs is described. Composite hydrogels were prepared by blending silk fibroin (SF) with PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer under mild aqueous condition. Aspirin and indomethacin were incorporated into SF/Copolymer hydrogels as two model drugs with different water-solubility. The degradation of composite hydrogels during the drug release was mainly caused by the hydrolysis of copolymers. SF with stable β-sheet-rich structure was not easily degraded which maintained the mechanical integrity of composite hydrogel. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of copolymers with model drugs would significantly alter the morphological features of composite hydrogels. Various parameters such as drug load, concentration ratio, and composition of copolymer were considered in vitro drug release. Aspirin as a hydrophilic drug could be controlled release from composite hydrogel at a constant rate for 5 days. Its release was mainly driven by diffusion-based mechanism. Hydrophobic indomethacin could be encapsulated in copolymer nanoparticles distributing in the composite hydrogel. Its sustained release was mainly degradation controlled which could last up to two weeks. SF/Copolymer hydrogel has potential as a useful composite system widely applying for controlled and sustained release of various drugs.

  2. 3-dimensional modeling of transcranial magnetic stimulation: Design and application (United States)

    Salinas, Felipe Santiago

    Over the past three decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an effective tool for many research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications in humans. TMS delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this dissertation, we present a thorough examination of the total electric field induced by TMS in air and a realistic head model with clinically relevant coil poses. In the first chapter, a detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry was shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of primary E-field calculations. Three-dimensional models which accounted for the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed primary E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured values) whereas simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured). In the second chapter, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3-D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistic head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. We found that secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes were predominantly between 25% and 45% of the primary E-fields magnitude. The direction of the secondary E

  3. Heparin release from thermosensitive hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutowska, Anna; Bae, You Han; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan


    Thermosensitive hydrogels (TSH) were synthesized and investigated as heparin releasing polymers for the prevention of surface induced thrombosis. TSH were synthesized with N-isopropyl acrylamide (NiPAAm) copolymerized with butyl methacrylate (BMA) (hydrophobic) or acrylic acid (AAc) (hydrophilic) co

  4. Controlled delivery of antibodies from injectable hydrogels. (United States)

    Fletcher, Nathan A; Babcock, Lyndsey R; Murray, Ellen A; Krebs, Melissa D


    Therapeutic antibodies are currently used for the treatment of various diseases, but large doses delivered systemically are typically required. Localized controlled delivery techniques would afford major benefits such as decreasing side effects and required doses. Injectable biopolymer systems are an attractive solution due to their minimally invasive potential for controlled release in a localized area. Here, alginate-chitosan hydrogels are demonstrated to provide controlled delivery of IgG model antibodies and also of Fab antibody fragments. Also, an alternate delivery system comprised of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with antibodies and encapsulated in alginate was shown to successfully provide another level of control over release. These biopolymer systems that offer controlled delivery for antibodies and antibody fragments will be promising for many applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine.

  5. Potential of an injectable chitosan/starch/beta-glycerol phosphate hydrogel for sustaining normal chondrocyte function. (United States)

    Ngoenkam, Jatuporn; Faikrua, Atchariya; Yasothornsrikul, Sukkid; Viyoch, Jarupa


    An injectable hydrogel for chondrocyte delivery was developed by blending chitosan and starch derived from various sources with beta-glycerol phosphate (beta-GP) in the expectation that it would retain a liquid state at room temperature and gel at raised temperatures. Rheological investigation indicated that the system consisting of chitosan derived from crab shell and corn starch at 4:1 by weight ratio (1.53%, w/v of total polymers), and 6.0% (w/v) beta-GP (C/S/GP system) exhibited the sharpest sol-gel transition at 37+/-2 degrees C. The C/S/GP hydrogel was gradually degraded by 67% within 56 days in PBS containing 0.02 mg/ml lysozyme. The presence of starch in the system increased the water absorption of the hydrogel when compared to the system without starch. SEM observation revealed to the interior structure of the C/S/GP hydrogel having interconnected pore structure (average pore size 26.4 microm) whereas the pore size of the hydrogel without starch was 19.8 microm. The hydrogel also showed an ability to maintain chondrocyte phenotype as shown by cell morphology and expression of type II collagen mRNA and protein. In vivo study revealed that the gel was formed rapidly and localized at the injection site.

  6. Molecular mechanisms in deformation of cross-linked hydrogel nanocomposite. (United States)

    Mathesan, Santhosh; Rath, Amrita; Ghosh, Pijush


    The self-folding behavior in response to external stimuli observed in hydrogels is potentially used in biomedical applications. However, the use of hydrogels is limited because of its reduced mechanical properties. These properties are enhanced when the hydrogels are cross-linked and reinforced with nanoparticles. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is applied to perform uniaxial tension and pull out tests to understand the mechanism contributing towards the enhanced mechanical properties. Also, nanomechanical characterization is performed using quasi static nanoindentation experiments to determine the Young's modulus of hydrogels in the presence of nanoparticles. The stress-strain responses for chitosan (CS), chitosan reinforced with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and cross-linked chitosan are obtained from uniaxial tension test. It is observed that the Young's modulus and maximum stress increase as the HAP content increases and also with cross-linking process. Load displacement plot from pullout test is compared for uncross-linked and cross-linked chitosan chains on hydroxyapatite surface. MD simulation reveals that the variation in the dihedral conformation of chitosan chains and the evolution of internal structural variables are associated with mechanical properties. Additional results reveal that the formation of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions is responsible for the above variations in different systems.

  7. Drug release from hydrogel: a new understanding of transport phenomena. (United States)

    Perale, G; Rossi, F; Santoro, M; Marchetti, P; Mele, A; Castiglione, F; Raffa, E; Masi, M


    In tissue engineering, i.e., in combined advanced technologies to replace damaged or missing parts of living tissues, emerging strategies strongly point toward the use of hydrogels also for their ability of being vehicles for local controlled drug delivery. The investigation of drug release mechanisms in such matrices thus plays a key role in the design of smart system but literature is still very controversial on theoretical interpretations and understanding of available data. In this framework we used the new HRMAS-NMR DOSY technique to study the diffusive motions of sodium fluorescein, a drug mimetic small chromophoric molecule, loaded in a promising hydrogel developed for tissue engineering. While fluorescein behavior in water was as expected, also showing aggregation from mid concentrations, data collected within hydrogel samples surprisingly showed no aggregation and diffusion coefficients were always higher with respect to aqueous solution. Furthermore, the promotion of diffusion increased along with fluorescein concentration. The proportion of this effect was directly linked to hydrogel mesh size, thus carrying intrinsic novelty, but also complexity, and suggesting that not only strictly hydrodynamic effects should be considered but also electrostatic interactions between polymer chains and drug molecules might be key players in avoiding fluorescein aggregation and also affecting diffusivity.

  8. A Novel Aerosol Method for the Production of Hydrogel Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Guzman-Villanueva


    Full Text Available A novel method of generating hydrogel particles for various applications including drug delivery purposes was developed. This method is based on the production of hydrogel particles from sprayed polymeric nano/microdroplets obtained by a nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. In this study, particle synthesis parameters such as type of nebulizer, type of crosslinker, air pressure, and polymer concentration were investigated for their impact on the mean particle size, swelling behavior, and morphology of the developed particles. Spherical alginate-based hydrogel particles with a mean particle size in the range from 842 to 886 nm were obtained. Using statistical analysis of the factorial design of experiment it was found that the main factors influencing the size and swelling values of the particles are the alginate concentration and the air pressure. Thus, it was demonstrated that the method described in the current study is promising for the generation of hydrogel particles and it constitutes a relatively simple and low-cost system.

  9. Biocompatible Hydrogels for Microarray Cell Printing and Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshata Datar


    Full Text Available Conventional drug screening processes are a time-consuming and expensive endeavor, but highly rewarding when they are successful. To identify promising lead compounds, millions of compounds are traditionally screened against therapeutic targets on human cells grown on the surface of 96-wells. These two-dimensional (2D cell monolayers are physiologically irrelevant, thus, often providing false-positive or false-negative results, when compared to cells grown in three-dimensional (3D structures such as hydrogel droplets. However, 3D cell culture systems are not easily amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS, thus inherently low throughput, and requiring relatively large volume for cell-based assays. In addition, it is difficult to control cellular microenvironments and hard to obtain reliable cell images due to focus position and transparency issues. To overcome these problems, miniaturized 3D cell cultures in hydrogels were developed via cell printing techniques where cell spots in hydrogels can be arrayed on the surface of glass slides or plastic chips by microarray spotters and cultured in growth media to form cells encapsulated 3D droplets for various cell-based assays. These approaches can dramatically reduce assay volume, provide accurate control over cellular microenvironments, and allow us to obtain clear 3D cell images for high-content imaging (HCI. In this review, several hydrogels that are compatible to microarray printing robots are discussed for miniaturized 3D cell cultures.

  10. Hydrogel nanoparticles and nanocomposites for nasal drug/vaccine delivery. (United States)

    Salatin, Sara; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Adibkia, Khosro; Milani, Mitra Alami; Jelvehgari, Mitra


    Over the past few years, nasal drug delivery has attracted more and more attentions, and been recognized as the most promising alternative route for the systemic medication of drugs limited to intravenous administration. Many experiments in animal models have shown that nanoscale carriers have the ability to enhance the nasal delivery of peptide/protein drugs and vaccines compared to the conventional drug solution formulations. However, the rapid mucociliary clearance of the drug-loaded nanoparticles can cause a reduction in bioavailability percentage after intranasal administration. Thus, research efforts have considerably been directed towards the development of hydrogel nanosystems which have mucoadhesive properties in order to maximize the residence time, and hence increase the period of contact with the nasal mucosa and enhance the drug absorption. It is most certain that the high viscosity of hydrogel-based nanosystems can efficiently offer this mucoadhesive property. This update review discusses the possible benefits of using hydrogel polymer-based nanoparticles and hydrogel nanocomposites for drug/vaccine delivery through the intranasal administration.

  11. Multilayer hydrogel coatings to combine hemocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. (United States)

    Fischer, Marion; Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Konradi, Rupert; Friedrichs, Jens; Maitz, Manfred F; Freudenberg, Uwe; Werner, Carsten


    While silver-loaded catheters are widely used to prevent early-onset catheter-related infections [1], long term antimicrobial protection of indwelling catheters remains to be achieved [2] and antiseptic functionalization of coatings often impairs their hemocompatibility characteristics. Therefore, this work aimed to capitalize on the antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles, incorporated in anticoagulant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-heparin hydrogel coatings [3] on thermoplastic polyurethane materials. For prolonged antimicrobial activity, the silver-containing starPEG-heparin hydrogel layers were shielded with silver-free hydrogel layers of otherwise similar composition. The resulting multi-layered gel coatings showed long term antiseptic efficacy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains in vitro, and similarly performed well when incubated with freshly drawn human whole blood with respect to hemolysis, platelet activation and plasmatic coagulation. The introduced hydrogel multilayer system thus offers a promising combination of hemocompatibility and long-term antiseptic capacity to meet an important clinical need.

  12. Preparation and characterisation of acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinpituksa, P.


    Full Text Available Acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel, a superabsorbent polymer, was prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution of acrylamide (AAm and maleic acid (MA : monomer and comonomer, respectively. Potassium persulfate and N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylethylenediamine were used as an initiator system. Also, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA were used as crosslinkers. Different compositions of acrylamide, maleic acid and crosslinkers were employed. Water swelling, equilibrium water content and swelling power of the hydrogel formed were determined. The result showed that the swelling in water at equilibrium of hydrogels was in the range of 8,420-10,300% and 3,160- 3,560%, equilibrium water content was in the range of 0.9880-0.9902 and 0.9630-0.9727 and swelling power was in the range of 84-103 and 31-36 using 1%EGDMA and 1%MBA as crosslinkers, respectively. The diffusion of water into hydrogel followed non-Fickian character based on swelling power.

  13. Encoding physico-chemical cues in synthetic hydrogels by triple helix assembly of collagen mimetic peptides (United States)

    Stahl, Patrick

    The ECM is a complex natural system evolved to promote proliferation and differentiation of cells during tissue development. In order to create synthetic biomaterials for studying cell-scaffold interactions and ultimately for engineering tissues, scientists strive to recapitulate many characteristics of ECM by developing hydrogels that contain mechanical cues and biochemical signals such as adhesion moieties and cell growth factors. While synthetic hydrogels bypass limitations of naturally-derived materials (e.g. transfer of pathogens), nature provides inspiration to enhance the functionality of synthetic hydrogels through biomimetic approaches. The collagen triple helix is the basis for the supramolecular structure of collagen in the ECM, and its adaptation in collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) has provided hybridization mechanisms that can be employed in the formation and functionalization of synthetic hydrogels. The aim of this dissertation is to develop novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels that employ CMP triple helix assembly as a non-covalent yet target-specific tool to encode physical and chemical cues into the hydrogel with spatial control. We demonstrate that multi-arm PEG functionalized with CMPs form hydrogels supported by physical crosslinks mediated by CMP triple helix. Particle tracking microrheology shows that these physical crosslinks are sensitive to temperature as well as addition of exogenous CMPs that can disrupt crosslinks by competing for triple helix formation. This physical crosslink disruption enables the modulation of bulk hydrogel elasticity and the introduction of local stiffness gradients in PEG-CMP hydrogels. We also present photopolymerized PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels displaying CMPs that can be further conjugated to CMPs with bioactive moieties via triple helix hybridization. Encoding these hydrogels with cell-adhesive CMPs induces cell spreading and proliferation. We further demonstrate generation of gradients and

  14. Diels-Alder hydrogels with enhanced stability: First step toward controlled release of bevacizumab. (United States)

    Kirchhof, Susanne; Gregoritza, Manuel; Messmann, Viktoria; Hammer, Nadine; Goepferich, Achim M; Brandl, Ferdinand P


    Eight-armed PEG was functionalized with furyl and maleimide groups (8armPEG20k-Fur and 8armPEG20k-Mal); degradable hydrogels were obtained by cross-linking via Diels-Alder chemistry. To increase the stability to degradation, the macromonomers were modified by introducing a hydrophobic 6-aminohexanoic acid spacer between PEG and the reactive end-groups (8armPEG20k-Ahx-Fur and 8armPEG20k-Ahx-Mal). In an alternative approach, the number of reactive groups per macromonomer was increased by branching the terminal ends of eight-armed PEG with lysine (Lys) and Ahx residues (8armPEG20k-Lys-Ahx-Fur2 and 8armPEG20k-Lys-Ahx-Mal2). The hydrolytic resistance of the synthesized macromonomers was determined by UV spectroscopy; the obtained hydrogels were characterized by rheology and degradation studies. The degradation time of 5% (w/v) 8armPEG20k-Ahx hydrogels (28days) was twice as long as the degradation time of 5% (w/v) 8armPEG20k hydrogels (14days); this is explained by increased hydrolytic resistance of the maleimide group. Using dendritic 8armPEG20k-Lys-Ahx macromonomers substantially increased the stability of the resulting hydrogels; degradation of 5% (w/v) 8armPEG20k-Lys-Ahx hydrogels occurred after 34 weeks. 8armPEG20k hydrogels had the largest mesh size of all tested hydrogels, while hydrogels made from dendritic 8armPEG20k-Lys-Ahx macromonomers showed the smallest value. To evaluate their potential for the controlled release of therapeutic antibodies, the hydrogels were loaded with bevacizumab. The incorporated bevacizumab was released over 10 days (8armPEG20k) and 42days (8armPEG20k-Ahx), respectively; release from 8armPEG20k-Lys-Ahx hydrogels was not completed after 105 days. In summary, we believe that 8armPEG20k-Ahx or 8armPEG20k-Lys-Ahx hydrogels could serve as controlled release system for therapeutic antibodies such as bevacizumab.

  15. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering (United States)

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O’Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf, Muhammad N.


    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity.

  16. Peptide hydrogelation triggered by enzymatic induced pH switch (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Ying


    It remains challenging to develop methods that can precisely control the self-assembling kinetics and thermodynamics of peptide hydrogelators to achieve hydrogels with optimal properties. Here we report the hydrogelation of peptide hydrogelators by an enzymatically induced pH switch, which involves the combination of glucose oxidase and catalase with D-glucose as the substrate, in which both the gelation kinetics and thermodynamics can be controlled by the concentrations of D-glucose. This novel hydrogelation method could result in hydrogels with higher mechanical stability and lower hydrogelation concentrations. We further illustrate the application of this hydrogelation method to differentiate different D-glucose levels.

  17. Hydrogels Containing Nanocapsules and Nanoemulsions of Tea Tree Oil Provide Antiedematogenic Effect and Improved Skin Wound Healing. (United States)

    Flores, Fernanda C; De Lima, Julia A; Da Silva, Cássia R; Benvegnú, Dalila; Ferreira, Juliano; Burger, Marilise E; Beck, Ruy C R; Rolim, Clarice M B; Rocha, Maria Isabel U M; Da Veiga, Marcelo L; Da Silva, Cristiane de B


    In previous works, we developed nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing the tea tree oil. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrogels containing these nanocarriers, and to evaluate their in vivo efficacy in protecting skin damage induced by UVB and cutaneous wound healing. Hydrogels were prepared using Carbopol Ultrez and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated: macroscopic analysis, pH, spreadability and rheological properties. The in vivo antiedematogenic effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement after UVB-irradiation. In order to evaluate healing action of hydrogels, we investigated the regression of the cutaneous lesion in rats. Hydrogels showed homogeneous aspect and pH values between 5.6-5.8 and a non-Newtonian behavior. The presence of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions in hydrogels did not change their spreadability profile. The inclusion of tea tree oil in the nanocapsules and nanoemulsions allowed reducing the edema induced by UVB exposure. Hydrogel containing nanocapsules presented a higher reduction of the wound area compared to the hydrogel containing nanoemulsions and hydrogel containing allantoin. This study shows the feasibility of obtained dermatological formulations containing the tea tree oil associated in nanostructured systems. These formulations represent a promising approach to topical treatment of inflammatory disorders and wound healing.

  18. Exploring natural silk protein sericin for regenerative medicine: an injectable, photoluminescent, cell-adhesive 3D hydrogel. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yeshun; Zhang, Jinxiang; Huang, Lei; Liu, Jia; Li, Yongkui; Zhang, Guozheng; Kundu, Subhas C; Wang, Lin


    Sericin, a major component of silk, has a long history of being discarded as a waste during silk processing. The value of sericin for tissue engineering is underestimated and its potential application in regenerative medicine has just begun to be explored. Here we report the successful fabrication and characterization of a covalently-crosslinked 3D pure sericin hydrogel for delivery of cells and drugs. This hydrogel is injectable, permitting its implantation through minimally invasive approaches. Notably, this hydrogel is found to exhibit photoluminescence, enabling bioimaging and in vivo tracking. Moreover, this hydrogel system possesses excellent cell-adhesive capability, effectively promoting cell attachment, proliferation and long-term survival of various types of cells. Further, the sericin hydrogel releases bioactive reagents in a sustained manner. Additionally, this hydrogel demonstrates good elasticity, high porosity, and pH-dependent degradation dynamics, which are advantageous for this sericin hydrogel to serve as a delivery vehicle for cells and therapeutic drugs. With all these unique features, it is expected that this sericin hydrogel will have wide utility in the areas of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  19. Biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogels to control release of dexamethasone through aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry for adipose tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Zhang, Ziwei; Mao, Jiahui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Tan, Huaping, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Hu, Xiaohong [School of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China)


    A robust synthetic strategy of biopolymer-based hydrogels has been developed where hyaluronic acid derivatives reacted through aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry without the involvement of chemical catalysts, allowing for control and sustain release of dexamethasone. To conjugate the hydrogel, furan and maleimide functionalized hyaluronic acid were synthesized, respectively, as well as furan functionalized dexamethasone, for the covalent immobilization. Chemical structure, gelation time, morphologies, swelling kinetics, weight loss, compressive modulus and dexamethasone release of the hydrogel system in PBS at 37 °C were studied. The results demonstrated that the aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry provides an extremely selective reaction and proceeds with high efficiency for hydrogel conjugation and covalent immobilization of dexamethasone. Cell culture results showed that the dexamethasone immobilized hydrogel was noncytotoxic and preserved proliferation of entrapped human adipose-derived stem cells. This synthetic approach uniquely allows for the direct fabrication of biologically functionalized gel scaffolds with ideal structures for adipose tissue engineering, which provides a competitive alternative to conventional conjugation techniques such as copper mediated click chemistry. - Highlights: • A biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogel was crosslinked via aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry. • Dexamethasone was covalently immobilized into the hyaluronic acid hydrogel via aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry. • Dexamethasone could be released from the Diels–Alder hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a controlled fashion.

  20. Properties of Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogels Cross-Linked via Strain-Promoted Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition (SPAAC). (United States)

    Hodgson, Sabrina M; Bakaic, Emilia; Stewart, S Alison; Hoare, Todd; Adronov, Alex


    A series of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels was synthesized using strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) between PEG chains terminated with either aza-dibenzocyclooctynes or azide functionalities. The gelation process was found to occur rapidly upon mixing the two components in aqueous solution without the need for external stimuli or catalysts, making the system a candidate for use as an injectable hydrogel. The mechanical and rheological properties of these hydrogels were found to be tunable by varying the polymer molecular weight and the number of cross-linking groups per chain. The gelation times of these hydrogels ranged from 10 to 60 s at room temperature. The mass-based swelling ratios varied from 45 to 76 at maximum swelling (relative to the dry state), while the weight percent of polymer in these hydrogels ranged from 1.31 to 2.05%, demonstrating the variations in amount of polymer required to maintain the structural integrity of the gel. Each hydrogel degraded at a different rate in PBS at pH = 7.4, with degradation times ranging from 1 to 35 days. By changing the composition of the two starting components, it was found that the Young's modulus of each hydrogel could be varied from 1 to 18 kPa. Hydrogel incubation with bovine serum albumin showed minimal protein adsorption. Finally, a cell cytotoxicity study of the precursor polymers with 3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated that the azide- and strained alkyne-functionalized PEGs are noncytotoxic.

  1. Hydrogel-delivered brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes tissue repair and recovery after stroke. (United States)

    Cook, Douglas J; Nguyen, Cynthia; Chun, Hyun N; L Llorente, Irene; Chiu, Abraham S; Machnicki, Michal; Zarembinski, Thomas I; Carmichael, S Thomas


    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Systemic delivery of candidate neural repair therapies is limited by the blood-brain barrier and off-target effects. We tested a bioengineering approach for local depot release of BDNF from the infarct cavity for neural repair in chronic periods after stroke. The brain release levels of a hyaluronic acid hydrogel + BDNF were tested in several stroke models in mouse (strains C57Bl/6, DBA) and non-human primate ( Macaca fascicularis) and tracked with MRI. The behavioral recovery effects of hydrogel + BDNF and the effects on tissue repair outcomes were determined. Hydrogel-delivered BDNF diffuses from the stroke cavity into peri-infarct tissue over 3 weeks in two mouse stroke models, compared with 1 week for direct BDNF injection. Hydrogel delivery of BDNF promotes recovery of motor function. Mapping of motor system connections indicates that hydrogel-BDNF induces axonal sprouting within existing cortical and cortico-striatal systems. Pharmacogenetic studies show that hydrogel-BDNF induces the initial migration of immature neurons into the peri-infarct cortex and their long-term survival. In chronic stroke in the non-human primate, hydrogel-released BDNF can be detected up to 2 cm from the infarct, a distance relevant to human functional recovery in stroke. The hydrogel can be tracked by MRI in mouse and primate.

  2. Antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral injection using an in situ thermosensitive hydrogel. (United States)

    Xu, Yourui; Shen, Yan; Ouahab, Ammar; Li, Chang; Xiong, Yerong; Tu, Jiasheng


    Local drug delivery strategies based on nanoparticles, gels, polymeric films, rods and wafers are increasingly used in cancer chemotherapy in order to enhance therapeutic effect and reduce systemic toxicity. Herein, a biodegradable and biocompatible in situ thermosensitive hydrogel was designed and employed to deliver tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) locally by intratumoral injection. The triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-butyrolactone (β-BL) and lactide (LA) in bulk using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as the catalyst, the polymer was characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. Blood and tumor pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral administration in hydrogel or solution with the same dose were evaluated on S180 tumor-bearing mice. Compared with TNF-α solution, TNF-α hydrogel exhibited a longer T1/2 (4-fold) and higher AUCtumor (19-fold), but Cmax was lower (0.5-fold), which means that the hydrogel formulation improved the efficacy with a lower systhemic exposure than the solution formation. In addition, TNF-α hydrogel improved the antitumor activity and survival due to lower systemic exposure than the solution. These results demonstrate that the in situ thermosensitive hydrogel-based local delivery system by intratumoral injection is well suited for the administration of TNF-α.

  3. Systematic Evaluation of Drug-Loaded Hydrogels for Application in Osteosarcoma Treatment. (United States)

    Ali Gumustas, Seyit; Isyar, Mehmet; Topuk, Savas; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Oznam, Kadir; Onay, Tolga; Ofluoglu, Onder; Mahirogullari, Mahir

    This is a literature review of studies focusing on the preparation of hydrogels for use as oncological drug delivery systems in the treatment of osteosarcoma (OS). The databases of the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Embase, OVID, and Cochrane Library, and the references of retrieved studies, were traced from 1843 to December 21, 2015, without language restrictions. The obtained data were evaluated by complementary statistical methods. Potentially relevant studies were found and included in the analysis. OS-specific chemotherapeutic agents can be successfully embedded within the hydrogels and these drug-loaded hydrogels can be applied locally, rather than systemically, without organ tissue toxicity. Further, OS-specific drug-loaded hydrogels significantly increased tumor inhibition and decreased osteolysis and lung metastases. Drug-loaded hydrogels could be useful in the treatment of OS, although their development remains at the experimental phase. Following evaluation of their application in surgery and the completion of drug release kinetics studies, drug-loaded hydrogels could be tested on living mammals in large samples with the aim of applying these in clinical settings. In the future, development of such drug delivery systems and application of targeted approaches against osteosarcoma and other malignancies may render surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy unnecessary.

  4. An amidated carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel for cartilage regeneration. (United States)

    Leone, Gemma; Fini, Milena; Torricelli, Paola; Giardino, Roberto; Barbucci, Rolando


    An amidic derivative of carboxymethylcellulose was synthesized (CMCA). The new polysaccharide was obtained by converting a large percentage of carboxylic groups ( approximately 50%) of carboxymethylcellulose into amidic groups rendering the macromolecule quite similar to hyaluronan. Then, the polysaccharide (CMCA) was crosslinked. The behavior of CMCA hydrogel towards normal human articular chondrocytes (NHAC) was in vitro studied monitoring the cell proliferation and synthesis of extra cellular matrix (ECM) components and compared with a hyaluronan based hydrogel (Hyal). An extracellular matrix rich in cartilage-specific collagen and proteoglycans was secreted in the presence of hydrogels. The injectability of the new hydrogels was also analysed. An experimental in vivo model was realized to study the effect of CMCA and Hyal hydrogels in the treatment of surgically created partial thickness chondral defects in the rabbit knee. The preliminary results pointed out that CMCA hydrogel could be considered as a potential compound for cartilage regeneration.

  5. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks. (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Zheng, Huaiyuan; Poh, Patrina S P; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F


    Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation.

  6. Kinetics analysis of volume phase transition of intelligent neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoGui; LI YiQuan


    In this work, utilizing the first law of thermodynamics and the FIory mean-field theory, the kinetic deformation studies concerning the volume phase transition of the neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels were performed analytically. The hydrogel was assumed as a biphasic mixture medium in the framework of the continuum mixture theory. From the energy conservation of the thermodynamics system of the hydrogel, the governing equations for the kinetics of the nonlinear large deforma-tion were derived. The explicit analytical expressions of the effective stress tensor and the chemical potential of the fluid of the thermo-sensitive hydrogel PNIPA were also obtained from the Helmholtz free energy, which can model the steady-static volume phase transition quantitatively.

  7. Kinetics analysis of volume phase transition of intelligent neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this work,utilizing the first law of thermodynamics and the Flory mean-field theory,the kinetic deformation studies concerning the volume phase transition of the neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels were performed analytically.The hydrogel was assumed as a biphasic mixture medium in the framework of the continuum mixture theory.From the energy conservation of the thermodynamics system of the hydrogel,the governing equations for the kinetics of the nonlinear large deforma-tion were derived.The explicit analytical expressions of the effective stress tensor and the chemical potential of the fluid of the thermo-sensitive hydrogel PNIPA were also obtained from the Helmholtz free energy,which can model the steady-static volume phase transition quantitatively.

  8. Laterally Sandwich-typed Hydrogel Columns with Liner Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)Layer: Preparation, Swelling/ deswelling Kinetics and Drug Delivery Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; XIAO Xincai


    A novel thermo-responsive hydrogel column,featured with both ends of linear poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chains being grafted onto cross-linked PNIPAM chains,was reported.The laterally sandwich-typed hydrogel columns were fabricated by radical polymerization in a three-step process using a method of ice-melting synthesis.The initiating path,morphology and thermoresponsive characteristics of the prepared hydrogel columns were experimentally studied.The results show that the hydrogel column obtained by the initiator inside part has more quick swelling and deswelling rates responsing to temperature cycling than other hydrogels owing to linear PNIPAM chains to form supermacroporous structure.The proposed hydrogel structure provide a new mode of the phase transition behavior for thermo-sensitive "smart" or "intelligent" monodisperse micro-actuators,which is highly attractive for targeting drug delivery systems,chemical separations,and sensors and so on.

  9. Hybrid polymeric hydrogels for ocular drug delivery: nanoparticulate systems from copolymers of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, Eugen; Tsibouklis, John [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Verestiuc, Liliana [Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ' Gr T Popa' , 9-13 Kogalniceanu Street, Iasi, 700454 (Romania); Iancu, Mihaela; Jatariu, Anca [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Technical University' Gh Asachi' , Boulevard Mangeron, 71A, 700100, Iasi (Romania); Lungu, Adriana [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Polizu Street 1-7, 011061, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail:


    Nanoparticulate hybrid polymeric hydrogels (10-70 nm) have been obtained via the radical-induced co-polymerization of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and the materials have been investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles in ophthalmic drug delivery. Studies on the effects of network structure upon swelling properties, adhesiveness to substrates that mimic mucosal surfaces and biodegradability, coupled with in vitro drug release investigations employing ophthalmic drugs with differing aqueous solubilities, have identified nanoparticle compositions for each of the candidate drug molecules. The hybrid nanoparticles combine the temperature sensitivity of N-isopropylacrylamide or the good swelling characteristics of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with the susceptibility of chitosan to lysozyme-induced biodegradation.

  10. Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Hydrogel for Epidermal Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Lang, Qi; Yildirimer, Lara; Lin, Zhi Yuan; Cui, Wenguo; Annabi, Nasim; Ng, Kee Woei; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Natural hydrogels are promising scaffolds to engineer epidermis. Currently, natural hydrogels used to support epidermal regeneration are mainly collagen- or gelatin-based, which mimic the natural dermal extracellular matrix but often suffer from insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties. In this study, a photocrosslinkable gelatin (i.e., gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA)) with tunable mechanical, degradation, and biological properties is used to engineer the epidermis for skin tissue engineering applications. The results reveal that the mechanical and degradation properties of the developed hydrogels can be readily modified by varying the hydrogel concentration, with elastic and compressive moduli tuned from a few kPa to a few hundred kPa, and the degradation times varied from a few days to several months. Additionally, hydrogels of all concentrations displayed excellent cell viability (>90%) with increasing cell adhesion and proliferation corresponding to increases in hydrogel concentrations. Furthermore, the hydrogels are found to support keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and stratification into a reconstructed multilayered epidermis with adequate barrier functions. The robust and tunable properties of GelMA hydrogels suggest that the keratinocyte laden hydrogels can be used as epidermal substitutes, wound dressings, or substrates to construct various in vitro skin models.

  11. Progress in the development of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels


    Myung, David; Waters, Dale; Wiseman, Meredith; Duhamel, Pierre-Emile; Noolandi, Jaan; Ta, Christopher N.; Frank, Curtis W


    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have been the subject of extensive study since their advent in the 1960s. Hydrogel IPN systems have garnered significant attention in the last two decades due to their usefulness in biomedical applications. Of particular interest are the mechanical enhancements observed in “double network” IPN systems which exhibit nonlinear increases in fracture properties despite being composed of otherwise weak polymers. We have built upon pioneering work in this fi...

  12. Visible light crosslinking of methacrylated hyaluronan hydrogels for injectable tissue repair. (United States)

    Fenn, Spencer L; Oldinski, Rachael A


    Tissue engineering hydrogels are primarily cured in situ using ultraviolet (UV) radiation which limits the use of hydrogels as drug or cell carriers. Visible green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a safe alternative to UV photocrosslinked hydrogels, without compromising material properties such as viscosity and stiffness. The objective of this study was to fabricate and characterize photocrosslinked hydrogels with well-regulated gelation kinetics and mechanical properties for the repair or replacement of soft tissue. An anhydrous methacrylation of hyaluronan (HA) was performed to control the degree of modification (DOM) of HA, verified by (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. UV-activated crosslinking was compared to visible green light activated crosslinking. While the different photocrosslinking techniques resulted in varied crosslinking times, comparable mechanical properties of UV and green light activated crosslinked hydrogels were achieved using each photocrosslinking method by adjusting time of light exposure. Methacrylated HA (HA-MA) hydrogels of varying molecular weight, DOM, and concentration exhibited compressive moduli ranging from 1 kPa to 116 kPa, for UV crosslinking, and 3 kPa to 146 kPa, for green light crosslinking. HA-MA molecular weight and concentration were found to significantly influence moduli values. HA-MA hydrogels did not exhibit any significant cytotoxic effects toward human mesenchymal stem cells. Green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a viable method to form natural-based hydrogels in situ. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1229-1236, 2016.

  13. Real-Time Fluorescence Tracking of Protoporphyrin Incorporated Thermosensitive Hydrogel and Its Drug Release in Vivo. (United States)

    Dong, Xia; Wei, Chang; Liu, Tianjun; Lv, Feng; Qian, Zhiyong


    Fluorescence imaging in vivo will pave an important way for the evaluation of biomaterials. The major advantage of fluorescence imaging compared to other imaging modalities is the possibility of tracking two or more fluorescence probes simultaneously with multispectral fluorescence imaging. It is essential to elucidate the location, erosion, drug release and resection of implanted biomaterials in vivo. Herein, a thermosensitive hydrogel with a protoporphyrin core based on a PEG and PCL copolymer (PCL-PEG-PPOR-PEG-PCL) was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization using protoporphyrin as a fluorescence tag. The optical properties of the hydrogel were investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in vitro and by fluorescence imaging system in vivo. The hydrogel erosion and drug delivery in vivo were monitored and tracked by multispectral fluorescence imaging system in nude mice. The results show that the thermosensitive hydrogel exhibits fluorescence and injectability in vivo with good biocompatibility. Through the modality of fluorescence imaging, the status of the hydrogel is reflected in situ in vivo including its location and erosion. Multispectral analysis separates the autofluorescence signals from the specific label and provides the ability to locate the drug and carrier. The protoporphyrin incorporated thermosensitive hydrogel can be a potential visiable biomedical implant for tissue repair or drug delivery.

  14. In situ gelling stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels for drug delivery. (United States)

    He, Chaoliang; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Doo Sung


    Stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels, which are reversible polymer networks formed by physical interactions and exhibit a sol-gel phase-transition in response to external stimuli, have great potential in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, especially in site-specific controlled drug-delivery systems. The drug may be mixed with a polymer solution in vitro and the drug-loaded hydrogel can form in situ after the in vivo administration, such as injection; therefore, stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels have many advantages, such as simple drug formulation and administration procedures, no organic solvent, site-specificity, a sustained drug release behavior, less systemic toxicity and ability to deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Among the stimuli in the biomedical applications, temperature and pH are the most popular physical and chemical stimuli, respectively. The temperature- and/or pH-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels for biomedical applications have been extensively developed in the past decade. This review focuses on recent development of the preparation and application for drug delivery of the block copolymer hydrogels that respond to temperature, pH or both stimuli, including poly(N-substituted acrylamide)-based block copolymers, poloxamers and their derivatives, poly(ethylene glycol)-polyester block copolymers, polyelectrolyte-based block copolymers and the polyelectrolyte-modified thermo-sensitive block copolymers. In addition, the hydrogels based on other stimuli-sensitive block copolymers are discussed.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Albumin Conjugates as pH-Sensitive Biodegradable Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-shan; LI Jian-zheng; JING Xia-bin; CHEN Xue-si; HUANG Yu-bin


    A new kind of biodegradable pH-sensitive drug delivery system was developed via chitosan-albumin conjugate hydrogel. Through changing the feeding modes of reactants, two types of hydrogels(comb-type and reticular-type) were synthesized by amidation reactions between 6-O-succinoylated N-phthaloyl chitosan and albumin. The structures and morphologies of the hydrogels were characterized by SEM. And their water swelling capacity, drug loading and releasing properties at different pH values were also investigated. It was found that the comb-type of hydrogels with looser space construction had better water swelling ratio(more than 400% of its original mass) than the reticular-type of ones did(about 180% of its original mass). In vitro release experiments of Rifampicin show that the hydrogels provided the controlled release of the entrapped drug for more than 50 h. The drug release rates of both types of hydrogels under acidic condition were lower than those under neutral or basic condition. The introduction of albumin not only improved the hydrophilicity of chitosan, but also provided the possibility of the carrier system combining other biologically active materials more easily to fulfill the delivery and therapy functions.

  16. New cellulose-lignin hydrogels and their application in controlled release of polyphenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciolacu, Diana, E-mail:; Oprea, Ana Maria; Anghel, Narcis; Cazacu, Georgeta; Cazacu, Maria


    Novel superabsorbant cellulose-lignin hydrogels (CL) were prepared by a new two-step procedure consisting in dissolving cellulose in an alkaline solution with further mixing with lignin, followed by the chemical crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. The crosslinking occurrence was verified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effect of the structure features of cellulose-lignin hydrogels on their dehydration heat was evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images reveal some morphological aspects of the hydrogels. The degree as well as the rate of swelling in a mixture of water:ethanol = 19:1 were estimated. The possible application of these hydrogels as controlled release systems was tested. Polyphenols known as having a wide range of biological effects were selected to be incorporated in such hydrogels by an optimal procedure. The extract of grapes seeds from the Chambourcin type was used as a source of polyphenols (PF). The amount of the incorporated polyphenols was estimated by UV-VIS measurements. Characterization of the hydrogels containing polyphenols was performed by FTIR spectroscopy. Some parameters were estimated based on the registered spectra, as H-bond energy (E{sub H}), the asymmetric index (a/b) and the enthalpy of H-bond formation ({Delta}H). The modifications of the thermal behavior and morphology induced by the presence of the polyphenols in hydrogels were highlighted by DSC and SEM, respectively. The release of polyphenols from CL hydrogels depended on the lignin content from matrices, as assessed by spectral studies. Both loading with polyphenols and their release can be controlled by the composition of the hydrogels. The kinetic of polyphenols release was studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A unique method to obtain cellulose-lignin hydrogels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The application of these hydrogels as controlled release systems was tested. Black

  17. 3-dimensional echocardiography and its role in preoperative mitral valve evaluation. (United States)

    Andrawes, Michael N; Feinman, Jared W


    Echocardiography plays a key role in the preoperative evaluation of mitral valve disease. 3-dimensional echocardiography is a relatively new development that is being used more and more frequently in the evaluation of these patients. This article reviews the available literature comparing the use of this new technology to classic techniques in the assessment of mitral valve pathology. The authors also review some of the novel insights learned from 3-dimensional echocardiography and how they may be used in surgical decision making and planning.

  18. Fatigue behavior of carbon/epoxy composites reinforced with 3-Dimensional woven fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karahan


    Full Text Available This paper reports results of study of fatigue behavior of a non-crimp 3-dimensional woven carbon/epoxy composite in tension-tension fatigue. Infinite fatigue life limit corresponds to the load of 27.5 kN for fill direction. The damage under fatigue loading starts and develops from intersection of z-yarns and fill yarns. Since the z-yarns bonded the yarn layers, it is not seen the delaminastion damages. This indicate that for load carrying capacity and stiffness of 3-dimensional composites better than classic 2-dimensional textile composites.

  19. Smart self-assembled hybrid hydrogel biomaterials. (United States)

    Kopeček, Jindřich; Yang, Jiyuan


    Hybrid biomaterials are systems created from components of at least two distinct classes of molecules, for example, synthetic macromolecules and proteins or peptide domains. The synergistic combination of two types of structures may produce new materials that possess unprecedented levels of structural organization and novel properties. This Review focuses on biorecognition-driven self-assembly of hybrid macromolecules into functional hydrogel biomaterials. First, basic rules that govern the secondary structure of peptides are discussed, and then approaches to the specific design of hybrid systems with tailor-made properties are evaluated, followed by a discussion on the similarity of design principles of biomaterials and macromolecular therapeutics. Finally, the future of the field is briefly outlined.

  20. Hydrogels: an interesting strategy for smart drug delivery. (United States)

    González-Alvarez, Marta; González-Alvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival


    Hydrogels are novel delivery systems that have drawn much attention in the current pharmaceutical scenario. Of all the advantages, the most important is their versatility, which makes them optimal for any kind of molecule, adequate to be administered by any administration route and capable to modulate the desired release profile. Current research is managed to solve the limitations of this systems; mainly the low mechanical strength and lack of control of release in time and quantity, and the reversibility of the delivery. Several approaches such as the use of multi-stimuli-sensitive mechanisms, the enhancement of mechanical properties using chemical crosslinkers, development of polyelectrolyte complexes, the increment of interpenetrating networks or composite hydrogels are providing excellent results. These systems represent a promising alternative due to the countless possibilities to offer for modulating drug release.

  1. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario (United States)

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.


    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  2. Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels. (United States)

    Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J


    Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and mechanical responsiveness through nonlinear mechanics, properties that are rarely observed in synthetic hydrogels. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we study the bundle formation and hydrogelation process of polyisocyanide gels, a synthetic material that uniquely mimics the structure and mechanics of biogels. We show how the structure of the material changes at the (thermally induced) gelation point and how factors such as concentration and polymer length determine the architecture, and with that, the mechanical properties. The correlation of the gel mechanics and the structural parameters obtained from SAXS experiments is essential in the design of future (synthetic) mimics of biopolymer networks.

  3. Fewer Bacteria Adhere to Softer Hydrogels. (United States)

    Kolewe, Kristopher W; Peyton, Shelly R; Schiffman, Jessica D


    Clinically, biofilm-associated infections commonly form on intravascular catheters and other hydrogel surfaces. The overuse of antibiotics to treat these infections has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance and underscores the importance of developing alternative strategies that delay the onset of biofilm formation. Previously, it has been reported that during surface contact, bacteria can detect surfaces through subtle changes in the function of their motors. However, how the stiffness of a polymer hydrogel influences the initial attachment of bacteria is unknown. Systematically, we investigated poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and agar hydrogels that were 20 times thicker than the cumulative size of bacterial cell appendages, as a function of Young's moduli. Soft (44.05-308.5 kPa), intermediate (1495-2877 kPa), and stiff (5152-6489 kPa) hydrogels were synthesized. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus attachment onto the hydrogels was analyzed using confocal microscopy after 2 and 24 h incubation periods. Independent of hydrogel chemistry and incubation time, E. coli and S. aureus attachment correlated positively to increasing hydrogel stiffness. For example, after a 24 h incubation period, there were 52 and 82% fewer E. coli adhered to soft PEGDMA hydrogels than to the intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels, respectively. A 62 and 79% reduction in the area coverage by the Gram-positive microbe S. aureus occurred after 24 h incubation on the soft versus intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels. We suggest that hydrogel stiffness is an easily tunable variable that could potentially be used synergistically with traditional antimicrobial strategies to reduce early bacterial adhesion and therefore the occurrence of biofilm-associated infections.

  4. Fewer Bacteria Adhere to Softer Hydrogels (United States)

    Kolewe, Kristopher W.; Peyton, Shelly R.; Schiffman, Jessica D.


    Clinically, biofilm-associated infections commonly form on intravascular catheters and other hydrogel surfaces. The overuse of antibiotics to treat these infections has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance and underscores the importance of developing alternative strategies that delay the onset of biofilm formation. Previously, it has been reported that during surface contact, bacteria can detect surfaces through subtle changes in the function of their motors. However, how the stiffness of a polymer hydrogel influences the initial attachment of bacteria is unknown. Systematically, we investigated poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and agar hydrogels that were twenty times thicker than the cumulative size of bacterial cell appendages, as a function of Young’s moduli. Soft (44.05 – 308.5 kPa), intermediate (1495 – 2877 kPa), and stiff (5152 – 6489 kPa) hydrogels were synthesized. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus attachment onto the hydrogels was analyzed using confocal microscopy after 2 and 24 hr incubation periods. Independent of hydrogel chemistry and incubation time, E. coli and S. aureus attachment correlated positively to increasing hydrogel stiffness. For example, after a 24 hr incubation period, there were 52% and 82% less E. coli adhered to soft PEGDMA hydrogels, than to the intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels, respectively. A 62% and 79% reduction in the area coverage by the Gram-positive microbe S. aureus occurred after 24 hr incubation on the soft versus intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels. We suggest that hydrogel stiffness is an easily tunable variable that, potentially, could be used synergistically with traditional antimicrobial strategies to reduce early bacterial adhesion, and therefore the occurrence of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:26291308

  5. Bioresorption mechanisms of chitosan physical hydrogels: A scanning electron microscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaise, Sébastien, E-mail: [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (IMP-UMR 5223), 15 Boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Rami, Lila [Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Inserm U1026, Bioingénierie Tissulaire, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Montembault, Alexandra; Alcouffe, Pierre [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (IMP-UMR 5223), 15 Boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Burdin, Béatrice [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Centre Technologique des Microstructure, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bordenave, Laurence [Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Inserm U1026, Bioingénierie Tissulaire, Bordeaux 33000 (France); CHU de Bordeaux, CIC-IT Biomaterials, F-33000 Bordeaux (France); Delmond, Samantha [CHU de Bordeaux, CIC-IT Biomaterials, F-33000 Bordeaux (France); David, Laurent [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (IMP-UMR 5223), 15 Boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)


    Tissue-engineered biodegradable medical devices are widely studied and systems must present suitable balance between versatility and elaboration simplicity. In this work, we aim at illustrating that such equilibrium can be found by processing chitosan physical hydrogels without external cross-linker. Chitosan concentration, degree of acetylation, solvent composition, and neutralization route were modulated in order to obtain hydrogels exhibiting different physico-chemical properties. The resulting in vivo biological response was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. “Soft” hydrogels were obtained from chitosan of high degree of acetylation (35%) and by the neutralization with gaseous ammonia of a chitosan acetate aqueous solutions presenting low polymer concentration (Cp = 1.6% w/w). “Harder” hydrogels were obtained from chitosan with lower degree of acetylation (5%) and after neutralization in sodium hydroxide bath (1 M) of hydro-alcoholic chitosan solutions (50/50 w/w water/1,2-propanediol) with a polymer concentration of 2.5% w/w. Soft and hard hydrogels exhibited bioresorption times from below 10 days to higher than 60 days, respectively. We also evidenced that cell colonization and neo-vascularization mechanisms depend on the hydrogel-aggregated structure that is controlled by elaboration conditions and possibly in relation with mechanical properties. Specific processing conditions induced micron-range capillary formation, which can be assimilated to colonization channels, also acting on the resorption scenario. - Highlights: • We elaborated physical chitosan hydrogels presenting tuneable biological properties. • Cell colonization mechanism depends on biological and mechanical hydrogel properties. • Increasing the degree of acetylation will reduce the bioresorption time. • Capillaries played a role of cell colonization pathways.

  6. Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Hydrogels Create Endogenous Niches for Neural Stem Cells. (United States)

    Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Enam, Syed Faaiz; Brown, Ashley C; Saxena, Tarun; Betancur, Martha I; Barker, Thomas H; Bellamkonda, Ravi V


    Neural stem cells (NSCs) possess great potential for neural tissue repair after traumatic injuries to the central nervous system (CNS). However, poor survival and self-renewal of NSCs after injury severely limits its therapeutic potential. Sulfated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) linked to CS proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) have the ability to bind and potentiate trophic factor efficacy, and promote NSC self-renewal in vivo. In this study, we investigated the potential of CS-GAG hydrogels composed of monosulfated CS-4 (CS-A), CS-6 (CS-C), and disulfated CS-4,6 (CS-E) CS-GAGs as NSC carriers, and their ability to create endogenous niches by enriching specific trophic factors to support NSC self-renewal. We demonstrate that CS-GAG hydrogel scaffolds showed minimal swelling and degradation over a period of 15 days in vitro, absorbing only 6.5 ± 0.019% of their initial weight, and showing no significant loss of mass during this period. Trophic factors FGF-2, BDNF, and IL10 bound with high affinity to CS-GAGs, and were significantly (p hydrogels when compared to unsulfated hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels. Dissociated rat subventricular zone (SVZ) NSCs when encapsulated in CS-GAG hydrogels demonstrated ∼88.5 ± 6.1% cell viability in vitro. Finally, rat neurospheres in CS-GAG hydrogels conditioned with the mitogen FGF-2 demonstrated significantly (p hydrogels. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the ability of CS-GAG based hydrogels to regulate NSC self-renewal, and facilitate growth factor enrichment locally.

  7. Effect of microcavitary alginate hydrogel with different pore sizes on chondrocyte culture for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Lei; Yao, Yongchang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Dong-an, E-mail: [National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Division of Bioengineering, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Chen, Xiaofeng, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    In our previous work, a novel microcavitary hydrogel was proven to be effective for proliferation of chondrocytes and maintenance of chondrocytic phenotype. In present work, we further investigated whether the size of microcavity would affect the growth and the function of chondrocytes. By changing the stirring rate, gelatin microspheres in different sizes including small size (80–120 μm), middle size (150–200 μm) and large size (250–300 μm) were prepared. And then porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated into alginate hydrogel with various sizes of gelatin microspheres. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Live/dead staining and real-time PCR were used to analyze the effect of the pore size on cell proliferation and expression of specific chondrocytic genes. According to all the data, cells cultivated in microcavitary hydrogel, especially in small size, had preferable abilities of proliferation and higher expression of cartilaginous markers including type II collagen, aggrecan and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Furthermore, it was shown by western blot assay that the culture of chondrocytes in microcavitary hydrogel could improve the proliferation of cells potentially by inducing the Erk1/2-MAPK pathway. Taken together, this study demonstrated that chondrocytes favored microcavitary alginate hydrogel with pore size within the range of 80–120 μm for better growth and ECM synthesis, in which Erk1/2 pathway was involved. This culture system would be promising for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel model with microcavitary structure was set up to study the interaction between cells and materials. • Microcavitary alginate hydrogel could enhance the proliferation of chondrocytes and promote the expression of cartilaginous genes as compared with plain alginate hydrogel. • Cells in microcavitary alginate hydrogel with pore size within the range of 80–120 μm were capable of better growth and ECM synthesis.

  8. Microfluidic-Based Synthesis of Hydrogel Particles for Cell Microencapsulation and Cell-Based Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandi Wan


    Full Text Available Encapsulation of cells in hydrogel particles has been demonstrated as an effective approach to deliver therapeutic agents. The properties of hydrogel particles, such as the chemical composition, size, porosity, and number of cells per particle, affect cellular functions and consequently play important roles for the cell-based drug delivery. Microfluidics has shown unparalleled advantages for the synthesis of polymer particles and been utilized to produce hydrogel particles with a well-defined size, shape and morphology. Most importantly, during the encapsulation process, microfluidics can control the number of cells per particle and the overall encapsulation efficiency. Therefore, microfluidics is becoming the powerful approach for cell microencapsulation and construction of cell-based drug delivery systems. In this article, I summarize and discuss microfluidic approaches that have been developed recently for the synthesis of hydrogel particles and encapsulation of cells. I will start by classifying different types of hydrogel material, including natural biopolymers and synthetic polymers that are used for cell encapsulation, and then focus on the current status and challenges of microfluidic-based approaches. Finally, applications of cell-containing hydrogel particles for cell-based drug delivery, particularly for cancer therapy, are discussed.

  9. Terminal sterilization of alginate hydrogels: efficacy and impact on mechanical properties. (United States)

    Stoppel, Whitney L; White, Joseph C; Horava, Sarena D; Henry, Anna C; Roberts, Susan C; Bhatia, Surita R


    Terminal, or postprocessing, sterilization of composite biomaterials is crucial for their use in wound healing and tissue-engineered devices. Recent research has focused on optimizing traditional biomaterial formulations to create better products for commercial and academic use which incorporate hydrophobic compounds or secondary gel networks. To use a hydrogel in a clinical setting, terminal sterilization is necessary to ensure patient safety. Lyophilization, gamma-irradiation, and ethylene oxide treatment all have negative consequences when applied to alginate scaffolds for clinical use. Here, we aim to find alternative terminal sterilization methods for alginate and alginate-based composite hydrogels which maintain the structure of composite alginate networks for use in biomedical applications. A thorough investigation of the effect of common sterilization methods on swollen alginate-based hydrogels has not been reported and therefore, this work examines autoclaving, ethanol washing, and ultraviolet light as sterilization techniques for alginate and alginate/Pluronic® F68 composite hydrogels. Preservation of structural integrity is evaluated using shear rheology and analysis of water retention, and efficacy of sterilization is determined via bacterial persistence within the hydrogel. Results indicate that ethanol sterilization is the best method of those investigated because ethanol washing results in minimal effects on mechanical properties and water retention and eliminates bacterial persistence. Furthermore, this study suggests that ethanol treatment is an efficacious method for terminally sterilizing interpenetrating networks or other composite hydrogel systems.

  10. Vaginal delivery of carboplatin-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel to prevent local cervical cancer recurrence in mice. (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Jin; Wu, Wenbin; Li, Hongjun


    Local tumor recurrence after cervical cancer surgery remains a clinical problem. Vaginal delivery of thermosensitive hydrogel may be suited to reduce tumor relapse rate with more efficacy and safety. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel to prevent local recurrence of cervical cancer after surgery. In vivo vaginal retention evaluation of 27% poloxamer hydrogel in mice was proven to be a suitable vaginal drug delivery formulation due to its low gelation temperature. A mimic orthotopic cervical/vaginal cancer recurrence model after surgery was established by injecting murine cervical cancer cell line U14 into the vaginal submucosa to simulate the residual tumor cells infiltrated in the surgical site, followed by drug administration 24 h later to interfere with the formation/recurrence of the tumor. By infusing fluorescein sodium-loaded hydrogel into the vagina of mice, a maximized accumulation of fluorescein sodium (Flu) in the vagina was achieved and few signals were observed in other organs. When used in the prevention of the cervical cancer formation/recurrence in mice, the carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel exhibited great efficacy and systemic safety. In conclusion, thermosensitive hydrogel presents a simple, practical approach for the local drug delivery via vagina against cervical cancer recurrence.

  11. Controlled drug release from hydrogels for contact lenses: Drug partitioning and diffusion. (United States)

    Pimenta, A F R; Ascenso, J; Fernandes, J C S; Colaço, R; Serro, A P; Saramago, B


    Optimization of drug delivery from drug loaded contact lenses assumes understanding the drug transport mechanisms through hydrogels which relies on the knowledge of drug partition and diffusion coefficients. We chose, as model systems, two materials used in contact lens, a poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based hydrogel and a silicone based hydrogel, and three drugs with different sizes and charges: chlorhexidine, levofloxacin and diclofenac. Equilibrium partition coefficients were determined at different ionic strength and pH, using water (pH 5.6) and PBS (pH 7.4). The measured partition coefficients were related with the polymer volume fraction in the hydrogel, through the introduction of an enhancement factor following the approach developed by the group of C. J. Radke (Kotsmar et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2013). This factor may be decomposed in the product of three other factors EHS, Eel and Ead which account for, respectively, hard-sphere size exclusion, electrostatic interactions, and specific solute adsorption. While EHS and Eel are close to 1, Ead>1 in all cases suggesting strong specific interactions between the drugs and the hydrogels. Adsorption was maximal for chlorhexidine on the silicone based hydrogel, in water, due to strong hydrogen bonding. The effective diffusion coefficients, De, were determined from the drug release profiles. Estimations of diffusion coefficients of the non-adsorbed solutes D=De×Ead allowed comparison with theories for solute diffusion in the absence of specific interaction with the polymeric membrane.

  12. Synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels. (United States)

    Yue, Kan; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Tamayol, Ali; Annabi, Nasim; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been widely used for various biomedical applications due to their suitable biological properties and tunable physical characteristics. GelMA hydrogels closely resemble some essential properties of native extracellular matrix (ECM) due to the presence of cell-attaching and matrix metalloproteinase responsive peptide motifs, which allow cells to proliferate and spread in GelMA-based scaffolds. GelMA is also versatile from a processing perspective. It crosslinks when exposed to light irradiation to form hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties. It can also be microfabricated using different methodologies including micromolding, photomasking, bioprinting, self-assembly, and microfluidic techniques to generate constructs with controlled architectures. Hybrid hydrogel systems can also be formed by mixing GelMA with nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide, and other polymers to form networks with desired combined properties and characteristics for specific biological applications. Recent research has demonstrated the proficiency of GelMA-based hydrogels in a wide range of tissue engineering applications including engineering of bone, cartilage, cardiac, and vascular tissues, among others. Other applications of GelMA hydrogels, besides tissue engineering, include fundamental cell research, cell signaling, drug and gene delivery, and bio-sensing.

  13. Localized Co-delivery of Doxorubicin, Cisplatin, and Methotrexate by Thermosensitive Hydrogels for Enhanced Osteosarcoma Treatment. (United States)

    Ma, Hecheng; He, Chaoliang; Cheng, Yilong; Yang, Zhiming; Zang, Junting; Liu, Jianguo; Chen, Xuesi


    Localized cancer treatments with combination drugs have recently emerged as crucial approaches for effective inhibition of tumor growth and reoccurrence. In this study, we present a new strategy for the osteosarcoma treatment by localized co-delivery of multiple drugs, including doxorubicin (DOX), cisplatin (CDDP) and methotraxate (MTX), using thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogels. The release profiles of the drugs from the hydrogels were investigated in vitro. It was found that the multidrug coloaded hydrogels exhibited synergistic effects on cytotoxicity against osteosarcoma Saos-2 and MG-63 cells in vitro. After a single peritumoral injection of the drug-loaded hydrogels into nude mice bearing human osteosarcoma Saos-2 xenografts, the hydrogels coloaded with DOX, CDDP, and MTX displayed the highest tumor suppression efficacy in vivo for up to 16 days, as well as led to enhanced tumor apoptosis and increased regulation of the expressions of apoptosis-related genes. Moreover, the monitoring on the mice body change and the ex vivo histological analysis of the key organs indicated that the localized treatments caused less systemic toxicity and no obvious damage to the normal organs. Therefore, the approach of localized co-delivery of DOX, CDDP, and MTX by the thermosensitive hydrogels may be a promising approach for enhanced osteosarcoma treatment.

  14. Thermosensitive block copolymer hydrogels based on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and polyethylene glycol for biomedical applications: state of the art and future perspectives. (United States)

    Boffito, Monica; Sirianni, Paolo; Di Rienzo, Anna Maria; Chiono, Valeria


    This review focuses on the challenges associated with the design and development of injectable hydrogels of synthetic origin based on FDA approved blocks, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL). An overview of recent studies on inverse thermosensitive PEG/PCL hydrogels is provided. These systems have been proposed to overcome the limitations of previously introduced degradable thermosensitive hydrogels [e.g., PEG/poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) hydrogels]. PEG/PCL hydrogels are advantageous due to their higher gel strength, slower degradation rate and availability in powder form. Particularly, triblock PEG/PCL copolymers have been widely investigated, with PCL-PEG-PCL (PCEC) hydrogels showing superior gel strength and slower degradation kinetics than PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE) hydrogels. Compared to triblock PEG/PCL copolymers, concentrated solutions of multiblock PEG/PCL copolymers were stable due to their slower crystallization rate. However, the resulting hydrogel gel strength was low. Inverse thermosensitive triblock PEG/PCL hydrogels have been mainly applied in tissue engineering, to decrease tissue adherence or, in combination with bioactive molecules, to promote tissue regeneration. They have also found application as in situ drug delivery carriers. On the other hand, the wide potentialities of multiblock PEG/PCL hydrogels, associated with the stability of their water-based solutions under storage, their higher degradation time compared to triblock copolymer hydrogels and the possibility to insert bioactive building blocks along the copolymer chains, have not been fully exploited yet. A critical discussion is provided to highlight advantages and limitations of currently developed themosensitive PEG/PCL hydrogels, suggesting future strategies for the realization of PEG/PCL-based copolymers with improved performance in the different application fields.

  15. Evaluation of Photocrosslinked Lutrol Hydrogel for Tissue Printing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, Natalja E.; Swennen, Ives; Girones, Jordi; Moroni, Lorenzo; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Schacht, Etienne; Alblas, Jacqueline; Dhert, Wouter J.A.


    Application of hydrogels in tissue engineering and innovative strategies such as organ printing, which is based on layered 3D deposition of cell-laden hydrogels, requires design of novel hydrogel matrices. Hydrogel demands for 3D printing include: 1) preservation of the printed shape after the depos

  16. Switchable antimicrobial and antifouling hydrogels with enhanced mechanical properties. (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Tang, Qiong; Li, Linlin; Humble, Jayson; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Lingyun; Cheng, Gang


    New switchable hydrogels are developed. Under acidic conditions, hydrogels undergo self-cyclization and can catch and kill bacteria. Under neutral/basic conditions, hydrogels undergo ring-opening and can release killed bacterial cells and resist protein adsorption and bacterial attachment. Smart hydrogels also show a dramatically improved mechanical property, which is highly desired for biomedical applications.

  17. Rapid Self-Integrating, Injectable Hydrogel for Tissue Complex Regeneration. (United States)

    Hou, Sen; Wang, Xuefei; Park, Sean; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X


    A novel rapid self-integrating, injectable, and bioerodible hydrogel is developed for bone-cartilage tissue complex regeneration. The hydrogels are able to self-integrate to form various structures, as can be seen after dying some hydrogel disks pink with rodamine. This hydrogel is demonstrated to engineer cartilage-bone complex.

  18. Realization of masticatory movement by 3-dimensional simulation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hee-Jin


    Masticatory muscles are closely involved in mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing, and it is therefore important to study the specific functions and dynamics of the mandibular and masticatory muscles. However, the shortness of muscle fibers and the diversity of movement directions make it difficult to study and simplify the dynamics of mastication. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3D) simulation to observe the functions and movements of each of the masticatory muscles and the mandible while chewing. To simulate the masticatory movement, computed tomographic images were taken from a single Korean volunteer (30-year-old man), and skull image data were reconstructed in 3D (Mimics; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The 3D-reconstructed masticatory muscles were then attached to the 3D skull model. The masticatory movements were animated using Maya (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA) based on the mandibular motion path. During unilateral chewing, the mandible was found to move laterally toward the functional side by contracting the contralateral lateral pterygoid and ipsilateral temporalis muscles. During the initial mouth opening, only hinge movement was observed at the temporomandibular joint. During this period, the entire mandible rotated approximately 13 degrees toward the bicondylar horizontal plane. Continued movement of the mandible to full mouth opening occurred simultaneously with sliding and hinge movements, and the mandible rotated approximately 17 degrees toward the center of the mandibular ramus. The described approach can yield data for use in face animation and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.

  19. Design of biphasic polymeric 3-dimensional fiber deposited scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Moroni, L; Hendriks, J A A; Schotel, R; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A


    This report describes a novel system to create rapid prototyped 3-dimensional (3D) fibrous scaffolds with a shell-core fiber architecture in which the core polymer supplies the mechanical properties and the shell polymer acts as a coating providing the desired physicochemical surface properties. Poly[(ethylene oxide) terephthalate-co-poly(butylene) terephthalate] (PEOT/PBT) 3D fiber deposited (3DF) scaffolds were fabricated and examined for articular cartilage tissue regeneration. The shell polymer contained a higher molecular weight of the initial poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments used in the copolymerization and a higher weight percentage of the PEOT domains compared with the core polymer. The 3DF scaffolds entirely produced with the shell or with the core polymers were also considered. After 3 weeks of culture, scaffolds were homogeneously filled with cartilage tissue, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Although comparable amounts of entrapped chondrocytes and of extracellular matrix formation were found for all analyzed scaffolds, chondrocytes maintained their rounded shape and aggregated during the culture period on shell-core 3DF scaffolds, suggesting a proper cell differentiation into articular cartilage. This finding was also observed in the 3DF scaffolds fabricated with the shell composition only. In contrast, cells spread and attached on scaffolds made simply with the core polymer, implying a lower degree of differentiation into articular cartilaginous tissue. Furthermore, the shell-core scaffolds displayed an improved dynamic stiffness as a result of a "prestress" action of the shell polymer on the core one. In addition, the dynamic stiffness of the constructs increased compared with the stiffness of the bare scaffolds before culture. These findings suggest that shell-core 3DF PEOT/PBT scaffolds with desired mechanical and surface properties are a promising solution for improved cartilage tissue engineering.

  20. Albedo and heat transport in 3-dimensional model simulations of the early Archean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kienert


    Full Text Available At the beginning of the Archean eon (ca. 3.8 billion yr ago, the Earth's climate state was significantly different from today due to the lower solar luminosity, smaller continental fraction, higher rotation rate and, presumably, significantly larger greenhouse gas concentrations. All these aspects play a role in solutions to the "faint young Sun problem" which must explain why the ocean surface was not fully frozen at that time. Here, we present 3-dimensional model simulations of climate states that are consistent with early Archean boundary conditions and have different CO2 concentrations, aiming at an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of the early Archean climate system. We focus on three states: one of them is ice-free, one has the same mean surface air temperature of 288 K as today's Earth and the third one is the coldest stable state in which there is still an area with liquid surface water (i.e. the critical state at the transition to a "snowball Earth". We find a reduction in meridional heat transport compared to today which leads to a steeper latitudinal temperature profile and has atmospheric as well as oceanic contributions. Ocean surface velocities are largely zonal, and the strength of the atmospheric meridional circulation is significantly reduced in all three states. These aspects contribute to the observed relation between global mean temperature and albedo, which we suggest as a parameterisation of the ice-albedo feedback for 1-dimensional model simulations of the early Archean and thus the faint young Sun problem.

  1. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods (United States)

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu


    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although…

  2. On Maximal Surfaces in Certain Non-Flat 3-Dimensional Robertson-Walker Spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Alfonso, E-mail: [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Geometria y Topologia (Spain); Rubio, Rafael M., E-mail: [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Matematicas, Campus de Rabanales (Spain)


    An upper bound for the integral, on a geodesic disc, of the squared length of the gradient of a distinguished function on any maximal surface in certain non-flat 3-dimensional Robertson-Walker spacetimes is obtained. As an application, a new proof of a known Calabi-Bernstein's theorem is given.

  3. 3-Dimensional Cahn-Hilliard Equation with Concentration Dependent Mobility and Gradient Dependent Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui HUANG; Yang CAO


    In this paper we investigate the initial boundary value problem of Cahn-Hilliard equation with concentration dependent mobility and gradient dependent potential. By the energy method and the theory of Campanato spaces, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of classical solutions in 3-dimensional space.

  4. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, L.I.F.; Guldemond, N.A.; De Bie, R.A.; Walenkamp, G.H.I.M.


    Background: Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM) in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measu

  5. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances : A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W. Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin


    BACKGROUND: The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. METHODS: The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (

  6. An application of the 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator to the nuclear shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Raychev, P P; Lo-Iudice, N; Terziev, P A


    An analysis of the construction of a q-deformed version of the 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which is based on the application of q-deformed algebras, is presented. The results together with their applicability to the shell model are compared with the predictions of the modified harmonic oscillator.

  7. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin


    Background. The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. Methods. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (

  8. On an asymptotic distribution of dependent random variables on a 3-dimensional lattice✩ (United States)

    Harvey, Danielle J.; Weng, Qian; Beckett, Laurel A.


    We define conditions under which sums of dependent spatial data will be approximately normally distributed. A theorem on the asymptotic distribution of a sum of dependent random variables defined on a 3-dimensional lattice is presented. Examples are also presented. PMID:20436940

  9. Structure-property-function relationships in triple helical collagen hydrogels

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J


    In order to establish defined biomimetic systems, type I collagen was functionalised with 1,3-Phenylenediacetic acid (Ph) as aromatic, bifunctional segment. Following investigation on molecular organization and macroscopic properties, material functionalities, i.e. degradability and bioactivity, were addressed, aiming at elucidating the potential of this collagen system as mineralization template. Functionalised collagen hydrogels demonstrated a preserved triple helix conformation. Decreased swelling ratio and increased thermo-mechanical properties were observed in comparison to state-of-the-art carbodiimide (EDC)-crosslinked collagen controls. Ph-crosslinked samples displayed no optical damage and only a slight mass decrease (~ 4 wt.-%) following 1-week incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF), while nearly 50 wt.-% degradation was observed in EDC-crosslinked collagen. SEM/EDS revealed amorphous mineral deposition, whereby increased calcium phosphate ratio was suggested in hydrogels with increased Ph content...

  10. Development of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/alginate copolymer hydrogel-grafted fabrics embedding of berberine nanosuspension for the infected wound treatment. (United States)

    Xu, He; Yuan, Xu-Dong; Shen, Bao-De; Han, Jin; Lv, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Ling; Lin, Ming-Gui; Yu, Chao; Bai, Jin-Xia; Yuan, Hai-Long


    In the present study, a novel hydrogel-grafted fabrics embedding of berberine nanosuspension was developed for the treatment of infected wound. Hydrogel-grafted fabric was prepared by graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and alginate using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. Berberine nanosuspension was prepared and embedded in the hydrogel-grafted fabrics to achieve sustained drug release. The prepared hydrogel-grafted fabrics embedding of berberine nanosuspension was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and swelling degree studies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that berberine was embedded into the matrix of hydrogel-grafted fabrics, rather than on the surface. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a thin hydrogel layer was formed on the surface of nonwoven fibers. The swelling study showed that hydrogel-grafted fabric had water absorbing characteristic with reversible temperature sensitivity. The drug release study demonstrated that hydrogel-grafted fabrics can be used as a sustained drug delivery system of hydrophobic compounds. The berberine nanosuspension embedded hydrogel-grafted fabric was further investigated in an animal infected wound model and was found to be a very promising wound healing dressing for the treatment and healing of infected wounds.

  11. Hydrogels with micellar hydrophobic (nano)domains (United States)

    Pekař, Miloslav


    Hydrogels containing hydrophobic domains or nanodomains, especially of the micellar type, are reviewed. Examples of the reasons for introducing hydrophobic domains into hydrophilic gels are given; typology of these materials is introduced. Synthesis routes are exemplified and properties of a variety of such hydrogels in relation with their intended applications are described. Future research needs are identified briefly.

  12. Photopatterning of hydrogel microarryas in closed microchips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Bomer, Johan G.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    To date, optical lithography has been extensively used for in situ patterning of hydrogel structures in a scale range from hundreds of microns to a few millimeters. The two main limitations which prevent smaller feature sizes of hydrogel structures are (1) the upper glass layer of a microchip mainta

  13. Hydrogels with Micellar Hydrophobic (Nano)Domains


    Pekař, Miloslav


    Hydrogels containing hydrophobic domains or nanodomains, especially of the micellar type, are reviewed. Examples of the reasons for introducing hydrophobic domains into hydrophilic gels are given; typology of these materials is introduced. Synthesis routes are exemplified and properties of a variety of such hydrogels in relation with their intended applications are described. Future research needs are identified briefly.

  14. Hydrogels with micellar hydrophobic (nano)domains


    Miloslav ePekař


    Hydrogels containing hydrophobic domains or nanodomains, especially of the micellar type, are reviewed. Examples of the reasons for introducing hydrophobic domains into hydrophilic gels are given; typology of these materials is introduced. Synthesis routes are exemplified and properties of a variety of such hydrogels in relation with their intended applications are described. Future research needs are identified briefly.

  15. Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials (United States)

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Tomasia, Antoni P


    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

  16. Design of Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Kamata, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiang; Chung, Ung-Il; Sakai, Takamasa


    Hydrogels are considered key tools for the design of biomaterials, such as wound dressings, drug reservoirs, and temporary scaffolds for cells. Despite their potential, conventional hydrogels have limited applicability under wet physiological conditions because they suffer from the uncontrollable temporal change in shape: swelling takes place immediately after the installation. Swollen hydrogels easily fail under mechanical stress. The morphological change may cause not only the slippage from the installation site but also local nerve compression. The design of hydrogels that can retain their original shape and mechanical properties in an aqueous environment is, therefore, of great importance. On the one hand, the controlled degradation of used hydrogels has to be realized in some biomedical applications. This Progress Report provides a brief overview of the recent progress in the development of hydrogels for biomedical applications. Practical approaches to control the swelling properties of hydrogels are discussed. The designs of hydrogels with controlled degradation properties as well as the theoretical models to predict the degradation behavior are also introduced. Moreover, current challenges and limitation toward biomedical applications are discussed, and future directions are offered.

  17. Estimating 3-Dimensional Structure of Tropical Forests from Radar Interferometry / Estimativa da Estrutura 3-Dimensional das Florestas Tropicais Através de Interferometria de Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Treuhaft


    Full Text Available This paper describes the retrieval of 3-dimensional vegetation density profiles from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR using physical models. InSAR’s sensitivity to vertical structure is generally regarded as less direct and more difficult to understand than that of lidar. But InSAR’s coverage is superior to that of lidar, suggesting InSAR is more promising as an important component of a global 3-dimensional forest monitoring technique. The goal of this paper is to introduce, simplify and demystify the use of simple physical models to understand InSAR. A general equation expressing the InSAR observation in terms of density is described heuristically, along with the approximations in its development. The information content of the equation leads to the estimation of density parameters. Preliminary results are shown from a multibaseline C-band (wavelength=0.056 m vertical-polarization interferometer, realized with AirSAR flown at multiple altitudes over primary, secondary, and selectively logged tropical forests, as well as abandoned pastures at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica.

  18. Topological entropy and renormalization group flow in 3-dimensional spherical spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beneventano, C.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,Instituto de Física de La Plata, CONICET-Universidad Nacional de La Plata,C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Cavero-Peláez, I. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); CUD,E-50090, Zaragoza (Spain); D’Ascanio, D.; Santangelo, E.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,Instituto de Física de La Plata, CONICET-Universidad Nacional de La Plata,C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    We analyze the renormalization group (RG) flow of the temperature independent term of the entropy in the high temperature limit β/a≪1 of a massive field theory in 3-dimensional spherical spaces, M{sub 3}, with constant curvature 6/a{sup 2}. For masses lower than ((2π)/β), this term can be identified with the free energy of the same theory on M{sub 3} considered as a 3-dimensional Euclidean space-time. The non-extensive part of this free energy, S{sub hol}, is generated by the holonomy of the spatial metric connection. We show that for homogeneous spherical spaces the holonomy entropy S{sub hol} decreases monotonically when the RG scale flows to the infrared. At the conformal fixed points the values of the holonomy entropy do coincide with the genuine topological entropies recently introduced. The monotonic behavior of the RG flow leads to an inequality between the topological entropies of the conformal field theories connected by such flow, i.e. S{sub top}{sup UV}>S{sub top}{sup IR}. From a 3-dimensional viewpoint the same term arises in the 3-dimensional Euclidean effective action and has the same monotonic behavior under the RG group flow. We conjecture that such monotonic behavior is generic, which would give rise to a 3-dimensional generalization of the c-theorem, along the lines of the 2-dimensional c-theorem and the 4-dimensional a-theorem. The conjecture is related to recent formulations of the F-theorem. In particular, the holonomy entropy on lens spaces is directly related to the topological Rényi entanglement entropy on disks of 2-dimensional flat spaces.

  19. Intra-articular Administration of Chitosan Thermosensitive In Situ Hydrogels Combined With Diclofenac Sodium-Loaded Alginate Microspheres. (United States)

    Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Xiaoxue; Yang, Rong; Qin, Jiayi; Li, Wenyan; Luan, Kun; Wu, Zhenghong; Song, Li


    The aims of this study were to prepare fine intra-articular-administrated chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels combined with alginate microspheres and to investigate the possibility of those hydrogels as a drug delivery system for promoting the anti-inflammation effect. Diclofenac sodium containing alginate microspheres was prepared by a modified emulsification and/or gelation method and then dispersed into injectable thermosensitive hydrogels, consisting of chitosan and β-glycerophosphate. The final combined hydrogels were evaluated in terms of their morphology properties, rheological properties, in vitro drug release, and in vivo biocompatibility and pharmacodynamics behaviors. The optimized formulation exhibited sol-gel transition at 31.72 ± 0.42°C and quickly turned into gel within 5 min, with sustained drug release characteristics followed Ritger-Peppas equation, which could prolong the in vitro drug release to 5 days. In addition, the anti-inflammation efficacy of the combined hydrogels in rabbits with experimental rheumatoid arthritis was higher than that of drug solution and pure chitosan hydrogels. Those results demonstrated that these combined hydrogels could become a potential drug delivery system for improving the therapeutic effect of diclofenac sodium and suggested an important technology platform for intra-articular administration.

  20. Facile synthesis of glucose-sensitive chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel: Drug release optimization and swelling properties. (United States)

    Abureesh, Mosab Ali; Oladipo, Akeem Adeyemi; Gazi, Mustafa


    The study describes the development of glucose-sensitive hydrogel and optimization of bovine serum albumin release profile from the hydrogel. To enhance the glucose sensitivity and improve the swelling behaviors of the hydrogel system, boric acid crosslinking, and freeze-thawing cycle techniques were used to prepare chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel. The structure of the resultant hydrogel was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The experimental results revealed that the swelling of the hydrogel was influenced by the pH of the medium, and the hydrogel displayed explicit glucose-sensitivity under physiological conditions. The values of the diffusion exponent range between 0.34 and 0.44 and the diffusion of water into the gel system are assumed to be pseudo-Fickian in nature. Under optimized conditions, the cumulative Bovine serum albumin (BSA) drug releases ranged between 69.33±1.95% and 86.45±1.16% at 37°C in the presence of glucose and pH 7.4, respectively.

  1. Improving Joint Function Using Photochemical Hydrogels for Articular Surface Repair (United States)


    solution over 1 hour. The precipitate is then sieved to 300 – 500μm size and sterilized prior to cell seeding [13]. Swine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs...this system takes advantage of a radical-mediated chemical reaction that selectively bonds thiols to molecules containing carbon - carbon double bonds...often necessitate localized presentation.12Since diffusion of lower molecular weight proteins in hydrogels can be quite rapid, some researchers have

  2. Nanocomposite PAAm/methyl cellulose/montmorillonite hydrogel: evidence of synergistic effects for the slow release of fertilizers. (United States)

    Bortolin, Adriel; Aouada, Fauze A; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Ribeiro, Caue


    In this work, we synthesized a novel series of hydrogels composed of polyacrylamide (PAAm), methylcellulose (MC), and calcic montmorillonite (MMt) appropriate for the controlled release of fertilizers, where the components presented a synergistic effect, giving very high fertilizer loading in their structure. The synthesized hydrogel was characterized in relation to morphological, hydrophilic, spectroscopic, structural, thermal, and kinetic properties. After those characterizations, the application potential was verified through sorption and desorption studies of a nitrogenated fertilizer, urea (CO(NH2)2). The swelling degree results showed that the clay loading considerably reduces the water absorption capability; however, the hydrolysis process favored the urea adsorption in the hydrogel nanocomposites, increasing the load content according to the increase of the clay mass. The FTIR spectra indicated that there was incorporation of the clay with the polymeric matrix of the hydrogel and that incorporation increased the water absorption speed (indicated by the kinetic constant k). By an X-ray diffraction technique, good nanodispersion (intercalation) and exfoliation of the clay platelets in the hydrogel matrix were observed. Furthermore, the presence of the montmorillonite in the hydrogel caused the system to liberate the nutrient in a more controlled manner than that with the neat hydrogel in different pH ranges. In conclusion, excellent results were obtained for the controlled desorption of urea, highlighting the hydrolyzed hydrogels containing 50% calcic montmorillonite. This system presented the best desorption results, releasing larger amounts of nutrient and almost 200 times slower than pure urea, i.e., without hydrogel. The total values of nutrients present in the system show that this material is potentially viable for application in agriculture as a nutrient carrier vehicle.

  3. Cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogels for reconfigurable lens (United States)

    Jayaramudu, T.; Ko, Hyun-U.; Gao, Xiaoyuan; Li, Yaguang; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Jaehwan


    Electroactive hydrogels are attractive for soft robotics and reconfigurable lens applications. Here we describe the design and fabrication of cellulose-poly vinyl alcohol based hydrogels. The fabricated hydrogels were confirmed by Fourier transformer spectroscopy, swelling studies, thermal analysis, surface morphology of fabricated hydrogel was study by using scanning electron microscopy. The effect of poly vinyl alcohol concentration on the optical and electrical behavior of hydrogels was studied.

  4. Comparison of photopolymerizable thiol-ene PEG and acrylate-based PEG hydrogels for cartilage development. (United States)

    Roberts, Justine J; Bryant, Stephanie J


    When designing hydrogels for tissue regeneration, differences in polymerization mechanism and network structure have the potential to impact cellular behavior. Poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were formed by free-radical photopolymerization of acrylates (chain-growth) or thiol-norbornenes (step-growth) to investigate the impact of hydrogel system (polymerization mechanism and network structure) on the development of engineered tissue. Bovine chondrocytes were encapsulated in hydrogels and cultured under free swelling or dynamic compressive loading. In the acrylate system immediately after encapsulation chondrocytes exhibited high levels of intracellular ROS concomitant with a reduction in hydrogel compressive modulus and higher variability in cell deformation upon compressive strain; findings that were not observed in the thiol-norbornene system. Long-term the quantity of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and total collagen was greater in the acrylate system, but the quality resembled that of hypertrophic cartilage with positive staining for aggrecan, collagens I, II, and X and collagen catabolism. The thiol-norbornene system led to hyaline-like cartilage production especially under mechanical loading with positive staining for aggrecan and collagen II and minimal staining for collagens I and X and collagen catabolism. Findings from this study confirm that the polymerization mechanism and network structure have long-term effects on the quality of engineered cartilage, especially under mechanical loading.

  5. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Sang Gyu, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)


    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  6. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery. (United States)

    Donnelly, Ryan F; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Garland, Martin J; Migalska, Katarzyna; Majithiya, Rita; McCrudden, Cian M; Kole, Prashant Laxman; Mahmood, Tuan Mazlelaa Tuan; McCarthy, Helen O; Woolfson, A David


    Unique microneedle arrays prepared from crosslinked polymers, which contain no drug themselves, are described. They rapidly take up skin interstitial fluid upon skin insertion to form continuous, unblockable, hydrogel conduits from attached patch-type drug reservoirs to the dermal microcirculation. Importantly, such microneedles, which can be fabricated in a wide range of patch sizes and microneedle geometries, can be easily sterilized, resist hole closure while in place, and are removed completely intact from the skin. Delivery of macromolecules is no longer limited to what can be loaded into the microneedles themselves and transdermal drug delivery is now controlled by the crosslink density of the hydrogel system rather than the stratum corneum, while electrically modulated delivery is also a unique feature. This technology has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional microneedle designs and greatly increase the range of the type of drug that is deliverable transdermally, with ensuing benefits for industry, healthcare providers and, ultimately, patients.

  7. Semi-wet peptide/protein array using supramolecular hydrogel (United States)

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Sada, Kazuki; Yoshimura, Ibuki; Shinkai, Seiji; Kato, Nobuo; Hamachi, Itaru


    The protein microarray is a crucial biomaterial for the rapid and high-throughput assay of many biological events where proteins are involved. In contrast to the DNA microarray, it has not been sufficiently established because of protein instability under the conventional dry conditions. Here we report a novel semi-wet peptide/protein microarray using a supramolecular hydrogel composed of glycosylated amino acetate. The spontaneous gel-formation and amphiphilic properties of this supramolecular hydrogel have been applied to a new type of peptide/protein gel array that is compatible with enzyme assays. Aqueous cavities created in the gel matrix are a suitable semi-wet reaction medium for enzymes, whereas the hydrophobic domains of the fibre are useful as a unique site for monitoring the reaction. This array system overcomes several drawbacks of conventional protein chips, and thus can have potential applications in pharmaceutical research and diagnosis.

  8. Functional stimuli responsive hydrogel devices by self-folding (United States)

    Yoon, ChangKyu; Xiao, Rui; Park, JaeHyun; Cha, Jaepyeong; Nguyen, Thao D.; Gracias, David H.


    We describe a photolithographic approach to create functional stimuli responsive, self-folding, microscale hydrogel devices using thin, gradient cross-linked hinges and thick, fully cross-linked panels. The hydrogels are composed of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (pNIPAM-AAc) with reversible stimuli responsive properties just below physiological temperatures. We show that a variety of three-dimensional structures can be formed and reversibly actuated by temperature or pH. We experimentally characterized the swelling and mechanical properties of pNIPAM-AAc and developed a finite element model to rationalize self-folding and its variation with hinge thickness and swelling ratio. Finally, we highlight applications of this approach in the creation of functional devices such as self-folding polymeric micro-capsules, untethered micro-grippers and thermally steered micro-mirror systems.

  9. Mechanically robust, rapidly actuating, and biologically functionalized macroporous poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/silk hybrid hydrogels. (United States)

    Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Tien, Lee W; Trimmer, Barry; Hudson, Samuel M; Kaplan, David L


    A route toward mechanically robust, rapidly actuating, and biologically functionalized polymeric actuators using macroporous soft materials is described. The materials were prepared by combining silk protein and a synthetic polymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIAPPm)) to form interpenetrating network materials and macroporous structures by freeze-drying, with hundreds of micrometer diameter pores and exploiting the features of both polymers related to dynamic materials and structures. The chemically cross-linked PNIPAAm networks provided stimuli-responsive features, while the silk interpenetrating network formed by inducing protein β-sheet crystallinity in situ for physical cross-links provided material robustness, improved expansion force, and enzymatic degradability. The macroporous hybrid hydrogels showed enhanced thermal-responsive properties in comparison to pure PNIPAAm hydrogels, nonporous silk/PNIPAAm hybrid hydrogels, and previously reported macroporous PNIPAAm hydrogels. These new systems reach near equilibrium sizes in shrunken/swollen states in less than 1 min, with the structural features providing improved actuation rates and stable oscillatory properties due to the macroporous transport and the mechanically robust silk network. Confocal images of the hydrated hydrogels around the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) revealed macropores that could be used to track changes in the real time morphology upon thermal stimulus. The material system transformed from a macroporous to a nonporous structure upon enzymatic degradation. To extend the utility of the system, an affinity platform for a switchable or tunable system was developed by immobilizing biotin and avidin on the macropore surfaces.

  10. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds

    KAUST Repository

    Seow, Wei Yang


    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing.

  11. A novel poly(γ-glutamic acid)/silk-sericin hydrogel for wound dressing: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Lu [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yang, Ning, E-mail: [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Hao [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Chen, Li, E-mail: [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Tao, Lei; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Hui; Luo, Ying [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Artificial Cell, Tianjin Third Central Hospital, Tianjin 300170 (China)


    A novel multifunctional poly(γ-glutamic acid)/silk sericin (γ-PGA/SS) hydrogel has been developed and used as wound dressing. The physical and chemical properties of the γ-PGA/SS gels were systemically investigated. Furthermore, these γ-PGA/SS gels have been found to promote the L929 fibroblast cells proliferate, and in the in vivo study, significant stimulatory effects were also observed on granulation and capillary formation on day 9 in H-2-treated wounds, indicating that this new complex hydrogel could maintain a moist healing environment, protect the wound from bacterial infection, absorb excess exudates, and promote cell proliferation to reconstruct damaged tissue. Considering the simple preparation process and excellent biological property, this γ-PGA/SS hydrogel might have a wide range of applications in biomedical and clinical areas. - Highlights: • Novel biodegradable hydrogels from γ-PGA and SS were successfully fabricated. • The preparation of hydrogel for wound dressing is simple. • The addition of SS in hydrogel improved the mechanical and biological properties. • The hydrogel has the feasibility to use in clinical application.

  12. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds (United States)

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E. Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.


    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing.

  13. Programmable Self-Assembly of DNA-Protein Hybrid Hydrogel for Enzyme Encapsulation with Enhanced Biological Stability. (United States)

    Wan, Lan; Chen, Qiaoshu; Liu, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaohai; Huang, Jin; Li, Li; Guo, Xi; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Kemin


    A DNA-protein hybrid hydrogel was constructed based on a programmable assembly approach, which served as a biomimetic physiologic matrix for efficient enzyme encapsulation. A dsDNA building block tailored with precise biotin residues was fabricated based on supersandwich hybridization, and then the addition of streptavidin triggered the formation of the DNA-protein hybrid hydrogel. The biocompatible hydrogel, which formed a flower-like porous structure that was 6.7 ± 2.1 μm in size, served as a reservoir system for enzyme encapsulation. Alcohol oxidase (AOx), which served as a representative enzyme, was encapsulated in the hybrid hydrogel using a synchronous assembly approach. The enzyme-encapsulated hydrogel was utilized to extend the duration time for ethanol removal in serum plasma and the enzyme retained 78% activity after incubation with human serum for 24 h. The DNA-protein hybrid hydrogel can mediate the intact immobilization on a streptavidin-modified and positively charged substrate, which is very beneficial to solid-phase biosensing applications. The hydrogel-encapsulated enzyme exhibited improved stability in the presence of various denaturants. For example, the encapsulated enzyme retained 60% activity after incubation at 55 °C for 30 min. The encapsulated enzyme also retains its total activity after five freeze-thaw cycles and even suspended in solution containing organic solvents.

  14. Dynamic transformation of self-assembled structures using anisotropic magnetized hydrogel microparticles (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Takinoue, Masahiro; Iwase, Eiji; Onoe, Hiroaki


    This paper describes a system through which the self-assembly of anisotropic hydrogel microparticles is achieved, which also enables dynamic transformation of the assembled structures. Using a centrifuge-based microfluidic device, anisotropic hydrogel microparticles encapsulating superparamagnetic materials on one side are fabricated, which respond to a magnetic field. We successfully achieve dynamic assembly using these hydrogel microparticles and realize three different self-assembled structures (single and double pearl chain structures, and close-packed structures), which can be transformed to other structures dynamically via tuning of the precessional magnetic field. We believe that the developed system has potential application as an effective platform for a dynamic cell manipulation and cultivation system, in biomimetic autonomous microrobot organization, and that it can facilitate further understanding of the self-organization and complex systems observed in nature.

  15. Bioprinting Cellularized Constructs Using a Tissue-specific Hydrogel Bioink. (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Forsythe, Steven D; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony


    Bioprinting has emerged as a versatile biofabrication approach for creating tissue engineered organ constructs. These constructs have potential use as organ replacements for implantation in patients, and also, when created on a smaller size scale as model "organoids" that can be used in in vitro systems for drug and toxicology screening. Despite development of a wide variety of bioprinting devices, application of bioprinting technology can be limited by the availability of materials that both expedite bioprinting procedures and support cell viability and function by providing tissue-specific cues. Here we describe a versatile hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin-based hydrogel system comprised of a multi-crosslinker, 2-stage crosslinking protocol, which can provide tissue specific biochemical signals and mimic the mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. Biochemical factors are provided by incorporating tissue-derived extracellular matrix materials, which include potent growth factors. Tissue mechanical properties are controlled combinations of PEG-based crosslinkers with varying molecular weights, geometries (linear or multi-arm), and functional groups to yield extrudable bioinks and final construct shear stiffness values over a wide range (100 Pa to 20 kPa). Using these parameters, hydrogel bioinks were used to bioprint primary liver spheroids in a liver-specific bioink to create in vitro liver constructs with high cell viability and measurable functional albumin and urea output. This methodology provides a general framework that can be adapted for future customization of hydrogels for biofabrication of a wide range of tissue construct types.

  16. Nanostructure controlled sustained delivery of human growth hormone using injectable, biodegradable, pH/temperature responsive nanobiohybrid hydrogel (United States)

    Singh, Narendra K.; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Kim, Bong Sup; Lee, Doo Sung


    The clinical efficacy of a therapeutic protein, the human growth hormone (hGH), is limited by its short plasma half-life and premature degradation. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a new protein delivery system by the self-assembly and intercalation of a negatively charged hGH onto a positively charged 2D-layered double hydroxide nanoparticle (LDH). The LDH-hGH ionic complex, with an average particle size of approximately 100 nm, retards hGH diffusion. Nanobiohybrid hydrogels (PAEU/LDH-hGH) were prepared by dispersing the LDH-hGH complex into a cationic pH- and temperature-sensitive injectable PAEU copolymer hydrogel to enhance sustained hGH release by dual ionic interactions. Biodegradable copolymer hydrogels comprising poly(β-amino ester urethane) and triblock poly(ε-caprolactone-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-(ε-caprolactone-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) were synthesized and characterized. hGH was self-assembled and intercalated onto layered LDH nanoparticles through an anion exchange technique. X-ray diffraction and zeta potential results showed that the LDH-hGH complex was prepared successfully and that the PAEU/LDH-hGH nanobiohybrid hydrogel had a disordered intercalated nanostructure. The biocompatibility of the nanobiohybrid hydrogel was confirmed by an in vitro cytotoxicity test. The in vivo degradation of pure PAEU and its nanobiohybrid hydrogels was investigated and it showed a controlled degradation of the PAEU/LDH nanobiohybrids compared with the pristine PAEU copolymer hydrogel. The LDH-hGH loaded injectable hydrogels suppressed the initial burst release of hGH and extended the release period for 13 days in vitro and 5 days in vivo. The developed nanohybrid hydrogel has the potential for application as a protein carrier to improve patient compliance.The clinical efficacy of a therapeutic protein, the human growth hormone (hGH), is limited by its short plasma half-life and premature degradation. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a new

  17. Covalent incorporation of non-chemically modified gelatin into degradable PVA-tyramine hydrogels. (United States)

    Lim, Khoon S; Alves, Marie H; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Martens, Penny J


    Development of tissue engineering solutions for biomedical applications has driven the need for integration of biological signals into synthetic materials. Approaches to achieve this typically require chemical modification of the biological molecules. Examples include chemical grafting of synthetic polymers onto protein backbones and covalent modification of proteins using crosslinkable functional groups. However, such chemical modification processes can cause protein degradation, denaturation or loss of biological activity due to side chain disruption. This study exploited the observation that native tyrosine rich proteins could be crosslinked via radical initiated bi-phenol bond formation without any chemical modification of the protein. A new, tyramine functionalised poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer was synthesised and characterised. The tyramine modified PVA (PVA-Tyr) was fabricated into hydrogels using a visible light initiated crosslinking system. Mass loss studies showed that PVA-Tyr hydrogels were completely degraded within 19 days most likely via degradation of ester linkages in the network. Protein incorporation to form a biosynthetic hydrogel was achieved using unmodified gelatin, a protein derived from collagen and results showed that 75% of gelatin was retained in the gel post-polymerisation. Incorporation of gelatin did not alter the sol fraction, swelling ratio and degradation profile of the hydrogels, but did significantly improve the cellular interactions. Moreover, incorporation of as little as 0.01 wt% gelatin was sufficient to facilitate fibroblast adhesion onto PVA-Tyr/gelatin hydrogels. Overall, this study details the synthesis of a new functionalised PVA macromer and demonstrates that tyrosine containing proteins can be covalently incorporated into synthetic hydrogels using this innovative PVA-Tyr system. The resultant degradable biosynthetic hydrogels hold great promise as matrices for tissue engineering applications.

  18. 3-dimensional slope stability analyses using non-associative stress-strain relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZuYu; SUN Ping; WANG YuJie; ZHANG HongTao


    The research work presented in this paper refers to a new slope stability analysis method used for landslide risk evaluations. It is an extension of the 3-dimensional upper-bound slope stability analysis method proposed by Chen et sl. in 2001, which employs the Mohr-Coulomb's associative flow rule. It has been found that in a 3-dimensional area, a prism may not be able to move at friction angles to all its surrounding interfaces, as required by this associative rule, and convergence problems may occa-sionally arise. The new method establishes two velocity fields: (i) The plastic one that represents a non-associative and the best representative dilation behavior, and (ii) the virtual one that permits the solution for factor of safety in the work and energy balance equation. The new method can then allow any input value of dilation angle and thus solve the convergence problem. A practical application to a concrete dam foundation is illustrated.

  19. Zeeman-Tomography of the Solar Photosphere -- 3-Dimensional Surface Structures Retrieved from Hinode Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, T A


    AIMS :The thermodynamic and magnetic field structure of the solar photosphere is analyzed by means of a novel 3-dimensional spectropolarimetric inversion and reconstruction technique. METHODS : On the basis of high-resolution, mixed-polarity magnetoconvection simulations, we used an artificial neural network (ANN) model to approximate the nonlinear inverse mapping between synthesized Stokes spectra and the underlying stratification of atmospheric parameters like temperature, line-of-sight (LOS) velocity and LOS magnetic field. This approach not only allows us to incorporate more reliable physics into the inversion process, it also enables the inversion on an absolute geometrical height scale, which allows the subsequent combination of individual line-of-sight stratifications to obtain a complete 3-dimensional reconstruction (tomography) of the observed area. RESULTS : The magnetoconvection simulation data, as well as the ANN inversion, have been properly processed to be applicable to spectropolarimetric obser...

  20. RF-interrogatable hydrogel-actuated biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, Z; Wang, A W; Darrow, C B; Lee, A P; McConaghy, C F; Krulevitch, P; Gilman, A; Satcher, J H; Lane, S M


    The authors present a novel micromachined sensor that couples a swellable hydrogel with capacitive detection. The hydrogel swells in response to analyte concentration, exerting contact pressure on a deformable conducting membrane. Results are presented for characterization of a PHEMA hydrogel swelling in response to a calcium nitrate solution. Pressure-deflection measurements are performed on NiTi-based membranes. Hydrogel-actuated deflections of the membranes are measured. These measurements are correlated to determine the pressure generating characteristics of the hydrogel. Membrane deflection techniques have not previously been employed for hydrogel characterization. The PHEMA sample exhibited greatest sensitivity in the pH range of 6.0--6.5 and performed an average of 2.8 Joules of work per m{sup 3} per pH unit in response to ambient conditions over the pH range 3.5--6.5. The membrane deflections correspond to capacitive shifts of about 4 pF per pH unit for a capacitive transducer with initial gap of 100 {micro}m, capacitor plate area of 18.5 mm{sup 2} , and initial hydrogel volume of 11 {micro}L.

  1. Fabrication and Evaluation of Multilayer Nanofiber-Hydrogel Meshes with a Controlled Release Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigumula Wu


    Full Text Available Controlled release drug delivery systems enable the sustained release of bioactive molecules, and increase bioavailability over an extended length of time. Biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polycaprolactone (PCL nanofibers and alginate hydrogel play a significant role in designing controlled release systems. Prolonged release of bioactive molecules is observed when these polymer materials are used as matrices independently. However, there has not been a report in the literature that shows how different molecules are released at various rates over time. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a novel drug delivery system that has a property of releasing designated drugs at various rates over a defined length of time. We fabricated multilayer nanofiber-hydrogel meshes using electrospun PCL nanofiber and alginate hydrogel, and evaluated their controlled release properties. The multilayer meshes are composed of sandwiched layers of alternating PCL nanofibers and alginate hydrogel. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP, encapsulated in the designated hydrogel layers, is used as a mock drug for the release study. The exposed top layer of the meshes demonstrates a dramatically higher burst release and shorter release time compared to the deeper layers. Such properties of the different layers within the meshes can be employed to achieve the release of multiple drugs at different rates over a specified length of time.

  2. 3-Dimensional analysis for class III malocclusion patients with facial asymmetry



    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurement and 3-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement, and to evaluate the availability of 3D analysis for asymmetry patients. Materials and Methods A total of Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for facial asymmetry by photograph and cephalometric radiograph, and CBCT. The 14 measurements values were evaluated and those for 2D and 3D were compared. The pa...

  3. On the structure of 3-dimensional 2-body problem solutions in Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenko, S. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Nikitin, I. [National Research Center for Information Technology, St. Augustin (Germany)


    The problem of the relativistic 3-dimensional motion of 2 oppositely charged equally massive particles in classical electrodynamics with half-retarded/half-advanced interactions is investigated. It is shown that at a certain critical energy value the topological structure of phase space is changed, leading to bifurcation (splitting) of solutions, appearance of extra non-Newtonian degrees of freedom and break of reflectional symmetries.

  4. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes (United States)

    Schubert, S.


    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  5. Experimental evaluation of 3-dimensional kinematic behavior of the cruciate ligaments



    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a low-cost and easily reproducible technique for biomechanical studies in cadavers. In this kind of study, the natural effect of loading of the joint and shear forces are not taken into account. The objective is to describe the plastic deformation of the ligaments into 3-dimensional space. METHOD: For 18 intact human cadaver knees, the cruciate ligaments were divided into 3 fiber bundles, the tibial or femoral fixation points were marked, and...

  6. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament


    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun


    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle b...

  7. Photopatterning of Hydrogel Microarrays in Closed Microchips. (United States)

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Bomer, Johan G; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T


    To date, optical lithography has been extensively used for in situ patterning of hydrogel structures in a scale range from hundreds of microns to a few millimeters. The two main limitations which prevent smaller feature sizes of hydrogel structures are (1) the upper glass layer of a microchip maintains a large spacing (typically 525 μm) between the photomask and hydrogel precursor, leading to diffraction of UV light at the edges of mask patterns, (2) diffusion of free radicals and monomers results in irregular polymerization near the illumination interface. In this work, we present a simple approach to enable the use of optical lithography to fabricate hydrogel arrays with a minimum feature size of 4 μm inside closed microchips. To achieve this, we combined two different techniques. First, the upper glass layer of the microchip was thinned by mechanical polishing to reduce the spacing between the photomask and hydrogel precursor, and thereby the diffraction of UV light at the edges of mask patterns. The polishing process reduces the upper layer thickness from ∼525 to ∼100 μm, and the mean surface roughness from 20 to 3 nm. Second, we developed an intermittent illumination technique consisting of short illumination periods followed by relatively longer dark periods, which decrease the diffusion of monomers. Combination of these two methods allows for fabrication of 0.4 × 10(6) sub-10 μm sized hydrogel patterns over large areas (cm(2)) with high reproducibility (∼98.5% patterning success). The patterning method is tested with two different types of photopolymerizing hydrogels: polyacrylamide and polyethylene glycol diacrylate. This method enables in situ fabrication of well-defined hydrogel patterns and presents a simple approach to fabricate 3-D hydrogel matrices for biomolecule separation, biosensing, tissue engineering, and immobilized protein microarray applications.

  8. New insights into the coronary artery bifurcation hypothesis-generating concepts utilizing 3-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging. (United States)

    Farooq, Vasim; Serruys, Patrick W; Heo, Jung Ho; Gogas, Bill D; Okamura, Takayuki; Gomez-Lara, Josep; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Garcìa-Garcìa, Hector M; van Geuns, Robert Jan


    Coronary artery bifurcations are a common challenging lesion subset accounting for approximately 10% to 20% of all percutaneous coronary interventions. The provisional T-stenting approach is generally recommended as the first-line management of most lesions. Carina shift is suggested to be the predominant mechanism of side-branch pinching during provisional T-stenting and has been indirectly inferred from bench work and other intravascular imaging modalities. Offline 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of patients studied in the first-in-man trial of the high-frequency (160 frames/s) Terumo optical frequency domain imaging system were undertaken using volume-rendering software. Through a series of 3D reconstructions, several novel hypothesis-generating concepts are presented.

  9. The Preoperative Evaluation of Infective Endocarditis via 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography. (United States)

    Yong, Matthew S; Saxena, Pankaj; Killu, Ammar M; Coffey, Sean; Burkhart, Harold M; Wan, Siu-Hin; Malouf, Joseph F


    Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography with 3D rendition revealed a large abscess involving the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa, together with a mycotic aneurysm that had ruptured into the left atrium, resulting in a left ventricle-to-left atrium fistula. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography enabled superior preoperative anatomic delineation and surgical planning. We conclude that 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can be a useful adjunct to traditional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  10. On the role of hydrogel structure and degradation in controlling the transport of cell-secreted matrix molecules for engineered cartilage. (United States)

    Dhote, Valentin; Skaalure, Stacey; Akalp, Umut; Roberts, Justine; Bryant, Stephanie J; Vernerey, Franck J


    Damage to cartilage caused by injury or disease can lead to pain and loss of mobility, diminishing one's quality of life. Because cartilage has a limited capacity for self-repair, tissue engineering strategies, such as cells encapsulated in synthetic hydrogels, are being investigated as a means to restore the damaged cartilage. However, strategies to date are suboptimal in part because designing degradable hydrogels is complicated by structural and temporal complexities of the gel and evolving tissue along multiple length scales. To address this problem, this study proposes a multi-scale mechanical model using a triphasic formulation (solid, fluid, unbound matrix molecules) based on a single chondrocyte releasing extracellular matrix molecules within a degrading hydrogel. This model describes the key players (cells, proteoglycans, collagen) of the biological system within the hydrogel encompassing different length scales. Two mechanisms are included: temporal changes of bulk properties due to hydrogel degradation, and matrix transport. Numerical results demonstrate that the temporal change of bulk properties is a decisive factor in the diffusion of unbound matrix molecules through the hydrogel. Transport of matrix molecules in the hydrogel contributes both to the development of the pericellular matrix and the extracellular matrix and is dependent on the relative size of matrix molecules and the hydrogel mesh. The numerical results also demonstrate that osmotic pressure, which leads to changes in mesh size, is a key parameter for achieving a larger diffusivity for matrix molecules in the hydrogel. The numerical model is confirmed with experimental results of matrix synthesis by chondrocytes in biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels. This model may ultimately be used to predict key hydrogel design parameters towards achieving optimal cartilage growth.

  11. The matrix reloaded: the evolution of regenerative hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaiel Jabbari


    Full Text Available Cell-laden hydrogels can regenerate lost, damaged or malfunctioning tissues. Clinical success of such hydrogels is strongly dependent on the ability to tune their chemical, physico-mechanical, and biological properties to a specific application. In particular, mimicking the intricate arrangement of cell-interactive ligands of natural tissues is crucial to proper tissue function. Natural extracellular matrix elements represent a unique source for generating such interactions. A plethora of extracellular matrix-based approaches have been explored to augment the regenerative potential of hydrogels. These efforts include the development of matrix-like hydrogels, hydrogels containing matrix-like molecules, hydrogels containing decellularized matrix, hydrogels derived from decellularized matrix, and decellularized tissues as reimplantable matrix hydrogels. Here we review the evolution, strengths and weaknesses of these developments from the perspective of creating tissue regenerating hydrogels.

  12. Electrochemical Hydrogel Lithography of Calcium-Alginate Hydrogels for Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumisato Ozawa


    Full Text Available Here we propose a novel electrochemical lithography methodology for fabricating calcium-alginate hydrogels having controlled shapes. We separated the chambers for Ca2+ production and gel formation with alginate with a semipermeable membrane. Ca2+ formed in the production chamber permeated through the membrane to fabricate a gel structure on the membrane in the gel formation chamber. When the calcium-alginate hydrogels were modified with collagen, HepG2 cells proliferated on the hydrogels. These results show that electrochemical hydrogel lithography is useful for cell culture.

  13. Influence of 4-vinylbenzylation on the rheological and swelling properties of photo-activated collagen hydrogels

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Thomson, Neil H; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J


    Covalent functionalisation of collagen has been shown to be a promising strategy to adjust the mechanical properties of highly swollen collagen hydrogels. At the same time, secondary interactions between for example, amino acidic terminations or introduced functional groups also play an important role and are often challenging to predict and control. To explore this challenge, 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (4VBC) and methacrylic anhydride (MA) were reacted with type I collagen, and the swelling and rheological properties of resulting photo activated hydrogel systems investigated. 4VBC-based hydrogels showed significantly increased swelling ratio, in light of the lower degree of collagen functionalisation, with respect to methacrylated collagen networks, whilst rheological storage moduli were found to be comparable between the two systems. To explore the role of benzyl groups in the mechanical properties of the 4VBC-based collagen system, model chemical force microscopy (CFM) was carried out in aqueous environment wi...

  14. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid/Poly(vinyl alcohol IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiong Lu


    Full Text Available Modified poly(aspartic acid/poly(vinyl alcohol interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550 and poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN, and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid, respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery.

  15. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid)/Poly(vinyl alcohol) IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release. (United States)

    Lu, Jingqiong; Li, Yinhui; Hu, Deng; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yansheng


    Modified poly(aspartic acid)/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN) hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid) grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN), and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid) and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid), respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery.

  16. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)


    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  17. Fibril orientation redistribution induced by stretching of cellulose nanofibril hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsson, Gabriella; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer [The Ångström Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division of Applied Mechanics, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Ahvenainen, Patrik [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Mushi, Ngesa Ezekiel [Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The mechanical performance of materials reinforced by cellulose nanofibrils is highly affected by the orientation of these fibrils. This paper investigates the nanofibril orientation distribution of films of partly oriented cellulose nanofibrils. Stripes of hydrogel films were subjected to different amount of strain and, after drying, examined with X-ray diffraction to obtain the orientation of the nanofibrils in the films, caused by the stretching. The cellulose nanofibrils had initially a random in-plane orientation in the hydrogel films and the strain was applied to the films before the nanofibrils bond tightly together, which occurs during drying. The stretching resulted in a reorientation of the nanofibrils in the films, with monotonically increasing orientation towards the load direction with increasing strain. Estimation of nanofibril reorientation by X-ray diffraction enables quantitative comparison of the stretch-induced orientation ability of different cellulose nanofibril systems. The reorientation of nanofibrils as a consequence of an applied strain is also predicted by a geometrical model of deformation of nanofibril hydrogels. Conversely, in high-strain cold-drawing of wet cellulose nanofibril materials, the enhanced orientation is promoted by slipping of the effectively stiff fibrils.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of hybrid hydrogels based on poly(vinylpyrrolidone containing silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Jovana S.


    Full Text Available In this work new hybrid hydrogels were prepared by radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, itaconic acid, poly(vinylpyrrolidone and silver particles. FTIR spectroscopy has confirmed binding of silver particels in hydrogels. Swelling studies performed in in vitro conditions showed dependence on PVP content and temperature. It can be seen that the antimicrobial activity of the Ag/P(HEMA/IAPVP hybrid hydrogels depends on the PVP moiety and with the increase of PVP content the microbial contamination is more efficiently reduced. The best sensitivity was obtained for the polymers tested for antimicrobial activity against the yeast C. albicans, one of the most commonly encountered human pathogens, causing a wide variety of infections ranging from mucosal infections in generally healthy persons to life-threatening systemic infections in individuals with impaired immunity. A slightly less susceptible to antimicrobial effect of hydrogels was obtained for the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, where the reduction of cells was about 70 % after two hours of exposure, for the sample with the highest PVP content. The least susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels examined was the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, where the percent of cell reduction was below 20 %. Bearing in mind the influence of the time of exposure of microbes to the Ag/P(HEMA/IA/PVP hybrid hydrogels, it was observed that the reduction of the number of cells depends on time, microbial culture and type of hybrid hydrogel sample. Due to their swelling and antimicrobial properties, silver/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/poly(vinylpyrrolidone hybrid hydrogles show potential to use in the field of biomedicine, especially for treatment of skin and burns in dermocosmetics.

  19. Inner ear delivery of dexamethasone using injectable silk-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel. (United States)

    Yu, Dehong; Sun, Changling; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Fuxin


    Minimally invasive delivery and sustained release of therapeutics to the inner ear are of importance to the medical treatment of inner ear disease. In this study, the injectable silk fibroin-polyethylene glycol (Silk-PEG) hydrogel was investigated as a drug delivery carrier to deliver poorly soluble micronized dexamethasone (mDEX) to the inner ear of guinea pigs. Encapsulation of mDEX with a loading up to 5% (w/v) did not significantly change the silk gelation time, and mDEX were evenly distributed in the PEG-Silk hydrogel as visualized by SEM. The loading of mDEX in Silk-PEG hydrogel largely influenced in vitro drug release kinetics. The optimized Silk-PEG-mDEX hydrogel (2.5% w/v loading, in situ-forming, 10 μl) was administered directly onto the round window membrane of guinea pigs. The DEX concentration in perilymph maintained above 100 ng/ml for at least 10 days for the Silk-PEG formulation while less than 12h for the control sample of free mDEX. Minimal systemic exposure was achieved with low DEX concentrations (Silk-PEG-mDEX hydrogel. A transient hearing threshold shift was found but then resolved after 14 days as revealed by auditory brainstem response (ABR), showing minimal inflammatory responses on the round window membrane and scala taympani. The Silk-PEG hydrogel completely degraded in 21 days. Thus, the injectable PEG-Silk hydrogel is an effective and safe vehicle for inner ear delivery and sustained release of glucocorticoid.

  20. Fabrication of circular microfluidic network in enzymatically-crosslinked gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiankang, E-mail:; Chen, Ruomeng; Lu, Yongjie; Zhan, Li; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin


    It is a huge challenge to engineer vascular networks in vital organ tissue engineering. Although the incorporation of artificial microfluidic network into thick tissue-engineered constructs has shown great promise, most of the existing microfluidic strategies are limited to generate rectangle cross-sectional channels rather than circular vessels in soft hydrogels. Here we present a facile approach to fabricate branched microfluidic network with circular cross-sections in gelatin hydrogels by combining micromolding and enzymatically-crosslinking mechanism. Partially crosslinked hydrogel slides with predefined semi-circular channels were molded, assembled and in situ fully crosslinked to form a seamless and circular microfluidic network. The bonding strength of the resultant gelatin hydrogels was investigated. The morphology and the dimension of the resultant circular channels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computerized tomography (μCT). Computational fluid dynamic simulation shows that the fabrication error had little effect on the distribution of flow field but affected the maximum velocity in comparison with designed models. The microfluidic gelatin hydrogel facilitates the attachment and spreading of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form a uniform endothelialized layer around the circular channel surface, which successfully exhibited barrier functions. The presented method might provide a simple way to fabricate circular microfluidic networks in biologically-relevant hydrogels to advance various applications of in vitro tissue models, organ-on-a-chip systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A facile method was proposed to build a circular fluidic network in gelatin hydrogel. • The fluidic network is mechanically robust and supports physiological flow. • HUVECs formed endothelialized layer around the channel to express barrier function.

  1. Chitosan-Iron Oxide Coated Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Hydrogel: A Robust and Soft Antimicrobial Biofilm. (United States)

    Konwar, Achyut; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Kotoky, Jibon; Chowdhury, Devasish


    We report a robust biofilm with antimicrobial properties fabricated from chitosan-iron oxide coated graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogel. For the first time, the coprecipitation method was used for the successful synthesis of iron oxide coated graphene oxide (GIO) nanomaterial. After this, films were fabricated by the gel-casting technique aided by the self-healing ability of the chitosan hydrogel network system. Both the nanomaterial and the nanocomposite films were characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Measurements of the thermodynamic stability and mechanical properties of the films indictaed a significant improvement in their thermal and mechanical properties. Moreover, the stress-strain profile indicated the tough nature of the nanocomposite hydrogel films. These improvements, therefore, indicated an effective interaction and good compatibility of the GIO nanomaterial with the chitosan hydrogel matrix. In addition, it was also possible to fabricate films with tunable surface properties such as hydrophobicity simply by varying the loading percentage of GIO nanomaterial in the hydrogel matrix. Fascinatingly, the chitosan-iron oxide coated graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogel films displayed significant antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and also against the opportunistic dermatophyte Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities of the films were tested by agar diffusion assay and antimicrobial testing based on direct contact. A comparison of the antimicrobial activity of the chitosan-GIO nanocomposite hydrogel films with those of individual chitosan-graphene oxide and chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite films demonstrated a higher antimicrobial activity for the former in both types of tests. In vitro hemolysis

  2. 形状记忆型水凝胶的制备及其在药物控制释放中的应用%Preparation of Shape Memory Hydrogels and Application in Drug Controlled Release System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉琪; 郑学芳; 贾丹丹; 谢新宇; 张志伟; 沈喜海; 王东军


    pH-sensitivity gelatin-pectin and chitosan-octyl-pectin hydrogels based on gelatin and pectin were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde as crosslink agent. The effects of the degree of the dosage of crosslinking, temperature and pH on the swelling behaviors of the hydrogels and swelling-deswelling properties were also studied. Results show that when the temperature is at the range of 30~60℃ , swelling rate of hydrogels increased with temperature increasing and manifested "thermal expansion-type" hydrogels. The swelling rate of hydrogels with pH-sensitivity were larger in alkaline conditions than that of in acidic conditions. Swelling-deswelling kinetics of hydrogels in different pH conditions showed that the gelatin-pectin hydrogels have "shape memory" function. The release behavior of bovine serum alumm embedded in the hydrogels was of distinctly difference with the changes of pH value of loading medium. The release of bovine serum alumin in those two kinds of hydrogels in the medium of pH= 1. 0 was much quicker than in pH=7, 8 and pH = 9. 18. These gels might be useful for pH and temperature controlled release of proteins.%以戊二醛为交联剂,制备了pH敏感性明胶-果胶水凝胶(GT-PT)和明胶-辛基果胶水凝胶(GT-OPT),研究了交联剂用量、温度、pH值对凝胶溶胀性能的影响及溶胀-消溶胀性能.结果表明,当温度在30~60℃时,凝胶的溶胀率随温度的升高而增大;且具有明显的pH敏感性,碱性条件下的溶胀率大于酸性条件下的溶胀率;不同pH值条件下,明胶-果胶水凝胶具有“形状记忆”功能.包埋在水凝胶中的牛血清蛋白在pH=1.0时的释药率大于pH=7.8和pH=9.18时的释药率.此类水凝胶有望用于蛋白质的pH值及温度控制释放.

  3. Visualized intravesical floating hydrogel encapsulating vaporized perfluoropentane for controlled drug release. (United States)

    Zhu, Guanchen; Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Kaikai; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Lian, Huibo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haoran; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao; Guo, Hongqian


    Intravesical drug delivery is the main strategy for the treatment of bladder disorders. To reduce the relief arising from frequent intravesical instillation, mucoadhesive hydrogel was used for the controlled release of the drug. However, the viscosity of mucoadhesive gel might cause severe urinary obstruction and bladder irritation. To solve all these problems, a floating hydrogel delivery system was developed using perfluoropentane (PFP) as the floating agent. After intravesical instillation of the floating hydrogel, the increased temperature in bladder vaporized PFP, resulting in the generation of microbubbles in the hydrogel. Then, it can float in urine to avoid the urinary obstruction and bladder irritation. In this study, systematic experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of PFP vaporization on the morphology and floating ability of hydrogels. The floating process is much milder and safer than other floating methods published before. In addition, PFP had been used as contrast agent, which affiliated the monitoring of gels during the operation. Therefore, this new drug delivery system addresses the problems of conventional intravesical instillation and is promising for clinic use.

  4. Size-dependent release of fluorescent macromolecules and nanoparticles from radically cross-linked hydrogels. (United States)

    Henke, Matthias; Brandl, Ferdinand; Goepferich, Achim M; Tessmar, Joerg K


    Hydrogels play an important role in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications due to their excellent biocompatibility and their variable mechanical and physical properties, which allow their optimization for many different aspects of the intended use. In this study, we examined the suitability of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels as release systems for nanometer-sized drugs or drug carriers, like nanoparticles, using the radically cross-linkable oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate) (OPF) together with two cross-linking agents. Different fluorescent nanoparticulate probes with respect to size and physical structure were incorporated in the cross-linked hydrogels, and the obtained release profiles were correlated with the physical properties and the chemical structure of the gels, indicating a strong dependence of the release on the chosen PEG prepolymers. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by oscillatory rheometry and swelling experiments. Release experiments as well as diffusion measurements using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed the great potential of this type of hydrogels for the preparation of adjustable release systems by altering the molecular weights of the used PEG molecules.

  5. Controlled release of insulin through hydrogels of (acrylic acid)/trimethylolpropane triacrylate (United States)

    Raymundi, Vanessa C.; Aguiar, Leandro G.; Souza, Esmar F.; Sato, Ana C.; Giudici, Reinaldo


    Hydrogels of poly(acrylic acid) crosslinked with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were produced through solution polymerization. After these hydrogels were loaded with insulin solution, they evidenced swelling. Experiments of controlled release of insulin through the hydrogels were performed in acidic and basic media in order to evaluate the rates of release of this protein provided by the referred copolymer. Additionally, a mathematical description of the system based on differential mass balance was made and simulated in MATLAB. The model consists of a system of differential equations which was solved numerically. As expected, the values of swelling index at the equilibrium and the rates of insulin release were inversely proportional to the degree of crosslinking. The mathematical model provided reliable predictions of release profiles with fitted values of diffusivity of insulin through the hydrogels in the range of 6.0 × 10-7-1.3 × 10-6 cm2/s. The fitted and experimental values of partition coefficients of insulin between the hydrogel and the medium were lower for basic media, pointing out good affinity of insulin for these media in comparison to the acidic solutions.

  6. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.


    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  7. Processing silk hydrogel and its applications in biomedical materials. (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Qing


    This review mainly introduces the types of silk hydrogels, their processing methods, and applications. There are various methods for hydrogel preparation, and many new processes are being developed for various applications. Silk hydrogels can be used in cartilage tissue engineering, drug release materials, 3D scaffolds for cells, and artificial skin, among other applications because of their porous structure and high porosity and the large surface area for growth, migration, adhesion and proliferation of cells that the hydrogels provide. All of these advantages have made silk hydrogels increasingly attractive. In addition, silk hydrogels have wide prospects for application in the field of biomedical materials.

  8. Co-assembly of tetrapeptides into complex pH-responsive molecular hydrogel networks


    Tena Solsona, Marta; Alonso de Castro, S.; Miravet Celades, Juan Felipe; Escuder Gil, Beatriu


    Here we prepare pH-responsive complex molecular hydrogels from oppositely charged tetrapeptidic components that can be pH-tuned resulting in interconversion between different networks. Two different systems are described based on tetrapeptides with an alternating sequence of non-polar (F) and polar (D or K) residues. Co-aggregated hydrogels are easily formed in situ at neutral pH whereas one-component networks are maintained after changing into acidic or basic pH. These systems have been appl...

  9. The development of low-molecular weight hydrogels for applications in cancer therapy (United States)

    Tian, Ran; Chen, Jin; Niu, Runfang


    To improve the anti-cancer efficacy and to counteract the side effects of chemotherapy, a variety of drug delivery systems have been invented in past decades, but few of these systems have succeeded in clinical trials due to their respective inherent shortcomings. Recently, low-molecular weight hydrogels of peptides that self-assemble via non-covalent interactions have attracted considerable attention due to their good biocompatibility, low toxicity, inherent biodegradability as well as their convenience of design. Low-molecular weight hydrogels have already shown promise in biomedical applications as diverse as 3D-cell culture, enzyme immobilization, controllable MSC differentiation, wound healing, drug delivery etc. Here we review the recent development in the use of low-molecular weight hydrogels for cancer therapy, which may be helpful in the design of soft materials for drug delivery.

  10. Temperature responsive hydrogel nanofibers and nanoparticles (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Janne


    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is one of the most extensively investigated synthetic temperature-responsive polymers. In this work temperature-responsive PNIPAM based triblock copolymer hydrogels, their self-assembly and phase behavior in bulk, are described. Additionally, recent results from responsive hydrogel nanofibers and hydrogel nanoparticles are shown. It is known that block copolymers form well-organized nano structures in bulk or thin films when annealed thermally or in solvent vapours. However, in the case of nanofibers or nanoparticles, the annealing leads in most cases to aggregation and particle sintering. This work utilizes aerosol-based gas phase method where the preparation and annealing of hydrogel nanoparticles with well-organized, hierarchical inner structures are performed without any particle coagulation or sintering. In the method, the block copolymers assemble within aerosol nanoparticles to form, for instance, lamellar onion-like or gyroid inner structures.

  11. Responsive polyelectrolyte hydrogels and soft matter micromanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, P.J.


    This dissertation describes experimental studies on the mechanisms underlying the dynamic response of polyelectrolyte hydrogels when submitted to an external electric potential. In addition, we explore the possibilities of miniaturization and manipulation of responsive gels and other soft matter sys

  12. Hydrogels made from chitosan and silver nitrate. (United States)

    Kozicki, Marek; Kołodziejczyk, Marek; Szynkowska, Małgorzata; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Leśniewska, Ewa; Matusiak, Aleksandra; Adamus, Agnieszka; Karolczak, Aleksandra


    This work describes a gelation of chitosan solution with silver nitrate. Above the critical concentration of chitosan (c*), continuous hydrogels of chitosan-silver can be formed. At lower concentrations, the formation of nano- and micro-hydrogels is discussed. The sol-gel analysis was performed to characterise the hydrogels' swelling properties. Moreover, the following were employed: (i) mechanical testing of hydrogels, (ii) inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for the measurement of silver concentration, (iii) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the morphology of products obtained, and (iv) dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-vis spectrophotometry to examine products formed at low concentration of chitosan (chydrogels were used for modification of cotton fabric in order to give it antimicrobial properties. The products obtained acted against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis apart from the chitosan used that showed no such activity.

  13. Synthesis of Acylated Xylan-Based Magnetic Fe3O4 Hydrogels and Their Application for H2O2 Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qing Dai


    Full Text Available Acylated xylan-based magnetic Fe3O4 nanocomposite hydrogels (ACX-MNP-gels were prepared by fabricating Fe3O4 nanoctahedra in situ within a hydrogel matrix which was synthesized by the copolymerization of acylated xylan (ACX with acrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide under ultraviolet irradiation. The size of the Fe3O4 fabricated within the hydrogel matrix could be adjusted through controlling the crosslinking concentrations (C. The magnetic hydrogels showed desirable magnetic and mechanical properties, which were confirmed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, physical property measurement system, SEM, TGA, and compression test. Moreover, the catalytic performance of the magnetic hydrogels was explored. The magnetic hydrogels (C = 7.5 wt % presented excellent catalytic activity and provided a sensitive response to H2O2 detection even at a concentration level of 5 × 10−6 mol·L−1. This approach to preparing magnetic hydrogels loaded with Fe3O4 nanoparticles endows xylan-based hydrogels with new promising applications in biotechnology and environmental chemistry.

  14. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels with IKVAV peptides for tissue repair and axonal regeneration in an injured rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Y T [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tian, W M [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yu, X [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Cui, F Z [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Hou, S P [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Xu, Q Y [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Lee, In-Seop [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    A biocompatible hydrogel of hyaluronic acid with the neurite-promoting peptide sequence of IKVAV was synthesized. The characterization of the hydrogel shows an open porous structure and a large surface area available for cell interaction. Its ability to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat cerebrum is also evaluated. After implantation, the polymer hydrogel repaired the tissue defect and formed a permissive interface with the host tissue. Axonal growth occurred within the microstructure of the network. Within 6 weeks the polymer implant was invaded by host-derived tissue, glial cells, blood vessels and axons. Such a hydrogel matrix showed the properties of neuron conduction. It has the potential to repair tissue defects in the central nervous system by promoting the formation of a tissue matrix and axonal growth by replacing the lost tissue.

  15. In vitro drug release and percutaneous behavior of poloxamer-based hydrogel formulation containing traditional Chinese medicine. (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Hui, Patrick C L; Wat, Elaine; Ng, Frency S F; Kan, Chi-Wai; Wang, Xiaowen; Wong, Eric C W; Hu, Huawen; Chan, Ben; Lau, Clara B S; Leung, Ping-Chung


    For the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), we have developed a transdermal functionalized textile therapy based on thermosensitive poloxamer 407 (P407) hydrogel containing a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study aims to investigate the effects of various formulation variables of P407/carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (P407/CMCs) composite hydrogel on the release of Cortex Moutan (CM) extract. Concentrations of P407 and CMCs showed significant influence on the release due to alteration of bulk viscosity of the system. An increase in pH values of release medium was found to appreciably impede the release of polar drug (CM) due to ionization. Elevated temperatures were also shown to facilitate the drug release. Moreover, the diffusional release behavior of CM from P407/CMCs composite hydrogel was found to follow the first-order kinetic model. Additionally, transdermal studies showed that permeability of the drug through the skin can be enhanced with addition of CMCs in the hydrogel formulation.

  16. Synthesis of polyacrylate/polyethylene glycol interpenetrating network hydrogel and its sorption of heavy-metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunwei Tang, Xiaoming Sun, Qinghua Li, Jihuai Wu and Jianming Lin


    Full Text Available A simple two-step aqueous polymerization method was introduced to synthesize a polyacrylate/polyethylene glycol (PAC/PEG interpenetrating network (IPN hydrogel. On the basis of the effects of the ratio of PAC to PEG, neutralization degree, heavy-metal ion concentration, and temperature on the adsorption behavior of PAC/PEG IPN hydrogel toward Ni2 +, Cr3 + and Cd2 +, the preparation conditions were optimized. In our system, the greatest amount of Ni2 +, Cr3 + and Cd2 + adsorbed were 102.34, 49.38 and 33.41 mg g- 1, respectively. The adsorption abilities of a dried PAC/PEG composite and a swollen PAC/PEG IPN hydrogel were compared. It was found that the efficiency of removing metal ions using the swollen hydrogel was greater than that using the dried composite. The adsorption mechanism and model are also discussed.

  17. Synthesis of polyacrylate/polyethylene glycol interpenetrating network hydrogel and its sorption of heavy-metal ions. (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Qinghua; Wu, Jihuai; Lin, Jianming


    A simple two-step aqueous polymerization method was introduced to synthesize a polyacrylate/polyethylene glycol (PAC/PEG) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel. On the basis of the effects of the ratio of PAC to PEG, neutralization degree, heavy-metal ion concentration, and temperature on the adsorption behavior of PAC/PEG IPN hydrogel toward Ni(2 +), Cr(3 +) and Cd(2 +), the preparation conditions were optimized. In our system, the greatest amount of Ni(2 +), Cr(3 +) and Cd(2 +) adsorbed were 102.34, 49.38 and 33.41 mg g(- 1), respectively. The adsorption abilities of a dried PAC/PEG composite and a swollen PAC/PEG IPN hydrogel were compared. It was found that the efficiency of removing metal ions using the swollen hydrogel was greater than that using the dried composite. The adsorption mechanism and model are also discussed.

  18. Effect of Sodium Salicylate on the Viscoelastic Properties and Stability of Polyacrylate-Based Hydrogels for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kolarova Raskova


    Full Text Available Investigation was made into the effect exerted by the presence of sodium salicylate (0–2 wt.%, in Carbomer-based hydrogel systems, on processing conditions, rheological and antimicrobial properties in tests against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacterial strains, and examples of yeast (Candida albicans and mould (Aspergillus niger. In addition, the work presents an examination of long-term stability by means of aging over one year the given hydrogels at 8°C and 25°C. The results show that 0.5 wt.% NaSal demonstrated a noticeable effect on the hydrogel neutralization process, viscosity, and antimicrobial properties against all of the tested microorganisms. The long-term stability studies revealed that hydrogels can maintain antimicrobial activity as well as viscosity to a degree that would be sufficient for practical use.

  19. Multitriggered Shape-Memory Acrylamide-DNA Hydrogels. (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Hua; Guo, Weiwei; Hu, Yuwei; Qi, Xiu-Juan; Willner, Itamar


    Acrylamide-acrylamide nucleic acids are cross-linked by two cooperative functional motives to form shaped acrylamide-DNA hydrogels. One of the cross-linking motives responds to an external trigger, leading to the dissociation of one of the stimuli-responsive bridges, and to the transition of the stiff shaped hydrogels into soft shapeless states, where the residual bridging units, due to the chains entanglement, provide an intrinsic memory for the reshaping of the hydrogels. Subjecting the shapeless states to counter stimuli restores the dissociated bridges, and regenerates the original shape of the hydrogels. By the cyclic dissociation and reassembly of the stimuli-responsive bridges, the reversible switchable transitions of the hydrogels between stiff shaped hydrogel structures and soft shapeless states are demonstrated. Shaped hydrogels bridged by K(+)-stabilized G-quadruplexes/duplex units, by i-motif/duplex units, or by two different duplex bridges are described. The cyclic transitions of the hydrogels between shaped and shapeless states are stimulated, in the presence of appropriate triggers and counter triggers (K(+) ion/crown ether; pH = 5.0/8.0; fuel/antifuel strands). The shape-memory hydrogels are integrated into shaped two-hydrogel or three-hydrogel hybrid structures. The cyclic programmed transitions of selective domains of the hybrid structures between shaped hydrogel and shapeless states are demonstrated. The possible applications of the shape-memory hydrogels for sensing, inscription of information, and controlled release of loads are discussed.

  20. Biomimetic, ultrathin and elastic hydrogels regulate human neutrophil extravasation across endothelial-pericyte bilayers (United States)

    Lauridsen, Holly M.


    The vascular basement membrane—a thin, elastic layer of extracellular matrix separating and encasing vascular cells—provides biological and mechanical cues to endothelial cells, pericytes, and migrating leukocytes. In contrast, experimental scaffolds typically used to replicate basement membranes are stiff and bio-inert. Here, we present thin, porated polyethylene glycol hydrogels to replicate human vascular basement membranes. Like commercial transwells, our hydrogels are approximately 10μm thick, but like basement membranes, the hydrogels presented here are elastic (E: 50-80kPa) and contain a dense network of small pores. Moreover, the inclusion of bioactive domains introduces receptor-mediated biochemical signaling. We compare elastic hydrogels to common culture substrates (E: >2GPa) for human endothelial cell and pericyte monolayers and bilayers to replicate postcapillary venules in vitro. Our data demonstrate that substrate elasticity facilitates differences in vascular phenotype, supporting expression of vascular markers that are increasingly replicative of venules. Endothelial cells differentially express vascular markers, like EphB4, and leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, with decreased mechanical stiffness. With porated PEG hydrogels we demonstrate the ability to evaluate and observe leukocyte recruitment across endothelial cell and pericyte monolayers and bilayers, reporting that basement membrane scaffolds can significantly alter the rate of vascular migration in experimental systems. Overall, this study demonstrates the creation and utility of a new and accessible method to recapture the mechanical and biological complexity of human basement membranes in vitro. PMID:28234918

  1. Functional surface engineering of quantum dot hydrogels for selective fluorescence imaging of extracellular lactate release. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Ding, Shushu; Cao, Sumei; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue


    Selective and sensitive detection of extracellular lactate is of fundamental significance for studying the metabolic alterations in tumor progression. Here we report the rational design and synthesis of a quantum-dot-hydrogel-based fluorescent probe for biosensing and bioimaging the extracellular lactate. By surface engineering the destabilized quantum dot sol with Nile Blue, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dot sol cannot only self-assemble forming quantum dot hydrogel but also monitor lactate in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor and lactate dehydrogenase through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Notably, the surface engineered quantum dot hydrogel show high selectivity toward lactate over common metal ions, amino acids and other small molecules that widely coexist in biological system. Moreover, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dots can encapsulate isolated cancer cells when self-assembled into a hydrogel and thus specifically detect and image the extracellular lactate metabolism. By virtue of these properties, the functionalized quantum dot hydrogel was further successfully applied to monitor the effect of metabolic agents.

  2. Development of a hybrid scaffold with synthetic biomaterials and hydrogel using solid freeform fabrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Park, Min; Park, Jaesung; Cho, Dong-Woo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Young, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University (Korea, Republic of)


    Natural biomaterials such as hyaluronic acid, gelatin and collagen provide excellent environments for tissue regeneration. Furthermore, gel-state natural biomaterials are advantageous for encapsulating cells and growth factors. In cell printing technology, hydrogel which contains cells was printed directly to form three-dimensional (3D) structures for tissue or organ regeneration using various types of printers. However, maintaining the 3D shape of the printed structure, which is made only of the hydrogel, is very difficult due to its weak mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a hybrid scaffold consisting of synthetic biomaterials and natural hydrogel using a multi-head deposition system, which is useful in solid freeform fabrication technology. The hydrogel was intentionally infused into the space between the lines of a synthetic biomaterial-based scaffold. The cellular efficacy of the hybrid scaffold was validated using rat primary hepatocytes and a mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell line. In addition, the collagen hydrogel, which encapsulates cells, was dispensed and the viability of the cells observed. We demonstrated superior effects of the hybrid scaffold on cell adhesion and proliferation and showed the high viability of dispensed cells.

  3. Novel crosslinked alginate/hyaluronic acid hydrogels for nerve tissue engineering (United States)

    Wang, Min-Dan; Zhai, Peng; Schreyer, David J.; Zheng, Ruo-Shi; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Chen, Xiong-Biao


    Artificial tissue engineering scaffolds can potentially provide support and guidance for the regrowth of severed axons following nerve injury. In this study, a hybrid biomaterial composed of alginate and hyaluronic acid (HA) was synthesized and characterized in terms of its suitability for covalent modification, biocompatibility for living Schwann cells and feasibility to construct three dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Carbodiimide mediated amide formation for the purpose of covalent crosslinking of the HA was carried out in the presence of calciumions that ionically crosslink alginate. Amide formation was found to be dependent on the concentrations of carbodiimide and calcium chloride. The double-crosslinked composite hydrogels display biocompatibility that is comparable to simple HA hydrogels, allowing for Schwann cell survival and growth. No significant difference was found between composite hydrogels made from different ratios of alginate and HA. A 3D BioPlotter™ rapid prototyping system was used to fabricate 3D scaffolds. The result indicated that combining HA with alginate facilitated the fabrication process and that 3D scaffolds with porous inner structure can be fabricated from the composite hydrogels, but not from HA alone. This information provides a basis for continuing in vitro and in vivo tests of the suitability of alginate/HA hydrogel as a biomaterial to create living cell scaffolds to support nerve regeneration.

  4. Gelation kinetics and viscoelastic properties of pluronic and α-cyclodextrin-based pseudopolyrotaxane hydrogels. (United States)

    Pradal, Clementine; Jack, Kevin S; Grøndahl, Lisbeth; Cooper-White, Justin J


    The results of a systematic investigation into the gelation behavior of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and Pluronic (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers) pseudopolyrotaxane (PPR) hydrogels are reported here in terms of the effects of temperature, α-CD concentration, and Pluronic type (Pluronic F68 and Pluronic F127). It was found that α-CD significantly modifies the gelation behavior of Pluronic solutions and that the PPR hydrogels are highly sensitive to changes in the α-CD concentration. In some cases, the addition of α-CD was found to be detrimental to the gelation process, leading to slower gelation kinetics and weaker gels than with Pluronic alone. However, in other cases, the hydrogels formed in the presence of the α-CDs reached higher moduli and showed faster gelation kinetics than with Pluronic alone and in some instances α-CD allowed the formation of hydrogels from Pluronic solutions that would normally not undergo gelation. Depending on composition and ratio of α-CD/Pluronic, these highly viscoelastic hydrogels displayed elastic shear modulus values ranging from 2 kPa to 7 MPa, gelation times ranging from a few seconds to a few hours and self-healing behaviors post failure. Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we probed the resident structure of these systems, and from these insights we have proposed a new molecular mechanism that accounts for the macroscopic properties observed.

  5. Controlled release of protein from biodegradable multi-sensitive injectable poly(ether-urethane) hydrogel. (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Wang, Yangyun; Chen, Jiaming; Wang, Yinong; Ma, Jianbiao; Wu, Guolin


    The synthesis and characterization of multi-sensitive polymers for use as injectable hydrogels for controlled protein/drug delivery is reported. A series of biodegradable multi-sensitive poly(ether-urethane)s were prepared through a simple one-pot condensation of poly(ethylene glycol), 2,2'-dithiodiethanol, N-methyldiethanolamine, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The sol-gel phase transition behaviors of the obtained copolymers were investigated. Experimental results showed that the aqueous medium comprising the multi-segment copolymers underwent a sol-to-gel phase transition with increasing temperature and pH. At a certain concentration, the copolymer solution could immediately change to a gel under physiological conditions (37 °C and pH 7.4), indicating their suitability as in situ injectable hydrogels in vivo. Insulin was used as a model protein drug for evaluation of the injectable hydrogels as a site-specific drug delivery system. The controlled release of insulin from the hydrogel devices was demonstrated by degradation of the copolymer, which is modulated via the 2,2'-dithiodiethanol content in the poly(ether-urethane)s. These hydrogels having multi-responsive properties may prove to be promising candidates for injectable and controllable protein drug delivery devices.

  6. The Effect of Cationic Polyamidoamine Dendrimers on Physicochemical Characteristics of Hydrogels with Erythromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wróblewska


    Full Text Available Polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM represent a new class of hyperbranched, monodisperse, three-dimensional polymers with unique properties, which make them very promising carriers of antimicrobial agents. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers generation two (G2 or three (G3 on physicochemical characteristics and structure of hydrogels with a model antibacterial lipophilic drug—erythromycin—commonly used in topical applications. From the obtained rheograms, it can be concluded that tested hydrogels were non-Newtonian thixotropic systems with shear-thinning behaviour. The dissolution tests revealed that erythromycin was definitely faster released from formulations containing PAMAM-NH2 in concentration and generation dependent manner. However, the addition of PAMAM-NH2 to hydrogels evoked only slight improvement of their antibacterial activity. It was also shown that the structure of hydrogels changed in the presence of PAMAM-NH2 becoming less compact, diversified and more porous. Designed hydrogels with PAMAM-NH2 G2 or G3 were stable stored up to three months at 40 ± 2 °C and 75% ± 5% RH.

  7. The Effect of Cationic Polyamidoamine Dendrimers on Physicochemical Characteristics of Hydrogels with Erythromycin. (United States)

    Wróblewska, Magdalena; Winnicka, Katarzyna


    Polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM) represent a new class of hyperbranched, monodisperse, three-dimensional polymers with unique properties, which make them very promising carriers of antimicrobial agents. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of PAMAM-NH₂ dendrimers generation two (G2) or three (G3) on physicochemical characteristics and structure of hydrogels with a model antibacterial lipophilic drug-erythromycin-commonly used in topical applications. From the obtained rheograms, it can be concluded that tested hydrogels were non-Newtonian thixotropic systems with shear-thinning behaviour. The dissolution tests revealed that erythromycin was definitely faster released from formulations containing PAMAM-NH₂ in concentration and generation dependent manner. However, the addition of PAMAM-NH₂ to hydrogels evoked only slight improvement of their antibacterial activity. It was also shown that the structure of hydrogels changed in the presence of PAMAM-NH₂ becoming less compact, diversified and more porous. Designed hydrogels with PAMAM-NH₂ G2 or G3 were stable stored up to three months at 40 ± 2 °C and 75% ± 5% RH.

  8. Photodegradable supramolecular hydrogels with fluorescence turn-on reporter for photomodulation of cellular microenvironments. (United States)

    He, Mingtao; Li, Jinbo; Tan, Subee; Wang, Ruzhi; Zhang, Yan


    Photodegradable hydrogels that allow 3D encapsulation of cells are important biomaterials to modulate cellular microenvironments with temporal and spatial resolution. Herein we report a photodegradable hydrogel formed by the self-assembly of short peptides modified with a novel phototrigger. The phototrigger is a biaryl-substituted tetrazole moiety that, upon mild light irradiation, undergoes rapid intramolecular photoclick ligation to form a highly fluorescent pyrazoline moiety. Short peptides linked with a tetrazole-containing moiety, Tet(I) or Tet(II), are able to self-assemble into hydrogels, among which the Tet(I)-GFF and Tet(II)-GFRGD gels show good mechanical strength and biocompatibility for 3D encapsulation and prolonged culture of live cells. The phototriggered tetrazole-to-pyrazoline transformation generates a highly fluorescent reporter and induces the disassembly of the hydrogel matrix by disturbing the balance between hydrophilic interaction and π-π stacking of the self-assembled system. Photomodulation of cellular microenvironments was demonstrated not only for the cells grown on top of the gel but also for stem cells encapsulated inside the hydrogels.

  9. Role of Radiation Processing in Production of Hydrogels for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Darwis


    Full Text Available Recently, hydrophilic polymer gel (hydrogel for application in medical fields has attracted much attention of researchers due to its unique properties which can resemble human living organs. Wound dressing, contact lenses and drug delivery system are among their applications in medical field. High energy radiation especially gamma ray and electron beam is often used for synthesis and modification of hydrogel. Through radiation crosslinking and or grafting process, hydrogel with specialty properties for specific application can be made. The advantage of radiation synthesized hydrogel over conventional methods is very pure products are obtained since the present of chemical initiators are not required; The preparation of sample does not require special sterile production rooms but still enables to obtain a sterile product; The irradiation process is easily controlled; Synthetis of new polymers and bulk or surface modification of commercial products can be accomplished with additional advantage of possibility of a concurrent sterilization. The future prospect of hydrogel seems to be in tissue engineering and diagnostic fields

  10. Measurement of noise and impedance of dry and wet textile electrodes, and textile electrodes with hydrogel. (United States)

    Puurtinen, Merja M; Komulainen, Satu M; Kauppinen, Pasi K; Malmivuo, Jaakko A V; Hyttinen, Jari A K


    Textile sensors, when embedded into clothing, can provide new ways of monitoring physiological signals, and improve the usability and comfort of such monitoring systems in the areas of medical, occupational health and sports. However, good electrical and mechanical contact between the electrode and the skin is very important, as it often determines the quality of the signal. This paper introduces a study where the properties of dry textile electrodes, textile electrodes moistened with water, and textile electrodes covered with hydrogel were studied with five different electrode sizes. The aim was to study how the electrode size and preparation of the electrode (dry electrode/wet electrode/electrode covered with hydrogel membrane) affect the measurement noise, and the skin-electrode impedance. The measurement noise and skin-electrode impedance were determined from surface biopotential measurements. These preliminary results indicate that noise level increases as the electrode size decreases. The noise level is high in dry textile electrodes, as expected. Yet, the noise level of wet textile electrodes is quite low and similar to that of textile electrodes covered with hydrogel. Hydrogel does not seem to improve noise properties, however it may have effects on movement artifacts. Thus, it is feasible to use textile embedded sensors in physiological monitoring applications when moistening or hydrogel is applied.

  11. The synthesis of novel pH-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) composite hydrogels using a freeze/thaw process for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Mc Gann, Michael J; Higginbotham, Clement L; Geever, Luke M; Nugent, Michael J D


    Physically cross-linked hydrogels composed of 75% poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA and 25% poly(acrylic acid) were prepared by a freeze/thaw treatment of aqueous solutions. Between 0.5 and 1wt% of aspirin was incorporated into the systems. The purpose of the research was the development of a novel pH-sensitive hydrogel composite for the delivery of aspirin to wounds. Extensive research has being conducted on freeze/thaw poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels for use in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) delivery. However very little research has been reported on the effects of an API on the overall properties of a freeze/thaw hydrogel. From the rheological analysis undertaken it was apparent that aspirin has a limiting effect on the formation of hydrogen bonding leading to hydrogels with reduced mechanical strength. To counteract this, a novel hydrogel system was developed encompassing a reinforcing film in the centre of the hydrogels. Freezing profiles were obtained to gain a better knowledge of the freezing behaviour of the hydrogels during the formation stage. Thermograms obtained from modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) indicated that the aspirin lowered the glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of the constituent polymers. The pH-sensitive nature of the hydrogels was apparent from solvent uptake studies carried out. Increasing alkaline media led to a greater degree of swelling due to increased ionisation of PAA. The hydrogels exhibited non-Fickian release kinetics. The release rates were relatively slow with total release achieved at between 30 and 40 h. The quantity of drug incorporated was found to influence the release rates considerably.

  12. Hydrogel Droplet Microfluidics for High-Throughput Single Molecule/Cell Analysis. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James


    Heterogeneity among individual molecules and cells has posed significant challenges to traditional bulk assays, due to the assumption of average behavior, which would lose important biological information in heterogeneity and result in a misleading interpretation. Single molecule/cell analysis has become an important and emerging field in biological and biomedical research for insights into heterogeneity between large populations at high resolution. Compared with the ensemble bulk method, single molecule/cell analysis explores the information on time trajectories, conformational states, and interactions of individual molecules/cells, all key factors in the study of chemical and biological reaction pathways. Various powerful techniques have been developed for single molecule/cell analysis, including flow cytometry, atomic force microscopy, optical and magnetic tweezers, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, and so forth. However, some of them have the low-throughput issue that has to analyze single molecules/cells one by one. Flow cytometry is a widely used high-throughput technique for single cell analysis but lacks the ability for intercellular interaction study and local environment control. Droplet microfluidics becomes attractive for single molecule/cell manipulation because single molecules/cells can be individually encased in monodisperse microdroplets, allowing high-throughput analysis and manipulation with precise control of the local environment. Moreover, hydrogels, cross-linked polymer networks that swell in the presence of water, have been introduced into droplet microfluidic systems as hydrogel droplet microfluidics. By replacing an aqueous phase with a monomer or polymer solution, hydrogel droplets can be generated on microfluidic chips for encapsulation of single molecules/cells according to the Poisson distribution. The sol-gel transition property endows the hydrogel droplets with new functionalities and diversified applications in single

  13. Wet-spun, porous, orientational graphene hydrogel films for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes (United States)

    Kou, Liang; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Tian, Zhanyuan; Deng, Zengshe; Gao, Chao


    sheets. Furthermore, three reduction methods including hydrothermal treatment, hydrazine and hydroiodic acid reduction are used to evaluate the specific capacitances of the graphene hydrogel film. Hydrazine-reduced graphene hydrogel film shows the highest capacitance of 203 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and maintains 67.1% specific capacitance (140 F g-1) at 50 A g-1. The combination of scalable wet-spinning technology and orientational structure makes graphene hydrogel films an ideal electrode material for supercapacitors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The schematic diagram for fabricating graphene oxide hydrogel films, stress-strain curves and TGA curves of three GHFs, a digital photo of the test device for the two-electrode system, and comparison of the electrochemical performance of our GHF-HZ supercapacitors. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07038k

  14. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer. (United States)

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun


    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Brief communications: visualization of coronary arteries in rats by 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography. (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Hirayama, Hideo; Iwata, Akiko; Toshida, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kasumi; Otani, Kentaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Beppu, Shintaro


    Angiogenesis is under intense investigation to advance the treatment of various ischemic diseases. Small animals, such as mice and rats, are often used for this purpose. However, evaluating the structure of coronary arteries in small animals in situ is not easy. We succeeded in visualizing the coronary artery in rats on 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography using a high-frequency transducer. These methods will be applied for more convenient assessment in a new study, examining issues such as angiogenesis using rats in situ.

  16. Eikonal slant helices and eikonal Darboux helices in 3-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifolds


    Önder, Mehmet; Ziplar, Evren


    In this study, we give definitions and characterizations of eikonal slant helices, eikonal Darboux helices and non-normed eikonal Darboux helices in 3-dimensional pseudo- Riemannian manifold M . We show that every eikonal slant helix is also an eikonal Darboux helix for timelike and spacelike curves. Furthermore, we obtain that if the non-null curve a is a non-normed eikonal Darboux helix, then a is an eikonal slant helix if and only if 2 2 e 3k +e1t = constant, where k and t are curvature an...

  17. Computer modelling of the 3-dimensional structures of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxins microcystin-LR and nodularin. (United States)

    Lanaras, T; Cook, C M; Eriksson, J E; Meriluoto, J A; Hotokka, M


    The 3-dimensional structures of two cyanobacterial hepatotoxins microcystin-LR, a cyclic heptapeptide and nodularin, a cyclic pentapeptide, and the novel amino acid ADDA (3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-4,6-decadienoic acid) were constructed, and optimized using the CHEM-X molecular mechanics program. The peptide rings were planar and of rectangular shape. Optimized ADDA formed a U-shape and a difference in the orientation of ADDA with respect to the peptide ring of the two hepatotoxins was observed.

  18. Generation and Active Absorption of 2- and 3-Dimensional Linear Water Waves in Physical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    Methods for mechanical generation of 2-dimensional (2-D) and 3-dimensional (3-D) linear water waves in physical models are presented. The results of a series of laboratory 3-D wave generation tests are presented and discussed. The tests preformed involve reproduction of wave fields characterised...... by different directional wave spectra. The wave generator displacement signals applied in the tests are generated by means of linear digital filtering of Gaussian white noise in the time domain. An absorbing wave generator for 2-D wave facilities (wave channels) is developed. The absorbing wave generator...

  19. Patterned 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes as alternative electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan; Jennings, James R; Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Qing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G


    We describe the application of 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes (3D-MGEs) as electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a replacement for fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Requirements, structure, advantages, and limitations of the metal grid electrodes are discussed. Solar conversion efficiencies of 6.2% have been achieved in 3D-MGE based solar cells, comparable to that fabricated on FTO (7.1%). The charge transport properties and collection efficiencies in these novel solar cells have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  20. Towards a mathematical definition of Coulomb branches of $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ gauge theories, II

    CERN Document Server

    Braverman, Alexander; Nakajima, Hiraku


    Consider the $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ supersymmetric gauge theory associated with a compact Lie group $G_c$ and its quaternionic representation $\\mathbf M$. Physicists study its Coulomb branch, which is a noncompact hyper-K\\"ahler manifold with an $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$-action, possibly with singularities. We give a mathematical definition of the Coulomb branch as an affine algebraic variety with $\\mathbb C^\\times$-action when $\\mathbf M$ is of a form $\\mathbf N\\oplus\\mathbf N^*$, as the second step of the proposal given in arXiv:1503.03676.

  1. Nano-yttria dispersed stainless steel composites composed by the 3 dimensional fiber deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhiest, K., E-mail: [ArcelorMittal Gent, Hot Strip Mill Department, J. Kennedylaan 51, 9042 Ghent (Belgium); Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Ghent University, UGent, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE), Technologiepark 903, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Mullens, S. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research, VITO, Materials Technology, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Wispelaere, N.; Claessens, S. [ArcelorMittal Research Industry Gent, OCAS, J. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); DeBremaecker, A. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Verbeken, K. [Ghent University, UGent, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE), Technologiepark 903, 9052 Ghent (Belgium)


    In this study, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) 316L steel samples were manufactured by the 3 dimensional fiber deposition (3DFD) technique. The performance of 3DFD as colloidal consolidation technique to obtain porous green bodies based on yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nano-slurries or paste, is discussed within this experimental work. The influence of the sintering temperature and time on sample densification and grain growth was investigated in this study. Hot consolidation was performed to obtain final product quality in terms of residual porosity reduction and final dispersion homogeneity.

  2. A novel solar cell fabricated with spiral photo-electrode for capturing sunlight 3-dimensionally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; SHEN Hui; DENG Youjun


    A novel solar cell fabricated with spiral photo-electrode for capturing sunlight 3-dimensionally (3D-cell) is proposed in this paper. We studied its performance both in solar simulator and in nature sunlight. Spiral photo-electrode of 3D-cell can receive sunlight from all directions and therefore can track the sun passively. And it is much insensitive to solar azimuth angle and shade. In addition, it increases the area to obtain scattered sunlight and reflected light. Compared with the dye-sensitized solar cells using sandwich structure, it would be more advantageous in the sealing technique.

  3. Quantum Computing - A new Implementation of Simon Algorithm for 3-Dimensional Registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Bărîlă


    Full Text Available Quantum computing is a new field of science aiming to use quantum phenomena in order to perform operations on data. The Simon algorithm is one of the quantum algorithms which solves a certain problem exponentially faster than any classical algorithm solving the same problem. Simulating of quantum algorithms is very important since quantum hardware is not available outside of the research labs. QCL (Quantum Computation Language is the most advanced implemented quantum computer simulator and was conceived by Bernhard Ömer. The paper presents an implementation in QCL of the Simon algorithm in the case of 3-dimensional registers.

  4. The study of 3-dimensional structures of IgG with atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yi-gang; XU Ru-xiang; JIANG Xiao-dan; KE Yi-quan


    Objective: To detect 3-dimensional images of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor Nr1 (NMDAr1) polycolonal IgG affixed on mica in physiological environment. Methods: The images and data were obtained from a contact mode and commercial Si3N4 probed tip by using atomic force microscope (AFM). Conclusions: Using AFM to investigate biomacromolecule can make us deeply understand the structure of IgG, which will instruct us to detect the membrane receptor protein as a labelling agent.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of novel carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels and carboxymethylcellulolse-hydrogel-ZnO-nanocomposites. (United States)

    Hashem, M; Sharaf, S; Abd El-Hady, M M; Hebeish, A


    New approach for preparation of CMC hydrogels was undertaken through reacting CMC with either malic, succinic or citric acid. Characteristics of the hydrogels, as monitored by the swelling behavior, FTIR, SEM, EDX, TEM and XRD were dependent on nature and concentration of the polycarboxylic acid, time and temperature of curing. The best practice achieved from these studies was harnessed to synthesize and characterize CMC hydrogel-ZnO-nanocomposites with additional study pertaining to the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites. CMC hydrogel with excellent swelling behavior could be prepared by adding succinic acid (0.5%) to CMC solution then drying the obtained paste at 80 °C for 5 min followed by curing at 120 °C for 3 min. Similarly, addition of ZnNO3 solution to the CMC paste results in CMC hydrogel-ZnO-nanocomposites having biocidal activity to gram +ve and gram -ve bacteria.

  6. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman


    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications.

  7. A pH-sensitive Modified Polyacrylamide Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A pH-sensitive modified polyacrylamide hydrogel was prepared by two steps and the modified polyacrylamide was characterized by 1HNMR spectrum. The surface morphology and swelling behavior of the hydrogels were investigated.

  8. 64排螺旋 CT 及三维容积测量系统对肺叶容积的定量研究%The quantitative measurement of pulmonary lobar volume using 3-dimensional volumetric diagnosis system and 64 row MDCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斋; 何丽; 贾立镯; 任庆云


    Objective To explore the value of 3‐dimensional volumetric diagnosis system in quantitative measurement of pulmona‐ry lobar volumetry using a 64 row MDCT .Methods Seventy‐seven adult volunteers were scanned twice on a 64 row MDCT at the end of the maximum inspiratory and maximum expiratory end respectively .On a volumetric computer‐aided diagnosis system ,the en‐tire lung was semiautomatically separated into 5 anatomy lobes including the right upper lobe ,right middle lobe ,right lower lobe ,left upper lobe ,and left lower lobe .Each lobar volume was measured .Results The lung volume of left upper lobe ,right lower lobe ,left lower lobe ,right upper lobe ,right middle lobe in male volunteers were 1 303 .90 mL and 938 .31 mL ,1 276 .90 mL and 737 .69 mL , 1 204 .47 mL and 678 .67 mL ,1 048 .49 mL and 754 .83 mL ,519 .53 mL and 407 .86 mL at the end of the inspiratory and expiratory respectively .The lung volume of left upper lobe ,right lower lobe ,left lower lobe ,right upper lobe ,right middle lobe in female volun‐teers were 915 .78 mL and 666 .23 mL ,913 .87 mL and 576 .62 mL ,822 .17 mL and 509 .30 mL ,734 .20 mL and 530 .23 mL ,389 .13 mL and 316 .70 mL at the end of the inspiratory and expiratory respectively .The values of each lobe volume between the full inspiration phase and expiration phase group showed significant difference the same sex group (P<0 .05) .The values of each lobe volume in the man group were significantly larger than those of female group in both respiratory phase (P<0 .05) .Of the D‐value in the each lobe volume in 5 anatomy lobe at full inspiration phase and expiration phase in both sex group ,both of the lower lobes were the largest , followed by the left upper lobe ,right upper lobe and right middle lobe .The D‐value in the each lobe volume at full inspiration phase and expiration phase in the man group were significantly larger than those of female group .Conclusion Three‐dimensional volumet‐ric diagnosis system

  9. Protease-sensitive atelocollagen hydrogels promote healing in a diabetic wound model

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Holmes, Roisin A; Liang, He; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J


    The design of exudate-managing wound dressings is an established route to accelerated healing, although such design remains a challenge from material and manufacturing standpoints. Aiming towards the clinical translation of knowledge gained in vitro with highly swollen rat tail collagen hydrogels, this study investigated the healing capability in a diabetic mouse wound model of telopeptide-free, protease-inhibiting collagen networks. 4 vinylbenzylation and UV irradiation of type I atelocollagen (AC) led to hydrogel networks with chemical and macroscopic properties comparable to previous collagen analogues, attributable to similar lysine content and dichroic properties. After 4 days in vitro, hydrogels induced nearly 50 RFU% reduction in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity, whilst showing less than 20 wt.-% weight loss. After 20 days in vivo, dry networks promoted 99% closure of 10x10 mm full thickness wounds and accelerated neodermal tissue formation compared to Mepilex. This collagen system can be equi...

  10. Optofluidic in situ maskless lithography of charge selective nanoporous hydrogel for DNA preconcentration. (United States)

    Kim, Hyoki; Kim, Junhoi; Kim, Eun-Geun; Heinz, Austen James; Kwon, Sunghoon; Chun, Honggu


    An optofluidic maskless photopolymerization process was developed for in situ negatively charged nanoporous hydrogel [poly-AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)] fabrication. The optofluidic maskless lithography system, which combines a high power UV source and digital mirror device, enables fast polymerization of arbitrary shaped hydrogels in a microfluidic device. The poly-AMPS hydrogel structures were positioned near the intersections of two microchannels, and were used as a cation-selective filter for biological sample preconcentration. Preconcentration dynamics as well as the fabricated polymer shape were analyzed in three-dimensions using fluorescein sample and a confocal microscope. Finally, single-stranded DNA preconcentration was demonstrated for polymerase chain reaction-free signal enhancement.

  11. Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat


    Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

  12. Development of hydrogels by radiation induced polymerization for use in slow drug delivery (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Bala, R.


    In the present work, in order to improve the drug release profile of indinavir sulfate, a potent inhibitor of HIV protease, controlled drug delivery systems in the form of hydrogels have been designed by a radiation graft polymerization method. These hydrogels have been prepared by using dietary fiber psyllium and binary monomers mixture of acrylamide (AAm) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPSA). These polymers have been characterized with cryo-SEMs, FTIR, XRD and swelling studies. The swelling of hydrogels has been determined in solution of different pH, temperature and [NaCl]. in vitro release studies of model drug indinavir sulfate in different pH have been carried out to determine the drug release mechanism. The release of dug occurred through non-Fickian mechanism.

  13. Quantitative analysis of 3-dimensional rootarchitecture based on image reconstruction and itsapplication to research on phosphorus uptake in soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Tonglin; FANG Suqin; LI Zhiyuan; LIU Yutao; LIAO Hong; YAN Xiaolong


    Quantification of 3-dimensional (3-D) plant root architecture is one of the most important approaches to investigating plant root growth and its function in nutrient acquisition and utilization. However, no effective methods have been reported hitherto to quantify 3-D root architecture parameters, making it difficult to further study the 3-D characteristics of the root system and its function. In the present study, we created a rapid algorithm to reconstruct 3-D root system images based on the basic structural features of such linear objects as roots, using 2-D root images taken by digital CCD cameras at multi- viewing angles. This method is very effective in the reconstruction of plant root system images, thus enabling us to obtain the digital model of 3-D root architecture and its 3-D skeleton, based on which some major root architecture parameters can be calculated. Using this method, we were able to acquire 3-D parameters of soybean root architecture whose root diameter was more than 0.3 mm, including tap root length, total root length, average basal root angle, ratio of root width to root depth, percentage distribution of root length in different layers and root distribution in different 3-D regions of the growth medium. We also quantitatively analyzed the relationship between different root architecture parame-ters and such plant nutrition parameters as soybean biomass and phosphorus (P) uptake. Our study may provide a new tool in studying the growth and nutritional functions of plant root systems.

  14. Preparation of bacterial cellulose based hydrogels and their viscoelastic behavior



    Bacterial cellulose (BC) based hydrogels have been prepared in blended with carboxymethylcellulose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone by using heat treatment. The properties of BC-CMC and BC-PVP hydrogels were compared with pure BC, CMC and PVP hydrogels. These hydrogels were investigated by measuring their structural, morphological and viscoelastic properties. Through the morphological images, alignment of the porous flake like structures could be seen clearly within the inter-polymeric network of th...

  15. Gellan gum microgel-reinforced cell-laden gelatin hydrogels


    Shin, Hyeongho; Olsen, Bradley D.; Khademhosseini, Ali


    The relatively weak mechanical properties of hydrogels remain a major drawback for their application as load-bearing tissue scaffolds. Previously, we developed cell-laden double-network (DN) hydrogels that were composed of photocrosslinkable gellan gum (GG) and gelatin. Further research into the materials as tissue scaffolds determined that the strength of the DN hydrogels decreased when they were prepared at cell-compatible conditions, and the encapsulated cells in the DN hydrogels did not f...

  16. Transdermal thiol-acrylate polyethylene glycol hydrogel synthesis using near infrared light (United States)

    Chung, Solchan; Lee, Hwangjae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, Luke P.; Lee, Jae Young


    Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation via a mixed-mode reaction with a small increase in temperature (~5 °C) under the optimized conditions. We also achieved successful transdermal gelation via the NIR-assisted photothermal thiol-acryl reactions. This new type of NIR-assisted thiol-acrylate polymerization provides new opportunities for in situ hydrogel formation for injectable hydrogels and delivery of drugs/cells for various biomedical applications.Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation

  17. 3-dimensional slope stability analyses using non-associative stress-strain relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The research work presented in this paper refers to a new slope stability analysis method used for landslide risk evaluations. It is an extension of the 3-dimensional upper-bound slope stability analysis method proposed by Chen et al. in 2001,which employs the Mohr-Coulomb’s associative flow rule. It has been found that in a 3-dimensional area,a prism may not be able to move at friction angles to all its surrounding interfaces,as required by this associative rule,and convergence problems may occasionally arise. The new method establishes two velocity fields:(i) The plastic one that represents a non-associative and the best representative dilation behavior,and (ii) the virtual one that permits the solution for factor of safety in the work and energy balance equation. The new method can then allow any input value of dilation angle and thus solve the convergence problem. A practical application to a concrete dam foundation is illustrated.

  18. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion (United States)

    Weaver, Cole A.; Miller, Steven F.; da Fontoura, Clarissa S. G.; Wehby, George L.; Amendt, Brad A.; Holton, Nathan E.; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E.; Moreno Uribe, Lina M.


    Introduction Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes, DUSP6, ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Results Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1 AJUBA, SNAI3 SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant after the Bonferroni correction (P <0.00022). Suggestive associations were found for centroid size, a proxy for dentoalveolar size variation with 4p16.1 and SNAI1. Conclusions Specific genetic pathways associated with 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypic variation in malocclusions were identified. PMID:28257739

  19. Simple parameter estimation for complex models — Testing evolutionary techniques on 3-dimensional biogeochemical ocean models (United States)

    Mattern, Jann Paul; Edwards, Christopher A.


    Parameter estimation is an important part of numerical modeling and often required when a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model is first deployed. However, 3-dimensional ocean model simulations are computationally expensive and models typically contain upwards of 10 parameters suitable for estimation. Hence, manual parameter tuning can be lengthy and cumbersome. Here, we present four easy to implement and flexible parameter estimation techniques and apply them to two 3-dimensional biogeochemical models of different complexities. Based on a Monte Carlo experiment, we first develop a cost function measuring the model-observation misfit based on multiple data types. The parameter estimation techniques are then applied and yield a substantial cost reduction over ∼ 100 simulations. Based on the outcome of multiple replicate experiments, they perform on average better than random, uninformed parameter search but performance declines when more than 40 parameters are estimated together. Our results emphasize the complex cost function structure for biogeochemical parameters and highlight dependencies between different parameters as well as different cost function formulations.

  20. MR imaging of the knee joint with 3-dimensional gradient echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimagaki, Hajime; Matsubara, T.; Narisawa, Hiroko; Yamazaki, Yukio [Tsubame Rosai Hospital, Niigata (Japan)


    Authors considered and discussed whether various lesions of the knee joint can be diagnosed under the MR imaging condition with a pulse sequence of 3-dimensional fourier transformed gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state and what advantages the method has. The apparatus was 1.5T Signa (General Electric) equipped with surface coil for the knee. The consecutive 124 sagittal images of 0.8 mm thickness taken primarily for 3-dimensional reconstruction were processed to give any cross sections of coronary, horizontal, sagittal or further additional ones. Subjects were 243 knees (138 internal derangement and 105 osteoarthritis) whose lesions were confirmed by arthroscope or by arthrostomy after the MR imaging. Comparison of the MR imaging and surgical finding revealed that accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the present MR imaging method were all >90% for diagnosis of internal derangement of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus. For osteoarthritis, the method was thought useful for evaluation of the depth of cartilage deficit. (K.H.)

  1. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty. (United States)

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G


    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  2. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang


    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  3. Experimental Study on Self-assembly of KLD-12 Peptide Hydrogel and 3-D Culture of MSC Encapsulated within Hydrogel In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua SUN; Qixin ZHENG


    o-fiber hydrogel in vitro. MSCs in KLD-12 peptide hydrogel grew well and proliferated with the culture time. KLD-12 peptide hydrogel can serve as an excellent injectable material of biological scaffolds in tissue engineering of IVD.

  4. Evaluation of the in vitro degradation of macroporous hydrogels using gravimetry, confined compression testing, and microcomputed tomography. (United States)

    Behravesh, Esfandiar; Timmer, Mark D; Lemoine, Jeremy J; Liebschner, Michael A K; Mikos, Antonios G


    This study investigated the in vitro degradation characteristics of macroporous hydrogels based on poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) (P(PF-co-EG)). Four formulations were fabricated to test the effect of porosity and cross-linking density on the degradation of the resulting macroporous hydrogels. Macroporosity was introduced by the addition of sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid, the precursors of the carbon dioxide porogen, in the initiation system for the hydrogel cross-linking. Macroporous hydrogels with porosities of 0.80 +/- 0.03 and 0.89 +/- 0.03 were synthesized by the addition of sodium bicarbonate of concentrations 40 and 80 mg/mL and ascorbic acid of concentrations 0.05 and 0.1 mol/L, respectively. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) was utilized as a cross-linker. The molecular weight between cross-links had a significant effect on weight loss after 12 weeks, where samples with M(C) of 1,880 +/- 320 synthesized with a P(PF-co-EG):PEG-DA ratio of 3:1 had a significantly greater mass loss due to degradation than those with M(C) of 1,000 +/- 100 synthesized with a P(PF-co-EG):PEG-DA ratio of 1:1. In contrast, porosity played a minimal role in determining the weight loss. Mechanical testing of the hydrogels under confined compression showed a decrease in compressive modulus over the degradation time for all formulations. In addition, an increase in hydrogel equilibrium water content and pore wall thickness was observed with degradation time, whereas the hydrogel porosity and surface area density remained invariant. The results from microcomputed tomography corroborated with the rest of the measurements and indicated a bulk degradation mechanism of the macroporous hydrogels.

  5. Sequential antibiotic and growth factor releasing chitosan-PAAm semi-IPN hydrogel as a novel wound dressing. (United States)

    Pulat, Mehlika; Kahraman, Anıl Sera; Tan, Nur; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe


    The aim of this study is to prepare a novel wound dressing material which provides burst release of an antibiotic in combination with sustained release of growth factor delivery. This might be beneficial for the prevention of infections and to stimulate wound healing. As a wound dressing material, the semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogel based on polyacrylamide (PAAm) and chitosan (CS) was synthesized via free radical polymerization. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was used for cross-linking of PAAm to form semi-IPN hydrogel. The hydrogel shows high water content (∼1800%, in dry basis) and stable swelling characteristics in the pH range of the wound media (∼4.0-7.4). The antibiotic, piperacillin-tazobactam, which belongs to the penicillin group was loaded into the hydrogel. The therapeutic serum dose of piperacillin-tazobactam for topic introduction was reached at 1st hour of the release. Additionally, in order to increase the mitogenic activity of hydrogel, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was embedded into the CS-PAAm in different amounts. Cell culture studies were performed with L929 mouse fibroblasts and the simulated cell growth was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The successful sustained release behavior of CS-PAAm hydrogel for EGF maintained the presence of EGF in the culture up to 5 days and the highest mitochondrial activities were recorded for the 0.4 μg EGF-loaded/mg of hydrogel group. In conclusion, CS-PAAm semi-IPN hydrogel loaded with piperacillin-tazobactam and EGF could be proposed for an effective system in wound-healing management.

  6. Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Investigations of the Acyl Surface Modification of Hydrogel Beads for the Deposition of a Phospholipid Coating. (United States)

    Grossutti, Michael; Seenath, Ryan; Lipkowski, Jacek


    The scaffolded vesicle has been employed as an alternative means of developing natural model membranes and envisioned as a potential nutraceutical transporter. Furthering the research of the scaffolded vesicle system, a nucleophilic substitution reaction was implemented to form an ester linkage between palmitate and terminal hydroxyl groups of dextran in order to hydrophobically modify the hydrogel scaffold. An average tilt angle of 38° of the hydrophobic palmitate modifying layer on the surface of the hydrogel was determined from dichroic ratios obtained from infrared spectra collected in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration. ATR-IR studies of the DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel demonstrated that the hydrocarbon chains of the DMPC coating was similar to those of the DMPC bilayers and that the underlying palmitate layer had a negligible effect on the average tilt angle (26°) of the DMPC coating. The permeability of this acylated hydrogel was investigated with fluorescence spectroscopy and the terbium/dipicolinic acid assay. The hydrophobic modification on the surface of the hydrogel bead allowed for an efficient deposition of a DMPC layer that served as an impermeable barrier to terbium efflux. About 72% of DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel beads showed ideal barrier properties. The remaining 28% were leaking, but the half-life of terbium efflux of the DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel was increasing, and the total amount of leaked terbium was decreasing with the incubation time. The half-life time and the retention were considered a marked improvement relative to past scaffolded vesicle preparations. The process of acylating hydrogel beads for efficient DMPC deposition has been identified as another viable method for controlling the permeability of the scaffolded vesicle.

  7. A novel cellulose hydrogel prepared from its ionic liquid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lu; LIN ZhangBi; YANG Xiao; WAN ZhenZhen; CUI ShuXun


    A novel cellulose hydrogel is prepared by regenerating cellulose from its ionic liquid solution. The transparency cellulose hydrogel presents a good chemical stability and an acceptable mechanical property. This non-toxic cellulose hydrogel should be biocompatibie and may be useful in the future as a biomaterial.

  8. Co-assembly of chitosan and phospholipids into hybrid hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Engwer, Christoph


    Novel hybrid hydrogels were formed by adding chitosan (Ch) to phospholipids (P) self-assembled particles in lactic acid. The effect of the phospholipid concentration on the hydrogel properties was investigated and was observed to affect the rate of hydrogel formation and viscoelastic properties...

  9. 4D Printing with Mechanically Robust, Thermally Actuating Hydrogels. (United States)

    Bakarich, Shannon E; Gorkin, Robert; in het Panhuis, Marc; Spinks, Geoffrey M


    A smart valve is created by 4D printing of hydrogels that are both mechanically robust and thermally actuating. The printed hydrogels are made up of an interpenetrating network of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). 4D structures are created by printing the "dynamic" hydrogel ink alongside other static materials.

  10. A hydrogel-based enzyme-loaded polymersome reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, de Hans-Peter; Arends, Isabel W.C.E.; Rowan, Alan E.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.


    In this study we report the immobilization of enzyme-containing polymersomes into a macromolecular hydrogel. Whereas free enzyme shows progressive leakage from the hydrogel in a period of days, leakage of the polymersome-protected enzyme is virtually absent. The preparation of the hydrogel occurs un

  11. Hydrogels for an accommodating intraocular lens. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, JH; Spaans, CJ; van Calck, RV; van Beijma, FJ; Norrby, S; Pennings, AJ


    In this study it was investigated whether hydrogels could be used for an accommodating lens. The requirements of such a hydrogels are a low modulus, high refractive index, transparency, and strength. Since conventional hydrogels do not possess this combination of properties, a novel preparation meth

  12. Pharmacokinetic properties and antitumor efficacy of the 5-fluorouracil loaded PEG-hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Bokyung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have studied the in vitro and in vivo utility of polyethylene glycol (PEG-hydrogels for the development of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU delivery system. Methods A 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel was implanted subcutaneously to evaluate the drug retention time and the anticancer effect. For the pharmacokinetic study, two groups of male rats were administered either an aqueous solution of 5-FU (control group/or a 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel (treated group at a dose of 100 mg/kg. For the pharmacodynamic study, a human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma (NSCLC cell line, A549 was inoculated to male nude mice with a cell density of 3 × 106. Once tumors start growing, the mice were injected with 5-FU/or 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel once a week for 4 weeks. The growth of the tumors was monitored by measuring the tumor volume and calculating the tumor inhibition rate (IR over the duration of the study. Results In the pharmacokinetic study, the 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel gave a mean residence time (MRT of 8.0 h and the elimination half-life of 0.9 h; these values were 14- and 6-fold, respectively, longer than those for the free solution of 5-FU (p Conclusion We suggest that 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogels could provide a useful tool for the development of an anticancer drug delivery system.

  13. Culture phases, cytotoxicity and protein expressions of agarose hydrogel induced Sp2/0, A549, MCF-7 cell line 3D cultures. (United States)

    Ravi, Maddaly; Kaviya, S R; Paramesh, V


    Advancements in cell cultures are occurring at a rapid pace, an important direction is culturing cells in 3D conditions. We demonstrate the usefulness of agarose hydrogels in obtaining 3 dimensional aggregates of three cell lines, A549, MCF-7 and Sp2/0. The differences in culture phases, susceptibility to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity are studied. Also, the 3D aggregates of the three cell lines were reverted into 2D cultures and the protein profile differences among the 2D, 3D and revert cultures were studied. The analysis of protein profile differences using UniProt data base further augment the usefulness of agarose hydrogels for obtaining 3D cell cultures.

  14. Synergistically enhanced selective intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carrier comprising folic acid-conjugated hydrogels containing magnetite nanoparticles (United States)

    Kim, Haneul; Jo, Ara; Baek, Seulgi; Lim, Daeun; Park, Soon-Yong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Chung, Jin Woong; Yoon, Jinhwan


    Targeted drug delivery has long been extensively researched since drug delivery and release at the diseased site with minimum dosage realizes the effective therapy without adverse side effects. In this work, to achieve enhanced intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carriers for efficient chemo-therapy, we have designed targeted multifunctional anticancer drug carrier hydrogels. Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogel core containing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were prepared using precipitation polymerization, and further polymerized with amine-functionalized copolymer shell to facilitate the conjugation of targeting ligand. Then, folic acid, specific targeting ligand for cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), was conjugated on the hydrogel surface, yielding the ligand conjugated hybrid hydrogels. We revealed that enhanced intracellular uptake by HeLa cells in vitro was enabled by both magnetic attraction and receptor-mediated endocytosis, which were contributed by MNP and folic acid, respectively. Furthermore, site-specific uptake of the developed carrier was confirmed by incubating with several other cell lines. Based on synergistically enhanced intracellular uptake, efficient cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity of HeLa cells incubated with anticancer drug loaded hybrid hydrogels were successfully achieved. The developed dual-targeted hybrid hydrogels are expected to provide a platform for the next generation intelligent drug delivery systems.

  15. Smart Magnetically Responsive Hydrogel Nanoparticles Prepared by a Novel Aerosol-Assisted Method for Biomedical and Drug Delivery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. El-Sherbiny


    Full Text Available We have developed a novel spray gelation-based method to synthesize a new series of magnetically responsive hydrogel nanoparticles for biomedical and drug delivery applications. The method is based on the production of hydrogel nanoparticles from sprayed polymeric microdroplets obtained by an air-jet nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. Oligoguluronate (G-blocks was prepared through the partial acid hydrolysis of sodium alginate. PEG-grafted chitosan was also synthesized and characterized (FTIR, EA, and DSC. Then, magnetically responsive hydrogel nanoparticles based on alginate and alginate/G-blocks were synthesized via aerosolization followed by either ionotropic gelation or both ionotropic and polyelectrolyte complexation using CaCl2 or PEG-g-chitosan/CaCl2 as crosslinking agents, respectively. Particle size and dynamic swelling were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS and microscopy. Surface morphology of the nanoparticles was examined using SEM. The distribution of magnetic cores within the hydrogels nanoparticles was also examined using TEM. In addition, the iron and calcium contents of the particles were estimated using EDS. Spherical magnetic hydrogel nanoparticles with average particle size of 811 ± 162 to 941 ± 2 nm were obtained. This study showed that the developed method is promising for the manufacture of hydrogel nanoparticles, and it represents a relatively simple and potential low-cost system.

  16. Synthesis and colon-specific drug delivery of a poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/MBA nanosized hydrogel. (United States)

    Ray, Debajyoti; Mohapatra, Dillip K; Mohapatra, Ranjit K; Mohanta, Guru P; Sahoo, Prafulla K


    Intravenous administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for colon cancer therapy produces severe systemic side-effects due to its cytotoxic effect on normal cells. The main objective of the present study was to develop novel oral site-specific delivery of 5-FU to the colon with less drug being released in the stomach or small intestine using biodegradable hydrogel, hydrogel nanoparticles and comparing the targeting efficiency of 5-FU to colon from both. Poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (P(AA-co-Am)) normal hydrogel and hydrogel nanoparticles (HN) were synthesized by free radical polymerization using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker, potassium persulfate as reaction initiator and 5-FU was loaded. HN were found to be degradable in physiological medium and showed comparatively higher swelling in rat caecal medium (RCM). 5-FU entrapment was increased by increasing Am (wt%) monomer feed. In vitro release of 5-FU from normal hydrogel and HN in pH progressive medium, it was found that a AA/Am ratio of 25:75 showed higher release in RCM. The Higuchi model yielded good adjustment of in vitro release kinetics. A higher amount of 5-FU reached the colon in HN (61 +/- 2.1%) than normal hydrogel (40 +/- 3.6%) by organ biodistribution studies in albino rats.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This article is concerned with second-order necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The periodic state constraint is considered.

  18. The value of preoperative 3-dimensional over 2-dimensional valve analysis in predicting recurrent ischemic mitral regurgitation after mitral annuloplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J.; Bouma, Wobbe; Lai, Eric K.; Levack, Melissa M.; Shang, Eric K.; Pouch, Alison M.; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Plappert, Theodore J.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Hung, Judy; Mariani, Massimo A.; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Gleason, Thomas G.; Mahmood, Feroze; Acker, Michael A.; Woo, Y. Joseph; Cheung, Albert T.; Gillespie, Matthew J.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.


    Objectives: Repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation with undersized annuloplasty is characterized by high recurrence rates. We sought to determine the value of pre-repair 3-dimensional echocardiography over 2-dimensional echocardiography in predicting recurrence at 6 months. Methods: Intraoperative

  19. Ag@SiO2-entrapped hydrogel microarray: a new platform for a metal-enhanced fluorescence-based protein assay. (United States)

    Jang, Eunji; Kim, Minsu; Koh, Won-Gun


    We developed a novel protein-based bioassay platform utilizing metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), which is a hydrogel microarray entrapping silica-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2). As a model system, different concentrations of glucose were detected using a fluorescence method by sequential bienzymatic reaction of hydrogel-entrapped glucose oxidase (GOX) and peroxidase (POD) inside a hydrogel microarray. Microarrays based on poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) hydrogels were prepared by photopatterning a solution containing PEG diacrylate (PEG-DA), photoinitiator, enzymes, and Ag@SiO2. The resulting hydrogel microarrays were able to entrap both enzymes and Ag@SiO2 without leaching and deactivation problems. The presence of Ag@SiO2 within the hydrogel microarray enhanced the fluorescence signal, and the extent of the enhancement was dependent on the thickness of silica shells and the amount of Ag@SiO2. Optimal MEF effects were achieved when the thickness of the silica shell was 17.5 nm, and 0.5 mg mL(-1) of Ag@SiO2 was incorporated into the assay systems. Compared with the standard hydrogel microarray-based assay performed without Ag@SiO2, more than a 4-fold fluorescence enhancement was observed in a glucose concentration range between 10(-3) mM and 10.0 mM using hydrogel microarray entrapping Ag@SiO2, which led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD). The hydrogel microarray system presented in this study could be successfully combined with a microfluidic device as an initial step to create an MEF-based micro-total-analysis-system (μ-TAS).

  20. Hydrogel membrane electrolyte for electrochemical capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sampath; N A Choudhury; A K Shukla


    Polymer electrolytes are known to possess excellent physicochemical properties that are very useful for electrochemical energy systems. The mobility in polymer electrolytes is understood to be mainly due to the segmental motion of polymer chains and the ion transport is generally restricted to the amorphous phase of the polymer. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) that are formed using plastizicers and polymers along with ionic salts are known to exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity while maintaining the dimensional stability of a solid matrix. In the present study, the preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogel membranes (PHMEs) as electrolytes for electrochemical capacitors have been reported. Varying HClO4 dopant concentration leads to different characteristics of the capacitors. The EC comprising PHME doped with 2 M HClO4 and black pearl carbon (BPC) electrodes has been found to exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 97 F g-1, a phase angle value of 78°, and a maximum charge-discharge coulombic efficiency of 88%.