WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3-d resistivity imaging

  1. Joint calibration of 3D resist image and CDSEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. S.; He, Y. Y.; Tang, Y. P.; Chang, Y. T.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, an optical proximity correction model is to evaluate the resist image at a specific depth within the photoresist and then extract the resist contours from the image. Calibration is generally implemented by comparing resist contours with the critical dimensions (CD). The wafer CD is usually collected by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which evaluates the CD based on some criterion that is a function of gray level, differential signal, threshold or other parameters set by the SEM. However, the criterion does not reveal which depth the CD is obtained at. This depth inconsistency between modeling and SEM makes the model calibration difficult for low k1 images. In this paper, the vertical resist profile is obtained by modifying the model from planar (2D) to quasi-3D approach and comparing the CD from this new model with SEM CD. For this quasi-3D model, the photoresist diffusion along the depth of the resist is considered and the 3D photoresist contours are evaluated. The performance of this new model is studied and is better than the 2D model.

  2. Study of filled dolines by using 3D stereo image processing and electrical resistivity imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Breg Valjavec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with doline degradation due to uncontrolled waste dumping in the past in the Logatec Polje in Slovenia. It introduces a concept for determining 3D geometric characteristics (shape, depth, radius, area, and volume of formerly concave landforms (i.e., recently filled dolines by using a combination of two methods: (1 photogrammetric stereo processing of archival aerial photographs and (2 electrical resistivity imaging (ERI. To represent, visualize, and study the characteristics of the former surface morphology (i.e., the dolines before they were filled, a digital terrain model (DTM for 1972 (DTM1972 was made using digital photogrammetry processing of five sequential archival aerial photographs (1972, © GURS. DTM1972 was visually and quantitatively compared with the DTM5 of the recent surface morfology (DTM5, © GURS, 2006 in order to define areas of manmade terrain differences. In general, a circular area with a higher terrain difference is an indicator of a filled doline. The calculated terrain differences also indicate the thickness of buried waste material. Three case-study dolines were selected for 3D geometric analysis and tested in the field using ERI. ERI was used to determine the genetic type of the original doline, to confirm that the buried material in the doline is actually waste, and to ascertain opportunities for further study of water pollution due to waste leakage. Based on a comparison among the ERI sections obtained using various electrode arrays, it was concluded that the basins are actually past concave landforms (i.e., dolines filled with mixed waste material having the lowest resistivity value (bellow 100 ohm-m, which differs measurably from the surrounding natural materials. The resistivity of hard stacked limestone is higher (above 1,000 ohm-m than resistivity of cracked carbonate rocks with cracks filled with loamy clay sediments while in loamy alluvial sediment resistivity falls below 150 ohm

  3. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  4. Inversion of quasi-3D DC resistivity imaging data using artificial neural networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Neyamadpour; W A T Wan Abdullah; Samsudin Taib

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the applicability of artificial neural networks in inverting quasi-3D DC resistivity imaging data. An electrical resistivity imaging survey was carried out along seven parallel lines using a dipole–dipole array to confirm the validation of the results of an inversion using an artificial neural network technique. The model used to produce synthetic data to train the artificial neural network was a homogeneous medium of 100 m resistivity with an embedded anomalous body of 1000 m resistivity. The network was trained using 21 datasets (comprising 12159 data points) and tested on another 11 synthetic datasets (comprising 6369 data points) and on real field data. Another 24 test datasets (comprising 13896 data points) consisting of different resistivities for the background and the anomalous bodies were used in order to test the interpolation and extrapolation of network properties. Different learning paradigms were tried in the training process of the neural network, with the resilient propagation paradigm being the most efficient. The number of nodes, hidden layers, and efficient values for learning rate and momentum coefficient have been studied. Although a significant correlation between results of the neural network and the conventional robust inversion technique was found, the ANN results show more details of the subsurface structure, and the RMS misfits for the results of the neural network are less than seen with conventional methods. The interpreted results show that the trained network was able to invert quasi-3D electrical resistivity imaging data obtained by dipole–dipole configuration both rapidly and accurately.

  5. Challenges and opportunities for fractured rock imaging using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Judith; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-02-02

    There is an increasing need to characterize discrete fractures away from boreholes to better define fracture distributions and monitor solute transport. We performed a 3D evaluation of static and time-lapse cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets from a limestone quarry in which flow and transport are controlled by a bedding-plane feature. Ten boreholes were discretized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and 2D panel measurements were inverted for a 3D distribution of conductivity. We evaluated the benefits of 3D versus 2.5D inversion of ERT data in fractured rock while including the use of borehole regularization disconnects (BRDs) and borehole conductivity constraints. High-conductivity halos (inversion artifacts) surrounding boreholes were removed in static images when BRDs and borehole conductivity constraints were implemented. Furthermore, applying these constraints focused transient changes in conductivity resulting from solute transport on the bedding plane, providing a more physically reasonable model for conductivity changes associated with solute transport at this fractured rock site. Assuming bedding-plane continuity between fractures identified in borehole televiewer data, we discretized a planar region between six boreholes and applied a fracture regularization disconnect (FRD). Although the FRD appropriately focused conductivity changes on the bedding plane, the conductivity distribution within the discretized fracture was nonunique and dependent on the starting homogeneous model conductivity. Synthetic studies performed to better explain field observations showed that inaccurate electrode locations in boreholes resulted in low-conductivity halos surrounding borehole locations. These synthetic studies also showed that the recovery of the true conductivity within an FRD depended on the conductivity contrast between the host rock and fractures. Our findings revealed that the potential exists to improve imaging of fractured

  6. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... Field II simulations and measurements with the ultrasound research scanner SARUS and a 3.5MHz 1024 element 2-D transducer array. In all investigations, 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieved a smaller main-lobe, lower sidelobes, higher contrast, and better signal to noise ratio than parallel...

  7. Resist loss in 3D compact modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jensheng; Chin, Fook; Kazarian, Aram; Kuo, Chun-Chieh

    2012-03-01

    An enhancement to compact modeling capability to include photoresist (PR) loss at different heights is developed and discussed. A hypsometric map representing 3-D resist profile was built by applying a first principle approximation to estimate the "energy loss" from the resist top to any other plane of interest as a proportional corresponding change in model threshold, which is analogous to a change in exposure dose. The result is compared and validated with 3D rigorous modeling as well as SEM images. Without increase in computation time, this compact model can construct 3D resist profiles capturing resist profile degradation at any vertical plane. Sidewall angle and standing wave information can also be granted from the vertical profile reconstruction. Since this method does not change any form of compact modeling, it can be integrated to validation and correction without any additional work.

  8. Imaging subsurface migration of dissolved CO2 in a shallow aquifer using 3-D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Doetsch, Joseph; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    of aeolian and glacial sands near the surface and marine sands below 10m depth. 3-D time-lapse ERT inversions clearly image the dissolved CO2 plume with decreased electrical resistivity values. We can image the geochemical changes induced by the dissolved CO2 until the end of the acquisition, 120days after......Contamination of groundwater by leaking CO2 is a potential risk of carbon sequestration. With the help of a field experiment in western Denmark, we investigate to what extent surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can detect and image dissolved CO2 in a shallow aquifer. For this purpose......, we injected CO2 at a depth of 5 and 10m and monitored its migration using 320 electrodes on a 126m×25m surface grid. A fully automated acquisition system continuously collected data and uploaded it into an online database. The large amount of data allows for time-series analysis using geostatistical...

  9. Using Integrated 2D and 3D Resistivity Imaging Methods for Illustrating the Mud-Fluid Conduits of the Wushanting Mud Volcanoes in Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2D and 3D looped resistivity surveys in the Wushanting Natural Landscape Preservation Area (WNLPA in order to understand the relationships of the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. 2D resistivity surveys were conducted along seven networked lines. Two separate C-shape looped electrode arrays surrounding the volcano craters were used in the study. First, the two 3D looped measurements were inverted separately. Yet the inverted 3D images of the mud-volcano system were inconsistent with the landscape features suggesting that artifacts perhaps appeared in the images. The 3D looped data were then combined with the 2D data for creating a global resistivity model of WNLPA. The resulting 3D image is consistent with the observed landscape features. With the resistivity model of WNLPA, we further tried to estimate the distribution of water content. The results suggest that the 3D resistivity image has the potential to resolve the dual porosity structures in the mudstone area. Last, we used a simplified WNLPA model for forward simulation in order to verify the field measurement results. We have concluded that the artifacts in the 3D looped images are in fact shadow effects from conductive objects out of the electrode loops, and that inverted images of combined 2D and 3D data provide detailed regional conductive structures in the WNLPA site.

  10. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    studies and in vivo. Phantom measurements are compared with their corresponding reference value, whereas the in vivo measurement is validated against the current golden standard for non-invasive blood velocity estimates, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study concludes, that a high precision......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...

  11. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  12. 2D and 3D imaging of the metamorphic carbonates at Omalos plateau/polje, Crete, Greece by employing independent and joint inversion on resistivity and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangratis Pangratis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geophysical survey carried out at Omalos plateau in Chania, Western Crete, Greece employed seismic as well as electrical tomography methods in order to image karstic structures and the metamorphic carbonates (Tripali unit and Plattenkalk group which are covered by post-Mesozoic deposits (terra rossa, clays, sands and gravels. The geoelectrical sections image the metamorphic carbonates which exhibit a highly irregular relief. At the central part of the plateau the thickness of post-Mesozoic deposits (terra rossa, clays, sands and gravels ranges from 40-130 m. A 3D resistivity image was generated by inverting resistivity data collected on a grid to the south west at the Omalos plateau. The 3D resistivity image delineated a karstic structure at a depth of 25 to 55 m. On the same grid the depth to the top of the karstified carbonates ranges from 25-70 m. This is also verified on the resistivity sections and seismic velocity sections along lines 5 and 7 of the above mentioned grid which are derived from the cross-gradients joint inversion.

  13. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  14. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  15. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  16. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  17. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  18. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  19. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-05

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces.

  20. Heat Equation to 3D Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sirakov

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach, capable of 3D image segmentation and objects' surface reconstruction. The main advantages of the method are: large capture range; quick segmentation of a 3D scene/image to regions; multiple 3D objects reconstruction. The method uses centripetal force and penalty function to segment the entire 3D scene/image to regions containing a single 3D object. Each region is inscribed in a convex, smooth closed surface, which defines a centripetal force. Then the surface is evolved by the geometric heat differential equation toward the force's direction. The penalty function is defined to stop evolvement of those surface patches, whose normal vectors encountered object's surface. On the base of the theoretical model Forward Difference Algorithm was developed and coded by Mathematica. Stability convergence condition, truncation error and calculation complexity of the algorithm are determined. The obtained results, advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed at the end of this paper.

  1. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    Real-time ultrasound imaging is a widely used technique in medical diagnostics. Recently, ultrasound systems offering real-time imaging in 3-D has emerged. However, the high complexity of the transducer probes and the considerable increase in data to be processed compared to conventional 2-D...... ultrasound imaging results in expensive systems, which limits the more wide-spread use and clinical development of volumetric ultrasound. The main goal of this thesis is to demonstrate new transducer technologies that can achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging without the complexity and cost...... of state-of-the-art 3-D ultrasound systems. The focus is on row-column addressed transducer arrays. This previously sparsely investigated addressing scheme offers a highly reduced number of transducer elements, resulting in reduced transducer manufacturing costs and data processing. To produce...

  2. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  3. High resolution 3-D wavelength diversity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N. H.

    1981-09-01

    A physical optics, vector formulation of microwave imaging of perfectly conducting objects by wavelength and polarization diversity is presented. The results provide the theoretical basis for optimal data acquisition and three-dimensional tomographic image retrieval procedures. These include: (a) the selection of highly thinned (sparse) receiving array arrangements capable of collecting large amounts of information about remote scattering objects in a cost effective manner and (b) techniques for 3-D tomographic image reconstruction and display in which polarization diversity data is fully accounted for. Data acquisition employing a highly attractive AMTDR (Amplitude Modulated Target Derived Reference) technique is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulation. Equipment configuration for the implementation of the AMTDR technique is also given together with a measurement configuration for the implementation of wavelength diversity imaging in a roof experiment aimed at imaging a passing aircraft. Extension of the theory presented to 3-D tomographic imaging of passive noise emitting objects by spectrally selective far field cross-correlation measurements is also given. Finally several refinements made in our anechoic-chamber measurement system are shown to yield drastic improvement in performance and retrieved image quality.

  4. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been to implement a software system, that is able to create a 3-D reconstruction from two or more 2-D photographic images made from different positions. The height is determined from the disparity difference of the images. The general purpose of the system is mapping...... of planetary surfaces, but other purposes is considered as well. The system performance is measured with respect to the precision and the time consumption.The reconstruction process is divided into four major areas: Acquisition, calibration, matching/reconstruction and presentation. Each of these areas...... are treated individually. A detailed treatment of various lens distortions is required, in order to correct for these problems. This subject is included in the acquisition part. In the calibration part, the perspective distortion is removed from the images. Most attention has been paid to the matching problem...

  5. Photogrammetric 3D reconstruction using mobile imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Syll, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    In our paper we demonstrate the development of an Android Application (AndroidSfM) for photogrammetric 3D reconstruction that works on smartphones and tablets likewise. The photos are taken with mobile devices, and can thereafter directly be calibrated using standard calibration algorithms of photogrammetry and computer vision, on that device. Due to still limited computing resources on mobile devices, a client-server handshake using Dropbox transfers the photos to the sever to run AndroidSfM for the pose estimation of all photos by Structure-from-Motion and, thereafter, uses the oriented bunch of photos for dense point cloud estimation by dense image matching algorithms. The result is transferred back to the mobile device for visualization and ad-hoc on-screen measurements.

  6. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  7. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  8. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  9. Assist feature printability prediction by 3-D resist profile reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jensheng; Chin, Fook; Kazarian, Aram; Kuo, Chun-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    properties may then be used to optimize the printability vs. efficacy of an SRAF either prior to or during an Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) run. The process models that are used during OPC have never been able to reliably predict which SRAFs will print. This appears to be due to the fact that OPC process models are generally created using data that does not include printed subresolution patterns. An enhancement to compact modeling capability to predict Assist Features (AF) printability is developed and discussed. A hypsometric map representing 3-D resist profile was built by applying a first principle approximation to estimate the "energy loss" from the resist top to bottom. Such a 3-D resist profile is an extrapolation of a well calibrated traditional OPC model without any additional information. Assist features are detected at either top of resist (dark field) or bottom of resist (bright field). Such detection can be done by just extracting top or bottom resist models from our 3-D resist model. There is no measurement of assist features needed when we build AF but it can be included if interested but focusing on resist calibration to account for both exposure dosage and focus change sensitivities. This approach significantly increases resist model's capability for predicting printed SRAF accuracy. And we don't need to calibrate an SRAF model in addition to the OPC model. Without increase in computation time, this compact model can draw assist feature contour with real placement and size at any vertical plane. The result is compared and validated with 3-D rigorous modeling as well as SEM images. Since this method does not change any form of compact modeling, it can be integrated into current MBAF solutions without any additional work.

  10. 3D/2D Registration of medical images

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaževič, D.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral dissertation is registration of 3D medical images to corresponding projective 2D images, referred to as 3D/2D registration. There are numerous possible applications of 3D/2D registration in image-aided diagnosis and treatment. In most of the applications, 3D/2D registration provides the location and orientation of the structures in a preoperative 3D CT or MR image with respect to intraoperative 2D X-ray images. The proposed doctoral dissertation tries to find origin...

  11. Super deep 3D images from a 3D omnifocus video camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2012-02-20

    When using stereographic image pairs to create three-dimensional (3D) images, a deep depth of field in the original scene enhances the depth perception in the 3D image. The omnifocus video camera has no depth of field limitations and produces images that are in focus throughout. By installing an attachment on the omnifocus video camera, real-time super deep stereoscopic pairs of video images were obtained. The deeper depth of field creates a larger perspective image shift, which makes greater demands on the binocular fusion of human vision. A means of reducing the perspective shift without harming the depth of field was found.

  12. A system for finding a 3D target without a 3D image

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jay B.; Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.

    2008-03-01

    We present here a framework for a system that tracks one or more 3D anatomical targets without the need for a preoperative 3D image. Multiple 2D projection images are taken using a tracked, calibrated fluoroscope. The user manually locates each target on each of the fluoroscopic views. A least-squares minimization algorithm triangulates the best-fit position of each target in the 3D space of the tracking system: using the known projection matrices from 3D space into image space, we use matrix minimization to find the 3D position that projects closest to the located target positions in the 2D images. A tracked endoscope, whose projection geometry has been pre-calibrated, is then introduced to the operating field. Because the position of the targets in the tracking space is known, a rendering of the targets may be projected onto the endoscope view, thus allowing the endoscope to be easily brought into the target vicinity even when the endoscope field of view is blocked, e.g. by blood or tissue. An example application for such a device is trauma surgery, e.g., removal of a foreign object. Time, scheduling considerations and concern about excessive radiation exposure may prohibit the acquisition of a 3D image, such as a CT scan, which is required for traditional image guidance systems; it is however advantageous to have 3D information about the target locations available, which is not possible using fluoroscopic guidance alone.

  13. 3D Image Synthesis for B—Reps Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正东; 彭群生; 等

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for generating 3D images of B-reps objects with trimmed surface boundaries.The 3D image is a discrete voxel-map representation within a Cubic Frame Buffer (CFB).The definition of 3D images for curve,surface and solid object are introduced which imply the connectivity and fidelity requirements.Adaptive Forward Differencing matrix (AFD-matrix) for 1D-3D manifolds in 3D space is developed.By setting rules to update the AFD-matrix,the forward difference direction and stepwise can be adjusted.Finally,an efficient algorithm is presented based on the AFD-matrix concept for converting the object in 3D space to 3D image in 3D discrete space.

  14. IMAGE SELECTION FOR 3D MEASUREMENT BASED ON NETWORK DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fuse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D models have been widely used by spread of many available free-software. On the other hand, enormous images can be easily acquired, and images are utilized for creating the 3D models recently. However, the creation of 3D models by using huge amount of images takes a lot of time and effort, and then efficiency for 3D measurement are required. In the efficiency strategy, the accuracy of the measurement is also required. This paper develops an image selection method based on network design that means surveying network construction. The proposed method uses image connectivity graph. By this, the image selection problem is regarded as combinatorial optimization problem and the graph cuts technique can be applied. Additionally, in the process of 3D reconstruction, low quality images and similarity images are extracted and removed. Through the experiments, the significance of the proposed method is confirmed. Potential to efficient and accurate 3D measurement is implied.

  15. Glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Serra, Rolando L.; Vannucci, André L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we show two different glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging: a stereoscopic system that employs a vertically dispersive holographic screen (VDHS) and a multi-autostereoscopic system, both used to produce 3D MRI/CT images. We describe how to obtain a VDHS in holographic plates optimized for this application, with field of view of 7 cm to each eye and focal length of 25 cm, showing images done with the system. We also describe a multi-autostereoscopic system, presenting how it can generate 3D medical imaging from viewpoints of a MRI or CT image, showing results of a 3D angioresonance image.

  16. Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.

    2012-03-01

    The availability of 3D hardware has so far outpaced the production of 3D content. Although to date many methods have been proposed to convert 2D images to 3D stereopairs, the most successful ones involve human operators and, therefore, are time-consuming and costly, while the fully-automatic ones have not yet achieved the same level of quality. This subpar performance is due to the fact that automatic methods usually rely on assumptions about the captured 3D scene that are often violated in practice. In this paper, we explore a radically different approach inspired by our work on saliency detection in images. Instead of relying on a deterministic scene model for the input 2D image, we propose to "learn" the model from a large dictionary of stereopairs, such as YouTube 3D. Our new approach is built upon a key observation and an assumption. The key observation is that among millions of stereopairs available on-line, there likely exist many stereopairs whose 3D content matches that of the 2D input (query). We assume that two stereopairs whose left images are photometrically similar are likely to have similar disparity fields. Our approach first finds a number of on-line stereopairs whose left image is a close photometric match to the 2D query and then extracts depth information from these stereopairs. Since disparities for the selected stereopairs differ due to differences in underlying image content, level of noise, distortions, etc., we combine them by using the median. We apply the resulting median disparity field to the 2D query to obtain the corresponding right image, while handling occlusions and newly-exposed areas in the usual way. We have applied our method in two scenarios. First, we used YouTube 3D videos in search of the most similar frames. Then, we repeated the experiments on a small, but carefully-selected, dictionary of stereopairs closely matching the query. This, to a degree, emulates the results one would expect from the use of an extremely large 3D

  17. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  18. 3D electrical resistivity inversion using prior spatial shape constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shu-Cai; Nie Li-Chao; Liu Bin; Song Jie; Liu Zheng-Yu; Su Mao-Xin; Xu Lei

    2013-01-01

    To minimize the number of solutions in 3D resistivity inversion, an inherent problem in inversion, the amount of data considered have to be large and prior constraints need to be applied. Geological and geophysical data regarding the extent of a geological anomaly are important prior information. We propose the use of shape constraints in 3D electrical resistivity inversion. Three weighted orthogonal vectors (a normal and two tangent vectors) were used to control the resistivity differences at the boundaries of the anomaly. The spatial shape of the anomaly and the constraints on the boundaries of the anomaly are thus established. We incorporated the spatial shape constraints in the objective function of the 3D resistivity inversion and constructed the 3D resistivity inversion equation with spatial shape constraints. Subsequently, we used numerical modeling based on prior spatial shape data to constrain the direction vectors and weights of the 3D resistivity inversion. We established a reasonable range between the direction vectors and weights, and verified the feasibility and effectiveness of using spatial shape prior constraints in reducing excessive structures and the number of solutions. We applied the prior spatially shape-constrained inversion method to locate the aquifer at the Guangzhou subway. The spatial shape constraints were taken from ground penetrating radar data. The inversion results for the location and shape of the aquifer agree well with drilling data, and the number of inversion solutions is significantly reduced.

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Philip; Kosik, Ivan; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a hybrid imaging modality that integrates the strengths from both optical imaging and acoustic imaging while simultaneously overcoming many of their respective weaknesses. In previous work, we reported on a real-time 3D PAI system comprised of a 32-element hemispherical array of transducers. Using the system, we demonstrated the ability to capture photoacoustic data, reconstruct a 3D photoacoustic image, and display select slices of the 3D image every 1.4 s, where each 3D image resulted from a single laser pulse. The present study aimed to exploit the rapid imaging speed of an upgraded 3D PAI system by evaluating its ability to perform dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. The contrast dynamics can provide rich datasets that contain insight into perfusion, pharmacokinetics and physiology. We captured a series of 3D PA images of a flow phantom before and during injection of piglet and rabbit blood. Principal component analysis was utilized to classify the data according to its spatiotemporal information. The results suggested that this technique can be used to separate a sequence of 3D PA images into a series of images representative of main features according to spatiotemporal flow dynamics.

  20. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  1. Full Parallax Integral 3D Display and Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Gook Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Full parallax integral 3D display is one of the promising future displays that provide different perspectives according to viewing direction. In this paper, the authors review the recent integral 3D display and image processing techniques for improving the performance, such as viewing resolution, viewing angle, etc.Design/methodology/approach – Firstly, to improve the viewing resolution of 3D images in the integral imaging display with lenslet array, the authors present 3D integral imaging display with focused mode using the time-multiplexed display. Compared with the original integral imaging with focused mode, the authors use the electrical masks and the corresponding elemental image set. In this system, the authors can generate the resolution-improved 3D images with the n×n pixels from each lenslet by using n×n time-multiplexed display. Secondly, a new image processing technique related to the elemental image generation for 3D scenes is presented. With the information provided by the Kinect device, the array of elemental images for an integral imaging display is generated.Findings – From their first work, the authors improved the resolution of 3D images by using the time-multiplexing technique through the demonstration of the 24 inch integral imaging system. Authors’ method can be applied to a practical application. Next, the proposed method with the Kinect device can gain a competitive advantage over other methods for the capture of integral images of big 3D scenes. The main advantage of fusing the Kinect and the integral imaging concepts is the acquisition speed, and the small amount of handled data.Originality / Value – In this paper, the authors review their recent methods related to integral 3D display and image processing technique.Research type – general review.

  2. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dagel, Amber Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kast, Brian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Collin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  3. 3D passive integral imaging using compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myungjin; Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Javidi, Bahram

    2012-11-19

    Passive 3D sensing using integral imaging techniques has been well studied in the literature. It has been shown that a scene can be reconstructed at various depths using several 2D elemental images. This provides the ability to reconstruct objects in the presence of occlusions, and passively estimate their 3D profile. However, high resolution 2D elemental images are required for high quality 3D reconstruction. Compressive Sensing (CS) provides a way to dramatically reduce the amount of data that needs to be collected to form the elemental images, which in turn can reduce the storage and bandwidth requirements. In this paper, we explore the effects of CS in acquisition of the elemental images, and ultimately on passive 3D scene reconstruction and object recognition. Our experiments show that the performance of passive 3D sensing systems remains robust even when elemental images are recovered from very few compressive measurements.

  4. 3D Objects Reconstruction from Image Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cír, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá 3D rekonstrukcí z obrazových dat. Jsou popsány možnosti a přístupy k optickému skenování. Ruční optický 3D skener se skládá z kamery a zdroje čárového laseru, který je vzhledem ke kameře upevněn pod určitým úhlem. Je navržena vhodná podložka se značkami a je popsán algoritmus pro jejich real-time detekci. Po detekci značek lze vypočítat pozici a orientaci kamery. Na závěr je popsána detekce laseru a postup při výpočtu bodů na povrchu objektu pomocí triangulace. This pa...

  5. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  6. De la manipulation des images 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Pinçon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Si les technologies 3D livrent un enregistrement précis et pertinent des graphismes pariétaux, elles offrent également des applications particulièrement intéressantes pour leur analyse. À travers des traitements sur nuage de points et des simulations, elles autorisent un large éventail de manipulations touchant autant à l’observation qu’à l’étude des œuvres pariétales. Elles permettent notamment une perception affinée de leur volumétrie, et deviennent des outils de comparaison de formes très utiles dans la reconstruction des chronologies pariétales et dans l’appréhension des analogies entre différents sites. Ces outils analytiques sont ici illustrés par les travaux originaux menés sur les sculptures pariétales des abris du Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne et de la Chaire-à-Calvin (Mouthiers-sur-Boëme, Charente.If 3D technologies allow an accurate and relevant recording of rock art, they also offer several interesting applications for its analysis. Through spots clouds treatments and simulations, they permit a wide range of manipulations concerning figurations observation and study. Especially, they allow a fine perception of their volumetry. They become efficient tools for forms comparisons, very useful in the reconstruction of graphic ensemble chronologies and for inter-sites analogies. These analytical tools are illustrated by the original works done on the sculptures of Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne and Chaire-à-Calvin (Mouthiers-sur-Boëme, Charente rock-shelters.

  7. Calibration of Images with 3D range scanner data

    OpenAIRE

    Adalid López, Víctor Javier

    2009-01-01

    Projecte fet en col.laboració amb EPFL 3D laser range scanners are used in extraction of the 3D data in a scene. Main application areas are architecture, archeology and city planning. Thought the raw scanner data has a gray scale values, the 3D data can be merged with colour camera image values to get textured 3D model of the scene. Also these devices are able to take a reliable copy in 3D form objects, with a high level of accuracy. Therefore, they scanned scenes can be use...

  8. 3D Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    GPiR (ground-penetrating imaging radar) is a new technology for mapping the shallow subsurface, including society’s underground infrastructure. Applications for this technology include efficient and precise mapping of buried utilities on a large scale.

  9. Visualizing Vertebrate Embryos with Episcopic 3D Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Geyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of highly detailed, three-dimensional (3D computer models is essential in order to understand the evolution and development of vertebrate embryos, and the pathogenesis of hereditary diseases. A still-increasing number of methods allow for generating digital volume data sets as the basis of virtual 3D computer models. This work aims to provide a brief overview about modern volume data–generation techniques, focusing on episcopic 3D imaging methods. The technical principles, advantages, and problems of episcopic 3D imaging are described. The strengths and weaknesses in its ability to visualize embryo anatomy and labeled gene product patterns, specifically, are discussed.

  10. Compression of 3D integral images using wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazri, Meriem; Aggoun, Amar

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a wavelet-based lossy compression technique for unidirectional 3D integral images (UII). The method requires the extraction of different viewpoint images from the integral image. A single viewpoint image is constructed by extracting one pixel from each microlens, then each viewpoint image is decomposed using a Two Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D-DWT). The resulting array of coefficients contains several frequency bands. The lower frequency bands of the viewpoint images are assembled and compressed using a 3 Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (3D-DCT) followed by Huffman coding. This will achieve decorrelation within and between 2D low frequency bands from the different viewpoint images. The remaining higher frequency bands are Arithmetic coded. After decoding and decompression of the viewpoint images using an inverse 3D-DCT and an inverse 2D-DWT, each pixel from every reconstructed viewpoint image is put back into its original position within the microlens to reconstruct the whole 3D integral image. Simulations were performed on a set of four different grey level 3D UII using a uniform scalar quantizer with deadzone. The results for the average of the four UII intensity distributions are presented and compared with previous use of 3D-DCT scheme. It was found that the algorithm achieves better rate-distortion performance, with respect to compression ratio and image quality at very low bit rates.

  11. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  12. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  13. 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berechet, Ion; Berginc, Gérard; Berechet, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with new optical non-conventional 3D laser imaging. Optical non-conventional imaging explores the advantages of laser imaging to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for threedimensional medical imaging, topography, surveillance, robotic vision because of ability to detect and recognize objects. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide the user a complete 3D reconstruction of the concealed object from available 2D data limited in number and with low representativeness. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different interfaces of the scene of interest and from experimental results. We show the global 3D reconstruction procedures capable to separate objects from foliage and reconstruct a threedimensional image of the considered object. In this paper, we present examples of reconstruction and completion of three-dimensional images and we analyse the different parameters of the identification process such as resolution, the scenario of camouflage, noise impact and lacunarity degree.

  14. Contribution of 3-D electrical resistivity tomography for landmines detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Metwaly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Landmines are a type of inexpensive weapons widely used in the pre-conflicted areas in many countries worldwide. The two main types are the metallic and non-metallic (mostly plastic landmines. They are most commonly investigated by magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR, and metal detector (MD techniques. These geophysical techniques however have significant limitations in resolving the non-metallic landmines and wherever the host materials are conductive. In this work, the 3-D electric resistivity tomography (ERT technique is evaluated as an alternative and/or confirmation detection system for both landmine types, which are buried in different soil conditions and at different depths. This can be achieved using the capacitive resistivity imaging system, which does not need direct contact with the ground surface. Synthetic models for each case have been introduced using metallic and non-metallic bodies buried in wet and dry environments. The inversion results using the L1 norm least-squares optimization method tend to produce robust blocky models of the landmine body. The dipole axial and the dipole equatorial arrays tend to have the most favorable geometry by applying dynamic capacitive electrode and they show significant signal strength for data sets with up to 5% noise. Increasing the burial depth relative to the electrode spacing as well as the noise percentage in the resistivity data is crucial in resolving the landmines at different environments. The landmine with dimension and burial depth of one electrode separation unit is over estimated while the spatial resolutions decrease as the burial depth and noise percentage increase.

  15. Contribution of 3-D electrical resistivity tomography for landmines detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwaly, M.; El-Qady, G.; Matsushima, J.; Szalai, S.; Al-Arifi, N. S. N.; Taha, A.

    2008-12-01

    Landmines are a type of inexpensive weapons widely used in the pre-conflicted areas in many countries worldwide. The two main types are the metallic and non-metallic (mostly plastic) landmines. They are most commonly investigated by magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and metal detector (MD) techniques. These geophysical techniques however have significant limitations in resolving the non-metallic landmines and wherever the host materials are conductive. In this work, the 3-D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) technique is evaluated as an alternative and/or confirmation detection system for both landmine types, which are buried in different soil conditions and at different depths. This can be achieved using the capacitive resistivity imaging system, which does not need direct contact with the ground surface. Synthetic models for each case have been introduced using metallic and non-metallic bodies buried in wet and dry environments. The inversion results using the L1 norm least-squares optimization method tend to produce robust blocky models of the landmine body. The dipole axial and the dipole equatorial arrays tend to have the most favorable geometry by applying dynamic capacitive electrode and they show significant signal strength for data sets with up to 5% noise. Increasing the burial depth relative to the electrode spacing as well as the noise percentage in the resistivity data is crucial in resolving the landmines at different environments. The landmine with dimension and burial depth of one electrode separation unit is over estimated while the spatial resolutions decrease as the burial depth and noise percentage increase.

  16. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hume, W.R. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Douglass, G.D. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  17. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibildox, Gerardo, E-mail: g.dibildox@erasmusmc.nl; Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van [Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul [Pie Medical Imaging, 6227 AJ Maastricht (Netherlands); Schultz, Carl [Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro [Quantitative Imaging Group, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands and Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  18. Reconstruction of High Resolution 3D Objects from Incomplete Images and 3D Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To this day, digital object reconstruction is a quite complex area that requires many techniques and novel approaches, in which high-resolution 3D objects present one of the biggest challenges. There are mainly two different methods that can be used to reconstruct high resolution objects and images: passive methods and active methods. This methods depend on the type of information available as input for modeling 3D objects. The passive methods use information contained in the images and the active methods make use of controlled light sources, such as lasers. The reconstruction of 3D objects is quite complex and there is no unique solution- The use of specific methodologies for the reconstruction of certain objects it’s also very common, such as human faces, molecular structures, etc. This paper proposes a novel hybrid methodology, composed by 10 phases that combine active and passive methods, using images and a laser in order to supplement the missing information and obtain better results in the 3D object reconstruction. Finally, the proposed methodology proved its efficiency in two complex topological complex objects.

  19. 3D Motion Parameters Determination Based on Binocular Sequence Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Exactly capturing three dimensional (3D) motion information of an object is an essential and important task in computer vision, and is also one of the most difficult problems. In this paper, a binocular vision system and a method for determining 3D motion parameters of an object from binocular sequence images are introduced. The main steps include camera calibration, the matching of motion and stereo images, 3D feature point correspondences and resolving the motion parameters. Finally, the experimental results of acquiring the motion parameters of the objects with uniform velocity and acceleration in the straight line based on the real binocular sequence images by the mentioned method are presented.

  20. 3D Shape Indexing and Retrieval Using Characteristics level images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghni Lakehal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved version of the descriptor that we proposed before. The descriptor is based on a set of binary images extracted from the 3D model called level images noted LI. The set LI is often bulky, why we introduced the X-means technique to reduce its size instead of K-means used in the old version. A 2D binary image descriptor was introduced to extract the vectors descriptors of the 3D model. For a comparative study of two versions of the descriptor, we used the National Taiwan University (NTU database of 3D object.

  1. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  2. Preliminary examples of 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents 3D vector flow images obtained using the 3D Transverse Oscillation (TO) method. The method employs a 2D transducer and estimates the three velocity components simultaneously, which is important for visualizing complex flow patterns. Data are acquired using the experimental ult...

  3. 3D quantitative phase imaging of neural networks using WDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewoo; Liu, S. C.; Iyer, Raj; Gillette, Martha U.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    White-light diffraction tomography (WDT) is a recently developed 3D imaging technique based on a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). The technique has achieved a sub-micron resolution in all three directions with high sensitivity granted by the low-coherence of a white-light source. Demonstrations of the technique on single cell imaging have been presented previously; however, imaging on any larger sample, including a cluster of cells, has not been demonstrated using the technique. Neurons in an animal body form a highly complex and spatially organized 3D structure, which can be characterized by neuronal networks or circuits. Currently, the most common method of studying the 3D structure of neuron networks is by using a confocal fluorescence microscope, which requires fluorescence tagging with either transient membrane dyes or after fixation of the cells. Therefore, studies on neurons are often limited to samples that are chemically treated and/or dead. WDT presents a solution for imaging live neuron networks with a high spatial and temporal resolution, because it is a 3D imaging method that is label-free and non-invasive. Using this method, a mouse or rat hippocampal neuron culture and a mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron culture have been imaged in order to see the extension of processes between the cells in 3D. Furthermore, the tomogram is compared with a confocal fluorescence image in order to investigate the 3D structure at synapses.

  4. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  5. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  6. 3D Image Modelling and Specific Treatments in Orthodontics Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Goularas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a 3D specific dental plaster treatment system for orthodontics. From computer tomography scanner images, we propose first a 3D image modelling and reconstruction method of the Mandible and Maxillary based on an adaptive triangulation allowing management of contours meant for the complex topologies. Secondly, we present two specific treatment methods directly achieved on obtained 3D model allowing the automatic correction for the setting in occlusion of the Mandible and the Maxillary, and the teeth segmentation allowing more specific dental examinations. Finally, these specific treatments are presented via a client/server application with the aim of allowing a telediagnosis and treatment.

  7. Imaging fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Significant advances in structural analysis of deep water structure, salt tectonic and extensional rift basin come from the descriptions of fault system geometries imaged in 3D seismic data. However, even where seismic data are excellent, in most cases the trajectory of thrust faults is highly conjectural and still significant uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop between the main faults segments, and even of the fault architectures themselves. Moreover structural interpretations that conventionally define faults by breaks and apparent offsets of seismic reflectors are commonly conditioned by a narrow range of theoretical models of fault behavior. For example, almost all interpretations of thrust geometries on seismic data rely on theoretical "end-member" behaviors where concepts as strain localization or multilayer mechanics are simply avoided. Yet analogue outcrop studies confirm that such descriptions are commonly unsatisfactory and incomplete. In order to fill these gaps and improve the 3D visualization of deformation in the subsurface, seismic attribute methods are developed here in conjunction with conventional mapping of reflector amplitudes (Marfurt & Chopra, 2007)). These signal processing techniques recently developed and applied especially by the oil industry use variations in the amplitude and phase of the seismic wavelet. These seismic attributes improve the signal interpretation and are calculated and applied to the entire 3D seismic dataset. In this contribution we will show 3D seismic examples of fault structures from gravity-driven deep-water thrust structures and extensional basin systems to indicate how 3D seismic image processing methods can not only build better the geometrical interpretations of the faults but also begin to map both strain and damage through amplitude/phase properties of the seismic signal. This is done by quantifying and delineating the short-range anomalies on the intensity of reflector amplitudes

  8. Fully Automatic 3D Reconstruction of Histological Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, Ulas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computational framework for 3D volume reconstruction from 2D histological slices using registration algorithms in feature space. To improve the quality of reconstructed 3D volume, first, intensity variations in images are corrected by an intensity standardization process which maps image intensity scale to a standard scale where similar intensities correspond to similar tissues. Second, a subvolume approach is proposed for 3D reconstruction by dividing standardized slices into groups. Third, in order to improve the quality of the reconstruction process, an automatic best reference slice selection algorithm is developed based on an iterative assessment of image entropy and mean square error of the registration process. Finally, we demonstrate that the choice of the reference slice has a significant impact on registration quality and subsequent 3D reconstruction.

  9. Progresses in 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Saavedra, Genaro; Navarro, Hector; Pons, Amparo [Department of Optics. University of Valencia. Calle Doctor Moliner 50, E46 100, Burjassot (Spain); Javidi, Bahram [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1157 (United States)], E-mail: manuel.martinez@uv.es

    2008-11-01

    Integral imaging is a promising technique for the acquisition and auto-stereoscopic display of 3D scenes with full parallax and without the need of any additional devices like special glasses. First suggested by Lippmann in the beginning of the 20th century, integral imaging is based in the intersection of ray cones emitted by a collection of 2D elemental images which store the 3D information of the scene. This paper is devoted to the study, from the ray optics point of view, of the optical effects and interaction with the observer of integral imaging systems.

  10. DCT and DST Based Image Compression for 3D Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a new method for 2D image compression whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction using structured light techniques and 3D reconstruction from multiple viewpoints. The method is based on two discrete transforms: (1) A one-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied to each row of the image. (2) The output from the previous step is transformed again by a one-dimensional Discrete Sine Transform (DST), which is applied to each column of data generating new sets of high-frequency components followed by quantization of the higher frequencies. The output is then divided into two parts where the low-frequency components are compressed by arithmetic coding and the high frequency ones by an efficient minimization encoding algorithm. At decompression stage, a binary search algorithm is used to recover the original high frequency components. The technique is demonstrated by compressing 2D images up to 99% compression ratio. The decompressed images, which include images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction and from multiple viewpoints, are of high perceptual quality yielding accurate 3D reconstruction. Perceptual assessment and objective quality of compression are compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results show that the proposed compression method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000 concerning 3D reconstruction, and with equivalent perceptual quality to JPEG2000.

  11. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  12. 3D Medical Image Segmentation Based on Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-hao; TIAN Yun; WANG Yi; HAO Chong-yang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method which uses multiple types of expert knowledge together in 3D medical image segmentation based on rough set theory. The focus of this paper is how to approximate a ROI (region of interest) when there are multiple types of expert knowledge. Based on rough set theory, the image can be split into three regions:positive regions; negative regions; boundary regions. With multiple knowledge we refine ROI as an intersection of all of the expected shapes with single knowledge. At last we show the results of implementing a rough 3D image segmentation and visualization system.

  13. 3D Images of Materials Structures Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohser, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Taking and analyzing images of materials' microstructures is essential for quality control, choice and design of all kind of products. Today, the standard method still is to analyze 2D microscopy images. But, insight into the 3D geometry of the microstructure of materials and measuring its characteristics become more and more prerequisites in order to choose and design advanced materials according to desired product properties. This first book on processing and analysis of 3D images of materials structures describes how to develop and apply efficient and versatile tools for geometric analysis

  14. A Texture Analysis of 3D Radar Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deiana, D.; Yarovoy, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a texture feature coding method to be applied to high-resolution 3D radar images in order to improve target detection is developed. An automatic method for image segmentation based on texture features is proposed. The method has been able to automatically detect weak targets which fail

  15. DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF AIRBORNE 3D IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne 3D image which integrates GPS,attitude measurement unit (AMU),sca nning laser rangefinder (SLR) and spectral scanner has been developed successful ly.The spectral scanner and SLR use the same optical system which ensures laser point to match pixel seamlessly.The distinctive advantage of 3D image is that it can produce geo_referenced images and DSM (digital surface models) images wi thout any ground control points (GCPs).It is no longer necessary to sur vey GCPs and with some softwares the data can be processed and produce digital s urface models (DSM) and geo_referenced images in quasi_real_time,therefore,the efficiency of 3 D image is 10~100 times higher than that of traditional approaches.The process ing procedure involves decomposing and checking the raw data,processing GPS dat a,calculating the positions of laser sample points,producing geo_referenced im age,producing DSM and mosaicing strips.  The principle of 3D image is first introduced in this paper,and then we focus on the fast processing technique and algorithm.The flight tests and processed r esults show that the processing technique is feasible and can meet the requireme nt of quasi_real_time applications.

  16. Interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotts, Issac; Mikula, Shawn; Jones, Edward G

    2007-04-15

    Conventional microscopy, electron microscopy, and imaging techniques such as MRI and PET commonly generate large stacks of images of the sectioned brain. In other domains, such as neurophysiology, variables such as space or time are also varied along a stack axis. Digital image sizes have been progressively increasing and in virtual microscopy, it is now common to work with individual image sizes that are several hundred megapixels and several gigabytes in size. The interactive visualization of these high-resolution, multiresolution images in 2D has been addressed previously [Sullivan, G., and Baker, R., 1994. Efficient quad-tree coding of images and video. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3 (3), 327-331]. Here, we describe a method for interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D. The method, characterized as quad-tree based multiresolution image stack interactive visualization using a texel projection based criterion, relies on accessing and projecting image tiles from multiresolution image stacks in such a way that, from the observer's perspective, image tiles all appear approximately the same size even though they are accessed from different tiers within the images comprising the stack. This method enables efficient navigation of high-resolution image stacks. We implement this method in a program called StackVis, which is a Windows-based, interactive 3D multiresolution image stack visualization system written in C++ and using OpenGL. It is freely available at http://brainmaps.org.

  17. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    3-D blood flow quantification with high spatial and temporal resolution would strongly benefit clinical research on cardiovascular pathologies. Ultrasonic velocity techniques are known for their ability to measure blood flow with high precision at high spatial and temporal resolution. However......, current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI......) technique is extended to estimate the 3-D velocity components inside a volume at high temporal resolutions (

  18. AUTOMATIC 3D MAPPING USING MULTIPLE UNCALIBRATED CLOSE RANGE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic three-dimensions modeling of the real world is an important research topic in the geomatics and computer vision fields for many years. By development of commercial digital cameras and modern image processing techniques, close range photogrammetry is vastly utilized in many fields such as structure measurements, topographic surveying, architectural and archeological surveying, etc. A non-contact photogrammetry provides methods to determine 3D locations of objects from two-dimensional (2D images. Problem of estimating the locations of 3D points from multiple images, often involves simultaneously estimating both 3D geometry (structure and camera pose (motion, it is commonly known as structure from motion (SfM. In this research a step by step approach to generate the 3D point cloud of a scene is considered. After taking images with a camera, we should detect corresponding points in each two views. Here an efficient SIFT method is used for image matching for large baselines. After that, we must retrieve the camera motion and 3D position of the matched feature points up to a projective transformation (projective reconstruction. Lacking additional information on the camera or the scene makes the parallel lines to be unparalleled. The results of SfM computation are much more useful if a metric reconstruction is obtained. Therefor multiple views Euclidean reconstruction applied and discussed. To refine and achieve the precise 3D points we use more general and useful approach, namely bundle adjustment. At the end two real cases have been considered to reconstruct (an excavation and a tower.

  19. 3D- VISUALIZATION BY RAYTRACING IMAGE SYNTHESIS ON GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Oraiqat Anas M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a realization of the approach to spatial 3D stereo of visualization of 3D images with use parallel Graphics processing unit (GPU. The experiments of realization of synthesis of images of a 3D stage by a method of trace of beams on GPU with Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA have shown that 60 % of the time is spent for the decision of a computing problem approximately, the major part of time (40 % is spent for transfer of data between the central processing unit and GPU for calculations and the organization process of visualization. The study of the influence of increase in the size of the GPU network at the speed of calculations showed importance of the correct task of structure of formation of the parallel computer network and general mechanism of parallelization.

  20. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-10-07

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks.

  1. Autonomous Planetary 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    is discussed.Based on such features, 3-D representations may be compiled from two or more 2-D satellite images. The main purposes of such a mapping system are extraction of landing sites, objects of scientific interest and general planetary surveying. All data processing is performed autonomously onboard...

  2. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  3. Extracting 3D Layout From a Single Image Using Global Image Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.

    2015-01-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very b

  4. Projective 3D-reconstruction of Uncalibrated Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Faltin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common medical diagnostic method for urinary bladder cancer is cystoscopy. This inspection of the bladder is performed by a rigid endoscope, which is usually guided close to the bladder wall. This causes a very limited field of view; difficulty of navigation is aggravated by the usage of angled endoscopes. These factors cause difficulties in orientation and visual control. To overcome this problem, the paper presents a method for extracting 3D information from uncalibrated endoscopic image sequences and for reconstructing the scene content. The method uses the SURF-algorithm to extract features from the images and relates the images by advanced matching. To stabilize the matching, the epipolar geometry is extracted for each image pair using a modified RANSAC-algorithm. Afterwards these matched point pairs are used to generate point triplets over three images and to describe the trifocal geometry. The 3D scene points are determined by applying triangulation to the matched image points. Thus, these points are used to generate a projective 3D reconstruction of the scene, and provide the first step for further metric reconstructions.

  5. Deformable Surface 3D Reconstruction from Monocular Images

    CERN Document Server

    Salzmann, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Being able to recover the shape of 3D deformable surfaces from a single video stream would make it possible to field reconstruction systems that run on widely available hardware without requiring specialized devices. However, because many different 3D shapes can have virtually the same projection, such monocular shape recovery is inherently ambiguous. In this survey, we will review the two main classes of techniques that have proved most effective so far: The template-based methods that rely on establishing correspondences with a reference image in which the shape is already known, and non-rig

  6. 3D Medical Image Interpolation Based on Parametric Cubic Convolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the process of display, manipulation and analysis of biomedical image data, they usually need to be converted to data of isotropic discretization through the process of interpolation, while the cubic convolution interpolation is widely used due to its good tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper, we present a whole concept for the 3D medical image interpolation based on cubic convolution, and the six methods, with the different sharp control parameter, which are formulated in details. Furthermore, we also give an objective comparison for these methods using data sets with the different slice spacing. Each slice in these data sets is estimated by each interpolation method and compared with the original slice using three measures: mean-squared difference, number of sites of disagreement, and largest difference. According to the experimental results, we present a recommendation for 3D medical images under the different situations in the end.

  7. Optical-CT imaging of complex 3D dose distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark; Kim, Leonard; Hugo, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    The limitations of conventional dosimeters restrict the comprehensiveness of verification that can be performed for advanced radiation treatments presenting an immediate and substantial problem for clinics attempting to implement these techniques. In essence, the rapid advances in the technology of radiation delivery have not been paralleled by corresponding advances in the ability to verify these treatments. Optical-CT gel-dosimetry is a relatively new technique with potential to address this imbalance by providing high resolution 3D dose maps in polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeters. We have constructed a 1st generation optical-CT scanner capable of high resolution 3D dosimetry and applied it to a number of simple and increasingly complex dose distributions including intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy (IMRT). Prior to application to IMRT, the robustness of optical-CT gel dosimetry was investigated on geometry and variable attenuation phantoms. Physical techniques and image processing methods were developed to minimize deleterious effects of refraction, reflection, and scattered laser light. Here we present results of investigations into achieving accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry with optical-CT, and show clinical examples of 3D IMRT dosimetry verification. In conclusion, optical-CT gel dosimetry can provide high resolution 3D dose maps that greatly facilitate comprehensive verification of complex 3D radiation treatments. Good agreement was observed at high dose levels (>50%) between planned and measured dose distributions. Some systematic discrepancies were observed however (rms discrepancy 3% at high dose levels) indicating further work is required to eliminate confounding factors presently compromising the accuracy of optical-CT 3D gel-dosimetry.

  8. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale ( 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  9. Vhrs Stereo Images for 3d Modelling of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujakiewicz, A.; Holc, M.

    2012-07-01

    The paper presents the project which was carried out in the Photogrammetric Laboratory of Warsaw University of Technology. The experiment is concerned with the extraction of 3D vector data for buildings creation from 3D photogrammetric model based on the Ikonos stereo images. The model was reconstructed with photogrammetric workstation - Summit Evolution combined with ArcGIS 3D platform. Accuracy of 3D model was significantly improved by use for orientation of pair of satellite images the stereo measured tie points distributed uniformly around the model area in addition to 5 control points. The RMS for model reconstructed on base of the RPC coefficients only were 16,6 m, 2,7 m and 47,4 m, for X, Y and Z coordinates, respectively. By addition of 5 control points the RMS were improved to 0,7 m, 0,7 m 1,0 m, where the best results were achieved when RMS were estimated from deviations in 17 check points (with 5 control points)and amounted to 0,4 m, 0,5 m and 0,6 m, for X, Y, and Z respectively. The extracted 3D vector data for buildings were integrated with 2D data of the ground footprints and afterwards they were used for 3D modelling of buildings in Google SketchUp software. The final results were compared with the reference data obtained from other sources. It was found that the shape of buildings (in concern to the number of details) had been reconstructed on level of LoD1, when the accuracy of these models corresponded to the level of LoD2.

  10. VHRS STEREO IMAGES FOR 3D MODELLING OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bujakiewicz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the project which was carried out in the Photogrammetric Laboratory of Warsaw University of Technology. The experiment is concerned with the extraction of 3D vector data for buildings creation from 3D photogrammetric model based on the Ikonos stereo images. The model was reconstructed with photogrammetric workstation – Summit Evolution combined with ArcGIS 3D platform. Accuracy of 3D model was significantly improved by use for orientation of pair of satellite images the stereo measured tie points distributed uniformly around the model area in addition to 5 control points. The RMS for model reconstructed on base of the RPC coefficients only were 16,6 m, 2,7 m and 47,4 m, for X, Y and Z coordinates, respectively. By addition of 5 control points the RMS were improved to 0,7 m, 0,7 m 1,0 m, where the best results were achieved when RMS were estimated from deviations in 17 check points (with 5 control pointsand amounted to 0,4 m, 0,5 m and 0,6 m, for X, Y, and Z respectively. The extracted 3D vector data for buildings were integrated with 2D data of the ground footprints and afterwards they were used for 3D modelling of buildings in Google SketchUp software. The final results were compared with the reference data obtained from other sources. It was found that the shape of buildings (in concern to the number of details had been reconstructed on level of LoD1, when the accuracy of these models corresponded to the level of LoD2.

  11. 3D Reconstruction of Human Motion from Monocular Image Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandt, Bastian; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    This article tackles the problem of estimating non-rigid human 3D shape and motion from image sequences taken by uncalibrated cameras. Similar to other state-of-the-art solutions we factorize 2D observations in camera parameters, base poses and mixing coefficients. Existing methods require sufficient camera motion during the sequence to achieve a correct 3D reconstruction. To obtain convincing 3D reconstructions from arbitrary camera motion, our method is based on a-priorly trained base poses. We show that strong periodic assumptions on the coefficients can be used to define an efficient and accurate algorithm for estimating periodic motion such as walking patterns. For the extension to non-periodic motion we propose a novel regularization term based on temporal bone length constancy. In contrast to other works, the proposed method does not use a predefined skeleton or anthropometric constraints and can handle arbitrary camera motion. We achieve convincing 3D reconstructions, even under the influence of noise and occlusions. Multiple experiments based on a 3D error metric demonstrate the stability of the proposed method. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods our algorithm shows a significant improvement.

  12. Interactive 2D to 3D stereoscopic image synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mark H.; Lipton, Lenny

    2005-03-01

    Advances in stereoscopic display technologies, graphic card devices, and digital imaging algorithms have opened up new possibilities in synthesizing stereoscopic images. The power of today"s DirectX/OpenGL optimized graphics cards together with adapting new and creative imaging tools found in software products such as Adobe Photoshop, provide a powerful environment for converting planar drawings and photographs into stereoscopic images. The basis for such a creative process is the focus of this paper. This article presents a novel technique, which uses advanced imaging features and custom Windows-based software that utilizes the Direct X 9 API to provide the user with an interactive stereo image synthesizer. By creating an accurate and interactive world scene with moveable and flexible depth map altered textured surfaces, perspective stereoscopic cameras with both visible frustums and zero parallax planes, a user can precisely model a virtual three-dimensional representation of a real-world scene. Current versions of Adobe Photoshop provide a creative user with a rich assortment of tools needed to highlight elements of a 2D image, simulate hidden areas, and creatively shape them for a 3D scene representation. The technique described has been implemented as a Photoshop plug-in and thus allows for a seamless transition of these 2D image elements into 3D surfaces, which are subsequently rendered to create stereoscopic views.

  13. Large distance 3D imaging of hidden objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Levanon, Assaf

    2014-06-01

    Imaging systems in millimeter waves are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is low compared to that of infrared and optical rays. The lack of an inexpensive room temperature detector makes it difficult to give a suitable real time implement for the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA of plasma based detectors) using heterodyne detection. The intensity at each pixel in the GDD FPA yields the usual 2D image. The value of the I-F frequency yields the range information at each pixel. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of inexpensive detectors. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  14. Evaluation of Kinect 3D Sensor for Healthcare Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, Stefanie T L; Harkness, Elaine F; Taylor, Christopher J; Astley, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications. The accuracy, precision, and resolution of 3D images generated with Kinect I and Kinect II are evaluated using flat cardboard models representing different skin colors (pale, medium, and dark) at distances ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 m and measurement angles of up to 75°. Both sensors demonstrated high accuracy (majority of measurements Kinect I is capable of imaging at shorter measurement distances, but Kinect II enables structures angled at over 60° to be evaluated. Kinect II showed significantly higher precision and Kinect I showed significantly higher resolution (both p Kinect is not a medical imaging device, both sensor generations show performance adequate for a range of healthcare imaging applications. Kinect I is more appropriate for short-range imaging and Kinect II is more appropriate for imaging highly curved surfaces such as the face or breast.

  15. 3D Image Reconstruction from Compton camera data

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchment, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address analytically and numerically the inversion of the integral transform (\\emph{cone} or \\emph{Compton} transform) that maps a function on $\\mathbb{R}^3$ to its integrals over conical surfaces. It arises in a variety of imaging techniques, e.g. in astronomy, optical imaging, and homeland security imaging, especially when the so called Compton cameras are involved. Several inversion formulas are developed and implemented numerically in $3D$ (the much simpler $2D$ case was considered in a previous publication).

  16. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko

    2008-03-01

    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  17. Combining Different Modalities for 3D Imaging of Biological Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, E; Kulkarni, P; Mason, R; Parkey, R; Seliuonine, S; Shay, J; Soesbe, T; Zhezher, V; Zinchenko, A I

    2005-01-01

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a $^{57}$Co source and $^{98m}$Tc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown in this paper, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. ...

  18. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  19. Optimal Point Spread Function Design for 3D Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Yoav; Sahl, Steffen J.; Backer, Adam S.; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    To extract from an image of a single nanoscale object maximum physical information about its position, we propose and demonstrate a framework for pupil-plane modulation for 3D imaging applications requiring precise localization, including single-particle tracking and super-resolution microscopy. The method is based on maximizing the information content of the system, by formulating and solving the appropriate optimization problem – finding the pupil-plane phase pattern that would yield a PSF with optimal Fisher information properties. We use our method to generate and experimentally demonstrate two example PSFs: one optimized for 3D localization precision over a 3 μm depth of field, and another with an unprecedented 5 μm depth of field, both designed to perform under physically common conditions of high background signals. PMID:25302889

  20. 3D reconstruction of concave surfaces using polarisation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, A.; Farooq, A. R.; Ahmed, J.; Smith, L. N.; Smith, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for improved shape recovery using polarisation-based photometric stereo. The majority of previous research using photometric stereo involves 3D reconstruction using both the diffuse and specular components of light; however, this paper suggests the use of the specular component only as it is the only form of light that comes directly off the surface without subsurface scattering or interreflections. Experiments were carried out on both real and synthetic surfaces. Real images were obtained using a polarisation-based photometric stereo device while synthetic images were generated using PovRay® software. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed method can extract three-dimensional (3D) surface information effectively even for concave surfaces with complex texture and surface reflectance.

  1. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  2. Dynamic 3D computed tomography scanner for vascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark K.; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron

    2000-04-01

    A 3D dynamic computed-tomography (CT) scanner was developed for imaging objects undergoing periodic motion. The scanner system has high spatial and sufficient temporal resolution to produce quantitative tomographic/volume images of objects such as excised arterial samples perfused under physiological pressure conditions and enables the measurements of the local dynamic elastic modulus (Edyn) of the arteries in the axial and longitudinal directions. The system was comprised of a high resolution modified x-ray image intensifier (XRII) based computed tomographic system and a computer-controlled cardiac flow simulator. A standard NTSC CCD camera with a macro lens was coupled to the electro-optically zoomed XRII to acquire dynamic volumetric images. Through prospective cardiac gating and computer synchronized control, a time-resolved sequence of 20 mm thick high resolution volume images of porcine aortic specimens during one simulated cardiac cycle were obtained. Performance evaluation of the scanners illustrated that tomographic images can be obtained with resolution as high as 3.2 mm-1 with only a 9% decrease in the resolution for objects moving at velocities of 1 cm/s in 2D mode and static spatial resolution of 3.55 mm-1 with only a 14% decrease in the resolution in 3D mode for objects moving at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Application of the system for imaging of intact excised arterial specimens under simulated physiological flow/pressure conditions enabled measurements of the Edyn of the arteries with a precision of +/- kPa for the 3D scanner. Evaluation of the Edyn in the axial and longitudinal direction produced values of 428 +/- 35 kPa and 728 +/- 71 kPa, demonstrating the isotropic and homogeneous viscoelastic nature of the vascular specimens. These values obtained from the Dynamic CT systems were not statistically different (p less than 0.05) from the values obtained by standard uniaxial tensile testing and volumetric measurements.

  3. Utilization of multiple frequencies in 3D nonlinear microwave imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The use of multiple frequencies in a nonlinear microwave algorithm is considered. Using multiple frequencies allows for obtaining the improved resolution available at the higher frequencies while retaining the regularizing effects of the lower frequencies. However, a number of different challenges...... at lower frequencies are used as starting guesses for reconstructions at higher frequencies. The performance is illustrated using simulated 2-D data and data obtained with the 3-D DTU microwave imaging system....

  4. Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.

  5. 3D reconstruction of multiple stained histology images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Three dimensional (3D tissue reconstructions from the histology images with different stains allows the spatial alignment of structural and functional elements highlighted by different stains for quantitative study of many physiological and pathological phenomena. This has significant potential to improve the understanding of the growth patterns and the spatial arrangement of diseased cells, and enhance the study of biomechanical behavior of the tissue structures towards better treatments (e.g. tissue-engineering applications. Methods: This paper evaluates three strategies for 3D reconstruction from sets of two dimensional (2D histological sections with different stains, by combining methods of 2D multi-stain registration and 3D volumetric reconstruction from same stain sections. Setting and Design: The different strategies have been evaluated on two liver specimens (80 sections in total stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E, Sirius Red, and Cytokeratin (CK 7. Results and Conclusion: A strategy of using multi-stain registration to align images of a second stain to a volume reconstructed by same-stain registration results in the lowest overall error, although an interlaced image registration approach may be more robust to poor section quality.

  6. 3D thermal medical image visualization tool: Integration between MRI and thermographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Chagas Paz, André Augusto; Sanches, Ionildo Jóse; Nohama, Percy; Gamba, Humberto Remigio

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional medical image reconstruction using different images modalities require registration techniques that are, in general, based on the stacking of 2D MRI/CT images slices. In this way, the integration of two different imaging modalities: anatomical (MRI/CT) and physiological information (infrared image), to generate a 3D thermal model, is a new methodology still under development. This paper presents a 3D THERMO interface that provides flexibility for the 3D visualization: it incorporates the DICOM parameters; different color scale palettes at the final 3D model; 3D visualization at different planes of sections; and a filtering option that provides better image visualization. To summarize, the 3D thermographc medical image visualization provides a realistic and precise medical tool. The merging of two different imaging modalities allows better quality and more fidelity, especially for medical applications in which the temperature changes are clinically significant.

  7. Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  8. Feature detection on 3D images of dental imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Marielle; Laurendeau, Denis

    1994-09-01

    A computer vision approach for the extraction of feature points on 3D images of dental imprints is presented. The position of feature points are needed for the measurement of a set of parameters for automatic diagnosis of malocclusion problems in orthodontics. The system for the acquisition of the 3D profile of the imprint, the procedure for the detection of the interstices between teeth, and the approach for the identification of the type of tooth are described, as well as the algorithm for the reconstruction of the surface of each type of tooth. A new approach for the detection of feature points, called the watershed algorithm, is described in detail. The algorithm is a two-stage procedure which tracks the position of local minima at four different scales and produces a final map of the position of the minima. Experimental results of the application of the watershed algorithm on actual 3D images of dental imprints are presented for molars, premolars and canines. The segmentation approach for the analysis of the shape of incisors is also described in detail.

  9. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D W; Eppler, W G; Poland, D N

    2005-02-18

    A 3D solid model-aided object cueing method that matches phase angles of directional derivative vectors at image pixels to phase angles of vectors normal to projected model edges is described. It is intended for finding specific types of objects at arbitrary position and orientation in overhead images, independent of spatial resolution, obliqueness, acquisition conditions, and type of imaging sensor. It is shown that the phase similarity measure can be efficiently evaluated over all combinations of model position and orientation using the FFT. The highest degree of similarity over all model orientations is captured in a match surface of similarity values vs. model position. Unambiguous peaks in this surface are sorted in descending order of similarity value, and the small image thumbnails that contain them are presented to human analysts for inspection in sorted order.

  10. 3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

    2009-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

  11. FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Bahr, Detlef; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Oltmann, Klaas; Oltmann, Krischan; Guill, Christian; Rieper, Elisabeth; Ardey, Goetz

    2002-05-01

    The FELIX 3D display belongs to the class of volumetric displays using the swept volume technique. It is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications, which can be easily imported and interactively transformed in real-time by the FELIX control software. The images are drawn on a spinning screen by acousto-optic, galvanometric or polygon mirror deflection units with integrated lasers and a color mixer. The modular design of the display enables the user to operate with several equal or different projection units in parallel and to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose. The FELIX 3D display is a compact, light, extensible and easy to transport system. It mainly consists of inexpensive standard, off-the-shelf components for an easy implementation. This setup makes it a powerful and flexible tool to keep track with the rapid technological progress of today. Potential applications include imaging in the fields of entertainment, air traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design as well as scientific data visualization.

  12. UNDERWATER 3D MODELING: IMAGE ENHANCEMENT AND POINT CLOUD FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sarakinou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images’ radiometry (captured at shallow depths and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software. Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively. Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  13. Contribution of 3D inversion of Electrical Resistivity Tomography data applied to volcanic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, initially developed for environmental and engineering exploration, is now commonly used for geological structures imaging. Such structures can present complex characteristics that conventional 2D inversion processes cannot perfectly integrate. Here we present a new 3D inversion algorithm named EResI, firstly developed for levee investigation, and presently applied to the study of a complex lava dome (the Puy de Dôme volcano, France). EResI algorithm is based on a conventional regularized Gauss-Newton inversion scheme and a 3D non-structured discretization of the model (double grid method based on tetrahedrons). This discretization allows to accurately model the topography of investigated structure (without a mesh deformation procedure) and also permits a precise location of the electrodes. Moreover, we demonstrate that a complete 3D unstructured discretization limits the number of inversion cells and is better adapted to the resolution capacity of tomography than a structured discretization. This study shows that a 3D inversion with a non-structured parametrization has some advantages compared to classical 2D inversions. The first advantage comes from the fact that a 2D inversion leads to artefacts due to 3D effects (3D topography, 3D internal resistivity). The second advantage comes from the fact that the capacity to experimentally align electrodes along an axis (for 2D surveys) depends on the constrains on the field (topography...). In this case, a 2D assumption induced by 2.5D inversion software prevents its capacity to model electrodes outside this axis leading to artefacts in the inversion result. The last limitation comes from the use of mesh deformation techniques used to accurately model the topography in 2D softwares. This technique used for structured discretization (Res2dinv) is prohibed for strong topography (>60 %) and leads to a small computational errors. A wide geophysical survey was carried out

  14. 3D IMAGING OF INDIVIDUAL PARTICLES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pirard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, impressive progress has been made in digital imaging and in particular in three dimensional visualisation and analysis of objects. This paper reviews the most recent literature on three dimensional imaging with a special attention to particulate systems analysis. After an introduction recalling some important concepts in spatial sampling and digital imaging, the paper reviews a series of techniques with a clear distinction between the surfometric and volumetric principles. The literature review is as broad as possible covering materials science as well as biology while keeping an eye on emerging technologies in optics and physics. The paper should be of interest to any scientist trying to picture particles in 3D with the best possible resolution for accurate size and shape estimation. Though techniques are adequate for nanoscopic and microscopic particles, no special size limit has been considered while compiling the review.

  15. Development of 3D microwave imaging reflectometry in LHD (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Y; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Hamada, Y; Kogi, Y; Mase, A; Tsuchiya, H; Tsuji-Iio, S; Yamaguchi, S

    2012-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) microwave imaging reflectometry has been developed in the large helical device to visualize fluctuating reflection surface which is caused by the density fluctuations. The plasma is illuminated by the probe wave with four frequencies, which correspond to four radial positions. The imaging optics makes the image of cut-off surface onto the 2D (7 × 7 channels) horn antenna mixer arrays. Multi-channel receivers have been also developed using micro-strip-line technology to handle many channels at reasonable cost. This system is first applied to observe the edge harmonic oscillation (EHO), which is an MHD mode with many harmonics that appears in the edge plasma. A narrow structure along field lines is observed during EHO.

  16. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  17. Effective classification of 3D image data using partitioning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Pokrajac, Dragoljub; Lazarevic, Aleksandar; Obradovic, Zoran

    2002-03-01

    We propose partitioning-based methods to facilitate the classification of 3-D binary image data sets of regions of interest (ROIs) with highly non-uniform distributions. The first method is based on recursive dynamic partitioning of a 3-D volume into a number of 3-D hyper-rectangles. For each hyper-rectangle, we consider, as a potential attribute, the number of voxels (volume elements) that belong to ROIs. A hyper-rectangle is partitioned only if the corresponding attribute does not have high discriminative power, determined by statistical tests, but it is still sufficiently large for further splitting. The final discriminative hyper-rectangles form new attributes that are further employed in neural network classification models. The second method is based on maximum likelihood employing non-spatial (k-means) and spatial DBSCAN clustering algorithms to estimate the parameters of the underlying distributions. The proposed methods were experimentally evaluated on mixtures of Gaussian distributions, on realistic lesion-deficit data generated by a simulator conforming to a clinical study, and on synthetic fractal data. Both proposed methods have provided good classification on Gaussian mixtures and on realistic data. However, the experimental results on fractal data indicated that the clustering-based methods were only slightly better than random guess, while the recursive partitioning provided significantly better classification accuracy.

  18. Physically based analysis of deformations in 3D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastar, Chahab; Ayache, Nicholas

    1993-06-01

    We present a physically based deformable model which can be used to track and to analyze the non-rigid motion of dynamic structures in time sequences of 2-D or 3-D medical images. The model considers an object undergoing an elastic deformation as a set of masses linked by springs, where the natural lengths of the springs is set equal to zero, and is replaced by a set of constant equilibrium forces, which characterize the shape of the elastic structure in the absence of external forces. This model has the extremely nice property of yielding dynamic equations which are linear and decoupled for each coordinate, whatever the amplitude of the deformation. It provides a reduced algorithmic complexity, and a sound framework for modal analysis, which allows a compact representation of a general deformation by a reduced number of parameters. The power of the approach to segment, track, and analyze 2-D and 3-D images is demonstrated by a set of experimental results on various complex medical images.

  19. Image-Based 3D Face Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vezhnevets

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an automatic system for 3D face modeling using frontal and profile images taken by an ordinary digital camera. The system consists of four subsystems including frontal feature detection, profile feature detection, shape deformation, and texture generation modules. The frontal and profile feature detection modules automatically extract the facial parts such as the eye, nose, mouth, and ear. The shape deformation module utilizes the detected features to deform the generic head mesh model such that the deformed model coincides with the detected features. A texture is created by combining the facial textures augmented from the input images and the synthesized texture and mapped onto the deformed generic head model. This paper provides a practical system for 3D face modeling, which is highly automated by aggregating, customizing, and optimizing a bunch of individual computer vision algorithms. The experimental results show a highly automated process of modeling, which is sufficiently robust to various imaging conditions. The whole model creation including all the optional manual corrections takes only 2∼3 minutes.

  20. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  1. Extracting 3D layout from a single image using global image structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhongyu; Gevers, Theo; Hu, Ninghang

    2015-10-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very beneficial for extracting pixel-level 3D layout since it implies the way how pixels in the image are organized. In this paper, we propose an approach that first predicts the global image structure, and then we use the global structure for fine-grained pixel-level 3D layout extraction. In particular, image features are extracted based on multiple layout templates. We then learn a discriminative model for classifying the global layout at the image-level. Using latent variables, we implicitly model the sublevel semantics of the image, which enrich the expressiveness of our model. After the image-level structure is obtained, it is used as the prior knowledge to infer pixel-wise 3D layout. Experiments show that the results of our model outperform the state-of-the-art methods by 11.7% for 3D structure classification. Moreover, we show that employing the 3D structure prior information yields accurate 3D scene layout segmentation.

  2. 3D painting documentation: evaluation of conservation conditions with 3D imaging and ranging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattari, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The monitoring of paintings, both on canvas and wooden support, is a crucial issue for the preservation and conservation of this kind of artworks. Many environmental factors (e.g. humidity, temperature, illumination, etc.), as well as bad conservation practices (e.g. wrong restorations, inappropriate locations, etc.), can compromise the material conditions over time and deteriorate an artwork. The article presents an on-going project realized by a multidisciplinary team composed by the ENEA UTICT 3D GraphLab, the 3D Optical Metrology Unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Storico Artistici ed Etnoantropologici of Bologna (Italy). The goal of the project is the multi-temporal 3D documentation and monitoring of paintings - at the moment in bad conservation's situation - and the provision of some metrics to quantify the deformations and damages.

  3. Experiments on terahertz 3D scanning microscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Compared with the visible light and infrared, terahertz (THz) radiation can penetrate nonpolar and nonmetallic materials. There are many studies on the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscopy currently. But few researches on the THz dual-axis reflective confocal microscopy were reported. In this paper, we utilized a dual-axis reflective confocal scanning microscope working at 2.52 THz. In contrast with the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscope, the microscope adopted in this paper can attain higher axial resolution at the expense of reduced lateral resolution, revealing more satisfying 3D imaging capability. Objects such as Chinese characters "Zhong-Hua" written in paper with a pencil and a combined sheet metal which has three layers were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the system can extract two Chinese characters "Zhong," "Hua" or three layers of the combined sheet metal. It can be predicted that the microscope can be applied to biology, medicine and other fields in the future due to its favorable 3D imaging capability.

  4. Urban archaeological investigations using surface 3D Ground Penetrating Radar and Electrical Resistivity Tomography methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Yi, Myeong-Jong; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2009-02-01

    Ongoing and extensive urbanisation, which is frequently accompanied with careless construction works, may threaten important archaeological structures that are still buried in the urban areas. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods are most promising alternatives for resolving buried archaeological structures in urban territories. In this work, three case studies are presented, each of which involves an integrated geophysical survey employing the surface three-dimensional (3D) ERT and GPR techniques, in order to archaeologically characterise the investigated areas. The test field sites are located at the historical centres of two of the most populated cities of the island of Crete, in Greece. The ERT and GPR data were collected along a dense network of parallel profiles. The subsurface resistivity structure was reconstructed by processing the apparent resistivity data with a 3D inversion algorithm. The GPR sections were processed with a systematic way, applying specific filters to the data in order to enhance their information content. Finally, horizontal depth slices representing the 3D variation of the physical properties were created. The GPR and ERT images significantly contributed in reconstructing the complex subsurface properties in these urban areas. Strong GPR reflections and high-resistivity anomalies were correlated with possible archaeological structures. Subsequent excavations in specific places at both sites verified the geophysical results. The specific case studies demonstrated the applicability of ERT and GPR techniques during the design and construction stages of urban infrastructure works, indicating areas of archaeological significance and guiding archaeological excavations before construction work.

  5. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  6. 3D-DXA: Assessing the Femoral Shape, the Trabecular Macrostructure and the Cortex in 3D from DXA images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ludovic; Martelli, Yves; Fonolla, Roger; Steghofer, Martin; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Malouf, Jorge; Romera, Jordi; Barquero, Luis Miguel Del Rio

    2017-01-01

    The 3D distribution of the cortical and trabecular bone mass in the proximal femur is a critical component in determining fracture resistance that is not taken into account in clinical routine Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) examination. In this paper, a statistical shape and appearance model together with a 3D-2D registration approach are used to model the femoral shape and bone density distribution in 3D from an anteroposterior DXA projection. A model-based algorithm is subsequently used to segment the cortex and build a 3D map of the cortical thickness and density. Measurements characterising the geometry and density distribution were computed for various regions of interest in both cortical and trabecular compartments. Models and measurements provided by the "3D-DXA" software algorithm were evaluated using a database of 157 study subjects, by comparing 3D-DXA analyses (using DXA scanners from three manufacturers) with measurements performed by Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT). The mean point-to-surface distance between 3D-DXA and QCT femoral shapes was 0.93 mm. The mean absolute error between cortical thickness and density estimates measured by 3D-DXA and QCT was 0.33 mm and 72 mg/cm(3). Correlation coefficients (R) between the 3D-DXA and QCT measurements were 0.86, 0.93, and 0.95 for the volumetric bone mineral density at the trabecular, cortical, and integral compartments respectively, and 0.91 for the mean cortical thickness. 3D-DXA provides a detailed analysis of the proximal femur, including a separate assessment of the cortical layer and trabecular macrostructure, which could potentially improve osteoporosis management while maintaining DXA as the standard routine modality.

  7. 2D-3D image registration in diagnostic and interventional X-Ray imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, I.M.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Clinical procedures that are conventionally guided by 2D x-ray imaging, may benefit from the additional spatial information provided by 3D image data. For instance, guidance of minimally invasive procedures with CT or MRI data provides 3D spatial information and visualization of structures that are

  8. Intensity-based image registration for 3D spatial compounding using a freehand 3D ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoulatos, Niko; Haynor, David R.; Kim, Yongmin

    2002-04-01

    3D spatial compounding involves the combination of two or more 3D ultrasound (US) data sets, acquired under different insonation angles and windows, to form a higher quality 3D US data set. An important requirement for this method to succeed is the accurate registration between the US images used to form the final compounded image. We have developed a new automatic method for rigid and deformable registration of 3D US data sets, acquired using a freehand 3D US system. Deformation is provided by using a 3D thin-plate spline (TPS). Our method is fundamentally different from the previous ones in that the acquired scattered US 2D slices are registered and compounded directly into the 3D US volume. Our approach has several benefits over the traditional registration and spatial compounding methods: (i) we only peform one 3D US reconstruction, for the first acquired data set, therefore we save the computation time required to reconstruct subsequent acquired scans, (ii) for our registration we use (except for the first scan) the acquired high-resolution 2D US images rather than the 3D US reconstruction data which are of lower quality due to the interpolation and potential subsampling associated with 3D reconstruction, and (iii) the scans performed after the first one are not required to follow the typical 3D US scanning protocol, where a large number of dense slices have to be acquired; slices can be acquired in any fashion in areas where compounding is desired. We show that by taking advantage of the similar information contained in adjacent acquired 2D US slices, we can reduce the computation time of linear and nonlinear registrations by a factor of more than 7:1, without compromising registration accuracy. Furthermore, we implemented an adaptive approximation to the 3D TPS with local bilinear transformations allowing additional reduction of the nonlinear registration computation time by a factor of approximately 3.5. Our results are based on a commercially available

  9. Research of Fast 3D Imaging Based on Multiple Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shibing; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has received increasingly extensive attention and has been widely used currently. Lots of efforts have been put on three-dimensional imaging method and system study, in order to meet fast and high accurate requirement. In this article, we realize a fast and high quality stereo matching algorithm on field programmable gate array (FPGA) using the combination of time-of-flight (TOF) camera and binocular camera. Images captured from the two cameras own a same spatial resolution, letting us use the depth maps taken by the TOF camera to figure initial disparity. Under the constraint of the depth map as the stereo pairs when comes to stereo matching, expected disparity of each pixel is limited within a narrow search range. In the meanwhile, using field programmable gate array (FPGA, altera cyclone IV series) concurrent computing we can configure multi core image matching system, thus doing stereo matching on embedded system. The simulation results demonstrate that it can speed up the process of stereo matching and increase matching reliability and stability, realize embedded calculation, expand application range.

  10. 3-D Image Analysis of Fluorescent Drug Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raquel Miquel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent ligands provide the means of studying receptors in whole tissues using confocal laser scanning microscopy and have advantages over antibody- or non-fluorescence-based method. Confocal microscopy provides large volumes of images to be measured. Histogram analysis of 3-D image volumes is proposed as a method of graphically displaying large amounts of volumetric image data to be quickly analyzed and compared. The fluorescent ligand BODIPY FL-prazosin (QAPB was used in mouse aorta. Histogram analysis reports the amount of ligand-receptor binding under different conditions and the technique is sensitive enough to detect changes in receptor availability after antagonist incubation or genetic manipulations. QAPB binding was concentration dependent, causing concentration-related rightward shifts in the histogram. In the presence of 10 μM phenoxybenzamine (blocking agent, the QAPB (50 nM histogram overlaps the autofluorescence curve. The histogram obtained for the 1D knockout aorta lay to the left of that of control and 1B knockout aorta, indicating a reduction in 1D receptors. We have shown, for the first time, that it is possible to graphically display binding of a fluorescent drug to a biological tissue. Although our application is specific to adrenergic receptors, the general method could be applied to any volumetric, fluorescence-image-based assay.

  11. Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman J; Valdez, Tulio A; Vargas, Jose Arbouin; Saksupapchon, Punyapat; Rachapudi, Pushyami; Ge, Zhifei; Estrada, Julio C; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky's classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations.

  12. Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman J.; Valdez, Tulio A.; Vargas, Jose Arbouin; Saksupapchon, Punyapat; Rachapudi, Pushyami; Ge, Zhifei; Estrada, Julio C.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky’s classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations. PMID:27446667

  13. 3D imaging and wavefront sensing with a plenoptic objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Lüke, J. P.; López, R.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Montilla, I.; Trujillo-Sevilla, J.; Femenía, B.; Puga, M.; López, M.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; Rosa, F.; Dominguez-Conde, C.; Sanluis, J. C.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.

    2011-06-01

    Plenoptic cameras have been developed over the last years as a passive method for 3d scanning. Several superresolution algorithms have been proposed in order to increase the resolution decrease associated with lightfield acquisition with a microlenses array. A number of multiview stereo algorithms have also been applied in order to extract depth information from plenoptic frames. Real time systems have been implemented using specialized hardware as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGAs). In this paper, we will present our own implementations related with the aforementioned aspects but also two new developments consisting of a portable plenoptic objective to transform every conventional 2d camera in a 3D CAFADIS plenoptic camera, and the novel use of a plenoptic camera as a wavefront phase sensor for adaptive optics (OA). The terrestrial atmosphere degrades the telescope images due to the diffraction index changes associated with the turbulence. These changes require a high speed processing that justify the use of GPUs and FPGAs. Na artificial Laser Guide Stars (Na-LGS, 90km high) must be used to obtain the reference wavefront phase and the Optical Transfer Function of the system, but they are affected by defocus because of the finite distance to the telescope. Using the telescope as a plenoptic camera allows us to correct the defocus and to recover the wavefront phase tomographically. These advances significantly increase the versatility of the plenoptic camera, and provides a new contribution to relate the wave optics and computer vision fields, as many authors claim.

  14. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindberg Katarina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. Methods We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. Results The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Conclusions Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts.

  15. Building 3D aerial image in photoresist with reconstructed mask image acquired with optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. S.; Tang, Y. P.; Chu, F. S.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2012-03-01

    Calibration of mask images on wafer becomes more important as features shrink. Two major types of metrology have been commonly adopted. One is to measure the mask image with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain the contours on mask and then simulate the wafer image with optical simulator. The other is to use an optical imaging tool Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMSTM) to emulate the image on wafer. However, the SEM method is indirect. It just gathers planar contours on a mask with no consideration of optical characteristics such as 3D topography structures. Hence, the image on wafer is not predicted precisely. Though the AIMSTM method can be used to directly measure the intensity at the near field of a mask but the image measured this way is not quite the same as that on the wafer due to reflections and refractions in the films on wafer. Here, a new approach is proposed to emulate the image on wafer more precisely. The behavior of plane waves with different oblique angles is well known inside and between planar film stacks. In an optical microscope imaging system, plane waves can be extracted from the pupil plane with a coherent point source of illumination. Once plane waves with a specific coherent illumination are analyzed, the partially coherent component of waves could be reconstructed with a proper transfer function, which includes lens aberration, polarization, reflection and refraction in films. It is a new method that we can transfer near light field of a mask into an image on wafer without the disadvantages of indirect SEM measurement such as neglecting effects of mask topography, reflections and refractions in the wafer film stacks. Furthermore, with this precise latent image, a separated resist model also becomes more achievable.

  16. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batenburg, K. J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands and iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  17. Unsupervised fuzzy segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance brain images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthuizen, Robert P.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Bensaid, Amine M.; Arrington, J. A.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1993-07-01

    Unsupervised fuzzy methods are proposed for segmentation of 3D Magnetic Resonance images of the brain. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) has shown promising results for segmentation of single slices. FCM has been investigated for volume segmentations, both by combining results of single slices and by segmenting the full volume. Different strategies and initializations have been tried. In particular, two approaches have been used: (1) a method by which, iteratively, the furthest sample is split off to form a new cluster center, and (2) the traditional FCM in which the membership grade matrix is initialized in some way. Results have been compared with volume segmentations by k-means and with two supervised methods, k-nearest neighbors and region growing. Results of individual segmentations are presented as well as comparisons on the application of the different methods to a number of tumor patient data sets.

  18. Needle placement for piriformis injection using 3-D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenen, Steven R; Candler, Shawn A; Osborne, Michael D; Palmer, Scott C; Duench, Stephanie; Glynn, Laura; Ghazi, Salim M

    2013-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a pain syndrome originating in the buttock and is attributed to 6% - 8% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. The treatment for piriformis syndrome using fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), electromyography (EMG), and ultrasound (US) has become standard practice. The treatment of Piriformis Syndrome has evolved to include fluoroscopy and EMG with CT guidance. We present a case study of 5 successful piriformis injections using 3-D computer-assisted electromagnet needle tracking coupled with ultrasound. A 6-degree of freedom electromagnetic position tracker was attached to the ultrasound probe that allowed the system to detect the position and orientation of the probe in the magnetic field. The tracked ultrasound probe was used to find the posterior superior iliac spine. Subsequently, 3 points were captured to register the ultrasound image with the CT or magnetic resonance image scan. Moreover, after the registration was obtained, the navigation system visualized the tracked needle relative to the CT scan in real-time using 2 orthogonal multi-planar reconstructions centered at the tracked needle tip. Conversely, a recent study revealed that fluoroscopically guided injections had 30% accuracy compared to ultrasound guided injections, which tripled the accuracy percentage. This novel technique exhibited an accurate needle guidance injection precision of 98% while advancing to the piriformis muscle and avoiding the sciatic nerve. The mean (± SD) procedure time was 19.08 (± 4.9) minutes. This technique allows for electromagnetic instrument tip tracking with real-time 3-D guidance to the selected target. As with any new technique, a learning curve is expected; however, this technique could offer an alternative, minimizing radiation exposure.

  19. Spectral ladar: towards active 3D multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael A.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present our Spectral LADAR concept, an augmented implementation of traditional LADAR. This sensor uses a polychromatic source to obtain range-resolved 3D spectral images which are used to identify objects based on combined spatial and spectral features, resolving positions in three dimensions and up to hundreds of meters in distance. We report on a proof-of-concept Spectral LADAR demonstrator that generates spectral point clouds from static scenes. The demonstrator transmits nanosecond supercontinuum pulses generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Currently we use a rapidly tuned receiver with a high-speed InGaAs APD for 25 spectral bands with the future expectation of implementing a linear APD array spectrograph. Each spectral band is independently range resolved with multiple return pulse recognition. This is a critical feature, enabling simultaneous spectral and spatial unmixing of partially obscured objects when not achievable using image fusion of monochromatic LADAR and passive spectral imagers. This enables higher identification confidence in highly cluttered environments such as forested or urban areas (e.g. vehicles behind camouflage or foliage). These environments present challenges for situational awareness and robotic perception which can benefit from the unique attributes of Spectral LADAR. Results from this demonstrator unit are presented for scenes typical of military operations and characterize the operation of the device. The results are discussed here in the context of autonomous vehicle navigation and target recognition.

  20. GPU-accelerated denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Wes Bethel, E.

    2014-05-29

    The raw computational power of GPU accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. In practice, applying these filtering operations requires setting multiple parameters. This study was designed to provide better guidance to practitioners for choosing the most appropriate parameters by answering two questions: what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? And what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? To answer the first question, we use two different metrics, mean squared error (MSE) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM), to compare denoising quality against a reference image. Surprisingly, the best improvement in structural similarity with the bilateral filter is achieved with a small stencil size that lies within the range of real-time execution on an NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU. Moreover, inappropriate choices for parameters, especially scaling parameters, can yield very poor denoising performance. To answer the second question, we perform an autotuning study to empirically determine optimal memory tiling on the GPU. The variation in these results suggests that such tuning is an essential step in achieving real-time performance. These results have important implications for the real-time application of denoising to MR images in clinical settings that require fast turn-around times.

  1. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  2. Source mask optimization using 3D mask and compact resist models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sewefy, Omar; Chen, Ao; Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Chung, Angeline; Foong, Yee Mei; Adam, Kostas; Sturtevant, John

    2016-03-01

    Source Mask Optimization (SMO) has played an important role in technology setup and ground rule definition since the 2x nm technology node. While improvements in SMO algorithms have produced higher quality and more consistent results, the accuracy of the overall solution is critically linked to how faithfully the entire patterning system is modeled, from mask down to substrate. Fortunately, modeling technology has continued to advance to provide greater accuracy in modeling 3D mask effects, 3D resist behavior, and resist phenomena. Specifically, the Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) approximates the 3D mask response as a superposition of edge-responses.1 The DDM can be applied to a sectorized illumination source based on Hybrid-Hopkins Abbe approximation,2 which provides an accurate and fast solution for the modeling of 3D mask effects and has been widely used in OPC modeling. The implementation of DDM in the SMO flow, however, is more challenging because the shape and intensity of the source, unlike the case in OPC modeling, is evolving along the optimization path. As a result, it gets more complicated. It is accepted that inadequate pupil sectorization results in reduced accuracy in any application, however in SMO the required uniformity and density of pupil sampling is higher than typical OPC and modeling cases. In this paper, we describe a novel method to implement DDM in the SMO flow. The source sectorization is defined by following the universal pixel sizes used in SMO. Fast algorithms are developed to enable computation of edge signals from each fine pixel of the source. In this case, each pixel has accurate information to describe its contribution to imaging and the overall objective function. A more continuous angular spectrum from 3D mask scattering is thus captured, leading to accurate modeling of 3D mask effects throughout source optimization. This method is applied on a 2x nm middle-of-line layer test case. The impact of the 3D mask model accuracy on

  3. 3D Seismic Imaging over a Potential Collapse Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, Roland; O'Connell, Daniel; Elobaid Elnaiem, Ali; Mohamed, Fathelrahman; Sadooni, Fadhil

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-East has seen a recent boom in construction including the planning and development of complete new sub-sections of metropolitan areas. Before planning and construction can commence, however, the development areas need to be investigated to determine their suitability for the planned project. Subsurface parameters such as the type of material (soil/rock), thickness of top soil or rock layers, depth and elastic parameters of basement, for example, comprise important information needed before a decision concerning the suitability of the site for construction can be made. A similar problem arises in environmental impact studies, when subsurface parameters are needed to assess the geological heterogeneity of the subsurface. Environmental impact studies are typically required for each construction project, particularly for the scale of the aforementioned building boom in the Middle East. The current study was conducted in Qatar at the location of a future highway interchange to evaluate a suite of 3D seismic techniques in their effectiveness to interrogate the subsurface for the presence of karst-like collapse structures. The survey comprised an area of approximately 10,000 m2 and consisted of 550 source- and 192 receiver locations. The seismic source was an accelerated weight drop while the geophones consisted of 3-component 10 Hz velocity sensors. At present, we analyzed over 100,000 P-wave phase arrivals and performed high-resolution 3-D tomographic imaging of the shallow subsurface. Furthermore, dispersion analysis of recorded surface waves will be performed to obtain S-wave velocity profiles of the subsurface. Both results, in conjunction with density estimates, will be utilized to determine the elastic moduli of the subsurface rock layers.

  4. Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hsiao, Austin; Logan Liu, G [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sivaguru, Mayandi [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen Yi, E-mail: loganliu@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-09-07

    We have created a randomly distributed nanocone substrate on silicon coated with silver for surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection and 3D cell imaging. Optical characterization of the nanocone substrate showed it can support several plasmonic modes (in the 300-800 nm wavelength range) that can be coupled to a fluorophore on the surface of the substrate, which gives rise to the enhanced fluorescence. Spectral analysis suggests that a nanocone substrate can create more excitons and shorter lifetime in the model fluorophore Rhodamine 6G (R6G) due to plasmon resonance energy transfer from the nanocone substrate to the nearby fluorophore. We observed three-dimensional fluorescence enhancement on our substrate shown from the confocal fluorescence imaging of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown on the substrate. The fluorescence intensity from the fluorophores bound on the cell membrane was amplified more than 100-fold as compared to that on a glass substrate. We believe that strong scattering within the nanostructured area coupled with random scattering inside the cell resulted in the observed three-dimensional enhancement in fluorescence with higher photostability on the substrate surface.

  5. Autostereoscopic 3D visualization and image processing system for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tobias; Kuß, Julia; Uhlemann, Falk; Wagner, Stefan; Kirsch, Matthias; Sobottka, Stephan B; Steinmeier, Ralf; Schackert, Gabriele; Morgenstern, Ute

    2013-06-01

    A demonstrator system for planning neurosurgical procedures was developed based on commercial hardware and software. The system combines an easy-to-use environment for surgical planning with high-end visualization and the opportunity to analyze data sets for research purposes. The demonstrator system is based on the software AMIRA. Specific algorithms for segmentation, elastic registration, and visualization have been implemented and adapted to the clinical workflow. Modules from AMIRA and the image processing library Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) can be combined to solve various image processing tasks. Customized modules tailored to specific clinical problems can easily be implemented using the AMIRA application programming interface and a self-developed framework for ITK filters. Visualization is done via autostereoscopic displays, which provide a 3D impression without viewing aids. A Spaceball device allows a comfortable, intuitive way of navigation in the data sets. Via an interface to a neurosurgical navigation system, the demonstrator system can be used intraoperatively. The precision, applicability, and benefit of the demonstrator system for planning of neurosurgical interventions and for neurosurgical research were successfully evaluated by neurosurgeons using phantom and patient data sets.

  6. Multiframe image point matching and 3-d surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, R Y

    1983-02-01

    This paper presents two new methods, the Joint Moment Method (JMM) and the Window Variance Method (WVM), for image matching and 3-D object surface reconstruction using multiple perspective views. The viewing positions and orientations for these perspective views are known a priori, as is usually the case for such applications as robotics and industrial vision as well as close range photogrammetry. Like the conventional two-frame correlation method, the JMM and WVM require finding the extrema of 1-D curves, which are proved to theoretically approach a delta function exponentially as the number of frames increases for the JMM and are much sharper than the two-frame correlation function for both the JMM and the WVM, even when the image point to be matched cannot be easily distinguished from some of the other points. The theoretical findings have been supported by simulations. It is also proved that JMM and WVM are not sensitive to certain radiometric effects. If the same window size is used, the computational complexity for the proposed methods is about n - 1 times that for the two-frame method where n is the number of frames. Simulation results show that the JMM and WVM require smaller windows than the two-frame correlation method with better accuracy, and therefore may even be more computationally feasible than the latter since the computational complexity increases quadratically as a function of the window size.

  7. Semiautomatic approaches to account for 3-D distortion of the electric field from local, near-surface structures in 3-D resistivity inversions of 3-D regional magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2017-03-31

    This report summarizes the results of three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity inversion simulations that were performed to account for local 3-D distortion of the electric field in the presence of 3-D regional structure, without any a priori information on the actual 3-D distribution of the known subsurface geology. The methodology used a 3-D geologic model to create a 3-D resistivity forward (“known”) model that depicted the subsurface resistivity structure expected for the input geologic configuration. The calculated magnetotelluric response of the modeled resistivity structure was assumed to represent observed magnetotelluric data and was subsequently used as input into a 3-D resistivity inverse model that used an iterative 3-D algorithm to estimate 3-D distortions without any a priori geologic information. A publicly available inversion code, WSINV3DMT, was used for all of the simulated inversions, initially using the default parameters, and subsequently using adjusted inversion parameters. A semiautomatic approach of accounting for the static shift using various selections of the highest frequencies and initial models was also tested. The resulting 3-D resistivity inversion simulation was compared to the “known” model and the results evaluated. The inversion approach that produced the lowest misfit to the various local 3-D distortions was an inversion that employed an initial model volume resistivity that was nearest to the maximum resistivities in the near-surface layer.

  8. Improving Image Encryption Using 3D Cat Map and Turing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A. Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of data is of prime importance. Security is a very complex and vast topic. One of the common ways to protect this digital data from unauthorized eavesdropping is encryption. This paper introduces an improved image encryption technique based on a chaotic 3D cat map and Turing machine in the form of dynamic random growth technique. The algorithm consists of two main sections: The first does a preprocessing operation to shuffle the image using 3D chaotic map in the form of dynamic random growth technique. The second uses Turing machine simultaneous with shuffling pixels’ locations to diffuse pixels’ values using a random key that is generated by chaotic 3D cat map. The hybrid compound of a 3D chaotic system and Turing machine strengthen the encryption performance and enlarge the key space required to resist the brute force attacks. The main advantages of such a secure technique are the simplicity and efficiency. These good cryptographic properties prove that it is secure enough to use in image transmission systems.

  9. 3D mapping from high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, D.; Georgopoulos, A.; Sarakenos, A.; Paraschou, Ch.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years 3D information has become more easily available. Users' needs are constantly increasing, adapting to this reality and 3D maps are in more demand. 3D models of the terrain in CAD or other environments have already been common practice; however one is bound by the computer screen. This is why contemporary digital methods have been developed in order to produce portable and, hence, handier 3D maps of various forms. This paper deals with the implementation of the necessary procedures to produce holographic 3D maps and three dimensionally printed maps. The main objective is the production of three dimensional maps from high resolution aerial and/or satellite imagery with the use of holography and but also 3D printing methods. As study area the island of Antiparos was chosen, as there were readily available suitable data. These data were two stereo pairs of Geoeye-1 and a high resolution DTM of the island. Firstly the theoretical bases of holography and 3D printing are described, and the two methods are analyzed and there implementation is explained. In practice a x-axis parallax holographic map of the Antiparos Island is created and a full parallax (x-axis and y-axis) holographic map is created and printed, using the holographic method. Moreover a three dimensional printed map of the study area has been created using 3dp (3d printing) method. The results are evaluated for their usefulness and efficiency.

  10. Automated 3D renal segmentation based on image partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, Varduhi; Voiculescu, Irina D.

    2016-03-01

    Despite several decades of research into segmentation techniques, automated medical image segmentation is barely usable in a clinical context, and still at vast user time expense. This paper illustrates unsupervised organ segmentation through the use of a novel automated labelling approximation algorithm followed by a hypersurface front propagation method. The approximation stage relies on a pre-computed image partition forest obtained directly from CT scan data. We have implemented all procedures to operate directly on 3D volumes, rather than slice-by-slice, because our algorithms are dimensionality-independent. The results picture segmentations which identify kidneys, but can easily be extrapolated to other body parts. Quantitative analysis of our automated segmentation compared against hand-segmented gold standards indicates an average Dice similarity coefficient of 90%. Results were obtained over volumes of CT data with 9 kidneys, computing both volume-based similarity measures (such as the Dice and Jaccard coefficients, true positive volume fraction) and size-based measures (such as the relative volume difference). The analysis considered both healthy and diseased kidneys, although extreme pathological cases were excluded from the overall count. Such cases are difficult to segment both manually and automatically due to the large amplitude of Hounsfield unit distribution in the scan, and the wide spread of the tumorous tissue inside the abdomen. In the case of kidneys that have maintained their shape, the similarity range lies around the values obtained for inter-operator variability. Whilst the procedure is fully automated, our tools also provide a light level of manual editing.

  11. 3D DC Resistivity Inversion with Topography Based on Regularized Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ke Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, we observed a strong interest in 3D DC resistivity inversion and imaging with complex topography. In this paper, we implemented 3D DC resistivity inversion based on regularized conjugate gradient method with FEM. The Fréchet derivative is assembled with the electric potential in order to speed up the inversion process based on the reciprocity theorem. In this study, we also analyzed the sensitivity of the electric potential on the earth’s surface to the conductivity in each cell underground and introduced an optimized weighting function to produce new sensitivity matrix. The synthetic model study shows that this optimized weighting function is helpful to improve the resolution of deep anomaly. By incorporating topography into inversion, the artificial anomaly which is actually caused by topography can be eliminated. As a result, this algorithm potentially can be applied to process the DC resistivity data collected in mountain area. Our synthetic model study also shows that the convergence and computation speed are very stable and fast.

  12. Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Based 3D Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LongWave Photonics proposes a terahertz quantum-cascade laser based swept-source optical coherence tomography (THz SS-OCT) system for single-sided, 3D,...

  13. Holographic Image Plane Projection Integral 3D Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for a 3D virtual reality environment providing scientific data visualization without special user devices, Physical Optics Corporation...

  14. Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

  15. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez-Arellano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  16. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  17. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-04-29

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  18. Dense 3d Point Cloud Generation from Uav Images from Image Matching and Global Optimazation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    3D spatial information from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) images is usually provided in the form of 3D point clouds. For various UAV applications, it is important to generate dense 3D point clouds automatically from over the entire extent of UAV images. In this paper, we aim to apply image matching for generation of local point clouds over a pair or group of images and global optimization to combine local point clouds over the whole region of interest. We tried to apply two types of image matching, an object space-based matching technique and an image space-based matching technique, and to compare the performance of the two techniques. The object space-based matching used here sets a list of candidate height values for a fixed horizontal position in the object space. For each height, its corresponding image point is calculated and similarity is measured by grey-level correlation. The image space-based matching used here is a modified relaxation matching. We devised a global optimization scheme for finding optimal pairs (or groups) to apply image matching, defining local match region in image- or object- space, and merging local point clouds into a global one. For optimal pair selection, tiepoints among images were extracted and stereo coverage network was defined by forming a maximum spanning tree using the tiepoints. From experiments, we confirmed that through image matching and global optimization, 3D point clouds were generated successfully. However, results also revealed some limitations. In case of image-based matching results, we observed some blanks in 3D point clouds. In case of object space-based matching results, we observed more blunders than image-based matching ones and noisy local height variations. We suspect these might be due to inaccurate orientation parameters. The work in this paper is still ongoing. We will further test our approach with more precise orientation parameters.

  19. Superimposing of virtual graphics and real image based on 3D CAD information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Proposes methods of transforming 3D CAD models into 2D graphics and recognizing 3D objects by features and superimposing VE built in computer onto real image taken by a CCD camera, and presents computer simulation results.

  20. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  1. The `L' Array, a method to model 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Segura, R. E.; Chavez-Hernandez, G.; Delgado, C.; Tejero-Andrade, A.

    2010-12-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a method designed to calculate the distribution of apparent electrical resistivities in the subsoil by means of a great number of observations with the aim of determining an electrical image displaying the distribution of true resistivities in the subsoil. Such process can be carried out to define 2D or 3D models of the subsurface. For a 3D ERT, usually, the electrodes are placed in a squared grid keeping the distance between adjacent electrodes constant in the x and y directions. Another design employed, consists of a series of parallel lines whose space inter-lines must be smaller or equal to four times the electrode separation. The most common electrode arrays frequently employed for this type of studies are the pole-pole, pole-dipole and dipole-dipole. Unfortunately, ERT surface sampling schemes are limited by physical conditions or obstacles, like buildings, highly populated urban zones, and geologic/topographic features, where the lines of electrodes cannot be set. However, it is always necessary to characterize the subsoil beneath such anthropogenic or natural features. The ‘L’ shaped array has the main purpose to overcome such difficulties by surrounding the study area with a square of electrode lines. The measurements are obtained by switching automatically current and potential electrodes from one line to the other. Each observation adds a level of information, from one profile to the other. Once the total levels of data are completed, the opposite ‘L’ array can be measured following the same process. The complete square is computed after the parallel profiles are observed as well. At the end, the computed resistivities are combined to form a 3D matrix of observations. Such set of data can be inverted to obtain the true resistivity distribution at depth in the form of a working cube, which can be interpreted. The method was tested with theoretical models, which included a set of two resistive cubes

  2. 3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

    3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

  3. Multimodal Registration and Fusion for 3D Thermal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. Akhloufi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D vision is an area of computer vision that has attracted a lot of research interest and has been widely studied. In recent years we witness an increasing interest from the industrial community. This interest is driven by the recent advances in 3D technologies, which enable high precision measurements at an affordable cost. With 3D vision techniques we can conduct advanced manufactured parts inspections and metrology analysis. However, we are not able to detect subsurface defects. This kind of detection is achieved by other techniques, like infrared thermography. In this work, we present a new registration framework for 3D and thermal infrared multimodal fusion. The resulting fused data can be used for advanced 3D inspection in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E applications. The fusion permits the simultaneous visible surface and subsurface inspections to be conducted in the same process. Experimental tests were conducted with different materials. The obtained results are promising and show how these new techniques can be used efficiently in a combined NDT&E-Metrology analysis of manufactured parts, in areas such as aerospace and automotive.

  4. High-Performance 3D Image Processing Architectures for Image-Guided Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Circuits and Systems, vol. 1 (2), 2007, pp. 116-127. iv • O. Dandekar, C. Castro- Pareja , and R. Shekhar, “FPGA-based real-time 3D image...How low can we go?,” presented at IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2006, pp. 502-505. • C. R. Castro- Pareja , O. Dandekar, and R...Venugopal, C. R. Castro- Pareja , and O. Dandekar, “An FPGA-based 3D image processor with median and convolution filters for real-time applications,” in

  5. Robust Reconstruction and Generalized Dual Hahn Moments Invariants Extraction for 3D Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Abderrahim; Zouhri, Amal; El Mallahi, Mostafa; Zenkouar, Khalid; Qjidaa, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new set of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments which are orthogonal on a non-uniform lattice and their polynomials are numerically stable to scale, consequent, producing a set of weighted orthonormal polynomials. The dual Hahn is the general case of Tchebichef and Krawtchouk, and the orthogonality of dual Hahn moments eliminates the numerical approximations. The computational aspects and symmetry property of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments are discussed in details. To solve their inability to invariability of large 3D images, which cause to overflow issues, a generalized version of these moments noted 3D generalized weighed dual Hahn moment invariants are presented where whose as linear combination of regular geometric moments. For 3D pattern recognition, a generalized expression of 3D weighted dual Hahn moment invariants, under translation, scaling and rotation transformations, have been proposed where a new set of 3D-GWDHMIs have been provided. In experimental studies, the local and global capability of free and noisy 3D image reconstruction of the 3D-WDHMs has been compared with other orthogonal moments such as 3D Tchebichef and 3D Krawtchouk moments using Princeton Shape Benchmark database. On pattern recognition using the 3D-GWDHMIs like 3D object descriptors, the experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is more robust than other orthogonal moments for pattern classification of 3D images with and without noise.

  6. Display of travelling 3D scenes from single integral-imaging capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seok-Min; Sola-Pikabea, Jorge; Saavedra, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    Integral imaging (InI) is a 3D auto-stereoscopic technique that captures and displays 3D images. We present a method for easily projecting the information recorded with this technique by transforming the integral image into a plenoptic image, as well as choosing, at will, the field of view (FOV) and the focused plane of the displayed plenoptic image. Furthermore, with this method we can generate a sequence of images that simulates a camera travelling through the scene from a single integral image. The application of this method permits to improve the quality of 3D display images and videos.

  7. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  8. Accuracy of 3D Imaging Software in Cephalometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    orthodontic software program ( Dolphin 3D, mfg, city, state) used for measurement and analysis of craniofacial dimensions. Three-dimensional reconstructions...143(8), 899-902. Baik H, Jeon J, Lee H. (2007). Facial soft tissue analysis of Korean adults with normal occlusion using a 3-dimensional laser

  9. 3D Imaging Technology’s Narrative Appropriation in Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Miklós; van den Oever, Annie; Fossati, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    This chapter traces the cinematic history of stereoscopy by focusing on the contemporary dispute about the values of 3D technology, which are seen as either mere visual attraction or as a technique that perfects the cinematic illusion through increasing perceptual immersion. By taking a neutral stan

  10. Statistical skull models from 3D X-ray images

    CERN Document Server

    Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 statistical models of the skull and mandible built upon an elastic registration method of 3D meshes. The aim of this work is to relate degrees of freedom of skull anatomy, as static relations are of main interest for anthropology and legal medicine. Statistical models can effectively provide reconstructions together with statistical precision. In our applications, patient-specific meshes of the skull and the mandible are high-density meshes, extracted from 3D CT scans. All our patient-specific meshes are registrated in a subject-shared reference system using our 3D-to-3D elastic matching algorithm. Registration is based upon the minimization of a distance between the high density mesh and a shared low density mesh, defined on the vertexes, in a multi resolution approach. A Principal Component analysis is performed on the normalised registrated data to build a statistical linear model of the skull and mandible shape variation. The accuracy of the reconstruction is under the millimetre in the shape...

  11. Smoothness-constrained time-lapse inversion of data from 3D resistivity surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Loke, M. H.; Dahlin, Torleif; Rucker, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional resistivity surveys and their associated inversion models are required to accurately resolve structures exhibiting very complex geology. In the same light, 3D resistivity surveys collected at multiple times are required to resolve temporally varying conditions. In this work we present 3D data sets, both synthetic and real, collected at different times. The large spatio-temporal data sets are then inverted simultaneously using a least-squares methodology that incorporates rou...

  12. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-09-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  13. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  14. Vorinostat eliminates multicellular resistance of mesothelioma 3D spheroids via restoration of Noxa expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbone, Dario; Cheung, Priscilla; Battula, Sailaja; Busacca, Sara; Gray, Steven G; Longley, Daniel B; Bueno, Raphael; Sugarbaker, David J; Fennell, Dean A; Broaddus, V Courtney

    2012-01-01

    When grown in 3D cultures as spheroids, mesothelioma cells acquire a multicellular resistance to apoptosis that resembles that of solid tumors. We have previously found that resistance to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in 3D can be explained by a lack of upregulation of Noxa, the pro-apoptotic BH3 sensitizer that acts via displacement of the Bak/Bax-activator BH3-only protein, Bim. We hypothesized that the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat might reverse this block to Noxa upregulation in 3D. Indeed, we found that vorinostat effectively restored upregulation of Noxa protein and message and abolished multicellular resistance to bortezomib in the 3D spheroids. The ability of vorinostat to reverse resistance was ablated by knockdown of Noxa or Bim, confirming the essential role of the Noxa/Bim axis in the response to vorinostat. Addition of vorinostat similarly increased the apoptotic response to bortezomib in another 3D model, the tumor fragment spheroid, which is grown from human mesothelioma ex vivo. In addition to its benefit when used with bortezomib, vorinostat also enhanced the response to cisplatin plus pemetrexed, as shown in both 3D models. Our results using clinically relevant 3D models show that the manipulation of the core apoptotic repertoire may improve the chemosensitivity of mesothelioma. Whereas neither vorinostat nor bortezomib alone has been clinically effective in mesothelioma, vorinostat may undermine chemoresistance to bortezomib and to other therapies thereby providing a rationale for combinatorial strategies.

  15. Vorinostat eliminates multicellular resistance of mesothelioma 3D spheroids via restoration of Noxa expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Barbone

    Full Text Available When grown in 3D cultures as spheroids, mesothelioma cells acquire a multicellular resistance to apoptosis that resembles that of solid tumors. We have previously found that resistance to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in 3D can be explained by a lack of upregulation of Noxa, the pro-apoptotic BH3 sensitizer that acts via displacement of the Bak/Bax-activator BH3-only protein, Bim. We hypothesized that the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat might reverse this block to Noxa upregulation in 3D. Indeed, we found that vorinostat effectively restored upregulation of Noxa protein and message and abolished multicellular resistance to bortezomib in the 3D spheroids. The ability of vorinostat to reverse resistance was ablated by knockdown of Noxa or Bim, confirming the essential role of the Noxa/Bim axis in the response to vorinostat. Addition of vorinostat similarly increased the apoptotic response to bortezomib in another 3D model, the tumor fragment spheroid, which is grown from human mesothelioma ex vivo. In addition to its benefit when used with bortezomib, vorinostat also enhanced the response to cisplatin plus pemetrexed, as shown in both 3D models. Our results using clinically relevant 3D models show that the manipulation of the core apoptotic repertoire may improve the chemosensitivity of mesothelioma. Whereas neither vorinostat nor bortezomib alone has been clinically effective in mesothelioma, vorinostat may undermine chemoresistance to bortezomib and to other therapies thereby providing a rationale for combinatorial strategies.

  16. Confocal Image 3D Surface Measurement with Optical Fiber Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao; ZHU Sheng-cheng; LI Bing; TAN Yu-shan

    2004-01-01

    A whole-field 3D surface measurement system for semiconductor wafer inspection is described.The system consists of an optical fiber plate,which can split the light beam into N2 subbeams to realize the whole-field inspection.A special prism is used to separate the illumination light and signal light.This setup is characterized by high precision,high speed and simple structure.

  17. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging: 3-D Synthetic Aperture Imaging using Fully Addressed and Row-Column Addressed 2-D Transducer Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed

    companies have produced ultrasound scanners using 2-D transducer arrays with enough transducer elements to produce high quality 3-D images. Because of the large matrix transducers with integrated custom electronics, these systems are extremely expensive. The relatively low price of ultrasound scanners......Compared with conventional 2-D ultrasound imaging, real-time 3-D (or 4-D) ultrasound imaging has several advantages, resulting in a significant progress in the ultrasound imaging instrumentation over the past decade. Viewing the patient’s anatomy as a volume helps physicians to comprehend...... the important diagnostic information in a noninvasive manner. Diagnostic and therapeutic decisions often require accurate estimates of e.g., organ, cyst, or tumor volumes. 3-D ultrasound imaging can provide these measurements without relying on the geometrical assumptions and operator-dependent skills involved...

  18. Quality Prediction of Asymmetrically Distorted Stereoscopic 3D Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiheng; Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Shiqi; Wang, Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Objective quality assessment of distorted stereoscopic images is a challenging problem, especially when the distortions in the left and right views are asymmetric. Existing studies suggest that simply averaging the quality of the left and right views well predicts the quality of symmetrically distorted stereoscopic images, but generates substantial prediction bias when applied to asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic images. In this paper, we first build a database that contains both single-view and symmetrically and asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic images. We then carry out a subjective test, where we find that the quality prediction bias of the asymmetrically distorted images could lean toward opposite directions (overestimate or underestimate), depending on the distortion types and levels. Our subjective test also suggests that eye dominance effect does not have strong impact on the visual quality decisions of stereoscopic images. Furthermore, we develop an information content and divisive normalization-based pooling scheme that improves upon structural similarity in estimating the quality of single-view images. Finally, we propose a binocular rivalry-inspired multi-scale model to predict the quality of stereoscopic images from that of the single-view images. Our results show that the proposed model, without explicitly identifying image distortion types, successfully eliminates the prediction bias, leading to significantly improved quality prediction of the stereoscopic images.

  19. Reconstruction of 3d Digital Image of Weepingforsythia Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei; Xu, Hongzhi; Liu, Wenqi; Wang, Lina

    Confocal microscopy, which is a major advance upon normal light microscopy, has been used in a number of scientific fields. By confocal microscopy techniques, cells and tissues can be visualized deeply, and three-dimensional images created. Compared with conventional microscopes, confocal microscope improves the resolution of images by eliminating out-of-focus light. Moreover, confocal microscope has a higher level of sensitivity due to highly sensitive light detectors and the ability to accumulate images captured over time. In present studies, a series of Weeping Forsythia pollen digital images (35 images in total) were acquired with confocal microscope, and the three-dimensional digital image of the pollen reconstructed with confocal microscope. Our results indicate that it's a very easy job to analysis threedimensional digital image of the pollen with confocal microscope and the probe Acridine orange (AO).

  20. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  1. Multi-layer 3D imaging using a few viewpoint images and depth map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suginohara, Hidetsugu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method that makes multi-layer images from a few viewpoint images to display a 3D image by the autostereoscopic display that has multiple display screens in the depth direction. We iterate simple "Shift and Subtraction" processes to make each layer image alternately. The image made in accordance with depth map like a volume slicing by gradations is used as the initial solution of iteration process. Through the experiments using the prototype stacked two LCDs, we confirmed that it was enough to make multi-layer images from three viewpoint images to display a 3D image. Limiting the number of viewpoint images, the viewing area that allows stereoscopic view becomes narrow. To broaden the viewing area, we track the head motion of the viewer and update screen images in real time so that the viewer can maintain correct stereoscopic view within +/- 20 degrees area. In addition, we render pseudo multiple viewpoint images using depth map, then we can generate motion parallax at the same time.

  2. 3-D Target Location from Stereoscopic SAR Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    1999-10-01

    SAR range-Doppler images are inherently 2-dimensional. Targets with a height offset lay over onto offset range and azimuth locations. Just which image locations are laid upon depends on the imaging geometry, including depression angle, squint angle, and target bearing. This is the well known layover phenomenon. Images formed with different aperture geometries will exhibit different layover characteristics. These differences can be exploited to ascertain target height information, in a stereoscopic manner. Depending on the imaging geometries, height accuracy can be on the order of horizontal position accuracies, thereby rivaling the best IFSAR capabilities in fine resolution SAR images. All that is required for this to work are two distinct passes with suitably different geometries from any plain old SAR.

  3. Real-time computer-generated integral imaging and 3D image calibration for augmented reality surgical navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Liao, Hongen; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Autostereoscopic 3D image overlay for augmented reality (AR) based surgical navigation has been studied and reported many times. For the purpose of surgical overlay, the 3D image is expected to have the same geometric shape as the original organ, and can be transformed to a specified location for image overlay. However, how to generate a 3D image with high geometric fidelity and quantitative evaluation of 3D image's geometric accuracy have not been addressed. This paper proposes a graphics processing unit (GPU) based computer-generated integral imaging pipeline for real-time autostereoscopic 3D display, and an automatic closed-loop 3D image calibration paradigm for displaying undistorted 3D images. Based on the proposed methods, a novel AR device for 3D image surgical overlay is presented, which mainly consists of a 3D display, an AR window, a stereo camera for 3D measurement, and a workstation for information processing. The evaluation on the 3D image rendering performance with 2560×1600 elemental image resolution shows the rendering speeds of 50-60 frames per second (fps) for surface models, and 5-8 fps for large medical volumes. The evaluation of the undistorted 3D image after the calibration yields sub-millimeter geometric accuracy. A phantom experiment simulating oral and maxillofacial surgery was also performed to evaluate the proposed AR overlay device in terms of the image registration accuracy, 3D image overlay accuracy, and the visual effects of the overlay. The experimental results show satisfactory image registration and image overlay accuracy, and confirm the system usability.

  4. 3D Image Sensor based on Parallax Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Reskó

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For humans and visual animals vision it is the primary and the most sophisticatedperceptual modality to get information about the surrounding world. Depth perception is apart of vision allowing to accurately determine the distance to an object which makes it animportant visual task. Humans have two eyes with overlapping visual fields that enablestereo vision and thus space perception. Some birds however do not have overlappingvisual fields, and compensate this lask by moving their heads, which in turn makes spaceperception possible using the motion parallax as a visual cue. This paper presents asolution using an opto-mechanical filter that was inspired by the way birds observe theirenvironment. The filtering is done using two different approaches:using motion blur duringmotion parallax, and using the optical flow algorithm. The two methods have differentadvantages and drawbacks, which will be discussed in the paper. The proposed system canbe used in robotics for 3D space perception.

  5. Full 3-D numerical modeling of borehole electric image logging and the evaluation model of fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full 3-D finite element method numerical modeling program is written based on the principle and technical specification of borehole electric image well logging tool. The response of well logging is computed in the formation media model with a single fracture. The effect of changing fracture aperture and resistivity ratio to the logging response is discussed. The identification ability for two parallel fractures is also present. A quantitative evaluation formula of fracture aperture from borehole electric image logging data is set up. A case study of the model well is done to verify the accuracy of the for-mula. The result indicates that the formula is more accurate than the foreign one.

  6. The Mathematical Foundations of 3D Compton Scatter Emission Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Truong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical principles of tomographic imaging using detected (unscattered X- or gamma-rays are based on the two-dimensional Radon transform and many of its variants. In this paper, we show that two new generalizations, called conical Radon transforms, are related to three-dimensional imaging processes based on detected Compton scattered radiation. The first class of conical Radon transform has been introduced recently to support imaging principles of collimated detector systems. The second class is new and is closely related to the Compton camera imaging principles and invertible under special conditions. As they are poised to play a major role in future designs of biomedical imaging systems, we present an account of their most important properties which may be relevant for active researchers in the field.

  7. MULTI-SPECTRAL AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE FUSION USING 3-D WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yifan; He Mingyi

    2007-01-01

    Image fusion is performed between one band of multi-spectral image and two bands of hyperspectral image to produce fused image with the same spatial resolution as source multi-spectral image and the same spectral resolution as source hyperspectral image. According to the characteristics and 3-Dimensional (3-D) feature analysis of multi-spectral and hyperspectral image data volume, the new fusion approach using 3-D wavelet based method is proposed. This approach is composed of four major procedures: Spatial and spectral resampling, 3-D wavelet transform, wavelet coefficient integration and 3-D inverse wavelet transform. Especially, a novel method, Ratio Image Based Spectral Resampling (RIBSR) method, is proposed to accomplish data resampling in spectral domain by utilizing the property of ratio image. And a new fusion rule, Average and Substitution (A&S) rule, is employed as the fusion rule to accomplish wavelet coefficient integration. Experimental results illustrate that the fusion approach using 3-D wavelet transform can utilize both spatial and spectral characteristics of source images more adequately and produce fused image with higher quality and fewer artifacts than fusion approach using 2-D wavelet transform. It is also revealed that RIBSR method is capable of interpolating the missing data more effectively and correctly, and A&S rule can integrate coefficients of source images in 3-D wavelet domain to preserve both spatial and spectral features of source images more properly.

  8. Analysis of information for cerebrovascular disorders obtained by 3D MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kohki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Medical Science; Yoshioka, Naoki; Watanabe, Fumio; Shiono, Takahiro; Sugishita, Morihiro; Umino, Kazunori

    1995-12-01

    Recently, it becomes easy to analyze information obtained by 3D MR imaging due to remarkable progress of fast MR imaging technique and analysis tool. Six patients suffered from aphasia (4 cerebral infarctions and 2 bleedings) were performed 3D MR imaging (3D FLASH-TR/TE/flip angle; 20-50 msec/6-10 msec/20-30 degrees) and their volume information were analyzed by multiple projection reconstruction (MPR), surface rendering 3D reconstruction, and volume rendering 3D reconstruction using Volume Design PRO (Medical Design Co., Ltd.). Four of them were diagnosed as Broca`s aphasia clinically and their lesions could be detected around the cortices of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Another 2 patients were diagnosed as Wernicke`s aphasia and the lesions could be detected around the cortices of the left supramarginal gyrus. This technique for 3D volume analyses would provide quite exact locational information about cerebral cortical lesions. (author).

  9. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice.

  10. GOTHIC CHURCHES IN PARIS ST GERVAIS ET ST PROTAIS IMAGE MATCHING 3D RECONSTRUCTION TO UNDERSTAND THE VAULTS SYSTEM GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capone

    2015-02-01

    benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  11. Clinical Study of 3D Imaging and 3D Printing Technique for Patient-Specific Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bing; Liu, Fei; Tang, Bensen; Deng, Biyong; Liu, Fang; Zhu, Weimin; Zhen, Dong; Xue, Mingyuan; Zhang, Mingjiao

    2017-01-25

    Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) was designed to improve the accuracy of preoperative planning and postoperative prosthesis positioning in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, better understanding needs to be achieved due to the subtle nature of the PSI systems. In this study, 3D printing technique based on the image data of computed tomography (CT) has been utilized for optimal controlling of the surgical parameters. Two groups of TKA cases have been randomly selected as PSI group and control group with no significant difference of age and sex (p > 0.05). The PSI group is treated with 3D printed cutting guides whereas the control group is treated with conventional instrumentation (CI). By evaluating the proximal osteotomy amount, distal osteotomy amount, valgus angle, external rotation angle, and tibial posterior slope angle of patients, it can be found that the preoperative quantitative assessment and intraoperative changes can be controlled with PSI whereas CI is relied on experience. In terms of postoperative parameters, such as hip-knee-ankle (HKA), frontal femoral component (FFC), frontal tibial component (FTC), and lateral tibial component (LTC) angles, there is a significant improvement in achieving the desired implant position (p implantation compared against control method, which indicates potential for optimal HKA, FFC, and FTC angles.

  12. Evaluation of stereoscopic 3D displays for image analysis tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Rehfeld, N.; Eck, R.

    2009-02-01

    In many application domains the analysis of aerial or satellite images plays an important role. The use of stereoscopic display technologies can enhance the image analyst's ability to detect or to identify certain objects of interest, which results in a higher performance. Changing image acquisition from analog to digital techniques entailed the change of stereoscopic visualisation techniques. Recently different kinds of digital stereoscopic display techniques with affordable prices have appeared on the market. At Fraunhofer IITB usability tests were carried out to find out (1) with which kind of these commercially available stereoscopic display techniques image analysts achieve the best performance and (2) which of these techniques achieve a high acceptance. First, image analysts were interviewed to define typical image analysis tasks which were expected to be solved with a higher performance using stereoscopic display techniques. Next, observer experiments were carried out whereby image analysts had to solve defined tasks with different visualization techniques. Based on the experimental results (performance parameters and qualitative subjective evaluations of the used display techniques) two of the examined stereoscopic display technologies were found to be very good and appropriate.

  13. Online reconstruction of 3D magnetic particle imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging is a quantitative functional imaging technique that allows imaging of the spatial distribution of super-paramagnetic iron oxide particles at high temporal resolution. The raw data acquisition can be performed at frame rates of more than 40 volumes s-1. However, to date image reconstruction is performed in an offline step and thus no direct feedback is available during the experiment. Considering potential interventional applications such direct feedback would be mandatory. In this work, an online reconstruction framework is implemented that allows direct visualization of the particle distribution on the screen of the acquisition computer with a latency of about 2 s. The reconstruction process is adaptive and performs block-averaging in order to optimize the signal quality for a given amount of reconstruction time.

  14. Building Extraction from DSM Acquired by Airborne 3D Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Hongjian; LI Shukai

    2003-01-01

    Segmentation and edge regulation are studied deeply to extract buildings from DSM data produced in this paper. Building segmentation is the first step to extract buildings, and a new segmentation method-adaptive iterative segmentation considering ratio mean square-is proposed to extract the contour of buildings effectively. A sub-image (such as 50× 50 pixels )of the image is processed in sequence,the average gray level and its ratio mean square are calculated first, then threshold of the sub-image is selected by using iterative threshold segmentation. The current pixel is segmented according to the threshold, the aver-age gray level and the ratio mean square of the sub-image. The edge points of the building are grouped according to the azimuth of neighbor points, and then the optimal azimuth of the points that belong to the same group can be calculated by using line interpolation.

  15. Quality assessment of stereoscopic 3D image compression by binocular integration behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsun; Wu, Ja-Ling

    2014-04-01

    The objective approaches of 3D image quality assessment play a key role for the development of compression standards and various 3D multimedia applications. The quality assessment of 3D images faces more new challenges, such as asymmetric stereo compression, depth perception, and virtual view synthesis, than its 2D counterparts. In addition, the widely used 2D image quality metrics (e.g., PSNR and SSIM) cannot be directly applied to deal with these newly introduced challenges. This statement can be verified by the low correlation between the computed objective measures and the subjectively measured mean opinion scores (MOSs), when 3D images are the tested targets. In order to meet these newly introduced challenges, in this paper, besides traditional 2D image metrics, the binocular integration behaviors-the binocular combination and the binocular frequency integration, are utilized as the bases for measuring the quality of stereoscopic 3D images. The effectiveness of the proposed metrics is verified by conducting subjective evaluations on publicly available stereoscopic image databases. Experimental results show that significant consistency could be reached between the measured MOS and the proposed metrics, in which the correlation coefficient between them can go up to 0.88. Furthermore, we found that the proposed metrics can also address the quality assessment of the synthesized color-plus-depth 3D images well. Therefore, it is our belief that the binocular integration behaviors are important factors in the development of objective quality assessment for 3D images.

  16. Imaging of discontinuities in nonlinear 3-D seismic inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, P.M.; Cerveny, V. (PPPG/UFBA, Salvador (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    The authors present a nonlinear approach for reconstruction of discontinuities in geological environment (earth's crust, say). The advantage of the proposed method is that it is not limited to a Born approximation (small angles of propagation and weak scatterers). One can expect significantly better images since larger apertures including wide angle reflection arrivals can be incorporated into the imaging operator. In this paper, they treat only compressional body waves: shear and surface waves are considered as noise.

  17. Real-time auto-stereoscopic visualization of 3D medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoni, Luisa; Patak, Alexandre; Noirard, Pierre; Grossetie, Jean-Claude; van Berkel, Cees

    2000-04-01

    The work here described regards multi-viewer auto- stereoscopic visualization of 3D models of anatomical structures and organs of the human body. High-quality 3D models of more than 1600 anatomical structures have been reconstructed using the Visualization Toolkit, a freely available C++ class library for 3D graphics and visualization. 2D images used for 3D reconstruction comes from the Visible Human Data Set. Auto-stereoscopic 3D image visualization is obtained using a prototype monitor developed at Philips Research Labs, UK. This special multiview 3D-LCD screen has been connected directly to a SGI workstation, where 3D reconstruction and medical imaging applications are executed. Dedicated software has been developed to implement multiview capability. A number of static or animated contemporary views of the same object can simultaneously be seen on the 3D-LCD screen by several observers, having a real 3D perception of the visualized scene without the use of extra media as dedicated glasses or head-mounted displays. Developed software applications allow real-time interaction with visualized 3D models, didactical animations and movies have been realized as well.

  18. Contactless operating table control based on 3D image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Stephan; Loftfield, Nina; Langmann, Benjamin; Frank, Klaus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Interaction with mobile consumer devices leads to a higher acceptance and affinity of persons to natural user interfaces and perceptional interaction possibilities. New interaction modalities become accessible and are capable to improve human machine interaction even in complex and high risk environments, like the operation room. Here, manifold medical disciplines cause a great variety of procedures and thus staff and equipment. One universal challenge is to meet the sterility requirements, for which common contact-afflicted remote interfaces always pose a potential risk causing a hazard for the process. The proposed operating table control system overcomes this process risk and thus improves the system usability significantly. The 3D sensor system, the Microsoft Kinect, captures the motion of the user, allowing a touchless manipulation of an operating table. Three gestures enable the user to select, activate and manipulate all segments of the motorised system in a safe and intuitive way. The gesture dynamics are synchronised with the table movement. In a usability study, 15 participants evaluated the system with a system usability score by Broke of 79. This states a high potential for implementation and acceptance in interventional environments. In the near future, even processes with higher risks could be controlled with the proposed interface, while interfaces become safer and more direct.

  19. Image quality of a cone beam O-arm 3D imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Weir, Victor; Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Hsiang; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2009-02-01

    The O-arm is a cone beam imaging system designed primarily to support orthopedic surgery and is also used for image-guided and vascular surgery. Using a gantry that can be opened or closed, the O-arm can function as a 2-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy device or collect 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging data like a CT system. Clinical applications of the O-arm in spine surgical procedures, assessment of pedicle screw position, and kyphoplasty procedures show that the O-arm 3D mode provides enhanced imaging information compared to radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. In this study, the image quality of an O-arm system was quantitatively evaluated. A 20 cm diameter CATPHAN 424 phantom was scanned using the pre-programmed head protocols: small/medium (120 kVp, 100 mAs), large (120 kVp, 128 mAs), and extra-large (120 kVp, 160 mAs) in 3D mode. High resolution reconstruction mode (512×512×0.83 mm) was used to reconstruct images for the analysis of low and high contrast resolution, and noise power spectrum. MTF was measured using the point spread function. The results show that the O-arm image is uniform but with a noise pattern which cannot be removed by simply increasing the mAs. The high contrast resolution of the O-arm system was approximately 9 lp/cm. The system has a 10% MTF at 0.45 mm. The low-contrast resolution cannot be decided due to the noise pattern. For surgery where locations of a structure are emphasized over a survey of all image details, the image quality of the O-arm is well accepted clinically.

  20. Air-touch interaction system for integral imaging 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Han Yuan; Xiang, Lee Ming; Lee, Byung Gook

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an air-touch interaction system for the tabletop type integral imaging 3D display. This system consists of the real 3D image generation system based on integral imaging technique and the interaction device using a real-time finger detection interface. In this system, we used multi-layer B-spline surface approximation to detect the fingertip and gesture easily in less than 10cm height from the screen via input the hand image. The proposed system can be used in effective human computer interaction method for the tabletop type 3D display.

  1. Radar Imaging of Spheres in 3D using MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2003-01-21

    We have shown that multiple spheres can be imaged by linear and planar EM arrays using only one component of polarization. The imaging approach involves calculating the SVD of the scattering response matrix, selecting a subset of singular values that represents noise, and evaluating the MUSIC functional. The noise threshold applied to the spectrum of singular values for optimal performance is typically around 1%. The resulting signal subspace includes more than one singular value per sphere. The presence of reflections from the ground improves height localization, even for a linear array parallel to the ground. However, the interference between direct and reflected energy modulates the field, creating periodic nulls that can obscure targets in typical images. These nulls are largely eliminated by normalizing the MUSIC functional with the broadside beam pattern of the array. The resulting images show excellent localization for 1 and 2 spheres. The performance for the 3 sphere configurations are complicated by shadowing effects and the greater range of the 3rd sphere in case 2. Two of the three spheres are easily located by MUSIC but the third is difficult to distinguish from other local maxima of the complex imaging functional. Improvement is seen when the linear array is replace with a planar array, which increases the effective aperture height. Further analysis of the singular values and their relationship to modes of scattering from the spheres, as well as better ways to exploit polarization, should improve performance. Work along these lines is currently being pursued by the authors.

  2. 3D-2D registration of cerebral angiograms: a method and evaluation on clinical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Uroš; Špiclin, Žiga; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2013-08-01

    Endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGI) involve navigation of a catheter through the vasculature followed by application of treatment at the site of anomaly using live 2D projection images for guidance. 3D images acquired prior to EIGI are used to quantify the vascular anomaly and plan the intervention. If fused with the information of live 2D images they can also facilitate navigation and treatment. For this purpose 3D-2D image registration is required. Although several 3D-2D registration methods for EIGI achieve registration accuracy below 1 mm, their clinical application is still limited by insufficient robustness or reliability. In this paper, we propose a 3D-2D registration method based on matching a 3D vasculature model to intensity gradients of live 2D images. To objectively validate 3D-2D registration methods, we acquired a clinical image database of 10 patients undergoing cerebral EIGI and established "gold standard" registrations by aligning fiducial markers in 3D and 2D images. The proposed method had mean registration accuracy below 0.65 mm, which was comparable to tested state-of-the-art methods, and execution time below 1 s. With the highest rate of successful registrations and the highest capture range the proposed method was the most robust and thus a good candidate for application in EIGI.

  3. AN IMAGE-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR 3D BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION USING MULTI-VIEW UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alidoost

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the development of the urban areas, the automatic reconstruction of the buildings, as an important objects of the city complex structures, became a challenging topic in computer vision and photogrammetric researches. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs images is examined to provide a 3D model of complex building façades using an efficient image-based modelling workflow. The main steps of this work include: pose estimation, point cloud generation, and 3D modelling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM is applied on UAV images and a dense point cloud is generated. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using Delaunay 2.5D triangulation and refined to obtain an accurate model of building. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough details of building based on visual assessment.

  4. 3D spectral imaging system for anterior chamber metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Trevor; Segref, Armin; Frisken, Grant; Frisken, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Accurate metrology of the anterior chamber of the eye is useful for a number of diagnostic and clinical applications. In particular, accurate corneal topography and corneal thickness data is desirable for fitting contact lenses, screening for diseases and monitoring corneal changes. Anterior OCT systems can be used to measure anterior chamber surfaces, however accurate curvature measurements for single point scanning systems are known to be very sensitive to patient movement. To overcome this problem we have developed a parallel 3D spectral metrology system that captures simultaneous A-scans on a 2D lateral grid. This approach enables estimates of the elevation and curvature of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces that are robust to sample movement. Furthermore, multiple simultaneous surface measurements greatly improve the ability to register consecutive frames and enable aggregate measurements over a finer lateral grid. A key element of our approach has been to exploit standard low cost optical components including lenslet arrays and a 2D sensor to provide a path towards low cost implementation. We demonstrate first prototypes based on 6 Mpixel sensor using a 250 μm pitch lenslet array with 300 sample beams to achieve an RMS elevation accuracy of 1μm with 95 dB sensitivity and a 7.0 mm range. Initial tests on Porcine eyes, model eyes and calibration spheres demonstrate the validity of the concept. With the next iteration of designs we expect to be able to achieve over 1000 simultaneous A-scans in excess of 75 frames per second.

  5. Preliminary comparison of 3D synthetic aperture imaging with Explososcan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Hansen, Jens Munk; Ferin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    the cystic resolution, which expresses the ability to detect anechoic cysts in a uniform scattering media, at all depths except at Explososcan's focus point. Synthetic aperture reduced the cyst radius, R20dB, at 90mm depth by 48%. Synthetic aperture imaging was shown to reduce the number of transmit channels...

  6. Hybrid Method for 3D Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiang; ZHANGDazhi; TIANJinwen; LIUJian

    2003-01-01

    Segmentation of some complex images, especially in magnetic resonance brain images, is often difficult to perform satisfactory results using only single approach of image segmentation. An approach towards the integration of several techniques seems to be the best solution. In this paper a new hybrid method for 3-dimension segmentation of the whole brain is introduced, based on fuzzy region growing, edge detection and mathematical morphology, The gray-level threshold, controlling the process of region growing, is determined by fuzzy technique. The image gradient feature is obtained by the 3-dimension sobel operator considering a 3×3×3 data block with the voxel to be evaluated at the center, while the gradient magnitude threshold is defined by the gradient magnitude histogram of brain magnetic resonance volume. By the combined methods of edge detection and region growing, the white matter volume of human brain is segmented perfectly. By the post-processing using mathematical morphological techniques, the whole brain region is obtained. In order to investigate the validity of the hybrid method, two comparative experiments, the region growing method using only gray-level feature and the thresholding method by combining gray-level and gradient features, are carried out. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method provides much better results than the traditional method using a single technique in the 3-dimension segmentation of human brain magnetic resonance data sets.

  7. High definition 3D imaging lidar system using CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sungeun; Kong, Hong Jin; Bang, Hyochoong

    2016-10-01

    In this study we propose and demonstrate a novel technique for measuring distance with high definition three-dimensional imaging. To meet the stringent requirements of various missions, spatial resolution and range precision are important properties for flash LIDAR systems. The proposed LIDAR system employs a polarization modulator and a CCD. When a laser pulse is emitted from the laser, it triggers the polarization modulator. The laser pulse is scattered by the target and is reflected back to the LIDAR system while the polarization modulator is rotating. Its polarization state is a function of time. The laser-return pulse passes through the polarization modulator in a certain polarization state, and the polarization state is calculated using the intensities of the laser pulses measured by the CCD. Because the function of the time and the polarization state is already known, the polarization state can be converted to time-of-flight. By adopting a polarization modulator and a CCD and only measuring the energy of a laser pulse to obtain range, a high resolution three-dimensional image can be acquired by the proposed three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system. Since this system only measures the energy of the laser pulse, a high bandwidth detector and a high resolution TDC are not required for high range precision. The proposed method is expected to be an alternative method for many three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system applications that require high resolution.

  8. Intraoperative 3D Ultrasonography for Image-Guided Neurosurgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letteboer, Marloes Maria Johanna

    2004-01-01

    Stereotactic neurosurgery has evolved dramatically in recent years from the original rigid frame-based systems to the current frameless image-guided systems, which allow greater flexibility while maintaining sufficient accuracy. As these systems continue to evolve, more applications are found, and i

  9. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.;

    2014-01-01

    resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set....... The parameter of interest is the clay fraction, expressed as the relative length of clay units in a depth interval. The clay fraction is obtained from lithological logs and the clay fraction from the resistivity is obtained by establishing a simple petrophysical relationship, a translator function, between...... and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey...

  10. Electrical resistivity tomography applied to a complex lava dome: 2D and 3D models comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    interpretation. Geometry and location of ERT profiles on the Puy de Dôme volcano allow to compute 3D inversion models of the electrical resistivity distribution with a new inversion code. This code uses tetrahedrons to discretize the 3D model and uses also a conventional Gauss-Newton inversion scheme combined to an Occam regularisation to process the data. It allows to take into account all the data information and prevents the construction of 3D artefacts present in conventional 2D inversion results. Inversion results show a strong electrical resistivity heterogeneity of the entire dome. Underlying volcanic edifices are clearly identified below the lava dome. Generally speaking, the flanks of the volcano show high resistivity values, and the summit part is more conductive but also very heterogeneous.

  11. A 3-D fluorescence imaging system incorporating structured illumination technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos, L.; Emord, P.; Luquette, B.; McGee, B.; Nguyen, D.; Phipps, A.; Phillips, D.; Helguera, M.

    2010-02-01

    A currently available 2-D high-resolution, optical molecular imaging system was modified by the addition of a structured illumination source, OptigridTM, to investigate the feasibility of providing depth resolution along the optical axis. The modification involved the insertion of the OptigridTM and a lens in the path between the light source and the image plane, as well as control and signal processing software. Projection of the OptigridTM onto the imaging surface at an angle, was resolved applying the Scheimpflug principle. The illumination system implements modulation of the light source and provides a framework for capturing depth resolved mages. The system is capable of in-focus projection of the OptigridTM at different spatial frequencies, and supports the use of different lenses. A calibration process was developed for the system to achieve consistent phase shifts of the OptigridTM. Post-processing extracted depth information using depth modulation analysis using a phantom block with fluorescent sheets at different depths. An important aspect of this effort was that it was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of engineering and science students as part of a capstone senior design program. The disciplines represented are mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and imaging science. The project was sponsored by a financial grant from New York State with equipment support from two industrial concerns. The students were provided with a basic imaging concept and charged with developing, implementing, testing and validating a feasible proof-of-concept prototype system that was returned to the originator of the concept for further evaluation and characterization.

  12. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.

  13. Extended gray level co-occurrence matrix computation for 3D image volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Nurulazirah M.; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina

    2017-02-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is one of the main techniques for texture analysis that has been widely used in many applications. Conventional GLCMs usually focus on two-dimensional (2D) image texture analysis only. However, a three-dimensional (3D) image volume requires specific texture analysis computation. In this paper, an extended 2D to 3D GLCM approach based on the concept of multiple 2D plane positions and pixel orientation directions in the 3D environment is proposed. The algorithm was implemented by breaking down the 3D image volume into 2D slices based on five different plane positions (coordinate axes and oblique axes) resulting in 13 independent directions, then calculating the GLCMs. The resulted GLCMs were averaged to obtain normalized values, then the 3D texture features were calculated. A preliminary examination was performed on a 3D image volume (64 x 64 x 64 voxels). Our analysis confirmed that the proposed technique is capable of extracting the 3D texture features from the extended GLCMs approach. It is a simple and comprehensive technique that can contribute to the 3D image analysis.

  14. Synthesis of image sequences for Korean sign language using 3D shape model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Ho; Choi, Chang-Seok; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Joon-Hyeon

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for offering information and realizing communication to the deaf-mute. The deaf-mute communicates with another person by means of sign language, but most people are unfamiliar with it. This method enables to convert text data into the corresponding image sequences for Korean sign language (KSL). Using a general 3D shape model of the upper body leads to generating the 3D motions of KSL. It is necessary to construct the general 3D shape model considering the anatomical structure of the human body. To obtain a personal 3D shape model, this general model is to adjust to the personal base images. Image synthesis for KSL consists of deforming a personal 3D shape model and texture-mapping the personal images onto the deformed model. The 3D motions for KSL have the facial expressions and the 3D movements of the head, trunk, arms and hands and are parameterized for easily deforming the model. These motion parameters of the upper body are extracted from a skilled signer's motion for each KSL and are stored to the database. Editing the parameters according to the inputs of text data yields to generate the image sequences of 3D motions.

  15. FGG-NUFFT-Based Method for Near-Field 3-D Imaging Using Millimeter Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yingzhi; Zhu, Yongfeng; Tang, Liang; Fu, Qiang; Pei, Hucheng

    2016-09-19

    In this paper, to deal with the concealed target detection problem, an accurate and efficient algorithm for near-field millimeter wave three-dimensional (3-D) imaging is proposed that uses a two-dimensional (2-D) plane antenna array. First, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) is performed on the scattered data along the antenna array plane. Then, a phase shift is performed to compensate for the spherical wave effect. Finally, fast Gaussian gridding based nonuniform FFT (FGG-NUFFT) combined with 2-D inverse FFT (IFFT) is performed on the nonuniform 3-D spatial spectrum in the frequency wavenumber domain to achieve 3-D imaging. The conventional method for near-field 3-D imaging uses Stolt interpolation to obtain uniform spatial spectrum samples and performs 3-D IFFT to reconstruct a 3-D image. Compared with the conventional method, our FGG-NUFFT based method is comparable in both efficiency and accuracy in the full sampled case and can obtain more accurate images with less clutter and fewer noisy artifacts in the down-sampled case, which are good properties for practical applications. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the FGG-NUFFT-based near-field 3-D imaging algorithm can have better imaging performance than the conventional method for down-sampled measurements.

  16. FGG-NUFFT-Based Method for Near-Field 3-D Imaging Using Millimeter Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Kan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, to deal with the concealed target detection problem, an accurate and efficient algorithm for near-field millimeter wave three-dimensional (3-D imaging is proposed that uses a two-dimensional (2-D plane antenna array. First, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT is performed on the scattered data along the antenna array plane. Then, a phase shift is performed to compensate for the spherical wave effect. Finally, fast Gaussian gridding based nonuniform FFT (FGG-NUFFT combined with 2-D inverse FFT (IFFT is performed on the nonuniform 3-D spatial spectrum in the frequency wavenumber domain to achieve 3-D imaging. The conventional method for near-field 3-D imaging uses Stolt interpolation to obtain uniform spatial spectrum samples and performs 3-D IFFT to reconstruct a 3-D image. Compared with the conventional method, our FGG-NUFFT based method is comparable in both efficiency and accuracy in the full sampled case and can obtain more accurate images with less clutter and fewer noisy artifacts in the down-sampled case, which are good properties for practical applications. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the FGG-NUFFT-based near-field 3-D imaging algorithm can have better imaging performance than the conventional method for down-sampled measurements.

  17. Towards 3D ultrasound image based soft tissue tracking: a transrectal ultrasound prostate image alignment system

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Michael; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of real-time 3D ultrasound (US) makes it possible to consider image-based tracking of subcutaneous soft tissue targets for computer guided diagnosis and therapy. We propose a 3D transrectal US based tracking system for precise prostate biopsy sample localisation. The aim is to improve sample distribution, to enable targeting of unsampled regions for repeated biopsies, and to make post-interventional quality controls possible. Since the patient is not immobilized, since the prostate is mobile and due to the fact that probe movements are only constrained by the rectum during biopsy acquisition, the tracking system must be able to estimate rigid transformations that are beyond the capture range of common image similarity measures. We propose a fast and robust multi-resolution attribute-vector registration approach that combines global and local optimization methods to solve this problem. Global optimization is performed on a probe movement model that reduces the dimensionality of the search space a...

  18. How accurate are the fusion of cone-beam CT and 3-D stereophotographic images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas S N Jayaratne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and stereophotography are two of the latest imaging modalities available for three-dimensional (3-D visualization of craniofacial structures. However, CBCT provides only limited information on surface texture. This can be overcome by combining the bone images derived from CBCT with 3-D photographs. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the feasibility of integrating 3-D Photos and CBCT images 2 to assess degree of error that may occur during the above processes and 3 to identify facial regions that would be most appropriate for 3-D image registration. METHODOLOGY: CBCT scans and stereophotographic images from 29 patients were used for this study. Two 3-D images corresponding to the skin and bone were extracted from the CBCT data. The 3-D photo was superimposed on the CBCT skin image using relatively immobile areas of the face as a reference. 3-D colour maps were used to assess the accuracy of superimposition were distance differences between the CBCT and 3-D photo were recorded as the signed average and the Root Mean Square (RMS error. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The signed average and RMS of the distance differences between the registered surfaces were -0.018 (±0.129 mm and 0.739 (±0.239 mm respectively. The most errors were found in areas surrounding the lips and the eyes, while minimal errors were noted in the forehead, root of the nose and zygoma. CONCLUSIONS: CBCT and 3-D photographic data can be successfully fused with minimal errors. When compared to RMS, the signed average was found to under-represent the registration error. The virtual 3-D composite craniofacial models permit concurrent assessment of bone and soft tissues during diagnosis and treatment planning.

  19. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  20. Determining 3D flow fields via multi-camera light field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd T; Belden, Jesse; Nielson, Joseph R; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L

    2013-03-06

    In the field of fluid mechanics, the resolution of computational schemes has outpaced experimental methods and widened the gap between predicted and observed phenomena in fluid flows. Thus, a need exists for an accessible method capable of resolving three-dimensional (3D) data sets for a range of problems. We present a novel technique for performing quantitative 3D imaging of many types of flow fields. The 3D technique enables investigation of complicated velocity fields and bubbly flows. Measurements of these types present a variety of challenges to the instrument. For instance, optically dense bubbly multiphase flows cannot be readily imaged by traditional, non-invasive flow measurement techniques due to the bubbles occluding optical access to the interior regions of the volume of interest. By using Light Field Imaging we are able to reparameterize images captured by an array of cameras to reconstruct a 3D volumetric map for every time instance, despite partial occlusions in the volume. The technique makes use of an algorithm known as synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing, whereby a 3D focal stack is generated by combining images from several cameras post-capture (1). Light Field Imaging allows for the capture of angular as well as spatial information about the light rays, and hence enables 3D scene reconstruction. Quantitative information can then be extracted from the 3D reconstructions using a variety of processing algorithms. In particular, we have developed measurement methods based on Light Field Imaging for performing 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV), extracting bubbles in a 3D field and tracking the boundary of a flickering flame. We present the fundamentals of the Light Field Imaging methodology in the context of our setup for performing 3DPIV of the airflow passing over a set of synthetic vocal folds, and show representative results from application of the technique to a bubble-entraining plunging jet.

  1. Anesthesiology training using 3D imaging and virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blezek, Daniel J.; Robb, Richard A.; Camp, Jon J.; Nauss, Lee A.

    1996-04-01

    Current training for regional nerve block procedures by anesthesiology residents requires expert supervision and the use of cadavers; both of which are relatively expensive commodities in today's cost-conscious medical environment. We are developing methods to augment and eventually replace these training procedures with real-time and realistic computer visualizations and manipulations of the anatomical structures involved in anesthesiology procedures, such as nerve plexus injections (e.g., celiac blocks). The initial work is focused on visualizations: both static images and rotational renderings. From the initial results, a coherent paradigm for virtual patient and scene representation will be developed.

  2. 3D super-resolution imaging by localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenau, Astrid; Gaus, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in all fields of biology to visualize structures and monitor dynamic processes and distributions. Contrary to conventional microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy, which are limited by their spatial resolution, super-resolution techniques such as photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) have made it possible to observe and quantify structure and processes on the single molecule level. Here, we describe a method to image and quantify the molecular distribution of membrane-associated proteins in two and three dimensions with nanometer resolution.

  3. 3D CARS image reconstruction and pattern recognition on SHG images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Vogler, Nadine; Latka, Ines; Dietzek, Benjamin; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco S.; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging techniques based e.g. on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or second-harmonic generation (SHG) show great potential for in-vivo investigations of tissue. While the microspectroscopic imaging tools are established, automized data evaluation, i.e. image pattern recognition and automized image classification, of nonlinear optical images still bares great possibilities for future developments towards an objective clinical diagnosis. This contribution details the capability of nonlinear microscopy for both 3D visualization of human tissues and automated discrimination between healthy and diseased patterns using ex-vivo human skin samples. By means of CARS image alignment we show how to obtain a quasi-3D model of a skin biopsy, which allows us to trace the tissue structure in different projections. Furthermore, the potential of automated pattern and organization recognition to distinguish between healthy and keloidal skin tissue is discussed. A first classification algorithm employs the intrinsic geometrical features of collagen, which can be efficiently visualized by SHG microscopy. The shape of the collagen pattern allows conclusions about the physiological state of the skin, as the typical wavy collagen structure of healthy skin is disturbed e.g. in keloid formation. Based on the different collagen patterns a quantitative score characterizing the collagen waviness - and hence reflecting the physiological state of the tissue - is obtained. Further, two additional scoring methods for collagen organization, respectively based on a statistical analysis of the mutual organization of fibers and on FFT, are presented.

  4. Combining Street View and Aerial Images to Create Photo-Realistic 3D City Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ivarsson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This thesis evaluates two different approaches of using panoramic street view images for creating more photo-realistic 3D city models comparing to 3D city models based on only aerial images. The thesis work has been carried out at Blom Sweden AB with the use of their software and data. The main purpose of this thesis work has been to investigate if street view images can aid in creating more photo-realistic 3D city models on street level through an automatic or semi-automatic approach. Two di...

  5. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    N. Soontranon; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-01-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around $1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architec...

  6. Simulating receptive fields of human visual cortex for 3D image quality prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Chen, Wanting; Lin, Wenchong; Jiang, Qiuping; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-07-20

    Quality assessment of 3D images presents many challenges when attempting to gain better understanding of the human visual system. In this paper, we propose a new 3D image quality prediction approach by simulating receptive fields (RFs) of human visual cortex. To be more specific, we extract the RFs from a complete visual pathway, and calculate their similarity indices between the reference and distorted 3D images. The final quality score is obtained by determining their connections via support vector regression. Experimental results on three 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that in comparison with the most relevant existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency alignment with subjective assessment, especially for asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic images.

  7. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering Architectures, Techniques and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lu; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Riding on the success of 3D cinema blockbusters and advances in stereoscopic display technology, 3D video applications have gathered momentum in recent years. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering: Architectures, Techniques and Challenges surveys depth-image-based 3D-TV systems, which are expected to be put into applications in the near future. Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) significantly enhances the 3D visual experience compared to stereoscopic systems currently in use. DIBR techniques make it possible to generate additional viewpoints using 3D warping techniques to adjust the perceived depth of stereoscopic videos and provide for auto-stereoscopic displays that do not require glasses for viewing the 3D image.   The material includes a technical review and literature survey of components and complete systems, solutions for technical issues, and implementation of prototypes. The book is organized into four sections: System Overview, Content Generation, Data Compression and Transmission, and 3D V...

  8. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, Ketut E.; Wilkinson, Michael. H. F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter. M. A.; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Sardjono, Tri A.; Verkerke, Gijbertus J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis wh

  9. Three dimensional (3d) transverse oscillation vector velocity ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (300) includes a transducer array (302) with a two- dimensional array of transducer elements configured to transmit an ultrasound signal and receive echoes, transmit circuitry (304) configured to control the transducer array to transmit the ultrasound signal so...... as to traverse a field of view, and receive circuitry (306) configured to receive a two dimensional set of echoes produced in response to the ultrasound signal traversing structure in the field of view, wherein the structure includes flowing structures such as flowing blood cells, organ cells etc. A beamformer...... (312) configured to beamform the echoes, and a velocity processor (314) configured to separately determine a depth velocity component, a transverse velocity component and an elevation velocity component, wherein the velocity components are determined based on the same transmitted ultrasound signal...

  10. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling: Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.

    2015-03-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D interactive modelling environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. We also introduce a new approach to constrain the interpretation of the satellite gravity measurements that can be applied using any 3D geophysical model.

  11. 2D and 3D MALDI-imaging: conceptual strategies for visualization and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Herbert; Heldmann, Stefan; Trede, Dennis; Strehlow, Jan; Wirtz, Stefan; Dreher, Wolfgang; Berger, Judith; Oetjen, Janina; Kobarg, Jan Hendrik; Fischer, Bernd; Maass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    3D imaging has a significant impact on many challenges in life sciences, because biology is a 3-dimensional phenomenon. Current 3D imaging-technologies (various types MRI, PET, SPECT) are labeled, i.e. they trace the localization of a specific compound in the body. In contrast, 3D MALDI mass spectrometry-imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a label-free method imaging the spatial distribution of molecular compounds. It complements 3D imaging labeled methods, immunohistochemistry, and genetics-based methods. However, 3D MALDI-MSI cannot tap its full potential due to the lack of statistical methods for analysis and interpretation of large and complex 3D datasets. To overcome this, we established a complete and robust 3D MALDI-MSI pipeline combined with efficient computational data analysis methods for 3D edge preserving image denoising, 3D spatial segmentation as well as finding colocalized m/z values, which will be reviewed here in detail. Furthermore, we explain, why the integration and correlation of the MALDI imaging data with other imaging modalities allows to enhance the interpretation of the molecular data and provides visualization of molecular patterns that may otherwise not be apparent. Therefore, a 3D data acquisition workflow is described generating a set of 3 different dimensional images representing the same anatomies. First, an in-vitro MRI measurement is performed which results in a three-dimensional image modality representing the 3D structure of the measured object. After sectioning the 3D object into N consecutive slices, all N slices are scanned using an optical digital scanner, enabling for performing the MS measurements. Scanning the individual sections results into low-resolution images, which define the base coordinate system for the whole pipeline. The scanned images conclude the information from the spatial (MRI) and the mass spectrometric (MALDI-MSI) dimension and are used for the spatial three-dimensional reconstruction of the object performed by image

  12. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas DB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available David B Douglas,1 Emanuel F Petricoin,2 Lance Liotta,2 Eugene Wilson3 1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, 3Department of Radiology, Fort Benning, Columbus, GA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D augmented reality”. Materials and methods: A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results: The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion: The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. Keywords: augmented reality, 3D medical imaging, radiology, depth perception

  13. A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longair Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current imaging methods such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Confocal microscopy, Electron Microscopy (EM or Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM yield three-dimensional (3D data sets in need of appropriate computational methods for their analysis. The reconstruction, segmentation and registration are best approached from the 3D representation of the data set. Results Here we present a platform-independent framework based on Java and Java 3D for accelerated rendering of biological images. Our framework is seamlessly integrated into ImageJ, a free image processing package with a vast collection of community-developed biological image analysis tools. Our framework enriches the ImageJ software libraries with methods that greatly reduce the complexity of developing image analysis tools in an interactive 3D visualization environment. In particular, we provide high-level access to volume rendering, volume editing, surface extraction, and image annotation. The ability to rely on a library that removes the low-level details enables concentrating software development efforts on the algorithm implementation parts. Conclusions Our framework enables biomedical image software development to be built with 3D visualization capabilities with very little effort. We offer the source code and convenient binary packages along with extensive documentation at http://3dviewer.neurofly.de.

  14. Software for browsing sectioned images of a dog body and generating a 3D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Jung, Yong Wook

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to provide accessible and instructive browsing software for sectioned images and a portable document format (PDF) file that includes three-dimensional (3D) models of an entire dog body and (2) to develop techniques for segmentation and 3D modeling that would enable an investigator to perform these tasks without the aid of a computer engineer. To achieve these goals, relatively important or large structures in the sectioned images were outlined to generate segmented images. The sectioned and segmented images were then packaged into browsing software. In this software, structures in the sectioned images are shown in detail and in real color. After 3D models were made from the segmented images, the 3D models were exported into a PDF file. In this format, the 3D models could be manipulated freely. The browsing software and PDF file are available for study by students, for lecture for teachers, and for training for clinicians. These files will be helpful for anatomical study by and clinical training of veterinary students and clinicians. Furthermore, these techniques will be useful for researchers who study two-dimensional images and 3D models.

  15. An adaptive 3-D discrete cosine transform coder for medical image compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, S C; Wu, Y G; Lin, C W

    2000-09-01

    In this communication, a new three-dimensional (3-D) discrete cosine transform (DCT) coder for medical images is presented. In the proposed method, a segmentation technique based on the local energy magnitude is used to segment subblocks of the image into different energy levels. Then, those subblocks with the same energy level are gathered to form a 3-D cuboid. Finally, 3-D DCT is employed to compress the 3-D cuboid individually. Simulation results show that the reconstructed images achieve a bit rate lower than 0.25 bit per pixel even when the compression ratios are higher than 35. As compared with the results by JPEG and other strategies, it is found that the proposed method achieves better qualities of decoded images than by JPEG and the other strategies.

  16. A Compact, Wide Area Surveillance 3D Imaging LIDAR Providing UAS Sense and Avoid Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eye safe 3D Imaging LIDARS when combined with advanced very high sensitivity, large format receivers can provide a robust wide area search capability in a very...

  17. 3D Modeling of Transformer Substation Based on Mapping and 2D Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for building 3D models of transformer substation based on mapping and 2D images is proposed in this paper. This method segments objects of equipment in 2D images by using k-means algorithm in determining the cluster centers dynamically to segment different shapes and then extracts feature parameters from the divided objects by using FFT and retrieves the similar objects from 3D databases and then builds 3D models by computing the mapping data. The method proposed in this paper can avoid the complex data collection and big workload by using 3D laser scanner. The example analysis shows the method can build coarse 3D models efficiently which can meet the requirements for hazardous area classification and constructions representations of transformer substation.

  18. High-throughput imaging: Focusing in on drug discovery in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfeng; Zhou, Qiong; Voss, Ty C; Quick, Kevin L; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2016-03-01

    3D organotypic culture models such as organoids and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are becoming more widely used for drug discovery and toxicology screening. As a result, 3D culture technologies adapted for high-throughput screening formats are prevalent. While a multitude of assays have been reported and validated for high-throughput imaging (HTI) and high-content screening (HCS) for novel drug discovery and toxicology, limited HTI/HCS with large compound libraries have been reported. Nonetheless, 3D HTI instrumentation technology is advancing and this technology is now on the verge of allowing for 3D HCS of thousands of samples. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art high-throughput imaging systems, including hardware and software, and recent literature examples of 3D organotypic culture models employing this technology for drug discovery and toxicology screening.

  19. Wide area 2D/3D imaging development, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Langmann, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Imaging technology is an important research area and it is widely utilized in a growing number of disciplines ranging from gaming, robotics and automation to medicine. In the last decade 3D imaging became popular mainly driven by the introduction of novel 3D cameras and measuring devices. These cameras are usually limited to indoor scenes with relatively low distances. Benjamin Langmann introduces medium and long-range 2D/3D cameras to overcome these limitations. He reports measurement results for these devices and studies their characteristic behavior. In order to facilitate the application o

  20. A novel modeling method for manufacturing hearing aid using 3D medical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to suggest a novel method of modeling a hearing aid ear shell based on Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) in the hearing aid ear shell manufacturing method using a 3D printer. In the experiment, a 3D external auditory meatus was extracted by using the critical values in the DICOM volume images, a nd t he modeling surface structures were compared in standard type STL (STereoLithography) files which could be recognized by a 3D printer. In this 3D modeling method, a conventional ear model was prepared, and the gaps between adjacent isograms produced by a 3D scanner were filled with 3D surface fragments to express the modeling structure. In this study, the same type of triangular surface structures were prepared by using the DICOM images. The result showed that the modeling surface structure based on the DICOM images provide the same environment that the conventional 3D printers may recognize, eventually enabling to print out the hearing aid ear shell shape.

  1. A 2D and 3D electrical impedance tomography imaging using experimental data

    OpenAIRE

    Shulga, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    In this paper model, method and results of 2D and 3D conductivity distribution imaging using experimental data are described. The 16-electrodes prototype of computer tomography system, special Matlab and Java software were used to perform imaging procedure. The developed system can be used for experimental conductivity distribution imaging and further research work.

  2. The application of camera calibration in range-gated 3D imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-quan; Wang, Xian-wei; Zhou, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Range-gated laser imaging technology was proposed in 1966 by LF Gillespiethe in U.S. Army Night Vision Laboratory(NVL). Using pulse laser and intensified charge-coupled device(ICCD) as light source and detector respectively, range-gated laser imaging technology can realize space-slice imaging while restraining the atmospheric backs-catter, and in turn detect the target effectively, by controlling the delay between the laser pulse and strobe. Owing to the constraints of the development of key components such as narrow pulse laser and gated imaging devices, the research has been progressed slowly in the next few decades. Until the beginning of this century, as the hardware technology continues to mature, this technology has developed rapidly in fields such as night vision, underwater imaging, biomedical imaging, three-dimensional imaging, especially range-gated three-dimensional(3-D) laser imaging field purposing of access to target spatial information. 3-D reconstruction is the processing of restoration of 3-D objects visible surface geometric structure from three-dimensional(2-D) image. Range-gated laser imaging technology can achieve gated imaging of slice space to form a slice image, and in turn provide the distance information corresponding to the slice image. But to inverse the information of 3-D space, we need to obtain the imaging visual field of system, that is, the focal length of the system. Then based on the distance information of the space slice, the spatial information of each unit space corresponding to each pixel can be inversed. Camera calibration is an indispensable step in 3-D reconstruction, including analysis of the internal structure of camera parameters and the external parameters . In order to meet the technical requirements of the range-gated 3-D imaging, this paper intends to study the calibration of the zoom lens system. After summarizing the camera calibration technique comprehensively, a classic calibration method based on line is

  3. 3D reconstructions with pixel-based images are made possible by digitally clearing plant and animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reconstruction of 3D images from a series of 2D images has been restricted by the limited capacity to decrease the opacity of surrounding tissue. Commercial software that allows color-keying and manipulation of 2D images in true 3D space allowed us to produce 3D reconstructions from pixel based imag...

  4. Applications of Panoramic Images: from 720° Panorama to Interior 3d Models of Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-C.; Tsai, F.

    2015-05-01

    A series of panoramic images are usually used to generate a 720° panorama image. Although panoramic images are typically used for establishing tour guiding systems, in this research, we demonstrate the potential of using panoramic images acquired from multiple sites to create not only 720° panorama, but also three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and 3D indoor models. Since 3D modeling is one of the goals of this research, the location of the panoramic sites needed to be carefully planned in order to maintain a robust result for close-range photogrammetry. After the images are acquired, panoramic images are processed into 720° panoramas, and these panoramas which can be used directly as panorama guiding systems or other applications. In addition to these straightforward applications, interior orientation parameters can also be estimated while generating 720° panorama. These parameters are focal length, principle point, and lens radial distortion. The panoramic images can then be processed with closerange photogrammetry procedures to extract the exterior orientation parameters and generate 3D point clouds. In this research, VisaulSFM, a structure from motion software is used to estimate the exterior orientation, and CMVS toolkit is used to generate 3D point clouds. Next, the 3D point clouds are used as references to create building interior models. In this research, Trimble Sketchup was used to build the model, and the 3D point cloud was added to the determining of locations of building objects using plane finding procedure. In the texturing process, the panorama images are used as the data source for creating model textures. This 3D indoor model was used as an Augmented Reality model replacing a guide map or a floor plan commonly used in an on-line touring guide system. The 3D indoor model generating procedure has been utilized in two research projects: a cultural heritage site at Kinmen, and Taipei Main Station pedestrian zone guidance and navigation system. The

  5. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  6. Mixed reality orthognathic surgical simulation by entity model manipulation and 3D-image display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonagayoshi, Tatsunari; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    In orthognathic surgery, the framing of 3D-surgical planning that considers the balance between the front and back positions and the symmetry of the jawbone, as well as the dental occlusion of teeth, is essential. In this study, a support system for orthodontic surgery to visualize the changes in the mandible and the occlusal condition and to determine the optimum position in mandibular osteotomy has been developed. By integrating the operating portion of a tooth model that is to determine the optimum occlusal position by manipulating the entity tooth model and the 3D-CT skeletal images (3D image display portion) that are simultaneously displayed in real-time, the determination of the mandibular position and posture in which the improvement of skeletal morphology and occlusal condition is considered, is possible. The realistic operation of the entity model and the virtual 3D image display enabled the construction of a surgical simulation system that involves augmented reality.

  7. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching.

  8. Deformation analysis of 3D tagged cardiac images using an optical flow method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorman Robert C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study proposes and validates a method of measuring 3D strain in myocardium using a 3D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR tissue-tagging sequence and a 3D optical flow method (OFM. Methods Initially, a 3D tag MR sequence was developed and the parameters of the sequence and 3D OFM were optimized using phantom images with simulated deformation. This method then was validated in-vivo and utilized to quantify normal sheep left ventricular functions. Results Optimizing imaging and OFM parameters in the phantom study produced sub-pixel root-mean square error (RMS between the estimated and known displacements in the x (RMSx = 0.62 pixels (0.43 mm, y (RMSy = 0.64 pixels (0.45 mm and z (RMSz = 0.68 pixels (1 mm direction, respectively. In-vivo validation demonstrated excellent correlation between the displacement measured by manually tracking tag intersections and that generated by 3D OFM (R ≥ 0.98. Technique performance was maintained even with 20% Gaussian noise added to the phantom images. Furthermore, 3D tracking of 3D cardiac motions resulted in a 51% decrease in in-plane tracking error as compared to 2D tracking. The in-vivo function studies showed that maximum wall thickening was greatest in the lateral wall, and increased from both apex and base towards the mid-ventricular region. Regional deformation patterns are in agreement with previous studies on LV function. Conclusion A novel method was developed to measure 3D LV wall deformation rapidly with high in-plane and through-plane resolution from one 3D cine acquisition.

  9. Automatic masking for robust 3D-2D image registration in image-guided spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    During spinal neurosurgery, patient-specific information, planning, and annotation such as vertebral labels can be mapped from preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative 2D radiographs via image-based 3D-2D registration. Such registration has been shown to provide a potentially valuable means of decision support in target localization as well as quality assurance of the surgical product. However, robust registration can be challenged by mismatch in image content between the preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs, arising, for example, from anatomical deformation or the presence of surgical tools within the radiograph. In this work, we develop and evaluate methods for automatically mitigating the effect of content mismatch by leveraging the surgical planning data to assign greater weight to anatomical regions known to be reliable for registration and vital to the surgical task while removing problematic regions that are highly deformable or often occluded by surgical tools. We investigated two approaches to assigning variable weight (i.e., "masking") to image content and/or the similarity metric: (1) masking the preoperative 3D CT ("volumetric masking"); and (2) masking within the 2D similarity metric calculation ("projection masking"). The accuracy of registration was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) in 61 cases selected from an IRB-approved clinical study. The best performing of the masking techniques was found to reduce the rate of gross failure (PDE > 20 mm) from 11.48% to 5.57% in this challenging retrospective data set. These approaches provided robustness to content mismatch and eliminated distinct failure modes of registration. Such improvement was gained without additional workflow and has motivated incorporation of the masking methods within a system under development for prospective clinical studies.

  10. 3D soft tissue imaging with a mobile C-arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Dieter; Orman, Jasmina; Schmidgunst, Christian; Graumann, Rainer

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a clinical prototype for 3D soft tissue imaging to support surgical or interventional procedures based on a mobile C-arm. An overview of required methods and materials is followed by first clinical images of animals and human patients including dosimetry. The mobility and flexibility of 3D C-arms gives free access to the patient and therefore avoids relocation of the patient between imaging and surgical intervention. Image fusion with diagnostic data (MRI, CT, PET) is demonstrated and promising applications for brachytherapy, RFTT and others are discussed.

  11. Simultaneous whole-animal 3D-imaging of neuronal activity using light field microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Prevedel, R; Hoffmann, M; Pak, N; Wetzstein, G; Kato, S; Schrödel, T; Raskar, R; Zimmer, M; Boyden, E S; Vaziri, A

    2014-01-01

    3D functional imaging of neuronal activity in entire organisms at single cell level and physiologically relevant time scales faces major obstacles due to trade-offs between the size of the imaged volumes, and spatial and temporal resolution. Here, using light-field microscopy in combination with 3D deconvolution, we demonstrate intrinsically simultaneous volumetric functional imaging of neuronal population activity at single neuron resolution for an entire organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The simplicity of our technique and possibility of the integration into epi-fluoresence microscopes makes it an attractive tool for high-speed volumetric calcium imaging.

  12. Development of goniophotometric imaging system for recording reflectance spectra of 3D objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsho, Kazutaka; Akao, Y.; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, it is required to develop a system for 3D capture of archives in museums and galleries. In visualizing of 3D object, it is important to reproduce both color and glossiness accurately. Our final goal is to construct digital archival systems in museum and internet or virtual museum via World Wide Web. To achieve our goal, we have developed gonio-photometric imaging system by using high accurate multi-spectral camera and 3D digitizer. In this paper, gonio-photometric imaging method is introduced for recording 3D object. 5-bands images of the object are taken under 7 different illuminants angles. The 5-band image sequences are then analyzed on the basis of both dichromatic reflection model and Phong model to extract gonio-photometric property of the object. The images of the 3D object under illuminants with arbitrary spectral radiant distribution, illuminating angles, and visual points are rendered by using OpenGL with the 3D shape and gonio-photometric property.

  13. Intelligent multisensor concept for image-guided 3D object measurement with scanning laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Juergen

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents an intelligent multisensor concept for measuring 3D objects using an image guided laser radar scanner. The field of application are all kinds of industrial inspection and surveillance tasks where it is necessary to detect, measure and recognize 3D objects in distances up to 10 m with high flexibility. Such applications might be the surveillance of security areas or container storages as well as navigation and collision avoidance of autonomous guided vehicles. The multisensor system consists of a standard CCD matrix camera and a 1D laser radar ranger which is mounted to a 2D mirror scanner. With this sensor combination it is possible to acquire gray scale intensity data as well as absolute 3D information. To improve the system performance and flexibility, the intensity data of the scene captured by the camera can be used to focus the measurement of the 3D sensor to relevant areas. The camera guidance of the laser scanner is useful because the acquisition of spatial information is relatively slow compared to the image sensor's ability to snap an image frame in 40 ms. Relevant areas in a scene are located by detecting edges of objects utilizing various image processing algorithms. The complete sensor system is controlled by three microprocessors carrying out the 3D data acquisition, the image processing tasks and the multisensor integration. The paper deals with the details of the multisensor concept. It describes the process of sensor guidance and 3D measurement and presents some practical results of our research.

  14. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  15. Label free cell tracking in 3D tissue engineering constructs with high resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. A.; Lam, K.-P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Mazzocchi-Jones, D.; Richardson, J. B.; Yang, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering there is an emphasis on studying 3-D live tissue structures. Consequently, to investigate and identify cellular activities and phenotypes in a 3-D environment for all in vitro experiments, including shape, migration/proliferation and axon projection, it is necessary to adopt an optical imaging system that enables monitoring 3-D cellular activities and morphology through the thickness of the construct for an extended culture period without cell labeling. This paper describes a new 3-D tracking algorithm developed for Cell-IQ®, an automated cell imaging platform, which has been equipped with an environmental chamber optimized to enable capturing time-lapse sequences of live cell images over a long-term period without cell labeling. As an integral part of the algorithm, a novel auto-focusing procedure was developed for phase contrast microscopy equipped with 20x and 40x objectives, to provide a more accurate estimation of cell growth/trajectories by allowing 3-D voxels to be computed at high spatiotemporal resolution and cell density. A pilot study was carried out in a phantom system consisting of horizontally aligned nanofiber layers (with precise spacing between them), to mimic features well exemplified in cellular activities of neuronal growth in a 3-D environment. This was followed by detailed investigations concerning axonal projections and dendritic circuitry formation in a 3-D tissue engineering construct. Preliminary work on primary animal neuronal cells in response to chemoattractant and topographic cue within the scaffolds has produced encouraging results.

  16. 3D-MSCT imaging of bullet trajectory in 3D crime scene reconstruction: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colard, T; Delannoy, Y; Bresson, F; Marechal, C; Raul, J S; Hedouin, V

    2013-11-01

    Postmortem investigations are increasingly assisted by three-dimensional multi-slice computed tomography (3D-MSCT) and have become more available to forensic pathologists over the past 20years. In cases of ballistic wounds, 3D-MSCT can provide an accurate description of the bullet location, bone fractures and, more interestingly, a clear visual of the intracorporeal trajectory (bullet track). These forensic medical examinations can be combined with tridimensional bullet trajectory reconstructions created by forensic ballistic experts. These case reports present the implementation of tridimensional methods and the results of 3D crime scene reconstruction in two cases. The authors highlight the value of collaborations between police forensic experts and forensic medicine institutes through the incorporation of 3D-MSCT data in a crime scene reconstruction, which is of great interest in forensic science as a clear visual communication tool between experts and the court.

  17. An Image Hiding Scheme Using 3D Sawtooth Map and Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Ye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An image encryption scheme based on the 3D sawtooth map is proposed in this paper. The 3D sawtooth map is utilized to generate chaotic orbits to permute the pixel positions and to generate pseudo-random gray value sequences to change the pixel gray values. The image encryption scheme is then applied to encrypt the secret image which will be imbedded in one host image. The encrypted secret image and the host image are transformed by the wavelet transform and then are merged in the frequency domain. Experimental results show that the stego-image looks visually identical to the original host one and the secret image can be effectively extracted upon image processing attacks, which demonstrates strong robustness against a variety of attacks.

  18. 3D X-ray imaging methods in support catheter ablations of cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárek, Zdeněk; Lehar, František; Jež, Jiří; Wolf, Jiří; Novák, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a very frequent illness. Pharmacotherapy is not very effective in persistent arrhythmias and brings along a number of risks. Catheter ablation has became an effective and curative treatment method over the past 20 years. To support complex arrhythmia ablations, the 3D X-ray cardiac cavities imaging is used, most frequently the 3D reconstruction of CT images. The 3D cardiac rotational angiography (3DRA) represents a modern method enabling to create CT like 3D images on a standard X-ray machine equipped with special software. Its advantage lies in the possibility to obtain images during the procedure, decreased radiation dose and reduction of amount of the contrast agent. The left atrium model is the one most frequently used for complex atrial arrhythmia ablations, particularly for atrial fibrillation. CT data allow for creation and segmentation of 3D models of all cardiac cavities. Recently, a research has been made proving the use of 3DRA to create 3D models of other cardiac (right ventricle, left ventricle, aorta) and non-cardiac structures (oesophagus). They can be used during catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias to improve orientation during the construction of 3D electroanatomic maps, directly fused with 3D electroanatomic systems and/or fused with fluoroscopy. An intensive development in the 3D model creation and use has taken place over the past years and they became routinely used during catheter ablations of arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. Further development may be anticipated in the future in both the creation and use of these models.

  19. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  20. 3D city models completion by fusing lidar and image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, L.; Kalisperakis, I.; Petsa, E.; Stentoumis, C.

    2015-05-01

    A fundamental step in the generation of visually detailed 3D city models is the acquisition of high fidelity 3D data. Typical approaches employ DSM representations usually derived from Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) airborne scanning or image based procedures. In this contribution, we focus on the fusion of data from both these methods in order to enhance or complete them. Particularly, we combine an existing Lidar and orthomosaic dataset (used as reference), with a new aerial image acquisition (including both vertical and oblique imagery) of higher resolution, which was carried out in the area of Kallithea, in Athens, Greece. In a preliminary step, a digital orthophoto and a DSM is generated from the aerial images in an arbitrary reference system, by employing a Structure from Motion and dense stereo matching framework. The image-to-Lidar registration is performed by 2D feature (SIFT and SURF) extraction and matching among the two orthophotos. The established point correspondences are assigned with 3D coordinates through interpolation on the reference Lidar surface, are then backprojected onto the aerial images, and finally matched with 2D image features located in the vicinity of the backprojected 3D points. Consequently, these points serve as Ground Control Points with appropriate weights for final orientation and calibration of the images through a bundle adjustment solution. By these means, the aerial imagery which is optimally aligned to the reference dataset can be used for the generation of an enhanced and more accurately textured 3D city model.

  1. Gonio photometric imaging for recording of reflectance spectra of 3D objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoichi; Tsumura, Norimichi; Haneishi, Hideaki; Hayashi, Junichiro

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, it is required to develop a system for 3D capture of archives in museums and galleries. In visualizing of 3D object, it is important to reproduce both color and glossiness accurately. Our final goal is to construct digital archival systems in museum and Internet or virtual museum via World Wide Web. To archive our goal, we have developed the multi-spectral imaging systems to record and estimate reflectance spectra of the art paints based on principal component analysis and Wiener estimation method. In this paper, Gonio photometric imaging method is introduced for recording of 3D object. Five-band images of the object are taken under seven different illuminants angles. The set of five-band images are then analyzed on the basis of both dichromatic reflection model and Phong model to extract Gonio photometric information of the object. Prediction of reproduced images of the object under several illuminants and illumination angles is demonstrated and images that are synthesized with 3D wire frame image taken by 3D digitizer are also presented.

  2. Image Sequence Fusion and Denoising Based on 3D Shearlet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel algorithm for image sequence fusion and denoising simultaneously in 3D shearlet transform domain. In general, the most existing image fusion methods only consider combining the important information of source images and do not deal with the artifacts. If source images contain noises, the noises may be also transferred into the fusion image together with useful pixels. In 3D shearlet transform domain, we propose that the recursive filter is first performed on the high-pass subbands to obtain the denoised high-pass coefficients. The high-pass subbands are then combined to employ the fusion rule of the selecting maximum based on 3D pulse coupled neural network (PCNN, and the low-pass subband is fused to use the fusion rule of the weighted sum. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm yields the encouraging effects.

  3. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 350 Serra Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lee, Brian J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, 440 Escondido Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Levin, Craig S., E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu [Departments of Radiology, Physics, Bioengineering and Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Dr., Stanford, California 94305-5128 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  4. Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaidong; Song, Changyong; Chen, Chien-Chun; Xu, Rui; Raines, Kevin S; Fahimian, Benjamin P; Lu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Nakashima, Akio; Urano, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Miao, Jianwei

    2010-06-22

    Microscopy has greatly advanced our understanding of biology. Although significant progress has recently been made in optical microscopy to break the diffraction-limit barrier, reliance of such techniques on fluorescent labeling technologies prohibits quantitative 3D imaging of the entire contents of cells. Cryoelectron microscopy can image pleomorphic structures at a resolution of 3-5 nm, but is only applicable to thin or sectioned specimens. Here, we report quantitative 3D imaging of a whole, unstained cell at a resolution of 50-60 nm by X-ray diffraction microscopy. We identified the 3D morphology and structure of cellular organelles including cell wall, vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, granules, nucleus, and nucleolus inside a yeast spore cell. Furthermore, we observed a 3D structure protruding from the reconstructed yeast spore, suggesting the spore germination process. Using cryogenic technologies, a 3D resolution of 5-10 nm should be achievable by X-ray diffraction microscopy. This work hence paves a way for quantitative 3D imaging of a wide range of biological specimens at nanometer-scale resolutions that are too thick for electron microscopy.

  5. 3D Imaging for hand gesture recognition: Exploring the software-hardware interaction of current technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periverzov, Frol; Ilieş, Horea T.

    2012-09-01

    Interaction with 3D information is one of the fundamental and most familiar tasks in virtually all areas of engineering and science. Several recent technological advances pave the way for developing hand gesture recognition capabilities available to all, which will lead to more intuitive and efficient 3D user interfaces (3DUI). These developments can unlock new levels of expression and productivity in all activities concerned with the creation and manipulation of virtual 3D shapes and, specifically, in engineering design. Building fully automated systems for tracking and interpreting hand gestures requires robust and efficient 3D imaging techniques as well as potent shape classifiers. We survey and explore current and emerging 3D imaging technologies, and focus, in particular, on those that can be used to build interfaces between the users' hands and the machine. The purpose of this paper is to categorize and highlight the relevant differences between these existing 3D imaging approaches in terms of the nature of the information provided, output data format, as well as the specific conditions under which these approaches yield reliable data. Furthermore we explore the impact of each of these approaches on the computational cost and reliability of the required image processing algorithms. Finally we highlight the main challenges and opportunities in developing natural user interfaces based on hand gestures, and conclude with some promising directions for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  7. Framework for 2D-3D image fusion of infrared thermography with preoperative MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nico; Weidner, Florian; Urban, Peter; Meyer, Tobias; Schnabel, Christian; Radev, Yordan; Schackert, Gabriele; Petersohn, Uwe; Koch, Edmund; Gumhold, Stefan; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2017-01-23

    Multimodal medical image fusion combines information of one or more images in order to improve the diagnostic value. While previous applications mainly focus on merging images from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonic and single-photon emission computed tomography, we propose a novel approach for the registration and fusion of preoperative 3D MRI with intraoperative 2D infrared thermography. Image-guided neurosurgeries are based on neuronavigation systems, which further allow us track the position and orientation of arbitrary cameras. Hereby, we are able to relate the 2D coordinate system of the infrared camera with the 3D MRI coordinate system. The registered image data are now combined by calibration-based image fusion in order to map our intraoperative 2D thermographic images onto the respective brain surface recovered from preoperative MRI. In extensive accuracy measurements, we found that the proposed framework achieves a mean accuracy of 2.46 mm.

  8. 3D weighting in cone beam image reconstruction algorithms: ray-driven vs. pixel-driven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Nilsen, Roy A; Smolin, Alex; Lifland, Ilya; Samsonov, Dmitry; Taha, Basel

    2008-01-01

    A 3D weighting scheme have been proposed previously to reconstruct images at both helical and axial scans in stat-of-the-art volumetric CT scanners for diagnostic imaging. Such a 3D weighting can be implemented in the manner of either ray-driven or pixel-drive, depending on the available computation resources. An experimental study is conducted in this paper to evaluate the difference between the ray-driven and pixel-driven implementations of the 3D weighting from the perspective of image quality, while their computational complexity is analyzed theoretically. Computer simulated data and several phantoms, such as the helical body phantom and humanoid chest phantom, are employed in the experimental study, showing that both the ray-driven and pixel-driven 3D weighting provides superior image quality for diagnostic imaging in clinical applications. With the availability of image reconstruction engine at increasing computational power, it is believed that the pixel-driven 3D weighting will be dominantly employed in state-of-the-art volumetric CT scanners over clinical applications.

  9. Analysis, Modeling and Dynamic Optimization of 3D Time-of-Flight Imaging Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis is concerned with the optimization of 3D Time-of-Flight (ToF) imaging systems. These novel cameras determine range images by actively illuminating a scene and measuring the time until the backscattered light is detected. Depth maps are constructed from multiple raw images. Usually two of such raw images are acquired simultaneously using special correlating sensors. This thesis covers four main contributions: A physical sensor model is presented which enables the analysis a...

  10. Detection of Connective Tissue Disorders from 3D Aortic MR Images Using Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Honghai

    2006-01-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) method is reported that allows the objective identification of subjects with connective tissue disorders from 3D aortic MR images using segmentation and independent component analysis (ICA). The first step to extend the model to 4D (3D + time) has also been taken....... ICA is an effective tool for connective tissue disease detection in the presence of sparse data using prior knowledge to order the components, and the components can be inspected visually. 3D+time MR image data sets acquired from 31 normal and connective tissue disorder subjects at end-diastole (R......-wave peak) and at 45\\$\\backslash\\$% of the R-R interval were used to evaluate the performance of our method. The automated 3D segmentation result produced accurate aortic surfaces covering the aorta. The CAD method distinguished between normal and connective tissue disorder subjects with a classification...

  11. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

    2014-03-21

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°.

  12. High-speed 3D digital image correlation vibration measurement: Recent advancements and noted limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberniss, Timothy J.; Ehrhardt, David A.

    2017-03-01

    A review of the extensive studies on the feasibility and practicality of utilizing high-speed 3 dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for various random vibration measurement applications is presented. Demonstrated capabilities include finite element model updating utilizing full-field 3D-DIC static displacements, modal survey natural frequencies, damping, and mode shape results from 3D-DIC are baselined against laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), a comparison between foil strain gage and 3D-DIC strain, and finally the unique application to a high-speed wind tunnel fluid-structure interaction study. Results show good agreement between 3D-DIC and more traditional vibration measurement techniques. Unfortunately, 3D-DIC vibration measurement is not without its limitations, which are also identified and explored in this study. The out-of-plane sensitivity required for vibration measurement for 3D-DIC is orders of magnitude less than LDV making higher frequency displacements difficult to sense. Furthermore, the digital cameras used to capture the DIC images have no filter to eliminate temporal aliasing of the digitized signal. Ultimately DIC is demonstrated as a valid alternative means to measure structural vibrations while one unique application achieves success where more traditional methods would fail.

  13. Single-pixel 3D imaging with time-based depth resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ming-Jie; Gibson, Graham M; Sun, Baoqing; Radwell, Neal; Lamb, Robert; Padgett, Miles J

    2016-01-01

    Time-of-flight three dimensional imaging is an important tool for many applications, such as object recognition and remote sensing. Unlike conventional imaging approach using pixelated detector array, single-pixel imaging based on projected patterns, such as Hadamard patterns, utilises an alternative strategy to acquire information with sampling basis. Here we show a modified single-pixel camera using a pulsed illumination source and a high-speed photodiode, capable of reconstructing 128x128 pixel resolution 3D scenes to an accuracy of ~3 mm at a range of ~5 m. Furthermore, we demonstrate continuous real-time 3D video with a frame-rate up to 12 Hz. The simplicity of the system hardware could enable low-cost 3D imaging devices for precision ranging at wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum.

  14. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, SangYun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified including the mean refractive index, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  15. QWIP focal plane array theoretical model of 3-D imaging LADAR system

    OpenAIRE

    El Mashade, Mohamed Bakry; AbouElez, Ahmed Elsayed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a model for the direct detection three-dimensional (3-D) imaging LADAR system using Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Array (FPA). This model is employed to study how to add 3-D imaging capability to the existing conventional thermal imaging systems of the same basic form which is sensitive to 3–5 mm (mid-wavelength infrared, MWIR) or 8–12 mm (long-wavelength infrared, LWIR) spectral bands. The integrated signal photoelectrons in cas...

  16. Sample Preparation Strategies for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of 3D Cell Culture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlf Wheatcraft, Dorothy R.; Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional cell cultures are attractive models for biological research. They combine the flexibility and cost-effectiveness of cell culture with some of the spatial and molecular complexity of tissue. For example, many cell lines form 3D structures given appropriate in vitro conditions. Colon cancer cell lines form 3D cell culture spheroids, in vitro mimics of avascular tumor nodules. While immunohistochemistry and other classical imaging methods are popular for monitoring the distribu...

  17. An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.

  18. Augmented reality navigation with automatic marker-free image registration using 3-D image overlay for dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen

    2014-04-01

    Computer-assisted oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) has been rapidly evolving since the last decade. State-of-the-art surgical navigation in OMS still suffers from bulky tracking sensors, troublesome image registration procedures, patient movement, loss of depth perception in visual guidance, and low navigation accuracy. We present an augmented reality navigation system with automatic marker-free image registration using 3-D image overlay and stereo tracking for dental surgery. A customized stereo camera is designed to track both the patient and instrument. Image registration is performed by patient tracking and real-time 3-D contour matching, without requiring any fiducial and reference markers. Real-time autostereoscopic 3-D imaging is implemented with the help of a consumer-level graphics processing unit. The resulting 3-D image of the patient's anatomy is overlaid on the surgical site by a half-silvered mirror using image registration and IP-camera registration to guide the surgeon by exposing hidden critical structures. The 3-D image of the surgical instrument is also overlaid over the real one for an augmented display. The 3-D images present both stereo and motion parallax from which depth perception can be obtained. Experiments were performed to evaluate various aspects of the system; the overall image overlay error of the proposed system was 0.71 mm.

  19. 3-D MRI/CT fusion imaging of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Yuki; Kamogawa, Junji; Misaki, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kazuo; Okuda, Shunsuke; Morino, Tadao; Ogata, Tadanori; Yamamoto, Haruyasu [Ehime University, Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, Toon-shi, Ehime (Japan); Katagi, Ryosuke; Kodama, Kazuaki [Katagi Neurological Surgery, Imabari-shi, Ehime (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI/CT fusion in demonstrating lumbar nerve root compromise. We combined 3-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) imaging of bone with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neural architecture (cauda equina and nerve roots) for two patients using VirtualPlace software. Although the pathological condition of nerve roots could not be assessed using MRI, myelography or CT myelography, 3-D MRI/CT fusion imaging enabled unambiguous, 3-D confirmation of the pathological state and courses of nerve roots, both inside and outside the foraminal arch, as well as thickening of the ligamentum flavum and the locations, forms and numbers of dorsal root ganglia. Positional relationships between intervertebral discs or bony spurs and nerve roots could also be depicted. Use of 3-D MRI/CT fusion imaging for the lumbar vertebral region successfully revealed the relationship between bone construction (bones, intervertebral joints, and intervertebral disks) and neural architecture (cauda equina and nerve roots) on a single film, three-dimensionally and in color. Such images may be useful in elucidating complex neurological conditions such as degenerative lumbar scoliosis(DLS), as well as in diagnosis and the planning of minimally invasive surgery. (orig.)

  20. Integration of Video Images and CAD Wireframes for 3d Object Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, R. A.; Armenakis, C.; Sohn, G.

    2012-07-01

    The tracking of moving objects from single images has received widespread attention in photogrammetric computer vision and considered to be at a state of maturity. This paper presents a model-driven solution for localizing moving objects detected from monocular, rotating and zooming video images in a 3D reference frame. To realize such a system, the recovery of 2D to 3D projection parameters is essential. Automatic estimation of these parameters is critical, particularly for pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) surveillance cameras where parameters change spontaneously upon camera motion. In this work, an algorithm for automated parameter retrieval is proposed. This is achieved by matching linear features between incoming images from video sequences and simple geometric 3D CAD wireframe models of man-made structures. The feature matching schema uses a hypothesis-verify optimization framework referred to as LR-RANSAC. This novel method improves the computational efficiency of the matching process in comparison to the standard RANSAC robust estimator. To demonstrate the applicability and performance of the method, experiments have been performed on indoor and outdoor image sequences under varying conditions with lighting changes and occlusions. Reliability of the matching algorithm has been analyzed by comparing the automatically determined camera parameters with ground truth (GT). Dependability of the retrieved parameters for 3D localization has also been assessed by comparing the difference between 3D positions of moving image objects estimated using the LR-RANSAC-derived parameters and those computed using GT parameters.

  1. The 3D scanner prototype utilize object profile imaging using line laser and octave software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdini, Mugi; Manunggal, Trikarsa Tirtadwipa; Samsi, Agus

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional scanner or 3D Scanner is a device to reconstruct the real object into digital form on a computer. 3D Scanner is a technology that is being developed, especially in developed countries, where the current 3D Scanner devices is the advanced version with a very expensive prices. This study is basically a simple prototype of 3D Scanner with a very low investment costs. 3D Scanner prototype device consists of a webcam, a rotating desk system controlled by a stepper motor and Arduino UNO, and a line laser. Objects that limit the research is the object with same radius from its center point (object pivot). Scanning is performed by using object profile imaging by line laser which is then captured by the camera and processed by a computer (image processing) using Octave software. On each image acquisition, the scanned object on a rotating desk rotated by a certain degree, so for one full turn multiple images of a number of existing side are finally obtained. Then, the profile of the entire images is extracted in order to obtain digital object dimension. Digital dimension is calibrated by length standard, called gage block. Overall dimensions are then digitally reconstructed into a three-dimensional object. Validation of the scanned object reconstruction of the original object dimensions expressed as a percentage error. Based on the results of data validation, horizontal dimension error is about 5% to 23% and vertical dimension error is about +/- 3%.

  2. 3D FACE RECOGNITION FROM RANGE IMAGES BASED ON CURVATURE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranjan Ganguly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel approach for three-dimensional face recognition by extracting the curvature maps from range images. There are four types of curvature maps: Gaussian, Mean, Maximum and Minimum curvature maps. These curvature maps are used as a feature for 3D face recognition purpose. The dimension of these feature vectors is reduced using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD technique. Now from calculated three components of SVD, the non-negative values of ‘S’ part of SVD is ranked and used as feature vector. In this proposed method, two pair-wise curvature computations are done. One is Mean, and Maximum curvature pair and another is Gaussian and Mean curvature pair. These are used to compare the result for better recognition rate. This automated 3D face recognition system is focused in different directions like, frontal pose with expression and illumination variation, frontal face along with registered face, only registered face and registered face from different pose orientation across X, Y and Z axes. 3D face images used for this research work are taken from FRAV3D database. The pose variation of 3D facial image is being registered to frontal pose by applying one to all registration technique then curvature mapping is applied on registered face images along with remaining frontal face images. For the classification and recognition purpose five layer feed-forward back propagation neural network classifiers is used, and the corresponding result is discussed in section 4.

  3. JAtlasView: a Java atlas-viewer for browsing biomedical 3D images and atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Mark

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many three-dimensional (3D images are routinely collected in biomedical research and a number of digital atlases with associated anatomical and other information have been published. A number of tools are available for viewing this data ranging from commercial visualization packages to freely available, typically system architecture dependent, solutions. Here we discuss an atlas viewer implemented to run on any workstation using the architecture neutral Java programming language. Results We report the development of a freely available Java based viewer for 3D image data, descibe the structure and functionality of the viewer and how automated tools can be developed to manage the Java Native Interface code. The viewer allows arbitrary re-sectioning of the data and interactive browsing through the volume. With appropriately formatted data, for example as provided for the Electronic Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, a 3D surface view and anatomical browsing is available. The interface is developed in Java with Java3D providing the 3D rendering. For efficiency the image data is manipulated using the Woolz image-processing library provided as a dynamically linked module for each machine architecture. Conclusion We conclude that Java provides an appropriate environment for efficient development of these tools and techniques exist to allow computationally efficient image-processing libraries to be integrated relatively easily.

  4. 3D terahertz synthetic aperture imaging of objects with arbitrary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, G. P.; Zurk, L. M.; Schecklman, S.; Henry, S. C.

    2013-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging has shown promise for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of a wide variety of manufactured products including integrated circuits and pharmaceutical tablets. Its ability to penetrate many non-polar dielectrics allows tomographic imaging of an object's 3D structure. In NDE applications, the material properties of the target(s) and background media are often well-known a priori and the objective is to identify the presence and/or 3D location of structures or defects within. The authors' earlier work demonstrated the ability to produce accurate 3D images of conductive targets embedded within a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) background. That work assumed a priori knowledge of the refractive index of the HDPE as well as the physical location of the planar air-HDPE boundary. However, many objects of interest exhibit non-planar interfaces, such as varying degrees of curvature over the extent of the surface. Such irregular boundaries introduce refraction effects and other artifacts that distort 3D tomographic images. In this work, two reconstruction techniques are applied to THz synthetic aperture tomography; a holographic reconstruction method that accurately detects the 3D location of an object's irregular boundaries, and a split­-step Fourier algorithm that corrects the artifacts introduced by the surface irregularities. The methods are demonstrated with measurements from a THz time-domain imaging system.

  5. Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-03-01

    While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  6. Automatic Texture Reconstruction of 3d City Model from Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  7. 3D texture analysis in renal cell carcinoma tissue image grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Bengtsson, Ewert; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  8. 3D Texture Analysis in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Image Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  9. Non-contrast enhanced MR venography using 3D fresh blood imaging (FBI). Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Inaoka, Sayuki; Takahara, Taro; Hachiya, Junichi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-10-01

    This study examined the efficacy of 3D-fresh blood imaging (FBI) in patients with venous disease in the iliac region to lower extremity. Fourteen patients with venous disease were examined [8 deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and 6 varix] by 3D-FBI and 2D-TOF MRA. ALL FBI images and 2D-TOF images were evaluated in terms of visualization of the disease and compared with conventional X-ray venography (CV). The total scan time of 3D-FBI ranged from 3 min 24 sec to 4 min 52 sec. 3D-FBI was positive in all 23 anatomical levels in which DVT was diagnosed by CV (100% sensitivity) as well as 2D-TOF. The delineation of collateral veins was superior or equal to that of 2D-TOF. 3D-FBI allowed depiction of varices in five of six cases; however, in one case, the evaluation was limited because the separation of arteries from veins was difficult. The 3D-FBI technique, which allows iliac to peripheral MR venography without contrast medium within a short acquisition time, is considered clinically useful. (author)

  10. Parametric modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D CT and MR spine images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2011-12-01

    Accurate and objective evaluation of vertebral deformations is of significant importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is focused on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the established methods for evaluation of vertebral deformations are limited to measuring deformations in two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative description of vertebral body deformations by efficient modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D. The deformations are evaluated from the parameters of a 3D superquadric model, which is initialized as an elliptical cylinder and then gradually deformed by introducing transformations that yield a more detailed representation of the vertebral body shape. After modelling the vertebral body shape with 25 clinically meaningful parameters and the vertebral body pose with six rigid body parameters, the 3D model is aligned to the observed vertebral body in the 3D image. The performance of the method was evaluated on 75 vertebrae from CT and 75 vertebrae from T2-weighted MR spine images, extracted from the thoracolumbar part of normal and pathological spines. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images, as the proposed 3D model is able to describe both normal and pathological vertebral body deformations. The method may therefore be used for initialization of whole vertebra segmentation or for quantitative measurement of vertebral body deformations.

  11. A 3D image filter for parameter-free segmentation of macromolecular structures from electron tomograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubbiya A Ali

    Full Text Available 3D image reconstruction of large cellular volumes by electron tomography (ET at high (≤ 5 nm resolution can now routinely resolve organellar and compartmental membrane structures, protein coats, cytoskeletal filaments, and macromolecules. However, current image analysis methods for identifying in situ macromolecular structures within the crowded 3D ultrastructural landscape of a cell remain labor-intensive, time-consuming, and prone to user-bias and/or error. This paper demonstrates the development and application of a parameter-free, 3D implementation of the bilateral edge-detection (BLE algorithm for the rapid and accurate segmentation of cellular tomograms. The performance of the 3D BLE filter has been tested on a range of synthetic and real biological data sets and validated against current leading filters-the pseudo 3D recursive and Canny filters. The performance of the 3D BLE filter was found to be comparable to or better than that of both the 3D recursive and Canny filters while offering the significant advantage that it requires no parameter input or optimisation. Edge widths as little as 2 pixels are reproducibly detected with signal intensity and grey scale values as low as 0.72% above the mean of the background noise. The 3D BLE thus provides an efficient method for the automated segmentation of complex cellular structures across multiple scales for further downstream processing, such as cellular annotation and sub-tomogram averaging, and provides a valuable tool for the accurate and high-throughput identification and annotation of 3D structural complexity at the subcellular level, as well as for mapping the spatial and temporal rearrangement of macromolecular assemblies in situ within cellular tomograms.

  12. A 3D image filter for parameter-free segmentation of macromolecular structures from electron tomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rubbiya A; Landsberg, Michael J; Knauth, Emily; Morgan, Garry P; Marsh, Brad J; Hankamer, Ben

    2012-01-01

    3D image reconstruction of large cellular volumes by electron tomography (ET) at high (≤ 5 nm) resolution can now routinely resolve organellar and compartmental membrane structures, protein coats, cytoskeletal filaments, and macromolecules. However, current image analysis methods for identifying in situ macromolecular structures within the crowded 3D ultrastructural landscape of a cell remain labor-intensive, time-consuming, and prone to user-bias and/or error. This paper demonstrates the development and application of a parameter-free, 3D implementation of the bilateral edge-detection (BLE) algorithm for the rapid and accurate segmentation of cellular tomograms. The performance of the 3D BLE filter has been tested on a range of synthetic and real biological data sets and validated against current leading filters-the pseudo 3D recursive and Canny filters. The performance of the 3D BLE filter was found to be comparable to or better than that of both the 3D recursive and Canny filters while offering the significant advantage that it requires no parameter input or optimisation. Edge widths as little as 2 pixels are reproducibly detected with signal intensity and grey scale values as low as 0.72% above the mean of the background noise. The 3D BLE thus provides an efficient method for the automated segmentation of complex cellular structures across multiple scales for further downstream processing, such as cellular annotation and sub-tomogram averaging, and provides a valuable tool for the accurate and high-throughput identification and annotation of 3D structural complexity at the subcellular level, as well as for mapping the spatial and temporal rearrangement of macromolecular assemblies in situ within cellular tomograms.

  13. Optimal Image Stitching for Concrete Bridge Bottom Surfaces Aided by 3d Structure Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Yao, Jian; Liu, Kang; Lu, Xiaohu; Xia, Menghan

    2016-06-01

    Crack detection for bridge bottom surfaces via remote sensing techniques is undergoing a revolution in the last few years. For such applications, a large amount of images, acquired with high-resolution industrial cameras close to the bottom surfaces with some mobile platform, are required to be stitched into a wide-view single composite image. The conventional idea of stitching a panorama with the affine model or the homographic model always suffers a series of serious problems due to poor texture and out-of-focus blurring introduced by depth of field. In this paper, we present a novel method to seamlessly stitch these images aided by 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces, which are extracted from 3D camera data. First, we propose to initially align each image in geometry based on its rough position and orientation acquired with both a laser range finder (LRF) and a high-precision incremental encoder, and these images are divided into several groups with the rough position and orientation data. Secondly, the 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces are extracted from the 3D cloud points acquired with 3D cameras, which impose additional strong constraints on geometrical alignment of structure lines in adjacent images to perform a position and orientation optimization in each group to increase the local consistency. Thirdly, a homographic refinement between groups is applied to increase the global consistency. Finally, we apply a multi-band blending algorithm to generate a large-view single composite image as seamlessly as possible, which greatly eliminates both the luminance differences and the color deviations between images and further conceals image parallax. Experimental results on a set of representative images acquired from real bridge bottom surfaces illustrate the superiority of our proposed approaches.

  14. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Greer, P. B.; Arm, J.; Keall, P.; Kim, T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  15. Preliminary clinical application of contrast-enhanced MR angiography using 3D time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics(3D-TRICKS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-shan; LIU Shi-yuan; XIAO Xiang-sheng; FENG Yun; LI Hui-min; XIAO Shan; GONG Wan-qing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a new better contrast-enhanced MR angiographic method, named 3D time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (3D-TRICKS). Methods: TRICKS is a high temporal resolution (2-6 s) MR angiographic technique using a short TR(4 ms) and TE(1.5 ms), partial echo sampling, in which central part of k-space is updated more frequently than the peripheral part. TRICKS pre-contrast mask 3D images are firstly scanned, and then the bolus injecting of Gd-DTPA, 15-20 sequential 3D images are acquired. The reconstructed 3D images, subtraction of contrast 3D images with mask images, are conceptually similar to a catheter-based intra-arterial digital subtraction angiographic series(DSA). Thirty patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography using 3D-TRICKS. Results: Totally 12 vertebral arteries were well displayed on TRICKS, in which 7 were normal, 1 demonstrated bilateral vertebral artery stenosis, 4 had unilateral vertebral artery stenosis and 1 was accompanied with the same lateral carotid artery bifurcation stenosis. Four cases of bilateral renal arteries were normal, 1 transplanted kidney artery showed as normal and 1 transplanted kidney artery showed stenosis. 2 cerebral arteries were normal, 1 had sagittal sinus thrombosis and 1 displayed intracranial arteriovenous malformation. 3 pulmonary arteries were normal, 1 showed pulmonary artery thrombosis and 1 revealed pulmonary sequestration's abnormal feeding artery and draining vein. One left lower limb fibrolipoma showed feeding artery. One displayed radial-ulnar artery artificial fistula stenosis. One revealed left antebrachium hemangioma. Conclusion: TRICKS can clearly delineate most body vascular system and reveal most vascular abnormality. It possesses convenience and high successful rate, which make it the first choice of displaying most vascular abnormality.

  16. A Chaos-based Image Encryption Scheme Using 3D Skew Tent Map and Coupled Map Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Ye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a chaos-based image encryption scheme where one 3D skew tent map with three control parameters is utilized to generate chaotic orbits applied to scramble the pixel positions while one coupled map lattice is employed to yield random gray value sequences to change the gray values so as to enhance the security. Experimental results have been carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-force attack and possesses good statistical properties to frustrate statistical analysis attacks. Experiments are also performed to illustrate the robustness against malicious attacks like cropping, noising, JPEG compression.

  17. Robust extraction of the aorta and pulmonary artery from 3D MDCT image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Accurate definition of the aorta and pulmonary artery from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents robust methods for defining the aorta and pulmonary artery in the central chest. The methods work on both contrast enhanced and no-contrast 3D MDCT image data. The automatic methods use a common approach employing model fitting and selection and adaptive refinement. During the occasional event that more precise vascular extraction is desired or the method fails, we also have an alternate semi-automatic fail-safe method. The semi-automatic method extracts the vasculature by extending the medial axes into a user-guided direction. A ground-truth study over a series of 40 human 3D MDCT images demonstrates the efficacy, accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the methods.

  18. A web-based 3D medical image collaborative processing system with videoconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sanbi; Han, Jun; Huang, Yonggang

    2013-07-01

    Three dimension medical images have been playing an irreplaceable role in realms of medical treatment, teaching, and research. However, collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical images on Internet is still one of the biggest challenges to support these activities. Consequently, we present a new application approach for web-based synchronized collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical Images. Meanwhile, a web-based videoconference function is provided to enhance the performance of the whole system. All the functions of the system can be available with common Web-browsers conveniently, without any extra requirement of client installation. In the end, this paper evaluates the prototype system using 3D medical data sets, which demonstrates the good performance of our system.

  19. A virtually imaged defocused array (VIDA) for high-speed 3D microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    We report a method to capture a multifocus image stack based on recording multiple reflections generated by imaging through a custom etalon. The focus stack is collected in a single camera exposure and consequently the information needed for 3D reconstruction is recorded in the camera integration time, which is only 100 µs. We have used the VIDA microscope to temporally resolve the multi-lobed 3D morphology of neutrophil nuclei as they rotate and deform through a microfluidic constriction. In addition, we have constructed a 3D imaging flow cytometer and quantified the nuclear morphology of nearly a thousand white blood cells flowing at a velocity of 3 mm per second. The VIDA microscope is compact and simple to construct, intrinsically achromatic, and the field-of-view and stack number can be easily reconfigured without redesigning diffraction gratings and prisms.

  20. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wertheim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  1. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2010-05-01

    It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  2. MUTUAL INFORMATION BASED 3D NON-RIGID REGISTRATION OF CT/MR ABDOMEN IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A mutual information based 3D non-rigid registration approach was proposed for the registration of deformable CT/MR body abdomen images. The Parzen Windows Density Estimation (PWDE) method is adopted to calculate the mutual information between the two modals of CT and MRI abdomen images. By maximizing MI between the CT and MR volume images, the overlapping part of them reaches the biggest, which means that the two body images of CT and MR matches best to each other. Visible Human Project (VHP) Male abdomen CT and MRI Data are used as experimental data sets. The experimental results indicate that this approach of non-rigid 3D registration of CT/MR body abdominal images can be achieved effectively and automatically, without any prior processing procedures such as segmentation and feature extraction, but has a main drawback of very long computation time. Key words: medical image registration; multi-modality; mutual information; non-rigid; Parzen window density estimation

  3. Hybrid wide-field and scanning microscopy for high-speed 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yubo; Chen, Nanguang

    2015-11-15

    Wide-field optical microscopy is efficient and robust in biological imaging, but it lacks depth sectioning. In contrast, scanning microscopic techniques, such as confocal microscopy and multiphoton microscopy, have been successfully used for three-dimensional (3D) imaging with optical sectioning capability. However, these microscopic techniques are not very suitable for dynamic real-time imaging because they usually take a long time for temporal and spatial scanning. Here, a hybrid imaging technique combining wide-field microscopy and scanning microscopy is proposed to accelerate the image acquisition process while maintaining the 3D optical sectioning capability. The performance was demonstrated by proof-of-concept imaging experiments with fluorescent beads and zebrafish liver.

  4. 3D Image Reconstruction from X-Ray Measurements with Overlap

    CERN Document Server

    Klodt, Maria

    2016-01-01

    3D image reconstruction from a set of X-ray projections is an important image reconstruction problem, with applications in medical imaging, industrial inspection and airport security. The innovation of X-ray emitter arrays allows for a novel type of X-ray scanners with multiple simultaneously emitting sources. However, two or more sources emitting at the same time can yield measurements from overlapping rays, imposing a new type of image reconstruction problem based on nonlinear constraints. Using traditional linear reconstruction methods, respective scanner geometries have to be implemented such that no rays overlap, which severely restricts the scanner design. We derive a new type of 3D image reconstruction model with nonlinear constraints, based on measurements with overlapping X-rays. Further, we show that the arising optimization problem is partially convex, and present an algorithm to solve it. Experiments show highly improved image reconstruction results from both simulated and real-world measurements.

  5. Non-invasive single-shot 3D imaging through a scattering layer using speckle interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Somkuwar, Atul S; R., Vinu; Park, Yongkeun; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Optical imaging through complex scattering media is one of the major technical challenges with important applications in many research fields, ranging from biomedical imaging, astronomical telescopy, and spatially multiplex optical communications. Although various approaches for imaging though turbid layer have been recently proposed, they had been limited to two-dimensional imaging. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an approach for three-dimensional single-shot imaging of objects hidden behind an opaque scattering layer. We demonstrate that under suitable conditions, it is possible to perform the 3D imaging to reconstruct the complex amplitude of objects situated at different depths.

  6. Accurate positioning for head and neck cancer patients using 2D and 3D image guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyejoo; Lovelock, Dale M.; Yorke, Ellen D.; Kriminiski, Sergey; Lee, Nancy; Amols, Howard I.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to determine an optimized image-guided setup by comparing setup errors determined by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients immobilized by customized thermoplastic masks. Nine patients received weekly imaging sessions, for a total of 54, throughout treatment. Patients were first set up by matching lasers to surface marks (initial) and then translationally corrected using manual registration of orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) radiographs with DRRs (2D-2D) on bony anatomy. A kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) was acquired and manually registered to the simulation CT using only translations (3D-3D) on the same bony anatomy to determine further translational corrections. After treatment, a second set of kVCBCT was acquired to assess intrafractional motion. Averaged over all sessions, 2D-2D registration led to translational corrections from initial setup of 3.5 ± 2.2 (range 0–8) mm. The addition of 3D-3D registration resulted in only small incremental adjustment (0.8 ± 1.5 mm). We retrospectively calculated patient setup rotation errors using an automatic rigid-body algorithm with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) on regions of interest (ROI) of in-field bony anatomy (mainly the C2 vertebral body). Small rotations were determined for most of the imaging sessions; however, occasionally rotations > 3° were observed. The calculated intrafractional motion with automatic registration was < 3.5 mm for eight patients, and < 2° for all patients. We conclude that daily manual 2D-2D registration on radiographs reduces positioning errors for mask-immobilized HNC patients in most cases, and is easily implemented. 3D-3D registration adds little improvement over 2D-2D registration without correcting rotational errors. We also conclude that thermoplastic masks are effective for patient immobilization. PMID:21330971

  7. 2.5-D/3-D resistivity modelling in anisotropic media using Gaussian quadrature grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark; Greenhalgh, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new numerical scheme for 2.5-D/3-D direct current resistivity modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media. This method, named the `Gaussian quadrature grid' (GQG) method, cooperatively combines the solution of the Variational Principle of the partial differential equation, Gaussian quadrature abscissae and local cardinal functions so that it has the main advantages of the spectral element method. The formulation shows that the GQG method is a modification of the spectral element method but does not employ the constant elements or require the mesh generator to match the Earth's surface. This makes it much easier to deal with geological models having a 2-D/3-D complex topography than using traditional numerical methods. The GQG technique can achieve a similar convergence rate to the spectral element method. We show it transforms the 2.5-D/3-D resistivity modelling problem into a sparse and symmetric linear equation system that can be solved by an iterative or matrix inversion method. Comparison with analytic solutions for homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic models shows that the error depends on the Gaussian quadrature order (abscissa number) and the subdomain size. The higher the order or the smaller the subdomain size that is employed, the more accurate are the results obtained. Several other synthetic examples, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous, incorporating sloping, undulating and severe topography, are presented and found to yield results comparable to finite element solutions involving a dense mesh.

  8. FEMUR SHAPE RECOVERY FROM VOLUMETRIC IMAGES USING 3-D DEFORMABLE MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new scheme for femur shape recovery from volumetric images using deformable models was proposed. First, prior 3-D deformable femur models are created as templates using point distribution models technology. Second, active contour models are employed to segment the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric images of the tibial and femoral joints and the deformable models are initialized based on the segmentation results. Finally, the objective function is minimized to give the optimal results constraining the surface of shapes.

  9. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Ho [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

  10. Fuzzy zoning for feature matching technique in 3D reconstruction of nasal endoscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanalappaiboon, Surapong; Bhongmakapat, Thongchai; Ritthipravat, Panrasee

    2015-12-01

    3D reconstruction from nasal endoscopic images greatly supports an otolaryngologist in examining nasal passages, mucosa, polyps, sinuses, and nasopharyx. In general, structure from motion is a popular technique. It consists of four main steps; (1) camera calibration, (2) feature extraction, (3) feature matching, and (4) 3D reconstruction. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is normally used for both feature extraction and feature matching. However, SIFT algorithm relatively consumes computational time particularly in the feature matching process because each feature in an image of interest is compared with all features in the subsequent image in order to find the best matched pair. A fuzzy zoning approach is developed for confining feature matching area. Matching between two corresponding features from different images can be efficiently performed. With this approach, it can greatly reduce the matching time. The proposed technique is tested with endoscopic images created from phantoms and compared with the original SIFT technique in terms of the matching time and average errors of the reconstructed models. Finally, original SIFT and the proposed fuzzy-based technique are applied to 3D model reconstruction of real nasal cavity based on images taken from a rigid nasal endoscope. The results showed that the fuzzy-based approach was significantly faster than traditional SIFT technique and provided similar quality of the 3D models. It could be used for creating a nasal cavity taken by a rigid nasal endoscope.

  11. Evaluating 3D registration of CT-scan images using crest lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, Nicholas; Gueziec, Andre P.; Thirion, Jean-Philippe; Gourdon, A.; Knoplioch, Jerome

    1993-06-01

    We consider the issue of matching 3D objects extracted from medical images. We show that crest lines computed on the object surfaces correspond to meaningful anatomical features, and that they are stable with respect to rigid transformations. We present the current chain of algorithmic modules which automatically extract the major crest lines in 3D CT-Scan images, and then use differential invariants on these lines to register together the 3D images with a high precision. The extraction of the crest lines is done by computing up to third order derivatives of the image intensity function with appropriate 3D filtering of the volumetric images, and by the 'marching lines' algorithm. The recovered lines are then approximated by splines curves, to compute at each point a number of differential invariants. Matching is finally performed by a new geometric hashing method. The whole chain is now completely automatic, and provides extremely robust and accurate results, even in the presence of severe occlusions. In this paper, we briefly describe the whole chain of processes, already presented to evaluate the accuracy of the approach on a couple of CT-scan images of a skull containing external markers.

  12. A Featureless Approach to 3D Polyhedral Building Modeling from Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hammoudi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model-based approach for reconstructing 3D polyhedral building models from aerial images. The proposed approach exploits some geometric and photometric properties resulting from the perspective projection of planar structures. Data are provided by calibrated aerial images. The novelty of the approach lies in its featurelessness and in its use of direct optimization based on image rawbrightness. The proposed framework avoids feature extraction and matching. The 3D polyhedral model is directly estimated by optimizing an objective function that combines an image-based dissimilarity measure and a gradient score over several aerial images. The optimization process is carried out by the Differential Evolution algorithm. The proposed approach is intended to provide more accurate 3D reconstruction than feature-based approaches. Fast 3D model rectification and updating can take advantage of the proposed method. Several results and evaluations of performance from real and synthetic images show the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach.

  13. 3D nonrigid medical image registration using a new information theoretic measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bicao; Yang, Guanyu; Coatrieux, Jean Louis; Li, Baosheng; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a novel method for the nonrigid registration of medical images based on the Arimoto entropy, a generalization of the Shannon entropy. The proposed method employed the Jensen-Arimoto divergence measure as a similarity metric to measure the statistical dependence between medical images. Free-form deformations were adopted as the transformation model and the Parzen window estimation was applied to compute the probability distributions. A penalty term is incorporated into the objective function to smooth the nonrigid transformation. The goal of registration is to optimize an objective function consisting of a dissimilarity term and a penalty term, which would be minimal when two deformed images are perfectly aligned using the limited memory BFGS optimization method, and thus to get the optimal geometric transformation. To validate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on both simulated 3D brain MR images and real 3D thoracic CT data sets were designed and performed on the open source elastix package. For the simulated experiments, the registration errors of 3D brain MR images with various magnitudes of known deformations and different levels of noise were measured. For the real data tests, four data sets of 4D thoracic CT from four patients were selected to assess the registration performance of the method, including ten 3D CT images for each 4D CT data covering an entire respiration cycle. These results were compared with the normalized cross correlation and the mutual information methods and show a slight but true improvement in registration accuracy.

  14. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsap Leonid V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell, and its state. Analysis of chromosome structure is significant in the detection of diseases, identification of chromosomal abnormalities, study of DNA structural conformation, in-depth study of chromosomal surface morphology, observation of in vivo behavior of the chromosomes over time, and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The methodology incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  15. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S; Liao, P; Shin, M C; Tsap, L V

    2004-04-28

    The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell and its state. Chromosome analysis is significant in the detection of deceases and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The algorithm incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  16. Structured light 3D tracking system for measuring motions in PET brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Jørgensen, Morten Rudkjær; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    Patient motion during scanning deteriorates image quality, especially for high resolution PET scanners. A new proposal for a 3D head tracking system for motion correction in high resolution PET brain imaging is set up and demonstrated. A prototype tracking system based on structured light...... with a DLP projector and a CCD camera is set up on a model of the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT). Methods to reconstruct 3D point clouds of simple surfaces based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) are demonstrated. The projector and camera are calibrated using a simple stereo vision procedure...

  17. Scalable, High-performance 3D Imaging Software Platform: System Architecture and Application to Virtual Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingl...

  18. Acute Bochdalek hernia in an adult:A case report of a 3D image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rejeb Imen; Chakroun-Walha Olfa; Ksibi Hichem; Nasri Abdennour; Chtara Kamilia; Chaari Adel; Rekik Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old male was found to have a bilateral Bochdalek hernia on routine CT during admission for acute respiratory failure. The chest X-ray showed a left paracardiac mass having a diameter of 6 cm. This mass was initially considered as a mediastinal tumor. However, CT scan showed a bilateral large defect of the posteromedial portion of the diaphragm and mesenteric fat. 3D imaging was also useful for the stereographic perception of Bochdalek hernia. Although Bochdalek hernia is not rare, to our knowl-edge, this is the first case of Bochdalek hernia continued transverse colon observed by spiral CT 3D imaging.

  19. 3-D reconstruction of neurons from multichannel confocal laser scanning image series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouterlood, Floris G

    2014-04-10

    A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) collects information from a thin, focal plane and ignores out-of-focus information. Scanning of a specimen, with stepwise axial (Z-) movement of the stage in between each scan, produces Z-series of confocal images of a tissue volume, which then can be used to 3-D reconstruct structures of interest. The operator first configures separate channels (e.g., laser, filters, and detector settings) for each applied fluorochrome and then acquires Z-series of confocal images: one series per channel. Channel signal separation is extremely important. Measures to avoid bleaching are vital. Post-acquisition deconvolution of the image series is often performed to increase resolution before 3-D reconstruction takes place. In the 3-D reconstruction programs described in this unit, reconstructions can be inspected in real time from any viewing angle. By altering viewing angles and by switching channels off and on, the spatial relationships of 3-D-reconstructed structures with respect to structures visualized in other channels can be studied. Since each brand of CLSM, computer program, and 3-D reconstruction package has its own proprietary set of procedures, a general approach is provided in this protocol wherever possible.

  20. Application of Medical Imaging Software to 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Borkin, M; Halle, M; Alan, D; Borkin, Michelle; Goodman, Alyssa; Halle, Michael; Alan, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    The AstroMed project at Harvard University's Initiative in Innovative Computing (IIC) is working on improved visualization and data sharing solutions applicable to the fields of both astronomy and medicine. The current focus is on the application of medical imaging visualization and analysis techniques to three-dimensional astronomical data. The 3D Slicer and OsiriX medical imaging tools have been used to make isosurface and volumetric models in RA-DEC-velocity space of the Perseus star forming region from the COMPLETE Survey of Star Forming Region's spectral line maps. 3D Slicer, a brain imaging and visualization computer application developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital's Surgical Planning Lab, is capable of displaying volumes (i.e. data cubes), displaying slices in any direction through the volume, generating 3D isosurface models from the volume which can be viewed and rotated in 3D space, and making 3D models of label maps (for example CLUMPFIND output). OsiriX is able to generate volumetric models fr...

  1. 3D visualization of biomedical CT images based on OpenGL and VRML techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Xia, Fuhua

    2002-04-01

    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three- dimensional visualization objects in biomedical computer tomographic (CT) images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we should hold the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. Furthermore, this project is a future part of PACS system our lab is working on. So in this system we use the 3D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm. Then we used OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulating voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed.

  2. Research and Teaching: Methods for Creating and Evaluating 3D Tactile Images to Teach STEM Courses to the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasper, Eric; Windhorst, Rogier; Hedgpeth, Terri; Van Tuyl, Leanne; Gonzales, Ashleigh; Martinez, Britta; Yu, Hongyu; Farkas, Zolton; Baluch, Debra P.

    2015-01-01

    Project 3D IMAGINE or 3D Image Arrays to Graphically Implement New Education is a pilot study that researches the effectiveness of incorporating 3D tactile images, which are critical for learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, into entry-level lab courses. The focus of this project is to increase the participation and…

  3. Measurement and inverse estimation of 3D anisotropic flow resistivity for porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Peter; Guastavino, Rémi; Hörlin, Nils-Erik

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for estimating the anisotropic flow resistivity for porous materials. From pressure measurements on a cubic or parallelepiped sample of a porous material, the flow resistivities are determined using inverse estimation. The core of the estimation is a series of 3D solutions to Darcy's law, where the flow resistivity tensor is varied until the sum of the quadratic errors between measured and computed pressures is minimised. The overall approach and experimental set-up used, enabling efficient measurements of high quality, are described in some detail together with the main steps of the measurement and estimation procedures. Results from a fibrous glass wool and a polyurethane foam are discussed and compared to standard measurement data.

  4. Monitoring CO2 migration in a shallow sand aquifer using 3D crosshole electrical resistivity tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xianjin; Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Jensen, Karsten Høgh;

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) crosshole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a pilot CO2 injection experiment at Vrøgum, western Denmark. The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ERT method for detection of small electrical conductivity (EC) changes during the first 2....... The combined HBB and VBB data sets were inverted using a difference inversion algorithm for cancellation of coherent noises and enhanced resolution of small changes. ERT detected the small bulk EC changes (resistive gaseous CO2. The primary factors that control...... bulk EC changes may be caused by limited and variable ERT resolution, low ERT sensitivity to resistive anomalies and uncalibrated CO2 gas saturation. ERT data show a broader CO2 plume while water sample EC had higher fine-scale variability. Our ERT electrode configuration can be optimized for more...

  5. 3D Elastic Registration of Ultrasound Images Based on Skeleton Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan-dan; LIU Zhi-Yan; SHEN Yi

    2005-01-01

    In order to eliminate displacement and elastic deformation between images of adjacent frames in course of 3D ultrasonic image reconstruction, elastic registration based on skeleton feature was adopt in this paper. A new automatically skeleton tracking extract algorithm is presented, which can extract connected skeleton to express figure feature. Feature points of connected skeleton are extracted automatically by accounting topical curvature extreme points several times. Initial registration is processed according to barycenter of skeleton. Whereafter, elastic registration based on radial basis function are processed according to feature points of skeleton. Result of example demonstrate that according to traditional rigid registration, elastic registration based on skeleton feature retain natural difference in shape for organ's different part, and eliminate slight elastic deformation between frames caused by image obtained process simultaneously. This algorithm has a high practical value for image registration in course of 3D ultrasound image reconstruction.

  6. Hollow Cone Electron Imaging for Single Particle 3D Reconstruction of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lobato, Ivan; van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The main bottlenecks for high-resolution biological imaging in electron microscopy are radiation sensitivity and low contrast. The phase contrast at low spatial frequencies can be enhanced by using a large defocus but this strongly reduces the resolution. Recently, phase plates have been developed to enhance the contrast at small defocus but electrical charging remains a problem. Single particle cryo-electron microscopy is mostly used to minimize the radiation damage and to enhance the resolution of the 3D reconstructions but it requires averaging images of a massive number of individual particles. Here we present a new route to achieve the same goals by hollow cone dark field imaging using thermal diffuse scattered electrons giving about a 4 times contrast increase as compared to bright field imaging. We demonstrate the 3D reconstruction of a stained GroEL particle can yield about 13.5 Å resolution but using a strongly reduced number of images.

  7. Three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic hot spots for label-free sensing and effective photothermal killing of multiple drug resistant superbugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stacy; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Pramanik, Avijit; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2016-11-03

    Drug resistant superbug infection is one of the foremost threats to human health. Plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for ultrasensitive bio-imaging and photothermal killing by amplification of electromagnetic fields at nanoscale "hot spots". One of the main challenges to plasmonic imaging and photothermal killing is design of a plasmonic substrate with a large number of "hot spots". Driven by this need, this article reports design of a three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic "hot spot"-based substrate using gold nanoparticle attached hybrid graphene oxide (GO), free from the traditional 2D limitations. Experimental results show that the 3D substrate has capability for highly sensitive label-free sensing and generates high photothermal heat. Reported data using p-aminothiophenol conjugated 3D substrate show that the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enhancement factor for the 3D "hot spot"-based substrate is more than two orders of magnitude greater than that for the two-dimensional (2D) substrate and five orders of magnitude greater than that for the zero-dimensional (0D) p-aminothiophenol conjugated gold nanoparticle. 3D-Finite-Difference Time-Domain (3D-FDTD) simulation calculations indicate that the SERS enhancement factor can be greater than 10(4) because of the bent assembly structure in the 3D substrate. Results demonstrate that the 3D-substrate-based SERS can be used for fingerprint identification of several multi-drug resistant superbugs with detection limits of 5 colony forming units per mL. Experimental data show that 785 nm near infrared (NIR) light generates around two times more photothermal heat for the 3D substrate with respect to the 2D substrate, and allows rapid and effective killing of 100% of the multi-drug resistant superbugs within 5 minutes.

  8. GPU-Based Block-Wise Nonlocal Means Denoising for 3D Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle suppression plays an important role in improving ultrasound (US image quality. While lots of algorithms have been proposed for 2D US image denoising with remarkable filtering quality, there is relatively less work done on 3D ultrasound speckle suppression, where the whole volume data rather than just one frame needs to be considered. Then, the most crucial problem with 3D US denoising is that the computational complexity increases tremendously. The nonlocal means (NLM provides an effective method for speckle suppression in US images. In this paper, a programmable graphic-processor-unit- (GPU- based fast NLM filter is proposed for 3D ultrasound speckle reduction. A Gamma distribution noise model, which is able to reliably capture image statistics for Log-compressed ultrasound images, was used for the 3D block-wise NLM filter on basis of Bayesian framework. The most significant aspect of our method was the adopting of powerful data-parallel computing capability of GPU to improve the overall efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can enormously accelerate the algorithm.

  9. Biodynamic Doppler imaging of subcellular motion inside 3D living tissue culture and biopsies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, David D.

    2016-03-01

    Biodynamic imaging is an emerging 3D optical imaging technology that probes up to 1 mm deep inside three-dimensional living tissue using short-coherence dynamic light scattering to measure the intracellular motions of cells inside their natural microenvironments. Biodynamic imaging is label-free and non-invasive. The information content of biodynamic imaging is captured through tissue dynamics spectroscopy that displays the changes in the Doppler signatures from intracellular constituents in response to applied compounds. The affected dynamic intracellular mechanisms include organelle transport, membrane undulations, cytoskeletal restructuring, strain at cellular adhesions, cytokinesis, mitosis, exo- and endo-cytosis among others. The development of 3D high-content assays such as biodynamic profiling can become a critical new tool for assessing efficacy of drugs and the suitability of specific types of tissue growth for drug discovery and development. The use of biodynamic profiling to predict clinical outcome of living biopsies to cancer therapeutics can be developed into a phenotypic companion diagnostic, as well as a new tool for therapy selection in personalized medicine. This invited talk will present an overview of the optical, physical and physiological processes involved in biodynamic imaging. Several different biodynamic imaging modalities include motility contrast imaging (MCI), tissue-dynamics spectroscopy (TDS) and tissue-dynamics imaging (TDI). A wide range of potential applications will be described that include process monitoring for 3D tissue culture, drug discovery and development, cancer therapy selection, embryo assessment for in-vitro fertilization and artificial reproductive technologies, among others.

  10. Adaptive optofluidic lens(es) for switchable 2D and 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanyang; Wei, Kang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The stereoscopic image is often captured using dual cameras arranged side-by-side and optical path switching systems such as two separate solid lenses or biprism/mirrors. The miniaturization of the overall size of current stereoscopic devices down to several millimeters is at a sacrifice of further device size shrinkage. The limited light entry worsens the final image resolution and brightness. It is known that optofluidics offer good re-configurability for imaging systems. Leveraging this technique, we report a reconfigurable optofluidic system whose optical layout can be swapped between a singlet lens with 10 mm in diameter and a pair of binocular lenses with each lens of 3 mm in diameter for switchable two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging. The singlet and the binoculars share the same optical path and the same imaging sensor. The singlet acquires a 3D image with better resolution and brightness, while the binoculars capture stereoscopic image pairs for 3D vision and depth perception. The focusing power tuning capability of the singlet and the binoculars enable image acquisition at varied object planes by adjusting the hydrostatic pressure across the lens membrane. The vari-focal singlet and binoculars thus work interchangeably and complementarily. The device is thus expected to have applications in robotic vision, stereoscopy, laparoendoscopy and miniaturized zoom lens system.

  11. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  12. Automated 3D-Objectdocumentation on the Base of an Image Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Vetter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital stereo-photogrammetry allows users an automatic evaluation of the spatial dimension and the surface texture of objects. The integration of image analysis techniques simplifies the automation of evaluation of large image sets and offers a high accuracy [1]. Due to the substantial similarities of stereoscopic image pairs, correlation techniques provide measurements of subpixel precision for corresponding image points. With the help of an automated point search algorithm in image sets identical points are used to associate pairs of images to stereo models and group them. The found identical points in all images are basis for calculation of the relative orientation of each stereo model as well as defining the relation of neighboured stereo models. By using proper filter strategies incorrect points are removed and the relative orientation of the stereo model can be made automatically. With the help of 3D-reference points or distances at the object or a defined distance of camera basis the stereo model is orientated absolute. An adapted expansion- and matching algorithm offers the possibility to scan the object surface automatically. The result is a three dimensional point cloud; the scan resolution depends on image quality. With the integration of the iterative closest point- algorithm (ICP these partial point clouds are fitted to a total point cloud. In this way, 3D-reference points are not necessary. With the help of the implemented triangulation algorithm a digital surface models (DSM can be created. The texturing can be made automatically by the usage of the images that were used for scanning the object surface. It is possible to texture the surface model directly or to generate orthophotos automatically. By using of calibrated digital SLR cameras with full frame sensor a high accuracy can be reached. A big advantage is the possibility to control the accuracy and quality of the 3d-objectdocumentation with the resolution of the images. The

  13. Minimal camera networks for 3D image based modeling of cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadik, Bashar; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Daham, Afrah; Jasim, Luma

    2014-03-25

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue "Lamassu". Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm.

  14. Minimal Camera Networks for 3D Image Based Modeling of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Alsadik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue “Lamassu”. Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC. Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction and the final accuracy of 1 mm.

  15. High-resolution 3D X-ray imaging of intracranial nitinol stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeren, Rudolph M.; With, Peter H.N. de [Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Faculty Electrical Engineering, Signal Processing Systems group (SPS), Eindhoven (Netherlands); Soederman, Michael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Kroon, Johannes N.; Roijers, Ruben B.; Babic, Drazenko [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To assess an optimized 3D imaging protocol for intracranial nitinol stents in 3D C-arm flat detector imaging. For this purpose, an image quality simulation and an in vitro study was carried out. Nitinol stents of various brands were placed inside an anthropomorphic head phantom, using iodine contrast. Experiments with objects were preceded by image quality and dose simulations. We varied X-ray imaging parameters in a commercially interventional X-ray system to set 3D image quality in the contrast-noise-sharpness space. Beam quality was varied to evaluate contrast of the stents while keeping absorbed dose below recommended values. Two detector formats were used, paired with an appropriate pixel size and X-ray focus size. Zoomed reconstructions were carried out and snapshot images acquired. High contrast spatial resolution was assessed with a CT phantom. We found an optimal protocol for imaging intracranial nitinol stents. Contrast resolution was optimized for nickel-titanium-containing stents. A high spatial resolution larger than 2.1 lp/mm allows struts to be visualized. We obtained images of stents of various brands and a representative set of images is shown. Independent of the make, struts can be imaged with virtually continuous strokes. Measured absorbed doses are shown to be lower than 50 mGy Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). By balancing the modulation transfer of the imaging components and tuning the high-contrast imaging capabilities, we have shown that thin nitinol stent wires can be reconstructed with high contrast-to-noise ratio and good detail, while keeping radiation doses within recommended values. Experimental results compare well with imaging simulations. (orig.)

  16. Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) of 3D printed pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Milad; Edinger, Magnus; Raijada, Dhara

    2016-01-01

    Hot-melt extrusion and 3D printing are enabling manufacturing approaches for patient-centred medicinal products. Hot-melt extrusion is a flexible and continuously operating technique which is a crucial part of a typical processing cycle of printed medicines. In this work we use hot-melt extrusion...... for manufacturing of medicinal films containing indomethacin (IND) and polycaprolactone (PCL), extruded strands with nitrofurantoin monohydrate (NFMH) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), and feedstocks for 3D printed dosage forms with nitrofurantoin anhydrate (NFAH), hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly (lactic acid) (PLA......). These feedstocks were printed into a prototype solid dosage form using a desktop 3D printer. These model formulations were characterized using near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) and, more specifically, the image analytical data were analysed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR...

  17. A 3-D visualization method for image-guided brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, N G; Awad, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with a 3D methodology for brain tumor image-guided surgery. The methodology is based on development of a visualization process that mimics the human surgeon behavior and decision-making. In particular, it originally constructs a 3D representation of a tumor by using the segmented version of the 2D MRI images. Then it develops an optimal path for the tumor extraction based on minimizing the surgical effort and penetration area. A cost function, incorporated in this process, minimizes the damage surrounding healthy tissues taking into consideration the constraints of a new snake-like surgical tool proposed here. The tumor extraction method presented in this paper is compared with the ordinary method used on brain surgery, which is based on a straight-line based surgical tool. Illustrative examples based on real simulations present the advantages of the 3D methodology proposed here.

  18. Fast isotropic banding-free bSSFP imaging using 3D dynamically phase-cycled radial bSSFP (3D DYPR-SSFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkert, Thomas; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A. [Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Wuerzburg (Germany); Ehses, Philipp [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroimaging; Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany). High-Field MR Center; Jakob, Peter M. [Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Wuerzburg (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Physics 5

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Dynamically phase-cycled radial balanced steady-state free precession (DYPR-SSFP) is a method for efficient banding artifact removal in bSSFP imaging. Based on a varying radiofrequency (RF) phase-increment in combination with a radial trajectory, DYPR-SSFP allows obtaining a banding-free image out of a single acquired k-space. The purpose of this work is to present an extension of this technique, enabling fast three-dimensional isotropic banding-free bSSFP imaging. Methods: While banding artifact removal with DYPR-SSFP relies on the applied dynamic phase-cycle, this aspect can lead to artifacts, at least when the number of acquired projections lies below a certain limit. However, by using a 3D radial trajectory with quasi-random view ordering for image acquisition, this problem is intrinsically solved, enabling 3D DYPR-SSFP imaging at or even below the Nyquist criterion. The approach is validated for brain and knee imaging at 3 Tesla. Results: Volumetric, banding-free images were obtained in clinically acceptable scan times with an isotropic resolution up to 0.56 mm. Conclusion: The combination of DYPR-SSFP with a 3D radial trajectory allows banding-free isotropic volumetric bSSFP imaging with no expense of scan time. Therefore, this is a promising candidate for clinical applications such as imaging of cranial nerves or articular cartilage.

  19. Measuring Femoral Torsion In Vivo Using Freehand 3-D Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Elyse; Pandy, Marcus G; Graham, H Kerr; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Despite variation in bone geometry, muscle and joint function is often investigated using generic musculoskeletal models. Patient-specific bone geometry can be obtained from computerised tomography, which involves ionising radiation, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is costly and time consuming. Freehand 3-D ultrasound provides an alternative to obtain bony geometry. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of 3-D ultrasound in measuring femoral torsion. Measurements of femoral torsion were performed on 10 healthy adults using MRI and 3-D ultrasound. Measurements of femoral torsion from 3-D ultrasound were, on average, smaller than those from MRI (mean difference = 1.8°; 95% confidence interval: -3.9°, 7.5°). MRI and 3-D ultrasound had Bland and Altman repeatability coefficients of 3.1° and 3.7°, respectively. Accurate measurements of femoral torsion were obtained with 3-D ultrasound offering the potential to acquire patient-specific bone geometry for musculoskeletal modelling. Three-dimensional ultrasound is non-invasive and relatively inexpensive and can be integrated into gait analysis.

  20. Monitoring CO2 migration in a shallow sand aquifer using 3D crosshole electrical resistivity tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xianjin; Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Jensen, Karsten Høgh;

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) crosshole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a pilot CO2 injection experiment at Vrøgum, western Denmark. The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ERT method for detection of small electrical conductivity (EC) changes during the first 2...... the migration of a CO2 plume consist of buoyancy of gaseous CO2, local heterogeneity, groundwater flow and external pressure exerted by the injector. The CO2 plume at the Vrøgum site migrated mostly upward due to buoyancy and it also skewed toward northeastern region by overcoming local groundwater flow...

  1. Slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Mackenzie, Mark D; Pal, Parama; Kar, Ajoy K; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-09-19

    Three-dimensional cellular imaging techniques have become indispensable tools in biological research and medical diagnostics. Conventional 3D imaging approaches employ focal stack collection to image different planes of the cell. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow. The approach employs slanted microfluidic channels fabricated in glass using ultrafast laser inscription. The slanted nature of the microfluidic channels ensures that samples come into and go out of focus, as they pass through the microscope imaging field of view. This novel approach enables the collection of focal stacks in a straight-forward and automated manner, even with off-the-shelf microscopes that are not equipped with any motorized translation/rotation sample stages. The presented approach not only simplifies conventional focal stack collection, but also enhances the capabilities of a regular widefield fluorescence microscope to match the features of a sophisticated confocal microscope. We demonstrate the retrieval of sectioned slices of microspheres and cells, with the use of computational algorithms to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the collected raw images. The retrieved sectioned images have been used to visualize fluorescent microspheres and bovine sperm cell nucleus in 3D while using a regular widefield fluorescence microscope. We have been able to achieve sectioning of approximately 200 slices per cell, which corresponds to a spatial translation of ∼ 15 nm per slice along the optical axis of the microscope.

  2. 3D space perception as embodied cognition in the history of art images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2014-02-01

    Embodied cognition is a concept that provides a deeper understanding of the aesthetics of art images. This study considers the role of embodied cognition in the appreciation of 3D pictorial space, 4D action space, its extension through mirror reflection to embodied self-­-cognition, and its relation to the neuroanatomical organization of the aesthetic response.

  3. Estimating 3D Object Parameters from 2D Grey-Level Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houkes, Zweitze

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a general framework for parameter estimation, which is suitable for computer vision applications. The approach described combines 3D modelling, animation and estimation tools to determine parameters of objects in a scene from 2D grey-level images. The animation tool predicts im

  4. Multi-detector CT and 3D imaging in a multi-vendor PACS environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; Witkamp, R; Oudkerk, M; Lemke, HU; Inamura, K; Doi, K; Vannier, MW; Farman, AG; Reiber, JHC

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of new hard- and software techniques like Multi-Dectector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and 3D imaging has put new demands on the Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) environment within the radiology department. The daily use of these new techniques requires a good integratio

  5. Methods for 2-D and 3-D Endobronchial Ultrasound Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher; Toth, Jennifer; Higgins, William

    2016-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is now commonly used for cancer-staging bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, EBUS is challenging to use and interpreting EBUS video sequences is difficult. Other ultrasound imaging domains, hampered by related difficulties, have benefited from computer-based image-segmentation methods. Yet, so far, no such methods have been proposed for EBUS. We propose image-segmentation methods for 2-D EBUS frames and 3-D EBUS sequences. Our 2-D method adapts the fast-marching level-set process, anisotropic diffusion, and region growing to the problem of segmenting 2-D EBUS frames. Our 3-D method builds upon the 2-D method while also incorporating the geodesic level-set process for segmenting EBUS sequences. Tests with lung-cancer patient data showed that the methods ran fully automatically for nearly 80% of test cases. For the remaining cases, the only user-interaction required was the selection of a seed point. When compared to ground-truth segmentations, the 2-D method achieved an overall Dice index = 90.0% ±4.9%, while the 3-D method achieved an overall Dice index = 83.9 ± 6.0%. In addition, the computation time (2-D, 0.070 s/frame; 3-D, 0.088 s/frame) was two orders of magnitude faster than interactive contour definition. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of the methods for EBUS localization in a multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy system.

  6. Color Constancy using 3D Scene Geometry Derived from a Single Image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfiky, N.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.; Gonzàlez, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of color constancy is to remove the effect of the color of the light source. As color constancy is inherently an ill-posed problem, most of the existing color constancy algorithms are based on specific imaging assumptions (e.g., gray-world and white patch assumption). In this paper, 3D geome

  7. MONO-PULSE RADAR 3-D IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR TARGET IN STEPPED TRACKING MODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Tao; Ma Changzheng; Zhang Qun; Zhang Shouhong

    2002-01-01

    A method for mono-pulse radar 3-D imaging in stepped tracking mode is presented and the amplitude linear modulation of error signals in stepped tracking mode is analyzed with its compensation method followed, so the problem of precisely tracking of target is solved. Finally the validity of these methods is proven by the simulation results.

  8. Improving Low-dose Cardiac CT Images based on 3D Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Luyao; Hu, Yining; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xindao; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is a reliable and accurate tool for diagnosis of coronary artery diseases and is also frequently used in surgery guidance. Low-dose scans should be considered in order to alleviate the harm to patients caused by X-ray radiation. However, low dose CT (LDCT) images tend to be degraded by quantum noise and streak artifacts. In order to improve the cardiac LDCT image quality, a 3D sparse representation-based processing (3D SR) is proposed by exploiting the sparsity and regularity of 3D anatomical features in CCT. The proposed method was evaluated by a clinical study of 14 patients. The performance of the proposed method was compared to the 2D spares representation-based processing (2D SR) and the state-of-the-art noise reduction algorithm BM4D. The visual assessment, quantitative assessment and qualitative assessment results show that the proposed approach can lead to effective noise/artifact suppression and detail preservation. Compared to the other two tested methods, 3D SR method can obtain results with image quality most close to the reference standard dose CT (SDCT) images.

  9. 3D Prior Image Constrained Projection Completion for X-ray CT Metal Artifact Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Ay, Mohammad Reza; Rahmim, Arman; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    The presence of metallic implants in the body of patients undergoing X-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations often results insevere streaking artifacts that degrade image quality. In this work, we propose a new metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm for 2D fan-beam and 3D cone-beam CT based on

  10. 3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Zhou, Xiaorong; Withers, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has emerged as a means of obtaining three dimensional (3D) electron images over volumes much larger than possible by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning and at higher spatial resolution than achievable with conventional X-ray computed tomography (CT). Such high resolution 3D electron images can be employed for precisely determining the shape, volume fraction, distribution and connectivity of important microstructural features. While soft (fixed or frozen) biological samples are particularly well suited for nanoscale sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the technique can also produce excellent 3D images at electron microscope resolution in a time and resource-efficient manner for engineering materials. Currently, a lack of appreciation of the capabilities of ultramicrotomy and the operational challenges associated with minimising artefacts for different materials is limiting its wider application to engineering materials. Consequently, this paper outlines the current state of the art for SBFSEM examining in detail how damage is introduced during slicing and highlighting strategies for minimising such damage. A particular focus of the study is the acquisition of 3D images for a variety of metallic and coated systems.

  11. Reproducibility study of 3D SSFP phase-based brain conductivity imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehning, C.; Katscher, U.; Keupp, J.

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive MR-based Electric Properties Tomography (EPT) forms a framework for an accurate determination of local SAR, and may providea diagnostic parameter in oncology. 3D SSFP sequences were found tobe a promising candidate for fast volumetric conductivity imaging. In this work, an in vivo study

  12. 3D imaging with an isocentric mobile C-arm comparison of image quality with spiral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsianos, Dorothea; Wirth, Stefan; Fischer, Tanja; Euler, Ekkehard; Rock, Clemens; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Pfeifer, Klaus Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality of the new 3D imaging system (ISO-C-3D) for osteosyntheses of tibial condylar fractures in comparison with spiral CT (CT). Sixteen human cadaveric knees were examined with a C-arm 3D imaging system and spiral computed tomography. Various screws and plates of steel and titanium were used for osteosynthesis in these specimens. Image quality and clinical value of multiplanar (MP) reformatting of both methods were analyzed. In addition, five patients with tibial condylar fractures were examined for diagnosis and intra-operative control. The image quality of the C-arm 3D imaging system in the cadaveric study was rated as significantly worse than that of spiral CT with and without prostheses. After implantation of prostheses an increased incidence of artifacts was observed, but the diagnostic accuracy was not affected. Titanium implants caused the smallest number of artifacts. The image quality of ISO-C is inferior to CT, and metal artifacts were more prominent, but the clinical value was equal. ISO-C-3D can be useful in planning operative reconstructions and can verify the reconstruction of articular surfaces and the position of implants with diagnostic image quality.

  13. 3D imaging with an isocentric mobile C-arm. Comparison of image quality with spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsianos, Dorothea; Wirth, Stefan; Fischer, Tanja; Euler, Ekkehard; Rock, Clemens; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen; Reiser, Maximilian [Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Innenstadt, Nussbaumstrasse 20, 80336, Munchen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality of the new 3D imaging system (ISO-C-3D) for osteosyntheses of tibial condylar fractures in comparison with spiral CT (CT). Sixteen human cadaveric knees were examined with a C-arm 3D imaging system and spiral computed tomography. Various screws and plates of steel and titanium were used for osteosynthesis in these specimens. Image quality and clinical value of multiplanar (MP) reformatting of both methods were analyzed. In addition, five patients with tibial condylar fractures were examined for diagnosis and intra-operative control. The image quality of the C-arm 3D imaging system in the cadaveric study was rated as significantly worse than that of spiral CT with and without prostheses. After implantation of prostheses an increased incidence of artifacts was observed, but the diagnostic accuracy was not affected. Titanium implants caused the smallest number of artifacts. The image quality of ISO-C is inferior to CT, and metal artifacts were more prominent, but the clinical value was equal. ISO-C-3D can be useful in planning operative reconstructions and can verify the reconstruction of articular surfaces and the position of implants with diagnostic image quality. (orig.)

  14. Imaging of human differentiated 3D neural aggregates using light sheet fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J Gualda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of three dimensional cell cultures represents a big step for the better understanding of cell behavior and disease in a more natural like environment, providing not only single but multiple cell type interactions in a complex three dimensional matrix, highly resembling physiological conditions. Light sheet fluorescence microscopy is becoming an excellent tool for fast imaging of such three-dimensional biological structures. We demonstrate the potential of this technique for the imaging of human differentiated 3D neural aggregates in fixed and live samples, namely calcium imaging and cell death processes, showing the power of imaging modality compared with traditional microscopy. The combination of light sheet microscopy and 3D neural cultures will open the door to more challenging experiments involving drug testing at large scale as well as a better understanding of relevant biological processes in a more realistic environment.

  15. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  16. Effects of CT image segmentation methods on the accuracy of long bone 3D reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayaka, Kanchana; Sahama, Tony; Schuetz, Michael A; Schmutz, Beat

    2011-03-01

    An accurate and accessible image segmentation method is in high demand for generating 3D bone models from CT scan data, as such models are required in many areas of medical research. Even though numerous sophisticated segmentation methods have been published over the years, most of them are not readily available to the general research community. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the accuracy of three popular image segmentation methods, two implementations of intensity thresholding and Canny edge detection, for generating 3D models of long bones. In order to reduce user dependent errors associated with visually selecting a threshold value, we present a new approach of selecting an appropriate threshold value based on the Canny filter. A mechanical contact scanner in conjunction with a microCT scanner was utilised to generate the reference models for validating the 3D bone models generated from CT data of five intact ovine hind limbs. When the overall accuracy of the bone model is considered, the three investigated segmentation methods generated comparable results with mean errors in the range of 0.18-0.24 mm. However, for the bone diaphysis, Canny edge detection and Canny filter based thresholding generated 3D models with a significantly higher accuracy compared to those generated through visually selected thresholds. This study demonstrates that 3D models with sub-voxel accuracy can be generated utilising relatively simple segmentation methods that are available to the general research community.

  17. 3D texture analysis for classification of second harmonic generation images of human ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Brewer, Molly A.; Patankar, Manish; Singh, Vikas; Eliceiri, Kevin. W.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2016-10-01

    Remodeling of the collagen architecture in the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantify these alterations we implemented a form of 3D texture analysis to delineate the fibrillar morphology observed in 3D Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy image data of normal (1) and high risk (2) ovarian stroma, benign ovarian tumors (3), low grade (4) and high grade (5) serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors (6). We developed a tailored set of 3D filters which extract textural features in the 3D image sets to build (or learn) statistical models of each tissue class. By applying k-nearest neighbor classification using these learned models, we achieved 83-91% accuracies for the six classes. The 3D method outperformed the analogous 2D classification on the same tissues, where we suggest this is due the increased information content. This classification based on ECM structural changes will complement conventional classification based on genetic profiles and can serve as an additional biomarker. Moreover, the texture analysis algorithm is quite general, as it does not rely on single morphological metrics such as fiber alignment, length, and width but their combined convolution with a customizable basis set.

  18. Analysis of 3-D images of dental imprints using computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Michele; Cote, Jean; Laurendeau, Denis; Poussart, Denis

    1992-05-01

    This paper addressed two important aspects of dental analysis: (1) location and (2) identification of the types of teeth by means of 3-D image acquisition and segmentation. The 3-D images of both maxillaries are acquired using a wax wafer as support. The interstices between teeth are detected by non-linear filtering of the 3-D and grey-level data. Two operators are presented: one for the detection of the interstices between incisors, canines, and premolars and one for those between molars. Teeth are then identified by mapping the imprint under analysis on the computer model of an 'ideal' imprint. For the mapping to be valid, a set of three reference points is detected on the imprint. Then, the points are put in correspondence with similar points on the model. Two such points are chosen based on a least-squares fit of a second-order polynomial of the 3-D data in the area of canines. This area is of particular interest since the canines show a very characteristic shape and are easily detected on the imprint. The mapping technique is described in detail in the paper as well as pre-processing of the 3-D profiles. Experimental results are presented for different imprints.

  19. Correction of a Depth-Dependent Lateral Distortion in 3D Super-Resolution Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Carlini

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D localization-based super-resolution microscopy (SR requires correction of aberrations to accurately represent 3D structure. Here we show how a depth-dependent lateral shift in the apparent position of a fluorescent point source, which we term `wobble`, results in warped 3D SR images and provide a software tool to correct this distortion. This system-specific, lateral shift is typically > 80 nm across an axial range of ~ 1 μm. A theoretical analysis based on phase retrieval data from our microscope suggests that the wobble is caused by non-rotationally symmetric phase and amplitude aberrations in the microscope's pupil function. We then apply our correction to the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ in live bacteria and demonstrate that the corrected data more accurately represent the true shape of this vertically-oriented ring-like structure. We also include this correction method in a registration procedure for dual-color, 3D SR data and show that it improves target registration error (TRE at the axial limits over an imaging depth of 1 μm, yielding TRE values of < 20 nm. This work highlights the importance of correcting aberrations in 3D SR to achieve high fidelity between the measurements and the sample.

  20. Imaging the Roots of Geothermal Systems: 3-D Inversion of Magnetotelluric Array Data in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, E. A.; Caldwell, G.; Bannister, S. C.; Hill, G.; Bennie, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), located in the central North Island of New Zealand, is a rifted arc that contains more than 20 liquid-dominated high-temperature geothermal systems, which together discharge ~4.2 GW of heat at the surface. The shallow (upper ~500 m) extent of these geothermal systems is marked by low-resistivity, mapped by tens-of-thousands of DC resistivity measurements collected throughout the 1970's and 80's. Conceptual models of heat transport through the brittle crust of the TVZ link these low-resistivity anomalies to the tops of vertically ascending plumes of convecting hydrothermal fluid. Recently, data from a 40-site array of broadband seismometers with ~4 km station spacing, and an array of 270 broadband magnetotelluric (MT) measurements with ~2 km station spacing, have been collected in the south-eastern part of the TVZ in an experiment to image the deep structure (or roots) of the geothermal systems in this region. Unlike DC resistivity, these MT measurements are capable of resolving the resistivity structure of the Earth to depths of 10 km or more. 2-D and 3-D models of subsets of these MT data have been used to provide the first-ever images of quasi-vertical low-resistivity zones (at depths of 3-7 km) that connect with the near-surface geothermal fields. These low-resistivity zones are interpreted to represent convection plumes of high-temperature fluids ascending within fractures, which supply heat to the overlying geothermal fields. At the Rotokawa, Ngatamariki and Ohaaki geothermal fields, these plumes extend to a broad layer of low-resistivity, inferred to represent a magmatic, basal heat source located below the seismogenic zone (at ~7-8 km depth) that drives convection in the brittle crust above. Little is known about the mechanisms that transfer heat into the hydrothermal regime. However, at Rotokawa, new 3-D resistivity models image a vertical low-resistivity zone that lies directly beneath the geothermal field. The top of this

  1. Crest lines extraction in volume 3D medical images : a multi-scale approach

    OpenAIRE

    Monga, Olivier; Lengagne, Richard; Deriche, Rachid

    1994-01-01

    Projet SYNTIM; Recently, we have shown that the differential properties of the surfaces represented by 3D volumic images can be recovered using their partial derivatives. For instance, the crest lines can be characterized by the first, second and third partial derivatives of the grey level function $I(x,y,z)$. In this paper, we show that~: - the computation of the partial derivatives of an image can be improved using recursive filters which approximate the Gaussian filter, - a multi-scale app...

  2. Depth of field simulation for still digital images using a 3D camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro Rodríguez Rosas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a world where digital photography is almost ubiquitous, the size of image capturing devices and their lenses limit their capabilities to achieve shallower depths of field for aesthetic purposes. This work proposes a novel approach to simulate this effect using the color and depth images from a 3D camera. Comparative tests yielded results similar to those of a regular lens.

  3. Fast imaging of laboratory core floods using 3D compressed sensing RARE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskill, N. P.; Bush, I.; Sederman, A. J.; Mantle, M. D.; Benning, M.; Anger, B. C.; Appel, M.; Gladden, L. F.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the fluid distributions within the rock is essential to enable the unambiguous interpretation of core flooding data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to image fluid saturation in rock cores; however, conventional acquisition strategies are typically too slow to capture the dynamic nature of the displacement processes that are of interest. Using Compressed Sensing (CS), it is possible to reconstruct a near-perfect image from significantly fewer measurements than was previously thought necessary, and this can result in a significant reduction in the image acquisition times. In the present study, a method using the Rapid Acquisition with Relaxation Enhancement (RARE) pulse sequence with CS to provide 3D images of the fluid saturation in rock core samples during laboratory core floods is demonstrated. An objective method using image quality metrics for the determination of the most suitable regularisation functional to be used in the CS reconstructions is reported. It is shown that for the present application, Total Variation outperforms the Haar and Daubechies3 wavelet families in terms of the agreement of their respective CS reconstructions with a fully-sampled reference image. Using the CS-RARE approach, 3D images of the fluid saturation in the rock core have been acquired in 16 min. The CS-RARE technique has been applied to image the residual water saturation in the rock during a water-water displacement core flood. With a flow rate corresponding to an interstitial velocity of vi = 1.89 ± 0.03 ft day-1, 0.1 pore volumes were injected over the course of each image acquisition, a four-fold reduction when compared to a fully-sampled RARE acquisition. Finally, the 3D CS-RARE technique has been used to image the drainage of dodecane into the water-saturated rock in which the dynamics of the coalescence of discrete clusters of the non-wetting phase are clearly observed. The enhancement in the temporal resolution

  4. Fast imaging of laboratory core floods using 3D compressed sensing RARE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskill, N P; Bush, I; Sederman, A J; Mantle, M D; Benning, M; Anger, B C; Appel, M; Gladden, L F

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the fluid distributions within the rock is essential to enable the unambiguous interpretation of core flooding data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to image fluid saturation in rock cores; however, conventional acquisition strategies are typically too slow to capture the dynamic nature of the displacement processes that are of interest. Using Compressed Sensing (CS), it is possible to reconstruct a near-perfect image from significantly fewer measurements than was previously thought necessary, and this can result in a significant reduction in the image acquisition times. In the present study, a method using the Rapid Acquisition with Relaxation Enhancement (RARE) pulse sequence with CS to provide 3D images of the fluid saturation in rock core samples during laboratory core floods is demonstrated. An objective method using image quality metrics for the determination of the most suitable regularisation functional to be used in the CS reconstructions is reported. It is shown that for the present application, Total Variation outperforms the Haar and Daubechies3 wavelet families in terms of the agreement of their respective CS reconstructions with a fully-sampled reference image. Using the CS-RARE approach, 3D images of the fluid saturation in the rock core have been acquired in 16min. The CS-RARE technique has been applied to image the residual water saturation in the rock during a water-water displacement core flood. With a flow rate corresponding to an interstitial velocity of vi=1.89±0.03ftday(-1), 0.1 pore volumes were injected over the course of each image acquisition, a four-fold reduction when compared to a fully-sampled RARE acquisition. Finally, the 3D CS-RARE technique has been used to image the drainage of dodecane into the water-saturated rock in which the dynamics of the coalescence of discrete clusters of the non-wetting phase are clearly observed. The enhancement in the temporal resolution that has

  5. 3D integral imaging display by smart pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion (SPOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, H; Martínez-Cuenca, R; Saavedra, G; Martínez-Corral, M; Javidi, B

    2010-12-06

    Previously, we reported a digital technique for formation of real, non-distorted, orthoscopic integral images by direct pickup. However the technique was constrained to the case of symmetric image capture and display systems. Here, we report a more general algorithm which allows the pseudoscopic to orthoscopic transformation with full control over the display parameters so that one can generate a set of synthetic elemental images that suits the characteristics of the Integral-Imaging monitor and permits control over the depth and size of the reconstructed 3D scene.

  6. [Rapid 2D-3D medical image registration based on CUDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingzhi; Zou, Beiji

    2014-08-01

    The medical image registration between preoperative three-dimensional (3D) scan data and intraoperative two-dimensional (2D) image is a key technology in the surgical navigation. Most previous methods need to generate 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) images from the 3D scan volume data, then use conventional image similarity function for comparison. This procedure includes a large amount of calculation and is difficult to archive real-time processing. In this paper, with using geometric feature and image density mixed characteristics, we proposed a new similarity measure function for fast 2D-3D registration of preoperative CT and intraoperative X-ray images. This algorithm is easy to implement, and the calculation process is very short, while the resulting registration accuracy can meet the clinical use. In addition, the entire calculation process is very suitable for highly parallel numerical calculation by using the algorithm based on CUDA hardware acceleration to satisfy the requirement of real-time application in surgery.

  7. Automated segmentation and geometrical modeling of the tricuspid aortic valve in 3D echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, Alison M; Wang, Hongzhi; Takabe, Manabu; Jackson, Benjamin M; Sehgal, Chandra M; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C; Yushkevich, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The aortic valve has been described with variable anatomical definitions, and the consistency of 2D manual measurement of valve dimensions in medical image data has been questionable. Given the importance of image-based morphological assessment in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of aortic valve disease, there is considerable need to develop a standardized framework for 3D valve segmentation and shape representation. Towards this goal, this work integrates template-based medial modeling and multi-atlas label fusion techniques to automatically delineate and quantitatively describe aortic leaflet geometry in 3D echocardiographic (3DE) images, a challenging task that has been explored only to a limited extent. The method makes use of expert knowledge of aortic leaflet image appearance, generates segmentations with consistent topology, and establishes a shape-based coordinate system on the aortic leaflets that enables standardized automated measurements. In this study, the algorithm is evaluated on 11 3DE images of normal human aortic leaflets acquired at mid systole. The clinical relevance of the method is its ability to capture leaflet geometry in 3DE image data with minimal user interaction while producing consistent measurements of 3D aortic leaflet geometry.

  8. Generic camera model and its calibration for computational integral imaging and 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiming; Li, Youfu

    2011-03-01

    Integral imaging (II) is an important 3D imaging technology. To reconstruct 3D information of the viewed objects, modeling and calibrating the optical pickup process of II are necessary. This work focuses on the modeling and calibration of an II system consisting of a lenslet array, an imaging lens, and a charge-coupled device camera. Most existing work on such systems assumes a pinhole array model (PAM). In this work, we explore a generic camera model that accommodates more generality. This model is an empirical model based on measurements, and we constructed a setup for its calibration. Experimental results show a significant difference between the generic camera model and the PAM. Images of planar patterns and 3D objects were computationally reconstructed with the generic camera model. Compared with the images reconstructed using the PAM, the images present higher fidelity and preserve more high spatial frequency components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in applying a generic camera model to an II system.

  9. Sample based 3D face reconstruction from a single frontal image by adaptive locally linear embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; ZHUANG Yue-ting

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a highly automatic approach for 3D photorealistic face reconstruction from a single frontal image. The key point of our work is the implementation of adaptive manifold learning approach. Beforehand, an active appearance model (AAM) is trained for automatic feature extraction and adaptive locally linear embedding (ALLE) algorithm is utilized to reduce the dimensionality of the 3D database. Then, given an input frontal face image, the corresponding weights between 3D samples and the image are synthesized adaptively according to the AAM selected facial features. Finally, geometry reconstruction is achieved by linear weighted combination of adaptively selected samples. Radial basis function (RBF) is adopted to map facial texture from the frontal image to the reconstructed face geometry. The texture of invisible regions between the face and the ears is interpolated by sampling from the frontal image. This approach has several advantages: (1) Only a single frontal face image is needed for highly automatic face reconstruction; (2) Compared with former works, our reconstruction approach provides higher accuracy; (3) Constraint based RBF texture mapping provides natural appearance for reconstructed face.

  10. Ultra wide band millimeter wave holographic ``3-D`` imaging of concealed targets on mannequins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Acoustics & Electromagnetic Imaging Group

    1994-08-01

    Ultra wide band (chirp frequency) millimeter wave ``3-D`` holography is a unique technique for imaging concealed targets on human subjects with extremely high lateral and depth resolution. Recent ``3-D`` holographic images of full size mannequins with concealed weapons illustrate the efficacy of this technique for airport security. A chirp frequency (24 GHz to 40 GHz) holographic system was used to construct extremely high resolution images (optical quality) using polyrod antenna in a bi-static configuration using an x-y scanner. Millimeter wave chirp frequency holography can be simply described as a multi-frequency detection and imaging technique where the target`s reflected signals are decomposed into discrete frequency holograms and reconstructed into a single composite ``3-D`` image. The implementation of this technology for security at airports, government installations, etc., will require real-time (video rate) data acquisition and computer image reconstruction of large volumetric data sets. This implies rapid scanning techniques or large, complex ``2-D`` arrays and high speed computing for successful commercialization of this technology.

  11. Difference in performance between 3D and 4D CBCT for lung imaging: a dose and image quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengumpallil, Sheeba; Smith, Kathleen; Monnin, Pascal; Bourhis, Jean; Bochud, François; Moeckli, Raphaël

    2016-11-08

    The study was to describe and to compare the performance of 3D and 4D CBCT imaging modalities by measuring and analyzing the delivered dose and the image quality. The 3D (Chest) and 4D (Symmetry) CBCT Elekta XVI lung IGRT protocols were analyzed. Dose profiles were measured with TLDs inside a dedicated phantom. The dosimetric indicator cone-beam dose index (CBDI) was evaluated. The image quality analysis was performed by assessing the contrast transfer function (CTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ). Artifacts were also evaluated by simulating irregular breathing variations. The two imaging modalities showed different dose distributions within the phantom. At the center, the 3D CBCT delivered twice the dose of the 4D CBCT. The CTF was strongly reduced by motion compared to static conditions, resulting in a CTF reduction of 85% for the 3D CBCT and 65% for the 4D CBCT. The amplitude of the NPS was two times higher for the 4D CBCT than for the 3D CBCT. In the presence of motion, the NEQ of the 4D CBCT was 50% higher than the 3D CBCT. In the presence of breathing irregularities, the 4D CBCT protocol was mainly affected by view-aliasing artifacts, which were typically cone-beam artifacts, while the 3D CBCT protocol was mainly affected by duplication artifacts. The results showed that the 4D CBCT ensures a reasonable dose and better image quality when mov-ing targets are involved compared to 3D CBCT. Therefore, 4D CBCT is a reliable imaging modality for lung free-breathing radiation therapy.

  12. Skeletal camera network embedded structure-from-motion for 3D scene reconstruction from UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihua; Wu, Lixin; Gerke, Markus; Wang, Ran; Yang, Huachao

    2016-11-01

    Structure-from-Motion (SfM) techniques have been widely used for 3D scene reconstruction from multi-view images. However, due to the large computational costs of SfM methods there is a major challenge in processing highly overlapping images, e.g. images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). This paper embeds a novel skeletal camera network (SCN) into SfM to enable efficient 3D scene reconstruction from a large set of UAV images. First, the flight control data are used within a weighted graph to construct a topologically connected camera network (TCN) to determine the spatial connections between UAV images. Second, the TCN is refined using a novel hierarchical degree bounded maximum spanning tree to generate a SCN, which contains a subset of edges from the TCN and ensures that each image is involved in at least a 3-view configuration. Third, the SCN is embedded into the SfM to produce a novel SCN-SfM method, which allows performing tie-point matching only for the actually connected image pairs. The proposed method was applied in three experiments with images from two fixed-wing UAVs and an octocopter UAV, respectively. In addition, the SCN-SfM method was compared to three other methods for image connectivity determination. The comparison shows a significant reduction in the number of matched images if our method is used, which leads to less computational costs. At the same time the achieved scene completeness and geometric accuracy are comparable.

  13. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J., E-mail: I.G.J.Classen@differ.nl; Bogomolov, A. V. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Suttrop, W.; Boom, J. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Donné, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments.

  14. A method for brain 3D surface reconstruction from MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-xin

    2014-09-01

    Due to the encephalic tissues are highly irregular, three-dimensional (3D) modeling of brain always leads to complicated computing. In this paper, we explore an efficient method for brain surface reconstruction from magnetic resonance (MR) images of head, which is helpful to surgery planning and tumor localization. A heuristic algorithm is proposed for surface triangle mesh generation with preserved features, and the diagonal length is regarded as the heuristic information to optimize the shape of triangle. The experimental results show that our approach not only reduces the computational complexity, but also completes 3D visualization with good quality.

  15. 3D Surface Realignment Tracking for Medical Imaging: A Phantom Study with PET Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl

    2011-01-01

    We present a complete system for motion correction in high resolution brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It is based on a compact structured light scanner mounted above the patient tunnel of the Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph PET brain scanner. The structured light system...... is equipped with a near infrared diode and uses phase-shift interferometry to compute 3D representations of the forehead of the patient. These 3D point clouds are progressively aligned to a reference surface and thereby giving the head pose changes. The estimated pose changes are used to reposition a sequence...

  16. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters Feature Introduction: Digital Holography and 3D Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Chung Poon; Changhe Zhou; Toyohiko Yatagai; Byoungho Lee; Hongchen Zhai

    2011-01-01

    This feature issue is the fifth installment on digital holography since its inception four years ago.The last four issues have been published after the conclusion of each Topical Meeting "Digital Holography and 3D imaging (DH)." However,this feature issue includes a new key feature-Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters Feature Issue.The DH Topical Meeting is the world's premier forum for disseminating the science and technology geared towards digital holography and 3D information processing.Since the meeting's inception in 2007,it has steadily and healthily grown to 130 presentations this year,held in Tokyo,Japan,May 2011.

  17. Characterization of fatigue resistance in photochromic composite materials for 3D rewritable optical memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoylova, Elena, E-mail: Elena.Samoylova@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Dallari, William; Allione, Marco; Pignatelli, Francesca; Marini, Lara; Cingolani, Roberto; Diaspro, Alberto [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Athanassiou, Athanassia, E-mail: athanassia.athanassiou@iit.it [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies-Unile, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano, Lecce (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: • Fatigue resistance of diarylethene–polymer composites was tested with optical absorption and fluorescence methods upon repetitive UV–VIS irradiation. • Significant differences in fatigue were found in different polymeric matrices and in one-photon and two-photon excitation experiments. • Several explanations for fatigue resistance of the composites are proposed based on the physico-chemical properties of the diarylethenes and polymeric matrices. -- Abstract: Fatigue resistance of the photochromic diarylethene molecules 1,2-bis[2-methylbenzo[b]thyophen-3-yl] -3,3,4,4,5,5-hexafluoro-1-cyclopentene embedded in three different acrylic polymers is studied upon multiple coloration–decoloration cycles. The resistance to photofatigue is found to be different in the three polymeric materials when one-photon excitation was used for the reversible photoconversion experiment. In particular, the photochromic molecules lose their photoisomerization ability faster if they are embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with respect to poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-methyl acrylate) (PEMMA) and poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA). We propose several explanations based on the physico-chemical properties of the matrix and of the photochromic molecules. In the case of two-photon excitation, which is necessary for 3D optical writing, the fatigue resistance is found to be poorer than in the one-photon case. The accelerated photodegradation can be assigned to the non-linear nature of interaction between the polymeric composite material and light.

  18. Estimating Fiber Orientation Distribution Functions in 3D-Polarized Light Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axer, Markus; Strohmer, Sven; Gräßel, David; Bücker, Oliver; Dohmen, Melanie; Reckfort, Julia; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Research of the human brain connectome requires multiscale approaches derived from independent imaging methods ideally applied to the same object. Hence, comprehensible strategies for data integration across modalities and across scales are essential. We have successfully established a concept to bridge the spatial scales from microscopic fiber orientation measurements based on 3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI) to meso- or macroscopic dimensions. By creating orientation distribution functions (pliODFs) from high-resolution vector data via series expansion with spherical harmonics utilizing high performance computing and supercomputing technologies, data fusion with Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become feasible, even for a large-scale dataset such as the human brain. Validation of our approach was done effectively by means of two types of datasets that were transferred from fiber orientation maps into pliODFs: simulated 3D-PLI data showing artificial, but clearly defined fiber patterns and real 3D-PLI data derived from sections through the human brain and the brain of a hooded seal.

  19. A spheroid toxicity assay using magnetic 3D bioprinting and real-time mobile device-based imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hubert; Gage, Jacob A; Shen, Tsaiwei; Haisler, William L; Neeley, Shane K; Shiao, Sue; Chen, Jianbo; Desai, Pujan K; Liao, Angela; Hebel, Chris; Raphael, Robert M; Becker, Jeanne L; Souza, Glauco R

    2015-09-14

    An ongoing challenge in biomedical research is the search for simple, yet robust assays using 3D cell cultures for toxicity screening. This study addresses that challenge with a novel spheroid assay, wherein spheroids, formed by magnetic 3D bioprinting, contract immediately as cells rearrange and compact the spheroid in relation to viability and cytoskeletal organization. Thus, spheroid size can be used as a simple metric for toxicity. The goal of this study was to validate spheroid contraction as a cytotoxic endpoint using 3T3 fibroblasts in response to 5 toxic compounds (all-trans retinoic acid, dexamethasone, doxorubicin, 5'-fluorouracil, forskolin), sodium dodecyl sulfate (+control), and penicillin-G (-control). Real-time imaging was performed with a mobile device to increase throughput and efficiency. All compounds but penicillin-G significantly slowed contraction in a dose-dependent manner (Z' = 0.88). Cells in 3D were more resistant to toxicity than cells in 2D, whose toxicity was measured by the MTT assay. Fluorescent staining and gene expression profiling of spheroids confirmed these findings. The results of this study validate spheroid contraction within this assay as an easy, biologically relevant endpoint for high-throughput compound screening in representative 3D environments.

  20. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p < 0.05). Comparisons between ventricle volumes from 3D US and MR images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  1. Defragmented image based autostereoscopic 3D displays with dynamic eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Yoon, Seon Kyu; Ju, Heongkyu

    2015-12-01

    We studied defragmented image based autostereoscopic 3D displays with dynamic eye tracking. Specifically, we examined the impact of parallax barrier (PB) angular orientation on their image quality. The 3D display system required fine adjustment of PB angular orientation with respect to a display panel. This was critical for both image color balancing and minimizing image resolution mismatch between horizontal and vertical directions. For evaluating uniformity of image brightness, we applied optical ray tracing simulations. The simulations took effects of PB orientation misalignment into account. The simulation results were then compared with recorded experimental data. Our optimal simulated system produced significantly enhanced image uniformity at around sweet spots in viewing zones. However this was contradicted by real experimental results. We offer quantitative treatment of illuminance uniformity of view images to estimate misalignment of PB orientation, which could account for brightness non-uniformity observed experimentally. Our study also shows that slight imperfection in the adjustment of PB orientation due to practical restrictions of adjustment accuracy can induce substantial non-uniformity of view images' brightness. We find that image brightness non-uniformity critically depends on misalignment of PB angular orientation, for example, as slight as ≤ 0.01 ° in our system. This reveals that reducing misalignment of PB angular orientation from the order of 10-2 to 10-3 degrees can greatly improve the brightness uniformity.

  2. TU-CD-BRA-01: A Novel 3D Registration Method for Multiparametric Radiological Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhbardeh, A [The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Parekth, VS [Department of Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jacobs, MA [The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Sparks, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Multiparametric and multimodality radiological imaging methods, such as, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), computed tomography(CT), and positron emission tomography(PET), provide multiple types of tissue contrast and anatomical information for clinical diagnosis. However, these radiological modalities are acquired using very different technical parameters, e.g.,field of view(FOV), matrix size, and scan planes, which, can lead to challenges in registering the different data sets. Therefore, we developed a hybrid registration method based on 3D wavelet transformation and 3D interpolations that performs 3D resampling and rotation of the target radiological images without loss of information Methods: T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted-imaging(DWI), dynamic-contrast-enhanced(DCE) MRI and PET/CT were used in the registration algorithm from breast and prostate data at 3T MRI and multimodality(PET/CT) cases. The hybrid registration scheme consists of several steps to reslice and match each modality using a combination of 3D wavelets, interpolations, and affine registration steps. First, orthogonal reslicing is performed to equalize FOV, matrix sizes and the number of slices using wavelet transformation. Second, angular resampling of the target data is performed to match the reference data. Finally, using optimized angles from resampling, 3D registration is performed using similarity transformation(scaling and translation) between the reference and resliced target volume is performed. After registration, the mean-square-error(MSE) and Dice Similarity(DS) between the reference and registered target volumes were calculated. Results: The 3D registration method registered synthetic and clinical data with significant improvement(p<0.05) of overlap between anatomical structures. After transforming and deforming the synthetic data, the MSE and Dice similarity were 0.12 and 0.99. The average improvement of the MSE in breast was 62%(0.27 to 0.10) and prostate was

  3. 3D Imaging of Dielectric Objects Buried under a Rough Surface by Using CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Tetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D scalar electromagnetic imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface is presented. The problem has been treated as a 3D scalar problem for computational simplicity as a first step to the 3D vector problem. The complexity of the background in which the object is buried is simplified by obtaining Green’s function of its background, which consists of two homogeneous half-spaces, and a rough interface between them, by using Buried Object Approach (BOA. Green’s function of the two-part space with planar interface is obtained to be used in the process. Reconstruction of the location, shape, and constitutive parameters of the objects is achieved by Contrast Source Inversion (CSI method with conjugate gradient. The scattered field data that is used in the inverse problem is obtained via both Method of Moments (MoM and Comsol Multiphysics pressure acoustics model.

  4. A Jones matrix formalism for simulating 3D Polarised Light Imaging of brain tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, Miriam; De Raedt, Hans; Reckfort, Julia; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The neuroimaging technique 3D Polarised Light Imaging (3D-PLI) provides a high-resolution reconstruction of nerve fibres in human post-mortem brains. The orientations of the fibres are derived from birefringence measurements of histological brain sections assuming that the nerve fibres - consisting of an axon and a surrounding myelin sheath - are uniaxial birefringent and that the measured optic axis is oriented in direction of the nerve fibres (macroscopic model). Although experimental studies support this assumption, the molecular structure of the myelin sheath suggests that the birefringence of a nerve fibre can be described more precisely by multiple optic axes oriented radially around the fibre axis (microscopic model). In this paper, we compare the use of the macroscopic and the microscopic model for simulating 3D-PLI by means of the Jones matrix formalism. The simulations show that the macroscopic model ensures a reliable estimation of the fibre orientations as long as the polarimeter does not resolve ...

  5. Segmentation of the central-chest lymph nodes in 3D MDCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Higgins, William E

    2011-09-01

    Central-chest lymph nodes play a vital role in lung-cancer staging. The definition of lymph nodes from three-dimensional (3D) multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) images, however, remains an open problem. We propose two methods for computer-based segmentation of the central-chest lymph nodes from a 3D MDCT scan: the single-section live wire and the single-click live wire. For the single-section live wire, the user first applies the standard live wire to a single two-dimensional (2D) section after which automated analysis completes the segmentation process. The single-click live wire is similar but is almost completely automatic. Ground-truth studies involving human 3D MDCT scans demonstrate the robustness, efficiency, and intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility of the methods.

  6. Fast 3D Variable-FOV Reconstruction for Parallel Imaging with Localized Sensitivities

    CERN Document Server

    Can, Yiğit Baran; Çukur, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Several successful iterative approaches have recently been proposed for parallel-imaging reconstructions of variable-density (VD) acquisitions, but they often induce substantial computational burden for non-Cartesian data. Here we propose a generalized variable-FOV PILS reconstruction 3D VD Cartesian and non-Cartesian data. The proposed method separates k-space into non-intersecting annuli based on sampling density, and sets the 3D reconstruction FOV for each annulus based on the respective sampling density. The variable-FOV method is compared against conventional gridding, PILS, and ESPIRiT reconstructions. Results indicate that the proposed method yields better artifact suppression compared to gridding and PILS, and improves noise conditioning relative to ESPIRiT, enabling fast and high-quality reconstructions of 3D datasets.

  7. 3D/2D Registration of Mapping Catheter Images for Arrhythmia Interventional Assistance

    CERN Document Server

    Fallavollita, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation has transformed treatment for tachyarrhythmias and has become first-line therapy for some tachycardias. The precise localization of the arrhythmogenic site and the positioning of the RF catheter over that site are problematic: they can impair the efficiency of the procedure and are time consuming (several hours). Electroanatomic mapping technologies are available that enable the display of the cardiac chambers and the relative position of ablation lesions. However, these are expensive and use custom-made catheters. The proposed methodology makes use of standard catheters and inexpensive technology in order to create a 3D volume of the heart chamber affected by the arrhythmia. Further, we propose a novel method that uses a priori 3D information of the mapping catheter in order to estimate the 3D locations of multiple electrodes across single view C-arm images. The monoplane algorithm is tested for feasibility on computer simulations and initial canine data.

  8. Accurate 3D maps from depth images and motion sensors via nonlinear Kalman filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Hervier, Thibault; Goulette, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of depth images as localisation sensors for 3D map building. The localisation information is derived from the 3D data thanks to the ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm. The covariance of the ICP, and thus of the localization error, is analysed, and described by a Fisher Information Matrix. It is advocated this error can be much reduced if the data is fused with measurements from other motion sensors, or even with prior knowledge on the motion. The data fusion is performed by a recently introduced specific extended Kalman filter, the so-called Invariant EKF, and is directly based on the estimated covariance of the ICP. The resulting filter is very natural, and is proved to possess strong properties. Experiments with a Kinect sensor and a three-axis gyroscope prove clear improvement in the accuracy of the localization, and thus in the accuracy of the built 3D map.

  9. 3D/2D Registration of Mapping Catheter Images for Arrhythmia Interventional Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Fallavollita

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency (RF catheter ablation has transformed treatment for tachyarrhythmias and has become first-line therapy for some tachycardias. The precise localization of the arrhythmogenic site and the positioning of the RF catheter over that site are problematic: they can impair the efficiency of the procedure and are time consuming (several hours. Electroanatomic mapping technologies are available that enable the display of the cardiac chambers and the relative position of ablation lesions. However, these are expensive and use custom-made catheters. The proposed methodology makes use of standard catheters and inexpensive technology in order to create a 3D volume of the heart chamber affected by the arrhythmia. Further, we propose a novel method that uses a priori 3D information of the mapping catheter in order to estimate the 3D locations of multiple electrodes across single view C-arm images. The monoplane algorithm is tested for feasibility on computer simulations and initial canine data.

  10. Imaging of Metabolic Status in 3D Cultures with an Improved AMPK FRET Biosensor for FLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Chennell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to non-invasively map spatiotemporal biochemical and physiological changes in 3D cell culture using Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET biosensors expressed in tumour spheroids. In particular, we present an improved Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK FRET biosensor, mTurquoise2 AMPK Activity Reporter (T2AMPKAR, for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM readouts that we have evaluated in 2D and 3D cultures. Our results in 2D cell culture indicate that replacing the FRET donor, enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP, in the original FRET biosensor, AMPK activity reporter (AMPKAR, with mTurquoise2 (mTq2FP, increases the dynamic range of the response to activation of AMPK, as demonstrated using the direct AMPK activator, 991. We demonstrated 3D FLIM of this T2AMPKAR FRET biosensor expressed in tumour spheroids using two-photon excitation.

  11. Adaptation of Zerotrees Using Signed Binary Digit Representations for 3D Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Christophe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Zerotrees of wavelet coefficients have shown a good adaptability for the compression of three-dimensional images. EZW, the original algorithm using zerotree, shows good performance and was successfully adapted to 3D image compression. This paper focuses on the adaptation of EZW for the compression of hyperspectral images. The subordinate pass is suppressed to remove the necessity to keep the significant pixels in memory. To compensate the loss due to this removal, signed binary digit representations are used to increase the efficiency of zerotrees. Contextual arithmetic coding with very limited contexts is also used. Finally, we show that this simplified version of 3D-EZW performs almost as well as the original one.

  12. Adaptation of Zerotrees Using Signed Binary Digit Representations for 3D Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailhes Corinne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerotrees of wavelet coefficients have shown a good adaptability for the compression of three-dimensional images. EZW, the original algorithm using zerotree, shows good performance and was successfully adapted to 3D image compression. This paper focuses on the adaptation of EZW for the compression of hyperspectral images. The subordinate pass is suppressed to remove the necessity to keep the significant pixels in memory. To compensate the loss due to this removal, signed binary digit representations are used to increase the efficiency of zerotrees. Contextual arithmetic coding with very limited contexts is also used. Finally, we show that this simplified version of 3D-EZW performs almost as well as the original one.

  13. 220GHz wideband 3D imaging radar for concealed object detection technology development and phenomenology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Macfarlane, David G.; Bryllert, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    We present a 220 GHz 3D imaging `Pathfinder' radar developed within the EU FP7 project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) which has been built to address two objectives: (i) to de-risk the radar hardware development and (ii) to enable the collection of phenomenology data with ~1 cm3 volumetric resolution. The radar combines a DDS-based chirp generator and self-mixing multiplier technology to achieve a 30 GHz bandwidth chirp with such high linearity that the raw point response is close to ideal and only requires minor nonlinearity compensation. The single transceiver is focused with a 30 cm lens mounted on a gimbal to acquire 3D volumetric images of static test targets and materials.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis for osteoporosis using chest 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, K.; Matsuhiro, M.; Suzuki, H.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2016-03-01

    The patients of osteoporosis comprised of about 13 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems the aging society has. In order to prevent the osteoporosis, it is necessary to do early detection and treatment. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving the three dimensional (3-D) image analysis with higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. The 3-D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used as a support to diagnose osteoporosis and at the same time can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis diagnosis support system obtained high extraction rate of the thoracic vertebral in both normal and low doses.

  15. 3D Imaging of Nanoparticle Distribution in Biological Tissue by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Y.; Busser, B.; Trichard, F.; Kulesza, A.; Laurent, J. M.; Zaun, V.; Lux, F.; Benoit, J. M.; Panczer, G.; Dugourd, P.; Tillement, O.; Pelascini, F.; Sancey, L.; Motto-Ros, V.

    2016-07-01

    Nanomaterials represent a rapidly expanding area of research with huge potential for future medical applications. Nanotechnology indeed promises to revolutionize diagnostics, drug delivery, gene therapy, and many other areas of research. For any biological investigation involving nanomaterials, it is crucial to study the behavior of such nano-objects within tissues to evaluate both their efficacy and their toxicity. Here, we provide the first account of 3D label-free nanoparticle imaging at the entire-organ scale. The technology used is known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and possesses several advantages such as speed of operation, ease of use and full compatibility with optical microscopy. We then used two different but complementary approaches to achieve 3D elemental imaging with LIBS: a volume reconstruction of a sliced organ and in-depth analysis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the quantitative imaging of both endogenous and exogenous elements within entire organs and paves the way for innumerable applications.

  16. Total 3D imaging of phase objects using defocusing microscopy: application to red blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Roma, P M S; Amaral, F T; Agero, U; Mesquita, O N

    2014-01-01

    We present Defocusing Microscopy (DM), a bright-field optical microscopy technique able to perform total 3D imaging of transparent objects. By total 3D imaging we mean the determination of the actual shapes of the upper and lower surfaces of a phase object. We propose a new methodology using DM and apply it to red blood cells subject to different osmolality conditions: hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions. For each situation the shape of the upper and lower cell surface-membranes (lipid bilayer/cytoskeleton) are completely recovered, displaying the deformation of RBCs surfaces due to adhesion on the glass-substrate. The axial resolution of our technique allowed us to image surface-membranes separated by distances as small as 300 nm. Finally, we determine volume, superficial area, sphericity index and RBCs refractive index for each osmotic condition.

  17. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway.

  18. 2D image classification for 3D anatomy localization: employing deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Bob D.; Wolterink, Jelmer M.; de Jong, Pim A.; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Localization of anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) is a preprocessing step in many medical image analysis tasks. While trivial for humans, it is complex for automatic methods. Classic machine learning approaches require the challenge of hand crafting features to describe differences between ROIs and background. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) alleviate this by automatically finding hierarchical feature representations from raw images. We employ this trait to detect anatomical ROIs in 2D image slices in order to localize them in 3D. In 100 low-dose non-contrast enhanced non-ECG synchronized screening chest CT scans, a reference standard was defined by manually delineating rectangular bounding boxes around three anatomical ROIs -- heart, aortic arch, and descending aorta. Every anatomical ROI was automatically identified using a combination of three CNNs, each analyzing one orthogonal image plane. While single CNNs predicted presence or absence of a specific ROI in the given plane, the combination of their results provided a 3D bounding box around it. Classification performance of each CNN, expressed in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was >=0.988. Additionally, the performance of ROI localization was evaluated. Median Dice scores for automatically determined bounding boxes around the heart, aortic arch, and descending aorta were 0.89, 0.70, and 0.85 respectively. The results demonstrate that accurate automatic 3D localization of anatomical structures by CNN-based 2D image classification is feasible.

  19. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  20. Piecewise-diffeomorphic image registration: application to the motion estimation between 3D CT lung images with sliding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Laurent; Vialard, François-Xavier; Baluwala, Habib Y; Schnabel, Julia A

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new strategy for modelling sliding conditions when registering 3D images in a piecewise-diffeomorphic framework. More specifically, our main contribution is the development of a mathematical formalism to perform Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping registration with sliding conditions. We also show how to adapt this formalism to the LogDemons diffeomorphic registration framework. We finally show how to apply this strategy to estimate the respiratory motion between 3D CT pulmonary images. Quantitative tests are performed on 2D and 3D synthetic images, as well as on real 3D lung images from the MICCAI EMPIRE10 challenge. Results show that our strategy estimates accurate mappings of entire 3D thoracic image volumes that exhibit a sliding motion, as opposed to conventional registration methods which are not capable of capturing discontinuous deformations at the thoracic cage boundary. They also show that although the deformations are not smooth across the location of sliding conditions, they are almost always invertible in the whole image domain. This would be helpful for radiotherapy planning and delivery.

  1. Fusing Multiscale Charts into 3D ENC Systems Based on Underwater Topography and Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose an approach to fuse multiscale charts into three-dimensional (3D electronic navigational chart (ENC systems based on underwater topography and remote sensing image. This is the first time that the fusion of multiscale standard ENCs in the 3D ENC system has been studied. First, a view-dependent visualization technology is presented for the determination of the display condition of a chart. Second, a map sheet processing method is described for dealing with the map sheet splice problem. A process order called “3D order” is designed to adapt to the characteristics of the chart. A map sheet clipping process is described to deal with the overlap between the adjacent map sheets. And our strategy for map sheet splice is proposed. Third, the rendering method for ENC objects in the 3D ENC system is introduced. Fourth, our picking-up method for ENC objects is proposed. Finally, we implement the above methods in our system: automotive intelligent chart (AIC 3D electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS. And our method can handle the fusion problem well.

  2. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.T.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  3. Usefulness of 3D-fast-SPGR MR image for gamma knife radiosurgery planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yasushi; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Koshikawa, Tokiko [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    Optimal stereotactic radiosurgery depends on accurate definition of the target and surrounding structures on neuroimaging. The recently developed 3D-Fast-SPGR magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides high-resolution images of brain anatomy. We investigated various parameters in 3D-Fast-SPGR images both in experimental phantom studies and in assessment of clinical cases of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and trigeminal neuralgia. In addition, we investigated the accuracy of coordinates in 3D-Fast-SPGR images. In phantom study, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was best at TE=minimum full and band width (BW)=16 kHz. Contrast ratio between 1.0 mmol/l gadolinium (Gd) solution (compatible with contrast-enhanced vessels) and 0.2 mmol/l Gd solution (compatible with brain parenchyma) was largest at TE=minimum and band width=32 kHz. However, in clinical images of patients, shorter TE (minimum) more clearly reveals feeding arteries as high-intensity vessels without low-intensity flow voids in the assessment of AVMs and identifies arteries pressing against the trigeminal nerve in trigeminal neurlgia cases. We recommend parameters of TE=minimum, band width=16 kHz, TR=19.5 ms, TE=4.2 ms, and FA=25 degrees for radiosurgery dose planning in cases of AVM or trigeminal neuralgia. We also checked the accuracy of each coordinate obtained on 3D-Fast-SPGR axial images. Around the center of Leksell stereotactic G-frame (x=50-150, y=50-150, z=70-130), the error of x-coordinates was 0.48 {+-}0.12 mm, that of y-coordinates was 0.36{+-}0.1 mm, and that of z-coordinates was 0.62{+-}0.38 mm. The error was minimum at the center (x=100, y=100, and z=100). In conclusion, 3D-Fast-SPGR MR imaging is a fast, non-invasive, accurate imaging method for stereotactic radiosurgery. It provides useful information on vascular and parenchymal brain anatomy for optimal dose planning, especially in cases of AVM and trigeminal neuralgia. We believe that it can be used with confidence as the sole

  4. FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF 3D-C/SiC COMPOSITES AT 1300℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Ji; S.R.Qiao; S.M.Du; M.Li; D.Han; J.N.Wei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the energy conservation, the elastic energy linked to the compliance change,non-elastic energy dissipated by irreversible deformation and the resistance for crack propagation were quantitatively characterized by evaluation the load/load point displacement curves tested by three points bend experiment with single notch beam at 1300℃. The cracks length was determined by compliance calibration curves. It is shown by experimental results that the compliance of 3D-C/SiC composites changes with the cracks can be described by third order polynomial. The variation of crack advancing resistance with non-dimensional equivalent crack length presents a convex curve. The crack advancing resistance increases firstly and then decreases with the non-dimensional equivalent crack length, finally is in comparatively low level. The maximum values of crack advancing resistance are 269.73k J/m2 for nondimensional equivalent crack length of 0.318 and original notch length of 0.35mm,and 138.65k J/m2 for non-dimensional equivalent crack length of 0.381 and original notch length of 2.06mm, respectively.

  5. 3D OBJECT COORDINATES EXTRACTION BY RADARGRAMMETRY AND MULTI STEP IMAGE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eftekhari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays by high resolution SAR imaging systems as Radarsat-2, TerraSAR-X and COSMO-skyMed, three-dimensional terrain data extraction using SAR images is growing. InSAR and Radargrammetry are two most common approaches for removing 3D object coordinate from SAR images. Research has shown that extraction of terrain elevation data using satellite repeat pass interferometry SAR technique due to atmospheric factors and the lack of coherence between the images in areas with dense vegetation cover is a problematic. So the use of Radargrammetry technique can be effective. Generally height derived method by Radargrammetry consists of two stages: Images matching and space intersection. In this paper we propose a multi-stage algorithm founded on the combination of feature based and area based image matching. Then the RPCs that calculate for each images use for extracting 3D coordinate in matched points. At the end, the coordinates calculating that compare with coordinates extracted from 1 meters DEM. The results show root mean square errors for 360 points are 3.09 meters. We use a pair of spotlight TerraSAR-X images from JAM (IRAN in this article.

  6. 3D Materials image segmentation by 2D propagation: a graph-cut approach considering homomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jarrell; Zhou, Youjie; Simmons, Jeff; De Graef, Marc; Wang, Song

    2013-12-01

    Segmentation propagation, similar to tracking, is the problem of transferring a segmentation of an image to a neighboring image in a sequence. This problem is of particular importance to materials science, where the accurate segmentation of a series of 2D serial-sectioned images of multiple, contiguous 3D structures has important applications. Such structures may have distinct shape, appearance, and topology, which can be considered to improve segmentation accuracy. For example, some materials images may have structures with a specific shape or appearance in each serial section slice, which only changes minimally from slice to slice, and some materials may exhibit specific inter-structure topology that constrains their neighboring relations. Some of these properties have been individually incorporated to segment specific materials images in prior work. In this paper, we develop a propagation framework for materials image segmentation where each propagation is formulated as an optimal labeling problem that can be efficiently solved using the graph-cut algorithm. Our framework makes three key contributions: 1) a homomorphic propagation approach, which considers the consistency of region adjacency in the propagation; 2) incorporation of shape and appearance consistency in the propagation; and 3) a local non-homomorphism strategy to handle newly appearing and disappearing substructures during this propagation. To show the effectiveness of our framework, we conduct experiments on various 3D materials images, and compare the performance against several existing image segmentation methods.

  7. Matching Aerial Images to 3d Building Models Based on Context-Based Geometric Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J.; Bang, K.; Sohn, G.; Armenakis, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new model-to-image framework to automatically align a single airborne image with existing 3D building models using geometric hashing is proposed. As a prerequisite process for various applications such as data fusion, object tracking, change detection and texture mapping, the proposed registration method is used for determining accurate exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of a single image. This model-to-image matching process consists of three steps: 1) feature extraction, 2) similarity measure and matching, and 3) adjustment of EOPs of a single image. For feature extraction, we proposed two types of matching cues, edged corner points representing the saliency of building corner points with associated edges and contextual relations among the edged corner points within an individual roof. These matching features are extracted from both 3D building and a single airborne image. A set of matched corners are found with given proximity measure through geometric hashing and optimal matches are then finally determined by maximizing the matching cost encoding contextual similarity between matching candidates. Final matched corners are used for adjusting EOPs of the single airborne image by the least square method based on co-linearity equations. The result shows that acceptable accuracy of single image's EOP can be achievable by the proposed registration approach as an alternative to labour-intensive manual registration process.

  8. MATCHING AERIAL IMAGES TO 3D BUILDING MODELS BASED ON CONTEXT-BASED GEOMETRIC HASHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new model-to-image framework to automatically align a single airborne image with existing 3D building models using geometric hashing is proposed. As a prerequisite process for various applications such as data fusion, object tracking, change detection and texture mapping, the proposed registration method is used for determining accurate exterior orientation parameters (EOPs of a single image. This model-to-image matching process consists of three steps: 1 feature extraction, 2 similarity measure and matching, and 3 adjustment of EOPs of a single image. For feature extraction, we proposed two types of matching cues, edged corner points representing the saliency of building corner points with associated edges and contextual relations among the edged corner points within an individual roof. These matching features are extracted from both 3D building and a single airborne image. A set of matched corners are found with given proximity measure through geometric hashing and optimal matches are then finally determined by maximizing the matching cost encoding contextual similarity between matching candidates. Final matched corners are used for adjusting EOPs of the single airborne image by the least square method based on co-linearity equations. The result shows that acceptable accuracy of single image's EOP can be achievable by the proposed registration approach as an alternative to labour-intensive manual registration process.

  9. Precision-guided surgical navigation system using laser guidance and 3D autostereoscopic image overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongen; Ishihara, Hirotaka; Tran, Huy Hoang; Masamune, Ken; Sakuma, Ichiro; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a precision-guided surgical navigation system for minimally invasive surgery. The system combines a laser guidance technique with a three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic image overlay technique. Images of surgical anatomic structures superimposed onto the patient are created by employing an animated imaging method called integral videography (IV), which can display geometrically accurate 3D autostereoscopic images and reproduce motion parallax without the need for special viewing or tracking devices. To improve the placement accuracy of surgical instruments, we integrated an image overlay system with a laser guidance system for alignment of the surgical instrument and better visualization of patient's internal structure. We fabricated a laser guidance device and mounted it on an IV image overlay device. Experimental evaluations showed that the system could guide a linear surgical instrument toward a target with an average error of 2.48 mm and standard deviation of 1.76 mm. Further improvement to the design of the laser guidance device and the patient-image registration procedure of the IV image overlay will make this system practical; its use would increase surgical accuracy and reduce invasiveness.

  10. Quasi 3D Geoelectrical Imaging as a new application for permafrost investigations: Some methodological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, A.; Kneisel, C.

    2009-04-01

    The two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) application is a common tool to investigate periglacial environments and has evolved rapidly over the last years. The method has been often applied with great success in mountainous systems even though they are characterized by a complex heterogeonous and rough terrain. Despite the development of advanced instrumentation and commercial three-dimensional processing software, in general the two-dimensional approach is used. True three-dimensional measurements in high mountain environments are difficult to realize due to the rough and complex domain. However, up to now, an efficient three-dimensional geophysical mapping of the subsurface characteristics and lithology in alpine environments has not been possible. An auspicious approach is to sound the subsurface with two-dimensional measurements, each of them is routinely being interpreted with commercial software packages and then the results are merged to generate a quasi or pseudo three-dimensional geoelectrical image of the subsurface. Our study presents first results of two quasi 3D geoelectrical images, located in the Val Muragl glacier forefield, Upper Engadin, Swiss Alps. The site of the first model is in the lower part of the forefield the second in the upper part. They distinguish between the surface material: While the lower part is characterized by coarse blocky but although finer grained surface material, the upper site consists of much more finer grained substrate. At both sites a permanently geoelectrical monitoring survey-line is installed, as well as a borehole, which was drilled in summer of 2006 and extent to a depth of 8m below ground surface. Furthermore, miniature temperature logger, BTS (bottom temperature of snow cover) and seismic refraction data are available for the glacier forefield. Data acquisition has been undertaken with a multi-electrode Iris Syscal Junior Switch equipment, data processing with different commercial software

  11. Terahertz imaging system based on bessel beams via 3D printed axicons at 100GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Zhang, Zhongqi; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhenggang; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging technology shows great advantage in nondestructive detection (NDT), since many optical opaque materials are transparent to THz waves. In this paper, we design and fabricate dielectric axicons to generate zeroth order-Bessel beams by 3D printing technology. We further present an all-electric THz imaging system using the generated Bessel beams in 100GHz. Resolution targets made of printed circuit board are imaged, and the results clearly show the extended depth of focus of Bessel beam, indicating the promise of Bessel beam for the THz NDT.

  12. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.

  13. Full Waveform Analysis for Long-Range 3D Imaging Laser Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace AndrewM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of 3D imaging systems based on laser radar (ladar offers significant advantages in defense and security applications. In particular, it is possible to retrieve 3D shape information directly from the scene and separate a target from background or foreground clutter by extracting a narrow depth range from the field of view by range gating, either in the sensor or by postprocessing. We discuss and demonstrate the applicability of full-waveform ladar to produce multilayer 3D imagery, in which each pixel produces a complex temporal response that describes the scene structure. Such complexity caused by multiple and distributed reflection arises in many relevant scenarios, for example in viewing partially occluded targets, through semitransparent materials (e.g., windows and through distributed reflective media such as foliage. We demonstrate our methodology on 3D image data acquired by a scanning time-of-flight system, developed in our own laboratories, which uses the time-correlated single-photon counting technique.

  14. 3D Imaging of Dead Sea Area Using Weighted Multipath Summation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemer Keydar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of sinkholes along the Dead Sea is caused by the rapid decline of the Dead Sea level, as a possible result of human extensive activity. According to one of the geological models, the sinkholes in several sites are clustered along a narrow coastal strip developing along lineaments representing faults in NNW direction. In order to understand the relationship between a developing sinkhole and its tectonic environment, a high-resolution (HR three-dimensional (3D seismic reflection survey was carried out at the western shoreline of the Dead Sea. A recently developed 3D imaging approach was applied to this 3D dataset. Imaging of subsurface is performed by a spatial summation of seismic waves along time surfaces using recently proposed multipath summation with proper weights. The multipath summation is performed by stacking the target waves along all possible time surfaces having a common apex at the given point. This approach does not require any explicit information on parameters since the involved multipath summation is performed for all possible parameters values within a wide specified range. The results from processed 3D time volume show subhorizontal coherent reflectors at approximate depth of 50–80 m which incline on closer location to the exposed sinkhole and suggest a possible linkage between revealed fault and the sinkholes.

  15. 3D endobronchial ultrasound reconstruction and analysis for multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher R.; Toth, Jennifer W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    State-of-the-art image-guided intervention (IGI) systems for lung-cancer management draw upon high-resolution three-dimensional multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) images and bronchoscopic video. An MDCT scan provides a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) image of the chest that is used for preoperative procedure planning, while bronchoscopy gives live intraoperative video of the endobronchial airway tree structure. However, because neither source provides live extraluminal information on suspect nodules or lymph nodes, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is often introduced during a procedure. Unfortunately, existing IGI systems provide no direct synergistic linkage between the MDCT/video data and EBUS data. Hence, EBUS proves difficult to use and can lead to inaccurate interpretations. To address this drawback, we present a prototype of a multimodal IGI system that brings together the various image sources. The system enables 3D reconstruction and visualization of structures depicted in the 2D EBUS video stream. It also provides a set of graphical tools that link the EBUS data directly to the 3D MDCT and bronchoscopic video. Results using phantom and human data indicate that the new system could potentially enable smooth natural incorporation of EBUS into the system-level work flow of bronchoscopy.

  16. GPU-Based 3D Cone-Beam CT Image Reconstruction for Large Data Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 3D cone-beam CT image reconstruction speed is still a severe limitation for clinical application. The computational power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs has been harnessed to provide impressive acceleration of 3D volume image reconstruction. For extra large data volume exceeding the physical graphic memory of GPU, a straightforward compromise is to divide data volume into blocks. Different from the conventional Octree partition method, a new partition scheme is proposed in this paper. This method divides both projection data and reconstructed image volume into subsets according to geometric symmetries in circular cone-beam projection layout, and a fast reconstruction for large data volume can be implemented by packing the subsets of projection data into the RGBA channels of GPU, performing the reconstruction chunk by chunk and combining the individual results in the end. The method is evaluated by reconstructing 3D images from computer-simulation data and real micro-CT data. Our results indicate that the GPU implementation can maintain original precision and speed up the reconstruction process by 110–120 times for circular cone-beam scan, as compared to traditional CPU implementation.

  17. High performance 3D adaptive filtering for DSP based portable medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable medical imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. Despite their constraints on power, size and cost, portable imaging devices must still deliver high quality images. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often cannot be run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore digital signal processors (DSP) have been developed that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms on a portable platform. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a DSP is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec with an Ultrasound 3D probe. Relative performance and power is addressed between a reference PC (Quad Core CPU) and a TMS320C6678 DSP from Texas Instruments.

  18. Shape-adaptive DCT for denoising of 3D scalar and tensor valued images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Ørjan; Christiansen, Oddvar; Lie, Johan; Lundervold, Arvid

    2009-06-01

    During the last ten years or so, diffusion tensor imaging has been used in both research and clinical medical applications. To construct the diffusion tensor images, a large set of direction sensitive magnetic resonance image (MRI) acquisitions are required. These acquisitions in general have a lower signal-to-noise ratio than conventional MRI acquisitions. In this paper, we discuss computationally effective algorithms for noise removal for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) using the framework of 3-dimensional shape-adaptive discrete cosine transform. We use local polynomial approximations for the selection of homogeneous regions in the DTI data. These regions are transformed to the frequency domain by a modified discrete cosine transform. In the frequency domain, the noise is removed by thresholding. We perform numerical experiments on 3D synthetical MRI and DTI data and real 3D DTI brain data from a healthy volunteer. The experiments indicate good performance compared to current state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method is well suited for parallelization and could thus dramatically improve the computation speed of denoising schemes for large scale 3D MRI and DTI.

  19. 3-D ultrasonic strain imaging based on a linear scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Bo; Ye, Pengfei; Chen, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    This paper introduces a 3-D strain imaging method based on a freehand linear scanning mode. We designed a linear sliding track with a position sensor and a height-adjustable holder to constrain the movement of an ultrasound probe in a freehand manner. When moving the probe along the sliding track, the corresponding positional measures for the probe are transmitted via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth in real time. In a single examination, the probe is scanned in two sweeps in which the height of the probe is adjusted by the holder to collect the pre- and postcompression radio-frequency echoes, respectively. To generate a 3-D strain image, a volume cubic in which the voxels denote relative strains for tissues is defined according to the range of the two sweeps. With respect to the post-compression frames, several slices in the volume are determined and the pre-compression frames are re-sampled to precisely correspond to the post-compression frames. Thereby, a strain estimation method based on minimizing a cost function using dynamic programming is used to obtain the 2-D strain image for each pair of frames from the re-sampled pre-compression sweep and the post-compression sweep, respectively. A software system is developed for volume reconstruction, visualization, and measurement of the 3-D strain images. The experimental results show that high-quality 3-D strain images of phantom and human tissues can be generated by the proposed method, indicating that the proposed system can be applied for real clinical applications (e.g., musculoskeletal assessments).

  20. PSF Rotation with Changing Defocus and Applications to 3D Imaging for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, S.; Kumar, R.

    2013-09-01

    For a clear, well corrected imaging aperture in space, the point-spread function (PSF) in its Gaussian image plane has the conventional, diffraction-limited, tightly focused Airy form. Away from that plane, the PSF broadens rapidly, however, resulting in a loss of sensitivity and transverse resolution that makes such a traditional best-optics approach untenable for rapid 3D image acquisition. One must scan in focus to maintain high sensitivity and resolution as one acquires image data, slice by slice, from a 3D volume with reduced efficiency. In this paper we describe a computational-imaging approach to overcome this limitation, one that uses pupil-phase engineering to fashion a PSF that, although not as tight as the Airy spot, maintains its shape and size while rotating uniformly with changing defocus over many waves of defocus phase at the pupil edge. As one of us has shown recently [1], the subdivision of a circular pupil aperture into M Fresnel zones, with the mth zone having an outer radius proportional to m and impressing a spiral phase profile of form m? on the light wave, where ? is the azimuthal angle coordinate measured from a fixed x axis (the dislocation line), yields a PSF that rotates with defocus while keeping its shape and size. Physically speaking, a nonzero defocus of a point source means a quadratic optical phase in the pupil that, because of the square-root dependence of the zone radius on the zone number, increases on average by the same amount from one zone to the next. This uniformly incrementing phase yields, in effect, a rotation of the dislocation line, and thus a rotated PSF. Since the zone-to-zone phase increment depends linearly on defocus to first order, the PSF rotates uniformly with changing defocus. For an M-zone pupil, a complete rotation of the PSF occurs when the defocus-induced phase at the pupil edge changes by M waves. Our recent simulations of reconstructions from image data for 3D image scenes comprised of point sources at

  1. A segmentation method for 3D visualization of neurons imaged with a confocal laser scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Barrett, Steven F.; Wilcox, Michael J.

    2005-04-01

    Our understanding of the world around us is based primarily on three-dimensional information because of the environment in which we live and interact. Medical or biological image information is often collected in the form of two-dimensional, serial section images. As such, it is difficult for the observer to mentally reconstruct the three dimensional features of each object. Although many image rendering software packages allow for 3D views of the serial sections, they lack the ability to segment, or isolate different objects in the data set. Segmentation is the key to creating 3D renderings of distinct objects from serial slice images, like separate pieces to a puzzle. This paper describes a segmentation method for objects recorded with serial section images. The user defines threshold levels and object labels on a single image of the data set that are subsequently used to automatically segment each object in the remaining images of the same data set, while maintaining boundaries between contacting objects. The performance of the algorithm is verified using mathematically defined shapes. It is then applied to the visual neurons of the housefly, Musca domestica. Knowledge of the fly"s visual system may lead to improved machine visions systems. This effort has provided the impetus to develop this segmentation algorithm. The described segmentation method can be applied to any high contrast serial slice data set that is well aligned and registered. The medical field alone has many applications for rapid generation of 3D segmented models from MRI and other medical imaging modalities.

  2. Comparison of 3D TOF-MRA and 3D CE-MRA at 3 T for imaging of intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, Mario, E-mail: mario.cirillo@unina2.it [Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Aging Sciences – 2nd University of Naples (Italy); Scomazzoni, Francesco [Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Cirillo, Luigi [IRCCS – Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Cadioli, Marcello; Simionato, Franco; Iadanza, Antonella [Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Kirchin, Miles [Worldwide Medical and Regulatory Affairs, Bracco Imaging SpA, Milan (Italy); Righi, Claudio; Anzalone, Nicoletta [Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare 3 T elliptical-centric CE MRA with 3 T TOF MRA for the detection and characterization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs), by using digital subtracted angiography (DSA) as reference. Materials and methods: Twenty-nine patients (12 male, 17 female; mean age: 62 years) with 41 aneurysms (34 saccular, 7 fusiform; mean diameter: 8.85 mm [range 2.0–26.4 mm]) were evaluated with MRA at 3 T each underwent 3D TOF-MRA examination without contrast and then a 3D contrast-enhanced (CE-MRA) examination with 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight gadobenate dimeglumine and k-space elliptic mapping (Contrast ENhanced Timing Robust Angiography [CENTRA]). Both TOF and CE-MRA images were used to evaluate morphologic features that impact the risk of rupture and the selection of a treatment. Almost half (20/41) of UIAs were located in the internal carotid artery, 7 in the anterior communicating artery, 9 in the middle cerebral artery and 4 in the vertebro-basilar arterial system. All patients also underwent DSA before or after the MR examination. Results: The CE-MRA results were in all cases consistent with the DSA dataset. No differences were noted between 3D TOF-MRA and CE-MRA concerning the detection and location of the 41 aneurysms or visualization of the parental artery. Differences were apparent concerning the visualization of morphologic features, especially for large aneurysms (>13 mm). An irregular sac shape was demonstrated for 21 aneurysms on CE-MRA but only 13/21 aneurysms on 3D TOF-MRA. Likewise, CE-MRA permitted visualization of an aneurismal neck and calculation of the sac/neck ratio for all 34 aneurysms with a neck demonstrated at DSA. Conversely, a neck was visible for only 24/34 aneurysms at 3D TOF-MRA. 3D CE-MRA detected 15 aneurysms with branches originating from the sac and/or neck, whereas branches were recognized in only 12/15 aneurysms at 3D TOF-MRA. Conclusion: For evaluation of intracranial aneurysms at 3 T, 3D CE-MRA is superior to 3D TOF

  3. Integration of 3D anatomical data obtained by CT imaging and 3D optical scanning for computer aided implant surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoli Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic aspects and functional constraints. In this context, the use of virtual guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control the ideal implant position. In particular, complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT data. The critical point of the procedure relies on the lack of accuracy in transferring CT planning information to surgical field through custom-made stereo-lithographic surgical guides. Methods In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for monitoring loss of accuracy in transferring CT dental information into periodontal surgical field. The methodology is based on integrating 3D data of anatomical (impression and cast and preoperative (radiographic template models, obtained by both CT and optical scanning processes. Results A clinical case, relative to a fully edentulous jaw patient, has been used as test case to assess the accuracy of the various steps concurring in manufacturing surgical guides. In particular, a surgical guide has been designed to place implants in the bone structure of the patient. The analysis of the results has allowed the clinician to monitor all the errors, which have been occurring step by step manufacturing the physical templates. Conclusions The use of an optical scanner, which has a higher resolution and accuracy than CT scanning, has demonstrated to be a valid support to control the precision of the various physical models adopted and to point out possible error sources. A case study regarding a fully edentulous patient has confirmed the feasibility of the proposed methodology.

  4. 3D multicolor super-resolution imaging offers improved accuracy in neuron tracing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Lakadamyali

    Full Text Available The connectivity among neurons holds the key to understanding brain function. Mapping neural connectivity in brain circuits requires imaging techniques with high spatial resolution to facilitate neuron tracing and high molecular specificity to mark different cellular and molecular populations. Here, we tested a three-dimensional (3D, multicolor super-resolution imaging method, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM, for tracing neural connectivity using cultured hippocampal neurons obtained from wild-type neonatal rat embryos as a model system. Using a membrane specific labeling approach that improves labeling density compared to cytoplasmic labeling, we imaged neural processes at 44 nm 2D and 116 nm 3D resolution as determined by considering both the localization precision of the fluorescent probes and the Nyquist criterion based on label density. Comparison with confocal images showed that, with the currently achieved resolution, we could distinguish and trace substantially more neuronal processes in the super-resolution images. The accuracy of tracing was further improved by using multicolor super-resolution imaging. The resolution obtained here was largely limited by the label density and not by the localization precision of the fluorescent probes. Therefore, higher image resolution, and thus higher tracing accuracy, can in principle be achieved by further improving the label density.

  5. Eccentricity in Images of Circular and Spherical Targets and its Impact to 3D Object Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses a feature of projective geometry which causes eccentricity in the image measurement of circular and spherical targets. While it is commonly known that flat circular targets can have a significant displacement of the elliptical image centre with respect to the true imaged circle centre, it can also be shown that the a similar effect exists for spherical targets. Both types of targets are imaged with an elliptical contour. As a result, if measurement methods based on ellipses are used to detect the target (e.g. best-fit ellipses), the calculated ellipse centre does not correspond to the desired target centre in 3D space. This paper firstly discusses the use and measurement of circular and spherical targets. It then describes the geometrical projection model in order to demonstrate the eccentricity in image space. Based on numerical simulations, the eccentricity in the image is further quantified and investigated. Finally, the resulting effect in 3D space is estimated for stereo and multi-image intersections. It can be stated that the eccentricity is larger than usually assumed, and must be compensated for high-accuracy applications. Spherical targets do not show better results than circular targets. The paper is an updated version of Luhmann (2014) new experimental investigations on the effect of length measurement errors.

  6. Demonstration of Normal and Abnormal Fetal Brains Using 3D Printing from In Utero MR Imaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, D; Griffiths, P D; Majewski, C

    2016-09-01

    3D printing is a new manufacturing technology that produces high-fidelity models of complex structures from 3D computer-aided design data. Radiology has been particularly quick to embrace the new technology because of the wide access to 3D datasets. Models have been used extensively to assist orthopedic, neurosurgical, and maxillofacial surgical planning. In this report, we describe methods used for 3D printing of the fetal brain by using data from in utero MR imaging.

  7. IMAGE-BASED AIRBORNE LiDAR POINT CLOUD ENCODING FOR 3D BUILDING MODEL RETRIEVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-C. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0 and cyber city modeling, an increasing number of 3D models have been available on web-based model-sharing platforms with many applications such as navigation, urban planning, and virtual reality. Based on the concept of data reuse, a 3D model retrieval system is proposed to retrieve building models similar to a user-specified query. The basic idea behind this system is to reuse these existing 3D building models instead of reconstruction from point clouds. To efficiently retrieve models, the models in databases are compactly encoded by using a shape descriptor generally. However, most of the geometric descriptors in related works are applied to polygonal models. In this study, the input query of the model retrieval system is a point cloud acquired by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR systems because of the efficient scene scanning and spatial information collection. Using Point clouds with sparse, noisy, and incomplete sampling as input queries is more difficult than that by using 3D models. Because that the building roof is more informative than other parts in the airborne LiDAR point cloud, an image-based approach is proposed to encode both point clouds from input queries and 3D models in databases. The main goal of data encoding is that the models in the database and input point clouds can be consistently encoded. Firstly, top-view depth images of buildings are generated to represent the geometry surface of a building roof. Secondly, geometric features are extracted from depth images based on height, edge and plane of building. Finally, descriptors can be extracted by spatial histograms and used in 3D model retrieval system. For data retrieval, the models are retrieved by matching the encoding coefficients of point clouds and building models. In experiments, a database including about 900,000 3D models collected from the Internet is used for evaluation of data retrieval. The results of the proposed method show

  8. Image-Based Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud Encoding for 3d Building Model Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    With the development of Web 2.0 and cyber city modeling, an increasing number of 3D models have been available on web-based model-sharing platforms with many applications such as navigation, urban planning, and virtual reality. Based on the concept of data reuse, a 3D model retrieval system is proposed to retrieve building models similar to a user-specified query. The basic idea behind this system is to reuse these existing 3D building models instead of reconstruction from point clouds. To efficiently retrieve models, the models in databases are compactly encoded by using a shape descriptor generally. However, most of the geometric descriptors in related works are applied to polygonal models. In this study, the input query of the model retrieval system is a point cloud acquired by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems because of the efficient scene scanning and spatial information collection. Using Point clouds with sparse, noisy, and incomplete sampling as input queries is more difficult than that by using 3D models. Because that the building roof is more informative than other parts in the airborne LiDAR point cloud, an image-based approach is proposed to encode both point clouds from input queries and 3D models in databases. The main goal of data encoding is that the models in the database and input point clouds can be consistently encoded. Firstly, top-view depth images of buildings are generated to represent the geometry surface of a building roof. Secondly, geometric features are extracted from depth images based on height, edge and plane of building. Finally, descriptors can be extracted by spatial histograms and used in 3D model retrieval system. For data retrieval, the models are retrieved by matching the encoding coefficients of point clouds and building models. In experiments, a database including about 900,000 3D models collected from the Internet is used for evaluation of data retrieval. The results of the proposed method show a clear superiority

  9. Automatic techniques for 3D reconstruction of critical workplace body postures from range imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfeld, Patrick; Maas, Hans-Gerd; Bringmann, Oliver; Gröllich, Daniel; Schmauder, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The paper shows techniques for the determination of structured motion parameters from range camera image sequences. The core contribution of the work presented here is the development of an integrated least squares 3D tracking approach based on amplitude and range image sequences to calculate dense 3D motion vector fields. Geometric primitives of a human body model are fitted to time series of range camera point clouds using these vector fields as additional information. Body poses and motion information for individual body parts are derived from the model fit. On the basis of these pose and motion parameters, critical body postures are detected. The primary aim of the study is to automate ergonomic studies for risk assessments regulated by law, identifying harmful movements and awkward body postures in a workplace.

  10. Note: Time-gated 3D single quantum dot tracking with simultaneous spinning disk imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, M. S.; Stich, D. G.; Keller, A. M.; Phipps, M. E.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Goodwin, P. M.; Werner, J. H., E-mail: jwerner@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cleyrat, C.; Lidke, D. S.; Wilson, B. S. [Department of Pathology and Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We describe recent upgrades to a 3D tracking microscope to include simultaneous Nipkow spinning disk imaging and time-gated single-particle tracking (SPT). Simultaneous 3D molecular tracking and spinning disk imaging enable the visualization of cellular structures and proteins around a given fluorescently labeled target molecule. The addition of photon time-gating to the SPT hardware improves signal to noise by discriminating against Raman scattering and short-lived fluorescence. In contrast to camera-based SPT, single-photon arrival times are recorded, enabling time-resolved spectroscopy (e.g., measurement of fluorescence lifetimes and photon correlations) to be performed during single molecule/particle tracking experiments.

  11. Internet2-based 3D PET image reconstruction using a PC cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, D W; Rapela, J; Asma, E; Chatzioannou, A; Qi, J; Leahy, R M

    2002-08-07

    We describe an approach to fast iterative reconstruction from fully three-dimensional (3D) PET data using a network of PentiumIII PCs configured as a Beowulf cluster. To facilitate the use of this system, we have developed a browser-based interface using Java. The system compresses PET data on the user's machine, sends these data over a network, and instructs the PC cluster to reconstruct the image. The cluster implements a parallelized version of our preconditioned conjugate gradient method for fully 3D MAP image reconstruction. We report on the speed-up factors using the Beowulf approach and the impacts of communication latencies in the local cluster network and the network connection between the user's machine and our PC cluster.

  12. Steganography in 3D Geometries and Images by Adjacent Bin Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao-Tian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A steganographic method called adjacent bin mapping (ABM is presented. Firstly, it is applied to 3D geometries by mapping the coordinates within two adjacent bins for data embedding. When applied to digital images, it becomes a kind of LSB hiding, namely the algorithm. In order to prevent the detection using a metric named histogram tail, the hiding is performed in a pseudorandom order. Then we show that the steganalytic algorithms based on histogram characteristic function (HCF can be prevented by implementing the algorithm on subsets of pixels having the same neighbor values. The experimental results show that important high-order statistics of the cover image are preserved in this way while little distortion is introduced to 3D geometric models with an appropriate bin size.

  13. Steganography in 3D Geometries and Images by Adjacent Bin Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Tian Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A steganographic method called adjacent bin mapping (ABM is presented. Firstly, it is applied to 3D geometries by mapping the coordinates within two adjacent bins for data embedding. When applied to digital images, it becomes a kind of LSB hiding, namely the LSB+ algorithm. In order to prevent the detection using a metric named histogram tail, the hiding is performed in a pseudorandom order. Then we show that the steganalytic algorithms based on histogram characteristic function (HCF can be prevented by implementing the LSB+ algorithm on subsets of pixels having the same neighbor values. The experimental results show that important high-order statistics of the cover image are preserved in this way while little distortion is introduced to 3D geometric models with an appropriate bin size.

  14. Parallel Imaging of 3D Surface Profile with Space-Division Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Seok Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a modified optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI system that performs parallel imaging of three-dimensional (3D surface profiles by using the space division multiplexing (SDM method with dual-area swept sourced beams. We have also demonstrated that 3D surface information for two different areas could be well obtained in a same time with only one camera by our method. In this study, double field of views (FOVs of 11.16 mm × 5.92 mm were achieved within 0.5 s. Height range for each FOV was 460 µm and axial and transverse resolutions were 3.6 and 5.52 µm, respectively.

  15. Development of scanning laser sensor for underwater 3D imaging with the coaxial optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochimizu, Hideaki; Imaki, Masaharu; Kameyama, Shumpei; Saito, Takashi; Ishibashi, Shoujirou; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed the scanning laser sensor for underwater 3-D imaging which has the wide scanning angle of 120º (Horizontal) x 30º (Vertical) with the compact size of 25 cm diameter and 60 cm long. Our system has a dome lens and a coaxial optics to realize both the wide scanning angle and the compactness. The system also has the feature in the sensitivity time control (STC) circuit, in which the receiving gain is increased according to the time of flight. The STC circuit contributes to detect a small signal by suppressing the unwanted signals backscattered by marine snows. We demonstrated the system performance in the pool, and confirmed the 3-D imaging with the distance of 20 m. Furthermore, the system was mounted on the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and demonstrated the seafloor mapping at the depth of 100 m in the ocean.

  16. Robust method for extracting the pulmonary vascular trees from 3D MDCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2011-03-01

    Segmentation of pulmonary blood vessels from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents a method for extracting the vascular trees of the pulmonary arteries and veins, applicable to both contrast-enhanced and unenhanced 3D MDCT image data. The method finds 2D elliptical cross-sections and evaluates agreement of these cross-sections in consecutive slices to find likely cross-sections. It next employs morphological multiscale analysis to separate vessels from adjoining airway walls. The method then tracks the center of the likely cross-sections to connect them to the pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum and forms connected vascular trees spanning both lungs. A ground-truth study indicates that the method was able to detect on the order of 98% of the vessel branches having diameter >= 3.0 mm. The extracted vascular trees can be utilized for the guidance of safe bronchoscopic biopsy.

  17. Note: Time-gated 3D single quantum dot tracking with simultaneous spinning disk imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, M S; Stich, D G; Keller, A M; Cleyrat, C; Phipps, M E; Hollingsworth, J A; Lidke, D S; Wilson, B S; Goodwin, P M; Werner, J H

    2015-12-01

    We describe recent upgrades to a 3D tracking microscope to include simultaneous Nipkow spinning disk imaging and time-gated single-particle tracking (SPT). Simultaneous 3D molecular tracking and spinning disk imaging enable the visualization of cellular structures and proteins around a given fluorescently labeled target molecule. The addition of photon time-gating to the SPT hardware improves signal to noise by discriminating against Raman scattering and short-lived fluorescence. In contrast to camera-based SPT, single-photon arrival times are recorded, enabling time-resolved spectroscopy (e.g., measurement of fluorescence lifetimes and photon correlations) to be performed during single molecule/particle tracking experiments.

  18. High-resolution acoustic imaging at low frequencies using 3D-printed metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laureti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic metamaterial has been constructed using 3D printing. It contained an array of air-filled channels, whose size and shape could be varied within the design and manufacture process. In this paper we analyze both numerically and experimentally the properties of this polymer metamaterial structure, and demonstrate its use for the imaging of a sample with sub-wavelength dimensions in the audible frequency range.

  19. Early detection of liver fibrosis in rats using 3-D ultrasound Nakagami imaging: a feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lee, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lin, Jen-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using 3-D ultrasound Nakagami imaging to detect the early stages of liver fibrosis in rats. Fibrosis was induced in livers of rats (n = 60) by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5% dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Group 1 was the control group, and rats in groups 2-6 received DMN injections for 1-5 weeks, respectively. Each rat was sacrificed to perform 3-D ultrasound scanning of the liver in vitro using a single-element transducer of 6.5 MHz. The 3-D raw data acquired at a sampling rate of 50 MHz were used to construct 3-D Nakagami images. The liver specimen was further used for histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining to score the degree of liver fibrosis. The results indicate that the Metavir scores of the hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections in Groups 1-4 were 0 (defined as early liver fibrosis in this study), and those in groups 5 and 6 ranged from 1 to 2 and 2 to 3, respectively. To quantify the degree of early liver fibrosis, the histologic sections with Masson stain were analyzed to calculate the number of fiber-related blue pixels. The number of blue pixels increased from (2.36 ± 0.79) × 10(4) (group 1) to (7.68 ± 2.62) × 10(4) (group 4) after DMN injections for 3 weeks, indicating that early stages of liver fibrosis were successfully induced in rats. The Nakagami parameter increased from 0.36 ± 0.02 (group 1) to 0.55 ± 0.03 (group 4), with increasing numbers of blue pixels in the Masson-stained sections (p-value Nakagami imaging has potential in the early detection of liver fibrosis in rats and may serve as an image-based pathologic model to visually track fibrosis formation and growth.

  20. Markerless 3D Head Tracking for Motion Correction in High Resolution PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter

    images. Incorrect motion correction can in the worst cases result in wrong diagnosis or treatment. The evolution of a markerless custom-made structured light 3D surface tracking system is presented. The system is targeted at state-of-the-art high resolution dedicated brain PET scanners with a resolution...... significantly. The results were similar to motion correction using an integrated commercial marker-based system. Furthermore, phantom studies were performed supporting the system’s abilities for PET motion correction....

  1. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Rita; McKenna, Claire; Wade, Rosalind Fay; Yang, Huiqin; Woolacott, Nerys; Sculpher, Mark

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS® 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Thresho...

  2. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR SURVEY: ON LINE SOFTWARES FOR 3D RECONTRUCTION FROM IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    E. Fratus de Balestrini; Guerra, F.

    2012-01-01

    3d scanning technologies had a significant development and have been widely used in documentation of cultural, architectural and archeological heritages. Modern methods of three-dimensional acquiring and modeling allow to represent an object through a digital model that combines visual potentialities of images (normally used for documentation) to the accuracy of the survey, becoming at the same time support for the visualization that for metric evaluation of any artefact that have an historic...

  3. High-resolution acoustic imaging at low frequencies using 3D-printed metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, S.; Hutchins, D. A.; Davis, L. A. J.; Leigh, S. J.; Ricci, M.

    2016-12-01

    An acoustic metamaterial has been constructed using 3D printing. It contained an array of air-filled channels, whose size and shape could be varied within the design and manufacture process. In this paper we analyze both numerically and experimentally the properties of this polymer metamaterial structure, and demonstrate its use for the imaging of a sample with sub-wavelength dimensions in the audible frequency range.

  4. 3-D zebrafish embryo image filtering by nonlinear partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Barbara; Campana, Matteo; Zanella, Cecilia; Melani, Camilo; Cunderlik, Robert; Krivá, Zuzana; Bourgine, Paul; Mikula, Karol; Peyriéras, Nadine; Sarti, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We discuss application of nonlinear PDE based methods to filtering of 3-D confocal images of embryogenesis. We focus on the mean curvature driven and the regularized Perona-Malik equations, where standard as well as newly suggested edge detectors are used. After presenting the related mathematical models, the practical results are given and discussed by visual inspection and quantitatively using the mean Hausdorff distance.

  5. Automatic Detection and Segmentation of Kidneys in 3D CT Images Using Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Cuingnet, Rémi; Prevost, Raphaël; Lesage, David; Cohen, Laurent D.; Mory, Benoît; Ardon, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Kidney segmentation in 3D CT images allows extracting useful information for nephrologists. For practical use in clinical routine, such an algorithm should be fast, automatic and robust to contrast-agent enhancement and elds of view. By combining and re ning state-of-the-art techniques (random forests and template deformation), we demonstrate the possibility of building an algorithm that meets these requirements. Kidneys are localized with random forests following a co...

  6. Single Camera 3-D Coordinate Measuring System Based on Optical Probe Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new vision coordinate measuring system——single camera 3-D coordinate measuring system based on optical probe imaging is presented. A new idea in vision coordinate measurement is proposed. A linear model is deduced which can distinguish six freedom degrees of optical probe to realize coordinate measurement of the object surface. The effects of some factors on the resolution of the system are analyzed. The simulating experiments have shown that the system model is available.

  7. hp-HGS strategy for inverse 3D DC resistivity logging measurement simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Gajda-Zaǵorska, Ewa

    2012-06-02

    In this paper we present a twin adaptive strategy hp-HGS for solving inverse problems related to 3D DC borehole resistivity measurement simulations. The term “simulation of measurements” is widely used by the geophysical community. A quantity of interest, voltage, is measured at a receiver electrode located in the logging instrument. We use the self-adaptive goal-oriented hp-Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) computer simulations of the process of measurements in deviated wells (when the angle between the borehole and formation layers are < 90 deg). We also employ the hierarchical genetic search (HGS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem. Each individual in the population represents a single configuration of the formation layers. The evaluation of the individual is performed by solving the direct problem by means of the hp-FEM algorithm and by comparison with measured logging curve. We conclude the paper with some discussion on the parallelization of the algorithm.

  8. Feasibility analysis of high resolution tissue image registration using 3-D synthetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachna Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Registration of high-resolution tissue images is a critical step in the 3D analysis of protein expression. Because the distance between images (~4-5μm thickness of a tissue section is nearly the size of the objects of interest (~10-20μm cancer cell nucleus, a given object is often not present in both of two adjacent images. Without consistent correspondence of objects between images, registration becomes a difficult task. This work assesses the feasibility of current registration techniques for such images. Methods: We generated high resolution synthetic 3-D image data sets emulating the constraints in real data. We applied multiple registration methods to the synthetic image data sets and assessed the registration performance of three techniques (i.e., mutual information (MI, kernel density estimate (KDE method [1], and principal component analysis (PCA at various slice thicknesses (with increments of 1μm in order to quantify the limitations of each method. Results: Our analysis shows that PCA, when combined with the KDE method based on nuclei centers, aligns images corresponding to 5μm thick sections with acceptable accuracy. We also note that registration error increases rapidly with increasing distance between images, and that the choice of feature points which are conserved between slices improves performance. Conclusions: We used simulation to help select appropriate features and methods for image registration by estimating best-case-scenario errors for given data constraints in histological images. The results of this study suggest that much of the difficulty of stained tissue registration can be reduced to the problem of accurately identifying feature points, such as the center of nuclei.

  9. Adaptive clutter rejection for 3D color Doppler imaging: preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Mo; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Karadayi, Kerem; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Kim, Yongmin

    2008-08-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound color Doppler imaging (CDI), effective rejection of flash artifacts caused by tissue motion (clutter) is important for improving sensitivity in visualizing blood flow in vessels. Since clutter characteristics can vary significantly during volume acquisition, a clutter rejection technique that can adapt to the underlying clutter conditions is desirable for 3D CDI. We have previously developed an adaptive clutter rejection (ACR) method, in which an optimum filter is dynamically selected from a set of predesigned clutter filters based on the measured clutter characteristics. In this article, we evaluated the ACR method with 3D in vivo data acquired from 37 kidney transplant patients clinically indicated for a duplex ultrasound examination. We compared ACR against a conventional clutter rejection method, down-mixing (DM), using a commonly-used flow signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and a new metric called fractional residual clutter area (FRCA). The ACR method was more effective in removing the flash artifacts while providing higher sensitivity in detecting blood flow in the arcuate arteries and veins in the parenchyma of transplanted kidneys. ACR provided 3.4 dB improvement in SCR over the DM method (11.4 +/- 1.6 dB versus 8.0 +/- 2.0 dB, p < 0.001) and had lower average FRCA values compared with the DM method (0.006 +/- 0.003 versus 0.036 +/- 0.022, p < 0.001) for all study subjects. These results indicate that the new ACR method is useful for removing nonstationary tissue motion while improving the image quality for visualizing 3D vascular structure in 3D CDI.

  10. 3D-printing of undisturbed soil imaged by X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Matthias; Koestel, John; Schwen, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The unique pore structures in Soils are altered easily by water flow. Each sample has a different morphology and the results of repetitions vary as well. Soil macropores in 3D-printed durable material avoid erosion and have a known morphology. Therefore potential and limitations of reproducing an undisturbed soil sample by 3D-printing was evaluated. We scanned an undisturbed soil column of Ultuna clay soil with a diameter of 7 cm by micro X-ray computer tomography at a resolution of 51 micron. A subsample cube of 2.03 cm length with connected macropores was cut out from this 3D-image and printed in five different materials by a 3D-printing service provider. The materials were ABS, Alumide, High Detail Resin, Polyamide and Prime Grey. The five print-outs of the subsample were tested on their hydraulic conductivity by using the falling head method. The hydrophobicity was tested by an adapted sessile drop method. To determine the morphology of the print-outs and compare it to the real soil also the print-outs were scanned by X-ray. The images were analysed with the open source program ImageJ. The five 3D-image print-outs copied from the subsample of the soil column were compared by means of their macropore network connectivity, porosity, surface volume, tortuosity and skeleton. The comparison of pore morphology between the real soil and the print-outs showed that Polyamide reproduced the soil macropore structure best while Alumide print-out was the least detailed. Only the largest macropore was represented in all five print-outs. Printing residual material or printing aid material remained in and clogged the pores of all print-out materials apart from Prime Grey. Therefore infiltration was blocked in these print-outs and the materials are not suitable even though the 3D-printed pore shapes were well reproduced. All of the investigated materials were insoluble. The sessile drop method showed angles between 53 and 85 degrees. Prime Grey had the fastest flow rate; the

  11. A novel 3D Cartesian random sampling strategy for Compressive Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvano, Giuseppe; Martini, Nicola; Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Chiappino, Dante; Landini, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel acquisition strategy for accelerated 3D Compressive Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CS-MRI). This strategy is based on a 3D cartesian sampling with random switching of the frequency encoding direction with other K-space directions. Two 3D sampling strategies are presented. In the first strategy, the frequency encoding direction is randomly switched with one of the two phase encoding directions. In the second strategy, the frequency encoding direction is randomly chosen between all the directions of the K-Space. These strategies can lower the coherence of the acquisition, in order to produce reduced aliasing artifacts and to achieve a better image quality after Compressive Sensing (CS) reconstruction. Furthermore, the proposed strategies can reduce the typical smoothing of CS due to the limited sampling of high frequency locations. We demonstrated by means of simulations that the proposed acquisition strategies outperformed the standard Compressive Sensing acquisition. This results in a better quality of the reconstructed images and in a greater achievable acceleration.

  12. All-in-one 3D printed microscopy chamber for multidimensional imaging, the UniverSlide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Kevin; Andrique, Laetitia; Feyeux, Maxime; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Nassoy, Pierre; Recher, Gaëlle

    2017-01-01

    While live 3D high resolution microscopy techniques are developing rapidly, their use for biological applications is partially hampered by practical difficulties such as the lack of a versatile sample chamber. Here, we propose the design of a multi-usage observation chamber adapted for live 3D bio-imaging. We show the usefulness and practicality of this chamber, which we named the UniverSlide, for live imaging of two case examples, namely multicellular systems encapsulated in sub-millimeter hydrogel shells and zebrafish larvae. We also demonstrate its versatility and compatibility with all microscopy devices by using upright or inverted microscope configurations after loading the UniverSlide with fixed or living samples. Further, the device is applicable for medium/high throughput screening and automatized multi-position image acquisition, providing a constraint-free but stable and parallelized immobilization of the samples. The frame of the UniverSlide is fabricated using a stereolithography 3D printer, has the size of a microscopy slide, is autoclavable and sealed with a removable lid, which makes it suitable for use in a controlled culture environment. We describe in details how to build this chamber and we provide all the files necessary to print the different pieces in the lab. PMID:28186188

  13. All-in-one 3D printed microscopy chamber for multidimensional imaging, the UniverSlide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Kevin; Andrique, Laetitia; Feyeux, Maxime; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Nassoy, Pierre; Recher, Gaëlle

    2017-02-01

    While live 3D high resolution microscopy techniques are developing rapidly, their use for biological applications is partially hampered by practical difficulties such as the lack of a versatile sample chamber. Here, we propose the design of a multi-usage observation chamber adapted for live 3D bio-imaging. We show the usefulness and practicality of this chamber, which we named the UniverSlide, for live imaging of two case examples, namely multicellular systems encapsulated in sub-millimeter hydrogel shells and zebrafish larvae. We also demonstrate its versatility and compatibility with all microscopy devices by using upright or inverted microscope configurations after loading the UniverSlide with fixed or living samples. Further, the device is applicable for medium/high throughput screening and automatized multi-position image acquisition, providing a constraint-free but stable and parallelized immobilization of the samples. The frame of the UniverSlide is fabricated using a stereolithography 3D printer, has the size of a microscopy slide, is autoclavable and sealed with a removable lid, which makes it suitable for use in a controlled culture environment. We describe in details how to build this chamber and we provide all the files necessary to print the different pieces in the lab.

  14. Cerro Negro field, Venezuela: geological images from a high resolution 3-D survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woller, Kevin L. [Mobil Technology Co. (WEC)

    1999-07-01

    Following a pilot 3-D survey, Petrolera Cerro Negro acquired and processed a 3-D dynamite survey over the Cerro Negro Field in Venezuela. We designed the survey to achieve high frequency imaging at the relatively shallow (< 1000 m) objectives in the Morichal formation. The data exhibits usable frequencies in the 10-120 Hz range after migration. The results of the survey have satisfied the original objective of imaging the faults and basement structure in the field. Use of continuity measurements on the data has resulted in a photographic quality image of the faults at the basement level. The pattern of the faults indicates an unexpected degree of complexity, indicating a richer structural history than originally thought. The continuity data also shows depositional details in the Morichal, which in accordance with geological history of the area. The operatorship is currently in the process of drilling many horizontal development wells. The patterns of the wells bores and variations in the rock types present a challenge to the usage of the 3-D seismic. The operatorship is working to raise the understanding and utility of the seismic data to another plateau. (author)

  15. Scalable, high-performance 3D imaging software platform: system architecture and application to virtual colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems: multi-core, clusters, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable, high-performance computing, our platform (1) employs size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D image processing algorithms; (2) supports task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing; and (3) consists of a layered parallel software libraries that allow a wide range of medical applications to share the same functionalities. We evaluated the performance of our platform by applying it to an electronic cleansing system in virtual colonoscopy, with initial experimental results showing a 10 times performance improvement on an 8-core workstation over the original sequential implementation of the system.

  16. Efficient and robust model-to-image alignment using 3D scale-invariant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents feature-based alignment (FBA), a general method for efficient and robust model-to-image alignment. Volumetric images, e.g. CT scans of the human body, are modeled probabilistically as a collage of 3D scale-invariant image features within a normalized reference space. Features are incorporated as a latent random variable and marginalized out in computing a maximum a posteriori alignment solution. The model is learned from features extracted in pre-aligned training images, then fit to features extracted from a new image to identify a globally optimal locally linear alignment solution. Novel techniques are presented for determining local feature orientation and efficiently encoding feature intensity in 3D. Experiments involving difficult magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain demonstrate FBA achieves alignment accuracy similar to widely-used registration methods, while requiring a fraction of the memory and computation resources and offering a more robust, globally optimal solution. Experiments on CT human body scans demonstrate FBA as an effective system for automatic human body alignment where other alignment methods break down.

  17. In vivo multiphoton microscopy associated to 3D image processing for human skin characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeweck, T.; Tancrède, E.; Dokladal, P.; Koudoro, S.; Morard, V.; Meyer, F.; Decencière, E.; Pena, A.-M.

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising non-invasive skin imaging technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether multiphoton microscopy coupled to specific 3D image processing tools could provide new insights into the organization of different skin components and their age-related changes. For that purpose, we performed a clinical trial on 15 young and 15 aged human female volunteers on the ventral and dorsal side of the forearm using the DermaInspectR medical imaging device. We visualized the skin by taking advantage of intrinsic multiphoton signals from cells, elastic and collagen fibers. We also developed 3D image processing algorithms adapted to in vivo multiphoton images of human skin in order to extract quantitative parameters in each layer of the skin (epidermis and superficial dermis). The results show that in vivo multiphoton microscopy is able to evidence several skin alterations due to skin aging: morphological changes in the epidermis and modifications in the quantity and organization of the collagen and elastic fibers network. In conclusion, the association of multiphoton microscopy with specific image processing allows the three-dimensional organization of skin components to be visualized and quantified thus providing a powerful tool for cosmetic and dermatological investigations.

  18. Simulation Study of Real Time 3-D Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new beamforming method for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging using a 2-D matrix transducer. To obtain images with sufficient resolution and contrast, several thousand elements are needed. The proposed method reduces the required channel count from...... the transducer to the main imaging system, by including electronics in the transducer handle. The reduction of element channel count is achieved using a sequential beamforming scheme. The beamforming scheme is a combination of a fixed focus beamformer in the transducer and a second dynamic focus beamformer...... in the main system. The real-time imaging capability is achieved using a synthetic aperture beamforming technique, utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual elements that in combination can generate an image. The two core capabilities in combination is named Synthetic Aperture Sequential...

  19. Passive markers for tracking surgical instruments in real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Jeffrey; Ren, Hongliang; Dupont, Pierre E

    2012-03-01

    A family of passive echogenic markers is presented by which the position and orientation of a surgical instrument can be determined in a 3-D ultrasound volume, using simple image processing. Markers are attached near the distal end of the instrument so that they appear in the ultrasound volume along with the instrument tip. They are detected and measured within the ultrasound image, thus requiring no external tracking device. This approach facilitates imaging instruments and tissue simultaneously in ultrasound-guided interventions. Marker-based estimates of instrument pose can be used in augmented reality displays or for image-based servoing. Design principles for marker shapes are presented that ensure imaging system and measurement uniqueness constraints are met. An error analysis is included that can be used to guide marker design and which also establishes a lower bound on measurement uncertainty. Finally, examples of marker measurement and tracking algorithms are presented along with experimental validation of the concepts.

  20. A review of automated image understanding within 3D baggage computed tomography security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Andre; Breckon, Toby P

    2015-01-01

    Baggage inspection is the principal safeguard against the transportation of prohibited and potentially dangerous materials at airport security checkpoints. Although traditionally performed by 2D X-ray based scanning, increasingly stringent security regulations have led to a growing demand for more advanced imaging technologies. The role of X-ray Computed Tomography is thus rapidly expanding beyond the traditional materials-based detection of explosives. The development of computer vision and image processing techniques for the automated understanding of 3D baggage-CT imagery is however, complicated by poor image resolutions, image clutter and high levels of noise and artefacts. We discuss the recent and most pertinent advancements and identify topics for future research within the challenging domain of automated image understanding for baggage security screening CT.

  1. Combining depth and gray images for fast 3D object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wang; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Yingming

    2016-10-01

    Reliable and stable visual perception systems are needed for humanoid robotic assistants to perform complex grasping and manipulation tasks. The recognition of the object and its precise 6D pose are required. This paper addresses the challenge of detecting and positioning a textureless known object, by estimating its complete 6D pose in cluttered scenes. A 3D perception system is proposed in this paper, which can robustly recognize CAD models in cluttered scenes for the purpose of grasping with a mobile manipulator. Our approach uses a powerful combination of two different camera technologies, Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGB, to segment the scene and extract objects. Combining the depth image and gray image to recognize instances of a 3D object in the world and estimate their 3D poses. The full pose estimation process is based on depth images segmentation and an efficient shape-based matching. At first, the depth image is used to separate the supporting plane of objects from the cluttered background. Thus, cluttered backgrounds are circumvented and the search space is extremely reduced. And a hierarchical model based on the geometry information of a priori CAD model of the object is generated in the offline stage. Then using the hierarchical model we perform a shape-based matching in 2D gray images. Finally, we validate the proposed method in a number of experiments. The results show that utilizing depth and gray images together can reach the demand of a time-critical application and reduce the error rate of object recognition significantly.

  2. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR SURVEY: ON LINE SOFTWARES FOR 3D RECONTRUCTION FROM IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fratus de Balestrini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 3d scanning technologies had a significant development and have been widely used in documentation of cultural, architectural and archeological heritages. Modern methods of three-dimensional acquiring and modeling allow to represent an object through a digital model that combines visual potentialities of images (normally used for documentation to the accuracy of the survey, becoming at the same time support for the visualization that for metric evaluation of any artefact that have an historical or artistic interest, opening up new possibilities for cultural heritage's fruition, cataloging and study. Despite this development, because of the small catchment area and the 3D laser scanner's sophisticated technologies, the cost of these instruments is very high and beyond the reach of most operators in the field of cultural heritages. This is the reason why they have appeared low-cost technologies or even free, allowing anyone to approach the issues of acquisition and 3D modeling, providing tools that allow to create three-dimensional models in a simple and economical way. The research, conducted by the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of the University IUAV of Venice, of which we present here some results, is intended to figure out whether, with Arc3D, it is possible to obtain results that can be somehow comparable, in therms of overall quality, to those of the laser scanner, and/or whether it is possible to integrate them. They were carried out a series of tests on certain types of objects, models made with Arc3D, from raster images, were compared with those obtained using the point clouds from laser scanner. We have also analyzed the conditions for an optimal use of Arc3D: environmental conditions (lighting, acquisition tools (digital cameras and type and size of objects. After performing the tests described above, we analyzed the patterns generated by Arc3D to check what other graphic representations can be obtained from them: orthophotos and drawings

  3. New Instruments for Survey: on Line Softwares for 3d Recontruction from Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratus de Balestrini, E.; Guerra, F.

    2011-09-01

    3d scanning technologies had a significant development and have been widely used in documentation of cultural, architectural and archeological heritages. Modern methods of three-dimensional acquiring and modeling allow to represent an object through a digital model that combines visual potentialities of images (normally used for documentation) to the accuracy of the survey, becoming at the same time support for the visualization that for metric evaluation of any artefact that have an historical or artistic interest, opening up new possibilities for cultural heritage's fruition, cataloging and study. Despite this development, because of the small catchment area and the 3D laser scanner's sophisticated technologies, the cost of these instruments is very high and beyond the reach of most operators in the field of cultural heritages. This is the reason why they have appeared low-cost technologies or even free, allowing anyone to approach the issues of acquisition and 3D modeling, providing tools that allow to create three-dimensional models in a simple and economical way. The research, conducted by the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of the University IUAV of Venice, of which we present here some results, is intended to figure out whether, with Arc3D, it is possible to obtain results that can be somehow comparable, in therms of overall quality, to those of the laser scanner, and/or whether it is possible to integrate them. They were carried out a series of tests on certain types of objects, models made with Arc3D, from raster images, were compared with those obtained using the point clouds from laser scanner. We have also analyzed the conditions for an optimal use of Arc3D: environmental conditions (lighting), acquisition tools (digital cameras) and type and size of objects. After performing the tests described above, we analyzed the patterns generated by Arc3D to check what other graphic representations can be obtained from them: orthophotos and drawings. The research

  4. 3D imaging of Sox2 enhancer clusters in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Legant, Wesley R; Chen, Bi-Chang; Li, Li; Grimm, Jonathan B; Lavis, Luke D; Betzig, Eric; Tjian, Robert

    2014-12-24

    Combinatorial cis-regulatory networks encoded in animal genomes represent the foundational gene expression mechanism for directing cell-fate commitment and maintenance of cell identity by transcription factors (TFs). However, the 3D spatial organization of cis-elements and how such sub-nuclear structures influence TF activity remain poorly understood. Here, we combine lattice light-sheet imaging, single-molecule tracking, numerical simulations, and ChIP-exo mapping to localize and functionally probe Sox2 enhancer-organization in living embryonic stem cells. Sox2 enhancers form 3D-clusters that are segregated from heterochromatin but overlap with a subset of Pol II enriched regions. Sox2 searches for specific binding targets via a 3D-diffusion dominant mode when shuttling long-distances between clusters while chromatin-bound states predominate within individual clusters. Thus, enhancer clustering may reduce global search efficiency but enables rapid local fine-tuning of TF search parameters. Our results suggest an integrated model linking cis-element 3D spatial distribution to local-versus-global target search modalities essential for regulating eukaryotic gene transcription.

  5. List-mode MLEM Image Reconstruction from 3D ML Position Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucci, Luca; Hunter, William C J; Furenlid, Lars R; Barrett, Harrison H

    2010-10-01

    Current thick detectors used in medical imaging allow recording many attributes, such as the 3D location of interaction within the scintillation crystal and the amount of energy deposited. An efficient way of dealing with these data is by storing them in list-mode (LM). To reconstruct the data, maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) is efficiently applied to the list-mode data, resulting in the list-mode maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (LMMLEM) reconstruction algorithm.In this work, we consider a PET system consisting of two thick detectors facing each other. PMT outputs are collected for each coincidence event and are used to perform 3D maximum-likelihood (ML) position estimation of location of interaction. The mathematical properties of the ML estimation allow accurate modeling of the detector blur and provide a theoretical framework for the subsequent estimation step, namely the LMMLEM reconstruction. Indeed, a rigorous statistical model for the detector output can be obtained from calibration data and used in the calculation of the conditional probability density functions for the interaction location estimates.Our implementation of the 3D ML position estimation takes advantage of graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware and permits accurate real-time estimates of position of interaction. The LMMLEM algorithm is then applied to the list of position estimates, and the 3D radiotracer distribution is reconstructed on a voxel grid.

  6. Comparison Between Two Generic 3d Building Reconstruction Approaches - Point Cloud Based VS. Image Processing Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, D.; Linkiewicz, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares two generic approaches for the reconstruction of buildings. Synthesized and real oblique and vertical aerial imagery is transformed on the one hand into a dense photogrammetric 3D point cloud and on the other hand into photogrammetric 2.5D surface models depicting a scene from different cardinal directions. One approach evaluates the 3D point cloud statistically in order to extract the hull of structures, while the other approach makes use of salient line segments in 2.5D surface models, so that the hull of 3D structures can be recovered. With orders of magnitudes more analyzed 3D points, the point cloud based approach is an order of magnitude more accurate for the synthetic dataset compared to the lower dimensioned, but therefor orders of magnitude faster, image processing based approach. For real world data the difference in accuracy between both approaches is not significant anymore. In both cases the reconstructed polyhedra supply information about their inherent semantic and can be used for subsequent and more differentiated semantic annotations through exploitation of texture information.

  7. Usefulness of 3D-image of ossicles with helical scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makihata, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hideaki; Hanaguri, Katsurou; Fukushima, Noriyuki; Oda, Yukari [Chugoku Rousai Hospital, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    It is important to understand the abnormalities of ossicles (continuity, destruction and malformation) in clinical practice of middle ear diseases. Multidirection exposures were needed to visualize ossicles with the conventional CT scanning, because they are visualized in 2D images. It was difficult to make patients hold the posture and to settle the problems such as an increase in X-ray dose. We created 3D images of ossicles with a helical scanning, and examined the visualization of the normal and abnormal ear (otitis media cholesteatoma) especially in terms of continuity in each of 20 patients. We would here like to report the favorable results together with some literature review. (author).

  8. 3D spiral CT imaging of bone anomalies in a case of diastematomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalej, Martin [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Duffner, Frank [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Stefanou, Alexander [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Petersen, Dirk [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The case of a 48-year-old woman, suffering from a diastematomyelia, is presented. This case and the diagnostic findings are used to demonstrate the demands on imaging methods with respect to a new classification of split cord malformations (SCMs) recently published. Although MRI is the method of choice for imaging of the spinal cord generally, only X-ray methods and especially conventional computer tomography provide the information necessary for correct classification of SCMs. Additional 3D-reconstructions from suitable CT-data are helpful in visualizing complex anomalies of bony structures found in most cases of SCM.

  9. Semiautomatic registration of 3D transabdominal ultrasound images for patient repositioning during postprostatectomy radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presles, Benoît, E-mail: benoit.presles@creatis.insa-lyon.fr; Rit, Simon; Sarrut, David [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon F-69621, France and Léon Bérard Cancer Center, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69373 (France); Fargier-Voiron, Marie; Liebgott, Hervé [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon F-69621 (France); Biston, Marie-Claude; Munoz, Alexandre; Pommier, Pascal [Léon Bérard Cancer Center, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69373 (France); Lynch, Rod [The Andrew Love Cancer Centre, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong 3220 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present work is to propose and evaluate registration algorithms of three-dimensional (3D) transabdominal (TA) ultrasound (US) images to setup postprostatectomy patients during radiation therapy. Methods: Three registration methods have been developed and evaluated to register a reference 3D-TA-US image acquired during the planning CT session and a 3D-TA-US image acquired before each treatment session. The first method (method A) uses only gray value information, whereas the second one (method B) uses only gradient information. The third one (method C) combines both sets of information. All methods restrict the comparison to a region of interest computed from the dilated reference positioning volume drawn on the reference image and use mutual information as a similarity measure. The considered geometric transformations are translations and have been optimized by using the adaptive stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Validation has been carried out using manual registration by three operators of the same set of image pairs as the algorithms. Sixty-two treatment US images of seven patients irradiated after a prostatectomy have been registered to their corresponding reference US image. The reference registration has been defined as the average of the manual registration values. Registration error has been calculated by subtracting the reference registration from the algorithm result. For each session, the method has been considered a failure if the registration error was above both the interoperator variability of the session and a global threshold of 3.0 mm. Results: All proposed registration algorithms have no systematic bias. Method B leads to the best results with mean errors of −0.6, 0.7, and −0.2 mm in left–right (LR), superior–inferior (SI), and anterior–posterior (AP) directions, respectively. With this method, the standard deviations of the mean error are of 1.7, 2.4, and 2.6 mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively

  10. JetCurry: Modeling 3D geometry of AGN jets from 2D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosak, Katie; Li, KunYang; Avachat, Sayali S.; Perlman, Eric S.

    2017-02-01

    Written in Python, JetCurry models the 3D geometry of jets from 2-D images. JetCurry requires NumPy and SciPy and incorporates emcee (ascl:1303.002) and AstroPy (ascl:1304.002), and optionally uses VPython. From a defined initial part of the jet that serves as a reference point, JetCurry finds the position of highest flux within a bin of data in the image matrix and fits along the x axis for the general location of the bends in the jet. A spline fitting is used to smooth out the resulted jet stream.

  11. SU-E-J-209: Verification of 3D Surface Registration Between Stereograms and CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, T; Gifford, K [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Smith, B [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Salehpour, M [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereography can provide a visualization of the skin surface for radiation therapy patients. The aim of this study was to verify the registration algorithm in a commercial image analysis software, 3dMDVultus, for the fusion of stereograms and CT images. Methods: CT and stereographic scans were acquired of a head phantom and a deformable phantom. CT images were imported in 3dMDVultus and the surface contours were generated by threshold segmentation. Stereograms were reconstructed in 3dMDVultus. The resulting surfaces were registered with Vultus algorithm and then exported to in-house registration software and compared with four algorithms: rigid, affine, non-rigid iterative closest point (ICP) and b-spline algorithm. RMS (root-mean-square residuals of the surface point distances) error between the registered CT and stereogram surfaces was calculated and analyzed. Results: For the head phantom, the maximum RMS error between registered CT surfaces to stereogram was 6.6 mm for Vultus algorithm, whereas the mean RMS error was 0.7 mm. For the deformable phantom, the maximum RMS error was 16.2 mm for Vultus algorithm, whereas the mean RMS error was 4.4 mm. Non-rigid ICP demonstrated the best registration accuracy, as the mean of RMS errors were both within 1 mm. Conclusion: The accuracy of registration algorithm in 3dMDVultus was verified and exceeded RMS of 2 mm for deformable cases. Non-rigid ICP and b-spline algorithms improve the registration accuracy for both phantoms, especially in deformable one. For those patients whose body habitus deforms during radiation therapy, more advanced nonrigid algorithms need to be used.

  12. Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.

  13. Quantification of cerebral ventricle volume change of preterm neonates using 3D ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yimin; Kishimoto, Jessica; Qiu, Wu; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Fenster, Aaron; Chiu, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major cause of brain injury in preterm neonates. Quantitative measurement of ventricular dilation or shrinkage is important for monitoring patients and in evaluation of treatment options. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to monitor the ventricle volume as a biomarker for ventricular dilation. However, volumetric quantification does not provide information as to where dilation occurs. The location where dilation occurs may be related to specific neurological problems later in life. For example, posterior horn enlargement, with thinning of the corpus callosum and parietal white matter fibres, could be linked to poor visuo-spatial abilities seen in hydrocephalic children. In this work, we report on the development and application of a method used to analyze local surface change of the ventricles of preterm neonates with IVH from 3D US images. The technique is evaluated using manual segmentations from 3D US images acquired in two imaging sessions. The surfaces from baseline and follow-up were registered and then matched on a point-by-point basis. The distance between each pair of corresponding points served as an estimate of local surface change of the brain ventricle at each vertex. The measurements of local surface change were then superimposed on the ventricle surface to produce the 3D local surface change map that provide information on the spatio-temporal dilation pattern of brain ventricles following IVH. This tool can be used to monitor responses to different treatment options, and may provide important information for elucidating the deficiencies a patient will have later in life.

  14. Application of spiral CT image 3D reconstruction in severe talar neck fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fei; HUANG He; DENG Ya-min; Wang Bing; ZHANG Chun-qiang; ZHAO Zhi; TANG Xi-zhang; ZHOU Zhao-wen; ZHAO Xue-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the application of the spiral computerized tomography (CT) image three-dimensional(3D ) reconstruction technique associated with the conventional radiography in the diagnosis and treatment of severe talar neck fracture. Methods:Using the multi-slice spiral CT image 3D reconstruction technique,we analysed 11 cases of talar neck fracture.The fractures were reduced and fixed through a minimal incision and internal fixation with titanium cannulated lag screws. Results:In the 11 cases,the results of CT image 3D reconstruction were in concordance with plain radiograph in 6 case of Hawkins type H.And the remaining 5 cases of Hawkins types Ⅲ and Ⅳ could not be classified exactly only by radiographs,one of whom was misdiagnosed.After using the CT image 3D reconstruction,the 5 cases were classified exactly before osteosynthesis.The classifications of these 11 cases were confirmed finally by surgical findings.The duration of operation were 45-140 min,averaging 81min (including the duration of C-arm fluoroscopy).X-ray exposure time was 6-58 seconds,averaging 22 seconds.The blood loss was less than 100 ml.The fracture union was achieved in 3 months. No nonunion, talus avascular necrosis or joint surface collapse occurred.Postoperative follow-up was from 1 to 25 months.According to Hawkins score,excellent result was found in 6 type Ⅱ cases and 1type Ⅲ case;good result in 1 type Ⅲ case with both medial and lateral malleolar fracture,1 type Ⅲ with medial malleolus fractures and 1 open type Ⅲ;fair result in 1 open type Ⅳ with lateral malleolus fracture. Conclusions:By using the multi-slice spiral CT image 3D reconstruction associated with radiography to diagnose and treat severe talar neck fractures,the accuracy of diagnosis can be improved obviously. Based on this technique,more consummate operational plan can be designed and performed so as to achieve a better therapeutic effect.

  15. Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: tomaz.vrtovec@fe.uni-lj.si, E-mail: bostjan.likar@fe.uni-lj.si, E-mail: franjo.pernus@fe.uni-lj.si

    2008-04-07

    The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm ({+-}0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm ({+-}1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and

  16. Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2008-04-07

    The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm (+/-0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm (+/-1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and CA

  17. Metallic Material Image Segmentation by using 3D Grain Structure Consistency and Intra/Inter-Grain Model Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    warping). Often, costly and precisely calibrated special hardware such as stereo cameras, laser scanners , etc. are used to infer the 3D model of the...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0015 Metallic Material Image Segmentation by using 3D Grain Structure Consistency Song Wang SOUTH CAROLINA RESEARCH FOUNDATION...Form 298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 AFOSR Final Performance Report Project Title: Metallic Material Image Segmentation by using 3D

  18. Development of a Wireless and Near Real-Time